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Sample records for akamai maui short

  1. The Evolution of Inquiry Activities in the Akamai Observatory Short Course, 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, E. L.; McElwain, M.; Sonnett, S.; Rafelski, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Observatory Short Course (AOSC) is a five-day course of activities designed to prepare college students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields for internships at observatories on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The design and implementation of inquiry-based activities in the AOSC have evolved considerably over the six years of the course. The content goals have always focused on the basic understanding of light and optics necessary to understand telescopes, but the scientific process goals gradually evolved to reflect the increasingly recognized importance of engineering design skills for successful observatory internships. In 2004 the inquiry-based activities were limited to one well-established Color, Light, and Spectra activity. In subsequent years more activities were customized and expanded upon to reflect the learners' diverse academic backgrounds, the developing goals of the short course, and feedback from internship hosts. The most recent inquiry, the Design and Build a Telescope activity, engaged students in designing and building a simple telescope, emphasizing science and engineering process skills in addition to science content. This activity was influenced by the Mission Design activity, added in 2006, that incorporated the application of inquiry-based learning to the engineering design process and allowed students to draw upon their diverse prior knowledge and experience. In this paper we describe the inquiry-based activities in the AOSC in the context of its year-to-year evolution, including the conceptual and pragmatic changes to the short course that influenced the evolution.

  2. Contributions of the Akamai Workforce Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a third party, external perspective on the Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI), highlighting some of the contributions of the initiative over the last ten years. AWI is a program that seeks to develop a skilled local STEM workforce to meet the needs of Hawai'i's growing high-tech industry. It began as an internship program…

  3. An Engineering Technology Skills Framework that Reflects Workforce Needs on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagroves, S.; Hunter, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI) is an interdisciplinary effort to improve science/engineering education in the state of Hawai'i, and to train a diverse population of local students in the skills needed for a high-tech economy. In 2009, the AWI undertook a survey of industry partners on Maui and the Big Island of Hawai'i to develop an engineering technology skills framework that will guide curriculum development at the U. of Hawai'i - Maui (formerly Maui Community College). This engineering skills framework builds directly on past engineering-education developments within the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program, and draws on curriculum development frameworks and engineering skills standards from the literature. Coupling that previous work with reviews of past Akamai Internship projects and information from previous conversations with the local high-tech community led to a structured-interview format where engineers and managers could contribute meaningful commentary to this framework. By incorporating these local high-tech companies' needs for entry-level engineers and technicians, a skills framework emerges that is unique and illuminating. Two surprising features arise in this framework: (1) "technician-like" skills of making existing technology work are on similar footing with "engineer-like" skills of creating new technology; in fact, both engineers and technicians at these workplaces use both sets of skills; and (2) project management skills are emphasized by employers even for entry-level positions.

  4. The Design and Evolution of the Akamai Workforce Initiative: An External Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Mark; Castori, Pam

    2014-01-01

    The Akamai Workforce Initiative (AWI) is a program that seeks to develop a skilled local STEM workforce to meet the needs of Hawai'i's growing high-tech industry. Launched as an internship program in 2002, AWI is the result of a long-term collaboration among the University of California Santa Cruz's Institute for Scientist and Engineer Educators…

  5. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  6. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  7. East Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  8. First Light from the MAUI Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, R.; Sydney, P.; Roberts, L.; Hamada, K.; Kervin, P.; Meza, A.; Walker, D.; McLeroy, J.; Bernstein, L.; Braunstein, M.; Hester, B.

    The objective of MAUI (Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections) is to measure the spatial and spectral properties of Shuttle engine exhaust interactions with the low-Earth orbit environment and to validate the chemical kinetics and transport physics implemented in a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) computer model, SOCRATES-P. The code is a research tool that can be applied towards the development of a future maneuver characterization capability. MAUI was manifested during the past 4 Space Shuttle missions. STS-115 resulted in a unique MSSS observation opportunity at conditions where the orbiter was in sunlight while the optical station was in darkness (terminator pass). The crew was ready to conduct a series of burns per MAUI request. The experiment was scrubbed due to concern related to an unidentified object in the vicinity of the orbiter. Instead, MSSS was tasked to image the tail section of the orbiter to ensure the object was not the parachute door. STS-115 passed over MSSS in an attitude in which the Shuttle axis was locked to the MSSS line-of-sight. This required a large number of attitude maneuvers. Unfortunately, the optical station had to reconfigure its telescopes on very short notice, and the fact that the new mission represented an interesting burn observation opportunity, did not register with the ground crew, so only unfiltered images were taken. Nevertheless, the 0.33 deg field-of-view LAAT acquisition scope of the 3.6 m adaptive optic tracking telescope, AEOS, provided extremely interesting unfiltered imagery. A total of 22 attitude control pulsed firings were recorded at very good lighting conditions. Each firing involved 2 or 3 PRCS engines firing bursts between 80 and 320 ms long. In every case, the thrust axis was perpendicular to the line of sight, providing a unique and optimal viewing geometry. By far the most interesting white-light features were transients observed at engine start up and shut-down. These transients are due to

  9. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  10. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  11. Maui Community College Campus Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Kahului. Maui Community Coll.

    This document discusses campus safety at Maui Community College (MCC) (Hawaii). MCC is situated on 75 acres of land; the campus population is approximately 2,700 day and night students, with a faculty and staff of approximately 175. The report presents information on campus security services, procedures for reporting crimes and emergencies,…

  12. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  13. Imogolite and allophane formed in saprolite of basalt on Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wada, K.; Henmi, T.; Yoshinaga, N.; Patterson, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Inorganic gel and allophane collected from basaltic saprolite on Maui, Hawaii, and studied by Patterson in 1964 were reexamined. The main constituent of the gel is imogolite, and gibbsite and allophane are the minor constituents. Electron and X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA curve, and an infrared spectrum of the gel are characteristic of imogolite. The allophane is virtually noncrystalline to X-rays but contains a small amount of imogolite in relatively short threads. High-resolution electron micrographs indicate differences in structural organization between allophane and imogolite and suggest crystallization of imogolite from allophane. The occurrence of imogolite as a weathering product has been reported in many localities from pyroclastic materials but not from massive rocks. Probably the exceptionally high rainfall, excellent subsurface permeability of the weathered material, and the low pH and high organic content of the leaching solution provide favorable conditions for formation of imogolite from basalt on Maui. ?? 1972.

  14. Needs Assessment for Education in Sustainable Technologies on Maui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, Jean A.

    In Spring 1997, Maui Community College (MCC), in Hawaii, conducted a survey of Maui businesses to determine perceived needs for a certificate or associate degree program in sustainable technologies. Questionnaires were mailed to 500 businesses, including building, electrical, and plumbing contractors, architects, waste disposal, power generators,…

  15. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1460 - Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. 80.1460 Section 80.1460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1460 Kahului Harbor, Maui, HI. A line...

  20. Reproductive ecology of the Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2000-01-01

    The endangered Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) is an excavating, insectivorous Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to the high elevation rain forests of east Maui, Hawaii. From March 1994 to June 1997, we studied various aspects of their breeding ecology. We color-banded 18 individuals, located and monitored 9 active nests, and took behavioral data during 440 hrs of nest observation. Both members of a pair maintained a year-round, all-purpose territory that included nest sites and food resources. Maui Parrotbill were monogamous within and between years; we found no evidence of polyandry, polygyny, or helpers at the nest. Nests were cup-shaped, composed mainly of lichen interlaced with small twigs, and positioned in the outer canopy forks of mature ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) trees. Modal clutch size was one. Females performed most nest construction and all incubation and brooding; males provisioned females and assisted in feeding nestlings after their fourth day. Fledglings depended on parental care for 5-8 months, during which their bill strength increased and foraging skills improved. We calculated the overall nest success rate by the Mayfield Method as 0.42 for the 1995/1996 and 1996/1997 breeding seasons combined. Nest failure and fledgling disappearance coincided with events of high rainfall. Their breeding ecology most closely resembled the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), another excavating, insectivorous Hawaiian honeycreeper found on Hawaii Island. As with the Akiapolaau, the threat of extinction is persistent and results from both the constraints of inherent life history traits and artificial ecological changes. We advocate the protection and expansion of habitable forest areas and an ongoing program to monitor and mitigate the effects of invasive species.

  1. Oxygen - Osmium Isotopic Compositions of West Maui Lavas and the Link to Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, A. M.; Nelson, B. K.; Reisberg, L.; Eiler, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    We use stratigraphically-controlled sequences of late shield-stage lavas from West Maui to investigate age-dependence and fine-scale complexity of chemical variation within this Kea-type Hawaiian volcano. With new O and Os isotope data we identify unique geochemical signals indicative of complex processes of mixing among source components. In W. Maui lavas, δ 18O and 187Os/188Os range from 4.5 to 5.2 and 0.1316 to 0.1394, respectively. One sample (187Os/188Os =0.158) has very low [Os] (20 ppt) and likely has been severely contaminated by shallow oceanic crust. These compositions, as well as 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7037) and 206Pb/204Pb (18.36-18.54), are typical of shield-stage lavas from other Kea-type volcanoes. Some W. Maui compositional variability correlates with stratigraphic height. All shallow samples have 187Os/188Os>=0.1333, and all deep samples have 187Os/188Os<=0.1330. The deep samples show a negative 187Os/188Os - 87Sr/86Sr correlation, but the shallow samples show no Os - Sr isotopic correlation. 187Os/188Os correlates with no other measured isotopic compositions except for δ 18O, for which the deep and shallow samples define two sub-parallel inversely correlated trends. δ 18O shows no other correlation with stratigraphy or other measured isotopic tracers. The inverse O-Os isotopic correlation of W. Maui is distinct from that observed for other Hawaiian volcanoes (e.g. Mauna Kea, Koolau) or within the Hawaiian suite as a whole. Age-dependent sampling of at least three components is required to describe the O-Os-Sr isotopic variation we observe at W. Maui. Similar intra-volcano correlation in 87Sr/86Sr - 206Pb/204Pb - trace element compositions is consistent with mixing of small-degree partial melts of gabbroic oceanic crust with plume-derived Kea-type magmas. We infer that this gabbroic endmemember is characterized by δ 18O < 4.5 and 187Os/188Os > 0.133. The remainder of the variability is the result of short-lived chemical heterogeneities in the Kea

  2. 77 FR 24459 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Order 329, 51 FR 16367, 05/02/ 1986); Whereas, the State of Hawaii has advised that zone procedures are...., Kahului, Maui, HI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...

  3. Digital Image Exploration at Maui Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, K. M.; Crockett, C. J.; Crossfield, I. J.

    2010-12-01

    We designed a two-day laboratory exploration of fundamental concepts in digital images for an introductory engineering course at Maui Community College. Our objective was for the students to understand spatial vs. brightness resolution, standard file formats, image tradeoffs, and the engineering design cycle. We used open investigation, question generation, and an engineering design challenge to help our students achieve these learning goals. We also experimented with incorporating Hawaiian language and cultural awareness into our activity. We present our method, student response, and reflections on the success of our design. The 2008 re-design of this activity focused on better incorporating authentic engineering process skills, and on using a rubric for summative assessment of the students' poster presentations. A single file containing all documents and presentations used in this lesson is available online. (http://www.astro.ucla.edu/ ianc/files/digital_images_inquiry.pdf)

  4. AmeriFlux US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. First cycle of observations were from July 2011 to November 2012. Second cycle was from April 2013 to December 2013. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and meteorology.

  5. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Maui Pumped Storage Project, which would use effluent water from the existing West Maui sewage... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary...

  6. Scoping Meeting Summary, Wailuku, Maui, March 9, 1992, 2 PM Session

    SciTech Connect

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-06

    The meeting began with presentations by the facilitator, Mr. Spiegel, and Dr. Lewis, the program director from DOE. The facilitator introduced those on the podium. He then described the general structure of the meeting and its purpose: to hear the issues and concerns of those present regarding the proposed Hawaiian Geothermal Project. He described his role in ensuring the impartiality and fairness of the meeting. Dr. Lewis further defined the scope of the project, introduced members of the EIS team, briefly described the EIS process, and answered several process questions, noting that cable feasibility would be examined and that Native Hawaiian concerns would be addressed. Ms. Borgstrom stated that the ISIS Implementation Plan will be continuously refined and that impacts of reasonably foreseeable future activities would be examined. During the meeting, more than 90% of the commenters requested that the EIS identify and assess the relative merits and impacts of energy alternatives to the proposed action. Nearly 80% requested that the EIS investigate conservation and renewable forms of energy, such as wind, solar, and biomass. They suggested that integrated resource planning should be used, noting that the State is initiating such a process. More than 30% of the commenters asked that the EIS examine geothermal alternatives to the action including developing geothermal resources on Maui and using geothermal power on Hawai'i only on that island. One commenter proposed an alternative cable route that proceeds from Hawai'i to Lana'i and from Lana'i to Oahu with spur lines to Moloka'i and Maui as needed. Nearly 70% of the commenters made general statements concerning potential short- and long-term environmental costs and impacts of the HGP (particularly on pristine environments). Others were concerned about environmental costs to Maui, particularly the impacts of a land-based cable route on the south side of Maui and on Hawaiian homestead lands. More than half the

  7. Evaluation of Project Components: 1973-74, Maui District Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The Elementary and Secondary (ESEA) Title I project components for Hawaii's Maui District are evaluated in this document. The first section reviews the following: the reading resource rooms, the preschools, and the measurement of academic gain as shown by the Peabody Individual Achievement Test. The second section presents a school-by-school…

  8. Using Japanese Lesson Design to ANTicipate an Invasion on Maui

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buczynski, Sandy; Garcia, Sherri; Lacanienta, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    Native ant species do not exist on the island of Maui, the second largest of the Hawaiian Islands. However, one ant, the little fire ant (LFA or "Wasmannia auropunctata") has recently appeared in the region, being discovered on the Big Island of Hawaii in 1999. As a result, the LFA is a serious impending threat to Pacific biodiversity. The…

  9. 33 CFR 165.1408 - Security Zones; Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Harbor, Maui, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Kahului Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR... CFR 165.33, entry into the security zones created by this section is prohibited unless authorized by..., compliance with all Federal Aviation Administration regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 99) regarding...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1408 - Security Zones; Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Harbor, Maui, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Kahului Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR... CFR 165.33, entry into the security zones created by this section is prohibited unless authorized by..., compliance with all Federal Aviation Administration regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 99) regarding...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1408 - Security Zones; Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, Maui, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Kahului Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR... CFR 165.33, entry into the security zones created by this section is prohibited unless authorized by..., compliance with all Federal Aviation Administration regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 99) regarding...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1408 - Security Zones; Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Harbor, Maui, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Kahului Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR... CFR 165.33, entry into the security zones created by this section is prohibited unless authorized by..., compliance with all Federal Aviation Administration regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 99) regarding...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1408 - Security Zones; Maui, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor, Maui, HI or within 3 nautical miles seaward of the Kahului Harbor COLREGS DEMARCATION (See 33 CFR... CFR 165.33, entry into the security zones created by this section is prohibited unless authorized by..., compliance with all Federal Aviation Administration regulations (14 CFR parts 91 and 99) regarding...

  14. Schlumberger survey of Maui Island, State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, M.D.; Lienert, B.R.

    1980-09-01

    The results of 21 Schlumberger resistivity soundings made on the island of Maui are presented. The apparent resistivity data was used to estimate electrical resistivities of basalt saturated with seawater for different parts of the island. The values obtained average around 20 ohm-meters, except in one area, Ukumehame canyon, on the south rift zone of West Maui. In this area, which is the site of a warm (33/sup 0/C) water well, the resistivity interpreted for the seawater saturated basalt layer is close to 4 ohm-meters. Using typical Hawaiian basalt porosity values of 15 to 25% the temperature of the seaweed is estimated to be 95 +- 23/sup 0/C at a depth of 273 to 608 feet.

  15. Concept for a Micro Autonomous Ultrasonic Instrument (MAUI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a concept for the construction a mobile Micro Optical ElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS) based laser ultrasonic instrument to serve as a Micro Autonomous Ultrasonic Instrument (MAUI). The system will consist of a laser ultrasonic instrument fabricated using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, and a MEMS based walking platform like those developed by Pister et al. at Berkeley. This small system will allow for automated remote Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles.

  16. Ecology, behavior, and conservation of the Maui parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mountainspring, S.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution, habitat response, sexual dimorphism, foraging, breeding, and flocking behavior of Maui Parrotbills (Pseudonestor xanthophrys ) were studied over a five year period. The species' present range is confined to montane rainforest on eastern Maui, but dry lowland habitats on Maui and Molokai were occupied before Polynesian contact. Birds occurred from 1,250 to 2,150 m elevation, becoming most abundant at 1,750 to 2,000 m. In Kipahulu Valley, birds moved to lower elevations in some seasons. Birds tended to forage in the subcanopy and understory, with 66% of the prey captured 1 to 5 m above ground. Plant species use deviated from expectations based on availability. The most frequent means of prey capture was excavation for timber-boring insects in dead branches on live plants. Foraging accounted for 39% of the diurnal time budget; an average prey item appeared to account for 1% of the daily energy intake. The principal limiting factors appeared to be habitat loss, avian disease, habitat degradation, predation, and competition from exotic species. Control of pig populations is a needed management action.

  17. Measurements of seepage losses and gains, East Maui Irrigation diversion system, Maui, Hawaiʻi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Chui Ling

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a field study from March to October 2011 to identify ditch characteristics and quantify seepage losses and gains in the East Maui Irrigation (EMI) diversion system, east Maui, Hawaiʻi. The EMI diversion system begins at Makapipi Stream in the east and ends at Māliko Gulch in the west. It consists of four primary ditches known as the Wailoa, New Hāmākua, Lowrie, and Haʻikū Ditches. Additional ditches that connect to the four primary ditches include the Koʻolau, Spreckels, Kauhikoa, Spreckels at Pāpaʻaʻea, Manuel Luis, and Center Ditches. Ditch characteristics for about 63 miles of the EMI diversion system, excluding abandoned ditches and stream conveyances, were identified. About 46 miles (73 percent) of the surveyed diversion system are tunnels and 17 miles are open ditches—in which 11 miles are unlined, 3.5 miles are lined, and 2.5 miles are partially lined. The Wailoa, Kauhikoa, and Haʻikū Ditches have greater than 96 percent of their total lengths as tunnels, whereas more than half of the Lowrie Ditch and Spreckels Ditch at Pāpaʻaʻea are open ditches. About 70 percent of the total length of lined open ditches in the EMI diversion system is located along the Koʻolau Ditch, whereas about 67 percent of the total length of unlined open ditches in the diversion system is located along the Lowrie Ditch. Less than 4 percent of the EMI diversion system is partially lined open ditches, and about half of the total partially lined open-ditch length is in the Spreckels Ditch. EMI regularly maintains and repairs the diversion system; therefore, ditch characteristics documented in this report are representative of conditions existing during the period of this study. Discharge measurements were made along 26 seepage-run measurement reaches that are a total of about 15 miles in length. The seepage-run measurement reaches represent 23 percent of the total length of ditches in the EMI diversion system. Discharge measurements

  18. Development & Implementation of a Community Needs Assessment in Automotive Technology (AMT), Maui, Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Lee, Hollis; Hussey, Thomas

    In this study, Maui Community College examines the potential employment demand for entry-level automotive technicians on the island of Maui in Hawaii. A requirement for ASE certification by National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Inc. is that the college ascertain on a regular basis the community demand for trained automotive…

  19. Mapping Shoreline Change Using Digital Orthophotogrammetry on Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, C.; Rooney, J.; Barbee, M.; Lim, S.-C.; Richmond, B.

    2003-01-01

    Digital, aerial orthophotomosaics with 0.5-3.0 m horizontal accuracy, used with NOAA topographic maps (T-sheets), document past shoreline positions on Maui Island, Hawaii. Outliers in the shoreline position database are determined using a least median of squares regression. Least squares linear regression of the reweighted data (outliers excluded) is used to determine a shoreline trend termed the reweighted linear squares (RLS). To determine the annual erosion hazard rate (AEHR) for use by shoreline managers the RLS data is smoothed in the longshore direction using a weighted moving average five transects wide with the smoothed rate applied to the center transect. Weightings within each five transect group are 1,3,5,3,1. AEHR's (smoothed RLS values) are plotted on a 1:3000 map series for use by shoreline managers and planners. These maps are displayed on the web for public reference at http://www.co.maui.hi.us/ departments/Planning/erosion.htm. An end-point rate of change is also calculated using the earliest T-sheet and the latest collected shoreline (1997 or 2002). The resulting database consists of 3565 separate erosion rates spaced every 20 m along 90 km of sandy shoreline. Three regions are analyzed: Kihei, West Maui, and North Shore coasts. The Kihei Coast has an average AEHR of about 0.3 m/yr, an end point rate (EPR) of 0.2 m/yr, 2.8 km of beach loss and 19 percent beach narrowing in the period 1949-1997. Over the same period the West Maui coast has an average AEHR of about 0.2 m/yr, an average EPR of about 0.2 m/yr, about 4.5 km of beach loss and 25 percent beach narrowing. The North Shore has an average AEHR of about 0.4 m/yr, an average EPR of about 0.3 m/yr, 0.8 km of beach loss and 15 percent beach narrowing. The mean, island-wide EPR of eroding shorelines is 0.24 m/yr and the average AEHR of eroding shorelines is about 0.3 m/yr. The overall shoreline change rate, erosion and accretion included, as measured using the unsmoothed RLS technique is 0.21 m

  20. Native Hawaiian Ethnographic Study for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Proposed for Puna and Southeast Maui

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, J.K; Minerbi, L.; Kanahele, P.; Kelly, M.; Barney-Campbell, N.; Saulsbury; Trettin, L.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report makes available and archives the background scientific data and related information collected for an ethnographic study of selected areas on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The task was undertaken during preparation of an environmental impact statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. Information is included on the ethnohistory of Puna and southeast Maui; ethnographic fieldwork comparing Puna and southeast Maui; and Pele beliefs, customs, and practices.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Z. A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Schmitt, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images, esterase isozymes, and five DNA sequences: i) the D3 segment of the large subunit (LSU-D3 or 28S) rDNA, ii) internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) rDNA, iii) intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA, iv) the mitochondrial interval from cytochrome oxidase (CO II) to 16S mtDNA, and v) the nuclear gene Hsp90. Sequences for ITS-1, IGS, and COII were similar to other M. hapla populations, but within species ITS-1 variability was not less than among species. One LSU-D3 haplotype was similar to a previously analyzed population with two minor haplotypes. Hsp90 exhibited some variation between Maryland and Hawaiian populations distinct from other species. Females were narrow with wide vulval slits, large interphasmidial distances, and more posterior excretory pores; 20% of perineal patterns had atypical perivulval lines. Males had a low b ratio (<12 µm). Juveniles had a short distance between stylet and dorsal gland orifice. Juvenile body length was short (<355 µm) and was different between summer and winter populations. PMID:19262853

  2. A reevaluation of the occurrence of ground water in the Nahiku area, East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William

    2000-01-01

    A reevaluation of existing hydrologic data indicates the existence of a vertically extensive ground water body in the Nahiku area of Maui rather than a succession of perched water bodies as had been previously assumed.

  3. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  4. Test monitoring of prototype injection well, Waiale, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity prototype injection well was tested in the isthmus area of Maui, Hawaii. Pumping tests were made on April 14 and 15, 1978, and 10 injection tests were made between May 12 and June 30, 1978. Selected tests were monitored in order to obtain data which could be used to assess the effects of subsurface disposal on the ground water in the basal aquifer. Pumping and injection rates were measured. Basal-water head responses to pumping and injection were observed at the prototype well and at two observation wells located 435 and 6 ,100 feet from the prototype well. Water-quality samples were collected at the prototype well and the nearest observation well prior to testing. Samples of the injection water, as well as samples from the observation wells, were collected prior to and after the final test. The head data and water-quality data are presented in this report. (USGS)

  5. Cultural resources inventory and evaluation for Science City, conducted for expansion of the Maui Space Surveillance Site, Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J C

    1991-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment process for the proposed modifications to the US Air Force Maui Space Surveillance Site, an archaeological survey was conducted of Science City, an observatory complex on a summit of Haleakala Mountain, Island of Maui, Hawaii. Inspection of the 3.1-ha facility revealed four archaeological sites, designated 50-11-2805 through 50-11-2808. All consist of one or more temporary, probably single-person shelters with leveled floors and walls of stacked stones. Review of the literature and discussions with state officials resulted in a finding that these sites meet the criteria for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Four archaeological sites were found during the archaeological survey of the land parcel known as Science City on the crest of Haleakala. Each consisted of one or more stone features known as shelters. These sites meet the criteria for eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places, under criterion (d), potential to yield important scientific information about prehistory. No evidence of any other historical use of the area was found. Two of the sites are located inside the proposed MSSS boundary but will not be physically altered by construction. Although construction will have an effect on the setting of these sites, it will have no adverse effect on the characteristics that make them eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Construction is not expected to have a direct effect on the sites. Activity in the vicinity of the sites is considered to have an indirect effect, although not a negative one. A finding of no adverse effect is recommended. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The Business/Academic Partnership in the Economic Development of Maui. Proceedings of a Symposium/Workshop (Maui, Hawaii, May 2-3, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maui Economic Development Board, Inc., Lahaina, HI.

    The relationship between the Hawaii university system and business and industry in the economic development of Maui is discussed in proceedings of a 1985 symposium. The development of island economies is addressed by Sam Cole, while the role of a land-grant university in economic development is discussed by John Cantlon. A panel on economic…

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor"[R] Algebra I Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Maui Hawaii Educational consortium (the Maui School District and Maui Community College) sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of the "Cognitive Tutor" ("CT") Algebra I Curriculum to inform adoption decisions. Decision makers were particularly interested in whether the use of the "CT" program affects achievement of their…

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor" Algebra I Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalo, Jessica Villaruz; Vu, Minh-Thien

    2007-01-01

    The Maui Hawaii Educational consortium (the Maui School District and Maui Community College) sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of the "Cognitive Tutor (CT) Algebra I Curriculum" to inform adoption decisions. Decision makers were particularly interested in whether the use of the "CT" program affects achievement of their…

  9. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking at Palomar and Maui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.

    2001-11-01

    NEAT is comprised of two autonomous observing systems, one at the Maui Space Surveillance Site, NEAT/MSSS, and the other at Palomar Observatory, NEAT/Palomar. At both sites the NEAT cameras use 1.2-m (48") telescopes to find Near-Earth objects (NEOs), both Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and comets. The primary goal of NEAT is to make significant contributions to the NASA goal of discovering at least 90% of the NEAs larger than 1 km by 2008. NEAT/MSSS has been operating since March 2000. NEAT/Palomar had first light in April 2001 and has already had numerous discoveries. For example, NEAT discovered 1 planetoid -a Centaur, 4 comets, 1 high-eccentricity Mars-approacher, and 19 Near-Earth asteroids -- 10 Amors and 9 Apollos, including 3 larger than 1 km and 5 Potentially Hazardous asteroids -- in August 2001. The NEAT systems complement each other by performing in turn discoveries and confirmations (follow-ups). We will discuss the latest estimates of the number of large NEAs and whether the searches are likely to reach the 2008 goal. In addition to NEAs, NEAT has discovered 13 comets in 2001, several of whose motions masqueraded as main-belt asteroids in observations of a single night. We also discuss the likelihood that many more such comets are waiting to be discovered.

  10. High-precision gravimetric survey in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, 1976 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenck, B. E.; Laurila, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The planning, observations and adjustment of high-precision gravity survey networks established on the islands of Maui and Oahu as part of the geodetic-geophysical program in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are described. The gravity survey networks include 43 independently measured gravity differences along the gravity calibration line from Kahului Airport to the summit of Mt. Haleakala, together with some key points close to tidal gauges on Maui, and 40 gravity differences within metropolitan Honolulu. The results of the 1976-1978 survey are compared with surveys made in 1961 and in 1964-1965. All final gravity values are given in the system of the international gravity standardization net 1971 (IGSN 71); values are obtained by subtracting 14.57 mgal from the Potsdam value at the gravity base station at the Hickam Air Force Base, Honolulu.

  11. Deployment of High Resolution Real-Time Distribution Level Metering on Maui: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to support the ongoing Maui Smart Grid demonstration project advanced metering has been deployed at the distribution transformer level in Maui Electric Company's Kihei Circuit on the Island of Maui. This equipment has been custom designed to provide accurately time-stamped Phasor and Power Quality data in real time. Additionally, irradiance sensors have been deployed at a few selected locations in proximity to photovoltaic (PV) installations. The received data is being used for validation of existing system models and for impact studies of future system hardware. Descriptions of the hardware and its installation, and some preliminary metering results are presented. Real-time circuit visualization applications for the data are also under development.

  12. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits. PMID:22787424

  13. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  14. Student artistry sparks eclipse excitement on Maui: NSO/DKIST EPO for the 2016 Partial Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Penn, Matthew J.; Armstrong, James

    2016-05-01

    Local creativity and artistry is a powerful resource that enhances education programs and helps us generate excitement for science within our communities. In celebration of the 2016 Solar Eclipse, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and its Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) project were pleased to engage with students across Maui County, Hawai`i, via the 2016 Maui Eclipse Art Contest. With the help of the Maui Economic Development Board and the University of Hawai'is Institute for Astronomy, we solicited art entries from all K-12 schools in Maui County approximately 6 months prior to the eclipse. Along with divisional prizes, a grand prize was selected by a panel of local judges, which was subsequently printed on 25,000 solar eclipse viewing glasses and distributed to all Maui students. We found that the impact of a locally-sourced glasses design cannot be understated. Overall, the success of this program relied upon reaching out to individual teachers, supplying educational flyers to all schools, and visiting classrooms. On the day of the eclipse, all of the art entries were prominently displayed during a community eclipse viewing event at Kalama Beach Park in Kihei, HI, that was co-hosted by NSO and the Maui Science Center. This eclipse art contest was integral to making local connections to help promote science education on Maui, and we suggest that it could be adapted to the solar community's EPO activities for the upcoming 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse.

  15. Home range and territoriality of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, the 'Akohekohe and Maui Parrotbill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Simon, John C.; Farm, Brian P.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Hawaiian honeycreepers have radiated into a diversity of trophic niches and patterns of space-use. We investigated space-use in two honeycreeper species, the ‘Ākohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered nectarivore, and Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered wood excavator, by mapping the home ranges and dispersion of color-banded individuals at a study site in relatively undisturbed montane cloud forest on Maui Island, Hawai‘i. With 20% of outlying points excluded, home-range size averaged much smaller for adult male ‘Ākohekohe (0.56 ha) than for male Maui Parrotbill (2.26 ha). In both species, a female's home range mostly overlapped that of her mate. Adult male Maui Parrotbill defended year-round home ranges from which they excluded conspecifics except for their mates and dependent offspring. Although our data suggest that ‘Ākohekohe also maintained all-purpose territories, the evidence is less convincing because these birds were seen feeding in the home ranges of other individuals. By defending all-purpose territories, these two species depart from the more common honeycreeper pattern of sharing large, undefended home ranges.

  16. 76 FR 61735 - Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI... Boulevard, Room 3-122, Honolulu, HI 96850. You may also send comments by facsimile to (808) 792-9580....

  17. 76 FR 24514 - Honouliuli Special Resource Study, Honolulu, Maui, Hawaii, and Kauai Counties, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Honouliuli Special Resource Study, Honolulu, Maui, Hawaii, and Kauai Counties, HI..., Honolulu, HI 96850. Comments may also be transmitted through the Honouliuli Special Resource Study Web...

  18. Trends and drivers of debris accumulation on Maui shorelines: Implications for local mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Lauren C; Currie, Jens J; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2016-04-15

    Marine debris, particularly plastic, is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific. Here we present results from the first study to quantify and compare the types and amounts of marine debris on Maui shorelines. Surveys were conducted monthly between May 2013 and December 2014, with additional daily surveys conducted on Maui's north shore during January 2015. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites, with plastics being the most prevalent type of debris at all sites. Large debris loads on windward shores were attributed to the influence of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and northerly trade winds. Daily surveys resulted in a significantly higher rate of debris deposition than monthly surveys. The efficacy of local policy in debris mitigation showed promise, but was dependent upon the level of enforcement and consumer responsibility. PMID:26926778

  19. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  20. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Jason T; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J; Chau, Marian M

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  1. Energy for water and water for energy on Maui Island, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily A.; Webber, Michael E.

    2015-06-01

    Energy and water systems are interconnected. This work first characterizes 2010 primary energy demand for direct water services and local freshwater demand for energy on Maui Island, Hawaii, then investigates scenarios for future changes in these demands. The goal of this manuscript is to dissect the relationship and trends of energy-water connections to inform policymaking decisions related to water and energy planning. Analysis proceeds by inventorying water and energy flows and adjusting to a 2010 base year, then applying intensity factors for energy or water used at a given stage for a given sector to determine absolute energy and water demands for the isolated system of Maui Island. These bottom-up, intensity-based values are validated against published data where available. Maui consumes about 0.05% of its freshwater for energy (versus >6% for the US on average) and about 32% of its electricity (19% of its on-island primary energy) for direct water services (versus 8% of primary energy for the US on average). These values could change with policy choices like increased instream flows, higher wastewater treatment standards, electricity fuel mix changes, desalination, or increased biofuels production. This letter contributes a granular assessment of both energy for water and water for energy in a single isolated system, highlighting opportunities to address energy-water interdependencies in a context that could be relevant in other communities facing similar choices.

  2. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jason T.; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Chau, Marian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  3. Orbital debris detection program highlights from the Air Force Maui Optical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houchard, Jeff E.; Kervin, Paul W.; Africano, John L.; Kuo, Shiao D.; Medrano, Robert S.; Lambert, John V.

    1994-06-01

    The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) conducted searches, measurements, and analyses of the orbital debris environment for the Air Force Space Command and the Phillips Laboratory since May 1991 in support of the Air Force Orbital Debris Measurements Program. The objective of this program was to detect orbiting low earth objects not currently in the United States Space Command Space Surveillance Center catalog. Once objects were detected, further objectives were to track, catalog, and maintain those objects locally, to determine statistics on detected objects, and perform relevant analyses. AMOS has developed a prototype surveillance system for the detection and tracking of orbital debris. In addition to this surveillance activity, AMOS has also automated the post-processing videotape streak detection process and is automating the analysis process. Both the optical tracking of orbital debris and the automatic streak detection process were thought to be virtually impossible only a few years ago. The AMOS program employed wide field of view optical telescopes using the Maui Groundbased Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance site and AMOS narrow field of view tracking telescopes, both located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site.

  4. Development of Invertebrate Community Indexes of Stream Quality for the Islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009-10 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected physical habitat information and benthic macroinvertebrates at 40 wadeable sites on 25 perennial streams on the Island of Maui, Hawaiʻi, to evaluate the relations between the macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental characteristics and to develop a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) that could be used as an indicator of stream quality. The macroinvertebrate community data were used to identify metrics that could best differentiate among sites according to disturbance gradients such as embeddedness, percent fines (silt and sand areal coverage), or percent agricultural land in the contributing basin area. Environmental assessments were conducted using land-use/land-cover data and reach-level physical habitat data. The Maui data were first evaluated using the previously developed Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) to determine if existing metrics would successfully differentiate stream quality among the sites. Secondly, a number of candidate invertebrate metrics were screened and tested and the individual metrics that proved the best at discerning among the sites along one or more disturbance gradients were combined into a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) of stream quality. These metrics were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, native snail (hihiwai) presence or absence, native mountain shrimp (′δpae) presence or absence, native torrent midge (Telmatogeton spp.) presence or absence, and native Megalagrion damselfly presence or absence. The Maui ICI classified 15 of the 40 sites (37.5 percent) as having "good" quality communities, 17 of the sites (42.5 percent) as having "fair" quality communities, and 8 sites (20 percent) as having "poor" quality communities, a classification that may be used to initiate further investigation into the causes of the poor

  5. The influence of wastewater discharge on water quality in Hawai'i: A comparative study for Lahaina and Kihei, Maui.

    PubMed

    Miller-Pierce, Mailea R; Rhoads, Neil A

    2016-02-15

    In Maui, Hawai'i, wastewater reclamation facilities (WWRFs) dispose of partially treated effluent into injection wells connected to the nearshore environment. Hawai'i State Department of Health data from 2004-2015 were assessed for qualitative trends in nutrient, turbidity, and Chlorophyll a water quality (WQ) impairments for fourteen marine sites on Maui Island. We introduce a novel method, the Qualitative Impact Percentage (QIP), to facilitate a qualitative comparison of disparate factors contributing to WQ impairment. Sites near the Lahaina WWRF in West Maui, which was found in violation of the Clean Water Act in 2014, had fewer exceedances and lower geometric means compared to sites near the Kihei WWRF. Our results suggest that WQ impairments may be a greater concern in Kihei than previously acknowledged. This paper attempts to raise the awareness of policymakers and the public and to encourage further research assessing the effects of the Kihei WWRF on the marine environment. PMID:26778501

  6. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawaii; PART IV: measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in Honolua Bay, Northwest Maui: 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Kathy

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Honolua Bay, northwest Maui, Hawaii, during 2003 and 2004 to better understand coastal dynamics in coral reef habitats. Measurements were acquired through two different collection methods. Two hydrographic survey cruises were conducted to acquire spatially-extensive, but temporally-limited, three-dimensional measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in the winter and summer of 2003. From mid 2003 through early 2004, a bottom-mounted instrument package was deployed in a water depth of 10 m to collect long-term, single-point high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity. The purpose of these measurements was to collect hydrographic data to learn how waves, currents and water column properties such as water temperature, salinity and turbidity vary spatially and temporally in a near-shore coral reef system adjacent to a major stream drainage. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. This report, the final part in a series, describes data acquisition, processing and analysis. Previous reports provided data and results on: Long-term measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off Kahana (PART I), the spatial structure of currents, temperature, salinity and suspended sediment along West Maui (PART II), and flow and coral larvae and sediment dynamics during the 2003 summer spawning season (PART III).

  7. Reconnaissance sediment budget for selected watersheds of West Maui, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Falinski, Kim A.; Callender, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Episodic runoff brings suspended sediment to the nearshore waters of West Maui, Hawaiʻi. Even small rainfalls create visible plumes over a few hours. We used mapping, field experiments, and analysis of recent (July 19–20, 2014) and historic rainfall to estimate sources of land-based pollution for two watersheds in West Maui: Honolua, and Honokōwai. Former agricultural fields and some unimproved roads are plausible sources for polluted runoff, but have saturated hydraulic conductivities greater than the 10–15 millimeters per hour (mm/hr) rainfalls of July 2014. These fields and roads showed minor evidence for storm runoff, and could not have contributed substantially to July 2014 plume generation. Since 1978, rain at intensities capable of causing runoff from former agricultural fields sustained for 1–2 hours is also rare; such intensities have 2–5 year recurrence rates in the north, and greater than 25 year recurrence rates to the south near Lahaina. Streambanks now eroding into historic terraces of sands, silts, and clays are a more plausible source. Although past large storms contributed to sediment loading, annual plume generation is now caused by smaller rainfalls eroding these near-stream legacy deposits. Treatments of former agricultural fields, roads, and reserve forests are consequently not likely to measurably affect sediment pollution from smaller, more frequent storms. Increased runoff from the development of West Maui has the potential to exacerbate sediment plumes from such storms unless there is an effective strategy to reduce bank erosion. Uncertainties in the extent and erosion rate of historic terraces, however, limit our ability to plan mitigation.

  8. Median and Low-Flow Characteristics for Streams under Natural and Diverted Conditions, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Flow-duration statistics under natural (undiverted) and diverted flow conditions were estimated for gaged and ungaged sites on 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. The estimates were made using the optimal combination of continuous-record gaging-station data, low-flow measurements, and values determined from regression equations developed as part of this study. Estimated 50- and 95-percent flow duration statistics for streams are presented and the analyses done to develop and evaluate the methods used in estimating the statistics are described. Estimated streamflow statistics are presented for sites where various amounts of streamflow data are available as well as for locations where no data are available. Daily mean flows were used to determine flow-duration statistics for continuous-record stream-gaging stations in the study area following U.S. Geological Survey established standard methods. Duration discharges of 50- and 95-percent were determined from total flow and base flow for each continuous-record station. The index-station method was used to adjust all of the streamflow records to a common, long-term period. The gaging station on West Wailuaiki Stream (16518000) was chosen as the index station because of its record length (1914-2003) and favorable geographic location. Adjustments based on the index-station method resulted in decreases to the 50-percent duration total flow, 50-percent duration base flow, 95-percent duration total flow, and 95-percent duration base flow computed on the basis of short-term records that averaged 7, 3, 4, and 1 percent, respectively. For the drainage basin of each continuous-record gaged site and selected ungaged sites, morphometric, geologic, soil, and rainfall characteristics were quantified using Geographic Information System techniques. Regression equations relating the non-diverted streamflow statistics to basin characteristics of the gaged basins were developed using ordinary-least-squares regression analyses. Rainfall

  9. Biogeomorphic relationships between slope processes and globular Grimmia mosses in Haleakala's Crater (Maui, Hawai’i)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2010-04-01

    Globular mosses were found in Haleakala's crater (Maui) at five locations between 2175 and 2725 m; the highest-altitude site, with abundant epilithic mosses growing on alkali-olivine basalt outcrops and a large mossball population, was studied. Mossballs form when moss cushions are dislodged from rocks but continue growing unattached to substrate; detachment agents include rainsplash, desiccation, wind, frost, and disturbance by birds (dark-rumped petrels) that burrow nests under outcrops, or by goats. When loosened, moss polsters are transported down steep (26-34°) slopes by different geomorphic processes, including frost—mainly needle ice—activity, runoff, and wind. Mossballs contained two species, Grimmia trichophylla Grev. and Grimmia torquata Drumm., growing separately or commingled. Weight, size, and various shape indices were determined for 260 specimens. Shape and size were correlated; larger mosses become less spheroidal because heavier specimens are less disturbed by needle ice, remaining immobile for increasingly longer time periods, thus becoming flattened. Distance of downslope transport from source rockwalls was measured for 330 specimens; 83% shifted ≤ 100 cm, but only ˜ 5% had moved > 200-839 cm. Heavier mossballs moved short distances, thus ˜ 88% of all biomass remained within 200 cm from outcrops. Substrate soils were compared with those within globoids; surface site soils were much coarser than mossball grains. Twelve substrate samples had, on average, 21.3% gravel (≥ 2 mm), 6.1% fines (≤ 0.063 mm) and 2.1% organic matter; in contrast, 12 mossballs contained < 0.1% gravel, 47.9% fines, and 34.1% organic matter. G. torquata polsters had slightly finer soil (53.2%) than G. trichophylla (43.5%). This significant fine-grain concentration results as mosses trap aeolian dust among stems and leaves; ˜ 91% of moss grains were ≤ 0.25 mm, but only ˜ 30% of substrate particles measured ≤ 0.25 mm. Such fine texture, along with abundant

  10. Rn and Hg surveys: geothermal exploration in N. E. , Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, M.E.; Cuff, K.E.

    1980-09-01

    Regional assessment for geothermal potential in Hawaii indicated thermal alteration of shallow groundwater in northeast Maui. Studies within the area, the lower north rift of Haleakala volcano, include the measurement of ground Rn emanation, soil Hg concentration and soil pH. Anomalous results from these geochemical techniques are reasonably coincident, and are located over the western boundary of the rift structure. These studies suggest anomalous subsurface temperatures associated with the rift and consequent enhancement of ground gas outgassing. Further surveys, both geochemical and geophysical, are currently being carried out to confirm these conclusions.

  11. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking with the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has made significant progress and now consists of two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on the 1.2-m (48") telescopes: on the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and NEAT/Palomar on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope. This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system. NEAT/MSSS is operated as a partnership between NASA/JPL and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), utilizing the AFRL 1.2-m telescope on the 3000-m summit of Haleakala, Maui, The USAF Space Command (SPCMD) contributed financial support to build and install the 'NEAT focal reducer' on the MSSS 1.2-m telescope giving it a large field of view (2.5 square degrees), suitable for the near-earth object (NEO),both asteroids and comets, survey. This work was completed in February 2000. AFRL has made a commitment to NEAT/MSSS that allows NEAT to operate full time with the understanding that AFRL participate as partners in NEAT/MSSS and have use of the NEAT camera system for high priority satellite observations during bright time (parts of 12 nights each month). Currently, NEAT has discovered 42 NEAs including 12 larger than 1-km, 5 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), 6 comets, and nearly 25,000 asteroid detections since March 2000.

  12. Numerical modelling of vertically extensive groundwater bodies in Maui, Hawaii: An alternative to perched aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    Groundwater in East Maui, Hawaii is traditionally described as a series of discrete aquifers perched on low-permeability units underlain by a basal lens with heads of about 2-3 m. An alternative concept, a fully saturated aquifer to as much as 1400 m elevation, was investigated using a numerical model with various horizontal hydraulic conductivity values and anisotropy ratios. Results indicate that horizontal hydraulic conductivity values between about 0.08 and 1.0 m per day and anisotropy ratios between 1:1 and 100:1 will produce simulated water tables that match observed water tables at 400-1400 m elevation. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with available field data for hydraulic conductivity.Groundwater in East Maui, Hawaii is traditionally described as a series of discrete aquifers perched on low-permeability units underlain by a basal lens with heads of about 2-3 m. An alternative concept, a fully saturated aquifer to as much as 1400 m elevation, was investigated using a numerical model with various horizontal hydraulic conductivity values and anisotropy ratios. Results indicate that horizontal hydraulic conductivity values between about 0.08 and 1.0 m per day and anisotropy ratios between 1:1 and 100:1 will produce simulated water tables that match observed water tables at 400-1400 m elevation. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with available field data for hydraulic conductivity.

  13. An update of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking/Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  14. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  15. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  16. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  17. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  18. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  19. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  20. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  1. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  2. Modeling alongshore propagating tides and currents around West Maui, Hawaii and implications for transport using Delft3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Nearshore currents are driven by a number of components including tides, waves winds and even internal tides. To adequately simulate transport of sand and other constituents, the realistic behavior of the dominant current-generating phenomena should be resolved. This often requires sufficient observations and calibration/validation efforts to achieve realistic modeling results. The work explores the capabilities of modeling the currents along West Maui. The West Maui coast has a propagating tide where the observed peak tidal currents, which are directed parallel to the coast, occur very closely to the peak tidal water levels. In 2003, the USGS collected an extensive set of current observations along West Maui, Hawaii, with the goal of better understanding transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. The observations included vessel mounted ADCP surveys and an array seafloor instruments at the 10m isobath along the coast. A simple 2DH model of West Maui using Delft3D shows good comparison of the modeled and observed currents. Nearshore currents driven by waves and winds are also considered. During the data collection period a significant erosion event occurred within the study domain at Kaanapali Beach. This event undermined several trees on the shoreline and threatened resort infrastructure. In modeling the nearshore currents of this region we hope to determine the potential for sand transport and shoreline change to hindcast this event.

  3. 76 FR 17471 - Air Tour Management Plan for Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI; Public Meeting/Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Tour Management Plan for Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI; Public..., Kahului, HI 96732. Wednesday, April 13, 2011, 5 p.m.-7 p.m. Kula Community Center, 3690 Lower Kula Road, Kula, HI 96790. Thursday, April 14, 2011, 5 p.m.-7 p.m. Helene Community Center (Hana), 150 Keawa...

  4. Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Costa, Bryan; Kendall, Matthew S; Parrish, Frank A; Rooney, John; Boland, Raymond C; Chow, Malia; Lecky, Joey; Montgomery, Anthony; Spalding, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This approach

  5. Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Bryan; Kendall, Matthew S.; Parrish, Frank A.; Rooney, John; Boland, Raymond C.; Chow, Malia; Lecky, Joey; Montgomery, Anthony; Spalding, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka‘ō‘ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This

  6. 2011 Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) and Maui `Alauahio abundance estimates and the effect of sampling effort on power to detect a trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinck, Kevin W.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Iknayan, Kelly J.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    much of its original habitat and now occurs in forested areas of East Maui where its habitat overlaps with that of the Kiwikiu. Though they share the same habitat, the `Alauahio is much more abundant—by more than two orders of magnitude—and occurs over a wider range than the Kiwikiu. Both species appear to have no statistically significant population trend from 1980–2001, but abundance estimates vary widely from survey to survey and have wide uncertainties (Camp et al. 2009). Ideally survey design should result in estimates precise enough to be able to detect significant declines in abundance that may trigger management intervention. We wished to improve the accuracy of Kiwikiu abundance estimates and the ability to detect significant trends in abundance. To that end, in 2011, repeated point count surveys were conducted across the Kiwikiu range, excluding Haleakalā National Park (Figure 1). The increased sampling effort increases sample size and improves the precision of estimates, and repeat samples also allowed us to partition within-year and between-year variation in surveys, increasing the statistical power to detect trends.

  7. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M.

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  8. Model scenarios of shoreline change at Kaanapali Beach, Maui, Hawaii: seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, Sean; Fletcher, Charles H.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Pawlak, Geno; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs = 1–2 m Tp = 14–25 s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs = 5–8 m Tp = 14–20 s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  9. Model scenerios of shoreline change at kaanapali beach, maui, hawaii: Seasonal and extreme events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitousek, S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Merrifield, M.A.; Pawlak, G.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Kaanapali beach is a well-defined littoral cell of carbonate sand extending 2 km south from Black Rock (a basalt headland) to Hanakao'o Point. The beach experiences dynamic seasonal shoreline change forced by longshore transport from two dominant swell regimes. In summer, south swells (Hs=1-2mT p=14-25s) drive sand to the north, while in winter, north swells (Hs=5-8mTp=14-20s) drive sand to the south where it accumulates on a submerged fossil reef. The Delft3D modeling system accurately predicts directly observed tidal currents and wave heights around West Maui, and is applied to simulate shoreline change. Morphologic simulations qualitatively resolve the observed seasonal behavior.

  10. Effects of Native Forest Restoration on Soil Hydraulic Properties, Auwahi, Maui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock; less than 10% of original dryland forest habitat remains. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration rate (Kfs), hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent exclosure where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Results from field experiments support the hypothesis that reforestation at the Auwahi site has significantly altered plant-relevant soil hydraulic properties.

  11. Participatory Scenario Planning for Climate Change Adaptation: the Maui Groundwater Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Brewington, L.; Finucane, M.

    2015-12-01

    For the last century, the island of Maui in Hawai'i has been the center of environmental, agricultural, and legal conflict with respect to both surface and groundwater allocation. Planning for sustainable future freshwater supply in Hawai'i requires adaptive policies and decision-making that emphasizes private and public partnerships and knowledge transfer between scientists and non-scientists. We have downscaled dynamical climate models to 1 km resolution in Maui and coupled them with a USGS Water Budget model and a participatory scenario building process to quantify future changes in island-scale climate and groundwater recharge under different land uses. Although these projections are uncertain, the integrated nature of the Pacific RISA research program has allowed us to take a multi-pronged approach to facilitate the uptake of climate information into policy and management. This presentation details the ongoing work to support the development of Hawai'i's first island-wide water use plan under the new climate adaptation directive. Participatory scenario planning began in 2012 to bring together a diverse group of ~100 decision-makers in state and local government, watershed restoration, agriculture, and conservation to 1) determine the type of information (climate variables, land use and development, agricultural practices) they would find helpful in planning for climate change, and 2) develop a set of nested scenarios that represent alternative climate and management futures. This integration of knowledge is an iterative process, resulting in flexible and transparent narratives of complex futures comprised of information at multiple scales. We will present an overview of the downscaling, scenario building, hydrological modeling processes, and stakeholder response.

  12. High-precision laser distance measurement in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, 1976-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, E.; Carter, J. A.; Harris, D.; Laurila, S. H.; Schenck, B. E.; Sutton, G. H.; Wolfe, J. E.; Cushman, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has implemented a comprehensive geodetic-geophysical support program to monitor local and regional crustal deformation on the island of Maui. Presented are the actual laser-measured line lengths and new coordinate computations of the line terminals, and the internal consistency of the measured line lengths is discussed. Several spacial chord lengths have been reduced to a Mercator plane, and conditioned adjustments on that plane have been made.

  13. The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Gingerich, S.B.; Tribble, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotopes of precipitation, ground water and surface water measured on the windward side of East Maui from 0 to 3055 m altitude were used to determine recharge sources for stream flow and ground water. Correct interpretation of the hydrology using rainfall ??18O gradients with altitude required consideration of the influence of fog, as fog samples had isotopic signatures enriched by as much as 3??? in ??18O and 21??? in ??D compared to volume-weighted average precipitation at the same altitude. The isotopic analyses suggested that fog drip was a major component of stream flow and shallow ground water at higher altitudes in the watershed. 18O/altitude gradients in rainfall were comparable for similar microclimates on Maui (this study) and Hawaii Island (1990-1995 study), however, East Maui ??18O values for rain in trade-wind and high-altitude microclimates were enriched compared to those from Hawaii Island. Isotopes were used to interpret regional hydrology in this volcanic island aquifer system. In part of the study area, stable isotopes indicate discharge of ground water recharged at least 1000 m above the sample site. This deep-flowpath ground water was found in springs from sea level up to 240 m altitude, indicating saturation to altitudes much higher than a typical freshwater lens. These findings help in predicting the effects of ground water development on stream flow in the area. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Integrated Modeling and Participatory Scenario Planning for Climate Adaptation: the Maui Groundwater Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.; Brewington, L.

    2014-12-01

    For the last century, the island of Maui, Hawaii, has been the center of environmental, agricultural, and legal conflict with respect to surface and groundwater allocation. Planning for adequate future freshwater resources requires flexible and adaptive policies that emphasize partnerships and knowledge transfer between scientists and non-scientists. In 2012 the Hawai'i state legislature passed the Climate Change Adaptation Priority Guidelines (Act 286) law requiring county and state policy makers to include island-wide climate change scenarios in their planning processes. This research details the ongoing work by researchers in the NOAA funded Pacific RISA to support the development of Hawaii's first island-wide water use plan under the new climate adaptation directive. This integrated project combines several models with participatory future scenario planning. The dynamically downscaled triply nested Hawaii Regional Climate Model (HRCM) was modified from the WRF community model and calibrated to simulate the many microclimates on the Hawaiian archipelago. For the island of Maui, the HRCM was validated using 20 years of hindcast data, and daily projections were created at a 1 km scale to capture the steep topography and diverse rainfall regimes. Downscaled climate data are input into a USGS hydrological model to quantify groundwater recharge. This model was previously used for groundwater management, and is being expanded utilizing future climate projections, current land use maps and future scenario maps informed by stakeholder input. Participatory scenario planning began in 2012 to bring together a diverse group of over 50 decision-makers in government, conservation, and agriculture to 1) determine the type of information they would find helpful in planning for climate change, and 2) develop a set of scenarios that represent alternative climate/management futures. This is an iterative process, resulting in flexible and transparent narratives at multiple scales

  15. A dynamical study of gravity waves and instabilities in the mesopause region at Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng

    Correlative observations of the mesopause region (80--105 km) made by a cluster of remote sensing instruments were collected at Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W) during the Maui-MALT campaign. Using this unique dataset, a dynamical study was performed to investigate gravity waves and instabilities in the mesopause region. An investigation of a "wall" wave on 12 August 2004 marks the first time such a bright event was captured by lidar. The observations indicate this event was a large-amplitude gravity wave with period of 4 hr and vertical wavelength of 20 km. The spectacular changes in temperature, airglow intensity and Na density accompanying the passage of the wall were due to the phase reversal of the wall wave. A gravity wave breaking event on 28 October 2003, which is the first time direct observation of gravity wave breakdown into small-scale ripples, was examined. The data suggest that the gravity wave breaking was due to a dynamical instability. The characteristics of the ripples were consistent with their attribution to Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. It is proposed that superposition of the background wind shear and the wave-induced shear caused Ri < 0.25, leading to wave breakdown and the subsequent generation of the ripples. The characteristics of instabilities in the mesopause region were analyzed. Unstable conditions are observed between 85 and 100 km ˜90% of the time. The probabilities of convective and dynamical instabilities are 3% and 10%, respectively. A distinct correlation between atmospheric static stability and wind shear is identified for the first. The distribution of stability is organized as layered structures, which are modulated by the progression of tides/long-period gravity waves. Unstable regions are found within the layers of reduced stability, which often located above thin layers of large N2/strong wind shear associated with the mesospheric inversion layers. It is suggested that gravity wave-tidal interactions might explain the observed

  16. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  17. Depth of alkalic magma reservoirs below Kolekole cinder cone, Southwest rift zone, East Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Bhattacharji, Somdev; Fein, Charles

    2005-07-01

    The Kolekole cinder cone is located on the southwest rift near the summit area of East Maui, adjacent to the Haleakala Crater. The erupted lavas consist of ankaramitic picro-basalts and basanites. The ankaramites contain 26 to 33 modal percent olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Athough the cores of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts are not in equilibrium with the bulk rock compositions, recovered matrix compositions through image analysis indicate that the rims of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts and plagioclase microphenocrysts are in equilibrium with the matrix in many samples. Equilibrium pressures calculated from clinopyroxene rim-liquid equilibrium, and from equilibrium compositions of multiple phase-saturated liquids, yield values between 4.4 and 11.2 kb. In addition, barometry based on clinopyroxene composition indicates that the cores of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts crystallized at approximately 2.5 kb higher pressures than the rims. Therefore, the alkalic magmas of Kolekole resided in reservoirs that extended well below the crust-mantle boundary. The low Mg-content of the calculated matrix compositions indicates that extensive high pressure fractional crystallization of parental magmas occurred in the lower crust and upper mantle magma chambers.

  18. Risk Factors for Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection in Children of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Steven E

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection overall, has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Children and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are disproportionately affected by CA-MRSA infection. The purpose of this case-control study was to identify risk factors for CA-S. aureus skin infections in children of Maui, Hawai‘i, as a foundation for reducing the transmission of these infections. Survey data were obtained from patients in pediatric clinician offices over an 8-month period. NHPI participants were well-represented as 58% of cases and 54% of controls. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. Significant risk factors predictive of infection among all participants were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) household contact, and (c) overweight or obesity. Risk factors predictive of infection among NHPI were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) antibiotic use within 6 months, (c) overweight or obesity, and (d) a history of eczema or other skin disorder. The role of overweight or obesity in S. aureus skin infections among NHPI has not been identified in previous research and indicates a focus for additional education. Further research is needed to better understand the role of eczema, antibiotic use, overweight and obesity, and socio-cultural factors in these infections. PMID:22900237

  19. Estimating sugarcane water requirements for biofuel feedstock production in Maui, Hawaii using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

    2011-12-01

    Water availability is one of the limiting factors for sustainable production of biofuel crops. A common method for determining crop water requirement is to multiply daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological parameters by a crop coefficient (Kc) to obtain actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Generic Kc values are available for many crop types but not for sugarcane in Maui, Hawaii, which grows on a relatively unstudied biennial cycle. In this study, an algorithm is being developed to estimate sugarcane Kc using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. A series of ASTER NDVI maps were used to depict canopy development over time or fractional canopy cover (fc) which was measured with a handheld multispectral camera in the fields during satellite overpass days. Canopy cover was correlated with NDVI values. Then the NDVI based canopy cover was used to estimate Kc curves for sugarcane plants. The remotely estimated Kc and ETc values were compared and validated with ground-truth ETc measurements. The approach is a promising tool for large scale estimation of evapotranspiration of sugarcane or other biofuel crops.

  20. A qualitative study of epistemologies and pedagogies of environmental practitioners in Maui, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczynski, Sandra C.

    This dissertation presents a discussion of the knowledge systems and teaching styles of five environmental practitioners in Maui, Hawaii. The voices of the informants illustrate the beliefs, values, and priorities relevant to local environmental knowledge production and exchange, and are also used to provide a framework for models of epistemological and pedagogical practices. In this qualitative research, several models of local environmental knowledge emerged. The models include local environmental knowledge as a semiotic system, knowledge given and received from narrative sources, experiential based knowledge, and place and plant priorities in seeking and dispensing environmental information. The notion of what constitutes environmental knowledge was expanded through careful interpretation of the informant's voice. Several broad conclusions concerning local environmental knowledge emerged from this research. First, local environmental knowledge is formed through a long-term relationship between the practitioner, the land, and natural resources. Secondly, each of the environmental practitioner's local environmental knowledge is dynamic, plural and hybrid. And finally, transmission of the environmental practitioner's local environmental knowledge is integral to the life of the community as well as a component of their personal identities. Through these local environmental practitioners, endemic knowledge is shared, indigenous species are spared, traditional practices are passed down, customary ways are preserved, and unique ways of knowing and teaching are appreciated. 'A'ohe papu ka 'ike i ka halau ho'okahi. All knowledge is not taught in the same school. One can learn from many sources (Pukui, 1983: 24).

  1. Plant phenology in a cloud forest on the island of Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Kim E.; Pratt, T.K.; Simon, John C.; Kowalsky, James R.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We recorded the times of flowering, fruiting, and leafing of ten native canopy and subcanopy trees and shrubs (monthly from December 1994 through December 1997) in a montane cloud forest with relatively aseasonal rainfall on the island of Maui, Hawaii. These species represented the great majority of individual woody plants at the site. Flowers and fruits were available in the community year-round; however, all species exhibited annual patterns of flowering, and four species showed annual patterns of fruiting while the rest fruited in supra-annual patterns. Many species had protracted flowering or fruiting peaks, and some bore small numbers of flowers or fruit year-round. Most species flowered in a monthly peak mainly between May and August, corresponding to the period of greatest solar irradiance and marginally higher temperatures. Fruit ripening followed at varying intervals. In contrast, the heaviest flowering occurred between November and March, resulting from bloom of the dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. At the highest elevations, Metrosideros flowering was heaviest during September, but peak flowering of lower elevation trees occurred in late fall and winter. Two varieties of this species differed in their temporal and spatial patterns of flowering. For M. polymorpha var. polymorpha and var. incana, bloom peaked annually between November and January; however, for M. polymorpha var. glaberrima, flowering peaked from April through July, with a possible earlier secondary peak in January.

  2. Exploratory drilling and aquifer testing at the Kipahulu District, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souza, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    An exploratory well, located at 388 feet above sea level in Kipahulu Valley on Maui, Hawaii, was completed and tested in October 1980. The 410-foot well penetrates a series of very dense basaltic lava flows of the Hana Formation. At an elevation of 10 feet above mean sea level, the well penetrated a water-bearing zone of permeable basaltic rock. Water from this zone had a head of about 76 feet above sea level. In October of 1980, the well was pump tested for 9 hours at various discharge rates up to 350 gallons per minute with a maximum drawdown of about 12 feet. Based on the test data, the well should produce water at a rate of 200 gallons per minute with a drawdown of less than 3 feet. The water level in the well was continuously monitored from October 1980 to mid-November 1981, during which period a maximum decline of 20 feet was recorded. Water level fluctuations in the well can be correlated to the flow in nearby Palikea Stream. The long-term water level in the well should stabilize at about 75 feet above sea level. Water quality was excellent. The total dissolved-solids content was 49 milligrams per liter and the chloride content was 4.2 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  3. Cosmogenic 3He in terrestrial rocks: The summit lavas of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Craig, H.; Poreda, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    We have identified terrestrial cosmic rayproduced 3He in three lava flows on the crest of Haleakala Volcano on Maui, 3 km above sea level, and ≈0.5 million years old. Although these lavas, like all oceanic basalts, contain primordial 3He from the mantle, the “cosmogenic” component (3HeC) can be identified unambiguously because it is extractable only by high-temperature vacuum fusion. In contrast, a large fraction of the mantle helium resides in fluid inclusions and can be extracted by vacuum crushing, leaving a residual component with 3He/4He ratios as high as 75× those in the atmosphere, which can be liberated by melting the crushed grains. Cosmogenic 3He is present in both olivines and clinopyroxenes at 0.8-1.2 × 10-12 ml(STP)/g and constitutes 75% ± 5% of the total 3He present. The observed 3HeC levels require a cosmic ray exposure age of only some 64,000 years, much less than the actual age of the lavas, if there is no erosion. Using a model that includes effects of uplift or submergence as well as erosion, we calculate an apparent “erosion rate” of the order of 8.5 m/106 years for the western rim of the summit crater, as an example of the application of measurements of cosmogenic rare gases to terrestrial geological problems. PMID:16593671

  4. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge estimated using a water-budget model for the Island of Maui, Hawai‘i, 1978-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Adam G.; Engott, John A.; Bassiouni, Maoya

    2014-01-01

    Demand for freshwater on the Island of Maui is expected to grow. To evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater, estimates of groundwater recharge are needed. A water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Maui for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is 1,340 million gallons per day, or about 45 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 40 percent of total water inflow consisting of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Most recharge occurs on the wet, windward slopes of Haleakalā and on the wet, uplands of West Maui Mountain. Dry, coastal areas generally have low recharge. In the dry isthmus, however, irrigated fields have greater recharge than nearby unirrigated areas. For drought conditions, mean annual recharge for Maui is about 1,035 million gallons per day, which is 23 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. For individual aquifer-system areas used for groundwater management, recharge for drought conditions is about 8 to 51 percent less than recharge for average climate conditions. The spatial distribution of rainfall is the primary factor determining spatially distributed recharge estimates for most areas on Maui. In wet areas, recharge estimates are also sensitive to water-budget parameters that are related to runoff, fog interception, and forest-canopy evaporation. In dry areas, recharge estimates are most sensitive to irrigated crop areas and parameters related to evapotranspiration.

  5. Availability and Distribution of Base Flow in Lower Honokohau Stream, Island of Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Honokohau Stream is one of the few perennial streams in the Lahaina District of West Maui. Current Honokohau water-use practices often lead to conflicts among water users, which are most evident during periods of base flow. To better manage the resource, data are needed that describe the availability and distribution of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream and how base flow is affected by streamflow diversion and return-flow practices. Flow-duration discharges for percentiles ranging from 50 to 95 percent were estimated at 13 locations on lower Honokohau Stream using data from a variety of sources. These sources included (1) available U.S. Geological Survey discharge data, (2) published summaries of Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. diversion and water development-tunnel data, (3) seepage run and low-flow partial-record discharge measurements made for this study, and (4) current (2003) water diversion and return-flow practices. These flow-duration estimates provide a detailed characterization of the distribution and availability of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream. Estimates of base-flow statistics indicate the significant effect of Honokohau Ditch diversions on flow in the stream. Eighty-six percent of the total flow upstream from the ditch is diverted from the stream. Immediately downstream from the diversion dam there is no flow in the stream 91.2 percent of the time, except for minor leakage through the dam. Flow releases at the Taro Gate, from Honokohau Ditch back into the stream, are inconsistent and were found to be less than the target release of 1.55 cubic feet per second on 9 of the 10 days on which measurements were made. Previous estimates of base-flow availability downstream from the Taro Gate release range from 2.32 to 4.6 cubic feet per second (1.5 to 3.0 million gallons per day). At the two principal sites where water is currently being diverted for agricultural use in the valley (MacDonald's and Chun's Dams), base flows of 2.32 cubic feet per

  6. Ground Water and Surface Water in the Haiku Area, East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The Haiku study area lies on the gently sloping eastern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Kakipi Gulch to the east. The study area lies on the northwest rift zone of East Maui Volcano, a geologic feature 3 to 5 miles wide marked by surface expressions such as cinder, spatter, and pumice cones. The study area contains two geologic units, the main shield-building stage Honomanu Basalt and the Kula Volcanics. The hydraulic conductivity of the Honomanu Basalt was estimated to be between 1,000 and 3,600 feet per day on the basis of aquifer tests and 3,300 feet per day on the basis of the regional recharge rate and observed ground-water heads. The hydraulic conductivity of the Kula Volcanics is expected to be several orders of magnitude lower. An estimated 191 million gallons per day of rainfall and 22 million gallons per day of fog drip reach the study area and about 98 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Nearly all of the ground water currently withdrawn in the study area is from well 5520-01 in Maliko Gulch, where historic withdrawal rates have averaged about 2.8 million gallons per day. An additional 18 million gallons per day of ground-water withdrawal is proposed. Flow in Waiohiwi Gulch, a tributary to Maliko Gulch, is perennial between about 2,000 ft and 4,000 ft altitude. At lower altitudes in Maliko Gulch, flow is perennial at only a few spots downstream of springs and near the coast. The Kuiaha and Kaupakulua Gulch systems are usually dry from sea level to an altitude of 350 feet and gain water from about 350 feet to about 900 feet altitude. The two main branches of the Kaupakulua Gulch system alternately gain and lose water as high as 2,400 feet altitude. Kakipi Gulch has perennial flow over much of its length but is often dry near the coast below 400 feet altitude. Fresh ground water occurs in two main forms: (1) as perched high-level water held up by

  7. Ground-Water Occurrence and Contribution to Streamflow, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The study area lies on the northern flank of the East Maui Volcano (Haleakala) and covers about 129 square miles between the drainage basins of Maliko Gulch to the west and Makapipi Stream to the east. About 989 million gallons per day of rainfall and 176 million gallons per day of fog drip reaches the study area and about 529 million gallons per day enters the ground-water system as recharge. Average annual ground-water withdrawal from wells totals only about 3 million gallons per day; proposed (as of 1998) additional withdrawals total about 18 million gallons per day. Additionally, tunnels and ditches of an extensive irrigation network directly intercept at least 10 million gallons per day of ground water. The total amount of average annual streamflow in gaged stream subbasins upstream of 1,300 feet altitude is about 255 million gallons per day and the total amount of average annual base flow is about 62 million gallons per day. Six major surface-water diversion systems in the study area have diverted an average of 163 million gallons per day of streamflow (including nearly all base flow of diverted streams) for irrigation and domestic supply in central Maui during 1925-97. Fresh ground water is found in two main forms. West of Keanae Valley, ground-water flow appears to be dominated by a variably saturated system. A saturated zone in the uppermost rock unit, the Kula Volcanics, is separated from a freshwater lens near sea level by an unsaturated zone in the underlying Honomanu Basalt. East of Keanae Valley, the ground-water system appears to be fully saturated above sea level to altitudes greater than 2,000 feet. The total average annual streamflow of gaged streams west of Keanae Valley is about 140 million gallons per day at 1,200 feet to 1,300 feet altitude. It is not possible to estimate the total average annual streamflow at the coast. All of the base flow measured in the study area west of Keanae Valley represents ground-water discharge from the high

  8. Assessing effects of native forest restoration on soil moisture dynamics and potential aquifer recharge, Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Szutu, Daphne J.; von Allmen, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of soils in regulating water flow through the unsaturated zone is critical in assessing the influence of vegetation on soil moisture dynamics and aquifer recharge. Because of fire, introduced ungulates and landscape-level invasion of non-native grasses, less than 10% of original dry forest (~730 mm precipitation annually) still exists on leeward Haleakalā, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Native dry forest restoration at Auwahi has demonstrated the potential for dramatic revegetation, allowing a unique experimental comparison of hydrologic function between tracts of restored forest and adjacent grasslands. We hypothesized that even relatively recent forest restoration can assist in the recovery of impaired hydrologic function, potentially increasing aquifer recharge. To compare restored forest and grassland sites, we experimentally irrigated and measured soil moisture and temperature with subsurface instrumentation at four locations within the reforested area and four within the grassland, each with a 2·5 × 2·5-m plot. Compared with grassland areas, water in reforested sites moved to depth faster with larger magnitude changes in water content. The median first arrival velocity of water was greater by a factor of about 13 in the reforested sites compared with the grassland sites. This rapid transport of water to depths of 1 m or greater suggests increased potential aquifer recharge. Improved characterization of how vegetation and soils influence recharge is crucial for understanding the long-term impacts of forest restoration on aquifer recharge and water resources, especially in moisture-limited regions.

  9. Satellite-based assessment of water requirement for biofuel feedstock production in Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water availability is one of the limiting factors for sustainable production of biofuel crops. A common method for determining crop water requirement is to multiply daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological parameters by a crop coefficient (Kc) to obtain actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Remote sensing data can provide dynamic Kc values that better reflect plant water use. In this study, an algorithm is being developed to estimate sugarcane Kc using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from Landsat 7 satellite images. Crop canopy cover was measured with a handheld multispectral camera from two sugarcane fields at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company (HC&S) plantation during the Landsat 7 satellite overpass days. An Eddy Covariance (EC) tower system was set up within each of these two fields and gathered EC flux at a 30-minute interval. Reference evapotranspiration was calculated from the network of automated weather stations at HC&S plantation using a modified Penman equation. Crop canopy cover was highly correlated with satellite NDVI values. A linear relationship between NDVI and measured Kc was obtained. Satellite -based ETc maps of HC&S plantation were developed using the NDVI-based Kc values and reference ET from HC&S weather station network. The satellite-based ETc was compared and validated with field measurements of ET using Eddy Covariance tower. A series of satellite-based ETc maps were developed to indicate the water demand of sugarcane plants at HC&S plantation. These results validate the use of satellite imagery as a tool for estimation of ET of sugarcane plants in Maui, Hawaii.

  10. Nearshore morphology, benthic structure, hydrodynamics, and coastal groundwater discharge near Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Gibbs, Ann E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Dimova, Natasha T.; Dailer, Meghan L.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a brief summary of recent fieldwork conducted off Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii, the site of the newly established U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority study area at Kaanapali and the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA). The goals of this fieldwork are to provide new baseline information to help guide future studies and to provide first insights into rates and drivers of coastal groundwater discharge and associated constituent loadings into the priority study area's coastal waters. This study presents the first swath acoustic mapping information, in situ oceanographic instrument measurements, and coastal groundwater discharge estimates at this site based on the submarine groundwater discharge tracer radon-222 (222Rn). Coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged from about 22 to 50 centimeters per day, depending on proximity of the sampling mooring to the primary discharge vent. The water chemistry of the discharging groundwater was at times dramatically different than ambient seawater. For example, at the primary vent site at Kahekili, the concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved silicate (DSi), and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in the discharging groundwater were 43.75 micromolar (μM), 583.49 μM, and 12.04 μM, respectively. These data extend our basic understanding of the morphology, benthic structure, and oceanographic setting of this vent site and provide a first estimate of the magnitude and physical forcings of submarine groundwater discharge and associated trace metals and nutrient loads here.

  11. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  12. Dry forest restoration and unassisted native tree seedling recruitment at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medeiros, Arthur C.; von Allmen, E. I.; Chimera, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore highly degraded but biologically significant forests draw from a limited toolbox. With less than 10% of their former distribution remaining, Hawaiian dry forests, though critically endangered, remain important biological and cultural refugia. At restoration onset (1997), vegetation of restoration and control areas of degraded Auwahi dry forest, Maui Island, was similar, dominated by nonnative graminoids (restoration 78.3%; control 75.4%), especially Cenchrus (Pennisetum) clandestinus. In 2012, unrestored control area vegetation was basically unchanged. In contrast, in the restoration area in 2012, native shrub cover increased from 3.1% to 81.9%, and cover of nonnative graminoids declined from 75.4% to 3.3%. In 2012, nonplanted seedlings of 14 of 22 native tree species and six of seven native shrub species were observed in restoration plots; the majority (99%) were five native (Dodonaea viscosa, Coprosma foliosa, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Chamaesyce celastoides, Nestegis sandwicensis) and one nonnative species (Bocconia frutescens). By 2012, stem counts of native woody plants had increased from 12.4 to 135.0/100 m2, and native species diversity increased from 2.4 to 6.6/100 m2. By 2012, seven rare dry forest tree species, Charpentiera obovata, Nothocestrum latifolium, Ochrosia haleakalae, Pleomele auwahiensis, Santalum ellipticum, S. haleakalae, and Streblus pendulinus, had established seedlings and/or saplings within the restoration site, especially notable because natural reproduction is largely lacking elsewhere. Without development and implementation of appropriate management strategies, remaining Hawaiian dry forest will likely disappear within the next century. Multicomponent restoration incorporating ungulate exclusion, weed control, and outplanting as described here offers one strategy to conserve and restore tracts of high-value but degraded forests.

  13. New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, D.R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor Bridge to Algebra" Curriculum: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in the Maui School District. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalo, Jessica Villaruz; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Under the "Math Science Partnership Grant," the Maui Hawaii Educational Consortium sought scientifically based evidence for the effectiveness of Carnegie Learning's "Cognitive Tutor[R]" (CT) program as part of the adoption process for pre-Algebra program. During the 2006-2007 school year, the researchers conducted a follow-on study to a previous…

  15. 77 FR 9692 - Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge and Kakahai`a National Wildlife Refuge, Maui County, HI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Federal Register on October 20, 2009 (74 FR 53755). We released the draft CCPs/EAs to the public, announcing and requesting comments in a notice of availability in the Federal Register (76 FR 52008; August..., Maui County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plans and Findings of No Significant Impact for...

  16. Molokai Farm Project. An Agricultural Training Program of the Maui Community College, University of Hawaii. Report for Fiscal Year 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Agriculture, Honolulu.

    The Molokai Farm Project at Maui Community College grew out of a grant for a Youth Agricultural Entrepreneurship Demonstration Program. The program, which can lead either to an associate degree or to a certification of completion for any number of smaller units of course work, is designed to develop students' managerial proficiency and the…

  17. Maui-VIA: A User-Friendly Software for Visual Identification, Alignment, Correction, and Quantification of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Data.

    PubMed

    Kuich, P Henning J L; Hoffmann, Nils; Kempa, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A current bottleneck in GC-MS metabolomics is the processing of raw machine data into a final datamatrix that contains the quantities of identified metabolites in each sample. While there are many bioinformatics tools available to aid the initial steps of the process, their use requires both significant technical expertise and a subsequent manual validation of identifications and alignments if high data quality is desired. The manual validation is tedious and time consuming, becoming prohibitively so as sample numbers increase. We have, therefore, developed Maui-VIA, a solution based on a visual interface that allows experts and non-experts to simultaneously and quickly process, inspect, and correct large numbers of GC-MS samples. It allows for the visual inspection of identifications and alignments, facilitating a unique and, due to its visualization and keyboard shortcuts, very fast interaction with the data. Therefore, Maui-Via fills an important niche by (1) providing functionality that optimizes the component of data processing that is currently most labor intensive to save time and (2) lowering the threshold of expertise required to process GC-MS data. Maui-VIA projects are initiated with baseline-corrected raw data, peaklists, and a database of metabolite spectra and retention indices used for identification. It provides functionality for retention index calculation, a targeted library search, the visual annotation, alignment, correction interface, and metabolite quantification, as well as the export of the final datamatrix. The high quality of data produced by Maui-VIA is illustrated by its comparison to data attained manually by an expert using vendor software on a previously published dataset concerning the response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to salt stress. In conclusion, Maui-VIA provides the opportunity for fast, confident, and high-quality data processing validation of large numbers of GC-MS samples by non-experts. PMID:25654076

  18. Effects of Agricultural Land-Use Changes and Rainfall on Ground-Water Recharge in Central and West Maui, Hawai`i, 1926-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.; Vana, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    Concern surrounding declines in ground-water levels and an increase in the chloride concentration of water pumped from wells in the Iao aquifer system on the Island of Maui has prompted an investigation into the long-term sustainability of current (2006) and future ground-water withdrawals. As part of this investigation, a water budget for central and west Maui was calculated from which (1) ground-water recharge was estimated for the period 1926-2004 and (2) the effects of agricultural land-use changes and drought were analyzed. Estimated mean ground-water recharge decreased 44 percent from 1979 to 2004 in central and west Maui. Reduction in agricultural irrigation, resulting from more efficient irrigation methods and a reduction in the acreage used for agriculture, is largely responsible for the declining recharge. Recently, periods of lower-than-average rainfall have further reduced recharge. During the period 1926-79, ground-water recharge averaged 693 Mgal/d, irrigation averaged 437 Mgal/d, and rainfall averaged 897 Mgal/d. During the period 2000-04, ground-water recharge averaged 391 Mgal/d, irrigation averaged 237 Mgal/d, and rainfall averaged 796 Mgal/d. Simulations of hypothetical future conditions indicate that a cessation of agriculture in central and west Maui would reduce mean ground-water recharge by 18 percent in comparison with current conditions, assuming that current climatic conditions are the same as the long-term-average conditions during the period 1926-2004. A period of drought identical to that of 1998-2002 would reduce mean recharge by 27 percent. Mean recharge would decrease by 46 percent if this drought were to occur after a cessation of agriculture in central and western Maui. Whereas droughts are transient phenomena, a reduction in agricultural irrigation is likely a permanent condition.

  19. Maui-VIA: A User-Friendly Software for Visual Identification, Alignment, Correction, and Quantification of Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Data

    PubMed Central

    Kuich, P. Henning J. L.; Hoffmann, Nils; Kempa, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A current bottleneck in GC–MS metabolomics is the processing of raw machine data into a final datamatrix that contains the quantities of identified metabolites in each sample. While there are many bioinformatics tools available to aid the initial steps of the process, their use requires both significant technical expertise and a subsequent manual validation of identifications and alignments if high data quality is desired. The manual validation is tedious and time consuming, becoming prohibitively so as sample numbers increase. We have, therefore, developed Maui-VIA, a solution based on a visual interface that allows experts and non-experts to simultaneously and quickly process, inspect, and correct large numbers of GC–MS samples. It allows for the visual inspection of identifications and alignments, facilitating a unique and, due to its visualization and keyboard shortcuts, very fast interaction with the data. Therefore, Maui-Via fills an important niche by (1) providing functionality that optimizes the component of data processing that is currently most labor intensive to save time and (2) lowering the threshold of expertise required to process GC–MS data. Maui-VIA projects are initiated with baseline-corrected raw data, peaklists, and a database of metabolite spectra and retention indices used for identification. It provides functionality for retention index calculation, a targeted library search, the visual annotation, alignment, correction interface, and metabolite quantification, as well as the export of the final datamatrix. The high quality of data produced by Maui-VIA is illustrated by its comparison to data attained manually by an expert using vendor software on a previously published dataset concerning the response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to salt stress. In conclusion, Maui-VIA provides the opportunity for fast, confident, and high-quality data processing validation of large numbers of GC–MS samples by non-experts. PMID:25654076

  20. Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height, Lanai and West Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic radar image shows Lanai (left) and western Maui (right). Data such as these will be useful for studying the history of volcanic activity on these now extinct volcanoes. SRTM data also will help local officials evaluate and mitigate natural hazards for islands throughout the Pacific. For example, improved elevation data will make it easier for communities to plan for tsunamis (tidal waves generated by earthquakes around the perimeter of the Pacific) by helping them identify evacuation routes and areas prone to flooding.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 1800 meters (5900 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 68 by 45 kilometers (42 by 28 miles) Location: 20.8 deg. North lat., 156.7 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper

  1. Perspective View, Radar Image, Color as Height, Molokai, Lanai and Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows three Hawaiian islands: Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). Data such as these will be useful for studying the history of volcanic activity on these now extinct volcanoes. SRTM data also will help local officials evaluate and mitigate natural hazards for islands throughout the Pacific. For example, improved elevation data will make it easier for communities to plan for tsunamis (tidal waves generated by earthquakes around the perimeter of the Pacific) by helping them identify evacuation routes and areas prone to flooding.

    This perspective view combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 1800 meters (5900 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 60 by 70 kilometers (37 by 43 miles) Location: 20.8 deg. North lat., 156.7 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking southeast Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet

  2. Linking Land-Use to Submarine Groundwater Discharge Nutrient Fluxes on Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. M.; Glenn, C. R.; Amato, D. W.; Dulaiova, H.

    2014-12-01

    Fertilized agricultural lands, wastewater injection, and areas with high septic system density each have substantial potential for contributing excess nutrients to the coastal waters of islands via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We evaluated the coastal impacts of such land-use around the island of Maui using stable isotopes (δ15N of NO3-; δ18O and δ2H of H2O) and nutrient concentrations from wells, springs, beach seeps, SGD, and coastal waters, and coupled these to coastal water SGD and nutrient fluxes using 222Rn mass balance. Flowpaths and recharge elevations for groundwater samples were determined using the δ18OH2O of samples, recharge data, modeled groundwater head, and published local meteoric water lines. Coastal groundwater samples whose flowpaths transect sugarcane plots showed highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN - NO3- + NO2-) concentrations, ranging from 225 - 450 µM, and the δ15N of those samples was on average 3.3 ± 0.6 ‰ (n = 15), as expected for urea fertilizers applied to commercial sugarcane. Samples whose flowpaths transect large amounts of septic sources showed moderate DIN concentrations (max. 100 µM), but had higher δ15N values (9.7 ± 4.8 ‰, n = 5), reflecting their sewage influence. Due to nitrate reduction during subterranean transit, groundwater and coastal waters proximal to deep, near-coast wastewater injection (Kahului) display the highest average δ15N values encountered (δ15NNO3- 18.8 ± 11.1 ‰, n = 19) and moderate DIN concentrations (max 90 µM). Average SGD nutrient fluxes among the different field sites ranged from 700 - 1,500,000 µmol/d/m of shoreline for DIN and 600 - 22,000 µmol/d/m for orthophosphate. These results indicate that areas with the highest N and P fluxes are areas where coastal groundwater flowpaths transect large tracts of sugarcane production. Although highest SGD rates occur near the Kahului wastewater injection wells (~ 2800 m3/day) the relatively low nutrient concentrations in

  3. Wastewater injection, aquifer biogeochemical reactions, and resultant groundwater N fluxes to coastal waters: Kā'anapali, Maui, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Fackrell, Joseph K; Glenn, Craig R; Popp, Brian N; Whittier, Robert B; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-09-15

    We utilize N and C species concentration data along with δ(15)N values of NO3(-) and δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions (mineralization, nitrification, anammox, and denitrification) occurring within a subsurface wastewater plume that originates as treated wastewater injection and enters the coastal waters of Maui as submarine groundwater discharge. Additionally, we compare wastewater effluent time-series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring discharge time-series data. We find that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N loss within the groundwater plume and that chlorination for pathogen disinfection suppresses microbial activity in the aquifer responsible for N loss, resulting in increased coastal ocean N loading. Replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore biogeochemical reactions responsible for N loss within the aquifer and return N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N loading to coastal waters. PMID:27339740

  4. Cross-shore velocity shear, eddies and heterogeneity in water column properties over fringing coral reefs: West Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; McManus, M. A.; Logan, J. B.; McLaughlin, B. E.

    2006-03-01

    A multi-day hydrographic survey cruise was conducted to acquire spatially extensive, but temporally limited, high-resolution, three-dimensional measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off West Maui in the summer of 2003 to better understand coastal dynamics along a complex island shoreline with coral reefs. These data complement long-term, high-resolution tide, wave, current, temperature, salinity and turbidity measurements made at a number of fixed locations in the study area starting in 2001. Analyses of these hydrographic data, in conjunction with numerous field observations, evoke the following conceptual model of water and turbidity flux along West Maui. Wave- and wind-driven flows appear to be the primary control on flow over shallower portions of the reefs while tidal and subtidal currents dominate flow over the outer portions of the reefs and insular shelf. When the direction of these flows counter one another, which is quite common, they cause a zone of cross-shore horizontal shear and often form a front, with turbid, lower-salinity water inshore of the front and clear, higher-salinity water offshore of the front. It is not clear whether these zones of high shear and fronts are the cause or the result of the location of the fore reef, but they appear to be correlated alongshore over relatively large horizontal distances (orders of kilometers). When two flows converge or when a single flow is bathymetrically steered, eddies can be generated that, in the absence of large ocean surface waves, tend to accumulate material. Areas of higher turbidity and lower salinity tend to correlate with regions of poor coral health or the absence of well-developed reefs, suggesting that the oceanographic processes that concentrate and/or transport nutrients, contaminants, low-salinity water or suspended sediment might strongly influence coral reef ecosystem health and sustainability.

  5. Cross-shore velocity shear, eddies and heterogeneity in water column properties over fringing coral reefs: West Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, C.D.; McManus, M.A.; Logan, J.B.; McLaughlin, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-day hydrographic survey cruise was conducted to acquire spatially extensive, but temporally limited, high-resolution, three-dimensional measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off West Maui in the summer of 2003 to better understand coastal dynamics along a complex island shoreline with coral reefs. These data complement long-term, high-resolution tide, wave, current, temperature, salinity and turbidity measurements made at a number of fixed locations in the study area starting in 2001. Analyses of these hydrographic data, in conjunction with numerous field observations, evoke the following conceptual model of water and turbidity flux along West Maui. Wave- and wind-driven flows appear to be the primary control on flow over shallower portions of the reefs while tidal and subtidal currents dominate flow over the outer portions of the reefs and insular shelf. When the direction of these flows counter one another, which is quite common, they cause a zone of cross-shore horizontal shear and often form a front, with turbid, lower-salinity water inshore of the front and clear, higher-salinity water offshore of the front. It is not clear whether these zones of high shear and fronts are the cause or the result of the location of the fore reef, but they appear to be correlated alongshore over relatively large horizontal distances (orders of kilometers). When two flows converge or when a single flow is bathymetrically steered, eddies can be generated that, in the absence of large ocean surface waves, tend to accumulate material. Areas of higher turbidity and lower salinity tend to correlate with regions of poor coral health or the absence of well-developed reefs, suggesting that the oceanographic processes that concentrate and/or transport nutrients, contaminants, low-salinity water or suspended sediment might strongly influence coral reef ecosystem health and sustainability.

  6. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, James K

    2015-01-01

    The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai'i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n

  7. Ground-Water Availability in the Wailuku Area, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the public water supply in Maui, Hawai'i, is from a freshwater lens in the Wailuku area of the island. Because of population growth, ground-water withdrawals from wells in this area increased from less than 10 Mgal/d during 1970 to about 23 Mgal/d during 2006. In response to increased withdrawals from the freshwater lens in the Wailuku area, water levels declined, the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater became shallower, and the chloride concentrations of water pumped from wells increased. These responses led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells. A three-dimensional numerical ground-water flow and transport model was developed to simulate the effects of selected withdrawal and recharge scenarios on water levels, on the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater, and on surface-water/ground-water interactions. The model was constructed using time-varying recharge, withdrawals, and ocean levels. Hydraulic characteristics used to construct the model were initially based on published estimates but ultimately were varied to obtain better agreement between simulated and measured water levels and salinity profiles in the modeled area during the period 1926-2006. Scenarios included ground-water withdrawal at 2006 and 1996 rates and locations with average recharge (based on 2000-04 land use and 1926-2004 rainfall) and withdrawal at redistributed rates and locations with several different recharge scenarios. Simulation results indicate that continuing 1996 and 2006 withdrawal distributions into the future results in decreased water levels, a thinner freshwater lens, increased salinity from pumped wells, and higher salinity at several current withdrawal sites. A redistributed withdrawal condition in which ground-water withdrawal was redistributed to maximize withdrawal and minimize salinities in the withdrawn water was determined. The redistributed withdrawal simulates 27.1 Mgal/d of withdrawal

  8. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  9. The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liebherr, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax

  10. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  11. Teaching Optics and Systems Engineering With Adaptive Optics Workbenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, D. M.; Ammons, M.; Hunter, L.; Max, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Pitts, M.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive optics workbenches are fully functional optical systems that can be used to illustrate and teach a variety of concepts and cognitive processes. Four systems have been funded, designed and constructed by various institutions and people as part of education programs associated with the Center for Adaptive Optics, the Professional Development Program and the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators. Activities can range from first-year undergraduate explorations to professional level training. These workbenches have been used in many venues including the Center for Adaptive Optics AO Summer School, the Maui Community College-hosted Akamai Maui Short Course, classrooms, training of new staff in laboratories and other venues. The activity content has focused on various elements of systems thinking, characterization, feedback and system control, basic optics and optical alignment as well as advanced topics such as phase conjugation, wave-front sensing and correction concepts, and system design. The workbenches have slightly different designs and performance capabilities. We describe here outlines for several activities utilizing these different designs and some examples of common student learner outcomes and experiences.

  12. Paleosecular Variation Study of Brunhes and Matuyama Chrons of Dated Lava Flows Obtained from West Maui, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J. K.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Valet, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen oriented sites of basaltic lava flows from the West Maui Volcanic Series (island of Maui, Hawaii) were selected to improve the determination of the Brunhes and Matuyama time-averaged geomagnetic field between >0.6 and 1.8 and 2.6 Ma respectively. We sampled five flows from the Wailuku Volcanics (ca. 1.97+/-0.96-1.58+/-0.13 Ma), five flows from the Honolua Volcanics (ca.1.50+/-0.13 Ma) and five flows were drilled from the rejuvenated-stage Lahaina Volcanics (ca. <0.610+/-0.012 Ma and normal polarity). Identical Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) directions of the Wailuku and Honolua volcanics with reverse polarity carried by magnetite were isolated by step-wise alternating-field and thermal demagnetization in 12-15 specimens from each site. The final mean direction points south while the inclination is ~7 degrees lower than the inclination of the geocentric axial dipole (GAD). This offset is reduced after correcting the site latitude for the Pacific plate motion, which has been neglected so far in most studies. The mean corrected direction is almost perfectly antipodal to the Brunhes mean direction derived from the Lahaina Volcanics and Honolulu Volcanic series (HVS) which is part of the Koolau Volcano on the island of Oahu. After applying the tectonic correction, the inclination remains several degrees larger than the inclination of the axial dipole and cannot be accounted for by a small axial quadrupole which would reverse with the dipole. The mean inclinations of other Hawaiian records (mostly younger than 1 Ma) involving long sequences of lava flows exhibit similar deviations from the GAD which are too large to be accounted for by a small axial quadrupole. Tilting of all sections is difficult to defend for so many localities and persistent secondary components have not been detected. Thus, these inclination anomalies would reflect the presence of a long-term standing component under Hawaii, but crustal magnetization linked to the volcanic

  13. Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ivor D; White, Darla J; Sparks, Russell T; Lino, Kevin C; Zamzow, Jill P; Kelly, Emily L A; Ramey, Hailey L

    2016-01-01

    In response to concerns about declining coral cover and recurring macroalgal blooms, in 2009 the State of Hawaii established the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). Within the KHFMA, herbivorous fishes and sea urchins are protected, but other fishing is allowed. As part of a multi-agency monitoring effort, we conducted surveys at KHFMA and comparison sites around Maui starting 19 months before closure, and over the six years since implementation of herbivore protection. Mean parrotfish and surgeonfish biomass both increased within the KHFMA (by 139% [95%QR (quantile range): 98-181%] and 28% [95%QR: 3-52%] respectively). Most of those gains were of small-to-medium sized species, whereas large-bodied species have not recovered, likely due to low levels of poaching on what are preferred fishery targets in Hawaii. Nevertheless, coincident with greater biomass of herbivores within the KHFMA, cover of crustose coralline algae (CCA) has increased from ~2% before closure to ~ 15% in 2015, and macroalgal cover has remained low throughout the monitoring period. Strong evidence that changes in the KHFMA were a consequence of herbivore management are that (i) there were no changes in biomass of unprotected fish families within the KHFMA; and that (ii) there were no similar changes in parrotfish or CCA at comparison sites around Maui. It is not yet clear how effective herbivore protection might eventually be for the KHFMA's ultimate goal of coral recovery. Coral cover declined over the first few years of surveys-from 39.6% (SE 1.4%) in 2008, to 32.9% (SE 0.8%) in 2012, with almost all of that loss occurring by 2010 (1 year after closure), i.e. before meaningful herbivore recovery had occurred. Coral cover subsequently stabilized and may have slightly increased from 2012 through early 2015. However, a region-wide bleaching event in 2015 had already led to some coral mortality by the time surveys were conducted in late 2015, at which time cover had dropped back

  14. Exploring for geothermal resource in a dormant volcanic system: The Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone, Maui, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, B. A.; Lewicki, J. L.; Kennedy, B. M.; Lide, C.; Oppliger, G.; Drakos, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical surveys provide compelling evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai'i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-borne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Lithology and physical property data from future drilling will improve these interpretations. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth; a potentially young source of heat for a modern geothermal system. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ; a weak anomalous flux signal was observed at one young cinder cone location. Dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations and δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values measured in several shallow groundwater samples indicate addition of magmatic CO2 and He to the groundwater system. The general lack of observed magmatic surface CO2 signals on the HSWRZ is therefore likely due to a combination of groundwater 'scrubbing' of CO2 and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes that mask magmatic CO2. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals attributed to a magmatic source, while aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwaters at both Maui and Puna. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2

  15. Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ivor D.; White, Darla J.; Sparks, Russell T.; Lino, Kevin C.; Zamzow, Jill P.; Kelly, Emily L. A.; Ramey, Hailey L.

    2016-01-01

    In response to concerns about declining coral cover and recurring macroalgal blooms, in 2009 the State of Hawaii established the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). Within the KHFMA, herbivorous fishes and sea urchins are protected, but other fishing is allowed. As part of a multi-agency monitoring effort, we conducted surveys at KHFMA and comparison sites around Maui starting 19 months before closure, and over the six years since implementation of herbivore protection. Mean parrotfish and surgeonfish biomass both increased within the KHFMA (by 139% [95%QR (quantile range): 98–181%] and 28% [95%QR: 3–52%] respectively). Most of those gains were of small-to-medium sized species, whereas large-bodied species have not recovered, likely due to low levels of poaching on what are preferred fishery targets in Hawaii. Nevertheless, coincident with greater biomass of herbivores within the KHFMA, cover of crustose coralline algae (CCA) has increased from ~2% before closure to ~ 15% in 2015, and macroalgal cover has remained low throughout the monitoring period. Strong evidence that changes in the KHFMA were a consequence of herbivore management are that (i) there were no changes in biomass of unprotected fish families within the KHFMA; and that (ii) there were no similar changes in parrotfish or CCA at comparison sites around Maui. It is not yet clear how effective herbivore protection might eventually be for the KHFMA’s ultimate goal of coral recovery. Coral cover declined over the first few years of surveys–from 39.6% (SE 1.4%) in 2008, to 32.9% (SE 0.8%) in 2012, with almost all of that loss occurring by 2010 (1 year after closure), i.e. before meaningful herbivore recovery had occurred. Coral cover subsequently stabilized and may have slightly increased from 2012 through early 2015. However, a region-wide bleaching event in 2015 had already led to some coral mortality by the time surveys were conducted in late 2015, at which time cover had

  16. Statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an all-sky airglow imager at Maui, HI and Cerro Pachon, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-07-01

    Many long-term observations, such as airglow imaging, have shown that gravity waves exist in the mesopause region most of the time. These waves deposit momentum and energy into the background atmosphere when dissipating, and thus exert strong influence to the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on (1) the climatology of gravity waves characteristics, (2) the intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux and (3) the duration/lifespan of gravity wave events. These properties have important implications for gravity wave parameterizations. This study is based on multi-year all sky OH airglow observations obtained at Maui, HI (20.7° N, 156.3° W) and the Andes Lidar Observatory in Chile (30.3° S, 70.7° W). The statistical distribution of intrinsic wave parameters and the momentum flux are analyzed. The probability density functions of gravity wave momentum flux and duration can be described by simple functions and are related to the gravity wave intermittency. The probability distributions of the two sites have some similarity but with noticeable differences, indicating different effects of the background flow and wave source on the gravity wave intermittency in the mesopause region.

  17. Distribution of injected wastewater in the saline-lava aquifer, Wailuku-Kahului wastewater treatment facility, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Willis L.; Larson, S.P.; Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1977-01-01

    Field studies and digital modeling of a lava rock aquifer system near Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, describe the distribution of planned injected wastewater from a secondary treatment facility. The aquifer contains water that is almost as saline as seawater. The saline water is below a seaward-discharging freshwater lens, and separated from it by a transition zone of varying salinity. Injection of wastewater at an average rate of 6.2 cubic feet per second is planned through wells open only to the aquifer deep within the saline water zone. The lava rock aquifer is overlain by a sequence of residual soil, clay, coral reef deposits, and marine sand that form a low-permeability caprock which semiconfines the lava rock aquifer. Under conditions measured and assumed without significant change. After reaching a new steady state, the wastewater will discharge into and through the caprock sequence within an area measuring approximately 1,000 feet inland, 1,000 feet laterally on either side of the injection site, and about 2,000 feet seaward. Little, if any, of the injected wastewater may be expected to reach the upper part of the caprock flow system landward of the treatment plant facility. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  19. Short bones

    MedlinePlus

    Short bones in the human body are often cube-like, their length, width, and height are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones of the hands and wrist, and the tarsal bones of the feet and ankles.

  20. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion on Streamflow, Recharge, Physical Habitat, and Temperature, Na Wai `Eha, Maui, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    The perennial flow provided by Waihe‘e River, Waiehu Stream, ‘Īao Stream, and Waikapū Stream, collectively known as Nā Wai ‘Ehā (“The Four Streams”), made it possible for widespread agricultural activities to flourish in the eastern part of West Maui, Hawai‘i. The streams of the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area flow in their upper reaches even during extended dry-weather conditions because of persistent groundwater discharge to the streams. Overall, the lower reaches of these streams lose water, which may contribute to groundwater recharge. During climate years 1984–2007 (when complete streamflow records were available for Waihe‘e River and ‘Īao Stream), Waihe‘e River had the greatest median flow of the four streams upstream of the uppermost diversion on each stream. The median flows, in million gallons per day, during climate years 1984–2007 were: 34 for Waihe‘e River near an altitude of 605 feet; 25 for ‘Īao Stream near an altitude of 780 feet; and estimated to be 4.3 for Waikapū Stream near an altitude of 1,160 feet; 3.2 for North Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 880 feet; and 3.2 for South Waiehu Stream near an altitude of 870 feet. Existing stream diversions in the Nā Wai ‘Ehā area have a combined capacity exceeding at least 75 million gallons per day and are capable of diverting all or nearly all of the dry-weather flows of these streams, leaving some downstream reaches dry. Hourly photographs collected during 2006–2008 indicate that some stream reaches downstream of diversions are dry more than 50 percent of the time. Many of these reaches would be perennial or nearly perennial in the absence of diversions.

  1. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  2. Canopy water balance of windward and leeward Hawaiian cloud forests on Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; DeLay, John K.; Nullet, Michael A.; Scholl, Martha A.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of intercepted cloud water to precipitation at windward and leeward cloud forest sites on the slopes of Haleakalā, Maui was assessed using two approaches. Canopy water balance estimates based on meteorological monitoring were compared with interpretations of fog screen measurements collected over a 2-year period at each location. The annual incident rainfall was 973 mm at the leeward site (Auwahi) and 2550 mm at the windward site (Waikamoi). At the leeward, dry forest site, throughfall was less than rainfall (87%), and, at the windward, wet forest site, throughfall exceeded rainfall (122%). Cloud water interception estimated from canopy water balance was 166 mm year−1 at Auwahi and 1212 mm year−1 at Waikamoi. Annual fog screen measurements of cloud water flux, corrected for wind-blown rainfall, were 132 and 3017 mm for the dry and wet sites respectively. Event totals of cloud water flux based on fog screen measurements were poorly correlated with event cloud water interception totals derived from the canopy water balance. Hence, the use of fixed planar fog screens to estimate cloud water interception is not recommended. At the wet windward site, cloud water interception made up 32% of the total precipitation, adding to the already substantial amount of rainfall. At the leeward dry site, cloud water interception was 15% of the total precipitation. Vegetation at the dry site, where trees are more exposed and isolated, was more efficient at intercepting the available cloud water than at the rainy site, but events were less frequent, shorter in duration and lower in intensity. A large proportion of intercepted cloud water, 74% and 83%, respectively for the two sites, was estimated to become throughfall, thus adding significantly to soil water at both sites

  3. National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of Hawaii, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  4. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    SciTech Connect

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site

  5. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow

  6. Influence of substrate on the distribution of the Hawaiian Silversword ( Argyroxiphium sandwicense DC.) in Haleakala (Maui, HI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2003-09-01

    The spatial patterns of the Hawaiian silversword ( Argyroxiphium sandwicense DC.) were studied in Haleakala (Maui, HI). The silversword is a "giant" rosette plant nearly brought to extinction by human impact and goat browsing during the 1920s, but stern protection has resulted in the resurgence of plant populations. Silversword regeneration is occurring vigorously in soils with surficial layers of volcaniclastic fragments. Ten sites with sizable silversword populations and the associated substrates were examined in Haleakala's crater between 2175 and 2755 m. At each site, the population structure of 100 plants was determined along wandering-quarter transects, which limit sampling bias. Substrates where rosettes were rooted and the size of the biggest stone fragments upslope and downslope from the plant's base were determined. Volcaniclastic substrates were examined with photographs along 12-m-long transverse transects. Fine-debris samples (gravel and pebbles) were analyzed by mechanical sifting of surficial fragments gathered from 15×15 cm miniplots. Volcaniclastic fragments in silversword areas have different sources. (i) Most were ejected during eruptions yielding pyroclastic materials (ash to blocks) that built cinder cones on Haleakala's crater. (ii) On steep slopes, weathering of (olivine alkali) basalt outcrops and subsequent mass wasting of rock fragments contributed a mantle of clasts to slopes below. (iii) On some cinder cones, welded spatter was produced during late eruptive stages; this coalesced into ruff-like agglutinate layers around crater rims, called Pohaku-o-Hanalei ("wreath of stones"). Agglutinate deposits weather gradually, supplying clasts that roll downhill and accumulate on cone flanks. (iv) On weathered aa lava flows, stone fragments and rocky crags abound along eroding lava-flow ridges, associated with vegetation; but the intervening troughs, covered with fine ash and cinder, remain bare. Silversword population structures indicate healthy

  7. Flood-Frequency Estimates for Streams on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i, State of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Rosa, Sarah N.; Yeung, Chiu W.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of the magnitude and frequency of peak stream discharges in Hawai`i. Annual peak-discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during and before water year 2008 (ending September 30, 2008) at stream-gaging stations were analyzed. The existing generalized-skew value for the State of Hawai`i was retained, although three methods were used to evaluate whether an update was needed. Regional regression equations were developed for peak discharges with 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals for unregulated streams (those for which peak discharges are not affected to a large extent by upstream reservoirs, dams, diversions, or other structures) in areas with less than 20 percent combined medium- and high-intensity development on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. The generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression equations relate peak stream discharge to quantified basin characteristics (for example, drainage-basin area and mean annual rainfall) that were determined using geographic information system (GIS) methods. Each of the islands of Kaua`i,O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i was divided into two regions, generally corresponding to a wet region and a dry region. Unique peak-discharge regression equations were developed for each region. The regression equations developed for this study have standard errors of prediction ranging from 16 to 620 percent. Standard errors of prediction are greatest for regression equations developed for leeward Moloka`i and southern Hawai`i. In general, estimated 100-year peak discharges from this study are lower than those from previous studies, which may reflect the longer periods of record used in this study. Each regression equation is valid within the range of values of the explanatory variables used to develop the equation. The regression equations were developed using peak-discharge data from streams that are mainly unregulated, and they should not be used to

  8. The Morphology and Distribution of Submerged Reefs in the Maui Nui Complex, Hawaii: New Insights Into Their Evolution Since the Early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faichney, I. D.; Webster, J. M.; Clague, D. A.; Kelley, C.; Appelgate, B.; Moore, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work on submerged drowned reefs in Hawaii has provided insight into reef development within the Late Pleistocene but reefs of the Early Pleistocene remain largely unexplored. The Maui-Nui Complex (MNC) provides a natural laboratory to study reef evolution throughout this time period as new data indicate the reefs grew from 1.1 - 0.5 Ma. We use new high resolution bathymetric data combined with existing regional data and field observations from ROV and submersible dives to make a detailed analysis of reef morphology and structure around the MNC. We focus specifically on the south-central region of the complex which provide the best reef exposure and find that the morphology of the reefs varies both regionally and temporally within this region. Barrier and pinnacle features dominate the steeper margins in the north of the study area while wide, shallow backstepping occurs to the south. Additionally, the central part of the study area shows karst morphology and patch and lagoonal features between the islands. We propose that this variation in the morphology and structure of the reefs has been controlled by variations in three main factors; the subsidence rates of the complex, the amplitude and period of eustatic sea-level cycles and finally the slope and continuity of the substrate. We argue that the interaction of these three factors explains the observed variations in reef morphology within the MNC and finally we present a new model of reef evolution over the last 1.5 Ma.

  9. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body & lifestyle changes > Shortness of breath Shortness of breath E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... oxygen your baby gets. Causes of shortness of breath during pregnancy Early pregnancy In the first few ...

  10. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  11. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  12. Natural short sleeper

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep - natural short sleeper Images Natural short sleeper Sleep patterns in the young and aged References Knutson KL, Van Cauter E, Rathouz PJ, et al. Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975-2006. Sleep. Update Date 12/2/2014 Updated by: Andrew ...

  13. Analytical Versus Numerical Estimates of Water-Level Declines Caused by Pumping, and a Case Study of the Iao Aquifer, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Meyer, William

    2001-01-01

    from the Iao aquifer, which lies on the northeastern flank of the West Maui Volcano and which is confined near the coast by caprock, are now available to evaluate the predictive capability of RAM for this system. In 1995 and 1996, withdrawal from the Iao aquifer reached the 20 million gallon per day sustainable-yield value derived using RAM. However, even before 1996, water levels in the aquifer had declined significantly below those predicted by RAM, and continued to decline in 1997. To halt the decline of water levels and to preclude the intrusion of salt-water into the four major well fields in the aquifer, it was necessary to reduce withdrawal from the aquifer system below the sustainable-yield value derived using RAM. In the Iao aquifer, the decline of measured water levels below those predicted by RAM is consistent with the results of the numerical model analysis. Relative to model-calculated water-level declines from numerical ground-water flow models, (1) RAM underestimates water-level declines in areas where a low-permeability confining unit exists, and (2) RAM underestimates water-level declines in the vicinity of withdrawal wells.

  14. [Shunt and short circuit].

    PubMed

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways. PMID:17257492

  15. Imaging in short stature

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature. PMID:23087851

  16. Bring Back Short Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Chich

    1985-01-01

    Some benefits of helping learners think in prime numbers are detailed. Reasons for the decay of this ability are described, with short division presented as one activity which should be reintroduced in schools. (MNS)

  17. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  18. The Short Nose.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jeffrey D; Hobar, P Craig

    2016-01-01

    The causes of the short nose deformity vary greatly, from congenital malformations to acquired deformities. Despite this degree of variation, key commonalities exist, namely, a shortened nasal length, overrotation of the nasal tip, and increased nostril show. This article is designed to help the reader identify precise causes of the short nose, outline associated anatomy, and discuss reliable surgical techniques to correct this deformity. PMID:26616704

  19. Short crack growth behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A.K.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have re-evaluated short crack growth behavior using concepts developed recently, and they show that these concepts provide a unified framework that can explain both short and long crack growth behavior without resorting to the crack closure effect. They consider that the behavior of long cracks, including the effects of load ratio, R, is fundamental. they had shown previously that, since fatigue is at least a two-parameter problem in that at least two load parameters are required for an unambiguous description, there are two critical driving forces required simultaneously for fatigue cracks to grow. In extending this analysis to the growth of short cracks, they reject the current notion of the lack of similitude for short cracks and express the similitude as a fundamental postulate that, for a given crack growth mechanism, equal crack tip driving forces result in equal crack growth rates. Short crack growth behavior confirms the concept that two parameters are required to define fatigue; consequently, for fatigue cracks to grow, two thresholds need to be satisfied simultaneously. The authors present examples from the literature to illustrate the concepts discussed.

  20. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  1. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOEpatents

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  2. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  3. Dramatizing Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberwasser, Simona; Dar, Etti; Livny, Michal; Shotts, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project that dealt with two short stories in a different way. The stories were part of the Oral Bagrut exam for Grade 11 students. The stories were taught in English class and concentrated on theme and vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  4. Troubling Practices: Short Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Simic, Lena; Haley, David; Svendsen, Zoe; Neal, Lucy; Samba, Emelda Ngufor

    2012-01-01

    In this "RiDE" themed edition on environmentalism, some short pieces are chosen where practitioners describe their own specific environmental practices. Zoe Svendsen and Lucy Neal point to the positives in two commissioned works ("The Trashcatchers' Carnival" and "3rd Ring Out"), underlining the importance of participant agency for effective…

  5. Short stem shoulder replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

  6. Distribution, 14C chronology, and paleomagnetism of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows at Haleakala volcano, Island of Maui, Hawai'i: a revision of lava flow hazard zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; McGeehin, John P.; Champion, Duane E.; Trusdell, Frank A.

    2006-01-01

    New mapping and 60 new radiocarbon ages define the age and distribution of latest Pleistocene and Holocene (past 13,000 years) lava flows at Haleakalā volcano, Island of Maui. Paleomagnetic directions were determined for 118 sites, of which 89 are in lava flows younger than 13,000 years. The paleomagnetic data, in conjunction with a reference paleosecular variation (PSV) curve for the Hawaiian Islands, are combined with our knowledge of age limitations based on stratigraphic control to refine age estimates for some of the undated lava flows. The resulting volumetric rate calculations indicate that within analytical error, the extrusion rate has remained nearly constant during the past 13,000 years, in the range 0.05–0.15 km3/kyr, only about half the long-term rate required to produce the postshield strata emplaced in the past ∼1 Myr. Haleakalā's eruptive frequency is similar to that of Hualālai volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, but its lava flows cover substantially less area per unit time. The reduced rates of lava coverage indicate a lower volcanic hazard than in similar zones at Hualālai.

  7. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  8. Short pulse neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  9. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  10. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  11. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  12. What Is a Short Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    Presents 12 brief answers by editors and authors to the question of what a short story is. Includes a 23-item annotated bibliography of the best new (published between 1997 and 2000) short story collections for young adults. (RS)

  13. Short-wave Diathermy

    PubMed Central

    1935-01-01

    It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107

  14. [Short-lived disorders].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallares, Josep

    2012-02-29

    Over the years, most of the mental disorders that are dealt with in everyday clinical practice have changed not only their names but also their conceptualisation. Furthermore, as some disorders disappear or are forgotten, others come into being. Seen from a historical perspective and unlike many of the diseases included within classical medicine, it can be stated that one of the basic characteristics of mental disorders is their short-lived presence in the scientific literature. In this study we analyse the causes underlying the transitory nature of mental disorders. The disappearance of a disorder or the modification of how it is conceptualised may be linked to several different motives. Sometimes they may be due to an evolution of the construct, as a result of new findings. On other occasions the disorder falls into disuse owing to the weakness of the theoretical construct or the clinical research upholding it. Lastly, because the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases require updates that incorporate new contributions and correct faults in the current model, they give rise to new denominations and definitions in mental disorders. This article analyses these three situations and offers an illustrative example in each case. PMID:22374762

  15. Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ariel U.; Neaga, Andreea; West, Brady; Safran, Jared; Brown, Pamela; Btaiche, Imad; Kuzma-O'Reilly, Barbara; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine predictors of survival and of weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN) in pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. Summary Background Data: Pediatric SBS carries extensive morbidity and high mortality, but factors believed to predict survival or weaning from PN have been based on limited studies. This study reviews outcomes of a large number of SBS infants and identifies predictors of success. Methods: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted on 80 pediatric SBS patients. Primary outcome was survival; secondary outcome was ability to wean off PN. Nonsignificant covariates were eliminated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Over a mean of 5.1 years of follow-up, survival was 58 of 80 (72.5%) and 51 weaned off PN (63.8%). Cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin ≥2.5 mg/dL) was the strongest predictor of mortality (relative risk [RR] 22.7, P = 0.005). Although absolute small bowel length was only slightly predictive, percentage of normal bowel length (for a given infant's gestational age) was strongly predictive of mortality (if <10% of normal length, RR of death was 5.7, P = 0.003) and of weaning PN (if ≥10% of normal, RR of weaning PN was 11.8, P = 0.001). Presence of the ileocecal valve (ICV) also strongly predicted weaning PN (RR 3.9, P < 0.0005); however, ICV was not predictive of survival. Conclusions: Cholestasis and age-adjusted small bowel length are the major predictors of mortality in pediatric SBS. Age-adjusted small bowel length and ICV are the major predictors of weaning from PN. These data permit better prediction of outcomes of pediatric SBS, which may help to direct future management of these challenging patients. PMID:16135926

  16. Short Stories in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Carole L., Ed.; Kratzke, Peter, Ed.

    Examining how teachers help students respond to short fiction, this book presents 25 essays that look closely at "teachable" short stories by a diverse group of classic and contemporary writers. The approaches shared by the contributors move from readers' first personal connections to a story, through a growing facility with the structure of…

  17. Genetic Evaluation of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Genetics plays a major role in determining an individual's height. Although there are many monogenic disorders that lead to perturbations in growth and result in short stature, there is still no consensus as to the role that genetic diagnostics should play in the evaluation of a child with short stature. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed was performed, focusing on the genetic diagnosis of short stature as well as on specific diagnostic subgroups included in this article. Consensus guidelines were reviewed. Evidence Synthesis: There are a multitude of rare genetic causes of severe short stature. There is no high-quality evidence to define the optimal approach to the genetic evaluation of short stature. We review genetic etiologies of a number of diagnostic subgroups and propose an algorithm for genetic testing based on these subgroups. Conclusion: Advances in genomic technologies are revolutionizing the diagnostic approach to short stature. Endocrinologists must become facile with the use of genetic testing in order to identify the various monogenic disorders that present with short stature. PMID:24915122

  18. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control shortness of breath: Call your doctor, palliative care team, or hospice nurse for advice Call 911 ... Bicanovsky L. Comfort care: symptom control in the dying. In: Walsh ... . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap 181.

  19. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  20. Dechirper wakefields for short bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-06-01

    In previous work (Bane and Stupakov, 2015 [1]) general expressions, valid for arbitrary bunch lengths, were derived for the wakefields of corrugated structures with flat geometry, such as is used in the RadiaBeam/LCLS dechirper. However, the bunch at the end of linac-based X-ray FELs-like the LCLS-is extremely short, and for short bunches the wakes can be considerably simplified. In this work, we first derive analytical approximations to the short-range wakes. These are generalized wakes, in the sense that their validity is not limited to a small neighborhood of the symmetry axis, but rather extends to arbitrary transverse offsets of driving and test particles. The validity of these short-bunch wakes holds not only for the corrugated structure, but rather for any flat structure whose beam-cavity interaction can be described by a surface impedance. We use these wakes to obtain, for a short bunch passing through a dechirper: estimates of the energy loss as function of gap, the transverse kick as a function of beam offset, the slice energy spread increase, and the emittance growth. In the Appendix, a more accurate derivation-than that is found in Bane and Stupakov (2015) [1]-of the arbitrary bunch length wakes is performed; we find full agreement with the earlier results, provided the bunches are short compared to the dechirper gap, which is normally the regime of interest.

  1. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  2. [Short-term occupational disability].

    PubMed

    Bebensee, H; Conrad, P; Hein, R

    1994-01-01

    The present political discussion about absenteeism in industry and introduction of days of absence in case of sickness emphasises the amount of short-term sickness cases. More or less openly the misuse of continued salary payment via "unauthorized" working inability is discussed: this is often connected with the increased absenteeism on Mondays and Fridays. From the point of view of the Legal Health Insurances this thesis of misuse is investigated in an analysis of cases of short-term work disability. PMID:8148587

  3. Long Swarms and Short Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Many earthquake swarms at volcanoes last several months, then have a sharp uptick in rate in the hours before eruption. Examples include 2006 Augustine, 8.5 months then 10 hours; 1992 Spurr, 10 months then 4 hours; 1994 Rabaul, ~1 year then 27 hours; 2008 Kasatochi, 6 weeks then 2 days; and 2011 Puyuehue Cordon Caulle, 5 weeks then 2 days. For the well studied Augustine case, broadband data showed that very long period (VLP) energy accompanied 221 of 722 located earthquakes in the 10 hours before the first explosive eruption on 11 January 2006. This was revealed by low-pass filtering and the period of the VLP signal was 50 sec. The Augustine broadband stations were campaign instruments at distances of 2-3 km from the vent. No similar VLP energy has been found in events during the 8.5 month long swarm. Okmok volcano had a short swarm only lasting 5 hours prior to its 12 July 2008 eruption. Low-pass filtering of data from broadband station OKSO, 10 km from the vent, showed that 23 of 42 located events had VLP energy with a period of 30-40 sec. Events from Kasatochi volcano were scanned on station ATKA. Here the broadband station is much farther away at 88 km but the earthquakes in the short swarm 7 August 2008 were much larger with many M>3 events. The station suffered data gaps so only a few hours of data were scanned but numerous events were observed with VLP energy starting just after the P phase. Low-pass filtering showed VLP energy with a period of 10-12 sec. No VLP energy has been found in events of the preceding 6 week long swarm. These observations at three different volcanoes suggest that the short swarms represent a different process than the long swarms. The long swarms likely reflect pressure increases in the surrounding country rock caused by increasing magma pressure. The short swarms in contrast, appear to represent discrete pulses of magma injection at shallow depths. For all three volcanoes the earthquakes looked like typical volcano-tectonic (VT

  4. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  5. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  6. Welding the Maui A-B pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P. ); Emmerson, J.G. ); Berg, Van Den R. )

    1993-11-01

    Submarine pipelines have been installed all over the world, in diameters ranging from 76 mm (3 in.) up to 1270 mm (50 in.) or more and in water depths up to 500 m (1600 ft) using the S-lay method. In the 1950s, the J-lay concept was developed. With the J-lay technique, the pipe is suspended near vertically from the lay barge, thus reducing the horizontal force required to prevent pipe buckling. The J-lay technique has obvious advantages for deep-water applications where it is possible to eliminate the use of anchors by using dynamic positioning. The main drawback of the J-lay technique is that the near vertical pipe is difficult to handle and multiple workstations cannot be used. Only one length of pipe can be welded onto the pipeline at a time and subsequent inspection and coating must be done before the next weld can be made, resulting in low production rates compared to that achieved by S-lay barges. In 1989, Heerema, A Dutch company, which operates a fleet of semi-submersible crane vessels (SSCV) used for the installation of offshore oil and gas production platforms, decided to diversify into marine pipe laying. Realizing direct competition with established pipe lay contractors using S-lay barges could not be commercially competitive, an innovative J-lay system was designed which took advantage of the unique capabilities of the SSCV. Although the J-lay concept was some 30 years old, no functional system had been constructed as there was no immediate market for it, especially one which could justify inferior productivity when compared to S-lay barges. Heerema's solution to this limitation was to maximize the length of each piece of pipe added to the pipeline. By fabricating the pipe on shore into lengths up to 72 m (240 ft) and using the massive crane capacity (4000 tons) of the SSCV to lift each pipe string into position for welding, they could compensate for a lower productivity rate.

  7. Maui Space Surveillance System Satellite Categorization Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiotte, R.; Guyote, M.; Kelecy, T.; Hall, D.; Africano, J.; Kervin, P.

    The MSSS satellite categorization laboratory is a fusion of robotics and digital imaging processes that aims to decompose satellite photometric characteristics and behavior in a controlled setting. By combining a robot, light source and camera to acquire non-resolved images of a model satellite, detailed photometric analyses can be performed to extract relevant information about shape features, elemental makeup, and ultimately attitude and function. Using the laboratory setting a detailed analysis can be done on any type of material or design and the results cataloged in a database that will facilitate object identification by "curve-fitting" individual elements in the basis set to observational data that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Currently the laboratory has created, an ST-Robotics five degree of freedom robotic arm, collimated light source and non-focused Apogee camera have all been integrated into a MATLAB based software package that facilitates automatic data acquisition and analysis. Efforts to date have been aimed at construction of the lab as well as validation and verification of simple geometric objects. Simple tests on spheres, cubes and simple satellites show promising results that could lead to a much better understanding of non-resolvable space object characteristics. This paper presents a description of the laboratory configuration and validation test results with emphasis on the non-resolved photometric characteristics for a variety of object shapes, spin dynamics and orientations. The future vision, utility and benefits of the laboratory to the SSA community as a whole are also discussed.

  8. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  9. A short story of the short QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluli, Hayan Al; Meshkov, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    Short QT syndrome is a recently recognized cause of cardiac rhythm disorders, including sudden cardiac death. Although the syndrome is rare, its potential lethality justifies routinely screening the electrocardiograms of patients with syncope or unexplained atrial or ventricular arrhythmias to look for this diagnosis. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this syndrome and outlines some of the challenges in establishing the diagnosis. PMID:23288944

  10. Diffusion in a short base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ole

    1994-09-01

    Based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a homogeneous base transistor [A.A. Grinberg and S. Luryi, Solid-St. Electron, 35, 1299 (1992)] a very instructive model of carrier transport in a short base transistor is developed. Essential to the above is a replacement of the Schottky boundary conditions. Using modified boundary conditions to the diffusion equation, the transport current density in a homogeneous base is predicted, to an accuracy within ±3%, regardless of the base width, covering the whole range from the diffusion controlled regime to the thermionic regime. Based on the modified boundary conditions a corrected Moll-Ross-Kroemer relation valid for a very short non-homogeneous base is derived. Correspondingly, an expression for the base transit time is derived.

  11. Optimal Short-Sighted Rules

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001) seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short-sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long run. Such long-term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs) but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch) are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices. PMID:22973188

  12. Syndromic disorders with short stature.

    PubMed

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Short stature is one of the major components of many dysmorphic syndromes. Growth failure may be due to a wide variety of mechanisms, either related to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis or to underlying unknown pathologies. In this review, the relatively more frequently seen syndromes with short stature (Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome and Aarskog-Scott syndrome) were discussed. These disorders are associated with a number of endocrinopathies, as well as with developmental, systemic and behavioral issues. At present, GH therapy is used in most syndromic disorders, although long-term studies evaluating this treatment are insufficient and some controversies exist with regard to GH dose, optimal age to begin therapy and adverse effects. Before starting GH treatment, patients with syndromic disorders should be evaluated extensively. PMID:24637303

  13. Stretching short DNAs in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizeng; Fan, Xiaojun; Gao, Huajian

    2006-03-01

    This paper is aimed at a combined theoretical and numerical study of the force-extension relation of a short DNA molecule stretched in an electrolyte. A theoretical formula based on a recent discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model of Kierfeld et al. (Eur Phys. J. E, Vol. 14, pp.17-34, 2004) and the classical OSF mean-field theory on electrostatic stiffening of a charged polymer is numerically verified by a set of Brownian dynamics simulations based on a generalized bead-rod (GBR) model incorporating long-ranged electrostatic interactions via the Debye-Hueckel potential (DH). The analysis indicates that the stretching of a short DNA can be well described as a WLC with a constant effective persistent length. This contrasts the behavior of long DNA chains that are known to exhibit variable persistent lengths depending on the ion concentration levels and force magnitudes. PMID:16711068

  14. Review of short wavelength lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  15. Short-range communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  16. The short-bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, J M

    1995-06-01

    Patients with a short bowel have usually had a bowel resection for Crohn's disease. Two types of short-bowel patient can be distinguished: those with a jejunostomy and those with their jejunum anastomosed to a functioning colon. Both types of patient have problems with macronutrient absorption, although those with a colon experience fewer problems because some energy from unabsorbed carbohydrate is salvaged in the colon. Patients with a jejunostomy have problems with large stomal losses of water, sodium and magnesium, whereas those with a jejuno-colic anastomosis rarely have problems with water and electrolyte absorption. Patients with a jejunostomy 100-200 cm from the duodeno-jejunal flexure ('absorbers') usually absorb more from the diet than they pass through the stoma and therefore require oral electrolyte or nutrient supplements. Those with a residual jejunal length of less than 100 cm usually secrete more from the stoma than they take in orally ('secretors') and therefore require long-term parenteral fluid or nutrient supplements. A high output resulting from a jejunostomy is treated by reducing the oral intake of hypotonic fluid, administering a sipped glucose-saline solution and, often, by giving drugs that reduce intestinal motility (most effective in absorbers) or gastrointestinal secretions (most effective in secretors). Gallstones are common both in short-bowel patients with and in those without a colon (45%), and calcium oxalate renal stones occur in the former (25%). However, it is now possible to provide adequate nutrition and fluid supplements for most patients with a short bowel, and the prospects for the rehabilitation of such patients are good. PMID:7552632

  17. Orogeny can be very short

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, John F.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc–continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted ≈18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10-15. Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  18. Orogeny can be very short.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John F

    2005-10-25

    In contrast to continent/continent collision, arc-continent collision generates very short-lived orogeny because the buoyancy-driven impedance of the subduction of continental lithosphere, accompanied by arc/suprasubduction-zone ophiolite obduction, is relieved by subduction polarity reversal (flip). This tectonic principle is illustrated by the early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British and Irish Caledonides, in which a wealth of detailed sedimentologic, heavy mineral, and geochronologic data pin the Orogeny to a very short Arenig/Llanvirn event. The Orogeny, from the initial subduction of continental margin sediments to the end of postflip shortening, lasted approximately 18 million years (my). The collisional shortening, prograde-metamorphic phase of the Orogeny lasted 8 my, extensional collapse and exhumation of midcrustal rocks lasted 1.5 my, and postflip shortening lasted 4.5 my. Strain rates were a typical plate-boundary-zone 10(-15). Metamorphism, to the second sillimanite isograd, with extensive partial melting, occurred within a few my after initial collision, indicating that conductive models for metamorphic heat transfer in Barrovian terrains are incorrect and must be replaced by advective models in which large volumes of mafic/ultramafic magma are emplaced, syn-tectonically, below and into evolving nappe stacks. Arc/continent collision generates fast and very short orogeny, regional metamorphism, and exhumation. PMID:16126898

  19. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  20. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    L. B. Weinstein

    2006-11-01

    Short range correlations (SRC) are an extremely important part of nuclear structure. They are responsible for the high momentum part of the nuclear wavefunction. Instantaneous densities can significantly exceed the average neutron star density. Recent (e,e[prime]) measurements at Jefferson Lab have shown that SRC are universal in nuclei from deuterium to gold, that the probability of two-nucleon SRC is 5-25%, and that the probability of three-nucleon SRC is less than 1%. Recent (e,e[prime]pn) measurements have measured the SRC probabilities as a function of proton momentum and have measured the joint NN momentum distributions.

  1. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  2. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  3. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  5. Electronic cigarettes: a short review.

    PubMed

    Bertholon, J F; Becquemin, M H; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dautzenberg, B

    2013-01-01

    Marketed since 2004 as an alternative to nicotine delivery and advertised as a valid means to smoking cessation, the electronic (e)-cigarette has been the subject of much controversy but very little experimental study. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of this product. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the main ingredients of the fluid that is vaporized, have proved to be harmless in the fog machines of the entertainment industry. However, in the case of the e-cigarette fluid, the composition is not properly labeled: additives like nicotine and flavors vary between and within brands and contamination with various chemicals has been detected. The short-term toxicity seems low, but the long-term toxicity is unknown. The usefulness of the e-cigarette in smoking cessation has still to be clinically established. PMID:24080743

  6. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with...

  7. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with...

  8. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with...

  9. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with...

  10. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed with the...

  11. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  12. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  13. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  14. MRI Biosensors: A Short Primer

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Angelique

    2013-01-01

    Interest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging of biological function experienced a surge of excitement approximately 20 years ago with the development of the first activatable contrast agents that could act as biosensors and turn “on” in response to a specific biological activity. This brief tutorial, based on a short course lecture from the 2011 ISMRM meeting, provides an overview of underlying principles governing the design of biosensing contrast agents. We describe mechanisms by which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent can be made into a sensor for both T1 and T2 types contrast agents. Examples of biological activities that can interact with a contrast agent are discussed using specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate the primary mechanisms of action that have been utilized to achieve activation. MRI sensors for pH, ion binding, enzyme cleavage, and oxidation-reduction are presented. This article is not meant to be an exhaustive review, but an illustrative primer to explain how activation can be achieved for an MRI contrast agent. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is not covered as these agents were covered in a separate lecture. PMID:23996662

  15. Benchmarking short sequence mapping tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of next-generation sequencing instruments has led to the generation of millions of short sequences in a single run. The process of aligning these reads to a reference genome is time consuming and demands the development of fast and accurate alignment tools. However, the current proposed tools make different compromises between the accuracy and the speed of mapping. Moreover, many important aspects are overlooked while comparing the performance of a newly developed tool to the state of the art. Therefore, there is a need for an objective evaluation method that covers all the aspects. In this work, we introduce a benchmarking suite to extensively analyze sequencing tools with respect to various aspects and provide an objective comparison. Results We applied our benchmarking tests on 9 well known mapping tools, namely, Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, SOAP2, MAQ, RMAP, GSNAP, Novoalign, and mrsFAST (mrFAST) using synthetic data and real RNA-Seq data. MAQ and RMAP are based on building hash tables for the reads, whereas the remaining tools are based on indexing the reference genome. The benchmarking tests reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each tool. The results show that no single tool outperforms all others in all metrics. However, Bowtie maintained the best throughput for most of the tests while BWA performed better for longer read lengths. The benchmarking tests are not restricted to the mentioned tools and can be further applied to others. Conclusion The mapping process is still a hard problem that is affected by many factors. In this work, we provided a benchmarking suite that reveals and evaluates the different factors affecting the mapping process. Still, there is no tool that outperforms all of the others in all the tests. Therefore, the end user should clearly specify his needs in order to choose the tool that provides the best results. PMID:23758764

  16. Short-lived Supershear Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.

  17. Short GRB Prompt and Afterglow Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Swift data set on short GRBs has now grown large enough to study correlations of key parameters. The goal is to compare long and short bursts to better understand similarities and differences in the burst origins. In this study we consider the both prompt and afterglow fluxes. It is found that the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray emissions are linearly correlated - stronger bursts tend to have brighter afterglows, and bursts with brighter X-ray afterglow tend to have brighter optical afterglow. Both the prompt and afterglow fluxes are, on average, lower for short bursts than for long. Although there are short GRBs with undetected optical emission, there is no evidence for "dark" short bursts with anomalously low opt/X ratios. The weakest short bursts have a low X-ray/gamma-ray ratio.

  18. Short QT syndrome presenting as syncope: how short is too short?

    PubMed

    Portugal, Guilherme; Martins Oliveira, Mário; Silva Cunha, Pedro; Ferreira, Filipa; Lousinha, Ana; Fiarresga, António; Nogueira da Silva, Manuel; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented to our emergency department (ED) after three episodes of syncope in the seven hours before admission. During his stay in the ED he had recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) requiring external electrical cardioversion. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a short QT (SQT) interval (270 ms, QTc 327 ms), with frequent R-on-T extrasystoles triggering sustained polymorphic VT. After exclusion of other precipitating causes, the patient was diagnosed as having SQT syndrome (SQTS) according to the Gollob criteria. To our knowledge, this is the first known documentation of an SQT-caused arrhythmic episode on a 12-lead ECG, as well as the first reported case of SQTS in Portugal. The patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and was discharged. At a follow-up assessment 14 months later he was symptom-free, interrogation of the device showed no arrhythmic events, and the ECG showed a QT interval of 320 ms (QTc 347 ms). PMID:25442000

  19. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  20. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  1. Short Interval Leaf Movements of Cotton 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Charles S.

    1975-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lankart plants exhibited three different types of independent short interval leaf movements which were superimposed on the circadian movements. The different types were termed SIRV (short interval rhythmical vertical), SIHM (short interval horizontal movements), and SHAKE (short stroked SIRV). The 36-minute period SIRV movements occurred at higher moisture levels. The 176-minute period SIHM occurred at lower moisture levels and ceased as the stress increased. The SHAKE movements were initiated with further stresses. The SLEEP (circadian, diurnal) movements ceased with further stress. The last to cease just prior to permanent wilting were the SHAKE movements. PMID:16659123

  2. The Short Story as HyperStory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Charles E.

    A software application called HyperStory is a reading program for short fiction which has proved to be effective in the classroom. In 3 years of use, over 300 students have tried it out. Part of the reason for its suitability for helping students develop short story reading skills lies in the relationship between the computer technology known as…

  3. Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

  4. 18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall be...

  5. Short Stature in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bannard, James R.; Schnell, Frank N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature on the psychosocial impact of short stature in childhood and adolescence is reviewed, with particular reference to IQ and educational attainment, personality and psychopathology, and the concept of infantilization. Adult outcome studies are also reviewed with comments on inherent methodological problems. Suggestions are offered for the psychosocial management of short stature. PMID:21229094

  6. The Short Circuit Model of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueers, Nancy M.

    The name "short circuit" has been given to this model because, in many ways, it adequately describes what happens bioelectrically in the brain. The "short-circuiting" factors include linguistic, sociocultural, attitudinal and motivational, neurological, perceptual, and cognitive factors. Research is reviewed on ways in which each one affects any…

  7. Thoughts on Selecting a Short Story Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, Loren

    2003-01-01

    Shares with beginning teachers advice about choosing a short story anthology and shows how a text can shape an instructor's approach to teaching short fiction. Discusses three main considerations: the students; the teacher; and the text. Identifies the author's favorite anthology and outlines nine reasons why it is a favorite. Lists five…

  8. 18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall be...

  9. 31 CFR 505.01 - Short title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 505.01 Section 505.01 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... CERTAIN MERCHANDISE BETWEEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 505.01 Short title. The regulations in this part may...

  10. 33 CFR 401.1 - Short title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short title. 401.1 Section 401.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations § 401.1 Short title. These regulations may be cited as...

  11. 33 CFR 401.1 - Short title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 401.1 Section 401.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations § 401.1 Short title. These regulations may be cited as...

  12. Short Stature in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Frank N.; Bannard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Childhood short stature is common in family practice. Familial short stature and constitutional growth delay account for most cases, and there are clear guidelines for differentiating these from each other and from less common pathologic conditions. Appropriate investigation, treatment, and referral are delineated, and growth hormone therapy is described. An integrated medical-psychosocial approach to care is recommended. PMID:21229093

  13. Novel approaches to short stature therapy.

    PubMed

    Wit, Jan M; Oostdijk, Wilma

    2015-06-01

    Besides growth hormone, several pharmaceutical products have been investigated for efficacy and safety in increasing short term growth or adult height. Short-term treatment with testosterone esters in boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty is efficacious in generating secondary sex characteristics and growth acceleration. The addition of oxandrolone to growth hormone (GH) in Turner syndrome has an additive effect on adult height gain. Treatment with GnRH analogs is the established treatment of central precocious puberty, and its addition to GH therapy appears effective in increasing adult height in GH deficient children, and possibly short children born SGA or with SHOX deficiency, who are still short at pubertal onset. Aromatase inhibitors appear effective in several rare disorders, but their value in increasing adult height in early pubertal boys with GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature is uncertain. A trial with a C-natriuretic peptide analog offers hope for children with achondroplasia. PMID:26051296

  14. How short is short? Optimum source–detector distance for short-separation channels in functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brigadoi, Sabrina; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels with short separations to explicitly sample extra-cerebral tissues can provide a significant improvement in the accuracy and reliability of fNIRS measurements. The aim of these short-separation channels is to measure the same superficial hemodynamics observed by standard fNIRS channels while also being insensitive to the brain. We use Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport in anatomically informed multilayer models to determine the optimum source–detector distance for short-separation channels in adult and newborn populations. We present a look-up plot that provides (for an acceptable value of short-separation channel brain sensitivity relative to standard channel brain sensitivity) the optimum short-separation distance. Though values vary across the scalp, when the acceptable ratio of the short-separation channel brain sensitivity to standard channel brain sensitivity is set at 5%, the optimum short-separation distance is 8.4 mm in the typical adult and 2.15 mm in the term-age infant. PMID:26158009

  15. Short-Distance Structure of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Higinbotham, Eliazer Piasetzky, Stephen Wood

    2011-06-01

    One of Jefferson Lab's original missions was to further our understanding of the short-distance structure of nuclei. In particular, to understand what happens when two or more nucleons within a nucleus have strongly overlapping wave-functions; a phenomena commonly referred to as short-range correlations. Herein, we review the results of the (e,e'), (e,e'p) and (e,e'pN) reactions that have been used at Jefferson Lab to probe this short-distance structure as well as provide an outlook for future experiments.

  16. Electrochemical microstructuring with short voltage pulses.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The application of short (nanosecond) voltage pulses between a tool electrode and a work piece immersed in an electrolyte solution allows the three-dimensional machining of electrochemically active materials with submicrometer resolution. The method is based on the finite charging time constant of the double-layer capacitance, which varies approximately linearly with the local separation between the electrode surfaces. Hence, the polarization of the electrodes during short pulses and subsequent electrochemical reactions are confined to regions where the electrodes are in sufficiently close proximity. This Minireview describes the principles behind electrochemical micro-structuring with short voltage pulses, and its current achievements and limitations. PMID:17111455

  17. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  18. A Short Foucault Pendulum for Corridor Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Byron E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a short Foucault pendulum, which indicates earth's rotation with less than 2 percent error. The pendulum is suitable for display either in a classroom or hallway. (SK)

  19. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  20. Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... object? Yes Any small object can block an airway and cause shortness of breath or CHOKING. Take ... remove the object). If necessary, carefully clear the airway with a sweeping motion of your finger. If ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: short QT syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the KCNH2 , KCNJ2 , and KCNQ1 genes can cause short QT syndrome . These ...

  2. Long-short fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, C.R.; Cuff, G.; Cianelli, D.A.; Travis, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents information on a new family of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic compounds developed by ICI PLC and now produced by LNP under the trade mark ''Verton.'' Production is by a pultrusion process, rather than by the usual compounding extruder, which enables a high level of impregnation to be achieved without damaging the fibers. The result in molded parts is a 0.24-0.40 inch (6-10 mm) typical fiber length versus 0.008-0.016 inches (0.2-0.4 mm) for conventional short fiber products. Consequently, this enables fabricators to achieve typically a 10 to 20-fold increase in average fiber length in the finished component. These long-short fiber reinforced compounds exhibit substantial property improvements over short fiber system. Processing conditions are similar to corresponding short fiber compounds.

  3. Microbial production of short chain diols.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yudong; Liu, Wei; Zou, Huibin; Cheng, Tao; Tian, Ning; Xian, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Short chain diols (propanediols, butanediols, pentanediols) have been widely used in bulk and fine chemical industries as fuels, solvents, polymer monomers and pharmaceutical precursors. The chemical production of short chain diols from fossil resources has been developed and optimized for decades. Consideration of the exhausting fossil resources and the increasing environment issues, the bio-based process to produce short chain diols is attracting interests. Currently, a variety of biotechnologies have been developed for the microbial production of the short chain diols from renewable feed-stocks. In order to efficiently produce bio-diols, the techniques like metabolically engineering the production strains, optimization of the fermentation processes, and integration of a reasonable downstream recovery processes have been thoroughly investigated. In this review, we summarized the recent development in the whole process of bio-diols production including substrate, microorganism, metabolic pathway, fermentation process and downstream process. PMID:25491899

  4. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-07-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973-2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations.

  5. Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) desired to develop short-range communications links whose ranges are intentionally limited to very short distances. These links support tactical missions such as LAN Backbone, Wideband Data Link, and Company Radio. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of detection and intercept (LPD/LPI). Since the detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location and allow him to take countermeasures, the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be LPD by their very nature. The Intentionally Short-Range Communications (ISRC) project at the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center (NCCOSC) RDT&E Division (NRaD) is pursuing feasibility studies for these USMC missions based on such technologies as ultraviolet (LTV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) at radio frequencies.

  6. Injuries in short track asphalt racing.

    PubMed

    Busby, J D

    1978-10-01

    Stock car racing is a popular activity. Although spectators are seldom injured, drivers at short asphalt tracks often sustain minor injuries. The neck and the knee are the most commonly injured areas. Rigid safety requirements are essential and help to prevent serious injuries. Severe injuries occur on an average of once a year, but no fatalities have been recorded at one short track that has been studied for a six-year period. PMID:707264

  7. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events. PMID:17293336

  8. Crystallizing short-read assemblies around seeds

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Sajjad; Azimi, Navid; Skiena, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background New short-read sequencing technologies produce enormous volumes of 25–30 base paired-end reads. The resulting reads have vastly different characteristics than produced by Sanger sequencing, and require different approaches than the previous generation of sequence assemblers. In this paper, we present a short-read de novo assembler particularly targeted at the new ABI SOLiD sequencing technology. Results This paper presents what we believe to be the first de novo sequence assembly results on real data from the emerging SOLiD platform, introduced by Applied Biosystems. Our assembler SHORTY augments short-paired reads using a trivially small number (5 – 10) of seeds of length 300 – 500 bp. These seeds enable us to produce significant assemblies using short-read coverage no more than 100×, which can be obtained in a single run of these high-capacity sequencers. SHORTY exploits two ideas which we believe to be of interest to the short-read assembly community: (1) using single seed reads to crystallize assemblies, and (2) estimating intercontig distances accurately from multiple spanning paired-end reads. Conclusion We demonstrate effective assemblies (N50 contig sizes ~40 kb) of three different bacterial species using simulated SOLiD data. Sequencing artifacts limit our performance on real data, however our results on this data are substantially better than those achieved by competing assemblers. PMID:19208115

  9. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOEpatents

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  10. Short dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone loss were evaluated. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses were performed by the pooling of survival data by implant surface, surgical technique, implant location, type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term. PMID:22034499

  11. The short stem: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, S D; Patel, R M

    2013-11-01

    Conventional uncemented femoral implants provide dependable long-term fixation in patients with a wide range of functional requirements. Yet challenges associated with proximal-distal femoral dimensional mismatch, preservation of bone stock, and minimally invasive approaches have led to exploration into alternative implant designs. Short stem designs focusing on a stable metaphyseal fit have emerged to address these issues in total hip replacement (THR). Uncemented metaphyseal-engaging short stem implants are stable and are associated with proximal bone remodeling closer to the metaphysis when compared with conventional stems and they also have comparable clinical performances. Short stem metaphyseal-engaging implants can meet the goals of a successful THR, including tolerating a high level of patient function, as well as durable fixation. PMID:24187354

  12. On Short-Perihelion Meteor Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentjeva, Alexandra; Bakanas, Elena; Barabanov, Sergey

    2013-02-01

    Research was conducted concerning the relation of short-perihelion meteor streams with comets and asteroids. But the origin of meteor streams with small perihelion distance (of the Arietid and Geminid types) has always represented a special problem for obvious reasons. Over four hundred meteor and fireball streams (by optical and TV-observations) contained 20 streams of perihelion distance q ≤ 0.26 AU. The research shows that 8 of 20 streams displayed a relation with small bodies. No relation was found either with comets or asteroids for the remaining 12 streams. Short-period streams may be formed on quasiparabolic comet orbits with small q in the perihelion area as well. In particular, SOHO comets may be a rich source both of small and large meteor bodies, forming short-perihelion meteor streams among others.

  13. The quest for short GRB radio afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, Davide; Gaensler, Bryan; Murphy, Tara; Hancock, Paul; Bell, Martin; Bannister, Keith; Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo

    2014-10-01

    Short γ-ray bursts (SGRBs) are the most elusive among GRBs with just a few of them having being studied pan- chromatically. Only three SGRBs have been detected in the radio band in the last 14 years. Radio observations of short GRBs should provide fundamental parameters of the physical process acting in these sources and on the nature of their progenitors. The detection of even a few more short GRBs in the radio band could constrain their true energetics, their radiative efficiency and the density of the environment where they happen (with immediate implications on the nature of their progenitors). The proposed joint radio-optical observations, will allow us for the first time to probe the hydrodynamics of the explosion and the radiation mechanism. We were graded 3.8 for two semesters, but the NAPA was not triggered.

  14. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  15. The origin of short-period comets

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, M.E.; Stagg, C.R. Calgary Univ. )

    1990-07-01

    If the observed number of short-period comets can be accounted for by a spherically symmetric model of the Oort cloud, in conjunction with an inner core of merely moderate central concentration, then the observed correlation between the ecliptic plane and the inclinations of Jupiter-family short-period comets may be seen as partly due to the calculated decrease in capture probability with inclination, and partly to the effects of cometary decay and observational selection. The implied constraint on the inner core becomes even more severe, if a hypothetical comet disk in the Uranus-Neptune zone either makes a significant contribution to the observed short-period comets or if these comets' mean lifetime is greater than 3000 years. 32 refs.

  16. Extremely short pulses via resonantly induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeonychev, Y. V.; Polovinkin, V. A.; Kocharovskaya, O.

    2011-07-01

    We study a novel method to produce extremely short pulses of radiation in a resonant medium via induced transparency by means of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by far-off-resonant laser field, which causes linear Stark splitting of atomic energy levels resulting in partial transparency of an optically deep medium and drastic spectral modification of an incident resonant radiation. We find the regimes where the output spectrum corresponds to extremely short pulses and discuss several possible experimental realizations of generation of attosecond pulses in Li2+ ions and femtosecond pulses in atomic hydrogen with commercially available facilities.

  17. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  18. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.

    1994-08-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  19. Solar irradiance short wave radiation users guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinolich, Paul; Arnone, Robert A.

    1995-05-01

    Solar irradiance for short wave radiation (400-700 nm) at the sea surface can be calculated using inputs obtained from satellite systems and model estimates. The short wave solar irradiance is important for estimating the surface heating that occurs in the near surface and estimating the available irradiance for biological growth in the upper ocean. The variability of the solar irradiance is believed to have significant influence on the global carbon cycle. This users guide provides an understanding of the models and operational procedures for using the software and understanding the results.

  20. Short-Range Structure of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2008-10-13

    The nucleons in a nucleus can form short-range correlated pairs. A recent Jefferson Lab electron scattering experiment, where a proton was knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, has shown that in {sup 12}C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs has been shown to be due to the short-range tensor part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  1. Rotating black holes can have short bristles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-12-01

    The elegant 'no short hair' theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar 'clouds') in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon-Kerr-Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses.

  2. Short QT Syndrome in Current Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Khera, Sahil; Jacobson, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Short QT syndrome is a rare inherited autosomal dominant cardiac channelopathy associated with malignant ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. A shortened corrected QT interval is a marker for risk of malignant arrhythmias, which are secondary to increased transmural dispersion of repolarization. The underlying gain of function mutations in the potassium channels are most common but genetic testing remains low yield. This review discusses the cellular mechanisms, genetic involvement, clinical presentation, and current recommended management of patients with short QT syndrome relevant to current clinical practice. PMID:26440650

  3. Personality characteristics of long and short sleepers.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M K; Mooney, D K

    1975-07-01

    College students categorized as either long sleepers (mean = 9.25 hours per day) or short sleepers (mean = 6.2 hours per day) were administered a variety of personality tests. With a multiple regression analysis the patterns on the MMPI of higher MA and F with a lowered PD and CI (number of critical items) most significantly differentiated the short from the long sleepers. Also of relevance was the finding that long sleepers were more likely to score in the pathological direction on most of the MMPI clinical scales. PMID:1165264

  4. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  5. Undulators for short wavelength FEL amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    Issues critical to the design of undulators for use in short wavelength FEL amplifiers, such as attainable on-axis field strength, device compactness, field quality, required magnetic gap, and strong focusing schemes, are discussed. The relative strength of various undulator technologies, including pure permanent magnet, hybrid, warm electromagnetic, pulsed, and superconducting electromagnetic devices in both helical and planar configurations are reviewed. Favored design options for proposed short wavelength FELs, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC and the DUV Free-Electron Laser at BNL, are presented.

  6. The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundquist, John

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

  7. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  8. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  9. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  10. Plasma mirrors for short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanovksy, V.P.; Perry, M.D.; Brown, C.G.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.

    1997-06-11

    We show experimentally and theoretically that plasmas created by a sufficiently (1014 1015 2 short (<500 fs) intense W/cm ) laser pulse on the surface of dielectric material act as nearly perfect mirrors: reflecting p to 90% of the incident radiation with a wavefront quality equal to that of the initial solid surface.

  11. Short Stay Summary Report, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanagan Coll., Kelowan (British Columbia).

    This 2003 study was designed to collect data on the outcomes of short stay students, or former students who leave British Columbia's colleges, university colleges, and institutes after completing between 9 and 23 credits. Out of 2,273 former students eligible for surveying, 871 completed the survey, for a response rate of 38%. The survey collected…

  12. Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    1985-08-26

    Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

  13. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  14. Personality Characteristics of Long and Short Sleepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mervyn K.; Mooney, Dean K.

    1975-01-01

    The present study used a variety of personality tests to compare long- and short-sleeping college students and a stepwise multiple regression analysis in order to arrive at a pattern analysis and to include a test for the effect of possible repressor variables. (Author)

  15. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  16. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  17. A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A short history of chemical shifts in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and Mossbauer spectroscopy, which are useful for chemical studies, is described. The term chemical shift is shown to have originated in the mistaken assumption that nuclei of a given element would all undergo resonance at the…

  18. Facts on Aging: A Short Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman

    1977-01-01

    A short, factual, and documented quiz is developed and tested which covers the basic facts and frequent misconceptions about aging. Its uses include stimulating discussion, measuring levels of information and anti-aged bias, identifying the most frequent misconceptions, measuring the effects of courses, and measuring changes in public information…

  19. Collis-Nissen gastroplasty for short oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Sandro; Lugaresi, Marialuisa; Ruffato, Alberto; Daddi, Niccolò; Di Simone, Massimo Pierluigi; Perrone, Ottorino; Brusori, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Collis-Nissen procedure is performed for the surgical treatment of 'true short oesophagus'. When this condition is strongly suspected radiologically, the patient is placed in the 45° left lateral position on the operating table with the left chest and arm lifted to perform a thoracostomy in the V-VI space, posterior to the axillary line. The hiatus is opened and the distal oesophagus is widely mobilized. With intraoperative endoscopy, the position of the oesophago-gastric junction in relationship to the hiatus is determined and the measurement of the length of the intra-abdominal oesophagus is performed to decide either to carry out a standard anti-reflux procedure or to lengthen the oesophagus. If the oesophagus is irreversibly short ('true short oesophagus'), the short gastric vessels are divided and the gastric fundus is mobilized. An endostapler is introduced into the left chest. The left thoracoscopic approach is suitable to control effectively the otherwise blind passage of the endostapler into the mediastinum and upper abdomen (if a second optic is not used). The tip of the stapler is clearly visible while 'walking' on the left diaphragm. The Collis gastroplasty is performed over a 46 Maloney bougie. A floppy Nissen fundoplication and the hiatoplasty complete the procedure. PMID:26585969

  20. Blacks in Pop Music: A Short Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickelman, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    A short history of black pop music includes artists who have changed pop music or culture and highlights from the 1920s into the 1980s, from Fats Waller to Michael Jackson. In black pop music, there is a direct line of influence from the sharecropper to the current Top 40. (SLD)

  1. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  2. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by reviewing what the students…

  3. Short storybooks to build conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    To help students build intuitive or conceptual understanding of key fluids concepts, I present short stories written in the style of childrens' books. The goal is to provide analogies with a strong visual component, in a format that allows students to return for a quick review. The content, philosophy, and initial student feedback will be discussed.

  4. Nonperturbative short-range dynamics in TMDs

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian

    2013-05-01

    This presentation covers: deep inelastic processes and transverse momentum distributions; chiral symmetry breaking, including the physical picture, the dynamical model, and parton distributions; partonic structures, including transverse momentum distributions, coordinate space correlator, and short range correlations; and measurements of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, correlations, and multi-parton processes in pp interactions.

  5. A Short-Duration Gel Diffusion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a gel diffusion experiment that permits the completion of duplicate diffusion runs within a three-hour laboratory session. Information included for the short-duration gel diffusion experiment is the diffusion cell, the experiment, data treatment, and the expected results of the experiment. (Author/DS)

  6. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  7. GSFC short pulse radar, JONSWAP-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Walton, W. T.; Eckerman, J.; Kutz, R. L.; Dombrowski, M.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In September 1975, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a short pulse radar during ocean wave measuring experiments off the coast of West Germany in the North Sea. The experiment was part of JONSWAP-75. The radar system and operations during the experiment are described along with examples of data.

  8. A Short Sheffer axiom for Boolean algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Veroff, R.; McCune, W.

    2000-06-30

    A short Sheffer stroke identity is shown to be a single axiom for Boolean algebra. The axiom has length 15 and 3 variables. The proof shows that it is equivalent to Sheffer's original 3-basis for the theory. Automated deduction techniques were used to find the proof. The shortest single axiom previously known to us has length 105 and 6 variables.

  9. Short single axioms for boolean algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, W.; Veroff, R.; Fitelson, B.; Harris, K.; Feist, A.; Wos, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of New Mexico; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Duke Univ.

    2002-01-01

    We present short single equational axioms for Boolean algebra in terms of disjunction and negation and in terms of the Sheffer stroke. Previously known single axioms for these theories are much longer than the ones we present. We show that there is no shorter axiom in terms of the Sheffer stroke. Automated deduction techniques were used in several parts of the work.

  10. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  11. A hybrid short read mapping accelerator

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of short read datasets poses a new challenge to the short read mapping problem in terms of sensitivity and execution speed. Existing methods often use a restrictive error model for computing the alignments to improve speed, whereas more flexible error models are generally too slow for large-scale applications. A number of short read mapping software tools have been proposed. However, designs based on hardware are relatively rare. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been successfully used in a number of specific application areas, such as the DSP and communications domains due to their outstanding parallel data processing capabilities, making them a competitive platform to solve problems that are “inherently parallel”. Results We present a hybrid system for short read mapping utilizing both FPGA-based hardware and CPU-based software. The computation intensive alignment and the seed generation operations are mapped onto an FPGA. We present a computationally efficient, parallel block-wise alignment structure (Align Core) to approximate the conventional dynamic programming algorithm. The performance is compared to the multi-threaded CPU-based GASSST and BWA software implementations. For single-end alignment, our hybrid system achieves faster processing speed than GASSST (with a similar sensitivity) and BWA (with a higher sensitivity); for pair-end alignment, our design achieves a slightly worse sensitivity than that of BWA but has a higher processing speed. Conclusions This paper shows that our hybrid system can effectively accelerate the mapping of short reads to a reference genome based on the seed-and-extend approach. The performance comparison to the GASSST and BWA software implementations under different conditions shows that our hybrid design achieves a high degree of sensitivity and requires less overall execution time with only modest FPGA resource utilization. Our hybrid system design also shows that the performance

  12. ACS Internal CTE Monitor and Short Darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2012-10-01

    This is a continuation of Program 12386 and is to be executed once a cycle for internal CTE and short darks, respectively.INTERNAL CTE MONITOR:The charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of the ACS CCD detectors will decline as damage due to on-orbit radiation exposure accumulates. This degradation will be monitored once a cycle to determine the useful lifetime of the CCDs. All the data for this program is acquired using internal targets {lamps} only, so all of the exposures should be taken during Earth occultation time {but not during SAA passages}. This program emulates the ACS pre-flight ground calibration and post-launch SMOV testing {program 8948}, so that results from each epoch can be directly compared. Extended Pixel Edge Response {EPER} data will be obtained over a range of signal levels for the Wide Field Channel {WFC}. The signal levels are 125, 500, 1620, 5000, 10000, and 60000 electrons at gain 2.Since Cycle 18, this monitoring program was reduced {compared to 11881} considering that there is also an external CTE monitoring program.SHORT DARKS:To improve the pixel-based CTE model at signals below 10 DN, short dark frames are needed to obtain a statistically useful sample of clean, warm pixel trails. This program obtains a set of dark frames for each of the following exposure times: 66 s {60 s for some subarrays} and 339 s. These short darks and the 1040 s darks obtained from the CCD Daily Monitor will sample warm and hot pixels over logarithmically increasing brightness. Subarray short darks were newly added in Cycle 19 to study CTE tails in different subarray readout modes.

  13. ACS Internal CTE Monitor and Short Darks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This is a continuation of Program 13156 and is to be executed once a cycle for internal CTE and short darks, respectively.INTERNAL CTE MONITOR:The charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of the ACS CCD detectors will decline as damage due to on-orbit radiation exposure accumulates. This degradation will be monitored once a cycle to determine the useful lifetime of the CCDs. All the data for this program is acquired using internal targets {lamps} only, so all of the exposures should be taken during Earth occultation time {but not during SAA passages}. This program emulates the ACS pre-flight ground calibration and post-launch SMOV testing {program 8948}, so that results from each epoch can be directly compared. Extended Pixel Edge Response {EPER} data will be obtained over a range of signal levels for the Wide Field Channel {WFC}. The signal levels are 125, 500, 1620, 5000, 10000, and 60000 electrons at gain 2.Since Cycle 18, this monitoring program was reduced {compared to 11881} considering that there is also an external CTE monitoring program.SHORT DARKS:To improve the pixel-based CTE model at signals below 10 DN, short dark frames are needed to obtain a statistically useful sample of clean, warm pixel trails. This program obtains a set of dark frames for each of the following exposure times: 66 s {60 s for some subarrays} and 339 s. These short darks and the 1040 s darks obtained from the CCD Daily Monitor will sample warm and hot pixels over logarithmically increasing brightness. Subarray short darks were added in Cycle 19 to study CTE tails in different subarray readout modes.

  14. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  15. 19 CFR 357.102 - Short supply allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short supply allowances. 357.102 Section 357.102 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.102 Short supply allowances. (a) The Secretary will authorize a short supply allowance if: (1) The product is covered by an arrangement...

  16. 19 CFR 357.102 - Short supply allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short supply allowances. 357.102 Section 357.102 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.102 Short supply allowances. (a) The Secretary will authorize a short supply allowance if: (1)...

  17. 19 CFR 357.102 - Short supply allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short supply allowances. 357.102 Section 357.102 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.102 Short supply allowances. (a) The Secretary will authorize a short supply allowance if: (1)...

  18. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... scope of the product category into which to classify the short life cycle merchandise identified by...

  19. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  20. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  1. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure...-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test... that may be encountered in the conduct of the Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1427 - Certification Short Test procedure; overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Short Test procedure...-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1427 Certification Short Test... that may be encountered in the conduct of the Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  4. Electron Transport in Short Peptide Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Brisendine, Joseph; Ng, Fay; Nuckolls, Colin; Koder, Ronald; Venkarataman, Latha

    We present a study of the electron transport through a series of short peptides using scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction method. Our work is motivated by the need to gain a better understanding of how various levels of protein structure contribute to the remarkable capacity of proteins to transport charge in biophysical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. We focus here on short mono, di and tri-peptides, and probe their conductance when bound to gold electrodes in a native buffer environment. We first show that these peptides can bind to gold through amine, carboxyl, thiol and methyl-sulfide termini. We then focus on two systems (glycine and alanine) and show that their conductance decays faster than alkanes terminated by the same linkers. Importantly, our results show that the peptide bond is less conductive than a sigma carbon-carbon bond. This work was supported in part by NSF-DMR 1507440.

  5. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  6. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  7. Short-time diffusivity of dicolloids.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mark M; Wagner, Norman J; Furst, Eric M

    2014-06-01

    The short-time diffusivity of dicolloid particles as a function of particle volume fraction ϕ from 0.01 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.6 is measured using diffusing wave spectroscopy. The diffusivities of symmetric and asymmetric dicolloids are compared with similarly sized spheres. The short-time diffusivity is independent of salt concentration and decreases with increasing volume fraction for both spheres and asymmetric dicolloids. Symmetric dicolloids have a higher diffusivity than spheres at similar volume fractions. This difference is accounted for by rescaling the dicolloid volume fraction based on the ratio of the random close-packing volume fractions of spheres and dicolloids. Finally, a useful method is provided for calculating the diffusivity of symmetric dicolloid particles of arbitrary aspect ratio based on the calculated hydrodynamic resistance of Zabarankin [Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 2329 (2007)]. PMID:25019780

  8. Short time cycles of purely quantum refrigerators.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Tova; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-05-01

    Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analog are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal timescale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore, these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle, which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the states of the working medium possess significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance. PMID:23004710

  9. Short range atomic migration in amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauß, F.; Jerliu, B.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Schmidt, H.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments on self-diffusion in amorphous silicon between 400 and 500 °C are presented, which were carried out by neutron reflectometry in combination with 29Si/natSi isotope multilayers. Short range diffusion is detected on a length scale of about 2 nm, while long range diffusion is absent. Diffusivities are in the order of 10-19-10-20 m2/s and decrease with increasing annealing time, reaching an undetectable low value for long annealing times. This behavior is strongly correlated to structural relaxation and can be explained as a result of point defect annihilation. Diffusivities for short annealing times of 60 s follow the Arrhenius law with an activation enthalpy of (0.74 ± 0.21) eV, which is interpreted as the activation enthalpy of Si migration.

  10. Short-Range Nucleon-Nucleon Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2011-10-01

    Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.

  11. Short Read Alignment Using SOAP2.

    PubMed

    Hurgobin, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have rapidly evolved in the last 5 years, leading to the generation of millions of short reads in a single run. Consequently, various sequence alignment algorithms have been developed to compare these reads to an appropriate reference in order to perform important downstream analysis. SOAP2 from the SOAP series is one of the most commonly used alignment programs to handle NGS data, and it efficiently does so using low computer memory usage and fast alignment speed. This chapter describes the protocol used to align short reads to a reference genome using SOAP2, and highlights the significance of using the in-built command-line options to tune the behavior of the algorithm according to the inputs and the desired results. PMID:26519410

  12. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  13. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2013-05-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is accompanied by a high relative supersaturation, S > 1000, that results in homogeneous nucleation of bubbles. On the short-time scale only nanobubbles can be formed. These nanobubbles densely cover the electrodes and aggregate at a later time to microbubbles. The effect is significantly intensified with a small increase of temperature. Application of alternating polarity voltage pulses produces bubbles containing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Spontaneous reaction between gases is observed for stoichiometric bubbles with sizes smaller than ∼150 nm. Such bubbles disintegrate violently affecting the surfaces of the electrodes.

  14. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B; Sanders, Remco G P; Elwenspoek, Miko C

    2013-05-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is accompanied by a high relative supersaturation, S > 1000, that results in homogeneous nucleation of bubbles. On the short-time scale only nanobubbles can be formed. These nanobubbles densely cover the electrodes and aggregate at a later time to microbubbles. The effect is significantly intensified with a small increase of temperature. Application of alternating polarity voltage pulses produces bubbles containing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Spontaneous reaction between gases is observed for stoichiometric bubbles with sizes smaller than ∼150 nm. Such bubbles disintegrate violently affecting the surfaces of the electrodes. PMID:23598648

  15. Perceptual interference decays over short unfilled intervals.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D

    2000-09-01

    The perceptual interference effect refers to the fact that object identification is directly related to the amount of information available at initial exposure. The present article investigated whether perceptual interference would dissipate when a short, unfilled interval was introduced between exposures to a degraded object. Across three experiments using both musical and pictorial stimuli, identification performance increased directly with the length of the unfilled interval. Consequently, significant perceptual interference was obtained only when the interval between exposures was relatively short (< 500 msec for melodies; < 300 msec for pictures). These results are consistent with explanations that attribute perceptual interference to increased perceptual noise created by exposures to highly degraded objects. The data also suggest that perceptual interference is mediated by systems that are not consciously controlled by the subject and that perceptual interference in the visual domain decays more rapidly than perceptual interference in the auditory domain. PMID:11105520

  16. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  17. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  18. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodrigue, Sébastien; Materna, Arne C.; Timberlake, Sonia C.; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Alm, Eric J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Gilbert, Jack Anthony

    2010-07-28

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  19. Rapid nuclear import of short nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mai; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous short-chain nucleic acids undergo rapid import into the nucleus. Fluorescence-labeled dT1-13 DNA microinjected into the cytoplasm domain of a HeLa cell was rapidly imported into the nucleus domain within 1min. This is much more rapid than what has been observed for intracellular diffusion of small molecules. In contrast, import of longer nucleic acids with a length of over 30nt into the nucleus was suppressed. PMID:27597250

  20. Ultra short pulse reconstruction software: GROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, M.; Galimberti, M.; Giulietti, D.; Curcio, A.

    2016-07-01

    A new algorithmic method based on the 1D Conjugate Gradient Minimization Method, is presented. The purpose is, analyzing experimental FROG/GRENOUILLE traces, to accurately retrieve intensity and phase both in temporal and spectral domain so as to completely characterize an Ultra Short High Power laser pulse. This algorithm shows important features in the reconstruction of many different pulse classes. The employment of this algorithm also permits the inclusion of material response function present in the FROG/GRENOUILLE set-up.

  1. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOEpatents

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  2. Short-pulse photolytic iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Ralph F.; Harris, Melvin; Anderson, Brian T.; Hager, Gordon D.

    2000-08-01

    A compact, short pulse photolytic iodine laser (PIL) system designed for use as a source in Raman conversion experiments is described. The single-shot, flashlamp-pumped laser outputs 10 Joules in a 3 microsecond(s) FWHM pulse at a wavelength of 1.315 micrometer and uses n-C3F7I as the renewable laser fuel. Laser design and performance characteristics are presented.

  3. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  4. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigue, S A. C.; Materna, S C; Timberlake, M C; Blacburn, R R; Malmstrom, E J. Alm; Chisholm, S W

    2010-01-01

    We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read.

  5. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (

  6. Interference with visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Zucco, G M; Baddeley, A D

    1990-10-01

    Working memory (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) incorporates the notion of a visuo-spatial sketch pad; a mechanism thought to be specialized for short-term storage of visuo-spatial material. However, the nature and characteristics of this hypothesized mechanism are as yet unclear. Two experiments are reported which examined selective interference in short-term visual memory. Experiment 1 contrasted recognition memory span for visual matrix patterns with that for visually presented letter sequences. These two span tasks were combined with concurrent arithmetic or a concurrent task which involved manipulation of visuo-spatial material. Results suggested that although there was a small, significant disruption by concurrent arithmetic of span for the matrix patterns, there was a substantially larger disruption of the letter span task. The converse was true for the secondary visuo-spatial task. Experiment 2 combined the span tasks with two established tasks developed by Brooks (1967). Span for matrix patterns was disrupted by a visuo-spatial task but not by a secondary verbal task. The converse was true for letter span. These results suggest that the impairment in short-term visual memory resulting from secondary arithmetic reflects a small general processing load, but that the selective interference due to mode of processing is by far the stronger effect. Results are interpreted as being entirely consistent with the notion of a specialized visuo-spatial mechanism in working memory. PMID:2260493

  7. Management of patients with a short bowel

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Jeremy M D

    2001-01-01

    There are two common types of adult patient with a short bowel, those with jejunum in continuity with a functioning colon and those with a jejunostomy. Both groups have potential problems of undernutrition, but this is a greater problem in those without a colon, as they do not derive energy from anaerobic bacterial fermentation of carbohydrate to short chain fatty acids in the colon. Patients with a jejunostomy have major problems of dehydration, sodium and magnesium depletion all due to a large volume of stomal output. Both types of patient have lost at least 60 cm of terminal ileum and so will become deficient of vitamin B12. Both groups have a high prevalence of gallstones (45%) resulting from periods of biliary stasis. Patients with a retained colon have a 25% chance of developing calcium oxalate renal stones and they may have problems with D (-) lactic acidosis. The survival of patients with a short bowel, even if they need long-term parenteral nutrition, is good. PMID:11819867

  8. Ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Huaxiang; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    The fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) systems are growing fast these days, where two different wavelengths are used for upstream and downstream traffic, typically 1310nm and 1490nm. The duplexers are the key elements to separate these wavelengths into different path in central offices (CO) and optical network unit (ONU) in passive optical network (PON). Multimode interference (MMI) has some benefits to be a duplexer including large fabrication tolerance, low-temperature dependence, and low-polarization dependence, but its size is too large to integrate in conventional case. Based on the silicon photonics platform, ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer was demonstrated to separate the 1310nm and 1490nm lights. By studying the theory of self-image phenomena in MMI, the first order images are adopted in order to keep the device short. A cascaded MMI structure was investigated to implement the wavelength splitting, where both the light of 1310nm and 1490nm was input from the same port, and the 1490nm light was coupling cross the first MMI and output at the cross-port in the device while the 1310nm light was coupling through the first and second MMI and output at the bar-port in the device. The experiment was carried on with the SOI wafer of 340nm top silicon. The cascaded MMI was investigated to fold the length of the duplexer as short as 117μm with the extinct ratio over 10dB.

  9. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  10. Detecting short period variations in lava flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Pinkerton, H.

    2009-04-01

    Although the underpinning processes that govern the flow of lava have been recognized for some time, modeling the evolution of lava flow fields remains problematic due to the difficulties in fully constraining inputs to flow models. One of the main parameters controlling the evolution of individual flows is effusion rate, and long period effusion rate changes, such as flow-waning prior to the cessation of an eruption, can now be routinely incorporated in simulations. However, effusion rates commonly vary over a wide range of timescales (from years to minutes) and, for short period changes, neither the cause nor the effects are well understood. Nevertheless, short period changes can result in inaccuracies in the input data for simulations and can be responsible for altering flow directions by either building or breaching flow levees. Hence, understanding the processes involved in such changes is important for flow modeling and, furthermore, could eventually provide insight into flow instabilities within the conduit or variability within degassing processes. Observations of short period (e.g. <1 hr) variations in lava flux have been made previously in the field but associated changes cannot be identified in effusion rate data because of the generally low sampling frequency of such data. During the last week of July 2008, trail cameras were used to obtain dense time series imagery of the active lava flow at Mount Etna, Sicily. The trail cameras were modified to capture timelapse imagery by adding an interval timer which triggered image capture every 10 minutes. During daylight, the cameras collected 5 M-pixel colour images and, during nighttime, they automatically switched to a 2 M-pixel camera which collected (uncalibrated) black and white infrared images. For the color images, haze, cloud and sunglare combined with the low contrast between the active lava and its surroundings, prevented useful analysis. However, the infrared images captured at night clearly

  11. Dissipation regimes for short wind waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulliez, Guillemette

    2013-02-01

    The dissipation processes affecting short wind waves of centimeter and decimeter scales are investigated experimentally in laboratory. The processes include damping due to molecular viscosity, generation of capillary waves, microbreaking, and breaking. The observations were made in a large wind wave tank for a wide range of fetches and winds, using a laser sheet and a high-resolution video camera. The work aims at constructing a comprehensive picture of dissipative processes in the short wind wave field, to find for which scales particular dissipative mechanism may become important. Four distinct regimes have been identified. For capillary-gravity wave fields, i.e., for dominant waves with scales below 4 cm, viscous damping is found to be the main dissipation mechanism. The gravity-capillary wave fields with dominant wavelength less than 10 cm usually exhibit a train of capillary ripples at the crest wavefront, but no wave breaking. For such waves, the main dissipation process is molecular viscosity occurring through nonlinear energy cascade toward high-frequency motions. Microscale breaking takes place for waves longer than 10 cm and manifests itself in a very localized surface disruption on the forward face of the crest. Such events generate turbulent motions in water and thus enhance wave dissipation. Plunging breaking, characterized by formation of a crest bulge, a microjet hitting the water surface and a splash-up, occurs for short gravity waves of wavelength exceeding 20 cm. Macroscale spilling breaking is also observed for longer waves at high winds. In both cases, the direct momentum transfer from breaking waves to the water flow contributes significantly to wave damping.

  12. Gravitational waves and short gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi, Valeriu

    2012-07-01

    Short hard gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are believed to be produced by compact binary coalescences (CBC) { either double neutron stars or neutron star{black hole binaries. The same source is expected to emit strong gravitational radiation, detectable with existing and planned gravitational wave observatories. The focus of this work is to describe a series of searches for gravitational waves (GW) from compact binary coalescence (CBC) events triggered by short gamma-ray burst detections. Specifically, we will present the motivation, frameworks, implementations and results of searches for GW associated with short gamma-ray bursts detected by Swift, Fermi{GBM and the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) gamma-ray detectors. We will begin by presenting the main concepts that lay the foundation of gravitational waves emission, as they are formulated in the theory of General Relativity; we will also brie y describe the operational principles of GW detectors, together with explaining the main challenges that the GW detection process is faced with. Further, we will motivate the use of observations in the electromagnetic (EM) band as triggers for GW searches, with an emphasis on possible EM signals from CBC events. We will briefly present the data analysis techniques including concepts as matched{filtering through a collection of theoretical GW waveforms, signal{to{ noise ratio, coincident and coherent analysis approaches, signal{based veto tests and detection candidates' ranking. We will use two different GW{GRB search examples to illustrate the use of the existing coincident and coherent analysis methods. We will also present a series of techniques meant to improve the sensitivity of existing GW triggered searches. These include shifting background data in time in order to obtain extended coincident data and setting a prior on the GRB inclination angle, in accordance with astrophysical observations, in order to restrict the searched parameter space. We will describe the GW data analysis

  13. An Ultra-Short Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, Ishay; McCary, Eddie; Meadows, Alexander R.; Arefiev, Alexey; Bernstein, Aaron C.; Chester, Clay; Cortez, Jose; Donovan, Michael E.; Dyer, Gilliss; Gaul, Erhard W.; Hamilton, David; Kuk, Donghoon; Lestrade, Arantxa; Wang, Chunhua; Ditmire, Todd; Hegelich, Manuel B.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps) and high flux (>1018 neutrons/cm2/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<1 μm) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast, conducting time-resolved neutron-damage studies at their characteristic evolution time-scales and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

  14. Short-time dynamics of polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Arashiro, Everaldo; Drugowich de Felício, J R; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2007-01-28

    The authors study the short-time dynamics of helix-forming polypeptide chains using an all-atom representation of the molecules and an implicit solvation model to approximate the interaction with the surrounding solvent. The results confirm earlier observations that the helix-coil transition in proteins can be described by a set of critical exponents. The high statistics of the simulations allows the authors to determine the exponent values with increased precision and support universality of the helix-coil transition in homopolymers and (helical) proteins. PMID:17286517

  15. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  16. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  17. Short review on solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  18. Thomson scattering in short pulse laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, E. G.; Rose, S. J.

    2012-08-15

    Thomson scattering is well used as a diagnostic in many areas of high energy density physics. In this paper, we quantitatively demonstrate the practicality of using Thomson scattering as a diagnostic of short-pulse laser-plasma experiments in the regime, where the plasmas probed are at solid density and have temperatures of many hundreds of eV using a backlighter produced with an optical laser. This method allows a diagnosis both spatially and temporally of the density and temperature distributions in high energy density laser-plasma interactions which is independent from, and would act as a useful complement to, the existing spectroscopic methods.

  19. SOFIP: A Short Orbital Flux Integration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Hebert, J. J.; Butler, E. L.; Barth, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer code was developed to evaluate the space radiation environment encountered by geocentric satellites. The Short Orbital Flux Integration Program (SOFIP) is a compact routine of modular compositions, designed mostly with structured programming techniques in order to provide core and time economy and ease of use. The program in its simplest form produces for a given input trajectory a composite integral orbital spectrum of either protons or electrons. Additional features are available separately or in combination with the inclusion of the corresponding (optional) modules. The code is described in detail, and the function and usage of the various modules are explained. A program listing and sample outputs are attached.

  20. Analysis of short-rotation willow

    SciTech Connect

    Raunonaa, T.; Samela, J.; Kantele, O.; Reponen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method to determination of the elemental composition of short-rotation willow is studied. The analysis samples were taken as a time series from different willow stands. The concentrations of 15 elements between aluminum and lead were determined, and the implications of certain correlations between two distinct groups of elements are considered. The elemental composition of gases from willow combustion was also tentatively measured by PIXE. Nutrient dynamics and growth of willow seedlings were in addition studied by this technique and a simple simulation model was developed to depict the nutrient dynamics in willow leaves.

  1. Short pulse C-band Doppler scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, Artashes K.; Hambaryan, Astghik K.; Smolin, Aleksander I.; Karyan, Vanik V.; Hovhannesyan, Gagik G.; Alaverdyan, Eduard R.; Arakelyan, Arsen A.; Hambaryan, Vardan K.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper C-band (~5.75GHz), dual polarization, Doppler scatterometer is developed, for short distance remote sensing of water surface microwave reflective and spectrum characteristics simultaneous and coincident measurements, under laboratory-control conditions. Developed system will be set on a mobile bogie moving on the height of 6.5m along a stationary platform of 32m of length. It will allow carry out polarimetric (vv, vh, hh, hv), simultaneous and coincident microwave active measurements of pool water surface parameters at angles of incidence from the while of 0-40o.

  2. The Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Leslie

    2015-10-15

    The Fermilab short-baseline program is a multi-facetted one. Primarily it searches for evidence of sterile neutrinos as hinted at by the MiniBooNE and LSND results. It will also measure a whole suite of ν-Argon cross sections which will be very useful in future liquid argon long-baseline projects. The program is based on MicroBooNE, already installed in the beam line, the recently approved LAr1-ND and the future addition of the refurbished ICARUS.

  3. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  4. A Variable Diameter Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James M.; Jones, Christopher T.; Nixon, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    The Short-Haul-Civil-tiltrotor (SHCT) component of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program is an effort to develop the technologies needed for a potential 40-passenger civil tiltrotor. The variable diameter tiltrotor (VDTR) is a Sikorsky concept aimed at improving tiltrotor hover and cruise performance currently limited by disk loading that is much higher in hover than conventional helicopter, and much lower in cruise than turbo-prop systems. This paper describes the technical merits of using a VDTR on a SHCT aircraft. The focus will be the rotor design.

  5. Short Bowel Syndrome in the Nicu

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sachin C.; Pappas, Cleo; Iyengar, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the most common cause of intestinal failure in infants. In neonates and young infants, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastroschisis, intestinal atresia and intestinal malrotation/volvulus are the leading causes of SBS. Following an acute post-surgical phase, the residual gastrointestinal tract adapts with reorganization of the crypt-villus histoarchitecture and functional changes in nutrient absorption and motility. A cohesive, multidisciplinary approach can allow most neonates with SBS to transition to full enteral feeds and achieve normal growth and development. In this article, we review the clinical features, management, complications, and prognostic factors in SBS. PMID:23415263

  6. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-11

    Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.

  7. Electrical characteristics of a short RFQ resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Jain, A.; Wang, H. . Dept. of Physics); Lombardi, A. . Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro)

    1990-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of a short RFQ resonator of the four rod'' type have been studied by carrying out measurements on models and numerical simulations using the MAFIA codes. An empirical formula is obtained for the capacitance of vane-like electrodes in a four-rod RFQ resonator. It is shown that the electrode supports could account for a significant part of the total capacitance. This additional capacitance may change the circuit symmetry and give rise to a dipole component. This effect can be compensated by appropriate modifications of the support structure. The beam offset due to a dipole component is estimated. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  9. Failure Prevention by Short Time Corrosion Tests

    SciTech Connect

    MICKALONIS, JOHN

    2005-05-01

    Short time corrosion testing of perforated sheets and wire meshes fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel, Alloy 600 and C276 showed that 304L stainless steel perforated sheet should perform well as the material of construction for dissolver baskets. The baskets will be exposed to hot nitric acid solutions and are limited life components. The corrosion rates of the other alloys and of wire meshes were too high for useful extended service. Test results also indicated that corrosion of the dissolver should drop quickly during the dissolutions due to the inhibiting effects of the corrosion products produced by the dissolution processes.

  10. Clustering Short Time-Series Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Loh Wei; Hasan, Yahya Abu

    2008-01-01

    Most microarray analyses are carried out on static gene expressions. However, the dynamical study of microarrays has lately gained more attention. Most researches on time-series microarray emphasize on the bioscience and medical aspects but few from the numerical aspect. This study attempts to analyze short time-series microarray mathematically using STEM clustering tool which formally preprocess data followed by clustering. We next introduce the Circular Mould Distance (CMD) algorithm with combinations of both preprocessing and clustering analysis. Both methods are subsequently compared in terms of efficiencies.

  11. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops.

  12. Hamiltonian Framework for Short Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiranashvili, Shalva

    Physics of short optical pulses is an important and active research area in nonlinear optics. In this Chapter we theoretically consider the most extreme representatives of short pulses that contain only several oscillations of electromagnetic field. Description of such pulses is traditionally based on envelope equations and slowly varying envelope approximation, despite the fact that the envelope is not "slow" and, moreover, there is no clear definition of such a "fast" envelope. This happens due to another paradoxical feature: the standard (envelope) generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation yields very good correspondence to numerical solutions of full Maxwell equations even for few-cycle pulses, the thing that should not be.In what follows we address ultrashort optical pulses using Hamiltonian framework for nonlinear waves. As it appears, the standard optical envelope equation is just a reformulation of general Hamiltonian equations. In a sense, no approximations are required, this is why the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is so effective. Moreover, the Hamiltonian framework contributes greatly to our understanding of "fast" envelopes, ultrashort solitons, stability and radiation of optical pulses. Even the inclusion of dissipative terms is possible making the Hamiltonian approach an universal theoretical tool also in extreme nonlinear optics.

  13. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  14. Short cracks in piping and piping welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. )

    1992-04-01

    This is the second semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. The program began in March 1990 and will extend for 4 years. The intent of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or in-service flaw evaluations. Only quasi-static loading rates are evaluated since the NRC's International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program is evaluating the effects of seismic loading rates on cracked piping systems. Progress for through-wall-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting a 28-inch diameter stainless steel SAW and 4-inch diameter French TP316 experiments, (2) conducting a matrix of FEM analyses to determine GE/EPRI functions for short TWC pipe, (3) comparison of uncracked pipe maximum moments to various analyses and FEM solutions, (4) development of a J-estimation scheme that includes the strength of both the weld and base metals. Progress for surface-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting two experiments on 6-inch diameter pipe with d/t = 0.5 and {Theta}/{pi} = 0.25 cracks, (2) comparisons of the pipe experiments to Net-Section-Collapse predictions, and (3) modification of the SC.TNP and SC.TKP J-estimation schemes to include external surface cracks.

  15. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. J-factors of short DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The propensity of short DNA sequences to convert to the circular form is studied by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian method which incorporates both the bending of the molecule axis and the intrinsic twist of the DNA strands. The base pair fluctuations with respect to the helix diameter are treated as path trajectories in the imaginary time path integral formalism. The partition function for the sub-ensemble of closed molecules is computed by imposing chain end boundary conditions both on the radial fluctuations and on the angular degrees of freedom. The cyclization probability, the J-factor, proves to be highly sensitive to the stacking potential, mostly to its nonlinear parameters. We find that the J-factor generally decreases by reducing the sequence length (N) and, more significantly, below N = 100 base pairs. However, even for very small molecules, the J-factors remain sizeable in line with recent experimental indications. Large bending angles between adjacent base pairs and anharmonic stacking appear as the causes of the helix flexibility at short length scales. PMID:27276942

  18. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  19. Short-wavelength Magnetic Buoyancy Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizerski, K. A.; Davies, C. R.; Hughes, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic buoyancy instability plays an important role in the evolution of astrophysical magnetic fields. Here we revisit the problem introduced by Gilman of the short-wavelength linear stability of a plane layer of compressible isothermal fluid permeated by a horizontal magnetic field of strength decreasing with height. Dissipation of momentum and magnetic field is neglected. By the use of a Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation analysis, we explain in detail the limit in which the transverse horizontal wavenumber of the perturbation, denoted by k, is large (i.e., short horizontal wavelength) and show that the fastest growing perturbations become localized in the vertical direction as k is increased. The growth rates are determined by a function of the vertical coordinate z since, in the large k limit, the eigenmodes are strongly localized in the vertical direction. We consider in detail the case of two-dimensional perturbations varying in the directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, which, for sufficiently strong field gradients, are the most unstable. The results of our analysis are backed up by comparison with a series of initial value problems. Finally, we extend the analysis to three-dimensional perturbations.

  20. Modelling microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Rios, E. R.; Xin, X. J.; Navarro, A.

    1994-10-01

    Microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth can occur in many engineering components devoid of large defects. Continuum mechanics principles, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, used in damage tolerance design and life prediction methods are not applicable in these situations and therefore new concepts need to be developed to characterize this type of growth. A microstructurally sensitive model of fatigue crack growth is presented in which the effect of microstructure is dominant in the early stage of growth but plays a negligible role after the crack has gone through the transition from structure-sensitive to structure-insensitive growth. The effect of both microstructure and structure sensitive variables on the transition from short cracks to continuum mechanics and the conditions for crack instability leading to final failure are examined. The microstructural variables incorporated in the equations that describe the model are those controlling the extent and intensity of crack tip plasticity such as grain size, precipitation and dispersion hardening, strain hardening and mis-orientation between grains. It is expected that the concepts developed within the model will form the basis for the design of new crack-resistant materials.

  1. Short hyperdynamic profiles influence primate temperature regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    Primates have been shown to be sensitive to hyperdynamic fields. That is, when exposed to + 2Gz, body temperature falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative sensitivity of these animals to short centrifugation profiles which mimic the gravitational envelope seen on the Space Shuttle during launch (8 minutes, 2.9 Gz max) and re-entry (19 min, 1.7 Gz max). Four loosely restrained squirrel monkeys, isolated from additional external stimuli, were exposed to these profiles. During launch simulation, the temperatures never fell markedly below control levels. However, subsequent to return to 1G, the recovery phase showed decreases in body temperature in all four animals averaging 0.4 C over the next 10 to 15 minutes. The two animals exposed to the reentry profile showed decreases in body temperature within five minutes of the onset of centrifugation. Maximum fall in body temperature was reached by the end of the centrifugation phase and averaged 0.7 C. Thus, the temperature regulation system of this primate is sensitive to short hyperdynamic field exposures.

  2. Thermal conductivity of hybrid short fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.L.; Taya, M.; Hatta, H.; Takei, T.; Nakajima, Y. Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara Three-D Composites Research, Tsukuba Tohoku Univ., Sendai )

    1993-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study has been undertaken to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of hybrid composite materials. The analysis utilizes the equivalent inclusion approach for steady state heat conduction (Hatta and Taya, 1986) through which the interaction between the various reinforcing phases at finite concentrations is approximated by the Mori-Tanaka (1973) mean field approach. The multiple reinforcing phases of the composite are modeled as ellipsoidal in shape and thus can simulate a wide range of microstructural geometries ranging from thin platelet to continuous fiber reinforcement. The case when one phase of the composite is penny-shaped microcracks is studied in detail. Multiphase composites consisting of a Kerimid matrix and Al2O3 short fibers and Si3N4 whiskers were fabricated and, after a careful study of their microstructure, their thermal conductivities were measured. Analytical predictions are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results obtained for the Al2O3/Si3N4/Kerimid short fiber composites. 26 refs.

  3. Haemolyzed samples: responsibility of short catheters.

    PubMed

    Raisky, F; Gauthier, C; Marchal, A; Blum, D

    1994-01-01

    The haemolysis of blood samples is a source of error in the electrolytic and enzymatic determination in clinical biochemistry. This circumstance seems dependent on the material used for the venepuncture. In this study we compared three kinds of material in 350 patients who were sampled in the emergency department. This randomized study compared the haemolysis of blood samples collected with stainless steel needles and short catheters, either Teflon FEP (Cathlon Critikon) or polyurethane Vialon (Insyte Becton-Dickinson). Quantification of hemolysis was performed by assay of the optical density of plasma haemoglobin. Results were analysed, after verification of the randomization, by one-way analysis of variance by ranks. This study demonstrated a highly significant relation between occurrence of haemolysis and the sampling material, used according to its technical obligations. Haemolysis occurred frequently when short catheters were used in 42% and 55% of cases with the Teflon and Vialon catheters, respectively. Haemolysis was much less frequent with stainless steel needles (12%). This difference was even more marked for haemoglobin levels above 1.5 milligrams of plasma, where the incidence was 4.2%, 9% and 30%, respectively, for the stainless steel needles, the Teflon catheter and the Vialon catheter. This study induced our emergency department to take more blood samples with a needle, even if an infusion was to be given subsequently, or to take them using a Teflon catheter. PMID:7840428

  4. Aspects of short-range interconnect packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfeld, Denis; Brenner, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In short-range interconnect applications, one question arises frequently: When should optical solutions be chosen over electrical wiring? The answer to this question of course depends on several factors like costs, performance, reliability, availability of testing equipment and knowledge about optical technologies, and last but not least, it strongly depends on the application itself. Networking in high performance computing (HPC) is one such example. With bit rates around 10 Gbit/s per channel and cable length above 2 m, the high attenuation of electrical cables leads to a clear preference of optical or active optical cables (AOC) for most planned HPC systems. For AOCs, the electro-optical conversion is realized inside the connector housing, while for purely optical cables, the conversion is done at the edge of the board. Proceeding to 25 Gbit/s and higher, attenuation and loss of signal quality become critical. Therefore, either significantly more effort has to be spent on the electrical side, or the package for conversion has to be integrated closer to the chip, thus requiring new packaging technologies. The paper provides a state of the art overview of packaging concepts for short range interconnects, it describes the main challenges of optical package integration and illustrates new concepts and trends in this research area.

  5. Misidentifications in Pirandello's plays and short stories.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Kilcline, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello was an Italian playwright, novelist, short story writer, poet, and one of the leading dramatists of the twentieth century. Pirandello used his plays and short stories to express his life philosophy which included the irony and bitterness of self-deception. In his works, his characters possess highly complex personalities, portrayed by ongoing and overlapping conflicts between illusion and reality. These manifestations of double personalities and confusion between imagination and reality are today known as psychopathological phenomena, classified as both delusional misidentification and reduplication syndromes. Here, individuals misidentify and reduplicate places, people, or events. These delusional syndromes (Capgras, Frégoli, intermetamorphosis, syndrome of subjective doubles) occur primarily in psychiatric illnesses (i.e. schizophrenia) and organic illnesses (i.e. right hemispheric stroke). For Pirandello, reality was highly subjective in all humans. However, misidentification and reduplication syndromes can manifest when this subjectivity gets out of control. With his works, Pirandello made philosophical concepts which had previously only been discussed by intellectuals available to a much larger audience. Pirandello continued to elaborate upon this concept of mutable ego, established by Blaise Pascal in the 1600s and carried on by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. PMID:23485894

  6. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  7. The Short-term Clinical Outcome of Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Short Metaphyseal Loading Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the short-term clinical and radiological outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with short metaphyseal loading femoral stem. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 56 cases in 47 patients who had undergone THA with short metaphyseal loading femoral stem from April 2010 to December 2011. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mean age was 54 years (range, 26-77 years). The average follow up period was 4.6 years. Clinical results were evaluated by Harris hip scores (HHS) before the operation and at the last follow-up. Radiographic analysis was done by evaluating osteolysis, loosening, stress shielding, and alignement. Results The mean HHS significantly improved from 45 (range, 15-58) preoperatively to 98 (range, 85-100) at the last follow-up. In radiographic analyses, there was no evidence of osteolysis or loosening around the stems and the acetabuluar components. All cases showed rounding off of the calcar, grade 1 bone resorption of the proximal femur. With regard to implant alignment, 51 femoral component (91.1%) were in neutral position, and 5 (8.9%) were in varus position. There was 1 intraoperative fracture treated by cerclage wiring and no case was revised during follow-up period. Conclusion Although longer follow-up is needed to confirm the durability of the short metaphyseal loading femoral stem, this short stem might provide stable fixation without diaphyseal fixation and demonstrated good clinical result at mean 4.6 year short term follow-up. PMID:27536649

  8. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might have asthma. If you do, you ...

  9. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  10. Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Coughing Wheezing Shortness of Breath Tightness in Chest Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... you cough a lot, wheeze, are short of breath or feel tightness in your chest, you might ...

  11. Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, H.-Thomas

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

  12. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SHORT STATURE AND HAIR ELEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Tabatadze, T; Zhorzholiani, L; Kherkheulidze, M; Karseladze, R; Ivanashvili, T

    2015-10-01

    Aim - assessment of hair elemental status, determination of elemental imbalances and heavy metal concentration and evaluation its impact on child liner growth. Case-control study involves 112 children less than 5 years old (target group - 54 children with short stature, control - 58 children with normal physical development). Medical history, nutritional status, anthropological parameters were assessed. Patients with genetic and endocrine disorders, family short stature were excluded from the study. Child elemental status was detected in the hair, with roentgen-fluorescence spectrometer method. Statistical analysis was conduced using SPPS19. Assessment of the dietary history does not reveal any significant differences between the groups, the only exception was consumption of fish, that was statistically significantly lower than in control (p<0,05). The study revealed deficiency of some elements in both (study and control) groups, but there were significant difference between the groups: Zn deficiency 90% versus 40% (p<0,05), Ca deficiency 62 and 36 (p<0,05), Cu deficiency 50 and 16 (p<0,05) and Mn deficiency 30 and 6 (p<0,05) accordingly. Level of some elements (K, S, Br, Cl, Co, Ag, V, Ni, Rb, Sr, Ti, Ba, As, Cd, Zr, Sb) have normal values. Some element deficiency (Fe, Mo, Se) was higher in study group but the difference was not significant. The study revealed high level of hair lead in both groups: all patients (100%) of target group have elevated level of hair lead, among them in 35,8% the content of lead was above so-called minimal allowed level (p<5,0 ppm) and in 64,5% the content of lead in the hair was above so-called maximal allowed level (p≥5,0 ppm). In the control group, lead in the hair was detected in 78% of cases, though the concentration was only in 2% of cases higher than so called maximum allowed. Our study clearly indicated deficiency of trace elements, particularly essential ones and high lead contamination in children with short stature. Our

  14. Brain Connectivity Analysis: A Short Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lang, E. W.; Tomé, A. M.; Keck, I. R.; Górriz-Sáez, J. M.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    This short survey the reviews recent literature on brain connectivity studies. It encompasses all forms of static and dynamic connectivity whether anatomical, functional, or effective. The last decade has seen an ever increasing number of studies devoted to deduce functional or effective connectivity, mostly from functional neuroimaging experiments. Resting state conditions have become a dominant experimental paradigm, and a number of resting state networks, among them the prominent default mode network, have been identified. Graphical models represent a convenient vehicle to formalize experimental findings and to closely and quantitatively characterize the various networks identified. Underlying these abstract concepts are anatomical networks, the so-called connectome, which can be investigated by functional imaging techniques as well. Future studies have to bridge the gap between anatomical neuronal connections and related functional or effective connectivities. PMID:23097663

  15. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  16. Short course review and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  17. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  18. Short-lived radioactivity and magma genesis.

    PubMed

    Gill, J; Condomines, M

    1992-09-01

    Short-lived decay products of uranium and thorium have half-lives and chemistries sensitive to the processes and time scales of magma genesis, including partial melting in the mantle and magmatic differentiation in the crust. Radioactive disequilibrium between (238)U, (230)Th, and (226)Ra is widespread in volcanic rocks. These disequilibria and the isotopic composition of thorium depend especially on the extent and rate of melting as well as the presence and composition of vapor during melting. The duration of mantle melting may be several hundred millennia, whereas ascent times are a few decades to thousands of years. Differentiation of most magmas commonly occurs within a few millennia, but felsic ones can be tens of millennia old upon eruption. PMID:17738278

  19. Using Short Videos to Teach Research Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loui, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Created with support from the National Science Foundation, EthicsCORE (www.natonalethicscenter.org) is an online resource center for ethics in science and engineering. Among the resources, EthicsCORE hosts short video vignettes produced at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln that dramatize problems in the responsible conduct of research, such as peer review of journal submissions, and mentoring relationships between faculty and graduate students. I will use one of the video vignettes in an interactive pedagogical demonstration. After showing the video, I will ask participants to engage in a think-pair-share activity on the professional obligations of researchers. During the sharing phase, participants will supply the reasons for these obligations.

  20. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  1. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  2. A short measure of Eriksonian ego identity.

    PubMed

    Tan, A L; Kendis, R J; Fine, J T; Porac, J

    1977-06-01

    Developed a new measure of Erikson's (1950, 1959) concept of ego identity which would meet the following criteria: (a) that it be short, with an acceptable level of reliability; (b) that it be objective and easily scored; and (c) that it be free of response set contamination. A 12-item scale (Ego Identity Scale) with a forced choice format was constructed. Two further studies were conducted to test the validity of the scale. These studies showed that the Ego Identity Scale correlated as predicted with measures Of locus of control, intimacy, dogmatism, Tomkins' Left, occupational commitment, and political commitment. It also correlated in the predicted direction with measures of interpersonal trust and moral commitment though these correlations did not reach statistical significance. PMID:16367232

  3. The Doctor Will See You Shortly

    PubMed Central

    Braddock, Clarence H; Snyder, Lois

    2005-01-01

    Many physicians and health care leaders express concern about the amount of time available for clinical practice. While debates rage on about how much time is truly available, the perception that time is inadequate is now pervasive. This perception has ethical significance, because it may cause clinicians to forego activities and behaviors that promote important aspects of the patient-physician relationship, to shortcut shared decision making, and to fall short of obligations to act as patient advocates. Furthermore, perceived time constraints can hinder the just distribution of physician time. Although creating more time in the clinical encounter would certainly address these ethical concerns, specific strategies—many of which do not take significantly more time—can effectively change the perception that time is inadequate. These approaches are critical for clinicians and health systems to maintain their ethical commitments and simultaneously deal with the realities of time. PMID:16307634

  4. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  5. Optical limiting of short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.-C.; Wang, C.-K.; Gel'mukhanov, Faris

    2007-11-15

    The dynamics of pulse propagation accompanied by harmonic generation, stimulated Raman scattering, amplified spontaneous emission, and superfluorescence is studied near the two-photon resonance. We explore the optical limiting of intense and short laser pulses. The numerical solutions of the coupled Bloch and Maxwell's equations for the 4,4{sup '}-bis(dimethylamino) stilbene molecule are compared with the two-photon area theorem. It is shown that the area theorem explains qualitatively the major dynamical properties of pulse propagation even if the propagation is accompanied by the generation of new fields. In agreement with the area theorem, we see that the conventional dependence of the transmittance on the propagation depth is not valid for intense pulses.

  6. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  7. Modeling OAE responses to short tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Siegel, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In 1999 Shera and Guinan postulated that otoacoustic emissions evoked by low-level transient stimuli are generated by coherent linear reflection (CRF or CLR). This hypothesis was tested experimentally, e.g., by Siegel and Charaziak[10] by measuring emissions evoked by short (1 ms) tone pips in chinchilla. Using techniques in which supplied level and recorded spectral information were used Siegel and Charaziak concluded that much of the emission was generated by a mechanism in a region extending basally from the peak of the traveling wave and that the action of the suppressor is to remove emission generators evoked by the tone-pip and not to generate nonlinear artifacts in regions basal to the peak region. The original formulation of the CRF theory does not account for these results This study addresses relevant cochlear model predictions.

  8. Short wavelength infrared hybrid focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D.; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D.; Rode, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The employment of area focal plane arrays (FPA) has made it possible to obtain second generation infrared imaging systems with high resolution and sensitivity. The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1-2.5 microns) is of importance for imaging objects at high temperature and under conditions of reflected sunlight. The present investigation is concerned with electrooptical characterization results for 32 x 32 SWIR detector arrays and FPAs which are suitable for use in a prototype imaging spectrometer. The employed detector material is Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te grown by liquid phase epitaxy on a CdTe transparent substrate. Attention is given to details of processing, the design of the detector array, the multiplexer, the fabrication of the hybrid FPA, and aspects of performance.

  9. Short course review and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2014-05-01

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what "proliferation" means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both "vertical" in numbers and "horizontal" to additional countries, what way the "vector" of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  10. [Flexor tendon repair: a short story].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V

    2014-12-01

    This short story of flexor tendon repair aims to illustrate hesitations and wanderings of this surgery. Obviously tendon repair was very early considered, but it developed and diffused rather lately. It became a routine practice only in 20th century. This was due on the one hand, in Occident, to the Galen's dogmatic interdiction, on the other hand, to the repair difficulties of this paradoxical structure. Actually tendon is made of fibroblasts and collagen (sticky substances), and then its only goal is to move. According to this necessity, whatever the used techniques are, gliding is the final purpose. Technical evolutions are illustrated by historical contributions to flexor tendon surgery of several "giants" of hand surgery. PMID:24837978

  11. Short Range Correlations and the EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    L.B. Weinstein, E. Piasetzky, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Gomez, O. Hen, R. Shneor

    2011-02-01

    This Letter shows quantitatively that the magnitude of the EMC effect measured in electron deep inelastic scattering at intermediate xB, 0.35≤xB≤0.7, is linearly related to the short range correlation (SRC) scale factor obtained from electron inclusive scattering at xB≥1. The observed phenomenological relationship is used to extract the ratio of the deuteron to the free pn pair cross sections and F2n/F2p, the ratio of the free neutron to free proton structure functions. We speculate that the observed correlation is because both the EMC effect and SRC are dominated by the high virtuality (high momentum) nucleons in the nucleus.

  12. Short range gravity and T-Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saki

    2014-09-01

    A torsion balance experiment Newton-IVh at Rikkyo University, aiming to test gravitational inverse square law at millimeter scale, and the MTV-G experiment searching a strong gravity at around nuclei utilizing detector setup for a T-Violation (the MTV) experiment at TRIUMF will be introduced. In addition, comparison with the LHC results on search for the large extra dimension and the sensitivity of the short range gravity experiments will be discussed on the contexts of conventional Yukawa and power law parameterizations. The experimental constraints obtained from atomic spectroscopy including anti-protonic helium atom, together with our results at Rikkyo University on the test of universality of free fall in centimeter scale, will also be discussed as a test of inverse square law and composition depending gravity, which can be investigated at antimatter gravity experiments.

  13. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life cycle products. (a) An eligible domestic entity may file a petition to establish a product category...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6073-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6073-3 Section 1.6073-3...) INCOME TAXES Time for Filing Returns and Other Documents § 1.6073-3 Short taxable years. (a) Individuals other than farmers or fishermen. In the case of short taxable years the declaration shall be filed on...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6655-5 Section 1.6655-5... Short taxable year. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6153-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6153-3 Section 1.6153-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-3 Short taxable years. In the case of a short taxable year of an individual for which a declaration is required to be filed the estimated...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6073-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6073-3 Section 1.6073-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Time for Filing Returns and Other Documents § 1.6073-3 Short taxable years. (a) Individuals other than farmers or fishermen. In the case of short taxable years the declaration shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  20. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  1. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  2. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  3. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  4. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  5. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  6. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  7. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning....

  8. 19 CFR 357.103 - Petitions for short supply allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for short supply allowances. 357.103 Section 357.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.103 Petitions for short supply allowances. An interested party may file a petition with...

  9. 19 CFR 357.103 - Petitions for short supply allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petitions for short supply allowances. 357.103 Section 357.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.103 Petitions for short supply allowances. An interested party may file a petition with...

  10. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  11. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  12. Anxiety as a Personality Dimension of Short and Long Sleepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anand; Vaidya, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    Tested Hartmann's (1973) hypothesis that consistent short sleepers tend to be nonworriers while long sleepers tend to worry. Indian college students (N=50) classified as long or short sleepers took the Hindi version of Sinha Anxiety Scale. Results showed short sleepers had higher levels of anxiety, questioning Hartmann's results. (JAC)

  13. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  14. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778.306 Section 778... Special Problems How Deductions Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a... the amount of the average hourly earnings for each hour lost by the employee in a short workweek,...

  15. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as... a short form registration statement. (b) A partner, officer, director, associate, employee, or...

  16. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778.306 Section 778... Special Problems How Deductions Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a... the amount of the average hourly earnings for each hour lost by the employee in a short workweek,...

  17. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as... a short form registration statement. (b) A partner, officer, director, associate, employee, or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6655-5 Section 1.6655-5... Short taxable year. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6153-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6153-3 Section 1.6153-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-3 Short taxable years. In the case of a short taxable year of an individual for which a declaration is required to be filed the estimated...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6153-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6153-3 Section 1.6153-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-3 Short taxable years. In the case of a short taxable year of an individual for which a declaration is required to be filed the estimated...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6655-5 Section 1.6655-5... Short taxable year. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6153-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6153-3 Section 1.6153-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-3 Short taxable years. In the case of a short taxable year of an individual for which a declaration is required to be filed the estimated...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6655-5 Section 1.6655-5... Short taxable year. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including...

  4. Why are very short times so long and very long times so short in elastic waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Guido; Rigamonti, Serena

    2011-01-01

    In a first study of thermoelastic waves, such as in the textbook of Landau and Lifshitz, one might at first glance understand that when the given period is very short, waves are isentropic because heat conduction does not set in, while if the given period is very long, waves are isothermal because there is enough time for thermalization to be thoroughly accomplished. When one pursues the study of these waves further, by the mathematical inspection of the complete thermoelastic wave equation one finds that if the period is very short, much shorter than a characteristic time of the material, the wave is isothermal, while if it is very long, much longer than the characteristic time, the wave is isentropic. One also learns that this fact is supported by experiments: at low frequencies the elastic waves are isentropic, while they are isothermal when the frequencies are so high that can be attained in few cases. The authors show that there is no contradiction between first-glance understanding and the mathematical treatment of the elastic wave equation: for thermal effects very long periods are so short and very short periods are so long.

  5. Inference of Isoforms from Short Sequence Reads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianxing; Li, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    Due to alternative splicing events in eukaryotic species, the identification of mRNA isoforms (or splicing variants) is a difficult problem. Traditional experimental methods for this purpose are time consuming and cost ineffective. The emerging RNA-Seq technology provides a possible effective method to address this problem. Although the advantages of RNA-Seq over traditional methods in transcriptome analysis have been confirmed by many studies, the inference of isoforms from millions of short sequence reads (e.g., Illumina/Solexa reads) has remained computationally challenging. In this work, we propose a method to calculate the expression levels of isoforms and infer isoforms from short RNA-Seq reads using exon-intron boundary, transcription start site (TSS) and poly-A site (PAS) information. We first formulate the relationship among exons, isoforms, and single-end reads as a convex quadratic program, and then use an efficient algorithm (called IsoInfer) to search for isoforms. IsoInfer can calculate the expression levels of isoforms accurately if all the isoforms are known and infer novel isoforms from scratch. Our experimental tests on known mouse isoforms with both simulated expression levels and reads demonstrate that IsoInfer is able to calculate the expression levels of isoforms with an accuracy comparable to the state-of-the-art statistical method and a 60 times faster speed. Moreover, our tests on both simulated and real reads show that it achieves a good precision and sensitivity in inferring isoforms when given accurate exon-intron boundary, TSS and PAS information, especially for isoforms whose expression levels are significantly high.

  6. Short-pulse electromagnetics for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felsen, Leopold B.; Vecchi, G.; Carin, Lawrence; Bertoni, H. L.

    1991-08-01

    Recent developments make it possible to radiate and coherently detect electromagnetic pulses consisting of a few half-cycles of a sine wave having a period on the order of 10 ps. The antennas involved are compact, typically consisting of conducting films on thin dielectric substrates having lateral dimensions of about 2 cm. Short, broadband pulse technology can be used for position sensing, object identification, and for monitoring the state of an object. Such target interrogation may have application to robotics. This possibility is explored here, and an example of the dependence of the scattered pulse on the internal state of an object is presented. The short electromagnetic pulses (SEP) permit position sensing of objects with spatial resolution on the order of 1 mm. They also permit identification of objects and the monitoring of their state. This follows because, depending on its size, shape, and the materials from which it is constructed, an object will exhibit a series of resonant frequencies at which it strongly reflects electromagnetic waves of harmonic time dependence. When illuminated by SEP, having frequency content spread over a wide bandwidth, these resonances will be excited. The resonances appear in the late-time tail of the scattered pulse. This late-time response is almost independent of the orientation of the object, and can therefore be used for identification. For targets that involve conducting bodies with aperture coupling to internal cavities the externally observed resonances can be especially useful in monitoring changes in the internal structure. The illustrative example demonstrating this aspect involves a slit- coupled closed shell with an internal load. If the shell and load are good conductors it is shown that the resulting high-Q resonances are highly sensitive to changes in the locatio of the load.

  7. Assessment of highly active dune mobility in the medium, short and very short term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marina; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan J.; Román-Sierra, Jorge; Tsoar, Haim; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gómez-Pina, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    Dune activity or stability has usually been studied over long time periods; however, this may not reflect changes that occur in the short term, especially for highly active dunefields. Extreme wind conditions that are generated near the Strait of Gibraltar (SW Spain) have given rise to the transgressive Valdevaqueros dunefield. The current work focuses on analyzing the sand drift potential and the evolution of the dune profile in the medium term (months), the short term (days) and the very short term (hours). Topographic data, which were collected with a differential GPS, were interpreted from reconstructed empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The results showed that generally the dune profile presented shifting morphologies, especially around the crest and brink, and a trend towards migration to a gentler steady state. As a result, the leeward side adopted continuous slope variations during the different survey periods, whereas the windward slope did not undergo any significant change. Lateral and vertical displacements were analyzed during a severe easterly sandstorm, when the dune brink experienced an advance migration rate of 1.75 m in 24 h. Sand transport rates of 25.5-36.5 m 3 m - 1 month - 1 , 22.52 m 3 m - 1 day - 1 and 0.93 m 3 m - 1 h - 1 were measured for the medium term, short term and very short term, respectively. These values were compared to the theoretical sand transport rate for Valdevaqueros dune, based on the classic Bagnold equation as well other more recent formulae, to obtain a ratio between the real and the theoretical rates for each study period. These results together with the sand drift potential (up to 10,000 vector units) demonstrate that Valdevaqueros (Tarifa) is a dunefield with one of the highest sand transport capacities in Europe.

  8. Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Chris; Curzon, David; Blackmore, Paul; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) provides adequate sustained hard short protection for AEA batteries with up to 8 cells in series. PTC cannot protect against sustained hard short in AEA batteries with 10 cells or more in series. Protective fused connector is a proven way to protect larger batteries from hard short damage: a) Hard short not credible in unmanned missions; b) However, recommended during ground handling; c) Inexpensive item. Preliminary diode protection scheme has passed manned space safety requirements for high voltage batteries. SCM confirmed fused connector did not affect battery health, however, this affect of hard short on the its long calendar and cycle life performance needs to be verified.

  9. Short- and Middle-Term Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskiy, V.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquakes are commonly believed to result from slip instability along a fault or from formation of a new fracture that is near the direction of maximum shear stress. The behavior of a geomechanical system as it approaches instability, or catastrophic failure, has been described in earlier work by the author [Dubrovskiy, 1984; Dubrovskiy and Sergeev, 2004] as a "short-term universal precursor" theorem. According to this theorem, if the system has the state of the unstable equilibrium at some set of the critical parameters describing it and this set separates areas of the parameters values relevant to a stable state and unstable state of the system then in stable parameters area external load would cause eigen oscillation of the system with frequencies, which will tend to zero if the system approaches unstable equilibrium at the finite critical wavelengths. Thus prior to an earthquake, one should be able to observe slow oscillations with a frequency that tends to zero as the earthquake approaches. In a system where friction is velocity and displacement dependent, the predicted perturbing oscillations are fault-zone trapped waves. They are propagating along fault (their amplitude attenuates exponentially perpendicular to the fault) and perturbing fault slip speed [Li, Leary, Aki, Malin, 1990]. If trapped waves amplitude is growing with time then the process of the fault slip with uniform speed became unstable and slip instability takes place according to principle of the linear instability. Physically it means that energy is pumping from basic state of the uniform fault slip speed to the trapped waves as the disturbance of this state. The dispersion relation of the trapped waves resembles the well known Rayleigh wave equation; however, the right-hand side of the equation is not zero but a term that depends on friction and wave number [Dubrovskiy and Dieterich, 1990]. At the limit of zero frequency, the trapped waves dispersion equation have solution for some

  10. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  11. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.; Cobb, J.; Loew, G.; Morton, P.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Paterson, J.; Pianetta, P.; Raubenheimer, T.; Seeman, J.; Tatchyn, R.; Vylet, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Travish, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.-J.; Schlueter, R.; Xie, M.; Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.

    1994-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a linac coherent light source (LCLS) (C. Pellegrini et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 331 (1993) 223; H. Winick et al., Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, May 1993; C. Pellegrini, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 341 (1994) 326; J. Seeman, SPIE Meet. on Electron Beam Sources of High Brightness Radiation, San Diego, CA, July 1993 [1-4]); it would be a fourth-generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much shorter wavelength than the 240 nm that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3 to 100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high-energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low-gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by self-amplified-spontaneous-emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops (M. Cornacchia and H. Winick (eds.), SLAC Report 92/02; I. Ben-Zvi and H. Winick (eds.), BNL report 49651 [5,6]). The required low-emittance electron beam can be achieved with recently-developed rf photocathode electron guns (B.E. Carlsten, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 285 (1989) 313; J. Rosenzweig and L. Serafini, Proc. IEEE 1993 Particle Accelerator Conf., Washington, DC, 1993 [7,8]). The peak current is increased by about an

  12. Generation of short and intense attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sabih Ud Din

    Extremely broad bandwidth attosecond pulses (which can support 16as pulses) have been demonstrated in our lab based on spectral measurements, however, compensation of intrinsic chirp and their characterization has been a major bottleneck. In this work, we developed an attosecond streak camera using a multi-layer Mo/Si mirror (bandwidth can support ˜100as pulses) and position sensitive time-of-flight detector, and the shortest measured pulse was 107.5as using DOG, which is close to the mirror bandwidth. We also developed a PCGPA based FROG-CRAB algorithm to characterize such short pulses, however, it uses the central momentum approximation and cannot be used for ultra-broad bandwidth pulses. To facilitate the characterization of such pulses, we developed PROOF using Fourier filtering and an evolutionary algorithm. We have demonstrated the characterization of pulses with a bandwidth corresponding to ˜20as using synthetic data. We also for the first time demonstrated single attosecond pulses (SAP) generated using GDOG with a narrow gate width from a multi-cycle driving laser without CE-phase lock, which opens the possibility of scaling attosecond photon flux by extending the technique to peta-watt class lasers. Further, we generated intense attosecond pulse trains (APT) from laser ablated carbon plasmas and demonstrated ˜9.5 times more intense pulses as compared to those from argon gas and for the first time demonstrated a broad continuum from a carbon plasma using DOG. Additionally, we demonstrated ˜100 times enhancement in APT from gases by switching to 400 nm (blue) driving pulses instead of 800 nm (red) pulses. We measured the ellipticity dependence of high harmonics from blue pulses in argon, neon and helium, and developed a simple theoretical model to numerically calculate the ellipticity dependence with good agreement with experiments. Based on the ellipticity dependence, we proposed a new scheme of blue GDOG which we predict can be employed to extract

  13. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  14. INITIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KEPLER SHORT CADENCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Jennifer; Klaus, Todd; McCauliff, Sean

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission offers two options for observations-either long cadence (LC) used for the bulk of core mission science, or short cadence (SC) which is used for applications such as asteroseismology of solar-like stars and transit timing measurements of exoplanets where the 1 minute sampling is critical. We discuss the characteristics of SC data obtained in the 33.5 day long Quarter 1 observations with Kepler which completed on 2009 June 15. The truly excellent time series precisions are nearly Poisson limited at 11th magnitude providing per-point measurement errors of 200 parts-per-million per minute. For extremely saturated stars near seventh magnitude precisions of 40 ppm are reached, while for background limited measurements at 17th magnitude precisions of 7 mmag are maintained. We note the presence of two additive artifacts, one that generates regularly spaced peaks in frequency, and one that involves additive offsets in the time domain inversely proportional to stellar brightness. The difference between LC and SC sampling is illustrated for transit observations of TrES-2.

  15. Challenges in the Management of Short Stature.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Human growth, from fetal life to adolescence, is dynamic and a good marker of health. Growth is a complex process influenced by genetic, hormonal, nutritional and environmental factors, both pre- and postnatally. To date, no international agreement regarding normal height has been established. Auxological parameters are fundamental to investigate potential short stature (SS), either with a known diagnosis, e.g. disproportionate or proportionate, prenatal and/or postnatal onset, or an unknown diagnosis, i.e. idiopathic SS. The incidence/prevalence of SS is difficult to establish. The measurement of choice in children aged <2 years is length, while in those >2 years of age it is height. A number of monogenic diseases that lead to proportionate SS due to either isolated growth hormone deficiency, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, growth hormone insensitivity, primary acid-labile subunit deficiency, primary IGF-1 deficiency, IGF-1 resistance, primary IGF-2 deficiency or primary protease deficiency have been discovered in the last 30 years. In addition, the Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders revised in 2015 includes 436 conditions, with a number of genes of 364. A practical algorithm for the evaluation of SS as well as therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:26649429

  16. [Short bowel syndrome. Still a current problem].

    PubMed

    Calomino, N; Malerba, M; Oliva, G; Palasciano, G; Cappelli, A; Salvestrini, F; Tanzini, G

    1997-01-01

    In the last year the Authors operated two patients presenting with a clinical feature of intestinal infarct. A wide intestinal resection was performed and patients had a residual tract of 40 cm and 50 cm of bowel respectively, later manifesting as short bowel syndrome. It was not possible during the operation to preserve the Baubin valve in one case, in the other one the value had been sacrificed during a previous operation for right colonic malignancy. In the postoperative period, patients were temporarily transferred to the intensive care unit, returning in the surgery ward after few days, and counting total parenteral nutrition with progressive decreasing mixture in calories. Contemporarly enteral nutrition was started slowly increasing the quantity of water, calories and azote administration. In a second time oral diet was started up to completely weaning parenteral and enteral nutrition. At the present patients are enlisted in quarterly follow-up, completely stabilized, and independent from artificial nutrition with a good quality of life. Furthermore a saving of sanitary costs was obtained. PMID:9296596

  17. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    This document is a compilation of summaries describing research efforts in the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP). The SRWCP is sponsored by DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and is field-managed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SRWCP is an integrated basic research program with 18 field research projects throughout the United States. The overall objective of the program is to improve the productivity and increase the cost efficiency of growing and harvesting woody trees and shrubs. In a competitive technical review, 25 projects were chosen to form a new research program. Although some of the original projects have ended and new ones have begun, many of the long-term research projects still form the core of the SRWCP. This document contains individual summaries of each of the 18 research projects in the SRWCP from October 1985 to October 1986. Each summary provides the following information: name and address of the contracting institution, principal investigator, project title, current subcontract or grant number, period of performance, and annual funding through fiscal year 1986. In addition, each summary contains a brief description of the project rationale, objective, approach, status, and future efforts. A list of publications that have resulted from DOE-sponsored research follows many of the summaries.

  18. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  19. Radio Astronomy in Serbia: A Short Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, D.

    In this lecture, I presented a short review of: 1. the brief history of development of radio astronomy in Serbia, and 2. the present state of research and university teaching in Serbia on this interesting and modern field of astronomy. Since 1970's, the continuum observations at the lowest radio frequencies (e.g. 38 MHz) and the Galactic radio loops have been represented the topics of main research interest for the first radio astronomer in Serbia, prof. dr Jelena Milogradov-Turin. In 1983, she introduced Radio astronomy as two semester course at 4th year of studies at Department of astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. In this moment we have radio astronomy group with 5 (mainly younger) researchers from Department of Astronomy and Belgrade Astronomical Observatory. The main fields of research interest are, as a part of tradition, the Galactic radio loops and additionally, the hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants. Our future projects will be connected with radio evolution of nova remnants and planetary nebulae.

  20. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  1. Overview of pediatric short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duro, Debora; Kamin, Daniel; Duggan, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive state occuring as a result of surgical resection or congenital disease of a significant portion of the small intestine . The amount of resection or remaining bowel generally dictates the degree of malabsorption and consequentely the need for specialized enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition (PN). Intestinal failure in the context of SBS is defined as a dependence on PN to maintain minimal energy and fluid requirement for growth in children. Common causes of SBS in infants and children include necrotizing enterocolitis, midgut volvulus, intestinal atresia, and gastroschisis. Early identification of patients at risk for long-term PN dependency is the first step toward avoiding severe complications. Close monitoring of nutritional status, steady and early introduction of enteral nutrition, and aggressive prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections such as central venous catheter sepsis and bacterial overgrowth can significantly improve the prognosis. Intestinal transplantation is an emerging treatment that may be considered when intestinal failure is irreversible and children are experiencing serious complications related to TPN administration. PMID:18667916

  2. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  4. A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Siveter, Derek J.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

  5. Lentiviral delivery of short hairpin RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, N; Haoquan, Wu; Sandesh, Subramanya; Premlata, Shankar

    2009-01-01

    In less than a decade after discovery, RNA interference-mediated gene silencing is already being tested as potential therapy in clinical trials for a number of diseases. Lentiviral vectors provide a means to express short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to induce stable and long-term gene silencing in both dividing and non-dividing cells and thus, are being intensively investigated for this purpose. However, induction of long-term shRNA expression can also cause toxicities by inducing off target effects and interference with the endogenous micro RNA (miRNA) pathway that regulates cellular gene expression. Recently, several advances have been made in the shRNA vector design to mimic cellular miRNA processing and to express multiplex siRNAs in a tightly regulated and reversible manner to overcome toxicities. In this review we describe some of these advances, focusing on the progress made in the development of lentiviral shRNA delivery strategies to combat viral infections. PMID:19341774

  6. Short wave infrared imager cockpit interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of the night-vision goggle (NVG) into vehicle cockpits, the transfer of visual information to the observer became more complex. This problem stems primarily from the fact that the image intensifier tube photocathode was sensitive to much of the visible spectrum. NVGs were capable of sensing and amplifying visible cockpit light, making the observation of the scene outside of the cockpit, the primary use for NVGs, difficult if not impossible. One solution was to establish mutually exclusive spectral bands; a band of shorter wavelengths reserved for transmission of visible information from the cockpit instrumentation to the observer and a longer wavelength region left to the night vision goggle for imaging the night environment. Several documents have been published outlining the night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting performance enabling this approach, seen as necessary for military and civilian aviation. Recent advances in short wave infrared (SWIR) sensor technology make it a possible alternative to the image intensifiers for night imaging application. However, application-specific integration issues surrounding the new sensor type must still be thoroughly investigated. This paper examines the impact of the SWIR spectral sensitivity on several categories of lighting found in vehicle cockpits and explores cockpit integration issues that may arise from the SWIR spectral sensitivity.

  7. The viscosity of short polyelectrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Dora; Cloitre, Michel; Leibler, Ludwik

    2014-03-21

    We consider the viscosity of solutions of highly charged short polyelectrolytes. Our system is a poly(styrene-maleic acid) copolymer solution (SMA) with various added salt concentrations in dilute and semidilute regimes. The SMA solutions show some particular features: (i) variations of the specific viscosity measured for different values of concentration and ionic strength can be rescaled on two universal curves when plotted as a function of the effective volume fraction; (ii) the reduced viscosity is proportional to the Debye length. In order to describe the viscosity of such a system we model the motion of the charged rods considering a simpler system: we replace each charged rod and its corresponding charge cloud by an effective neutral rod. This modified system is yet below the concentrated regime and, at most, steric interactions are left. In the semidilute regime, we model the rescaled rods moving under a mean field potential and obtain a dynamical equation for the orientational tensor, considered small, and the viscosity is derived from it. Within our mean field approach, the effects due to the rod Brownian motion and due to the potential cancel each other and the behavior of the viscosity is explained in terms of the effective volume fraction only. Our predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental results over a wide range of parameters, and suggest a method for obtaining the rotational diffusion constant in the semidilute regime. PMID:24652236

  8. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    PubMed

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. PMID:27297498

  9. Unlocking Short Read Sequencing for Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Timberlake, Sonia C.; Blackburn, Matthew C.; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Alm, Eric J.; Chisholm, Sallie W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Different high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing platforms are currently available but a trade-off currently exists between the cost and number of reads that can be generated versus the read length that can be achieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe an experimental and computational pipeline yielding millions of reads that can exceed 200 bp with quality scores approaching that of traditional Sanger sequencing. The method combines an automatable gel-less library construction step with paired-end sequencing on a short-read instrument. With appropriately sized library inserts, mate-pair sequences can overlap, and we describe the SHERA software package that joins them to form a longer composite read. Conclusions/Significance This strategy is broadly applicable to sequencing applications that benefit from low-cost high-throughput sequencing, but require longer read lengths. We demonstrate that our approach enables metagenomic analyses using the Illumina Genome Analyzer, with low error rates, and at a fraction of the cost of pyrosequencing. PMID:20676378

  10. Retroactive Signaling in Short Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sepulchre, Jacques-Alexandre; Merajver, Sofía D.; Ventura, Alejandra C.

    2012-01-01

    In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles. PMID:22848403

  11. Short Wavelength Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, K.; Blackwell, J. D...; Marin, E. C.; Edwall, D. D...; Rode, J. P.

    1983-11-01

    Short wavelength (λc = 2.5 μm) 32 x 32 HgCdTe focal plane arrays have been fabricated for use in an Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) developed by the Jet Propulsion Labora-tory for NASA. An Imaging Spectrometer provides simultaneous imaging of several spectral bands for applications in the sensing and monitoring of earth resources. The detector material is HgCdTe grown on CdTe substrates using liquid phase epitaxy. Planar processing is used to make photovoltaic detectors on 68 um centers. The detector array is mated to a silicon charge coupled device multiplexer to make hybrid focal plane arrays. Results show high performance detectors with a mean RoA = 9.6 x 107 Ω --cm2 and IleakAge (-100 mV) = 0.037 pA at 120K and near zero background. The yield and uniformity are high. The ratio of the standard deviation of the dc responsivity to the mean is 3% for 98.5% of the pixels. The D1.0 = 1.3 x 1012 cm - âœ"fiz/W at a background of 1013 ph/cm2-s and 120K which is close to the background limited (BLIP) D* of 1.9 x 1012 cm- âœ"Hz/W.

  12. Entropy estimation of very short symbolic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Annick; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Pezard, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    While entropy per unit time is a meaningful index to quantify the dynamic features of experimental time series, its estimation is often hampered in practice by the finite length of the data. We here investigate the performance of entropy estimation procedures, relying either on block entropies or Lempel-Ziv complexity, when only very short symbolic sequences are available. Heuristic analytical arguments point at the influence of temporal correlations on the bias and statistical fluctuations, and put forward a reduced effective sequence length suitable for error estimation. Numerical studies are conducted using, as benchmarks, the wealth of different dynamic regimes generated by the family of logistic maps and stochastic evolutions generated by a Markov chain of tunable correlation time. Practical guidelines and validity criteria are proposed. For instance, block entropy leads to a dramatic overestimation for sequences of low entropy, whereas it outperforms Lempel-Ziv complexity at high entropy. As a general result, the quality of entropy estimation is sensitive to the sequence temporal correlation hence self-consistently depends on the entropy value itself, thus promoting a two-step procedure. Lempel-Ziv complexity is to be preferred in the first step and remains the best estimator for highly correlated sequences.

  13. Mouse mammary tumor biology: a short history.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Kenney, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    For over a century, mouse mammary tumor biology and the associated Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) have served as the foundation for experimental cancer research, in general, and, in particular, experimental breast cancer research. Spontaneous mouse mammary tumors were the basis for studies of the natural history of neoplasia, oncogenic viruses, host responses, endocrinology, and neoplastic progression. However, lacking formal proof of a human mammary tumor virus, the preeminence of the mouse model faded in the 1980s. Since the late 1980s, genetically engineered mice (GEM) have proven extremely useful for studying breast cancer and have become the animal model for human breast cancer. Hundreds of mouse models of human breast cancer have been developed since the first demonstration, in 1984, that the mouse mammary gland could be molecularly targeted and used to test the oncogenicity of candidate human genes. Now, very few scientists can avoid using a mouse model to test the biology of their favorite gene. The GEM have attracted a new generation of molecular and cellular biologists eager to apply their skills to these surrogates of the human disease. Newcomers often enter the field without an appreciation of the origins of mouse mammary tumor biology and the basis for many of the prevailing concepts. Our purpose in writing this short history of mouse mammary tumor biology is to provide a historical perspective for the benefit of the newcomers. If Einstein was correct in that "we stand on the shoulders of giants," the neophytes should meet their giants. PMID:17433908

  14. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  15. Sinusoidal Regge Oscillations from Short Lived Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that a resonance with a large angular life can produce sharp Breit-Wigner peaks in the energy dependence of integral cross sections [1,2]. Here we show that a short-lived resonance whose angular life is of order of one full rotation may produce a different kind of contribution to the integral cross section. This contribution has a sinousoidal form and its frequency is determined by the rotational constant of the complex. As one of the examples, we analyze the Regge oscillations observed in numerical simulations of the F+H2(v=0,j=0,φ=0) ->FH(v'=2,j'=0,φ'=0) + H reaction. In particular, we show that these oscillations are produced by two overlapping resonances located near the transition state and the van der Waals well, respectively [3]. [1] J. H. Macek, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 183202, (2004). [2] Z. Felfli et al., J. Phys. B 39, L353 (2006) [3] D. Sokolovski, D. De Fazio, S. Cavalli and V. Aquilanti, J. Chem. Phys. (2007) (submitted).

  16. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-01

    Background The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30~50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. Results and discussion We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3~4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. Conclusion In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large. PMID:19208116

  17. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  18. [Breakthrough pain and short-acting opioids].

    PubMed

    Beutlhauser, T; Oeltjenbruns, J; Schäfer, M

    2013-06-01

    Conventional opioid therapy consists of the regular administration of extended-release opioids following fixed time intervals and, as needed, the supplemental use of an immediate-release formulation. For the patient needs of such rescue medication, recent studies distinguished different scenarios, such as an inadequate daily opioid dose or time interval (end-of-dose failure) from so-called breakthrough pain where the attacks can suddenly occur either spontaneously (idiopathic pain) or due to certain provocations (incident pain) despite optimal dose adjustment. In line with this time course, a fast and short-lasting elevation of the opioid plasma concentration seems to be reasonable. Although in a recent European survey breakthrough pain attacks in the majority of cancer pain patients were sufficiently treated with immediate-release opioids, currently running clinical trials examine whether the application of transmucosal or intranasal fentanyl with their known reduced time to maximum plasma concentrations show a possible advantage in comparison to immediate-release opioids. In these clinical trials the pain intensity and number of pain episodes were significantly reduced following transmucosal or intranasal fentanyl; however, the magnitude of these effects does not convincingly appear to be clinically relevant. Among other reasons this may be related to the fact that those patients who would perhaps benefit from such treatment have not yet been identified. PMID:23754483

  19. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  20. Psychological functioning in idiopathic short stature.

    PubMed

    Noeker, Meinolf

    2011-01-01

    Living with idiopathic short stature (ISS) may entail significant risks to psychological functioning and quality of life. Apparent inconsistency among study findings can be resolved if methodological differences among study designs are taken into account (i.e., definition of particular endpoints, sample selection from clinic or population, source of report, specific or generic assessment instruments, statistical control of confounders). Some individuals fail and others succeed in mastering the challenges of ISS. The principles of multifinality and equifinality may explain the emergence of a broad variation of individuals with ISS as a result of an interaction of the individual medical and auxological features on the one side, and psychosocial risk and protective factors on the other. As a result, patients may show heterogeneous developmental outcomes ranging from clinical psychopathology to development of resilience. A taxonomy of four distinct pathways of adaptation to ISS is delineated as a basis for case formulation and treatment planning. Psychological intervention in ISS includes counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy and assertiveness training to improve psychological functioning via enhancement of target coping behaviors for critical situations. PMID:21912169

  1. Forecasting medical waste generation using short and extra short datasets: Case study of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of various mathematical modelling methods, while forecasting medical waste generation using Lithuania's annual medical waste data. Only recently has a hazardous waste collection system that includes medical waste been created and therefore the study access to gain large sets of relevant data for its research has been somewhat limited. According to data that was managed to be obtained, it was decided to develop three short and extra short datasets with 20, 10 and 6 observations. Spearman's correlation calculation showed that the influence of independent variables, such as visits at hospitals and other medical institutions, number of children in the region, number of beds in hospital and other medical institutions, average life expectancy and doctor's visits in that region are the most consistent and common in all three datasets. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four non-parametric regression methods were conducted on the collected datasets. The best and most promising results were demonstrated by generalised additive (R(2) = 0.90455) in the regional data case, smoothing splines models (R(2) = 0.98584) in the long annual data case and multilayer feedforward artificial neural networks in the short annual data case (R(2) = 0.61103). PMID:26879908

  2. Short chain fatty acids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Augenlicht, Leonard H; Mariadason, John M; Wilson, Andrew; Arango, Diego; Yang, WanCai; Heerdt, Barbara G; Velcich, Anna

    2002-12-01

    The development of intestinal cancer involves complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. The principal signaling pathway responsible for the initiation of tumor formation, the APC-beta-catenin-TCF4 pathway, regulates both cell proliferation and colonic cell differentiation, but many other intrinsic and extrinsic signals also modulate these cell maturation pathways. The challenge is to understand how signaling and cell maturation are also modulated by nutritional agents. Through gene expression profiling, we have gained insight into the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids regulate these pathways and the differences in response of gene programs, and of the specific regulation of the c-myc gene, to physiological regulators of intestinal cell maturation, such as butyrate, compared with pharmacological regulators such as the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, we used a combination of gene expression profiling of the response of cells in culture to sulindac and the response of the human mucosa in subjects treated with sulindac for 1 month, coupled with a mouse genetic model approach, to identify the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) as an important suppressor of Apc-initiated intestinal tumor formation and a necessary component for tumor inhibition by sulindac. Finally, the mucous barrier, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, is the interface between the luminal contents and the intestinal mucosa. We generated a mouse genetic model with a targeted inactivation of the Muc2 gene that encodes the major intestinal mucin. These mice have no recognizable goblet cells due to the failure of cells to synthesize and store mucin. This leads to perturbations in intestinal crypt architecture, increased cellular proliferation and rates of cell migration, decreased apoptosis and development of adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestine and the rectum. PMID:12468628

  3. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  4. Short term memory for tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Haggard, Patrick; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-23

    Research has shown that unreported information stored in rapidly decaying visual representations may be accessed more accurately using partial report than using full report procedures (e.g., [Sperling, G., 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29.]). In the 3 experiments reported here, we investigated whether unreported information regarding the actual number of tactile stimuli presented in parallel across the body surface can be accessed using a partial report procedure. In Experiment 1, participants had to report the total number of stimuli in a tactile display composed of up to 6 stimuli presented across their body (numerosity task), or else to detect whether or not a tactile stimulus had previously been presented in a position indicated by a visual probe given at a variable delay after offset of a tactile display (i.e., partial report). The results showed that participants correctly reported up to 3 stimuli in the numerosity judgment task, but their performance was significantly better than chance when up to 5 stimuli were presented in the partial report task. This result shows that short-lasting tactile representations can be accessed using partial report procedures similar to those used previously in visual studies. Experiment 2 showed that the duration of these representations (or the time available to consciously access them) depends on the number of stimuli presented in the display (the greater the number of stimuli that are presented, the faster their representation decays). Finally, the results of a third experiment showed that the differences in performance between the numerosity judgment and partial report tasks could not be explained solely in terms of any difference in task difficulty. PMID:18083147

  5. Salt-resistant short antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Harini; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for the development of antibiotics against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, in vivo applications of AMPs remain obscure due to salt and serum mediated inactivation. The high cost of chemical synthesis of AMPs also impedes potential clinical application. Consequently, short AMPs resistant toward salt and serum inactivation are desirable for the development of peptide antibiotics. In this work, we designed a 12-residue amphipathic helical peptide RR12 (R-R-L-I-R-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide) and two Trp containing analogs of RR12 namely RR12Wpolar (R-R-L-I-W-L-I-L-R-L-L-R-amide), and RR12Whydro (R-R-L-I-R-L-W-L-R-L-L-R-amide). Designed peptides demonstrated potent antibacterial activity; MIC ranging from 2 to 8 μM, in the presence of sodium chloride (150 mM and 300 mM). Antibacterial activity of these peptides was also detected in the presence of human serum. Designed peptides, in particular RR12 and RR12Whydro, were only poorly hemolytic. As a mode of action; these peptides demonstrated efficient permeabilization of bacterial cell membrane and lysis of cell structure. We further investigated interactions of the designed peptides with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane permeability barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Designed peptides adopted helical conformations in complex with LPS. Binding of peptides with LPS has yielded dissociation the aggregated structures of LPS. Collectively, these designed peptides hold ability to be developed for salt-resistant antimicrobial compounds. Most importantly, current work provides insights for designing salt-resistant antimicrobial peptides. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 345-356, 2016. PMID:26849911

  6. Short Dynamic Fibrils in Sunspot Chromospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2013-10-01

    Sunspot chromospheres display vigorous oscillatory signatures when observed using chromospheric diagnostics such as the strong Ca II lines and Hα. New high-resolution sunspot observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope show the ubiquitous presence of small-scale, periodic, jet-like features that move up and down. This phenomenon has not been described before. The typical width of these features is about 0.''3 and they display clear parabolic trajectories in space-time diagrams. The maximum extension of the top of the jets is lowest in the umbra, a few 100 km, and progressively longer further away from the umbra in the penumbra, with the longest extending more than 1000 km. These jets resemble the dynamic fibrils found in plage regions but at smaller extensions. Local thermodynamic equilibrium inversion of spectropolarimetric Ca II 8542 observations enabled a comparison of the magnetic field inclination and properties of these short jets. We find that the most extended of these jets also have longer periods and tend to be located in regions with more horizontal magnetic fields. These results are direct observational confirmation of the mechanism of long-period waves propagating along inclined magnetic fields into the solar chromosphere. This mechanism was identified earlier as the driver of dynamic fibrils in plage, part of the mottles in the quiet Sun, and the type I spicules at the limb. The sunspot dynamic fibrils that we report here represent a new class of manifestation of this mechanism, distinct from the transient penumbral and umbral micro-jets reported earlier.

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of Shorts With Different Pads

    PubMed Central

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Reggiani, Carlo; Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort. To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort. Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects’ perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle. Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation. The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes

  8. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    PubMed

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results. PMID:14619154

  9. Seletracetam enhances short term depression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Meehan, Anna L; Rothman, Steven M; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Seletracetam (SEL), an analog of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), decreases seizure activity in a number of epilepsy models and binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A with a higher affinity than LEV. Experiments were performed to determine if SEL, like LEV, reduces the later EPSPs in long trains of stimuli in a manner dependent upon access to the interior of synaptic vesicles and SV2A binding. When hippocampal slices were incubated in 3-30μM SEL for 3h, but not 30 min, the relative amplitude of the CA1 field excitatory synaptic potentials decreased over the course of a train of high frequency stimuli more than for control slices. This short term depression was frequency and dose dependent and largely disappeared when the spontaneous activity during the loading period was removed by cutting the Schaffer collaterals. The SEL effect was also observed in slices loaded during prolonged stimulation at 1Hz, but not 10Hz. Hippocampal slices loaded with both SEL and FM1-43 to visualize synaptic boutons released the FM1-43 in response to prolonged stimulation much more slowly than control slices during prolonged stimulation. Like LEV, SEL produced a frequency-dependent decrement of synaptic transmission that was dependent upon the drug entering recycling synaptic vesicles and compatible with SV2A binding. Previous observations of SV2A binding affinity correlated with the current effect of SEL and the previously reported effect of LEV on synaptic transmission validate SV2A as an extremely attractive target for future antiepileptic drug development. PMID:26320080

  10. SHORT DYNAMIC FIBRILS IN SUNSPOT CHROMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2013-10-10

    Sunspot chromospheres display vigorous oscillatory signatures when observed using chromospheric diagnostics such as the strong Ca II lines and Hα. New high-resolution sunspot observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope show the ubiquitous presence of small-scale, periodic, jet-like features that move up and down. This phenomenon has not been described before. The typical width of these features is about 0.''3 and they display clear parabolic trajectories in space-time diagrams. The maximum extension of the top of the jets is lowest in the umbra, a few 100 km, and progressively longer further away from the umbra in the penumbra, with the longest extending more than 1000 km. These jets resemble the dynamic fibrils found in plage regions but at smaller extensions. Local thermodynamic equilibrium inversion of spectropolarimetric Ca II 8542 observations enabled a comparison of the magnetic field inclination and properties of these short jets. We find that the most extended of these jets also have longer periods and tend to be located in regions with more horizontal magnetic fields. These results are direct observational confirmation of the mechanism of long-period waves propagating along inclined magnetic fields into the solar chromosphere. This mechanism was identified earlier as the driver of dynamic fibrils in plage, part of the mottles in the quiet Sun, and the type I spicules at the limb. The sunspot dynamic fibrils that we report here represent a new class of manifestation of this mechanism, distinct from the transient penumbral and umbral micro-jets reported earlier.

  11. On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

  12. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  13. The future of short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Owing to recent economic and regulatory changes and escalating fuel costs, major airlines have begun to shift their short-haul service to longer, more profitable routes, leaving short-haul operations to rapidly growing commuter airlines. The short-haul routes are currently serviced by small turboprop-powered aircraft. The results of some recent design studies aimed at replacing the turboprops with specialized propeller- and rotor-driven aircraft are discussed. Some potential future designs are illustrated and discussed.

  14. 26 CFR 1.6153-3 - Short taxable years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short taxable years. 1.6153-3 Section 1.6153-3...) INCOME TAXES Time and Place for Paying Tax § 1.6153-3 Short taxable years. In the case of a short taxable year of an individual for which a declaration is required to be filed the estimated tax shall be...

  15. Keeping It Real: Substantive Learning on a Short Calendar

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Many institutions offer courses that last less than a quarter and are a student's sole academic responsibility for that short term. There is an unfortunate and incorrect perception that such short classes cannot be used to teach substantively. At Colorado College, we teach all of our courses in 3.5 wk, including majors' courses in molecular cell biology and related fields. The article presents strategies for exploiting short terms as excellent venues for deep learning in the biological sciences. PMID:18056299

  16. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  17. Whole exome sequencing to identify genetic causes of short stature

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Michael H.; Shen, Yiping; Walvoord, Emily C.; Miller, Timothy C.; Moon, Jennifer E.; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Dauber, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Short stature is a common reason for presentation to pediatric endocrinology clinics. However, for most patients, no cause for the short stature can be identified. As genetics plays a strong role in height, we sought to identify known and novel genetic causes of short stature. Methods We recruited 14 children with severe short stature of unknown etiology. We conducted whole exome sequencing of the patients and their family members. We used an analysis pipeline to identify rare nonsynonymous genetic variants that cause the short stature. Results We identified a genetic cause of short stature in 5 of the 14 patients. This included cases of Floating Harbor syndrome, Kenny-Caffey syndrome, the progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, as well as two cases of the 3-M syndrome. For remaining patients, we have generated lists of candidate variants. Conclusions Whole exome sequencing can help identify genetic causes of short stature in the context of defined genetic syndromes, but may be less effective in identifying novel genetic causes of short stature in individual families. Utilized in the clinic, whole exome sequencing can provide clinically relevant diagnoses for these patients. Rare syndromic causes of short stature may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in pediatric endocrinology clinics. PMID:24970356

  18. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  19. HOW SHORT IS TOO SHORT ACCORDING TO PARENTS OF PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cousounis, Pamela A.; Lipman, Terri H.; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Cucchiara, Andrew J; Grimberg, Adda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Height is a physical trait on a continuum. The threshold between normal and abnormal is arbitrarily set, potentially influencing medical decision-making. We sought to examine parents’ perceptions of adult heights and associated demographic factors. Methods Parents of pediatric primary care patients of various heights completed a one-time survey. Parents answered, “How short is too short?” for adult males and females. Results were summarized as median [interquartile range]. Factors significantly associated with height threshold by simple linear regression were included in a multivariable mixed effects analysis of covariance model. Results 1820 surveys were completed (83% response rate; 1587 female, 231 male). Median threshold height deemed too short for adult females was 56 inches [48, 59] among male respondents and 57 inches [50, 60] among female (p<.05). Median threshold height for adult males was 61 inches among males [60, 64] and females [59, 66] (p<.05). The median of male minus female heights per respondent (delta heights) was 5 [2, 7] inches. Factors found to be significant main effects in a parsimonious model were sex of adult considered, height of respondent, sex of respondent, respondent race, primary care practice, income and having concerns about their child's height. Conclusion Taller acceptable height thresholds were perceived by respondents who were taller, wealthier, white, female, from non-urban practices or who had a personal concern about their child's height. Male heights were expected to be taller than female. Such traits may influence who is concerned and more likely to seek medical treatment for their children. PMID:24936551

  20. Laboratory tests of short intense envelope solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, A.; Clauss, G. F.; Klein, M.; Onorato, M.

    2012-04-01

    Stability of short intense nonlinear wave groups propagating over deep water is tested in laboratory runs which are performed in the facility of the Technical University of Berlin. The strongly nonlinear simulation of quasi-steady nonlinear wave groups within the framework of the Euler equations is used to generate the surface elevation time series at a border of the water tank. Besides, the exact analytic solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is used for this purpose. The time series is then transformed to a wave maker signal with use of a designed transfer algorithm. Wave group propagation along the tank was recorded by 4 distant gauges and by an array of 6 densely situated gauges. This setup allows to consider the wave evolution from 10 to 85 m from the wave maker, and to obtain the wave envelope shape directly from the instrumental data. In the experiments wave groups were characterized by the steepness values up to kAcr < 0.32 and kAtr < 0.24, where k is the mean wavenumber, Acr is the crest amplitude, and Atr is the trough amplitude; and the maximum local wave slope was up to 0.34. Wave breaking phenomenon was not observed in the experiments. Different mean wave numbers and wave groups of different intensities were considered. In some cases the wave groups exhibit noticeable radiation in the course of propagation, though the groups are not dispersed fully. The effect of finite water depth is found to be significant on the wave group stability. Intense wave groups have shorter time of adjustment, what in some sense may help them to manifest their individuality clearer. The experimental tests confirm recent numerical simulations of fully nonlinear equations, where very steep stable single and interacting nonlinear wave groups were reported [1-3]. The quasi-stationary wave groups observed in numerical and laboratory experiments are strongly nonlinear analogues of the nonlinear Schrodinger envelope solitons. The results emphasize the importance of long

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, R.

    2007-07-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.

  2. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes had variations very similar (parallel) to the sunspot cycle, while open flux for > 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  3. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; T. Toledano, Doroteo; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved. PMID:26824467

  4. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  5. The Eras and Trends of Automatic Short Answer Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Steven; Gurevych, Iryna; Stein, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Automatic short answer grading (ASAG) is the task of assessing short natural language responses to objective questions using computational methods. The active research in this field has increased enormously of late with over 80 papers fitting a definition of ASAG. However, the past efforts have generally been ad-hoc and non-comparable until…

  6. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  7. Comparison of de novo short read assemblers on metagenomic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have potentials to revolutionize genomics and biological researches. A flurry of short-read assemblers have been developed recently to facilitate the analysis of the short sequences generated using these technologies. However, none of these assemblers has spec...

  8. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  9. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grandfathered short-spaced stations. 73.213 Section 73.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a) Stations at locations authorized prior to...

  10. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  11. Cytogenetic and Molecular Genetic Characterization of Children with Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    HOVNIK, Tinka; ŠMIGOC SCHWEIGER, Darja; KOTNIK, Primož; KOVAČ, Jernej; BATTELINO, Tadej; TREBUŠAK PODKRAJŠEK, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background The deficiency of SHOX gene (short stature homeobox-containing gene) has been recognized as the most frequent monogenetic cause of short stature. SHOX gene has been associated with short stature in Turner syndrome and Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis as well with non-syndromic idiopathic short stature. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SHOX deletions and mutations in a cohort of Slovenian children with short stature, and to delineate indications for routine SHOX gene mutation screening. Methods and results 40 selected subjects with idiopathic short stature were screened for entire SHOX gene deletion and for mutations in the SHOX gene coding region (exon 2 to 6), together with sequences flanking the exon-intron boundaries. FISH analysis on metaphase and interphase spreads revealed no entire gene deletion. Additionally, no pathogenic point mutations or smaller deletion/duplications were identified in this study group. Conclusions SHOX gene deletions and point mutations are not a common cause of idiopathic short stature in a cohort of Slovenian children with short stature. Therefore, the frequency of SHOX mutations must be much lower as expected based on the reported data.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6016-4 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6016-4 Section 1.6016-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6016-4 Short taxable year. (a) Requirement of... taxable year of 52 or 53 weeks, in the case of a corporation which computes its taxable income...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short taxable year. 1.6655-5 Section 1.6655-5... year. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of section 6655 and these regulations are applicable in the case of a short taxable year (including an initial taxable...

  14. Using Short Stories to Address Eating Disturbances in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.

    2002-01-01

    Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Recovery from Extinction Shortly after Extinction Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Georgina E.; Dobbek, Nick; Nader, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that extinction is new learning. Memory acquisition involves both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) components; however, few studies have examined early phases of extinction retention. Retention of auditory fear extinction was examined at various time points. Shortly (1-4 h) after extinction acquisition…

  16. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars coming to the United States for a period of up...

  17. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  18. A short line segment squirms along a zigzag line.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yang, Xie

    2013-01-01

    When a short straight line segment moves across a zigzag line and is viewed in one's peripheral vision, it appears to exhibit nonrigid squirming motion (the squirm effect). This phenomenon demonstrates that the form, orientation, and motion direction of a short line are influenced by those of a longer one when they are viewed in one's peripheral vision. PMID:23755359

  19. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  20. 75 FR 19285 - Short-Term Lending Program (STLP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...This final rule governs the Short Term Lending Program (STLP), which provides financial assistance in the form of guarantees of short- term revolving lines of credit from Participating Lenders (PLs) to disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBEs) and other certified small and disadvantaged business (SDBs) in connection with transportation-related contracts at the local, state and federal levels.......