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Sample records for akari space telescope

  1. AKARI: space infrared cooled telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Salama, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    AKARI, formerly known as ASTRO-F, is the second Japanese space mission to perform infrared astronomical observations. AKARI was launched on 21 February 2006 (UT) and brought into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 700 km by a JAXA M-V rocket. AKARI has a telescope with a primary-mirror aperture size of 685 mm together with two focal-plane instruments on board: the Infrared Camera (IRC), which covers the spectral range 2-26 μm and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), which operates in the range 50-180 μm. The telescope mirrors are made of sandwich-type silicon carbide, specially developed for AKARI. The focal-plane instruments and the telescope are cooled by a unique cryogenic system that kept the telescope at 6K for 550 days with 180 l super-fluid liquid Helium (LHe) with the help of mechanical coolers on board. Despite the small telescope size, the cold environment and the state-of-the-art detectors enable very sensitive observations at infrared wavelengths. To take advantage of the characteristics of the sun-synchronous polar orbit, AKARI performed an all-sky survey during the LHe holding period in four far-infrared bands with FIS and two mid-infrared bands with IRC, which surpasses the IRAS survey made in 1983 in sensitivity, spatial resolution, and spectral coverage. AKARI also made over 5,000 pointing observations at given targets in the sky for approximately 10 min each, for deep imaging and spectroscopy from 2 to 180 μm during the LHe holding period. The LHe ran out on 26 August 2007, since which date the telescope and instrument are still kept around 40K by the mechanical cooler on board, and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations with IRC are now being continued in pointing mode.

  2. Cryogenic silicon carbide mirrors for infrared astronomical telescopes: lessons learnt from AKARI for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao

    2013-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has good thermal conductivity, high stiffness, and a relatively low specific density, all of which are advantageous to the application to telescopes operating at cryogenic temperatures. The first Japanese astronomical infrared space mission AKARI, which was launched in 2006 February and completed the second generation all-sky survey at 6 bands from mid- to far-infrared, employed a 700mm cryogenic telescope made of specially developed SiC. It was a sandwich-type of SiC composed of a lightweight porous core and a dense chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coat to decrease the specific density and facilitate machining for achieving the required surface figure accuracy. Measurements with an interferometer of 160-mm sample mirrors demonstrated that the AKARI mirror SiC had good thermal stability down to cryogenic temperatures (~6K), while the mirror support of the compact design became the primary source of the wave-front errors of the AKARI telescope. Taking the advantage of the heritage of the AKARI telescope development as well as ESA's Herschel telescope, we are planning the next infrared space mission SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) of a 3.2m cooled telescope in participation of ESA using SiC-based materials. In this presentation, we summarize the development of AKARI SiC telescope and present the development activities of the SPICA telescope from the point of view of SiC being as the mirror material for cryogenic space infrared telescopes.

  3. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  4. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  5. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  6. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  7. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  8. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  11. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  13. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  15. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  16. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  17. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  19. Why Space Telescopes Are Amazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    One of humanity's best ideas has been to put telescopes in space. The dark stillness of space allows telescopes to perform much better than they can on even the darkest and clearest of Earth's mountaintops. In addition, from space we can detect colors of light, like X-rays and gamma rays, that are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere I'll talk about NASA's team of great observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory} and how they've worked together to answer key questions: When did the stars form? Is there really dark matter? Is the universe really expanding ever faster and faster?

  20. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurre, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will employ magnetic torque controllers, which make use of the Earth's magnetic field augmented by four reaction wheels. DC torques are easily allowed for, but variations, orbit by orbit, can result in excessive wheel speeds which can excite vibratory modes in the telescope structure. If the angular momentum from aerodynamic sources exceeds its allocation of 100 Nms, the excess has to come out of the maneuvering budget since the total capacity of the momentum storage system is fixed at 500 Nms. This would mean that maneuvers could not be made as quickly, and this would reduce the amount of science return. In summary, there is a definite need for a model that accurately portrays short term (within orbit) variations in density for use in angular momentum management analyses. It would be desirable to have a simplified model that could be used for planning purposes; perhaps applicable only over a limited altitude range (400 to 700 km) and limited latitude band.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  2. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  3. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  4. Space Schmidt telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. D.; Smith, H. J.; Henize, K. G.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The complete survey takes in 3627 fields, each 4.87 deg in diameter, arranged in a hexagonal pattern superimposed on the celestial equatorial coordinate system. The declination bands are spaced every 3 deg, 20 min. The optical instrument is a folded all-reflecting Schmidt system with an aperture of 0.74 m, a focal length of 2.0 m (f/2.7), a circlar field with a diameter of 4.87 deg, and a limiting image diameter of less than 2 arcsec over the entire field. The detector is an electrographic camera having a photocathode diameter of 170 mm. In discussing the telescope structure, it is pointed out that the optical support system is to be of graphite-epoxy construction. The focal tolerance (the most critical optical tolerance) is to be + or - 12 microns. Regarding contamination control, it is expected that with appropriate design it will be possible to operate in sunlight for observations in a restricted portion of the sky, at least more than 90 deg from the sun, depending on the geometry and reflectivity of the platform or spacecraft configuration.

  5. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  6. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, Jason

    2014-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be the most powerful space telescope that we've ever constructed, and it is a critical step towards answering the top science questions outlined in both the 2000 and 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Surveys. In this presentation, I'll first briefly highlight the science capabilities, current status, and science timeline of JWST out to its 2018 launch. I'll then describe several frontier science opportunities that are uniquely enabled by combining JWST's high spatial resolution and unprecedented IR throughput with the Thirty Meter Telescope's spectral capabilities and visible throughput. Like Hubble and current 10 meter telescopes on the ground, the combination of these two facilities will be a great 1-2 punch to usher in a new era in UVOIR astrophysics.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  10. Super-size space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.; Warner, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A class of space telescopes for astronomical observations with a resolution and collecting capability more than one order of magnitude better than what is expected from the 2.4 m Space Telescope is discussed. To this purpose aplanatic two-mirror systems of coplanar primary/secondary mirror arrangements with approximately 45 deg angles of incidence and an overall diameter of about 100 m have been designed and analyzed. The main advantages of these systems are their compactness and the associated minimization of the moment of inertia in two axes. Two opposing secondary arrangements, one forward-reflecting and the other backward-reflecting are analyzed and compared.

  11. Colliding Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope looks deep within the violent center where the two Antennae Galaxies were merging. The Hubble's high resolution and sensitivity reveals the birth of young star clusters formed in the collision. New Hubble images of young star clusters help investigators put the evolutionary sequence into the right order. The Hubble Space Telescope images are: (1) zoom into the antennae galaxies; (2) galaxy merger evolution sequence; (3) the formation of the antennae pair; and (4) artist's conception of the collision of Milky-Way Galaxy with the Andromeda.

  12. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. The observatory has a large primary mirror 6.5 meter in diameter, designed to deliver high angular resolution in the infrared, combined with a large collecting area. The telescope optics are designed and fabricated to operate at the cryogenic temperatures (,...,40 k) required for an IR optimized telescope. The primary mirror is also a segmented mirror architecture. The observatory is designed to achieve cryogenic operating temperature via passive cooling, facilitated by a five-layer sunshield which keeps the telescope in the sun's shadow. Since the observatory dimensions exceed the Ariane 5 fairing size, the observatory has to be stowed for launch and deployed following launch. The observatory will be launched into an L2 orbit that provides continuous science operations and a benign thermal environment for optical stability.

  14. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  15. The Large Space Telescope program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The 1980's should see the establishment of the first major observatory in space. This observatory will contain a long-lifetime reflecting telescope of about 120 inches clear aperture. Advantages of an orbiting telescope include the elimination of astronomical seeing effects and improvements in resolving power. The small images and darker sky will permit low-dispersion spectrographs to avoid more of the contaminating background. The crispness of the images also has potential for very efficient high-dispersion spectroscopy. A further advantage lies in the accessibility of all the sky and nearly around-the-clock observing.

  16. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/. PMID:17503900

  17. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  18. Space infrared telescope facility project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    The functions undertaken during this reporting period were: to inform the planetary science community of the progress and status of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Project; to solicit input from the planetary science community on needs and requirements of planetary science in the use of SIRTF at such time that it becomes an operational facility; and a white paper was prepared on the use of the SIRTF for solar system studies.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtalik, F. S.

    1988-01-01

    The role of systems engineering in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) development program at NASA Marshall is reviewed. The scientific objectives and overall characteristics of the HST are recalled, and particular attention is given to the early identification and correction of problems in the optical system, the pointing-control system (maneuvering and fine guidance), the rate-gyro assembly, reaction-wheel isolation, the battery reconditioning circuit, and optical cleanliness.

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  4. Space Telescope performance and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The verification philosophy for the Space Telescope (ST) has evolved from years of experience with multispacecraft programs modified by the new factors introduced by the Space Transportation System. At the systems level of test, the ST will undergo joint qualification/acceptance tests with environment simulation using Lockheed's large spacecraft test facilities. These tests continue the process of detecting workmanship defects and module interface incompatibilities. The test program culminates in an 'all up' ST environmental test verification program resulting in a 'ready to launch' ST.

  5. Detectors for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will operate within the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. The scientific investigations described here define the measurement capabilities of the telescope, but they do not imply that those particular observations will be made. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  10. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J.

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy between 5 and 29 microns. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  14. Holographic spectrograph for space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Crenshaw, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    A spectrograph is described which is made with dual Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) which are identical and parallel to each other. Both optics are collimating transmission HOEs with focal points that are at equal and opposite distances from each other. The identical HOEs are formed by the interference of a plane wave parallel to the grating plane with an off-axis spherical wave originating in the near-field. In playback, a spectrum can be formed from a point source radiator placed at the position of the recording spherical wave. If played back at an arbitrary wavelength other than the recording wavelength, the image exhibits coma. This spectrograph is intended for an unusual configuration where many nearly monochromatic sources of known wavelengths are separately positioned relative to the first HOE. The special application is in a space telescope capable of resolving spectra from habitable planets within 10 pc. HOEs of this type could be fabricated on membrane substrates with a low areal mass and stowable on rolls for insertion into the second Lagrange point. The intended application is for a 50 x 10 meter class primary objective holographic space telescope with 50 x 10 m HOEs in the spectrograph. We present a computer model of the spectrograph.. Experimental results are compared with predictions from theory. A single HOE is shown to perform over a wider bandwidth and is demonstrated.

  15. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; McCaughrean, Mark J.; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Stockman, H. S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-04-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth Sun Lagrange point. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-IR camera, a near-IR multiobject spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 < ; < 5.0 μ m, while the mid-IR instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 < ; < 29 μ m. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The key objective of The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme is to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The key objective of The Assembly of Galaxies theme is to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The key objective of The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme is to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The key objective of the Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme is to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems. Within these themes and objectives, we have derived representative astronomical observations. To enable these observations, JWST consists of a telescope, an instrument package, a spacecraft, and a sunshield. The telescope consists of 18 beryllium segments, some of which are deployed. The segments will be brought into optical alignment on-orbit through a process of periodic wavefront sensing and control. The instrument package contains the four science instruments and a fine guidance sensor. The spacecraft provides pointing, orbit maintenance, and communications. The sunshield

  17. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Franx, Marijn; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; McCaughrean, Mark J.; Mountain, Matt; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier; Wright, Gillian S.

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-IR camera, a near-IR multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager that will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 < λ < 5.0 μm, while the mid-IR instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 < λ < 29 μm. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems. To enable these science goals, JWST consists of a telescope, an instrument package, a spacecraft, and a sunshield. The telescope primary mirror is made of 18 beryllium segments, some of which are deployed. The segments will be brought into optical alignment on-orbit through a process of periodic wavefront sensing and control. The instrument package contains the four science instruments and a fine guidance sensor. The spacecraft provides pointing, orbit maintenance, and communications. The sunshield provides passive thermal control. The JWST operations plan is based on that used for previous space observatories, and the majority of JWST

  18. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  19. Milestone reached for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The primary mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope - is complete after engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, US, put in place the craft's 18th and final mirror segment.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  1. Seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space (STARS) triply reflecting telescope: a space instrument for astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Badiali, M; Amoretti, M

    1997-12-01

    We describe the characteristics of the wide-field, triply reflecting telescope adopted for the European Space Agency project STARS (seismic telescope for astrophysical research from space), operating in the visible and UV range. PMID:18264439

  2. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  3. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    A study is in-process to develop a multivariable parametric cost model for space telescopes. Cost and engineering parametric data has been collected on 30 different space telescopes. Statistical correlations have been developed between 19 variables of 59 variables sampled. Single Variable and Multi-Variable Cost Estimating Relationships have been developed. Results are being published.

  4. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  5. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  7. Analysis of space telescope data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Multiple Access (MA) communication link of the Space Telescope (ST) is described. An expected performance bit error rate is presented. The historical perspective and rationale behind the ESTL space shuttle end-to-end tests are given. The concatenated coding scheme using a convolutional encoder for the outer coder is developed. The ESTL end-to-end tests on the space shuttle communication link are described. Most important is how a concatenated coding system will perform. This is a go-no-go system with respect to received signal-to-noise ratio. A discussion of the verification requirements and Specification document is presented, and those sections that apply to Space Telescope data and communications system are discussed. The Space Telescope System consists of the Space Telescope Orbiting Observatory (ST), the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope Operation Control Center. The MA system consists of the ST, the return link from the ST via the Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite system to White Sands, and from White Sands via the Domestic Communications Satellite to the STOCC.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  10. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being positioned for release from the Space Shuttle orbiter by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) being raised to a vertical position in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  14. TV system considerations for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrance, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Space Telescope, designed as a permanent observatory in space, will be launched into orbit, maintained, and refurbished by the Space Shuttle. One of the primary instruments to fly with the telescope is the f/24 Camera. The camera's mission requirements and their impact on the choice and design of a television system are discussed, along with the system engineering aspects of the TV system design and spacecraft design. An SEC type television camera tube was selected as the primary data acquisition sensor, because of its ability to accommodate exposure times of several hours with only modest cooling.

  15. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  16. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goals are to detect and characterize the first galaxies, and study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST is a segmented mirror telescope operating at approx.40K, a temperature achieved by passive cooling of the observatory, via a large, 5-layer membrane-based sunshield. We will review the scientific capabilities of JWST in the context of their synergy with survey facilities, and with the next generation of ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes. We will also present an overview of the observatory design, and report on recent progress in the construction of the observatory and its science instruments.

  17. Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located on the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus, Baltimore, Maryland. The institute is responsible to NASA's GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER for the scientific operations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It was established by NASA, following a recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences, and is operated by ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY (AURA) under contract ...

  18. Teaching a Course about the Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Thornton

    1983-01-01

    "Astronomy with the Space Telescope" is a course designed to show scientists/engineers how this instrument can make important advances in astrophysics, planetology, and geophysics. A description of the course (taught to 11 students working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and sample student paper on black holes are provided.…

  19. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2004-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Fiight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Deployment-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hubble Space Telescope after being released into orbit, with the high gain anternas and solar arrays deployed and the aperture doors opened. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13-meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  1. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  2. Neutral Buoyancy Test - NB23 - Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Included in the plans for the space station was a space telescope. This telescope would be attached to the space station and directed towards outerspace. Astronomers hoped that the space telescope would provide a look at space that is impossible to see from Earth because of Earth's atmosphere and other man made influences. In an effort to make replacement and repairs easier on astronauts the space telescope was designed to be modular. Practice makes perfect as demonstrated in this photo: an astronaut practices moving modular pieces of the space telescope in the Neutral

  3. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator - Hubble Space Telescope Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This photograph shows STS-61 crewmemmbers training for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission in the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. The MSFC NBS provided an excellent environment for testing hardware to examine how it would operate in space and for evaluating techniques for space construction and spacecraft servicing.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  5. Survey of cost models for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-05-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts, and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. There is a lot of confusion and wrong information for space telescopes. Cost estimating relationships based on primary mirror diameter vary by an order of magnitude. Cost estimating relationships based only on mass lack sufficient detail to support concept analysis and can lead to inaccurate conclusions by encouraging excessively complex and technologically immature solutions. Similarly, using ground-based models leads to incorrect conclusions. This work surveys current and historical published cost models for space telescopes while attempting to interpret them in a common logical framework to enable a systematic intercomparison.

  6. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  7. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  8. The Infrared Telescope in Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/Japanese Space Agency Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) mission was one of seven experiments on the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). This satellite was launched on a Japanese H-2 expendable launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center on March 18, 1995 and was retrieved by the NASA space shuttle the following January for refurbishment and reuse. The IRTS itself consisted of a super-fluid liquid helium-cooled telescope with four infrared focal plane science instruments that operated simultaneously. During its one-month lifetime before the liquid helium was exhausted the IRTS mapped 7% of the sky. These data are now being released to the general astronomical community through IPAC at the California Institute of Technology.

  9. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  10. Telescope protection algorithm for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Class, B. F.; Welch, R. V.; Wiltsee, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a proposed on-board Telescope Protection Algorithm (TPA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This TPA consists of hardware and software capable of performing both fail-operational and fail-safe modes of operation. In the fail-operational mode, each ephemeris load and slew/dwell command sequence is checked on-board before use. The slew command monitor detects unallowable slew/dwell commands and transfers control to an algorithm which slews to and maintains a safe telescope orientation while preserving precise attitude determination and control. This fail-operational mode is also given the authority to autonomously restart the slew/dwell sequence at a point beyond the faulty command. The fail-safe system consists of software and hardware which detects impending earth, moon, or sun avoidance zone violations and activates a backup hardware safe hold mode. The subject TPA and relevant sensor complement were designed for the SIRTF mission; however, this system can easily be used as a basis for failure detection and correction in a wide range of other missions.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Briefing: HST Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video release presents a broad overview of the science that is now possible as a result of the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Dr. Ed Weiler (HST Program Scientist, NASA Headquarters), Dr. Dave Leckrone (HST, Senior Project Scientist, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)), Dr. John Trauger (Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) Principal Investigator, Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL)), Dr. Chris Burrows (WFPC2 Co-Investigator, Space Telescope Science Inst.(STSci)-European Space Agency (ESA), Jim Crocker ((Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement) COSTAR Team Leader, STSci), Dr. Holland Ford (COSTAR Project Scientist, Johns Hopkins Univ., STSci), and Dr. Duccio Machetto (European Space Agency (ESA)) give brief presentations, which feature images of stars and galaxies taken from the ground, from WFPC1 (prior to the servicing mission), and from WFPC2 (after the servicing mission). The main theme of the discussions center around the spherical aberration that was found in the images prior to servicing and the corrected images seen without the aberration following servicing. A question and answer period rounds out the press conference, with questions posed from scientific journalists at GSFC and other NASA centers.

  12. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  13. Natural environment design requirements for the Space Telescope (revision A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, G. S.; Wright, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The natural environment design requirements for the Space Telescope are presented. Because the Space Telescope is to be carried as cargo to orbital altitudes in the space shuttle bay, orbital environment impacts are the main concern.

  14. Natural environment design requirements for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, G. S.; Wright, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The natural environment design requirements for the Large Space Telescope are presented. Because the Large Space Telescope is to be carried as cargo to orbital altitudes in the space shuttle bay, orbital environment impacts are emphasized.

  15. SIRTF - The Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Michael W.; Eisenhardt, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The complexity and variety of objects in the infrared universe have been revealed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). Further exploration of this universe will be possible with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which offers vast improvements in sensitivity and resolution over IRAS. SIRTF's planned capabilities and current status are briefly reviewed.

  16. Observing New Worlds with Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 explanets are known and there are approximately 1200 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new results enabled by the current and future space telescopes.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope: Battery Capacity Trend Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. Gopalakrishna; Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. Capacity trend data is presented which suggests HST battery replacement is required in 2005-2007 or sooner.

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope : observatory desciption and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Keyur C.; Spath, Stuart R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, the last of the four Great Observatories commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was successfully launched on August 25, 2003 from Kennedy Space Center. The engineering systems for Spitzer were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, and Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. This paper provides an overview of Spitzer, a technical description of all the engineering subsystems, and the associated challenges involved in developing them to satisfy the mission requirements. In addition, this paper describes the performance of the engineering subsystems during the In-Orbit Checkout phase, the Science Verification phase, and the early portions of the Nominal Mission.

  19. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  20. Optimal Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan; Brugarolas, Paul; Boussalis, Dhemetrio

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the focal-plane calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope by use of the instrument pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, which was described in Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane (NPO-40798), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 62. To recapitulate: In the IPF Kalman filter, optimal estimates of both engineering and scientific focal-plane parameters are obtained simultaneously, using data taken in each focalplane survey activity. The IPF Kalman filter offers greater efficiency and economy, relative to prior calibration practice in which scientific and engineering parameters were estimated by separate teams of scientists and engineers and iterated upon each other. In the Spitzer Space Telescope application, the IPF Kalman filter was used to calibrate 56 frames for precise telescope pointing, estimate >1,500 parameters associated with focal-plane mapping, and process calibration runs involving as many as 1,338 scientific image centroids. The final typical survey calibration accuracy was found to be 0.09 arc second. The use of the IPF Kalman filter enabled a team of only four analysts to complete the calibration processing in three months. An unanticipated benefit afforded by the IPF Kalman filter was the ability to monitor health and diagnose performance of the entire end-to-end telescope-pointing system.

  1. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Paclesas, William S.; Ritz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an observatory designed to survey the high-energy gamma-ray sky. The primary instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), provides observations from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), provides observations of transients from less than 10 keV to 40 MeV. We describe the design and performance of the instruments and their subsystems, the spacecraft and the ground system.

  2. Tilt-Sensitivity Analysis for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papalexandris, Miltiadis; Waluschka, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A report discusses a computational-simulation study of phase-front propagation in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in which space telescopes would transmit and receive metrological laser beams along 5-Gm interferometer arms. The main objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of a beam with respect to fluctuations in pointing of the beam. The simulations account for the effects of obscurations by a secondary mirror and its supporting struts in a telescope, and for the effects of optical imperfections (especially tilt) of a telescope. A significant innovation introduced in this study is a methodology, applicable to space telescopes in general, for predicting the effects of optical imperfections. This methodology involves a Monte Carlo simulation in which one generates many random wavefront distortions and studies their effects through computational simulations of propagation. Then one performs a statistical analysis of the results of the simulations and computes the functional relations among such important design parameters as the sizes of distortions and the mean value and the variance of the loss of performance. These functional relations provide information regarding position and orientation tolerances relevant to design and operation.

  3. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Close to Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with its normal routine temporarily interrupted, is about to be captured by the Space Shuttle Columbia prior to a week of servicing and upgrading by the STS-109 crew. The telescope was captured by the shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 space walks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. Launched March 1, 2002, the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field Planetary Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This illustration is a diagram of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Wide Field Planetary Camera (WF/PC), one of the five Scientific Instruments. The WF/PC uses a four-sided pyramid mirror to split a light image into quarters. It then focuses each quadrant onto one of two sets of four sensors. The sensors are charge-coupled detectors and function as the electronic equivalent of extremely sensitive photographic plates. The WF/PC operates in two modes. The Wide-Field mode that will view 7.2-arcmin sections of the sky, and the Planetary mode that will look at narrower fields of view, such as planets or areas within other galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  6. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave; McEnery, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Gamma Ray Astronomy as enhanced by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope and Radio Astronomy as a synergistic relationship. Gamma rays often represent a significant part of the energy budget of a source; therefore, gamma-ray studies can be critical to understanding physical processes in such sources. Radio observations offer timing and spatial resolutions vastly superior to anything possible with gamma-ray telescopes; therefore radio is often the key to understanding source structure. Gamma-ray and radio observations can complement each other, making a great team. It reviews the Fermi Guest Investigator (GI) program, and calls for more cooperative work that involves Fermi and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of ten radio telescopes.

  7. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  8. Concepts for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, M.; Tenerelli, D.

    1996-12-01

    In collaboration with NASA GSFC, we have examined a wide range of potential concepts for a large, passively cooled space telescope. Our design goals were to achieve a theoretical imaging sensitivity in the near-IR of 1 nJy and an angular resolution at 1 micron of 0.06 arcsec. Concepts examined included a telescope/spacecraft system with a 6-m diameter monolithic primary mirror, a variety of telescope/spacecraft systems with deployable primary mirror segments to achieve an 8-m diameter aperture, and a 12-element sparse aperture phased array telescope. Trade studies indicate that all three concept categories can achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, but that considerable technology development is required to bring any of the concepts to fruition. One attractive option is the system with the 6-m diameter monolithic primary. This option achieves high sensitivity without telescope deployments and includes a stiff structure for robust attitude and figure control. This system capitalizes on coming advances in launch vehicle and shroud technology, which should enable launch of large, monolithic payloads into orbit positions where background noise due to zodiacal dust is low. Our large space telescope study was performed by a consortium of organizations and individuals including: Domenick Tenerelli et al. (Lockheed Martin Corp.), Roger Angel et al. (U. Ariz.), Tom Casey et al. (Eastman Kodak Co.), Jim Gunn (Princeton), Shel Kulick (Composite Optics, Inc.), Jim Westphal (CIT), Johnny Batache et al. (Harris Corp.), Costas Cassapakis et al. (L'Garde, Inc.), Dave Sandler et al. (ThermoTrex Corp.), David Miller et al. (MIT), Ephrahim Garcia et al. (Garman Systems Inc.), Mark Enright (New Focus Inc.), Chris Burrows (STScI), Roc Cutri (IPAC), and Art Bradley (Allied Signal Aerospace).

  9. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction a nd ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror. Keywords: precision deployment, hinge joint, latch joint, deployable structures, fabrication, space telescopes, optical instruments, microdynamics.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  11. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  13. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  14. Spacecraft momentum management procedures. [large space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L. C.; Davenport, P. B.; Sturch, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques appropriate for implementation onboard the space telescope and other spacecraft to manage the accumulation of momentum in reaction wheel control systems using magnetic torquing coils are described. Generalized analytical equations are derived for momentum control laws that command the magnetic torquers. These control laws naturally fall into two main categories according to the methods used for updating the magnetic dipole command: closed loop, in which the update is based on current measurements to achieve a desired torque instantaneously, and open-loop, in which the update is based on predicted information to achieve a desired momentum at the end of a period of time. Physical interpretations of control laws in general and of the Space Telescope cross product and minimum energy control laws in particular are presented, and their merits and drawbacks are discussed. A technique for retaining the advantages of both the open-loop and the closed-loop control laws is introduced. Simulation results are presented to compare the performance of these control laws in the Space Telescope environment.

  15. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  16. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  17. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Europe discusses role in future space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Prof. Roger Bonnet said it was important for Europe to make an informed decision in the next few years on whether to support NASA's proposed New Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a follow-on programme to the Hubble Space Telescope. NGST's observing capabilities will far extend the reach of existing ground or space-based telescopes, providing the opportunity for the first time to look back through eons of time to the very first stars and galaxies in the Universe. With an aperture greater than four metres, NGST could also provide European astronomers with a crucial complement to some of ESA's planned future space projects, like FIRST (the Far InfraRed Submillimetre Telescope) and Planck (a mission to study the cosmic background radiation field). NASA and ESA are already involved in preliminary NGST studies but Europe has yet to make a commitment to support the programme. NASA wants to start formal development in 2003, with a launch currently planned for 2007. This week's conference at Liege in Belgium was the first opportunity for many astronomers to exchange ideas and compare technological notes on a Next Generation Space Telescope. It also provided a forum for representatives of Europe's space industry to discuss the technological challenges presented by such a project. Prof. Bonnet said: "From recent experience it is clear that the best scientific results in astronomy and astrophysics are obtained by coordinated observations in different wavelength ranges. "The joint effort of the European space programme and of the various large European ground observatories currently allows European astronomers to be on the front-line of astrophysics research."He said that ESA - if supported programmatically and financially by its member states - is willing to discuss with NASA a mutually fruitful form of NGST participation. But Prof. Bonnet stressed that for this type of collaboration to be approved it remained crucial that the European share contained both scientific and

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Resolves Volcanoes on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993.

    Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes.

    Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity.

    The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium.

    The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the

  20. Investigating Space Weather Events Impacting the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Leo Y.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Stowers, Kennis; Lowrance, Patrick; Stewart, Andrzej; Travis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamical process in the space environment has increased dramatically. A relatively new field of study called "Space Weather" has emerged in the last few decades. Fundamental to the study of space weather is an understanding of how space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections impact spacecraft in varying orbits and distances around the Sun. Specialized space weather satellite monitoring systems operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allow scientists to predict space weather events affecting critical systems on and orbiting the Earth. However, the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an orbit far outside the areas covered by those space weather monitoring systems. This poses a challenge for the Spitzer's Mission Operations Team in determining whether space weather events affect Spitzer.

  1. A catalogue of AKARI FIS BSC extragalactic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Gyorgy Balazs, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    We combined photometric data of about 70 thousand point sources from the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor Bright Source Catalogue with AllWISE catalogue data to identify galaxies. We used Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) to classify our sources. The classification was based on a 6D parameter space that contained AKARI [F65/F90], [F90/F140], [F140/F160] and WISE W1-W2 colours along with WISE W1 magnitudes and AKARI [F140] flux values. Sources were classified into 3 main objects types: YSO candidates, evolved stars and galaxies. The training samples were SIMBAD entries of the input point sources wherever an associated SIMBAD object was found within a 30 arcsecond search radius. The QDA resulted more than 5000 AKARI galaxy candidate sources. The selection was tested cross-correlating our AKARI extragalactic catalogue with the Revised IRAS-FSC Redshift Catalogue (RIFSCz). A very good match was found. A further classification attempt was also made to differentiate between extragalactic subtypes using Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The results of the various methods showed that we can confidently separate cirrus dominated objects (type 1 of RIFSCz). Some of our “galaxy candidate” sources are associated with 2MASS extended objects, and listed in the NASA Extragalactic Database so far without clear proofs of their extragalactic nature. Examples will be presented in our poster. Finally other AKARI extragalactic catalogues will be also compared to our statistical selection.

  2. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2014. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA.

  3. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.; JWST Science Working Group

    2005-12-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns.

  4. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer / Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  5. Advanced camera for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Bartko, Frank; Crocker, James H.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Brown, Robert A.; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Hartig, George F.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Sparks, William B.; White, Richard L.; Broadhurst, Tom; Illingworth, Garth; Kelly, Tim; Woodruff, Robert A.; Cheng, Edward; Kimble, Randy A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Neff, Susan G.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George

    1996-10-01

    The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope will have three cameras. The first, the Wide Field Camera, will be a high throughput (45% at 700 nm, including the HST optical telescope assembly), wide field (200' X 204'), optical and I-band camera that is half critically sampled at 500 nm. The second, the High Resolution Camera (HRC), is critically sampled at 500 nm, and has a 26' X 29' field of view and 25% throughput at 600 nm. The HRC optical path will include a coronagraph which will improve the HST contrast near bright objects by a factor of approximately 10. The third camera is a far ultraviolet, Solar-Blind Camera that has a relatively high throughput (6% at 121.6 nm) over a 26' X 29' field of view. The Advanced Camera for Surveys will increase HST's capability for surveys and discovery by at least a factor of ten.

  6. Observations of Mars using Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Philip B.; Clancy, R. Todd; Lee, Steven W.; Kahn, Ralph; Zurek, Richard; Martin, Leonard; Singer, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The lack of a continuous record of Martian meteorology or of volatile cycles on Mars for extended periods of several Martian years seriously hinders efforts to understand the physics of the Martian atmosphere and surface system. The spacecraft observations are limited to only a few isolated time periods, and the Earth based record is limited by the relatively short periods surrounding oppositions when telescopic observations can yield useful data. To remedy this situation, the authors have embarked on a three year program of Mars observations using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Several scientific investigations are being carried out using the images, including: a study of the albedo variations; unit mapping of spectral reflectances; determination of optical depths due to aerosols and condensates; a study of the properties of condensate clouds and hoods; comparison of surface and atmospheric features; observation of size and shape of the polar caps; and investigation of surface atmospheric phenomena.

  7. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer/Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  8. Locking and releasing system in space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijian; Dong, Jihong; Li, Wei; Zhao, Weiguo

    2014-09-01

    Space telescope locking and releasing system is one of the most important part in aerospace. It can provide the part in the spacecraft from being under attack. In this letter, the developing status and primary characteristics of several locking and releasing system in recent years were summarized. The main locking and releasing system can be part with pyrotechnic device and un-pyrotechnic device. The paper introduces the system and the way that the device released by compared the pyrotechnic and the un-pyrotechnic device. In the way of comparing the different device, the letter made the point that each of these device had its advantages that should been developed, and the disadvantages that should been improved. These analyses will provide references for the design of the locking and releasing system in the future of telescope research.

  9. Spica: the next generation infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Nakagawa, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present an overview of SPICA, the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, a world-class space observatory optimized for mid- and far-IR astronomy (from 5 to ~210 μm) with a cryogenically cooled ~3.2 m telescope (<6 K). Its high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in both photometry and spectroscopy modes will enable us to address a number of key problems in astronomy. SPICA's large, cold aperture will provide a two order of magnitude sensitivity advantage over current far-IR facilities (λ > 30μm wavelength). In the present design, SPICA will carry mid-IR camera, spectrometers and coronagraph (by JAXA institutes) and a far-IR imager FTS-spectrometer, SAFARI (~34-210 μm, provided by an European/Canadian consortium lead by SRON). Complementary instruments such as a far-IR/submm spectrometer (proposed by NASA) are also being discussed. SPICA will be the only space observatory of its era to bridge the far-IR wavelength gap between JWST and ALMA, and carry out unique science not achievable at visible or submm wavelengths. In this contribution we summarize some of the scientific advances that will be made possible by the large increase in sensitivity compared to previous infrared space missions.

  10. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. The scientific investigations described here define the measurement capabilities of the telescope, but they do not imply that those particular observations will be made. JWST is a facility-class mission, so most of the observing time will be allocated to investigators from the international astronomical community through competitively-selected proposals.

  11. Lightweight deformable mirrors for future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Keith

    This thesis presents a concept for ultra-lightweight deformable mirrors based on a thin substrate of optical surface quality coated with continuous active piezopolymer layers that provide modes of actuation and shape correction. This concept eliminates any kind of stiff backing structure for the mirror surface and exploits micro-fabrication technologies to provide a tight integration of the active materials into the mirror structure, to avoid actuator print-through effects. Proof-of-concept, 10-cm-diameter mirrors with a low areal density of about 0.5 kg/m2 have been designed, built and tested to measure their shape-correction performance and verify the models used for design. The low cost manufacturing scheme uses replication techniques, and strives for minimizing residual stresses that deviate the optical figure from the master mandrel. It does not require precision tolerancing, is lightweight, and is therefore potentially scalable to larger diameters for use in large, modular space telescopes. Other potential applications for such a laminate could include ground-based mirrors for solar energy collection, adaptive optics for atmospheric turbulence, laser communications, and other shape control applications. The immediate application for these mirrors is for the Autonomous Assembly and Reconfiguration of a Space Telescope (AAReST) mission, which is a university mission under development by Caltech, the University of Surrey, and JPL. The design concept, fabrication methodology, material behaviors and measurements, mirror modeling, mounting and control electronics design, shape control experiments, predictive performance analysis, and remaining challenges are presented herein. The experiments have validated numerical models of the mirror, and the mirror models have been used within a model of the telescope in order to predict the optical performance. A demonstration of this mirror concept, along with other new telescope technologies, is planned to take place during

  12. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  13. Data management for Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, G. R., Jr.; Rasser, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The data management system for the Large Space Telescope (LST) must be capable of meeting requirements of 160 million bits per 95 min orbit with a bit error rate of less than 0.00001 for data. The system will be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System of the Space Tracking and Data Network. The on-board system includes a general purpose computer that controls the vehicle as a stable observation platform and the array of instruments used for data collection. The ground-based system comprises a Mission Operations Center (MOC), a Science Institute where instrument data is processed, and a communications service for the space and point-to-point data flow. The allocation of hardware and software between on-board and ground-based components to achieve design objectives of maximum flexibility at minimum cost is discussed.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Spacecraft Overview Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    This Kennedy Space Center video release presents the third part of a press conference held at Goddard Space Flight Center on Jan. 13, 1994. The session is moderated by Randee Exler (News Chief, GSFC) and includes presentations by Ken Ledbetter (HST Program Manager, NASA Headquarters), Frank Cepollina (HST Project Manager for Flight Systems and Servicing, GSFC) and Joe Rothenberg (Director, HST Flight Projects, GSFC) that discuss pre-flight testing and training, on-orbit servicing, highlights, and the status of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A question and answer period follows the presentations, after which three short highlight videos are presented that include actual footage of on-orbit servicing, galactic images taken by the HST, and pre-flight preparation and construction.

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope Scientific Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the five Scientific Instruments (SI's) to be flown on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) which is planned to be launched by the Space Transportation System in the last half of 1986. Concentration is on the testing experience for each of the instruments both at the instrument level and in conjunction with the other instruments and subsystems of the HST. Since the Acceptance/Flight Qualification Program of the HST is currently underway a description of the test and verification plans to be accomplished prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and pre-launch tests plans prior to launch are provided. The paper concludes with a brief description of anticipated orbital performance.

  16. Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Acuna, Nadine; Beamesderfer, Michael; Ewin, Audrey; Fettig, Rainer; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use in the near-infrared region on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. The JWST environment requires cryogenic operation at 35K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-oxide-insulated (SOI) silicon wafers. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x200 p. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes a multi- layer metal deposition and patterning of shutter electrodes and magnetic pads, reactive ion etching (NE) of the front side to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, followed by a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form W e s and relieve shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition and patterning is used to form back electrodes. Shutters are actuated using a magnetic force and latched using an electrostatic force. . . . KEYWORDS: microshutter, MEMS, RIE, DRIE, micro-optics, near inbred, space telescope

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancitters, G. W., Jr.; Bless, R. C.; Dolan, J. F.; Elliot, J. L.; Robinson, E. L.; White, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide dynamic range, broad wavelenth coverage, time resolution in the microsecond region, and polarimetric capability. Here, the scientific requirements for the instrument are examined, the unique design features of the photometer are explored, and the improvements to be expected over the performance of ground-based instruments are projected.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Randy; Miller, Jim; Leisgang, Tom

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes one of the most comprehensive models ever developed for a spacecraft electrical power system (EPS). The model was developed for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to evaluate vehicle power system performance and to assist in scheduling maintenance and refurbishment missions by providing data needed to forecast EPS power and energy margins for the mission phases being planned. The EPS model requires a specific mission phase description as the input driver and uses a high granularity database to produce a multi-orbit power system performance report. The EPS model accurately predicts the power system response to various mission timelines over the entire operational life of the spacecraft.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Galilean Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.

    One of the premier areas of scientific return from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of solar system objects has been studies of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Because these objects are unresolvable in most ground-based observations, HST's spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy of their surfaces, atmospheres, and electrodynamic interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere have provided unique results. This talk will review highlights of the science results from HST observations of the Galilean satellites, including discovery of auroral emissions at the poles of Ganymede, the recent discovery of molecular sulfur in the Pele plume on Io, and the presence of SO2 in the surface of Callisto.

  20. Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope- GLAST Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), and the instrumentation that will be on the spacecraft: Large Area Telescope (LAT) and GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The presentation revierws in detail the LAT instrument.

  1. Webb Telescope Backplane Arrives at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    Webb Telescope's Backplane arrived at Joint Base Andrews on Monday, August 24, 2015 aboard a U.S. Air Force C-5 cargo plane. The Backplane, inside the Space Telescope Transporter for Air Road and S...

  2. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  3. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have three instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, and the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. I review the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Space Telescope - Eye on the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Space Telescope, which is to be put into orbit by the Space Shuttle in 1985, is described with attention to the design characteristics and fabrication processes of its optics and the five scientific instruments that will be mounted at the focal plane, behind the primary mirror. The primary mirror is fabricated from Ultra Low Expansion Glass, weighed 907 kg as a blank and took three and a half years to grind and polish to a deviation of no more than 0.000025 mm from the ideal surface. The instruments carried are the Wide Field Planetary Camera, which employs CCD detectors, the Faint Object Camera, the Faint Object Spectrograph, for use at visible and UV wavelengths, the UV High Resolution Spectrograph for 1100-2300 A wavelengths, and the High Speed Photometer for the study of time-dependent brightness fluctuations.

  7. Glancing incidence telescopes for space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Design optimization is reported for glancing telescopes of increased collecting areas. Considered are nested geometries for X-ray and extreme ultraviolet telescopes, each of which generates only one singular principal surface. In the case of the X-ray telescope, the field curvature of the outer telescope serves as a standard and the focus of each of the inner telescopes is made coplanar by a slight descrease in the collecting area of each of the inner telescopes. In the case of the EUV telescope, a slight change in the maximum slope angle of the inner telescope makes the field curvatures coincide. Five concentric X-ray telescopes form a collecting area of approximately 900 sq cm, and a nested EUV telescope consisting of two concentric telescopes produces a collecting area of about 45 sq cm.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope and the space shuttle problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented on oversight on recent problems with the Hubble space telescope and the space shuttle. The question of testing versus a test's costs, risks, and information yield are discussed as well as, lessons learned in management. The Subcommittee reviewed NASA's quality control procedures, the adequacy of Congressional and Office of Management and Budget support, and government's verification responsibilities. Oral and written testimony from NASA management and pertinent contractors is included.

  9. Asteroid Detection with the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D.; Shah, R.; Johnson, J.; Pearce, E.; Lambour, R.; Faccenda, W.

    2013-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) is a 3.5 m wide field-of-view system developed for DARPA by MIT Lincoln Laboratory to advance the nation's capabilities in space situational awareness. In addition to the national interest in identifying and cataloging man-made space objects, there is a growing concern for near-Earth asteroid identification and tracking. MIT is developing a program to detect near-Earth asteroids, as an extension of the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) survey, to identify potentially hazardous near-Earth objects, and to extend the catalog of known asteroids to smaller sizes (< 140 m). MIT believes SST's capability to detect asteroids on size scales as small as 5-10 m is well suited to provide NASA with a sample of small asteroids of interest for its proposed mission to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids as a stepping-stone to further manned exploration of the Solar System. The Keck Institute for Space Studies (Brophy et al. 2012), studied the feasibility of asteroid capture into lunar orbit as a destination for additional investigation. A major requirement of such an effort is the development of a sample of suitable asteroids, a job that SST is uniquely able to achieve by means of its capacity for search rate and sensitivity. The SST also brings the capability of high speed photometry at rates of 100 Hz to 1 kHz; we present initial observations of asteroids using the photometers.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE RESOLVES VOLCANOES ON IO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993. Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes. Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity. The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium. The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced

  11. Shaped pupil design for future space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Zimmerman, Neil; Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Several years ago at Princeton we invented a technique to optimize shaped pupil (SP) coronagraphs for any telescope aperture. In the last year, our colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invented a method to produce these non-freestanding mask designs on a substrate. These two advances allowed us to design SPs for two possible space telescopes for the direct imaging of exoplanets and disks, WFIRST-AFTA and Exo-C. In December 2013, the SP was selected along with the hybrid Lyot coronagraph for placement in the AFTA coronagraph instrument. Here we describe our designs and analysis of the SPs being manufactured and tested in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed at JPL.We also explore hybrid SP coronagraph designs for AFTA that would improve performance with minimal or no changes to the optical layout. These possibilities include utilizing a Lyot stop after the focal plane mask or applying large, static deformations to the deformable mirrors (nominally for wavefront correction) already in the system.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-EarthMoon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate orbit determination (OD) solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cmsec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope Orbit Determination Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Sungpil; Rosales, Jose; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to study and answer fundamental astrophysical questions from an orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point, 1.5 million km away from Earth. This paper describes the results of an orbit determination (OD) analysis of the JWST mission emphasizing the challenges specific to this mission in various mission phases. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers during launch and early orbit phase and transfer orbit phase are required for the spacecraft to reach L2. These three MCC maneuvers are MCC-1a at Launch+12 hours, MCC-1b at L+2.5 days and MCC-2 at L+30 days. Accurate OD solutions are needed to support MCC maneuver planning. A preliminary analysis shows that OD performance with the given assumptions is adequate to support MCC maneuver planning. During the nominal science operations phase, the mission requires better than 2 cm/sec velocity estimation performance to support stationkeeping maneuver planning. The major challenge to accurate JWST OD during the nominal science phase results from the unusually large solar radiation pressure force acting on the huge sunshield. Other challenges are stationkeeping maneuvers at 21-day intervals to keep JWST in orbit around L2, frequent attitude reorientations to align the JWST telescope with its targets and frequent maneuvers to unload momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels. Monte Carlo analysis shows that the proposed OD approach can produce solutions that meet the mission requirements.

  14. Astronomers, Congress, and the Large Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanle, P. A.

    1985-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) project was initiated near the end of the Apollo program and immediately encountered fiscal contraints. Planned as a long-term facility, the HST had to be continually justified to the public, astronomers and Congress from 1973 onward. Budgetary restraints caused design reductions which for a while threatened the practicality of the HST and changed it from a pressurized, manned unit to an automatic mode, teleoperated, intermittently visited spacecraft. It is noted that numerous exaggerations were made of both the power of the HST for scientific research and the total support of the astronomical community during promotion of the HST program, although the HST is the most powerful visual wavelength telescope ever to be built due to its unique operating environment. NASA's consistent and steadily more detailed definitions of the design features and missions of the HST proved to be a decisive factor in repeated requests for information by funding committees who were deliberating in the presence of severe fiscal difficulties.

  15. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dustenshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.5m) cold (50K) telescope with four instruments, capable of imaging and spectroscopy from 0.6 to 27 microns wavelength.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  17. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  18. STS-31: Hubble Space Telescope Lift to Vertical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The footage shows the lifting of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to a vertical position in the Kennedy Space Center. HST is a 2.4-meter reflecting telescope that will be deployed in low-Earth orbit (600 kilometers) by the crew of the space shuttle Discovery (STS-31) on 25 April 1990.

  19. Wavelet Analysis of Space Solar Telescope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi-An; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Jing-Yu; Ning, Shu-Nian

    2003-12-01

    The scientific satellite SST (Space Solar Telescope) is an important research project strongly supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Every day, SST acquires 50 GB of data (after processing) but only 10GB can be transmitted to the ground because of limited time of satellite passage and limited channel volume. Therefore, the data must be compressed before transmission. Wavelets analysis is a new technique developed over the last 10 years, with great potential of application. We start with a brief introduction to the essential principles of wavelet analysis, and then describe the main idea of embedded zerotree wavelet coding, used for compressing the SST images. The results show that this coding is adequate for the job.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Data and Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol A.

    2015-08-01

    The general public is enthusiastic about astronomy and in particular the research and associated imagery produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST Education and Outreach program (EPO) offers myriad resources for education and also engagement by the public in the research endeavor (hubblesite.org). One facet of this landscape is the opportunity to participate in Citizen Science projects. There are many flavors of citizen science and those discussed here are focussed on producing research results through the collaboration and activity of volunteer members of the public who conduct tasks that only can be accomplished through human endeavor. This paper touches upon several projects based on HST data and reviews a few others that are derived from the archives at STScI covering several different astrophysics areas.

  1. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope observations of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Philip B.; Clancy, Todd; Lee, Steve; Kahn, Ralph; Zurek, Richard; Martin, Leonard; Singer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) afforded the possibility of resolving features as small as 100 km on the Martian surface even when it is at the far point of its orbit. Therefore it is ideally suited for monitoring seasonal changes on the red planet. The objectives research include: the study of Martian dust storms; use of images obtained through different filters to study the spectral reflectance of regions on the Martian surface; use of ultraviolet images and spectra to measure the amount of ozone in the planet's atmosphere as a function of location of the planet; use of images to study changes in the albedo of the Mars surface; and use of Planetary Camera images to study Martian clouds and to measure the opacity of the atmosphere.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope Station-keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is planned to be launched in 2011 to the Sun- Earth L2 libration point. The resultant delta-Vs (dV) from momentum unloads will perturb the orbit and necessitate frequent station-keeping maneuvers. The station-keeping dV budget is highly sensitive to the direction of the resultant dV vector. A simple spacecraft reorientation prior to each momentum unload will allow some control over the direction of the resultant dV vector. For each inertial momentum vector direction, an optimum spacecraft attitude is determined which gives a resultant dV vector that requires the least amount of station-keeping dV. Using this procedure, the station-keeping dV budget for JWST can be reduced by 60%.

  4. Uranus's auroras observed from Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    New observations from the Hubble Space Telescope provide the first ever images of Uranus's auroras. The new observations, described by Lamy et al., are also the first unambiguous detections of Uranus's auroras since they were first discovered using the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which few by the planet in 1986. Auroras arise from the solar wind's interaction with a planet's magnetosphere. Uranus's magnetosphere, which is not well studied, is unusual because the planet's magnetic axis is both offset and sharply tilted with respect to the planet's spin axis. The newly detected auroras, seen on the dayside of the planet in November 2011, are quite different from Earth's—Uranus's auroras were faint dots of light that lasted online a few minutes, unlike the dancing colored curtains organized along rings of emissions around Earth's magnetic poles, intensified on the nightside and lasting for hours. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/ 2012GL051312, 2012)

  5. Surface analysis of space telescope material specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Daneshvar, K.

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative data on Space Telescope materials which were exposed to low Earth orbital atomic oxygen in a controlled experiment during the 41-G (STS-17) mission were obtained utilizing the experimental techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and ellipsometry (ELL). The techniques employed were chosen with a view towards appropriateness for the sample in question, after consultation with NASA scientific personnel who provided the material specimens. A group of eight samples and their controls selected by NASA scientists were measured before and after flight. Information reported herein include specimen surface characterization by ellipsometry techniques, a determination of the thickness of the evaporated metal specimens by RBS, and a determination of trace impurity species present on and within the surface by PIXE.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this sturning image provided by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Omega Nebula (M17) resembles the fury of a raging sea, showing a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen gas and small amounts of other elements such as oxygen and sulfur. The nebula, also known as the Swan Nebula, is a hotbed of newly born stars residing 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The wavelike patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from the young massive stars, which lie outside the picture to the upper left. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this photograph. The green represents an even hotter gas that masks background structures. Various gases represented with color are: sulfur, represented in red; hydrogen, green; and oxygen blue.

  7. Mirror Technology Development at MSFC for the Next Generation Space Telescope and Other Space Telescope Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large-aperture low-areal-density mirrors are critical to the success of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as well as other related space missions such as the Space Based Laser (SBL). Currently fabrication technology has demonstrated areal densities of 50 kg/sq m. NASA and its DOD partners are conducting a series of risk reduction projects to demonstrate mirror fabrication technology for mirror systems with areal densities of 15 kg/sq m. This talk will present an overview of these risk reduction experiments.

  8. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Whitt, Tom; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. The on-orbit HST batteries were manufactured on an expedited basis after the Challenger Shuttle Disaster in 1986. The original design called for the HST to be powered by six 50 Ah Nickel Cadmium batteries, which would have required a shuttle mission every 5 years for battery replacement. The decision to use NiH2 instead has resulted in a longer life battery set which was launched with HST in April 1990, with a design life of 7 years that has now exceeded 14+ years of orbital cycling. This chart details the specifics of the original HST NiH2 cell design. The HST replacement batteries for Service Mission 4, originally scheduled for Spring 2005, are currently in cold storage at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SM4 battery cells utilize slurry process electrodes having 80% porosity.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  11. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss the top 10 astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  12. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  13. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  14. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) is a segmented, cryogenic telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. In September of 2002, NASA selected prime contractor Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to build the observatory including management of the OTE. NGST is teamed with subcontractors Ball Aerospace, Alliant Techsystems (ATK). and Kodak. The team has completed several significant design, technology, architecture definition, and manufacturing milestones in the past year that are summarized in this paper.

  16. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Spies on 'Black Eye'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Residing roughly 17 million light years from Earth, in the northern constellation Coma Berenices, is a merged star system known as Messier 64 (M64). First cataloged in the 18th century by the French astronomer Messier, M64 is a result of two colliding galaxies and has an unusual appearance as well as bizarre internal motions. It has a spectacular dark band of absorbing dust in front of its bright nucleus, lending to it the nickname of the 'Black Eye' or 'Evil Eye' galaxy. Fine details of the dark band can be seen in this image of the central portion of M64 obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Appearing to be a fairly normal pinwheel-shaped galaxy, the M64 stars are rotating in the same direction, clockwise, as in the majority of galaxies. However, detailed studies in the 1990's led to the remarkable discovery that the interstellar gas in the outer regions of M64 rotates in the opposite direction from the gas and stars in the irner region. Astronomers believe that the oppositely rotating gas arose when M64 absorbed a satellite galaxy that collided with it, perhaps more than one billion years ago. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  19. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  20. Astronaut Hoffman replaces fuse plugs on Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman sees to the replacement of fuse plugs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first of five space walks. Thunderclouds are all that is visible on the dark earth in the background.

  1. Radio astronomers, X-ray astronomers and the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longair, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the Space Telescope and the study of objects in the radio and X-ray wavebands, particularly extragalactic objects, are discussed. The scientific objectives of a number of projects which involve observations with the Space Telescope are described.

  2. Exploring the Universe with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A general overview is given of the operations, engineering challenges, and components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Deployment, checkout and servicing in space are discussed. The optical telescope assembly, focal plane scientific instruments, wide field/planetary camera, faint object spectrograph, faint object camera, Goddard high resolution spectrograph, high speed photometer, fine guidance sensors, second generation technology, and support systems and services are reviewed.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Kepler Mission and Space Telescope Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned over the course of several space telescope mission and instrument developments spanning two decades. These projects involved astronomical telescopes developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and were designed to further our understanding of the Universe. It is hoped that the lessons drawn from these experiences may be of use to future mission developers.

  4. Two suggested configurations for the Chinese space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-Qiang; Cui, Xiang-Qun

    2014-09-01

    China will establish a 2-meter space-based astronomical telescope. Its main science goals are performing a sky survey for research about dark matter and dark energy, and high resolution observations. Some experts suggest that this space telescope should be installed inside the Chinese space station. In accord with this suggestion we put forward our first configuration, i.e., to adopt a coudé system for this telescope. This coudé system comes from the Chinese 2.16m telescope's coudé system, which includes a relay mirror so that excellent image quality can be obtained. In our second configuration, we suggest that the whole space telescope fly freely as an independent satellite outside the space station. When it needs servicing, for example, changing instruments, refilling refrigerant or propellant, etc., this space telescope can fly near or even dock with the core space station. Although some space stations have had accompanying satellites, the one we propose is a space telescope that will be much larger than other accompanying satellites in terms of weight and volume. On the basis of the second configuration, we also put forward the following idea: the space station can be composed of several large independent modules if necessary.

  5. Space-based radio telescopes and an orbiting deep-space relay station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    Foremost among the candidates for early utilization of the Shuttle-launched self-deployable structures are the space-based radio telescopes. Several space-based telescopes are examined including an orbiting VLBI terminal, an orbiting submillimeter telescope, and a large ambient deployable IR telescope. Particular consideration is given to the high-gain Orbiting Deep-Space Relay Station for communication with deep-space probes. Details of deployable antenna technology are discussed.

  6. High resolution spectrograph for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Boggess, A.; Heap, S. R.; Maran, S. P.; Smith, A. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Bottema, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution spectrograph (HRS) for ultraviolet astronomy with the Space Telescope will provide a spectral resolution of approximately 120,000 over a nominal wavelength range of 110-320 nm, together with a spatial resolution of about 0.25 arc seconds. The two detectors will consist of 512-element Digicons with cesium telluride and cesium iodide photocathodes, respectively. Photoelectrons in transit between the photocathodes and the diodes within the Digicons can be deflected in two axes with 12-bit resolution. This feature facilitates a design that emphasizes reliability since (once a hermetic seal is opened in orbit), only two moving parts, a grating carrousel and a shutter, are required for regular operation of the HRS. The instrument will be controlled by a computer in the spacecraft. The scientific objectives of the HRS investigation relate to interstellar matter in our own and nearby galaxies, physical processes of stellar mass loss and mass transfer, chemical abundances, bright quasars and Seyfert galaxy nuclei, and solar system phenomena.

  7. Qualification tests of the space telescope PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PAMELA Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment which will investigate the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and other cosmological problems through precise cosmic-ray measurements. The apparatus is built around a permanent magnetic spectrometer equipped with a double-sided silicon microstrip tracking system and surrounded by a scintillator anticoincidence system. Several detectors are used in parallel for particle identification: a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter, followed by a scintillator shower tail catcher, and a transition radiation detector made up of carbon fibre radiators and proportional straw tubes. Fast scintillators are used for Time-Of-Flight measurements and to provide the primary trigger. A neutron detector is finally provided to extend the range of particle measurements to very high energies. PAMELA will be operated on-board of the Resurs-DK1 satellite, which will be put into a semi-polar orbit in 2004 by a Soyuz rocket. Purpose of this paper is to report about the mechanical, thermal and electro-diagnostic tests aimed to space qualify the PAMELA telescope before the launch.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, J. J.; Westphal, James A.; Light, Robert M.; Currie, Douglas G.; Groth, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    New high spatial resolution observations of the material around Eta Carinae, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera, are presented. The star Eta Carinae is one of the most massive and luminous stars in the Galaxy, and has been episodically expelling significant quantities of gas over the last few centuries. The morphology of the bright central nebulosity (the homunculus) indicates that it is a thin shell with very well defined edges, and is clumpy on 0.2 arcsec (about 10 to the 16th cm) scales. An extension to the northeast of the star (NN/NS using Walborn's 1976 nomenclature) appears to be a stellar jet and its associated bow shock. The bow shock is notable for an intriguing series of parallel linear features across its face. The S ridge and the W arc appear to be part of a 'cap' of emission located to the SW and behind the star. Together, the NE jet and the SW cap suggest that the symmetry axis for the system runs NE-SW rather than SE-NW, as previously supposed. Overall, the data indicate that the material around the star may represent an oblate shell with polar blowouts, rather than a bipolar flow.

  9. Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Bearing Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S.; Esper, J.; Pan, J.; Decker, J.

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.

  10. Keeping the Hubble Space Telescope in focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin; Lallo, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a Ritchie-Chrétien optical design with a main primary concave mirror followed by a convex secondary. The focus is determined by the position of each of these two mirrors. The truss containing them is made of graphite epoxy which has very low thermal expansion. Nevertheless, temperature variations do cause the mirror separation to vary by several microns within an orbit. Additionally, outgassing of water vapor causes a long-term shrinkage which soon after launch in 1990 varied by more than 2 microns per month. This necessitated adjusting the position of the secondary mirror every few months. Currently this rate is greatly reduced and adjustments are needed less than once per year. The focus is monitored monthly to continually assess the need for such adjustments. The measurements have been used to develop models to predict the focus at times between measurements to assist in the analysis of observations. Detailed focus knowledge is of value in photometry, coronagraphy and image deconvolution. The various focus models that have been applied so far are described with an evaluation of their performance. Continuing attempts to refine the model will be discussed.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope - First Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Space Shuttle mission STS-61 was the first of several planned servicing missions for HST, intended to periodically replace failed components and upgrade scientific instruments with improved versions to keep the telescope viable and productive throughout its planned 15-year lifetime. This First Servicing Mission was also intended to correct several design flaws that were detected shortly after the launch of HST. There were three overall mission objectives for the STS-61 repair mission: 1) To Restore the Planned Scientific Capabilities: One complexity of the First Servicing Mission was the necessity for adding optical elements in the light path to correct the spherical aberration. These corrective optics were required to provide the quantitative science capability to enable key scientific programs to be carried out as originally planned. The addition of the COSTAR and the installation of WFPC2 both contributed to recovering these capabilities. 2) To Restore the Reliability of Vehicle Systems: Failed or degraded components had depleted some of the original subsystem redundancy, which had to be restored to allow continued science operations until the next servicing mission in 1997. Anomalous components that required servicing included the solar arrays, gyroscope sensing units, gyroscope electronics, magnetometers, solar array drive electronics, and electrical fuses. 3) To Validate the On-Orbit Servicing Concept for HST: Validation of the concept of on-orbit servicing as the way to achieve HST's full 15-year life was required to provide a foundation for future servicing missions.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of Eta Carinae

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, J.J.; Westphal, J.A.; Light, R.M.; Currie, D.G.; Groth, E.J. Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA Maryland Univ., College Park Princeton Univ., NJ )

    1991-08-01

    New high spatial resolution observations of the material around Eta Carinae, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera, are presented. The star Eta Carinae is one of the most massive and luminous stars in the Galaxy, and has been episodically expelling significant quantities of gas over the last few centuries. The morphology of the bright central nebulosity (the homunculus) indicates that it is a thin shell with very well defined edges, and is clumpy on 0.2 arcsec (about 10 to the 16th cm) scales. An extension to the northeast of the star (NN/NS using Walborn's 1976 nomenclature) appears to be a stellar jet and its associated bow shock. The bow shock is notable for an intriguing series of parallel linear features across its face. The S ridge and the W arc appear to be part of a 'cap' of emission located to the SW and behind the star. Together, the NE jet and the SW cap suggest that the symmetry axis for the system runs NE-SW rather than SE-NW, as previously supposed. Overall, the data indicate that the material around the star may represent an oblate shell with polar blowouts, rather than a bipolar flow. 26 refs.

  13. An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions 2015 update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.; Baldauf, Brian; Makowski, David; Rafanelli, Gerald L.

    2015-09-01

    In 2014 we presented a concept for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that was assembled on orbit in 3 stages, growing from a 4x12 meter telescope in Stage 1, to a 12-meter filled aperture in Stage 2, and then to a 20-meter filled aperture in Stage 3. Stage 1 is launched as a fully functional telescope and begins gathering science data immediately after checkout on orbit. This observatory is then periodically augmented in space with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope over the years to a 20-meter space telescope. In this 2015 update of EST we focus upon three items: 1) a restructured Stage 1 EST with three mirror segments forming an off-axis telescope (half a 12-meter filled aperture); 2) more details on the value and architecture of the prime focus instrument accommodation; and 3) a more in depth discussion of the essential in-space infrastructure, early ground testing and a concept for an International Space Station testbed called MoDEST. In addition to the EST discussions we introduce a different alternative telescope architecture: a Rotating Synthetic Aperture (RSA). This is a rectangular primary mirror that can be rotated to fill the UV-plane. The original concept was developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems for non-astronomical applications. In collaboration with Raytheon we have begun to explore the RSA approach as an astronomical space telescope and have initiated studies of science and cost performance.

  14. AKARI/FIS Mapping of the ISM-Wind Bow Shock around α Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Yamamura, Issei; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki

    2008-12-01

    We present 10' × 50'scan maps around an M supergiant αOri at 65, 90, 140, and 160μm obtained with the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Higher spatial resolution data with the exact analytic solution permit us to fit the de-projected shape of the stellar-wind bow shock around αOri to have a stand-off distance of 4'.8, position angle of 55° and inclination angle of 56°. The shape of the bow shock suggests that the velocity of αOri with respect to the local medium is v* = 40 nH-1/2, where nH is the hydrogen nucleus density at αOri. We found that the local medium is of nH = 1.5 to 1.9 cm-3 and the velocity of the local flow is at 11km s-1 by using the most recent astrometric solutions for αOri under the assumption that the medium local to αOri is moving away from the Orion OB 1 association. AKARI images may also reveal avortex ring due to instabilities on the surface of the bow shock, as demonstrated by numerical models. This research exemplifies the potential of AKARI All-Sky data as well as follow-up observations with Herschel Space Telescope and Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy for this avenue of research in revealing the nature of the interaction between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium.

  15. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  16. Progress on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    I will describe the scientific program anticipated for the James Webb Space Telescope and the progress in its construction. When the JWST was conceived in 1995 it was expected to make its greatest contributions in the study of the first objects to form after the Big Bang, in the evolution of galaxies, and in the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems. Since then, the age-distance-redshift relation has become clear with the precise measurement of the Hubble constant, the discovery of the accelerating universe, and the remarkable agreement of CMBR calculations with direct measurements of the large-scale structure. So what is left and what has changed? Galaxy formation and growth is still mysterious, star formation is still hidden, the dark matter and dark energy are still unobservable, and the tools at hand may or may not help enough. But the JWST, as a general-purpose observatory, will be available for imaginative use, and is just what Simon White's polemic seems to request. As an example, the JWST should be quite capable of observing transiting exoplanets with remarkable precision, even though there was no requirement to do so, and its coronagraphs will be very good even without a monolithic primary mirror. The JWST mission has now been officially approved by NASA and is in the Federal budget. It is planned for launch in 2014. Flight instruments will begin to arrive at Goddard in mid-2010, and the first flight mirror segments have already passed their first cryogenic tests. The flight detectors have been selected and have remarkable performance; for example, the near IR detectors have dark currents of the order of 10 electrons per pixel per hour.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  18. Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the largest cryogenic, space telescope ever built, and will address a broad range of scientific goals from first light in the universe and re-ionization, to characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Recently, significant progress has been made in the construction of the observatory with the completion of all 21 flight mirrors that comprise the telescope's optical chain, and the start of flight instrument deliveries to the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this paper we discuss the design of the observatory, and focus on the recent milestone achievements in each of the major observatory sub-systems.

  19. Space-based visible all-reflective stray light telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dexter; Gardner, Leo R.; Wong, Wallace K.; Hadfield, Peter

    1991-08-01

    A 6-inch diameter aperture space-based visible telescope has been optimized to perform surveillance against the space background with earth albedo as a primary source of straylight. A three mirror off-axis anastigmat has been designed to cover a 1.4 degree(s) by 6.6 degree(s) field- of-view with 60 (mu) radian spatial resolution. The telescope body and optics are constructed of 6061-T6 aluminum to provide a thermally stable optical system. The optical elements are 'superfinished' to minimize scatter. Extensive baffles and stops are utilized to further reduce straylight. The telescope will be used on the Midcourse Space Experiment platform.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container test operations at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Ground crews look on as a crane lifts the 11,500 pound aluminum cap from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) shipping container in front of the Multiuse Mission Support Equipment (MMSE) Building at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC workers continue to test and checkout the container which will be used to transport the 43 foot long, 14 foot diameter telescope from Lockheed in Sunnyvale, California to KSC next year. The telescope is scheduled for launch aboard the space shuttle in November 1988. View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-87PC-502.

  1. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.

    2004-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the recent selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  2. An Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Campbell, Doug; Clampin, Mark; Decker, John; Greenhouse, Matt; Johns, Alan; Menzel, Mike; Smith, Robert; Sullivan, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The JWST project at the GSFC is responsible for the development, launch, operations and science data processing for the James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST project is currently in phase B with its launch scheduled for August 2011. The project is a partnership between NASA, ESA and CSA. The U.S. JWST team is now fully in place with the selection of Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) as the prime contractor for the telescope and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) as the mission operations and science data processing lead. This paper will provide an overview of the current JWST architecture and mission status including technology developments and risks.

  3. AKARI Observation of the Sub-degree Scale Fluctuation of the Near-infrared Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H. J.; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, T.; Jeong, W.-S.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Pyo, J.

    2015-07-01

    We report spatial fluctuation analysis of the sky brightness in the near-infrared from observations toward the north ecliptic pole (NEP) by the AKARI at 2.4 and 3.2 μm. As a follow-up study of our previous work on the Monitor field of AKARI, we used NEP deep survey data, which covered a circular area of about 0.4 square degrees, in order to extend fluctuation analysis at angular scales up to 1000″. We found residual fluctuation over the estimated shot noise at larger angles than the angular scale of the Monitor field. The excess fluctuation of the NEP deep field smoothly connects with that of the Monitor field at angular scales of a few hundred arcseconds and extends without any significant variation to larger angular scales up to 1000″. By comparing excess fluctuations at two wavelengths, we confirm a blue spectral feature similar to the result of the Monitor field. We find that the result of this study is consistent with Spitzer Space Telescope observations at 3.6 μm. The origin of the excess fluctuation in the near-infrared background remains to be determined, but we could exclude zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light, and unresolved faint galaxies at low redshift based on the comparison with mid- and far-infrared brightness, ground-based near-infrared images.

  4. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  5. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a cryogenic, 6.5 meter diameter space telescope. JWST has a unique architecture, compared to previous space telescopes, that is driven by its science requirements, ia passively cooled cryogenic design, and the need to stow the observatory for launch. JWST's large, segmented mirror meets the requirement for high angular resolution in the infrared coupled with a significant increase in collecting area compared to the Spitzer and Hubble Space telescopes in order to detect the first galaxies. JWST's unique five-layer sunshield allows the telescope and instrument module to passively cool to cryogenic temperatures. JWST will be launched on an Ariane 5, and so both its telescope optics, and the sunshield have to be stowed in order to fit the Ariane 5 fairing. Following launch the sunshield and telescope optics must be deployed, and the primary mirror phased for science operations. In this presentation we will review the design of the observatory and highlight recent progress in the construction of the JWST observatory. In particular, we address recent progress with the telescope optics, sunshield and spacecraft. We will discuss predicted observatory performance in terms of the scientific goals of JWST and address key operational considerations that might bear upon frontier science observations.

  6. Mirror Technology Roadmap for Optical/IR/FIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Phil

    2006-01-01

    The Optics sub-committee of the Advanced Telescope and Observatory {ATO) Capability Roadmap developed an optics capability roadmap to enable planned future space telescopes. The roadmap details 4 basic technologies: cryogenic optics for IR and Far-IR missions; precision optics for optical, UV and EUV missions; grazing incidence optics for x-ray missions; and novel optics with revolutionary capabilities.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  8. Fine Guidance System for the James Webb Space Telescope Delivered

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video has music in the background but no dialogue. The second of four main instruments to fly aboard NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (Webb) has been delivered to NASA. The Fine Guidance Sensor (F...

  9. Astronomical capabilities of the Faint Object Spectrograph on Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of scientific observing programs planned with the Faint Object Spectrograph on Space Telescope are presented. An overview of the spectrograph design and operation is presented. The expected astronomical performance of the instrument is described in some detail.

  10. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  11. Space telescope observatory management system preliminary test and verification plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, J. S.; Kaldenbach, C. F.; Williams, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary plan for the Space Telescope Observatory Management System Test and Verification (TAV) is provided. Methodology, test scenarios, test plans and procedure formats, schedules, and the TAV organization are included. Supporting information is provided.

  12. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  13. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  14. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Accomplishments include: Assembled outstanding team from academia, industry and government with expertise in science and space telescope engineering. Derived engineering specifications for monolithic primary mirror from science measurement needs & implementation constraints. Pursuing long-term strategy to mature technologies necessary to enable future large aperture space telescopes. Successfully demonstrated capability to make 0.5 m deep mirror substrate and polish it to UVOIR traceable figure specification.

  15. Space telescope neutral buoyancy simulations: The first two years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, F. G.

    1982-01-01

    Neutral Buoyancy simulations which were conducted to validate the crew systems interface as it relates to space telescope on-orbit maintenance and contingency operations is discussed. The initial concept validation tests using low fidelity mockups is described. The entire spectrum of proposed space telescope refurbishment and selected contingencies using upgraded mockups which reflect flight hardware are reported. Findings which may be applicable to future efforts of a similar nature are presented.

  16. Control of optical performance on the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. O.

    1977-01-01

    A large astronomical telescope, termed the Space Telescope, is expected to be placed in orbit in the early 1980's. It will be operated as an international observatory that will enable astronomers to detect electromagnetic radiation over a much broader spectrum than is possible from ground observatories. The image quality (not degraded by atmospheric effects) will be limited only by the quality of the optics and by aperture diffraction. This opportunity to approach diffraction-limited imagery on an astronomical telescope of this size (2.4-m aperture) sets unusually stringent tolerances on the optical quality. The budgeting and control of these qualities throughout the design, fabrication, assembly, and operation of the Space Telescope is described. A feedback control system which will maintain the telescope at peak performance in the orbital environment is examined.

  17. Space environmental effects observed on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelman, Joel E.; Mason, James B.

    1995-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Repair Mission of December, 1993, was first and foremost a mission to improve the performance of the observatory. But for a specialized segment of the aerospace industry, the primary interest is in the return to Earth of numerous pieces of the HST hardware, pieces which have been replaced, repaired, improved, or superseded. The returned hardware is of interest because of the information it potentially carries about the effects of exposure to the space environment for three and a half years. Like the LDEF retrieval mission four years ago, the HST repair mission is of interest to many engineering disciplines, including all of the disciplines represented by the LDEF Special Investigation Groups (SIG's). There is particular interest in the evaluation of specific materials and systems in the returned components. Some coated surfaces have been processed with materials which are newer and still in use by, or under consideration for, other spacecraft in a variety of stages of development. Several of the systems are being returned because a specific failure or anomaly has been observed and thus there is, at the outset, a specific investigative trail that needs to be followed. These systems are much more complex than those flown on LDEF and, in two instances, comprised state-of-the-art science instruments. Further, the parts used in these systems generally were characterized more rigorously prior to flight than were those in the LDEF systems, and thus post flight testing may yield more significant results.

  18. Space environmental effects observed on the Hubble Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, J.E.; Mason, J.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Repair Mission of December, 1993, was first and foremost a mission to improve the performance of the observatory. But for a specialized segment of the aerospace industry, the primary interest is in the return to Earth of numerous pieces of the HST hardware, pieces which have been replaced, repaired, improved, or superseded. The returned hardware is of interest because of the information it potentially carries about the effects of exposure to the space environment for three and a half years. Like the LDEF retrieval mission four years ago, the HST repair mission is of interest to many engineering disciplines, including all of the disciplines represented by the LDEF Special Investigation Groups (SIG`s). There is particular interest in the evaluation of specific materials and systems in the returned components. Some coated surfaces have been processed with materials which are newer and still in use by, or under consideration for, other spacecraft in a variety of stages of development. Several of the systems are being returned because a specific failure or anomaly has been observed and thus there is, at the outset, a specific investigative trail that needs to be followed. These systems are much more complex than those flown on LDEF and, in two instances, comprised state-of-the-art science instruments. Further, the parts used in these systems generally were characterized more rigorously prior to flight than were those in the LDEF systems, and thus post flight testing may yield more significant results.

  19. An Evolvable Space Telescope for Future Astronomical Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will require lower cost space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures.Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance.Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8-m to 16-m telescopes that have been studied for the follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without accounting for too large of a portion of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an 'Evolvable Space Telescope' that would be 3 to 4-m when placed on orbit and then periodically augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16-m space telescope.This paper reviews the technologies required for such a mission, identifies candidate architectures, and discusses different science measurement objectives for these architectures.

  20. Feasibility study of an optically coherent telescope array in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical methods of image construction which can be used to produce very high angular resolution images at optical wavelengths of astronomical objects from an orbiting array of telescopes are discussed and a concept is presented for a phase-coherent optical telescope array which may be deployed by space shuttle in the 1990's. The system would start as a four-element linear array with a 12 m baseline. The initial module is a minimum redundant array with a photon-counting collecting area three times larger than space telescope and a one dimensional resolution of better than 0.01 arc seconds in the visible range. Later additions to the array would build up facility capability. The advantages of a VLBI observatory in space are considered as well as apertures for the telescopes.

  1. Wide Field and Planetary Camera for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera instrument, presently under construction, will be used to map the observable universe and to study the outer planets. It will be able to see 1000 times farther than any previously employed instrument. The Wide Field system will be located in a radial bay, receiving its signals via a pick-off mirror centered on the optical axis of the telescope assembly. The external thermal radiator employed by the instrument for cooling will be part of the exterior surface of the Space Telescope. In addition to having a larger (1200-12,000 A) wavelength range than any of the other Space Telescope instruments, its data rate, at 1 Mb/sec, exceeds that of the other instruments. Attention is given to the operating modes and projected performance levels of the Wide Field Camera and Planetary Camera.

  2. Optical design of an astrometric space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, E. H.; Morbey, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-mirror telescope derived from the Paul corrector is described. It differs from the original Paul design in several respects. (1) The third mirror is located behind the primary mirror instead of in front of it. (2) The telescope is made off-axis so that there is no central obstruction, thus avoiding the extension and asymmetry of the diffraction pattern caused by the spiders holding an on-axis secondary mirror. (3) Baffling is not a problem as it is with the usual Paul design. The focal surface is flat where a moving ronchi grating is located. This is the first element in the astrometric analyzer. A real image of the pupil is produced behind the focus. This is helpful in the design of relay optics (not described) which reimage the grating onto a CCD.

  3. A new telescope concept for space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Peter; Schubert, Hermann

    1990-07-01

    The design concept of an optical transmit-receive antenna telescope developed in the framework of the ESA SILEX program is presented. SILEX involves optical communication between satellites in GEO, using semiconductor laser diodes operating at 825 nm as the light source. The telescope requirements include entrance diameter 250 mm, exit pupil 8 mm, acquisition FOV 8500 microrad, communication FOV 2000 microrad, angular magnification -31.25, retroreflection 3 microW/sq m nm or less, stray light 1.05 microW/sq m nm or less, and alignment stability 10 years with no refocusing in orbit. The present compact two-mirror configuration employs the glass-ceramic Zerodur for all of the major components (primary mirror/baseplate, secondary mirror, tube, front ring, and ocular) for a total mass of only 5760 g. The prototype manufacturing process gave surface errors of 25 nm rms-WF for the primary and 15 nm rms-WF for the secondary.

  4. Glancing incidence telescopes for space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for determining the state of polarization of a light source by evaluating its image at the focus of a glancing telescope is reported. An analysis of the central disc of the diffraction image reveals if the light source is polarized, the plane of polarization, and the degree of polarization. When polarized light is incident at the aperture of a diffraction limited glancing telescope, the central disc of the diffraction pattern takes on an elliptical configuration. This ellipticity is caused by the tendency of the electric vector component in the plane of incidence to be absorbed by the reflecting material. As the state of polarization goes from plane polarized to decreasing degrees of elliptically polarized light, the ellipticity of the central disc goes from a maximum at plane polarization to zero at circular polarization. These curves give a direct relationship between the degree of polarization of a light source and the ellipticity of the central disc for this particular telescope, independent of the light source wavelength.

  5. An evolvable space telescope for future astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Breckinridge, James B.; Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Flannery, Martin R.; Dailey, Dean R.

    2014-08-01

    Astronomical flagship missions after JWST will require affordable space telescopes and science instruments. Innovative spacecraft-electro-opto-mechanical system architectures matched to the science requirements are needed for observations for exoplanet characterization, cosmology, dark energy, galactic evolution formation of stars and planets, and many other research areas. The needs and requirements to perform this science will continue to drive us toward larger and larger apertures. Recent technology developments in precision station keeping of spacecraft, interplanetary transfer orbits, wavefront/sensing and control, laser engineering, macroscopic application of nano-technology, lossless optical designs, deployed structures, thermal management, interferometry, detectors and signal processing enable innovative telescope/system architectures with break-through performance. Unfortunately, NASA's budget for Astrophysics is unlikely to be able to support the funding required for the 8 m to 16 m telescopes that have been studied as a follow-on to JWST using similar development/assembly approaches without decimating the rest of the Astrophysics Division's budget. Consequently, we have been examining the feasibility of developing an "Evolvable Space Telescope" that would begin as a 3 to 4 m telescope when placed on orbit and then periodically be augmented with additional mirror segments, structures, and newer instruments to evolve the telescope and achieve the performance of a 16 m or larger space telescope. This paper reviews the approach for such a mission and identifies and discusses candidate architectures.

  6. Enthusiasm for Europe's space telescope ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    . Several new candidate Vega-like dust disks are reported in Astronomy and Astrophysics by Harm Habing of Leiden in the Netherlands, and his colleagues. Their preliminary conclusion is that the dust disks are a common feature of ordinary stars as massive as the Sun or heavier, but they are by no means ubiquitous. Further measurements on Vega itself show relatively low emissions at the longest wavelengths, which implies that the dust grains are small. In a related programme, a Belgian-led team has used ISO's Short-Wavelength Spectrometer to probe the composition of dust near very young stars. It reports the discovery of crystals of olivine, a silicate mineral and a major constituent of the Earth's own rocky mantle. The firm detection of olivine crystals builds a bridge from the stars to the minerals of the solar system. Most mineral grains in interstellar space lack the crystalline forms of common minerals, even if they have the same chemical composition. Hints of infrared emissions from olivine crystals, detected by ground-based telescopes at around 11 microns wavelength, are confused by emissions coming also from carbon compounds. ISO, with its unhampered view at longer wavelengths, sees signatures of magnesium-rich olivine crystals at 20, 24 and 34 microns. The minerals crystallize when gravity concentrates them near a young star, and intense radiation from the star modifies the grains. ISO also sees similar materials in the dust shells of old stars, in a project headed by the Dutch astronomer Rens Waters, who is also closely involved in the work on young stars. Apparently the mineral crystals do not survive in interstellar space, but have to be refashioned near young stars. The most clear-cut evidence for olivine crystals comes from the vicinity of HD 100546, a young blue star about 500 light-years away near the Southern Cross. It is thought to be only a few million years old and it is a strong infrared emitter. The star also shows peculiar ultraviolet absorptions

  7. Hubble Space Telescope: Optical telescope assembly handbook. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Chris

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is described along with how its design affects the images produced at the Science Instruments. An overview is presented of the hardware. Details are presented of the focal plane, throughput of the telescope, and the point spread function (image of an unresolved point source). Some detailed simulations are available of this, which might be useful to observers in planning their observations and in reducing their data.

  8. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  9. MEMS microshutter arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mary J.; Adachi, Tomoko; Allen, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Beamesderfer, Michael; Bradley, Ruth; Denis, Kevin; Costen, Nick; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, David; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jackson, Kamili M.; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Miller, Timothy; Moseley, Harvey, Jr.; Mikula, Vilem; Mott, Brent; Oh, Lance; Pontius, James T.; Rapchun, David; Ray, Chris; Schulte, Eric; Schwinger, Scott; Shu, Peter; Silverberg, Robert; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Sohl, David; Sparr, Leroy; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Veronica, Valeriano; Wang, Liqin; Zheng, Yun; Zincke, Chris

    2006-12-01

    MEMS microshutter arrays (MSAs) are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instruments will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 105x204 μm. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are made on each shutter for light leak prevention to enhance optical contrast. Shutters are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. The shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. Single-side indium flip chip bonding is performed to attach microshutter arrays to substrates.

  10. MEMS Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Beamesderfer, Michael; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschkar, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Oh, Lance; Rapchum, Dave; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Silverberg, Robert; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Valeriano

    2006-01-01

    MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instruments will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast, Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x200 microns. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are made on to each shutter for light leak prevention so to enhance optical contrast, Shutters are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. The shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies.

  11. An 8 Meter Monolithic UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The planned Ares V launch vehicle with its 10 meter fairing and at least 55,600 kg capacity to Earth Sun L2 enables entirely new classes of space telescopes. A consortium from NASA, Space Telescope Science Institute, and aerospace industry are studying an 8-meter monolithic primary mirror UV/optical/NIR space telescope to enable new astrophysical research that is not feasible with existing or near-term missions, either space or ground. This paper briefly reviews the science case for such a mission and presents the results of an on-going technical feasibility study, including: optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing; mass budget and cost.

  12. Formation metrology and control for large separated optics space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Quadrelli, M.; Breckenridge, W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present formation flying performance analysis initial results for a representative large space telescope composed of separated optical elements [Mett 02]. A virtual-structure construct (an equivalent rigid body) is created by unique metrology and control that combines both centralized and decentralized methods. The formation may be in orbit at GEO for super-resolution Earth observation, as in the case of Figure 1, or it may be in an Earth-trailing orbit for astrophysics, Figure 2. Extended applications are envisioned for exo-solar planet interferometric imaging by a formation of very large separated optics telescopes, Figure 3. Space telescopes, with such large apertures and f/10 to f/100 optics, are not feasible if connected by massive metering structures. Instead, the new virtual-structure paradigm of information and control connectivity between the formation elements provides the necessary spatial rigidity and alignment precision for the telescope.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope. Update: 18 months in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, Space Shuttle Discovery launched the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). An 18 month in-orbit update of the operations and performance of the HST is presented. Numerous color photographs are shown of objects already observed, and mission plans are presented for future observations by the HST.

  14. Requirements and specifications of the space telescope for scientific operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    Requirements for the scientific operations of the Space Telescope and the Science Institute are used to develop operational interfaces between user scientists and the NASA ground system. General data systems are defined for observatory scheduling, daily science planning, and science data management. Hardware, software, manpower, and space are specified for several science institute locations and support options.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Julie; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated ScienceInstrument Module (ISIM)are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirrorcenter of curvatureoptical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard SpaceFlight Center beforebeing shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparationfor the cryogenicoptical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two OpticalGround SystemEquipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize opticaltest results todate and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element/Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  17. OT2_sserje01_2: THE HERSCHEL-AKARI NEP DEEP SURVEY: the cosmological history of stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, S.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a far-IR and submm mapping survey of the premier AKARI deep field in the North Ecliptic Pole, in PACS/SPIRE parallel mode. This is the only major deep infrared field not yet covered by Herschel guaranteed or open time key projects. The outstanding and unparalleled continuous mid-IR photometric coverage from AKARI, far better than equivalent Spitzer surveys, enables a wide range of galaxy evolution diagnostics unachievable in any other survey field (including Herschel HerMES/PEP fields), by spanning the wavelengths of redshifted PAH and silicate features and the peak energy output of AGN dust tori. The investment by AKARI in the NEP represents ~10 percent of the entire pointed observations available throughout the lifetime of AKARI. Our proposal remedies the remarkable omission from Herschel's legacy surveys of the premier extragalactic deep field from another IR space telescope. We will simultaneously identify and find photometric redshifts for the Herschel point source population, make stacking analysis detections of the galaxies which dominate the submm extragalactic background light as a function of redshift, determine the bolometric power outputs of the galaxies that dominate the submm background, compare the UV/optical/mid-IR continuum/PAH/far-IR/submm/radio star formation rate estimator in the most comprehensive IR survey data set to date, and track the coupled stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion throughout most of the history of the Universe. In OT1 the HOTAC concluded "The science output from the proposed survey will be outstanding [...] The panel was convinced that these observations should be done" but it since became clear that priority 2 time is very unlikely to be executed, so we request reclassification to priority 1.

  18. Preliminary Multi-Variable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hendrichs, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews the methodology used to develop space telescope cost models; summarizes recently published single variable models; and presents preliminary results for two and three variable cost models. Some of the findings are that increasing mass reduces cost; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years.

  19. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  20. Large Space Telescope support systems module thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapter, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    In 1982, an unmanned three-meter class Cassegrainian telescopic system referred to as the Large Space Telescope (LST) will be placed in earth orbit by the Shuttle. The LST consists of a telescope system and surrounding support structure that is referred to as the support system module (SSM). This paper summarizes the thermal control subsystem for several candidate SSM designs. Major emphasis has been given to the LST/SSM design concept that includes a thermally isolated aft cylinder compartment that contains subsystem components. Requirements, interfaces and thermal math modeling methods are presented. Analysis results demonstrate that a cold-biased thermal design using electrical heaters is promising.

  1. Three-mirror space telescope, volume 2. [coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1978-01-01

    The anastigmatic three mirror telescope for STARSAT, a space astronomy facility, was redesigned and reoptimized in order to improve the optical system and increase its versatility. A more compact system was obtained by decreasing the primary focal ratio from 2.2 to 2.0. A high performance Rowland spectrograph that uses only a total of three reflections and does not interfere with the imaging process, was successfully incorporated into the telescope so that it could be a permanent part of the system. The usefulness of this telescope concept as a high resolution coronagraph is examined.

  2. Wavefront measurement of space infrared telescopes at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Enya, Keigo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Ryoji; Ezaki, Tatsuhiko; Numao, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent activities on wave-front measurement of space infrared telescopes. Optical performance of the 685-mm lightweight telescope on board the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F, has been evaluated at cryogenic temperatures. The mirrors of the ASTRO-F telescope are made of sandwich-type silicon carbide (SiC) material, comprising porous core and CVD coat of SiC on the surface. The total wavefront errors of the telescope were measured with an interferometer from outside a liquid-helium chamber; a 75-cm reflecting flat mirror was used for auto-collimating the light from the interferometer. The cryogenic deformation of the flat mirror was derived independently by shifting it in the chamber and its contribution to the wavefront error was removed. In addition to the ASTRO-F telescope, we are currently developing a 3.5-m telescope system for SPICA, the next Japanese infrared astronomical satellite project. Details of our methodology for the ASTRO-F telescope, together with our optical test plan for the SPICA telescope, are reported.

  3. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope at L2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented mass/volume capability of an Ares V enables the launch of 8 meter class monolithic space telescopes to the Earth-Sun L2 point. NASA MSFC has determined that a 6 to 8 meter class telescope using a massive high-TRL ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror is feasible. Mature, High-TRL design enables early deployment. Science Instruments, Expendables and Limited Life Components can be replace periodically via Spacecraft Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking.

  4. Performance of the second MEMS space telescope for observation of extreme lightning from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-A.; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jik; Park, Il H.

    2016-03-01

    A small space-telescope equipped with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) micro-mirror is applied to space missions for observing random, rare and temporal events like transient luminous events (TLEs). The measurement of TLEs with fine time resolution will show the different temporal profiles predicted by the various models for sprites, blue jets, elves and halos. The proposed space-telescope consists of three components: two sub-telescopes with different focal lengths and a spectrometer. The trigger telescope with a short focal length surveys a wide field of view. The zoom-in telescope with a long focal length looks into a small field of view area that is part of the trigger telescope's wide field of view. Upon identifying a candidate TLE, the trigger telescope determines the location of the event and provides the location to the MEMS micro-mirror. Then, the micro-mirror, which is placed as a pinhole in front of the zoom-in telescope, rotates its mirror plane by such an angle that the zoom-in telescope will watch the small field of view around the center of the event. In this manner, the zoom-in telescope achieves the zoom-in designed by its long focal length. The first such small-space telescope, the MEMS Telescope for Extreme Lightning (MTEL), was launched into space in 2009 and identified a few candidates sprites. However a power failure (over-charge of the solar battery) of the main satellite occurred, and the MTEL was not able to continue space operation to acquire sizable statistics for TLE events. We developed and constructed the second small-space telescope, called MTEL-II, to continue to observe TLE events in space. In this paper, we present the performance of MTEL-II based on ground tests.

  5. Artist's Concept of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured is the chosen artist's rendering of NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, was named the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. To further our understanding of the way our present universe formed following the the big bang, NASA is developing the JWST to observe the first stars and galaxies in the universe. This grand effort will help to answer the following fundamental questions: How galaxies form and evolve, how stars and planetary systems form and interact, how the universe builds up its present elemental/chemical composition, and what dark matter is. To see into the depths of space, the JWST is currently plarning to carry instruments that are sensitive to the infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new telescope will carry a near-infrared camera, a multi-object spectrometer, and a mid-infrared camera/spectrometer. The JWST is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by creating an ultra-lightweight mirror for the telescope at MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center. GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the JWST, and TRW will design and fabricate the observatory's primary mirror and spacecraft. The program has a number of industry, academic, and government partners, as well as the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. (Image: Courtesy of TRW)

  6. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  7. Looking Back in Time: Building the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee

    2016-01-01

    When it launches in 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will look back in time at the earliest stars and galaxies forming in the universe. This talk will look back in time at the development of the JWST telescope. This will include a discussion of the design, technology development, mirror development, wave front sensing and control algorithms, lightweight cryogenic deployable structure, pathfinder telescope, and integration and test program evolution and status. The talk will provide the engineering answers on why the mirrors are made of Beryllium, why there are 18 segments, where and how the mirrors were made, how the mirrors get aligned using the main science camera, and how the telescope is being tested. It will also look back in time at the many dedicated people all over the country who helped build it.

  8. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  9. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  10. Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Spitzer Science Center

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, launched on 2003 August 25, continues to produce new and exciting views of the Universe as seen in infrared light. Spitzer is the fourth and final space telescope in NASA's Great Observatory series. Originally it consisted of a liquid-helium-cooled 85-cm telescope and three imaging and spectroscopic instruments capable of observing infrared light (3-160 micron wavelength) from regions of space invisible to optical telescopes. In mid-2009 Spitzer's cryogen was exhausted, leaving the observatory with two operating imaging arrays at 3.6 and 4.5 micron wavelength. "Warm" Spitzer, as it is now called, continues to match the sensitivity achieved at these wavelengths during the cryogenic mission and remains very much in demand. The Spitzer Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe. Spitzer's scientific results include the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early Universe, star formation and evolution, exoplanets, the structure and evolution of planetary disks around nearby stars, the cosmic distance scale, clusters of galaxies, near-Earth asteroids, and comets. After a brief description of the Spitzer mission, achievements of Spitzer's extragalactic and galactic observational programs will be presented, including many of Spitzer's very spectacular images.

  11. Applications of MEMS in segmented mirror space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Brij; Kubby, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Development of space telescopes, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Telescope has been very challenging in terms of cost, schedule, and performance. For several future space missions, larger aperture and lightweight deployable mirrors, in the range of 10-20 meters in diameter with high surface accuracy, are required. In order to achieve lightweight, reduce cost for development and provide performance robustness, actuated hybrid mirror (AHM) technology is under development. The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) recently received a 3-meter diameter space telescope testbed with six segments that uses an AHM technology. This paper will discuss the work performed at NPS on the surface control of the primary mirror using adaptive optics. This paper will also discuss how we can use a MEMS deformable mirror to improve the performance of the NPS segmented mirror telescope. The high-stroke, high-order actuated MEMS deformable mirror will correct the residual alignment and surface errors that are not corrected by the actuators on the mirrors. The mirror will use electrostatic actuation to eliminate the need for power to hold its position and will be capable of open-loop, go-to positioning.

  12. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) have designed a program for teacher and student research using observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The participating teachers attended a fall, 2004 workshop to become familiar with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) archives, and to receive training in infrared astronomy and observational techniques. The teachers also attended a workshop offered by the SSC to learn about the observation planning process, and telescope and instrument capabilities. This program has as its goals the fundamental NASA goals of inspiring and motivating students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as to engage the public in shaping and sharing the experience of exploration and discovery. Our educational plan addresses the NASA objectives of improving student proficiency in science and improving science instruction by providing a unique opportunity to a group of teachers and students to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work on their data with SSC and NOAO scientists. This program allows a team of 12 teachers and their students to utilize up to 3.5 hours of Director's discretionary observing time on the Spitzer Space Telescope for educational observations. Leveraging on a well-established teacher professional development, the SSC is offering this program to teachers in the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRRBSE), an ongoing program at the NOAO. This NSF-sponsored program touches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle and high school teachers.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field and Planetary Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In this photograph, engineers and technicians prepare the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC) for installation at the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The WF/PC is designed to investigate the age of the universe and to search for new planetary systems around young stars. It takes pictures of large numbers of galaxies and close-ups of planets in our solar system. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation review the mission objective, the organization of the mission planning, the design, and testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There is also information about the orbit, in comparison to the Hubble Space Telescope, the mirror design, and the science instruments. Pictures of the full scale mockup of the JWST are given. A brief history of the universe is also presented from the big bang through the formation of galaxies, and the planets, to life itself. One of the goals of the JWST is to search for extra solar planets and then to search for signs of life.

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  16. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission no sooner than 2013, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  18. Optical filters on board the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffelt, Everett L.; Martella, Mark A.

    1996-11-01

    The space telescope imaging spectrograph (STIS) instrument is due to be installed on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 1997. STIS uses 20 filters located on a wheel that can rotate any one of 88 apertures or combination filter/aperture in to the beam path. The instrument incorporates a continuous range of spectral response from the VUV (115.0 nm) to 1 micrometer. Therefore, filters that perform in the VUV are discussed as well as filters that operate in the near infrared. Neutral density filters are also being used for on-board calibration from 300 nm to Lyman-Alpha (121.6 nm).

  19. Hubble Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment planning analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzano, F.; Kincade, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an updated analytical approach toward the identification of Hubble Space Telescope system failures and downstates, maintenance requirements, and overall support to maintenance mission planning. Different sparing options of Orbital Replacement Units are evaluated, and the optimum spares complement that satisfies the expected servicing requirements is identified. Specific Space Telescope Reliability and maintenance Simulation Computer Program (SPATEL) updates and refinements are reported, and input data updates relevant to failure rates, downstate ground rules, and maintenance policy are addressed. A summary of the latest SPATEL outputs is provided along with maintenance analysis results.

  20. Giving Birth to the James Webb Space Telescope: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John

    2013-01-01

    In late October 1995, I found a remarkable message on my answering machine from Ed Weiler, then the Program Scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope. Would I work on the next generation space telescope, the successor to the beautiful HST? It took me mere moments to work out the answer: Of course! At the time, my work on the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) was finished, I was writing a book about it (The Very First Light, with John Boslough), and I thought NASA might never do anything nearly as spectacular again. Wow, was I happy to be surprised by that call!

  1. Development of CFRP mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, Shin; Kamiya, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Ryuzo

    2013-09-01

    CFRP (Caron fiber reinforced plastics) have superior properties of high specific elasticity and low thermal expansion for satellite telescope structures. However, difficulties to achieve required surface accuracy and to ensure stability in orbit have discouraged CFRP application as main mirrors. We have developed ultra-light weight and high precision CFRP mirrors of sandwich structures composed of CFRP skins and CFRP cores using a replica technique. Shape accuracy of the demonstrated mirrors of 150 mm in diameter was 0.8 μm RMS (Root Mean Square) and surface roughness was 5 nm RMS as fabricated. Further optimization of fabrication process conditions to improve surface accuracy was studied using flat sandwich panels. Then surface accuracy of the flat CFRP sandwich panels of 150 mm square was improved to flatness of 0.2 μm RMS with surface roughness of 6 nm RMS. The surface accuracy vs. size of trial models indicated high possibility of fabrication of over 1m size mirrors with surface accuracy of 1μm. Feasibility of CFRP mirrors for low temperature applications was examined for JASMINE project as an example. Stability of surface accuracy of CFRP mirrors against temperature and moisture was discussed.

  2. Contamination Control Considerations for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Space Science Program, in its ongoing mission to study the universe, has begun planning for a telescope that will carry on the Hubble Space Telescope's exploration. This telescope, the 'Next Generation Space Telescope' (NGST), will be 6-8 meters in diameter, will be radiatively cooled to 30-60 Kelvin in order to enable extremely deep exposures at near infrared wavelengths, and will operate for a lifetime of 5-10 years. The requirement will be to measure wavelengths from 1-5 microns, with a goal to measure wavelengths from 0.6-30 microns. As such, NGST will present a new contamination control challenge. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) performed one of three preliminary feasibility studies for the NGST, presenting a telescope with an 8 meter, deployable primary mirror and a deployable secondary mirror. The telescope would be radiatively cooled, with the optical telescope assembly (OTA) and the science instrument module (SIM) isolated from the warmer spacecraft support module (SSM). The OTA and the SIM would also be shielded from sunlight with an enormous, inflatable sun-shield. The GSFC telescope was designed for launch on an Atlas HAS, which would require launching the telescope in a stowed configuration, with the SSM, antennae, sun-shield, primary mirror 'petals', and secondary mirror deployed once on-orbit. The launch configuration and deployment scenario of an exposed telescope measuring near infrared and cooled to 30-60 K are the factors presenting contamination hazards to the NGST mission. Preliminary science requirements established are: less than 20% reflectance decrease on optical surfaces over the wavelength range, and less than 0.3% obscuration of optical surfaces. In order to meet these requirements, NGST must be built and launched with careful attention to contamination control. Initial contamination control design options include strict selecting of materials and baking out of hardware down to the component level, minimizing or

  3. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Smith, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, space telescope designed to provide imaging and spectroscopy from 1.0 micron to 28 microns. JWST will be launched to an orbit at L2 aboard an Ariane 5 launcher in 2013. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the lead center for the JWST program and manages the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGST). JWST is an international partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). ESA will contribute the Ariane 5 launch, and a multi-object infrared spectrograph. CSA will contribute the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), which includes the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI). The European consortium, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), builds the mid-infrared imager (MIRI). In this paper we present an overview of the JWST science program, and discuss recent progress in the development of the observatory.

  4. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  5. Feasibility of Exoplanet Coronagraphy with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Noecker, M. Charley; Cheng, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report on a preliminary study to assess the use of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the direct detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets and debris disks - an application for which HST was not originally designed. Coronagraphic advances may enable the design of a science instrument that could achieve limiting contrasts approx.10deg beyond 275 milli-arcseconds (4 lambda/D at 800 nm) inner working angle, thereby enabling detection and characterization of several known jovian planets and imaging of debris disks. Advantages of using HST are that it already exists in orbit, it's primary mirror is thermally stable and it is the most characterized space telescope yet flown. However there is drift of the HST telescope, likely due to thermal effects crossing the terminator. The drift, however, is well characterized and consists of a larger deterministic components and a smaller stochastic component. It is the effect of this drift versus the sensing and control bandwidth of the instrument that would likely limit HST coronagraphic performance. Herein we discuss the science case, quantifY the limiting factors and assess the feasibility of using HST for exoplanet discovery using a hypothetical new instrument. Keywords: Hubble Space Telescope, coronagraphy, exoplanets, telescopes

  6. Pointing History Engine for the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Ahmed, Asif; Brugarolas, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Pointing History Engine (PHE) is a computer program that provides mathematical transformations needed to reconstruct, from downlinked telemetry data, the attitude of the Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) as a function of time. The PHE also serves as an example for development of similar pointing reconstruction software for future space telescopes. The transformations implemented in the PHE take account of the unique geometry of the Spitzer telescope-pointing chain, including all data on relative alignments of components, and all information available from attitude-determination instruments. The PHE makes it possible to coordinate attitude data with observational data acquired at the same time, so that any observed astronomical object can be located for future reference and re-observation. The PHE is implemented as a subroutine used in conjunction with telemetry-formatting services of the Mission Image Processing Laboratory of NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to generate the Boresight Pointing History File (BPHF). The BPHF is an archival database designed to serve as Spitzer s primary astronomical reference documenting where the telescope was pointed at any time during its mission.

  7. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, space telescope designed to provide imaging and spectroscopy over the near and mid-infrared from 1.0 μm to 28 μm. JWST is a passively cooled infrared telescope, employing a five layer sunshield to achieve an operating temperature of ~40 K. JWST will be launched to an orbit at L2 aboard an Ariane 5 launcher in 2013. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the lead center for the JWST program and manages the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGST). JWST is an international partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). ESA will contribute the Ariane 5 launch, and a multi-object infrared spectrograph. CSA will contribute the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), which includes the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI). A European consortium, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), builds the mid-infrared imager (MIRI). In this paper we present an overview of the JWST science program, and discuss recent progress in the development of the observatory. In this paper we will discuss the scientific motivations for JWST, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory, focusing on the telescope and its optics, which have recently completed polishing.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the Infrared successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 sq m aperture (6 m class) telescope yielding diffraction limited angular resolution at a wave1ength of 2 micron. The science instrument payload includes three passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronagraphy, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete, and construction is underway in all areas of the program.

  9. Progress in the Fabrication and Testing of Telescope Mirrors for The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Keski-Kuha, R.; McKay, A.; Chaney, D.; Gallagher, B.; Ha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The telescope of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an f/20, three mirror anastigmat design, passively cooled (40K) in an L2 orbit. The design provides diffraction limited performance (Strehl ≥ 0.8) at λ=2μm. To fit within the launch vehicle envelope (Arianne V), the 6.6 meter primary mirror and the secondary mirror support structure are folded for launch, then deployed and aligned in space. The primary mirror is composed of 18 individual, 1.3 meter (flat:flat) hexagonal segments, each adjustable in seven degrees of freedom (six rigid body + radius of curvature) provided by a set of high precision actuators. The actuated secondary mirror ( 0.74m) is similarly positioned in six degrees of rigid body motion. The .70x.51m, fixed tertiary and 0.17m, flat fine steering mirror complete the telescope mirror complement. The telescope is supported by a composite structure optimized for performance at cryogenic temperatures. All telescope mirrors are made of Be with substantial lightweighting (21kg for each 1.3M primary segment). Additional Be mounting and supporting structure for the high precision ( 10nm steps) actuators are attached to the primary segments and secondary mirror. All mirrors undergo a process of thermal stabilization to reduce stress. An extensive series of interferometric measurements guide each step of the polishing process. Final polishing must account for any deformation between the ambient temperature of polishing and the cryogenic, operational temperature. This is accomplished by producing highly precise, cryo deformation target maps of each surface which are incorporated into the final polishing cycle. All flight mirrors have now completed polishing, coating with protected Au and final cryo testing, and the telescope is on track to meet all system requirements. We here review the measured performance of the component mirrors and the predicted performance of the flight telescope.

  10. Novel In-Space Manufacturing Concepts for the Development of Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James T.; Reardon, Patrick; Gregory Don; Manning, Andrew; Blackmon, Jim; Howsman, Tom; Williams, Philip; Brantley, Whitt; Rakoczy, John; Herren, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes. Over the past several decades, we have seen the evolution from launchable 2 meter-class telescopes (such as Hubble), to today s demand for deployable 6 meter-class telescopes (such as JWST), to tomorrow s need for up to 150 meter-class telescopes. As the apertures continue to grow, it will become much more difficult and expensive to launch assembled telescope structures. To address this issue, we are seeing the emergence of new novel structural concepts, such as inflatable structures and membrane optics. While these structural concepts do show promise, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain high surface figure quality. Another potential solution to develop large space telescopes is to move the fabrication facility into space and launch the raw materials. In this paper we present initial in-space manufacturing concepts to enable the development of large telescopes. This includes novel approaches for the fabrication of both the optical elements and the telescope support structure. We will also discuss potential optical designs for large space telescopes and describe their relation to the fabrication methods. These concepts are being developed to meet the demanding requirements of DARPA s LASSO (Large Aperture Space Surveillance Optic) program which currently requires a 150 meter optical aperture with a 17 degree field of view.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope COSTAR asphere verification with a modified computer-generated hologram interferometer. [Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, L.; Wilson, M.

    1993-01-01

    To correct for the spherical aberration in the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror, five anamorphic aspheric mirrors representing correction for three scientific instruments have been fabricated as part of the development of the corrective-optics space telescope axial-replacement instrument (COSTAR). During the acceptance tests of these mirrors at the vendor, a quick and simple method for verifying the asphere surface figure was developed. The technique has been used on three of the aspheres relating to the three instrument prescriptions. Results indicate that the three aspheres are correct to the limited accuracy expected of this test.

  12. Capturing the Imagination: The Promise of the Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Livio, M.; Eisenhammer, B.; Kakadelis, S.; Villard, R.; Stiavelli, M.; Stockman, P.

    2010-08-01

    The Webb Space Telescope will take us on a journey back to the beginning, enabling us to see the first galaxies, the birth of stars, the creation of planets, and the origins of galactic structure. News, education, and outreach activities led by the Space Telescope Science Institute Office of Public Outreach use the promise of Webb's scientific return and technical prowess to capture the imagination—inspiring and educating youth and adults about key science, technology, engineering, and mathematics concepts and the process of science itself. We highlight activities designed to introduce cutting-edge Webb science and technology to established audiences cultivated through a decade of Hubble-based Amazing Space, ViewSpace, HubbleSite, and NewsCenter products and services. Critical underlying components include a commitment to evaluation of audience needs and partnerships between scientists and educators.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5 call for proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document invites and supports participation by the international astronomical community in the HST General Observer and Archival Research programs. These documents contain the basic procedural and technical information required for HST proposal preparation and submission, including applicable deadlines. The telescope and its instruments were built under the auspices of the NASA and the European Space Agency.

  14. Zero-Gyro safemode controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Nelson, John D.

    1994-01-01

    A safehold mode has been implemented for Hubble Space Telescope that ensures a power-positive and thermally safe state without the use of rate gyros. This paper presents an overview of this zero-gyro sunpoint safemode, followed by details of the algorithm, the control system design, and results of simulations and of an on-orbit test of the algorithm.

  15. Space telescope searches for black holes in galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will allow astronomers to obtain luminosity profiles, rotation curves, and velocity dispersions at angular scales that are an order of magnitude superior to those obtained previously. This enhanced spatial resolution will greatly improve the sensitivity for detecting centrally condensed matter in nearby galactic nuclei including, possibly, black holes.

  16. Space telescope coordinate systems, symbols, and nomenclature definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The major coordinate systems as well as the transformations and transformation angles between them, for the Space Telescope are defined. The coordinate systems were primarily developed for use in pointing and control system analysis and simulation. Additional useful information (on nomenclature, symbols, quaternion operations, etc.) is also contained.

  17. Preliminary Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hendrichs, Todd

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews creating a preliminary multi-variable cost model for the contract costs of making a space telescope. There is discussion of the methodology for collecting the data, definition of the statistical analysis methodology, single variable model results, testing of historical models and an introduction of the multi variable models.

  18. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  19. Zero-Gyro safemode controller for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Nelson, John D.

    1994-07-01

    A safehold mode has been implemented for Hubble Space Telescope that ensures a power-positive and thermally safe state without the use of rate gyros. This paper presents an overview of this zero-gyro sunpoint safemode, followed by details of the algorithm, the control system design, and results of simulations and of an on-orbit test of the algorithm.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee D.; Russell, Kevin; Texter, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) conducted a phase down select process via the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) project to assess the Technology Readiness Level of various candidate mirror materials. This process culminated in the selection of Beryllium as the JWST primary mirror material. This paper outlines the mirror evaluation process, defines the selection criteria and summarizes the candidate mirror's performances.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Sullivan, Pamela C.; Boyce, Leslye A.; Glazer, Stuart D.; Johnson, Eric L.; McCloskey, John C.; Voyton, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is described from a systems perspective with emphasis on unique and advanced technology aspects. The major subsystems of this flight element are described including: structure, thermal, command and data handling, and software.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen battery system briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawrocki, David; Saldana, David; Rao, Gopal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Mission; system constraints; battery specification; battery module; simplified block diagram; cell design summary; present status; voltage decay; system depth of discharge; pressure since launch; system capacity; eclipse time vs. trickle charge; capacity test objectives; and capacity during tests.

  3. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.

  4. The first year of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Maran, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has gathered unique information that supports many very significant scientific investigations during its early orbital operations, despite the limitations imposed by an unexpected spherical aberration in the primary mirror. These early results, gathered primarily with the HST cameras and spectrographs, are reviewed, with emphasis on extragalactic, stellar, and nebular astronomy.

  5. Scientific Instrument Package for the large space telescope (SIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a scientific instrument package (SIP) that will satisfy the requirements of the large space telescope was established. A reference configuration serving as a study model and data which will aid in the trade-off studies leading to the final design configuration are reported.

  6. Repaired and Reconfigured Hubble Space Telescope Returns to Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    After five days of service and upgrade work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the STS-109 crew photographed the giant telescope returning to its normal routine. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 space walks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near- Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. Launched March 1, 2002, the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Appendange deployment mechanism for the Hubble Space Telescope program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    The key requirements, a design overview, development testing (qualification levels), and two problems and their solutions resolved during the mechanism development testing phase are presented. The mechanism described herein has demonstrated its capability to deploy/restow two large Hubble Space Telescope deployable appendages in a varying but controlled manner.

  8. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  9. The Australia Telescope project - Spinoffs for space-related services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. W.

    The Australia Telescope (AT) is a multimillion-dollar investment by the Federal Government into the space science of radio astronomy. The project has been officially endorsed by the Bicentennial Authority and is due for completion in 1988. The AT has been designed in Australia to make effective use of Australian resources, and Australian content will be around 80 percent. The project has stimulated the local development of space engineering capabilities, and some of these developments will be outlined in this progress report.

  10. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  11. Estimation Filter for Alignment of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David

    2007-01-01

    A document presents a summary of an onboard estimation algorithm now being used to calibrate the alignment of the Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility). The algorithm, denoted the S2P calibration filter, recursively generates estimates of the alignment angles between a telescope reference frame and a star-tracker reference frame. At several discrete times during the day, the filter accepts, as input, attitude estimates from the star tracker and observations taken by the Pointing Control Reference Sensor (a sensor in the field of view of the telescope). The output of the filter is a calibrated quaternion that represents the best current mean-square estimate of the alignment angles between the telescope and the star tracker. The S2P calibration filter incorporates a Kalman filter that tracks six states - two for each of three orthogonal coordinate axes. Although, in principle, one state per axis is sufficient, the use of two states per axis makes it possible to model both short- and long-term behaviors. Specifically, the filter properly models transient learning, characteristic times and bounds of thermomechanical drift, and long-term steady-state statistics, whether calibration measurements are taken frequently or infrequently. These properties ensure that the S2P filter performance is optimal over a broad range of flight conditions, and can be confidently run autonomously over several years of in-flight operation without human intervention.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  13. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The key driver for a telescope's sensitivityis directly related to the size of t he mirror area that collects light from the objects being observed.The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The HDST envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. The Optical Telescope Assembly for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This reports on the concept for the MODEST, which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, a testbed for new instruments, and a tool for student's exploration of space. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Ceramic Matrix Composite that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. It has been demonstrated

  14. Performance characterization of the Hubble Space Telescope Rate Gyro Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, H.; Rodden, J.; Reschke, L. F.; Tompetrini, K.; Weinstein, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and performance characteristics of the Rate Gyro Assembly employed by the Hubble Space Telescope's Pointing Control System to effect accurate spacecraft maneuvers and support fine pointing telescope operation, in conjunction with the fine guidance sensors. The rate sensor attitude quantization is 0.00025 arcsec. Fine-pointing stability is the driver for gyro noise performance, while spacecraft-pointing accuracy requirements at the end of maneuvers has driven the gyro scale factor and mechanical alignment stability performance.

  15. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 2 years of science operations, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope continues to survey the high-energy sky on a daily basis. In addition to the more than 1400 sources found in the first Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog (I FGL), new results continue to emerge. Some of these are: (1) Large-scale diffuse emission suggests possible activity from the Galactic Center region in the past; (2) a gamma-ray nova was found, indicating particle acceleration in this binary system; and (3) the Crab Nebula, long thought to be a steady source, has varied in the energy ranges seen by both Fermi instruments.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), expected to launch in 2011, will study the origin and evolution of luminous objects, galaxies, stars, planetary systems and the origins of life. It is optimized for near infrared wavelength operation of 0.6-28 micrometers and will have a 5 year mission life (with a 10 year goal). This presentation reviews JWST's science objectives, the JWST telescope and mirror requirements and how they support the JWST architecture. Additionally, an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development effort is highlighted.

  17. 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years. PMID:19122634

  18. Ares V Launch Capability Enables Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle offers the potential to completely change the paradigm of future space science mission architectures. A major finding of the NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap Study was that current launch vehicle mass and volume constraints severely limit future space science missions. And thus, that significant technology development is required to package increasingly larger collecting apertures into existing launch shrouds. The Ares V greatly relaxes these constraints. For example, while a Delta IV has the ability to launch approximate a 4.5 meter diameter payload with a mass of 13,000 kg to L2, the Ares V is projected to have the ability to launch an 8 to 12 meter diameter payload with a mass of 60,000 kg to L2 and 130,000 kg to Low Earth Orbit. This paper summarizes the Ares V payload launch capability and introduces how it might enable new classes of future space telescopes such as 6 to 8 meter class monolithic primary mirror observatories, 15 meter class segmented telescopes, 6 to 8 meter class x-ray telescopes or high-energy particle calorimeters.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope instrument suite layout: optical system engineering considerations for a large deployable space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Davila, Pamela S.; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul A.; Contreras, James; Whitman, Tony

    2004-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 μm. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the mission requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope"s field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec), a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module. The size and position of each instrument"s field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Onaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used for observations of the Kepler supernova remnant, with all four instrument modules targeted on the bright infrared knot located at 17h30m35.80s,-21d28m54.0s (J2000). The low spectral resolution modules data show a dust continuum spectrum consistent with dust grains heated by high-energy electrons, while the high resolution modules data show atomic emission line ratios consistent with excitation by a high velocity shock of greater than 100 kilometers per second and electron densities of approximately 1,000 per centimeter. The abundance ratios for the six detected elements show signs of heavy-element enhancement. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Rigid ultralight primary mirror segments for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2000-10-01

    The development of ultra-light fibrous substrate mirrors allows serious contemplation of large multi-mirror space telescopes using rigid segments. Mirrors made of silica and alumina fibers have a small coefficient of thermal expansion and a density competitive with inflatable structures. Furthermore, they are without the imagery problems caused by non parabolic figures, gaseous expansion and contraction, tidal distortion of large gas filled structures, leaks, and long lived transient mirror perturbations caused by intentional pointing and tracking movements, micrometeor and space debris impacts, and mechanical vibrations. Fibrous substrate primary mirrors also have logistical advantages, since segments can be fabricated in orbit from small amounts of dense raw materials. One space shuttle flight, lifting about half its payload capacity, is adequate to transport all the material necessary to fabricate substrates for a one hundred meter telescope whose primary mirror consists of 12,086 hexagonal segments, each having a diameter of 1 meter and an area of 0.6495 square meters.

  2. Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teays, T. J.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, J.; Amazing Space Team

    2001-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has conducted a long-standing and vigorous program in education and public outreach. This program uses a variety of methods to reach a broad spectrum of audiences. Education products are developed in a team environment that partners educators, curriculum experts, scientists, and production experts, such as graphic artists, Web designers, programmers, and education evaluators. A popular Web site is maintained, and has been substantially augmented in the past year. The Amazing Space program consists of a suite of online, interactive modules for use in the kindergarten through 12th grade classroom. The program is rooted in the national education standards and benefits from a robust evaluation process. The HST images and data are used to engage students in learning basic science and mathematics concepts. The activity/lessons include extensive, online assistance for educators, so that they can be readily used in the classroom. Hardcopy products such as posters, lithographs, teacher guides, and trading cards are generally tied to online products, to provide multiple entries to the material. We also provide training for teachers in the use of our products, as appropriate. Informal science education is supported by providing services to museums, planetariums, libraries and related institutions. The very popular ViewSpace, a computer-based video service is being used by many informal science facilities. In addition, HST has supported the creation of both permanent and traveling exhibits about HST. The Space Telescope Science Institute operates the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA.

  4. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was being deployed on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (STS-31 mission). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four spacewalks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. Photo Credit: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Berthed in Columbia's Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),in its origianl configuration, berthed in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-109 mission silhouetted against the airglow of the Earth's horizon. The telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm, where 4 of the 7-member crew performed 5 spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. Launched March 1, 2002 the STS-109 HST servicing mission lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. It was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  6. On-Orbit Performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas; Werner, Michael; Gallagher, David; Irace, William; Fazio, Giovanni; Houck, James; Rieke, George; Wilson, Robert; Soifer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope (formally known as SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003, and has completed its initial in-orbit checkout and science validation and calibration period. The measured performance of the observatory has met or exceeded all of its high-level requirements, it has entered normal operations, and is beginning to return high-quality science data. A superfluid-helium cooled 85 cm diameter telescope provides extremely low infrared backgrounds and feeds three science instruments covering wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 180 microns. The telescope optical quality is excellent, providing diffraction-limited performance down to wavelengths below 6.5 microns. Based on the first helium mass and boil-off rate measurements, a cryogenic lifetime in excess of 5 years is expected. This presentation will provide a summary of the overall performance of the observatory, with an emphasis on those performance parameters that have the greatest impact on its ultimate science return.

  7. NASA in Crisis: The Space Agency's Public Relations Efforts Regarding the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported…

  8. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) the First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mission Objective: a) Study origin & evolution of galaxies, stars & planetary systems; b) Optimized for near infrared wavelength (0.6 - 28 microns); c) 5 year Mission Life (10 year Goal). Organization: a) Mission Lead: Goddard Space Flight Center; b) International collaboration with ESA & CSA; c) Prime Contractor: Northrop Grumman Space Technology Instruments: a) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) - Univ. of Arizona; b) Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) - ESA; c) Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) - JPL/ESA; d) Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) - CSA. Operations: Space Telescope Science Institute.

  9. Life Extension Activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce A. K.; Prior, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the cancellation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the Telescope operating during the remainder of the decade. As part of the SM4, the HST Project had planned to install various upgrades to the Telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analysis indicates that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team will be severely challenged to maximize the Telescope's remaining operational lifetime, while still trying to maximize - its science output and quality. Two of the biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they offer the largest potential extension in Telescope lifetime and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six Ni-H batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have collectively lasted longer than any other comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of the HST, thus enabling it to remain a world-class observatory for as long as possible.

  10. Development of a very small telescope for space astrometry surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Yamada, Y.; Takato, N.; Yamauchi, M.

    2006-08-01

    We report an outline and a current status of developing a small, all-aluminum made telescope for Nano-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that is to be launched in 2008 and will demonstrate some key technologies required for JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) in a real space environment. It also measures absolute positions of bright stars (z≤8 mag) with accuracies about 1 milli-arcsecond in a few years mission. It has a Ritchey-Chretien type telescope with a 5-cm effective aperture, a 167-cm focal length and a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degree. The telescope only occupies a volume about 15x12x12 cm, and weighs two kilograms or less. Almost all of the structures and the optical elements of the telescope, including two aspherical mirrors three flat mirrors and a dual-angled flat mirror that combines the beam from a relative angle of 99.5 degrees into the primary mirror, are made out of aluminum alloy, being figured by diamond turning machines. The Bread Board Model (BBM) of the telescope was now measured to be achieving a diffraction-limited performance.

  11. Development of a very small telescope for space astrometry surveyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Yamada, Y.; Takato, N.; Yamauchi, M.

    We report an outline and a current status of developing a small, all-aluminum made telescope for Nano-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that is to be launched in 2008 and will demonstrate some key technologies required for JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) in a real space environment. It also measures absolute positions of bright stars (z< 8 mag) with accuracies about 1 milli-arcsecond in a few years mission. It has a Ritchey-Chretien type telescope with a 5-cm effective aperture, a 167-cm focal length and a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degree. The telescope only occupies a volume about 15x12x12 cm, and weighs two kilograms or less. Almost all of the structures and the optical elements of the telescope, including two aspherical mirrors three flat mirrors and a dual-angled flat mirror that combines the beam from a relative angle of 99.5 degrees into the primary mirror, are made out of aluminum alloy, being figured by diamond turning machines. The Bread Board Model (BBM) of the telescope is found to be achieving a diffraction-limited performance at room temperature.

  12. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  13. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  14. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  15. Science operations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Jane; Sonneborn, George; Pollizzi, Joe; Brown, Thomas; Isaacs, John

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful space observatory whose four science instruments will deliver rich imaging and multiplexed spectroscopic datasets to the astronomical and planetary science communities. The ground segment for JWST, now being designed and built, will carry out JWST's science operations. The ground segment includes: software that the scientific community will use to propose and specify new observations; systems that will schedule science and calibration observations in a way that respects physical and investigator-specified constraints, while satisfying preferences for efficient observing, low background levels, and distributed subscription across a year; the infrastructure to regularly measure and maintain the telescope's wavefront; orbit determination, ranging, and tracking; communication via the Deep Space Network to command the observatory and retrieve scientific data; onboard scripts that execute each observing program in an event-driven fashion, with occasional interruptions for targets of opportunity or time-critical observations; and a system that processes and calibrates the data into science-ready products, automatically recalibrates when calibrations improve, and archives the data for timely access by the principal investigator and later worldwide access by the scientific community. This ground system builds on experience from operating the Hubble Space Telescope, while solving challenges that are unique to JWST. In this paper, we describe the elements of the JWST ground system, how it will work operationally from the perspective of the observatory itself, and how a typical user will interact with the system to turn their idea into scientific discovery.

  16. Prototype Secondary Mirror Assembly For The Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our concept for a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. SIRTF, a NASA "Great Observatory" to be launched in the 1990's, is a superfluid heliumcooled 1-meter class telescope with much more stringent performance requirements than its precursor the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate near 4 K and provide the functions of 2-axis dynamic tilting ("chopping") in addition to the conventional functions of focus and centering. The PSMA must be able to withstand random vibration testing and provide all of the functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Our PSMA concept employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feed-back provided by pairs of eddy current position sensors. The actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass providing angular momentum compensation and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose AL/L characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a focus and centering mechanism based upon the six degree of freedom secondary mirror assembly developed for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. AKARI OBSERVATION OF THE FLUCTUATION OF THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, T.; Seo, H. J.; Lee, H. M.; Jeong, W.-S.; Pyo, J.; Matsuura, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Wada, T.

    2011-12-01

    We report a search for fluctuations of the sky brightness toward the north ecliptic pole with the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, at 2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 {mu}m. We obtained circular maps with 10' diameter fields of view, which clearly show a spatial structure on the scale of a few hundred arcseconds. A power spectrum analysis shows that there is a significant excess fluctuation at angular scales larger than 100'' that cannot be explained by zodiacal light, diffuse Galactic light, shot noise of faint galaxies, or clustering of low-redshift galaxies. These results are consistent with observations at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The fluctuating component observed at large angular scales has a blue stellar spectrum which is similar to that of the spectrum of the excess isotropic emission observed with the Infrared Telescope in Space. A significant spatial correlation between wavelength bands was found, and the slopes of the linear correlations are consistent with the spectrum of the excess fluctuation. These findings indicate that the detected fluctuation could be attributed to the first stars of the universe, i.e., Population III stars. The observed fluctuation provides an important constraint on the era of the first stars.

  18. Precision Attitude Determination for an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed performance simulations for a precision attitude determination system using a focal plane star tracker on an infrared space telescope. The telescope is being designed for the Destiny mission to measure cosmologically distant supernovae as one of the candidate implementations for the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Repeat observations of the supernovae require attitude control at the level of 0.010 arcseconds (0.05 microradians) during integrations and at repeat intervals up to and over a year. While absolute accuracy is not required, the repoint precision is challenging. We have simulated the performance of a focal plane star tracker in a multidimensional parameter space, including pixel size, read noise, and readout rate. Systematic errors such as proper motion, velocity aberration, and parallax can be measured and compensated out. Our prediction is that a relative attitude determination accuracy of 0.001 to 0.002 arcseconds (0.005 to 0.010 microradians) will be achievable.

  19. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST) is reported. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. The LST is an unmanned astronomical observatory facility, consisting of an optical telescope assembly (OTA), scientific instrument package (SIP), and a support systems module (SSM). The report consists of five volumes. The report describes the constraints and trade off analyses that were performed to arrive at a reference design for each system and for the overall LST configuration. A low cost design approach was followed in the Phase A study. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and the sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads.

  20. SLAC All Access: Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    ScienceCinema

    Romani, Roger

    2014-06-24

    Three hundred and fifty miles overhead, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope silently glides through space. From this serene vantage point, the satellite's instruments watch the fiercest processes in the universe unfold. Pulsars spin up to 700 times a second, sweeping powerful beams of gamma-ray light through the cosmos. The hyperactive cores of distant galaxies spew bright jets of plasma. Far beyond, something mysterious explodes with unfathomable power, sending energy waves crashing through the universe. Stanford professor and KIPAC member Roger W. Romani talks about this orbiting telescope, the most advanced ever to view the sky in gamma rays, a form of light at the highest end of the energy spectrum that's created in the hottest regions of the universe.

  1. Launch Window Trade Analysis for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne H.; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Launch Window Trade Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Wayne; Richon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large-scale space telescope mission designed to study fundamental astrophysical questions ranging from the formation of the universe to the origin of planetary systems and the origins of life. JWSTs orbit design is a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point for a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years. The launch readiness period for JWST is from Oct 1st, 2018 November 30th, 2018. This paper presents the first launch window analysis for the JWST observatory using finite-burn modeling; previous analysis assumed a single impulsive midcourse correction to achieve the mission orbit. The physical limitations of the JWST hardware stemming primarily from propulsion, communication and thermal requirements alongside updated mission design requirements result in significant launch window within the launch readiness period. Future plans are also discussed.

  3. Transit Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST's optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy. We will review the capabilities of each science instrument, and discuss the performance of each mode, with reference to current transiting systems.

  4. Observing supernova 1987A with the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S J; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2010-09-24

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Lyα and Hα lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Lyα, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v λλ1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Lyα. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of Hα, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock. PMID:20813921

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  6. Space telescope low scattered light camera - A model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuper, T. G.; Shack, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    A design approach for a camera to be used with the space telescope is given. Camera optics relay the system pupil onto an annular Gaussian ring apodizing mask to control scattered light. One and two dimensional models of ripple on the primary mirror were calculated. Scattered light calculations using ripple amplitudes between wavelength/20 wavelength/200 with spatial correlations of the ripple across the primary mirror between 0.2 and 2.0 centimeters indicate that the detection of an object a billion times fainter than a bright source in the field is possible. Detection of a Jovian type planet in orbit about alpha Centauri with a camera on the space telescope may be possible.

  7. SLAC All Access: Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger

    2013-05-31

    Three hundred and fifty miles overhead, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope silently glides through space. From this serene vantage point, the satellite's instruments watch the fiercest processes in the universe unfold. Pulsars spin up to 700 times a second, sweeping powerful beams of gamma-ray light through the cosmos. The hyperactive cores of distant galaxies spew bright jets of plasma. Far beyond, something mysterious explodes with unfathomable power, sending energy waves crashing through the universe. Stanford professor and KIPAC member Roger W. Romani talks about this orbiting telescope, the most advanced ever to view the sky in gamma rays, a form of light at the highest end of the energy spectrum that's created in the hottest regions of the universe.

  8. Development of television tubes for the large space telescope.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrance, J. L.; Zucchino, P.

    1971-01-01

    Princeton Observatory has been working for several years under NASA sponsorship to develop television type sensors to use in place of photographic film for space astronomy. This paper discusses the performance of an SEC-vidicon with a 25 mm x 25 mm active area, MgF2 window, and bi-alkali photocathode. Results from ground based use on the Coude spectrograph of the 200-inch Hale telescope are included. The intended use of this tube in an echelle spectrograph sounding rocket payload and on Stratoscope II for direct high resolution imagery is also discussed. The paper also discusses the Large Space Telescope image sensor requirements and the development of a larger television tube for this mission.

  9. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  10. Physical Characterization of TNOs with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alex; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Stansberry, John; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Bannister, Michele; Benecchi, Susan; Cook, Jason; Fraser, Wesley; Grundy, Will; Guilbert, Aurelie; Merline, Bill; Moullet, Arielle; Mueller, Michael; Olkin, Cathy; Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the physical properties of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are a powerful probe into the processes of planetesimal formation and solar system evolution. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide unique new capabilities for such studies. Here, we outline where the capabilities of JWST open new avenues of investigation, potentially valuable observations and surveys, and conclude with a discussion of community actions that may serve to enhance the eventual science return of JWST's TNO observations.

  11. Seasonal Variations of the James Webb Space Telescope Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Petersen, Jeremy; Villac, Benjamin; Yu, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While spacecraft orbital variations due to the Earth's tilt and orbital eccentricity are well-known phenomena, the implications for the James Webb Space Telescope present unique features. We investigate the variability of the observatory trajectory characteristics, and present an explanation of some of these effects using invariant manifold theory and local approximation of the dynamics in terms of the restricted three-body problem.

  12. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  14. Technicians assembly the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A, technicians install a high gain antenna (HGA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. On the ground a technician operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting the HGA into place on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait for the HGA to near its final position so they can secure it on the mockup.

  15. Teflon FEP Analyzed After Retrieval From the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Wang, Len; He, Charles

    1999-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission, 6.8 years after the telescope was deployed in low Earth orbit, degradation of unsupported Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer (see the photograph) was retrieved during the second servicing mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. Also retrieved was a Teflon FEP radiator surface from a cryogen vent cover that was exposed to the space environment on the aft bulkhead of the HST. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included determining the FEP degradation mechanisms. As part of the investigations into the degradation mechanisms, specimens retrieved from the first and second HST servicing missions, 3.6 and 6.8 years after launch, respectively, were characterized through exhaustive mechanical, optical, and chemical testing. Testing led by Goddard included scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, tensile testing, solar absorptance measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (m-FTIR), attenuated total reflectance infrared microscopy (ATR/FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The NASA Lewis Research Center contributed significantly to the analysis of the retrieved HST materials by leading efforts and providing results of bend testing, surface microhardness measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density measurements. Other testing was conducted by Nano Instruments, Inc., and the University of Akron.

  16. A unified future for ground and space optical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilston, Steven

    2005-08-01

    We view broadly the science and technology drivers for both space and ground optical telescopes, in order to identify the unique capabilities and limitations in each domain. This leads us to consider the potential for effective "divisions of labor" and synergies to enhance scientific value. We project the influence of new enabling technologies, human priorities, international collaboration issues, and funding expectations. Finally, we discuss current NASA and ESA optical astronomy mission goals, and speculate on long-term forecasts.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  18. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  19. Hubble space telescope: Pointing error effects on nonlinear ball joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. E.; Grissett, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope pointing error produced by optical benches mounted on free ball joints is examined. Spacecraft cable connections are assumed to produce translational and rotational damping and restoring forces which act through the optical bench center of mass. The nonlinear dynamics are modeled and then implemented using an existing computer program for simulating the vehicle dynamics and pointing control system algorithm. Results are presented for the test case which indicate acceptable performance.

  20. Study of composites as substrate materials in large space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Nonmetallic composites such as the graphite/epoxy system were investigated as possible substrates for the primary mirror of the large space telescope. The possible use of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites was reviewed in the literature. Problems arising out of the use of composites as substrate materials such as grinding, polishing, adherence of reflective coatings, rigidity of substrate, hygrospcopici tendency of the composites, thermal and temporal stability and other related problems were examined.

  1. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  2. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Bi-Stem Thermal Shield Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finlay, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched April 24, 1990, and was deployed April 25 into low Earth orbit (LEO). It was soon discovered that the metal poles holding the solar arrays were expanding and contracting as the telescope orbited the Earth passing between the sunlight and the Earth s shadow. The expansion and contraction, although very small, was enough to cause the telescope to shake because of thermal-induced jitters, a detrimental effect when trying to take pictures millions of miles away. Therefore, the European Space Agency (ESA, the provider of the solar arrays) built new solar arrays (SA-11) that contained bi-stem thermal shields which insulated the solar array metal poles. These thermal shields were made of 2 mil thick aluminized-Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) rings fused together into a circular bellows shape. The new solar arrays were put on the HST during an extravehicular activity (EVA), also called an astronaut space walk, during the first servicing mission (SM1) in December 1993. An on-orbit photograph of the HST with the SA-11, and a close up of the bellows-like structure of the thermal shields is provided in Figure 1.

  4. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Coronagraphic Observations of β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don J.; Lanz, Thierry M.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hubeny, Ivan; Maran, S. P.; Woodgate, Bruce

    2000-08-01

    We present new coronagraphic images of β Pictoris obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in 1997 September. The high-resolution images (0.1") clearly detect the circumstellar disk as close to the star as 0.75", corresponding to a projected radius of 15 AU. The images define the warp in the disk with greater precision and at closer radii to β Pic than do previous observations. They show that the warp can be modeled by the projection of two components: the main disk and a fainter component, which is inclined to the main component by 4°-5° and extends only as far as ~4" from the star. We interpret the main component as arising primarily in the outer disk and the tilted component as defining the inner region of the disk. The observed properties of the warped inner disk are inconsistent with a driving force from stellar radiation. However, warping induced by the gravitational potential of one or more planets is consistent with the data. Using models of planet-warped disks constructed by Larwood & Papaloizou, we derive possible masses of the perturbing object. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. Optical Communications Study for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), part of NASA's Origins program, is a follow on to the Hubble Space Telescope expected to provide timely new science along with answering fundamental questions. NGST is a large diameter, infrared optimized telescope with imaging and spectrographic detectors which will be used to help study the origin of galaxies. Due to the large data NGST will collect, Goddard Space Flight Center has considered the use of optical communications for data downlink. The Optical Communications Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has performed a study on optical communications systems for NGST. The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits gained through the use of optical communication technologies. Studies were performed for each of four proposed NGST orbits. The orbits considered were an elliptical orbit about the semi stable second Lagrangian point, a 1 by 3 AU elliptic orbit around the sun, a 1 AU drift orbit, and a 1 AU drift orbit at a 15 degree incline to the ecliptic plane. An appropriate optical communications system was determined for each orbit. Systems were evaluated in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost for each of the four proposed orbits.

  6. Cosmic Ray Studies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Baldini, L.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides both direct and indirect measurements of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The LAT high-statistics observations of the 7 GeV - 1 TcV electron plus positron spectrum and limits on spatial anisotropy constrain models for this cosmic-ray component. On a Galactic scale, the LAT observations indicate that cosmic-ray sources may be more plentiful in the outer Galaxy than expected or that the scale height of the cosmic-ray diffusive halo is larger than conventional models. Production of cosmic rays in supernova remnants (SNR) is supported by the LAT gamma-ray studies of several of these, both young SNR and those interacting with molecular clouds.

  7. Cosmic Ray Studies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.; Baldini, L.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides both direct and indirect measurements of galactic cosmic rays (CR). The LAT high-statistics observations of the 7 GeV - 1 TeV electron plus positron spectrum and limits on spatial anisotropy constrain models for this cosmic-ray component. On a galactic scale, the LAT observations indicate that cosmic-ray sources may be more plentiful in the outer Galaxy than expected or that the scale height of the cosmic-ray diffusive halo is larger than conventional models. Production of cosmic rays in supernova remnants (SNR) is supported by the LAT gamma-ray studies of several of these, both young SNR and those interacting with molecular clouds.

  8. Hubble space telescope six-battery test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajak, J. A.; Bush, J. R., Jr.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A test bed for a large space power system breadboard for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed and built to test the system under simulated orbital conditions. A discussion of the data acquisition and control subsystems designed to provide for continuous 24 hr per day operation and a general overview of the test bed is presented. The data acquisition and control subsystems provided the necessary monitoring and protection to assure safe shutdown with protection of test articles in case of loss of power or equipment failure over the life of the test (up to 5 years).

  9. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  10. Structural Safety of a Hubble Space Telescope Science Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, M. C.; Brent, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of safety requirements related to structural design and verificationof payloads to be launched and/or retrieved by the Space Shuttle. To demonstrate the generalapproach used to implement these requirements in the development of a typical Shuttle payload, theWide Field/Planetary Camera II, a second generation science instrument currently being developed bythe Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Hubble Space Telescope is used as an example. Inaddition to verification of strength and dynamic characteristics, special emphasis is placed upon thefracture control implementation process, including parts classification and fracture controlacceptability.

  11. The Space Surveillance Telescope: Focus and Alignment of a Three Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D.; Shah, R.; Johnson, J.; Szabo, A.; Pearce, E.; Lambour, R.; Faccenda, W.

    2012-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) is a DARPA-funded technology initiative to dramatically increase sensitivity to microsatellites at the geosynchronous belt and to improve cataloging of the deep space resident space object (RSO) population. The SST achieves increased sensitivity to faint objects and rapid search capabilities by combining a large 3.5-meter aperture Mersenne-Schmidt telescope design and a highly sensitive curved mosaic focal surface CCD camera. While the unique system design is advantageous for space surveillance capabilities, it presents a challenge to alignment due to an inherently small depth of focus and the additional degrees of freedom introduced with a powered tertiary mirror. This paper will provide a brief overview of the SST, discuss the methodology for achieving and maintaining focus and alignment of the system across a range of temperature and elevation conditions, and present recent results of the system alignment performance. This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Distribution Statement A: Distribution is Unlimited

  12. Overview and Status of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments spanning the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST's primary science goals are to detect and characterize the first galaxies, study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. JWST has a unique design based on the concept of passive cooling by means of a multi-layer sunshield to achieve the telescope's cryogenic operating temperature. Each of the five layers of the sunshield is approximately the size of a tennis court, and made of aluminized kapton. By maintaining an observatory attitude whereby the sunshield keeps the telescope in the shade from the sun's rays, the telescope and science instruments can operate at cryogenic temperature (-40 K). On the sun facing side of the observatory the spacecraft bus houses most of the electronic sub-systems, and provides a platform for the solar array and communications hardware. JWST is sufficiently large that it cannot fit inside .the fairing of its Ariane 5 launcher without being stowed in a more compact configuration, so the ability to deploy its major SUb-systems such as the telescope optics and sunshield after launch are another major feature of the observatory. Development of observatory is making rapid progress as major hardware SUb-systems nearcompletion. Polishing of the JWST telescope mirrors is complete with 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, tertiary and fine steering mirror all gold coated and through acceptance testing. Engineering test articles of each sunshield membrane layer are underway. The first layer 3 membrane is complete and is undergoing testing to evaluate its tensioned shape for compliance with alignment tolerances. As each major SUb-system is tested, the expected scientific performance of the observatory can be evaluated using test results and integrated system models of the

  13. Analysis of Retrieved Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Triolo, Jack J.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical and optical properties of the thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have degraded over the nearly seven years the telescope has been in orbit. Astronaut observations and photographs from the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon FEP, the outer-layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. Also, the emissivity of the bonded metallized Teflon FEP radiator surfaces of the telescope has increased over time. Samples of the top layer of the MLI and radiator material were retrieved during SM2, and a thorough investigation into the de-radiation followed in order to determine the primary cause of the damage. Mapping of the cracks on HST and the ground testing showed that thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation are necessary to cause the observed embrittlement. Further, strong, evidence was found indicating that chain scission (reduced molecular weight) is the dominant form of damage to the metallized Teflon FEP.

  14. Design of multichannel image processing on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin

    2000-07-01

    The multi-channel image processing system on the Space Solar Telescope (SST) is described in this paper. This system is main part of science data unit (SDU), which is designed for dealing with the science data from every payload on the SST. First every payload on the SST and its scientific objective are introduced. They are main optic telescope, four soft X- ray telescopes, an H-alpha and white light (full disc) telescope, a coronagraph, a wide band X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrometer, and a solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer. Then the structure of SDU is presented. In this part, we discuss the hardware and software structure of SDU, which is designed for multi-payload. The science data scream of every payload is summarized, too. Solar magnetic and velocity field processing that occupies more than 90% of the data processing of SDU is discussed, which includes polarizing unit, image receiver and image adding unit. Last the plan of image data compression and mass memory that is designed for science data storage are presented.

  15. eta Carinae: Testing a Binary Orbit Model with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph.

    PubMed

    Davidson; Ishibashi; Gull; Humphreys; Smith

    2000-02-20

    Ground-based spectroscopy of eta Car shows periodic changes in some emission-line wavelengths. These variations have been cited as strong evidence that this object is a 5.5 yr binary system and have been used to produce specific orbit models. High spatial resolution data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, however, do not confirm the predicted velocity behavior; therefore, the published orbit models are almost certainly invalid. Wavelength fluctuations seen at ground-based spatial resolution most likely result from other effects, which we describe. If this object is a binary system (which has not been proven), then the parameters of the secondary star and of the orbit remain largely unknown. PMID:10655176

  16. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  17. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Smith, Eric P.

    2010-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, space telescope designed to provide imaging and spectroscopy from 1.0 μm to 28 μm. JWST will be launched to an orbit at L2 aboard an Ariane 5 launcher in 2013. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is the lead center for the JWST program and manages the project for NASA. The prime contractor for JWST is Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGST). JWST is an international partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). ESA will contribute the Ariane 5 launch, and a multi-object infrared spectrograph. CSA will contribute the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), which includes the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI). The European consortium, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), builds the mid-infrared imager (MIRI). In this paper we present an overview of the JWST science program, and discuss recent progress in the development of the observatory.

  18. Innovative research in the design and operation of large telescopes for space: Aspects of giant telescopes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The capability and understanding of how to finish the reflector surfaces needed for large space telescopes is discussed. The technology for making very light glass substrates for mirrors is described. Other areas of development are in wide field imaging design for very fast primaries, in data analysis and retrieval methods for astronomical images, and in methods for making large area closely packed mosaics of solid state array detectors.

  19. Updates to the Performance and Calibration of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin; Becker, George; Biretta, John; Debes, John; Fox, Andrew; Lockwood, sean; Massa, Derck; Monroe, TalaWanda; Oliveira, Cristina; Jedrzejekski, Robert; Peeples, Molly; Penton, Steven Victor; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David; Sana, Hugues; Sonnentrucker, Paule G.; Taylor, Joanna; Walborn, Nolan

    2015-08-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been on orbit for approximately 18 years and continues to produce high quality scientific results using a diverse complement of operating modes. These include spatially resolved spectroscopy in the UV and optical, high spatial resolution echelle spectroscopy in the UV, and solar-blind imaging in the UV. In addition, STIS possesses unique visible-light coronagraphic modes that keep the instrument at the forefront of exoplanet and debris-disk research. As the instrument's characteristics evolve over the instrument’s lifetime, the instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute monitors its performance and works towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updates on the status of the STIS CCD and FUV &NUV MAMA detectors, as well as changes to the CalSTIS reduction pipeline and available instrument modes. As the STIS CCD detector continues to suffer from charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) due to prolonged radiation damage, we also present an update on the on-going effort to develop a stand-alone tool to perform a pixel-based CTI correction on the STIS CCD, for distribution to the community.

  20. The next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    We present the overview and the current status of SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), which is a mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a cryogenically cooled 3.2 m telescope. SPICA has high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- and far-infrared, which will enable us to address a number of key problems in present-day astronomy, ranging from the star-formation history of the universe to the formation of planets. To reduce the mass of the whole mission, SPICA will be launched at ambient temperature and cooled down on orbit by mechanical coolers on board with an efficient radiative cooling system, a combination of which allows us to have a 3-m class cooled (6 K) telescope in space with moderate total weight (3.7t). SPICA is proposed as a Japanese-led mission together with extensive international collaboration. ESA's contribution to SPICA has been studied under the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision. The consortium led by SRON is in charge of a key focal plane instrument SAFARI (SPICA Far-Infrared Instrument). Korea and Taiwan are also important partners for SPICA. US participation to SPICA is under discussion. The SPICA project is now in the "risk mitigation phase". The target launch year of SPICA is 2022.

  1. Chemical vapor composite silicon carbide for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, C. T.; Webb, K.

    2006-06-01

    Components for space telescopes using high quality silicon carbide (SiC) produced via the chemical vapor composite (CVC) process are currently under development. This CVC process is a modification of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and results in a dramatic reduction in residual stress of the SiC deposit. The resultant CVC SiC material has high modulus, high thermal conductivity and can be polished to better than 1nm RMS surface roughness, making it ideal for space telescopes requiring lightweight, stiff and thermally stable components. Moreover, due to its lower intrinsic stress, CVC SiC is much more readily scaled to large sizes and manufactured into the complex geometries needed for the telescope assemblies. Results are presented on the optical figure for a lightweight 15cm CVC SiC mirror demonstrating low wavefront error (<30nm peak-to-valley and <5.1nm rms). Theoretical and experimental modal analysis measured the first four resonant modes of the mirror and found a first modal frequency in the vicinity of 2100 Hz, representing a highly stiff mirror.

  2. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, J.; Ushomirsky, G.; Woods, D.; Viggh, H.; Varey, J.; Cornell, M.; Stokes, G.

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions. This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  3. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Jessica D.; Ushomirsky, Gregory; Woods, Deborah F.; Viggh, Herbert E. M.; Varey, Jacob; Cornell, Mark E.; Stokes, Grant

    2015-11-01

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions.This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope Synergy with Dark Energy Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    As the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a general-purpose observatory which will impact all areas of observational astronomy. Two future dark energy missions are being planned: Euclid in Europe and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) in the US. While JWST is designed to go very deep in the infrared, the dark energy missions will conduct wide-area surveys of a substantial fraction of the sky in the optical and near-infrared. Synergy between JWST and Euclid or WFIRST could proceed in several ways. (1) JWST will make contributions to dark energy science that will be complementary to the results from the wide-area surveys. These contributions could include a more precise measurement of the current value of the Hubble constant, and rest-frame near-infrared light curves for high-redshift type Ia supernovae. (2) JWST could directly contribute to the dark energy science of the wide-area missions by providing additional calibration, investigating anomalies in the dataset, or with complementary observations that are deeper over a smaller area. (3) JWST could make follow-up observations of Euclid or WFIRST discoveries of rare objects, such as high-redshift quasars, strong-lens systems, galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  5. The Potential of Small Space Telescopes for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    The imaging of faint exoplanets near bright stars requires the development of very high contrast detection techniques, including both precise wavefront control and deep starlight rejection. A system-level proof-of-principle experiment carried out at at the Palomar Observatory has recently demonstrated that exoplanets can be detected very near stars even with a fairly small (1.5 m diameter) telescope aperture, such as someday might be used by a first space-based exoplanet imaging mission. Using fine-scale wavefront correction across this small aperture, together with fine pointing and focus control, pre- and post-detection speckle reduction, and a vector vortex coronagraph, it has been possible to achieve extremely good starlight rejection within a small number of diffractions beams of the stellar position. This performance has recently allowed the imaging of the three HR8799 planets and the HD32297 disk, thus providing a first system-level validation of the steps needed to achieve high-contrast observations at very small angles. These results thus serve to highlight the potential of small space telescopes aiming at high-contrast exoplanet observations. Specifically, a small-angle coronagraph enables the use of smaller telescopes, thus potentially reducing mission cost significantly.

  6. Feedback loops from the Hubble Space Telescope data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Arquilla, Richard; Ellis, Tracy; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Holm, Albert; Kochte, Mark

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history and technology by which tools placed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data processing pipeline were used to feedback information on observation execution to the scheduling system and observers. Because the HST is in a relatively low orbit, which imposes a number of constraints upon its observations, it operates in a carefully planned, fully automated mode. To substitute for direct observer involvement available at most ground-based observatories and to provide rapid feedback on failures that might affect future visits, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) gradually evolved a system for screening science and engineering products during pipeline processing. The highly flexible HST data processing system (OPUS) allows tools to be introduced to use the content of FITS keywords to alert production staff to potential telescope and instrument performance failures. Staff members review the flagged data and, if appropriate, notify the observer and the scheduling staff so that they can resolve the problems and possibly repeat the failed observations. This kind of feedback loop represents a case study for other automated data collection systems where rapid response to certain quantifiable events in the data is required. Observatory operations staff can install processes to look for these events either in the production pipeline or in an associated pipeline into which the appropriate data are piped. That process can then be used to notify scientists to evaluate the data and decide upon a response or to automatically initiate a response.

  7. Corrective optics space telescope axial replacement alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusher, Robert B.; Satter, Michael J.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Martella, Mark A.; Freymiller, Ed D.; Buzzetta, Victor

    1993-10-01

    To facilitate the accurate placement and alignment of the corrective optics space telescope axial replacement (COSTAR) structure, mechanisms, and optics, the COSTAR Alignment System (CAS) has been designed and assembled. It consists of a 20-foot optical bench, support structures for holding and aligning the COSTAR instrument at various stages of assembly, a focal plane target fixture (FPTF) providing an accurate reference to the as-built Hubble Space Telescope (HST) focal plane, two alignment translation stages with interchangeable alignment telescopes and alignment lasers, and a Zygo Mark IV interferometer with a reference sphere custom designed to allow accurate double-pass operation of the COSTAR correction optics. The system is used to align the fixed optical bench (FOB), the track, the deployable optical bench (DOB), the mechanisms, and the optics to ensure that the correction mirrors are all located in the required positions and orientations on-orbit after deployment. In this paper, the layout of the CAS is presented and the various alignment operations are listed along with the relevant alignment requirements. In addition, calibration of the necessary support structure elements and alignment aids is described, including the two-axis translation stages, the latch positions, the FPTF, and the COSTAR-mounted alignment cubes.

  8. A tunable crystal diffraction telescope for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonBallmoos, P.; Kohnle, A.; Olive, J. F.; Vedrenne, G.; Smither, R. K.; Fernandez, P. B.; Graber, T.

    1996-01-01

    A focusing gamma ray telescope is proposed for use onboard the International Space Station. It consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens which focuses gamma rays onto a small array of germanium detectors located on an extendable boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 arcsec, an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 sigma sensitivity of the order of 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm sec for any individual narrow line at energies of between 200 and 1300 keV. The scientific potential of such a telescope is discussed. The principles of a diffraction lens and a tunable diffraction lens are described.

  9. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; Dickinson, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics is building FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve.—a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny holes in an otherwise opaque polymer sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be steered towards the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2016, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions.

  10. Life extension activities for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Pepe, Joyce; Prior, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Without an additional Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM4), the HST Project will face numerous challenges to keep the telescope operating for as long as possible. As part of SM4, the HST Project planned to install various upgrades to the telescope including the installation of new batteries and new rate integrating gyros. Without these upgrades, reliability analyses and trend projections indicate that the spacecraft will lose the capability to conduct science operations later this decade. The HST team is being challenged to maximize the telescope's remaining operational lifetime, and also maximize its science output and quality. The two biggest areas of concern are the age and condition of the batteries and gyros. Together they comprise the largest risk to telescope productivity and safety and present the biggest challenges to the HST team. The six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries on HST are the original batteries from launch. With fourteen years of operational life, these batteries have -lasted longer than those on any comparable mission. Yet as with all batteries, their capacity has been declining. Engineers are examining various methods to prolong the life of these mission critical batteries, and retard the rate of degradation. In addition to the batteries, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scheduled all six gyros to be replaced on SM4. Two of the six gyros have already failed, leaving four available for operational use. To be able to conduct science operations, the telescope currently needs three gyros. Efforts are underway to enable a guiding mode that will require only two gyros. In this mode, however, science target scheduling will be strongly driven by new factors (such as star tracker availability), which may ultimately reduce science gathering efficiency. The status on this effort and its potential impact on science operations will be discussed. This paper will focus on these and other efforts to prolong the life of

  11. Optical verification of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, Brian; Rifelli, Rich; Barto, Allison; Contos, Adam; Whitman, Tony; Wells, Conrad; Hagopian, John

    2006-06-01

    The optical system of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is split between two of the Observatory's element, the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The OTE optical design consists of an 18-hexagonal segmented primary mirror (25m2 clear aperture), a secondary mirror, a tertiary mirror, and a flat fine steering mirror used for fine guidance control. All optical components are made of beryllium. The primary and secondary mirror elements have hexapod actuation that provides six degrees of freedom rigid body adjustment. The optical components are mounted to a very stable truss structure made of composite materials. The OTE structure also supports the ISIM. The ISIM contains the Science Instruments (SIs) and Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) needed for acquiring mission science data and for Observatory pointing and control and provides mechanical support for the SIs and FGS. The optical performance of the telescope is a key performance metric for the success of JWST. To ensure proper performance, the JWST optical verification program is a comprehensive, incremental, end-to-end verification program which includes multiple, independent, cross checks of key optical performance metrics to reduce risk of an on-orbit telescope performance issues. This paper discusses the verification testing and analysis necessary to verify the Observatory's image quality and sensitivity requirements. This verification starts with component level verification and ends with the Observatory level verification at Johnson Space Flight Center. The optical verification of JWST is a comprehensive, incremental, end-to-end optical verification program which includes both test and analysis.

  12. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vilera, Mariafernanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-04-10

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links. PMID:23670767

  13. Applying artificial intelligence to the control of space telescopes (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Philips, Andrew; Levinson, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The field of astronomy has recently benefited from the availability of space telescopes. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), for instance, despite its problems, provides a unique and valuable view of the universe. However, unlike HST, a telescope need not be in low Earth orbit to escape our thickening atmosphere: it is currently technologically feasible to put a telescope on the moon, and there are excellent reasons for doing this. Either in low Earth orbit or on the moon, a space telescope represents an expensive and sought-after resource. Thus, the planning, scheduling, and control of these telescopes is an important problem that must be seriously studied.

  14. Meteoroid and space debris impacts in grazing-incidence telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Wells, A.; Abbey, A. F.; Ambrosi, R. M.

    2008-06-01

    Context: Micrometeoroid or space debris impacts have been observed in the focal planes of the XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT (X-ray Telescope) X-ray observatories. These impacts have resulted in damage to, and in one case the failure of, focal-plane Charge-Coupled Device (CCDs) detectors. Aims: We aim to quantify the future risks of focal-plane impacts in present and future X-ray observatories. Methods: We present a simple model for the propagation of micrometeoroids and space debris particles into telescopes with grazing-incidence X-ray optics, which is based on the results of previous investigations into grazing-incidence hypervelocity impacts by microscopic particles. We then calculate micrometeoroid and space debris fluxes using the Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference model (MASTER2005). The risks of future focal-plane impact events in three present (Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra) and two future (SIMBOL-X and XEUS) X-ray observatories are then estimated on the basis of the calculated fluxes and the model for particle propagation. Results: The probabilities of at least one impact occurring in the Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra focal planes, in a one year period from the time of writing in November 2007 are calculated to be ~5% and ~50% and ~3%. First-order predictions of the impact rates expected for the future SIMBOL-X and XEUS X-ray observatories yield probabilities for at least one focal-plane impact, during nominal 5-year missions, of more than 94% and 99%, respectively. Conclusions: The propagation of micrometeoroids and space debris particles into the focal planes of X-ray telescopes is highest for Wolter optics with the largest collecting areas and the lowest grazing angles. Telescopes in low-Earth orbits encounter enhanced particle fluxes compared with those in higher orbits and a pointing avoidance strategy for certain directions can reduce the risk of impacts. Future X-ray observatories, with large collecting areas and

  15. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2015-07-27

    Large space telescopes made of deployable and lightweight structures suffer from aberrations caused by thermal deformations, gravitational release, and alignment errors which occur during the deployment procedure. An active optics system would allow on-site correction of wave-front errors, and ease the requirements on thermal and mechanical stability of the optical train. In the course of a project funded by the European Space Agency we have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror is able to work in space environment and is designed to correct for large aberrations of low order with high surface fidelity. This paper discusses design, manufacturing and performance results of the deformable mirror. PMID:26367605

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  17. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Anderson, B. Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D.L.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bederede, D.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G.F.; Bisello, D.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R.D.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3) measure

  18. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  19. Hubble space telescope calspec flux standards: Sirius (and Vega)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has measured the flux for Sirius from 0.17 to 1.01 μm on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) White Dwarf scale. Because of the cool debris disk around Vega, Sirius is commonly recommended as the primary IR flux standard. The measured STIS flux agrees well with predictions of a special Kurucz model atmosphere, adding confidence to the modeled IR flux predictions. The IR flux agrees to 2%-3% with respect to the standard template of Cohen and to 2% with the Midcourse Space Experiment absolute flux measurements in the mid-IR. A weighted average of the independent visible and mid-IR absolute flux measures implies that the monochromatic flux at 5557.5 Å (5556 Å in air) for Sirius and Vega, respectively, is 1.35 × 10{sup –8} and 3.44 × 10{sup –9} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} Å{sup –1} with formal uncertainties of 0.5%. Contrary to previously published conclusions, the Hipparcos photometry offers no support for the variability of Vega. Pulse pileup severely affects the Hp photometry for the brightest stars.

  20. Structural Design Considerations for an 8-m Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R. Sr.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2009-01-01

    NASA's upcoming ARES V launch vehicle, with its' immerse payload capacities (both volume and mass) has opened the possibilities for a whole new paradigm of space observatories. It becomes practical to consider a monolith mirror of sufficient size to permit significant scientific advantages, both in collection area and smoothness or figure at a reasonable price. The technologies and engineering to manufacture and test 8 meter class monoliths is mature, with nearly a dozen of such mirrors already in operation around the world. This paper will discuss the design requirements to adapt an 8m meniscus mirror into a Space Telescope System, both launch and operational considerations are included. With objects this massive and structurally sensitive, the mirror design must include all stages of the process. Based upon the experiences of the Hubble Space Telescope, testing and verification at both component and integrated system levels are considered vital to mission success. To this end, two different component level test methods for gravity sag (the so call zero- gravity simulation or test mount) are proposed, with one of these methods suitable for the full up system level testing as well.

  1. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  2. Expert systems tools for Hubble Space Telescope observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Rosenthal, Don; Cohen, William; Johnston, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The utility of expert systems techniques for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planning and scheduling is discussed and a plan for development of expert system tools which will augment the existing ground system is described. Additional capabilities provided by these tools will include graphics-oriented plan evaluation, long-range analysis of the observation pool, analysis of optimal scheduling time intervals, constructing sequences of spacecraft activities which minimize operational overhead, and optimization of linkages between observations. Initial prototyping of a scheduler used the Automated Reasoning Tool running on a LISP workstation.

  3. The space telescope NINA: results of a beam test calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidoli, V.; Casolino, M.; Pascale, M. P. D.; Morselli, A.; Furano, G.; Picozza, P.; Scoscini, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Bonvicini, W.; Cirami, R.; Schiavon, P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, N.; Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Ciacio, F.; Castellano, M.; Circella, M.; Marzo, C. D.; Bartalucci, S.; Giuntoli, S.; Ricci, M.; Papini, P.; Piccardi, S.; Spillantini, P.; Bakaldin, A.; Batishev, A.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S.; Korotkov, M.; Mikhailov, V.; Murashov, A.; Voronov, S.; Boezio, M.

    1999-03-01

    In June 1998 the telescope NINA will be launched in space on board of the Russian satellite Resource-01 n.4. The main scientific objective of the mission is the study of the anomalous, galactic and solar components of the cosmic rays in the energy interval 10-200MeV/n. The core of the instrument is a silicon detector whose performances have been tested with a particle beam at the GSI Laboratory in Germany in 1997; we report here on the results obtained during the beam calibration.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  5. Investigation of small solar system objects with the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope (ST) to study small objects in the solar system in order to understand the birth and the early evolution of the solar system is discussed. The upper size limit of the small bodies is defined as approximately 5000 km and includes planetary satellites, planetary rings, asteroids, and comets.The use of the astronomical instruments aboard the ST, such as the faint object camera, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, to study the small solar system objects is discussed.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard E.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M.; Holberg, Jay B.; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Barstow, Martin A.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2015-11-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 ± 0.012 M⊙ and 0.592 ± 0.006 M⊙ for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A’s age is ˜2.7 Gyr. Procyon B’s location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon-oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor’s mass was 1.9-2.2 M⊙, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only ˜5 AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (˜0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. Reflective correctors for the Hubble Space Telescope axial instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottema, Murk

    1993-01-01

    Reflective correctors to compensate the spherical aberration in the Hubble Space Telescope are placed in front of three of the axial scientific instruments (a camera and two spectrographs) during the first scheduled refurbishment mission. The five correctors required are deployed from a new module that replaces the fourth axial instrument. Each corrector consists of a field mirror and an aspherical, aberration-correcting reimaging mirror. In the camera the angular resolution capability is restored, be it in reduced fields, and in the spectrographs the potential for observations in crowded areas is regained along with effective light collection at the slits.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Detector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission, it's scientific goals, and how these drive detector systems technology. We describe the specific technologies that were developed (2.5 um and 5 um cutoff HgCdTe HAWAIIW2RG arrays for the 3 near-IR instruments, SIDECAR ASICs for the near-IR instruments, and Si:As arrays for the raid-IR instrument). We describe status in each of these areas with an emphasis on the performance of the flight detector systems themselves.

  9. The Faint Object Camera for the Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomae, K.-P.; Schmidt, G.

    1981-05-01

    The Faint Object Camera (FOC), one of the four axial scientific instruments located at the focal plane of the NASA Space Telescope, is described. The FOC has overall dimensions of approximately 0.9 x 0.9 x 2.2 cu m, a total weight of about 322 kg, and an average power consumption per orbit of less than 150 W. The FOC is made up of two complete and independent camera systems, each with its dedicated three mirrors optical relay and photon detector device operating in a wavelength range of 1200 A to 7000 A.

  10. State-of-the-art Space Telescope Digicon performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginaven, R. O.; Choisser, J. P.; Acton, L.; Wysoczanski, W.; Alting-Mees, H. R.; Smith, R. D., II; Beaver, E. A.; Eck, H. J.; Delamere, A.; Shannon, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Digicon has been chosen as the detector for the High Resolution Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Space Telescope. Both tubes are 512 channel, parallel-output devices and feature CsTe photocathodes on MgF2 faceplates. Using a computer-assisted test facility, the tubes have been characterized with respect to diode array performance, photocathode response (1100-9000 A), and imaging capability. Data are presented on diode dark current and capacitance distributions, pulse height resolution, photocathode quantum efficiency, uniformity and blemishes, dark count rate, distortion, resolution, and crosstalk.

  11. Primary mirror alignment and assembly for a multispectral space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Chen-Peng; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Po-Hsuan; Tsay, Ho-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chieh; Pan, Hsu-Pin; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2013-10-01

    For a currently developing multispectral space Cassegrain telescope, the primary mirror with 450 mm clear aperture is made of Zerodur and lightweighted at a ratio about 50 % to meet both thermal and mass requirement. For this mirror, it is critical to reduce the astigmatism caused from the gravity effect, bonding process and the deformation from the mounting to the main structure of the telescope (main plate). In this article, the primary mirror alignment, MGSE, assembly process and the optical performance test for the primary mirror assembly are presented. The mechanical shim is the interface between the iso-static mount and main plate. It is used to compensate the manufacture errors of components and differences of local co-planarity errors to prevent the stress while iso-static mount (ISM) is screwed to main plate. After primary mirror assembly, an optical performance test method called bench test with novel algorithm is used to analyze the astigmatism caused from the gravity effect and the deformation from the mounting or supporter. In an effort to achieve the requirement for the tolerance in primary mirror assembly, the astigmatism caused from the gravity and deformation by the mounting force could be less than P-V 0.02λ at 633 nm. The consequence of these demonstrations indicates that the designed mechanical ground supported equipment (MGSE) for the alignment and assembly processes meet the critical requirements for primary mirror assembly of the telescope.

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) IMAGERY OF THE 30 DORADUS NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the 30 Doradus Nebula show its remarkable cluster of tightly-packed young stars 160,000 light years from Earth in the large Magellanic cloud galaxy. Panel A is a portion of a image made with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC). WFPC photographed four adjoining sky regions simultaneously which are assembled in this mosaic. Panel B is an enlargement of the central portion of the HST image which was made in violet light. It shows the compact star cluster R136, which consists of very hot and massive young stars. The star images have bright cores that are only 0.1 arc seconds wide, allowing many more stars to be distinguished than in previous ground-based telescopic photos. Panel C is a photograph of the same region as Panel B, obtained with the Max Planck 2.2 meter telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The star images are 0.6 arc seconds wide. Panel D shows how computer processing of the HST image in Panel B has sharpened its

  13. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff P.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-08-01

    The USAF Academy Department of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane, its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control/recording electronics are all packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space, the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. Due for launch in 2015, FalconSAT-7 will serve as a pathfinder for future surveillance missions consisting of a 0.3m aperture deployed from a 12U satellite. Such a telescope would be capable of providing sub-meter resolution of ground-based objects.

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    The findings of the Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Board of Investigation are reported. The Board was formed to determine the cause of the flaw in the telescope, how it occurred, and why it was not detected before launch. The Board conducted its investigation to include interviews with personnel involved in the fabrication and test of the telescope, review of documentation, and analysis and test of the equipment used in the fabrication of the telescope's mirrors. The investigation proved that the primary mirror was made in the wrong shape (a 0.4-wave rms wavefront error at 632.8 nm). The primary mirror was manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation (Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc.). The critical optics used as a template in shaping the mirror, the reflective null corrector (RNC), consisted of two small mirrors and a lens. This unit had been preserved by the manufacturer exactly as it was during the manufacture of the mirror. When the Board measured the RNC, the lens was incorrectly spaced from the mirrors. Calculations of the effect of such displacement on the primary mirror show that the measured amount, 1.3 mm, accounts in detail for the amount and character of the observed image blurring. No verification of the reflective null corrector's dimensions was carried out by Perkin-Elmer after the original assembly. There were, however, clear indications of the problem from auxiliary optical tests made at the time. A special optical unit called an inverse null corrector, designed to mimic the reflection from a perfect primary mirror, was built and used to align the apparatus; when so used, it clearly showed the error in the reflective null corrector. A second null corrector was used to measure the vertex radius of the finished primary mirror. It, too, clearly showed the error in the primary mirror. Both indicators of error were discounted at the time as being themselves flawed. The Perkin-Elmer plan for fabricating the primary mirror placed complete

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The findings of the Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Board of Investigation are reported. The Board was formed to determine the cause of the flaw in the telescope, how it occurred, and why it was not detected before launch. The Board conducted its investigation to include interviews with personnel involved in the fabrication and test of the telescope, review of documentation, and analysis and test of the equipment used in the fabrication of the telescope's mirrors. The investigation proved that the primary mirror was made in the wrong shape (a 0.4-wave rms wavefront error at 632.8 nm). The primary mirror was manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation (Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc.). The critical optics used as a template in shaping the mirror, the reflective null corrector (RNC), consisted of two small mirrors and a lens. This unit had been preserved by the manufacturer exactly as it was during the manufacture of the mirror. When the Board measured the RNC, the lens was incorrectly spaced from the mirrors. Calculations of the effect of such displacement on the primary mirror show that the measured amount, 1.3 mm, accounts in detail for the amount and character of the observed image blurring. No verification of the reflective null corrector's dimensions was carried out by Perkin-Elmer after the original assembly. There were, however, clear indications of the problem from auxiliary optical tests made at the time. A special optical unit called an inverse null corrector, designed to mimic the reflection from a perfect primary mirror, was built and used to align the apparatus; when so used, it clearly showed the error in the reflective null corrector. A second null corrector was used to measure the vertex radius of the finished primary mirror. It, too, clearly showed the error in the primary mirror. Both indicators of error were discounted at the time as being themselves flawed. The Perkin-Elmer plan for fabricating the primary mirror placed complete

  16. A deployable, annular, 30m telescope, space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wirth, Allan; Jankevics, Andrew; Landers, Franklin; Rohweller, David; Chen, C. Bill; Bronowicki, Allen

    2014-08-01

    High resolution imaging from space requires very large apertures, such as NASA's current mission the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which uses a deployable 6.5m segmented primary. Future missions requiring even larger apertures (>>10m) will present a great challenge relative to the size, weight and power constraints of launch vehicles as well as the cost and schedule required to fabricate the full aperture. Alternatively, a highly obscured annular primary can be considered. For example, a 93.3% obscured 30m aperture having the same total mirror area (91m2) as a 10.7m unobscured telescope, can achieve ~3X higher limiting resolution performance. Substantial cost and schedule savings can be realized with this approach compared to fully filled apertures of equivalent resolution. A conceptual design for a ring-shaped 30m telescope is presented and the engineering challenges of its various subsystems analyzed. The optical design consists of a 20X annular Mersenne form beam compactor feeding a classical 1.5m TMA telescope. Ray trace analysis indicates the design can achieve near diffraction limited images over a 200μrad FOV. The primary mirror consists of 70 identical rectangular 1.34x1.0m segments with a prescription well within the demonstrated capabilities of the replicated nanolaminate on SiC substrate technology developed by AOA Xinetics. A concept is presented for the deployable structure that supports the primary mirror segments. A wavefront control architecture consisting of an optical metrology subsystem for coarse alignment and an image based fine alignment and phasing subsystem is presented. The metrology subsystem is image based, using the background starfields for distortion and pointing calibration and fiducials on the segments for measurement. The fine wavefront control employs a hill climbing algorithm operating on images from the science camera. The final key technology required is the image restoration algorithm that will compensate for the highly

  17. The Space Grant Internet Telescope Network (SGITN): The beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardersen, Paul S.

    2007-12-01

    The Space Grant Internet Telescope Network (SGITN) is envisioned as a national network of Internet-controllable astronomical observatories that will be available to university students and faculty residing in participating NASA Space Grant states. Our goal is to provide no-cost astronomical resources to non-AURA colleges and universities, with the hope of expanding student and faculty access to astronomical facilities and to encourage students to pursue research careers in astronomy and planetary science. The Network has been created and is managed by the North Dakota Space Grant Consortium, which is a part of the NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. The SGITN began operations on August 1, 2007, with small observatories in North and South Dakota. Telescope apertures range from 10- to 26-inches and support astrometric and photometric research opportunities. Most observatories are controlled via ACP Observatory Control Software, but use of this particular software is not required. However, all participating observatories must be remotely controllable. The UND Observatory, west of Grand Forks, ND, will ultimately contribute four observatories to this Network, while South Dakota is contributing the Badlands Observatory. A new observatory in Utah will join the Network by 12/31/2007. Our goal is to attract > 15 observatories to this Network in the coming years, which will support a large user base and enable unique projects, such as near-Earth asteroid distance determinations. Current users access Network facilities via the SGITN home page at http://sgitn.space.edu. Eligible students and faculty submit observing proposals for consideration and should contribute to a scientifically valid and justifiable research project. All of the necessary forms and information are on the web site and are downloadable as PDF documents. Qualified users work with the SGITN to schedule observing dates and times. Users are encouraged to post their results on the SGITN web

  18. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. Its architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature, is driven by JWST's science objectives. Introduction: Scheduled to start its 5 year mission after 2018, JWST will study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. Its science mission is to: Identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history. Determine how galaxies form. Determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, overall morphology and active nuclei evolved to the present day. Observe the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets. And, study the physical and chemical properties of solar systems for the building blocks of Life. Principle: To accomplish the JWST science objectives requires a larger aperture infrared cryogenic space telescope. A large aperture is required because the objects are very faint. The infrared spectral range is required because the objects are so far away that their ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectral lines are red-shifted into the infrared. Because the telescope is infrared, it needs to be cryogenic. And, because of the telescope is infrared, it must operate above the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. in space. JWST is probably the single most complicated mission that humanity has attempted. It is certainly the most difficult optical fabrication and testing challenge of our generation. The JWST 6.5 m diameter primary mirror is nearly a parabola with a conic constant of -0.9967 and radius of curvature at 30K of 15.880 m. The primary mirror is divided into 18 segments with 3 different prescriptions; each with its own off-axis distance and aspheric departure. The radius of curvature

  19. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Bézard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; West, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 μm). In this paper, we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam, and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (1) surface (2) tropospheric clouds (3) tropospheric gases (4) stratospheric composition, and (5) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities, and limitations of the instrument suite and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors—sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly faster readout times. We find that JWST has very significant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a five- to ten-year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example, monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA, and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).

  20. The simulated space proton environment for radiation effects on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, Jacob; Fowler, Walter

    1992-01-01

    The space telescope imaging spectrograph (STIS) is a second generation instrument planned for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) which is currently in orbit. Candidate glasses and other transmitting materials are being considered for order sorters, in-flight calibration filters, detector windows, and calibration lamps. The glasses for in-flight calibration filters showed significant drop in UV transmission, but can probably still be used on STIS. The addressed topics include the Hubble radiation environment, simulation of orbital exposure at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory, measurement of spectral transmission, and comments on individual samples.

  1. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: environmental testing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-01-25

    We have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror features 44 actuators, has an aperture of 50 mm, and is designed to reproduce low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of μm. We assessed the space compliance by operating the mirror in thermal vacuum, and exposing it to random and sinusoidal vibrations, as well as to ionizing irradiation. Additionally, the operational life time and the laser power handling capability were tested. The mirror was successfully operated in thermal vacuum at 100 K. We report on the conducted tests and the methods used to evaluate the mirror's performance, and discuss the compliance with the demanded requirements. PMID:26832532

  2. Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

  3. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold <50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral field units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's key science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and mission status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limited down to a wavelength of 2 microns. The MIRI instrument just completed its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  4. Status Update on the James Webb Space Telescope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched in approx.2018. The observatory will have four instruments covering 0.6 to 28 micron, including a multi-object spectrograph, two integral fie ld units, and grisms optimized for exoplanets. I will review JWST's k ey science themes, as well as exciting new ideas from the recent JWST Frontiers Workshop. I will summarize the technical progress and miss ion status. Recent highlights: All mirrors have been fabricated, polished, and gold-coated; the mirror is expected to be diffraction-limite d down to a wavelength of 2 micron. The MIRI instrument just complete d its cryogenic testing. STScI has released exposure time calculators and sensitivity charts to enable scientists to start thinking about how to use JWST for their science.

  5. The Space Telescope for Ultraviolet Astronomy WSO-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Kappelmann, N.; Huang, M.; Werner, K.

    The World Space Observatory UltraViolet (WSO-UV) project is an international space observatory designed for observations in the ultraviolet domain where some of the most important astrophysical processes can be efficiently studied with unprecedented sensitivity. WSO-UV is a multipurpose observatory, made by a 170cm aperture telescope, capable of high-resolution spectroscopy, long-slit low-resolution spectroscopy, and deep UV and optical imaging. With a nominal mission life time of 5years, and a planned extension to 10years, from a geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of 51.8∘, WSO-UV will provide observations of exceptional importance for the study of many astrophysical problems. WSO-UV is implemented in the framework of a collaboration between Russia (chair), China, Germany, Spain, and Ukraine. This article is an updated account of the status of the project and its implementation in Spain.

  6. Wavefront Control Toolbox for James Webb Space Telescope Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiri, Ron; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffery Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Sabatke, Erin

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a Matlab toolbox for wavefront control of optical systems. We have applied this toolbox to the optical models of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in general and to the JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) in particular, implementing both unconstrained and constrained wavefront optimization to correct for possible misalignments present on the segmented primary mirror or the monolithic secondary mirror. The optical models implemented in Zemax optical design program and information is exchanged between Matlab and Zemax via the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) interface. The model configuration is managed using the XML protocol. The optimization algorithm uses influence functions for each adjustable degree of freedom of the optical mode. The iterative and non-iterative algorithms have been developed to converge to a local minimum of the root-mean-square (rms) of wavefront error using singular value decomposition technique of the control matrix of influence functions. The toolkit is highly modular and allows the user to choose control strategies for the degrees of freedom to be adjusted on a given iteration and wavefront convergence criterion. As the influence functions are nonlinear over the control parameter space, the toolkit also allows for trade-offs between frequency of updating the local influence functions and execution speed. The functionality of the toolbox and the validity of the underlying algorithms have been verified through extensive simulations.

  7. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  8. Cometary Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Harker, David E.; Hines, Dean C.; Knight, Matthew M.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; de Pater, Imke; Protopapa, Silvia; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as the largest space-based astronomical observatory with near- and mid-infrared instrumentation, will elucidate many mysterious aspects of comets. We summarize four cometary science themes especially suited for this telescope and its instrumentation: the drivers of cometary activity, comet nucleus heterogeneity, water ice in comae and on surfaces, and activity in faint comets and main belt asteroids. With JWST, we can expect the most distant detections of gas, especially CO2, in what we now consider to be only moderately bright comets. For nearby comets, coma dust properties can be simultaneously studied with their driving gases, measured simultaneously with the same instrument or contemporaneously with another. Studies of water ice and gas in the distant Solar System will help us test our understanding of cometary interiors, and coma evolution. The question of cometary activity in main belt comets will be further explored with the possibility of a direct detection of coma gas. We explore the technical approaches to these science cases and provide simple tools for estimating comet dust and gas brightness. Finally, we consider the effects of the observatory's non-sidereal tracking limits and provide a list of potential comet targets during the first five years of the mission.

  9. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Co-Investigator Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this contract has been to support investigation of astronomical problems primarily using data from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a Co-investigator on STIS, I participated in several projects, which will be described below. The research resulted in 19 papers in refereed journals, 8 papers published in conference proceedings, and 27 papers presented at meetings. There are still at least four papers submitted or in press, as well as some additional research yet to be written up for publication. The research has also produced one master's thesis and two PhD dissertations currently underway, with one to be completed Spring 2003. Undergraduates have participated in the analysis of supporting observations. One student has published some of his results in a web- based refereed publication for undergraduate research (www.jyi.org). I have given several talks to the general public describing results from the HST as well as the results of my research. I have been named the UNLV Regents' Outstanding Faculty Member for 1995 and received the 2002 College of Science Distinguished Researcher's Award as a result of these activities.

  10. A tunable crystal diffraction telescope for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Ballmoos, P. von; Kohnle, A.; Olive, J.F.; Vedrenne, G.; Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.

    1997-02-01

    Even though technically innovative, a tunable crystal diffraction telescope for use in nuclear astrophysics has become feasible today. The focusing gamma-ray telescope the authors intended to propose for the space station consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 inches, an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} sensitivity of a few times 10{sup {minus}7} photons{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} (10{sup 6} sec observation) for any individual narrow line at energies between 200--1,300 keV. This experience would greatly profit from the continuous presence of man on the station. Besides of the infrastructure for maintenance and servicing of the various innovative techniques used for the first time in space, the available extra-vehicular robotics will facilitate deployment of the required boom structure.

  11. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this work is to define and initiate a long-term program to mature six inter-linked critical technologies for future UVOIR space telescope mirrors to TRL6 by 2018 so that a viable flight mission can be proposed to the 2020 Decadal Review. (1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors: 4 to 8 m monolithic & 8 to 16 m segmented primary mirrors require larger, thicker, stiffer substrates. (2) Support System:Large-aperture mirrors require large support systems to ensure that they survive launch and deploy on orbit in a stress-free and undistorted shape. (3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error:A very smooth mirror is critical for producing a high-quality point spread function (PSF) for high-contrast imaging. (4) Segment Edges:Edges impact PSF for high-contrast imaging applications, contributes to stray light noise, and affects the total collecting aperture. (5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing:Segment phasing is critical for producing a high-quality temporally stable PSF. (6) Integrated Model Validation:On-orbit performance is determined by mechanical and thermal stability. Future systems require validated performance models. We are pursuing multiple design paths give the science community the option to enable either a future monolithic or segmented space telescope.

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AND MODELS FOR SOLAR ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2010-04-15

    Absolute flux distributions for seven solar analog stars are measured from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrophotometry. In order to predict the longer wavelength mid-IR fluxes that are required for James Webb Space Telescope calibration, the HST spectral energy distributions are fit with Castelli and Kurucz model atmospheres; and the results are compared with fits from the MARCS model grid. The rms residuals in 10 broadband bins are all <0.5% for the best fits from both model grids. However, the fits differ systematically: the MARCS fits are 40-100 K hotter in T {sub eff}, 0.25-0.80 higher in log g, 0.01-0.10 higher in log z, and 0.008-0.021 higher in the reddening E(B - V), probably because their specifications include different metal abundances. Despite these differences in the parameters of the fits, the predicted mid-IR fluxes differ by only {approx}1%; and the modeled flux distributions of these G stars have an estimated ensemble accuracy of 2% out to 30 {mu}m.

  13. Europe's latest space telescope is off to a good start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    The world's most powerful observatory for X-ray astronomy, the European Space Agency's XMM satellite, set off into space from Kourou, French Guiana, at 15:32 Paris time on 10 December. The mighty Ariane 5 launcher, making its very first commercial launch, hurled the 3.9-tonne spacecraft into a far-ranging orbit. Within one hour of lift-off the European Space Operations Centre at Darmstadt, Germany, confirmed XMM was under control with electrical power available from the solar arrays. "XMM is the biggest and most innovative scientific spacecraft developed by ESA so far," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. "The world's space agencies now want the new technology that ESA and Europe's industries have put into XMM's amazingly sensitive X-ray telescopes. And the world's astronomers are queuing up to use XMM to explore the hottest places in the universe. We must ask them to be patient while we get XMM fully commissioned." XMM's initial orbit carries it far into space, to 114,000 kilometres from the Earth at its most distant point. On its return the satellite's closest approach, or perigee, will be at 850 kilometres. The next phase of the operation, expected to take about a week, will raise that perigee to 7000 kilometres by repeated firing of XMM's own thrusters. The spacecraft will then be on its intended path, spending 40 hours out of every 48-hour orbit clear of the radiation belts which spoil the view of the X-ray universe. Technical commissioning and verification of the performance of the telescopes and scientific instruments will then follow. XMM should be fully operational for astronomy in the spring of 2000. All of ESA's science missions present fresh technological challenges to Europe's aerospace industries. In building XMM, the prime contractor Dornier Satellitensysteme in Friedrichshafen in Germany (part of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) has led an industrial consortium involving 46 companies from 14 European countries and one in the United States. XMM

  14. AGN Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. I. Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.; Agn Storm Team

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2014 February, we obtained 170 HST COS ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 at an approximately daily cadence as part of a large reverberation-mapping program whose goals are (1) to determine the geometry and kinematics of the broad emission-line region and (2) to measure the central black hole mass. This is the largest UV reverberation program that has ever been undertaken, and it has been supported by optical ground-based imaging and spectroscopy and by space-based observations with Swift, Chandra, and Spitzer. The UV continuum and broad emission lines varied strongly during the course of this campaign, and individual 'events' were well-resolved in time, with the variations of the strong emission lines (Lyman alpha and C IV 1549) lagging behind those in the UV continuum with delays of 5 - 6 days. We report here on the initial results of this program.

  15. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide important new capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. Integral-field spectroscopy is performed with apertures 3 to 7 arcsec square (spatial slices of 0.1 to 0.6 arcsec). JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This tracking capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST will observe in the solar elongation range of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During an observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using data from JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This results from the fact that the Observatory's sunshield and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example

  16. Solar System Observing Capabilities With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Milam, S. N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide breakthrough capabilities to study our Solar System. JWST is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018 into a L2 orbit. Imaging, spectroscopy, and coronography covers 0.6-29 microns. JWST is designed to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 0.030 arcseconds/second. This capability includes the planets, satellites, asteroids, Trans-Neptunian Objects, and comets beyond Earth’s orbit. JWST can observe solar elongation of 85 to 135 degrees, and a roll range of +/-5 degrees about the telescope’s optical axis. During the observation of a moving target, the science target is held fixed in the desired science aperture by controlling the guide star to follow the inverse of the target’s trajectory. The pointing control software uses polynomial ephemerides for the target generated using JPL’s HORIZON system. The JWST guider field of view (2.2x2.2 arcmin) is located in the telescope focal plane several arcmin from the science apertures. The instrument apertures are fixed with respect to the telescope focal plane. For targets near the ecliptic, those apertures also have a nearly-fixed orientation relative to the ecliptic. This resultsfrom the fact that the Observatory's sun-shade and solar panels must always be between the telescope and the Sun. On-board scripts autonomously control the execution of the JWST science timeline. The event-driven scripts respond to actual slew and on-board command execution, making operations more efficient. Visits are scheduled with overlapping windows to provide execution flexibility and to avoid lost time. An observing plan covering about ten days will be uplinked weekly. Updates could be more frequent if necessary (for example, to accommodate a Target of Opportunity - TOO). The event-driven operations system supports time-critical observations and TOOs. The minimum response

  17. Spitzer Space Telescope Sequencing Operations Software, Strategies, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was launched in August, 2003, and renamed to the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2004. Two years of observing the universe in the wavelength range from 3 to 180 microns has yielded enormous scientific discoveries. Since this magnificent observatory has a limited lifetime, maximizing science viewing efficiency (ie, maximizing time spent executing activities directly related to science observations) was the key operational objective. The strategy employed for maximizing science viewing efficiency was to optimize spacecraft flexibility, adaptability, and use of observation time. The selected approach involved implementation of a multi-engine sequencing architecture coupled with nondeterministic spacecraft and science execution times. This approach, though effective, added much complexity to uplink operations and sequence development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages Spitzer s operations. As part of the uplink process, Spitzer s Mission Sequence Team (MST) was tasked with processing observatory inputs from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) into efficiently integrated, constraint-checked, and modeled review and command products which accommodated the complexity of non-deterministic spacecraft and science event executions without increasing operations costs. The MST developed processes, scripts, and participated in the adaptation of multi-mission core software to enable rapid processing of complex sequences. The MST was also tasked with developing a Downlink Keyword File (DKF) which could instruct Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on how and when to configure themselves to receive Spitzer science data. As MST and uplink operations developed, important lessons were learned that should be applied to future missions, especially those missions which employ command-intensive operations via a multi-engine sequence architecture.

  18. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION OF THE IRAC INSTRUMENT ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-15

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.

  19. Detecting gravitationally lensed Population III galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Zitrin, Adi; Trenti, Michele; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Guaita, Lucia; Schaerer, Daniel; Broadhurst, Tom; Östlin, Göran; Ström, Tina

    2012-12-01

    Small galaxies consisting entirely of Population III (pop III) stars may form at high redshifts, and could constitute one of the best probes of such stars. Here, we explore the prospects of detecting gravitationally lensed pop III galaxies behind the galaxy cluster J0717.5+3745 (J0717) with both the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). By projecting simulated catalogues of pop III galaxies at z ≈ 7-15 through the J0717 magnification maps, we estimate the lensed number counts as a function of flux detection threshold. We find that the ongoing HST survey Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH), targeting a total of 25 galaxy clusters including J0717, potentially could detect a small number of pop III galaxies if ˜1 per cent of the baryons in these systems have been converted into pop III stars. Using JWST exposures of J0717, this limit can be pushed to ˜0.1 per cent of the baryons. Ultradeep JWST observations of unlensed fields are predicted to do somewhat worse, but will be able to probe pop III galaxies with luminosities intermediate between those detectable in HST/CLASH and in JWST observations of J0717. We also explain how current measurements of the galaxy luminosity function at z = 7-10 can be used to constrain pop III galaxy models with very high star formation efficiencies (˜10 per cent of the baryons converted into pop III stars).

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Search for an Atmosphere on Callisto: A Jovian Unipolar Inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim; Feldman, Paul D.; McGrath, Melissa A.

    2002-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of Callisto with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph were performed at both eastern and western elongations to search for the UV emissions diagnostic of the presence of O2, CO2, and/or CO atmospheres. We report upper limits of 5×10-5 photons cm-2 s-1 or 15 R for a uniform disk the diameter of Callisto on emissions of O I λ1304, O I λ1356, C I λ1561, C II λ1335, and CO fourth positive bands. These upper limits yield upper bounds on O2, CO2, and CO atmospheres far in excess of the detected CO2 atmosphere by R. W. Carlson. Our results are interpreted in terms of a strong electrodynamic interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere, which drives ~1.5×105 A through Callisto's highly conducting (~104 mho) ionosphere and generates a highly reduced ionospheric electric field, severely retarded ionospheric convection (~0.1 km s-1), and a factor of ~1500 reduction in the net electron impact emission rate. Callisto's highly conducting ionosphere renders it the most tenable unipolar inductor of the Galilean satellites.

  1. PANGU: A high resolution gamma-ray space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin; Su, Meng; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

    2014-07-01

    We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from >=10 MeV to >=1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The frequent full-sky survey at sub-GeV with PANGU's large field of view and significantly improved point spread function would provide crucial information to GeV-TeV astrophysics for current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA, and other multi-wavelength telescopes.

  2. Distance Determinations to SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Cave, Ian; Elson, Ed C.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Juërgen; Saintonge, Amélie

    2014-04-01

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 106 to 6 × 107 M ⊙, with a median H I mass of 1 × 107 M ⊙. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  3. Next Generation Space Telescope Integrated Science Module Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnurr, Richard G.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Jurotich, Matthew M.; Whitley, Raymond; Kalinowski, Keith J.; Love, Bruce W.; Travis, Jeffrey W.; Long, Knox S.

    1999-01-01

    The Data system for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Module (ISIM) is the primary data interface between the spacecraft, telescope, and science instrument systems. This poster includes block diagrams of the ISIM data system and its components derived during the pre-phase A Yardstick feasibility study. The poster details the hardware and software components used to acquire and process science data for the Yardstick instrument compliment, and depicts the baseline external interfaces to science instruments and other systems. This baseline data system is a fully redundant, high performance computing system. Each redundant computer contains three 150 MHz power PC processors. All processors execute a commercially available real time multi-tasking operating system supporting, preemptive multi-tasking, file management and network interfaces. These six processors in the system are networked together. The spacecraft interface baseline is an extension of the network, which links the six processors. The final selection for Processor busses, processor chips, network interfaces, and high-speed data interfaces will be made during mid 2002.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope - New view of an ancient universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Longair, Malcolm S.; Stockman, Peter; Olivier, Jean R.

    1989-01-01

    Scheduled for a March 1990 Shuttle launch, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) will give astronomers a tool of unprecedented accuracy to observe the universe: an optically superb instrument free of the atmospheric turbulence, distortion, and brightness that plague all earthbound telescopes. The observatory will carry into orbit two cameras, a pair of spectrographs, a photometer, and fine guidance sensors optimized for astrometry. The diffraction limit for the 2.4-m aperture of the HST corresponds to 90 percent of the radiation from a point source falling within a circle of 0.1 arcsec angular radius at a wavelength of 633 nm. The 15-year mission will make observations in the ultraviolet as well as the optical spectral region, thus, widening the wavelength window to a range extending from the Lyman alpha wavelengnth of 122 nm to just about 2 microns. The observational program that awaits the HST will include the study of planetary atmospheres, in particular the search for aerosols; the study of globular star clusters within the Galaxy; and the determination of the present rate of expansion of the universe. The HST will achieve resolutions of 0.1 arcsec consistently, regardless of observation duration. The HST engineering challenge is also discussed.

  5. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  6. PANGU: A High Resolution Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2014-08-01

    We propose a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV gamma-ray astronomy as a candidate for the CAS-ESA joint small mission. This mission, called PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), will open up a unique window of electromagnetic spectrum that has never been explored with great precision. A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with a telescope that has an angular resolution about one order of magnitude better than the currently operating Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) in the sub-GeV range, covering galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for Dark Matter (DM) decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented resolution can be achieved with a pair-production telescope that, instead of the high-Z converter commonly used, relies on a large number of thin active tracking layers to increase the photon conversion probability, and to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating fibers or thin silicon micro-strip detectors are suitable technology for such a tracker. The energy measurement is achieved by measuring the momentum of the electrons and positrons through a magnetic field. The innovated spectrometer approach provides superior photon conversion identification and photon pointing resolution, and is particular suitable in the sub-GeV range, where the opening angle between the electron and positron is relatively large. The level of tracking precision makes it possible to measure the polarization of gamma rays, which would open up a new frontier in gamma-ray astronomy. The sub-GeV full sky survey by PANGU would provides crucial link with GeV to TeV maps from current/future missions including Fermi, DAMPE, HERD, and CTA.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope: The Real ‘First Light’ Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B.

    2014-01-01

    To prove that a telescope will meet the design specifications laid down years previously, that it will eventually produce the science envisioned by those designers, they make a ‘first light’ observation, assess it, and pronounce “Here is our new telescope! It works!” That observation is often made with an instrument on the telescope that goes on to make many scientifically productive discoveries. The official Hubble Space Telescope (HST) first light image was secured by the Wide Field Planetary Camera on 5/20/1990, certainly a productive science instrument. The HST Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS), white-light interferometers, have an essential role to play in any scientific observation made with HST. They stabilize HST by locking onto guide stars. The Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) have on their own produced useful and exciting astrometric scientific results ranging from parallaxes of Galactic Cepheids useful for the cosmic distance scale (Benedict et al. 2007, AJ, 133, 1810) to a demonstration of the degree of coplanarity in an exoplanetary system (McArthur et al. 2010, ApJ, 715, 1203). Hence, we argue that an FGS made the actual first light observation shortly after midnight on 1 May 1990 by successfully locking onto the V=12.97 star GSC 02666-01602. That FGS observation demonstrated light passing through the HST entire optical system and HST tracking. With a little (well, actually quite a lot of) tweaking, scientific results would surely flood forth. However, on May Day 1990 locking success was oddly sporadic. We had a few weeks more to enjoy our blissful ignorance of flapping solar panels and a mis-figured primary mirror, both of which contributed that night to our true first light observation problems. The events of that night and subsequent successful FGS astrometry are thanks to contributions over the years from L. Abramowicz-Reed, A. Bradley*, R. Duncombe, O. Franz, L. Fredrick, P. Hemenway, W. Jefferys, E. Nelan*, P. Shelus, D. Story*, W. van Altena, L

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Program on STS-95 Supported by Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    John Glenn's historic return to space was a primary focus of the STS 95 space shuttle mission; however, the 83 science payloads aboard were the focus of the flight activities. One of the payloads, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital System Test (HOST), was flown in the cargo bay by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It served as a space flight test of upgrade components for the telescope before they are installed in the shuttle for the next Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. One of the upgrade components is a cryogenic cooling system for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). The cooling is required for low noise in the receiver's sensitive electronic instrumentation. Originally, a passive system using dry ice cooled NICMOS, but the ice leaked away and must be replaced. The active cryogenic cooler can provide the cold temperatures required for the NICMOS, but there was a concern that it would create vibrations that would affect the fine pointing accuracy of the Hubble platform.

  9. GLAST, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. With its upcoming launch in 2008, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including black holes and active galactic nuclei; the optical-UV extragalactic background light, gamma-ray bursts; the origin of cosmic rays and supernova remnants; and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark matter annihilations and Lorentz invariance violation. In addition to the science opportunities, this talk includes a description of the instruments, the collaboration between particle physicists and astrophysicists, the opportunities for guest observers, and the mission status.

  10. Rapid Cadence Collections with the Space Surveillance Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, David G.; Axelrod, T.; Blake, T.; Claver, C. F.; Lupton, R.; Pearce, E.; Shah, R.; Woods, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has constructed the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) on North Oscura Peak in the White Sands Missle Range in New Mexico. The primary goal of the SST program is the monitoring of the Earth's geosynchronous belt for microsatellites and debris. DARPA has announced that SST may also provide the science community a unique asset for astronomical surveys. This paper presents preliminary results from rapid cadence science collections (1.0-sec exposures every 2.5-sec) of a 9.5 square degree area centered near the open cluster M67. The goal of this survey is to find and study astronomical objects whose brightness varies over these short time scales.

  11. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  12. Large Space Telescope - Orbital crew EV maintenance operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    The paper shows that orbital EV maintenance by the crew has a tremendous impact on several areas of the program, including operations, Shuttle interfaces, support equipment rendezvous and berthing, checkout and verification, levels of servicing achievable, logistics and spares and scientific instruments in order to permit changeout and possible future refurbishment. To achieve on-orbit EV maintenance, such challenges as designing for suited-astronaut access to all subsystem equipment elements, minimization for contamination, handling of extremely sensitive instruments, development of translation techniques, and use of existing GFE and hardware must be faced early in the preliminary design and operations analysis phases. All studies to date indicate that on-orbit EV manned maintenance of the LST (Large Space Telescope) is not only feasible but can be designed to be readily within the capability of the EV functioning astronaut. Both 1-g and neutral buoyancy man-in-the-loop simulations further support this point.

  13. Thermal analysis of the main mirror in space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Shi, Hu-li; Chen, Zhi-yuan

    2007-12-01

    For the design of a space solar telescope (SST), the large reflect mirror faces to the sun directly, which is in an abominable thermal condition with seriously thermal distortion. In this paper, it sets up the thermal mode and analyzes the temperature field and thermal distortion of the main mirror of SST. Further more, it uses the thermal design software SINDA/G (System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski) and the finite element analysis software MSC.Patran to set up different models and various temperature distributions of the main mirror. Though comparing with these models, the paraboloid mirror model is confirmed, which becomes a reference to later thermal analysis of the whole SST.

  14. Updated Status and Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael A.; Dixon, W. V.; Mason, E.; Proffitt, C.; Aloisi, A.; Oliveira, C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Osten, R.; Bostroem, K. A.; Zheng, W.; Pascucci, I.; Niemi, S.; York, B.; Sonnentracker, P.; Diaz, R.; Ely, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    A description is provided of the overall performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after Cycle 17 and through the first half of Cycle 18. Most aspects of performance are still found to be consistent with extrapolations of the trends seen during Cycle 17 calibrations. Many of the characteristics of the instrument have changed over time, and we present here an update on its current performance based on the latest Cycle 18 calibration observations. We discuss changes in the CCD and MAMA dark currents, provide updates on the sensitivity of STIS modes, echelle blaze function, discuss changes, if any, in number of hot pixels, flat fields, charge transfer inefficiency, read noise, and spurious charge.

  15. Detecting opportunities for parallel observations on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucks, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The presence of multiple scientific instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope provides opportunities for parallel science, i.e., the simultaneous use of different instruments for different observations. Determining whether candidate observations are suitable for parallel execution depends on numerous criteria (some involving quantitative tradeoffs) that may change frequently. A knowledge based approach is presented for constructing a scoring function to rank candidate pairs of observations for parallel science. In the Parallel Observation Matching System (POMS), spacecraft knowledge and schedulers' preferences are represented using a uniform set of mappings, or knowledge functions. Assessment of parallel science opportunities is achieved via composition of the knowledge functions in a prescribed manner. The knowledge acquisition, and explanation facilities of the system are presented. The methodology is applicable to many other multiple criteria assessment problems.

  16. Reed Solomon error correction for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Canaris, J.; Vincent, P.; Liu, N.; Owsley, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a single 8.2mm by 8.4mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed Solomon code required by the Space Telescope. The chip features a 10 MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6 micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes as well as shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections as well as random error corrections are supported with programmable corrections of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors.

  17. Scientific and Technical Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is part of the Origins program and is the key mission to discover the origins of galaxies in the Universe. It is essential that scientific requirements be translated into technical specifications at the beginning of the program and that there is technical participation by astronomers in the design and modeling of the observatory. During the active time period of this grant, the PI participated in the NGST program at GSFC by participating in the development of the Design Reference Mission, the development of the full end-to-end model of the observatory, the design trade-off based on the modeling, the Science Instrument Module definition and modeling, the study of proto-mission and test-bed development, and by participating in meetings including quarterly reviews and support of the NGST SWG. This work was documented in a series of NGST Monographs that are available on the NGST web site.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope meteoroid-debris protection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, J.; Maldonado, J.

    1986-01-01

    A system level failure could occur if the Hubble Space Telescope's (ST) capability to operate as a facility on-orbit is critically reduced or when a significant reduction in the quality of science data is registered. Failure could occur if a meteoroid/debris impact damages a component of a major support subsystem or if a meteoroid/debris penetration causes straylight contamination in the light shield, forward shell, aft shroud, or through the aperture door. The ST was analyzed to find the probability of no critical penetration. This probability value was found to be 92.25% for a two-year service life. A straylight leakage repair technique was recommended for the aft shroud, the region found most likely to be critically penetrated. Fozar tape and multilayer insulation blankets are suggested as posible repair materials.

  19. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  20. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, James; Moses, Julianne; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper, we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant-planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  1. System Engineering the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristram T.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was designed to accomplish three scientific objectives: (1) learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks and how they acquire their inhomogeneous chemical composition; (2) characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. SPIRIT will accomplish these objectives through infrared observations with a two aperture interferometric instrument. This paper gives an overview of SPIRIT design and operation, and how the three design cycle concept study was completed. The error budget for several key performance values allocates tolerances to all contributing factors, and a performance model of the spacecraft plus instrument system demonstrates meeting those allocations with margin.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY OF TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benecchi, S. D.; Noll, K. S.

    2010-08-15

    We present 1428 individual astrometric measurements of 256 trans-Neptunian objects made with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The observations were collected over three years with two instruments, the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera, as part of four HST programs. We briefly describe the data and our analysis procedures. The submission of these measurements to the Minor Planet Center increased the individual arc length of objects by 1.83 days to 8.11 years. Of the 256 total objects, 62 (24.2%) had arc length increases of {>=}3 years. The arc length for 60 objects (23.4%) was increased by a factor of 2 or greater.

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  4. MIRIS: A Compact Wide-field Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Youngsik; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Sung-Joon; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Joong; Park, Won-Kee; Lee, Dukhang; Seon, Kwang-Il; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Kwijong; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yuk, In-Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Jin, Ho; Choel Yang, Sun; Park, Hong-Young; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Seo, Joung-Ki; Rhee, Seung-Wu; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2014-09-01

    A compact infrared space telescope called MIRIS (Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System) was developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), and launched onboard the Science and Technology Satellite-3 of Korea (STSAT-3) in 2013 November. The main mission of MIRIS is the Paschen-α emission line survey along the Galactic plane and the cosmic infrared background (CIB) observation, particularly around the north ecliptic pole region. For these missions, a wide field of view (3.67 × 3.67°) with an angular resolution of 51.6'' and wavelength coverage from 0.9 ~ 2.0 μm have been adopted for MIRIS, having optical components consisting of a 80 mm main lens and four other lenses with F/2 focal ratio optics. The opto-mechanical system was carefully designed to minimize any effects from shock during the launch process and thermal variation. Also, the telescope was designed to use a passive cooling technique to maintain the temperature around 200 K in order to reduce thermal noise. A micro Stirling cooler was used to cool down the Teledyne PICNIC infrared array to 90 K, which was equipped in a dewar with four filters for infrared passbands of I, H, and Paschen-α and a dual-band continuum line filter. MIRIS system was integrated into the STSAT-3 as its primary payload and successfully passed required tests in the laboratory, such as thermal-vacuum, vibration, and shock tests. MIRIS is now operating in sun synchronous orbits for initial tests and has observed its first images successfully.

  5. Propagating orientation constraints for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Ashim; Gerb, Andy

    1994-01-01

    An observing program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described in terms of exposures that are obtained by one or more of the instruments onboard the HST. Many requested exposures might specify orientation requirements and accompanying ranges. Orientation refers to the amount of roll (in degrees) about the line of sight. The range give the permissible tolerance (also in degrees). These requirements may be (1) absolute (in relation to the celestial coordinate system), (2) relative to the nominal roll angle for HST during that exposure, or (3) relative (in relation to other exposures in the observing program). The TRANSformation expert system converts proposals for astronomical observations with HST into detailed observing plans. Part of the conversion involves grouping exposures into higher level structures based on exposure characteristics. Exposures constrained to be at different orientations cannot be grouped together. Because relative orientation requirements cause implicit constraints, orientation constraints have to be propagated. TRANS must also identify any inconsistencies that may exist so they can be corrected. We have designed and implemented an orientation constraint propagator as part of TRANS. The propagator is based on an informal algebra that facilitates the setting up and propagation of the orientation constraints. The constraint propagator generates constraints between directly related exposures, and propagates derived constraints between exposures that are related indirectly. It provides facilities for path-consistency checking, identification of unsatisfiable constraints, and querying of orientation relationships. The system has been successfully operational as part of TRANS for over seven months. The solution has particular significance to space applications in which satellite/telescope pointing and attitude are constrained and relationships exist between multiple configurations.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HD 202628 DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, John E.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-08-15

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by {approx}64 Degree-Sign from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along P.A. = 130 Degree-Sign . It has inner and outer radii (>50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ({Delta}r/r Almost-Equal-To 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is {approx}254 AU. With mean surface brightness of V Almost-Equal-To 24 mag arcsec{sup -2}, this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by {approx}28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  7. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M.; Larsson, Josefin; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S. J.; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2010-01-01

    The young remnant of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) offers an unprecedented glimpse into the hydrodynamics and kinetics of fast astrophysical shocks. We have been monitoring SN 1987A with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since it was launched. The recent repair of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) allows us to compare observations in 2004, just before its demise, with those in 2010, shortly after its resuscitation by NASA astronauts. We find that the Ly-alpha and H-alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We report evidence for nearly coherent, resonant scattering of Lya photons (to blueshifts approximately -12,000 km /s) from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also report emission to the red of Ly-alpha that we attribute to N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line emission. These lines are detectable because, unlike hydrogen atoms, N4+ ions emit hundreds of photons before they are ionized. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H-alpha. We attribute this to scattering of N4+ ions by magnetic fields in the ionized plasma. Thus, N v emission provides a unique probe of the isotropization zone of the collisionless shock. Observations with the recently installed Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) will enable us to observe the N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line profiles with much higher signal-to-noise ratios than possible with STIS and may reveal lines of other highly ionized species (such as C IVlambda lambda 1548,1551 Angstrom) that will test our explanation for the N v emission

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the HD 202628 Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by approx.64deg from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along PA = 130deg. It has inner and outer radii (> 50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ((Delta)r/r approx. = 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is approx. 254 AU. With a mean surface brightnesses of V approx. = 24 mag arcsec.(sup -2), this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by approx.28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  9. Advanced Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  10. Hubble Space Telescope on-line operations coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychenheim, David E.; Pepe, Joyce; Knapp, Debra

    2002-12-01

    An important aspect of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) operations is the ability to quickly disseminate and coordinate spacecraft commanding and ground system information for both routine spacecraft operations and Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. When deviating from preplanned activities all new spacecraft commanding, ground system and space system configurations must be reviewed, authorized and executed in an efficient manner. The information describing the changes must be disseminated to and coordinated by a large group of users. In the early years of the HST mission a paper-based Operational Request System was used. The system worked, but was cumbersome to efficiently coordinate with a large geographically dispersed group of users in a timely manner. As network and server technology matured, the HST Project developed an on-line interactive Operations Request System. This Operations Request System is a server-based system (access via HST Net) that provides immediate access to command and ground system information to both local and remotely based Instrument Engineers, Flight Operations Team Controllers, Subsystem Engineers and Project Management. This paper describes the various aspects of the system's submission, review, authorization and implementation processes. Also described is the methodology used to arrive at the current system design and the Graphical User Interface (GUI). This system has been used successfully for all routine and special HST operations for the last five years. This approach to operations coordination is adaptable to spacecraft of any complexity.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  12. MEMS Microshutter Array System for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Adachi, Tomoko; Allen, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Beamesderfer, Michael; Bradley, Ruth; Denis, Kevin; Costen, Nick; Ewin, Audrey; Franz, Dave; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jackson, Kamili; Jhabvala, Murzy; Kelly, Dan; King, Todd; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lynch, Barney; Miller, Timothy; Moseley, Harvey; Mikula, Vilem; Mott. Brent; Oh, Lance

    2008-01-01

    A complex MEMS microshutter array system has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use as a multi-object aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec). The NIRSpec is one of the four major instruments carried by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after the Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter arrays (MSAs) are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. It is demonstrated in Figure 1 how a MSA is used as a multiple object selector in deep space. The MSAs empower the NIRSpec instrument simultaneously collect spectra from more than 100 targets therefore increases the instrument efficiency 100 times or more. The MSA assembly is one of three major innovations on JWST and the first major MEMS devices serving observation missions in space. The MSA system developed at NASA GSFC is assembled with four quadrant fully addressable 365x171 shutter arrays that are actuated magnetically, latched and addressed electrostatically. As shown in Figure 2, each MSA is fabricated out of a 4' silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer using MEMS bulk-micromachining technology. Individual shutters are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size close to 100x200 pm (Figure 3). Shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. In order to prevent light leak, light shields are made on to the surrounding frame of each shutter to cover the gaps between the shutters and the Game (Figure 4). Micro-ribs and sub-micron bumps are tailored on hack walls and light shields, respectively, to prevent sticktion, shown in Figures 4 and 5. JWST instruments are required to operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 35K, though they are to be subjected to various levels of ground tests at room temperature. The shutters should therefore maintain nearly flat in the entire temperature range

  13. Crew of Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission visits Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space telescope servicing mission in December (STS-61) was a great success and the fully refurbished orbiting telescope produced absolutely remarkable first results just two weeks ago. The 7-member crew who carried out the mission will soon be in Europe to share their experience with the Press, ESA space specialists and the European space community. Public conferences will also be held in Switzerland, the home country of ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The visit of the STS-61 crew is scheduled as follows: Friday 11 February, 1994 - ESA Paris, France Presentation and Press Conference Location: ESA, 8/10 Rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris time: 16:00 hrs - 17:30 hrs contact: ESA, Public Relations Office Tel. (+33) 1 42 73 71 55 Fax. (+33) 1 42 73 76 90 Monday 14 February, 1994 - British Aerospace, Bristol, United Kingdom Presentation and Press Conference Location: British Aerospace, FPC 333, Filton, Bristol BS12 7QW time: 10:00 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: BAe, Public Relations Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 69 Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 68 Tuesday 15 February, 1994 - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Presentation and Press Conference Location: Noordwijk Space Expo, Keplerlaan 3, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands time: 09:30 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: ESTEC Public Relations Office Tel. (+31) 1719 8 3006 Fax. (+31) 1719 17 400 Wednesday 16 February, 1944 - ESO, Garching - Munich, Germany Presentation and Press Conference Location: European Southern Observatory, Karl- Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching -Munich, Germany time: to be decided contact: ESO Information Service Tel. (+49) 89 32 006 276 Fax. (+49) 89 320 23 62 Thursday 17 February, 1994 - Bern, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, 3001 Bern, Switzerland time: 09:30 hrs contact: Press & Information Service of the Federal Dept. for Education & Sciences Tel. (+41) 31 322 80 34 Fax. (+41) 31 312 30 15 b. Public conference Location: University of Bern, Institute of Physics

  14. Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

  15. Space astronomy for the mid-21st century: Robotically maintained space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The historical development of ground based astronomical telescopes leads us to expect that space-based astronomical telescopes will need to be operational for many decades. The exchange of scientific instruments in space will be a prerequisite for the long lasting scientific success of such missions. Operationally, the possibility to repair or replace key spacecraft components in space will be mandatory. We argue that these requirements can be fulfilled with robotic missions and see the development of the required engineering as the main challenge. Ground based operations, scientifically and technically, will require a low operational budget of the running costs. These can be achieved through enhanced autonomy of the spacecraft and mission independent concepts for the support of the software. This concept can be applied to areas where the mirror capabilities do not constrain the lifetime of the mission. Online material is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/AN/333/209

  16. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  17. The initial conditions of isolated star formation - IX. Akari mapping of an externally heated pre-stellar core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, D.; Stamatellos, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2009-07-01

    We present observations of L1155 and L1148 in the Cepheus molecular cloud, taken using the Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS) instrument on the Akari satellite. We compare these data to submillimetre data taken using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and far-infrared data taken with the imaging photo-polarimeter (ISOPHOT) camera on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite. The Akari data cover a similar spectral window and are consistent with the ISO data. All of the data show a relation between the position of the peak of emission and the wavelength for the core of L1155. We interpret this as a temperature gradient. We fit modified blackbody curves to the spectral energy distributions at two positions in the core and see that the central core in L1155 (L1155C) is approximately 2° warmer at one edge than it is in the centre. We consider a number of possible heating sources and conclude that the A6V star BD+67 1263 is the most likely candidate. This star is at a distance of 0.7pc from the front of L1155C in the plane of the sky. We carry out radiative transfer modelling of the L1155C core including the effects from the nearby star. We find that we can generate a good fit to the observed data at all wavelengths, and demonstrate that the different morphologies of the core at different wavelengths can be explained by the observed 2° temperature gradient. The L1148 core exhibits a similar morphology to that of L1155C, and the data are also consistent with a temperature gradient across the core. In this case, the most likely heating source is the star BD197053. Our findings illustrate very clearly that the apparent observed morphology of a pre-stellar core can be highly dependent on the wavelength of the observation, and that temperature gradients must be taken into account before converting images into column density distributions. This is important to note when interpreting Akari and Spitzer data

  18. Line of Sight Stabilization of James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Luis; Tung, Frank; Anandakrishnan, Satya; Spector, Victor; Hyde, Tupper

    2005-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) builds upon the successful flight experience of the Chandra Xray Telescope by incorporating an additional LOS pointing servo to meet the more stringent pointing requirements. The LOS pointing servo, referred to in JWST as the Fine Guidance Control System (FGCS), will utilize a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) as the sensor, and a Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) as the actuator. The FSM is a part of the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and is in the optical path between the tertiary mirror and the instrument focal plane, while the FGS is part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The basic Chandra spacecraft bus attitude control and determination architecture, utilizing gyros, star trackers/aspect camera, and reaction wheels, is retained for JWST. This system has achieved pointing stability of better than 0.5 arcseconds. To reach the JWST requirements of milli-arcsecond pointing stability with this ACS hardware, the local FGCS loop is added to the optical path. The FGCS bandwidth is about 2.0 Hz and will therefore attenuate much of the spacecraft ACS induced low frequency jitter. In order to attenuate the higher frequency (greatet than 2.0 Hz) disturbances associated with reaction wheel static and dynamic imbalances, as well as bearing run-out, JWST will employ a two-stage passive vibration isolation system consisting of (1) 7.0 Hz reaction wheel isolators between each reaction wheel and the spacecraft bus, and (2) a 1.0 Hz tower isolator between the spacecraft bus and the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). In order to sense and measure the LOS, the FGS behaves much like an autonomous star tracker that has a very small field of view and uses the optics of the telescope. It performs the functions of acquisition, identification and tracking of stars in its 2.5 x 2.5 arcminute field of view (FOV), and provides the centroid and magnitude of the selected star for use in LOS control. However, since only a single star is being tracked

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Spectroscopy of the Environment in the Starburst Core of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; O'Connell, R. W.; Rosario, D. J.; de Grijs, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present optical HST STIS observations made with two slits crossing four of the optically brightest starburst clumps near the nucleus of M82. These provide Hα kinematics, extinction, electron density, and emission measures. From the radial velocity curves derived from both slits we confirm the presence of a stellar bar. We derive a new model for the orientation of the bar and disk with respect to the main starburst clumps and the cluster M82-A1. We propose that clump A has formed within the bar region as a result of gas interactions between the bar orbits, whereas region C lies at the edge of the bar and regions D and E are located farther out from the nucleus but heavily obscured. We derive extremely high interstellar densities of 500-900 cm-3, corresponding to ISM pressures of P/k~(0.5-1.0)×107 cm-3 K, and discuss the implications of the measured gas properties on the production and evolution of the galactic wind. Despite varying pressures, the ionization parameter is uniform down to parsec scales, and we discuss why this might be so. Where the signal-to-noise ratios of our spectra are high enough, we identify multiple emission-line components. Through detailed Gaussian line fitting, we identify a ubiquitous broad (200-300 km s-1) underlying component to the bright Hα line and discuss the physical mechanism(s) that could be responsible for such widths. We conclude that evaporation and/or ablation of material from interstellar gas clouds caused by the impact of high-energy photons and fast flowing cluster winds produce a highly turbulent layer on the surface of the clouds from which the emission arises. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9117.

  20. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  1. Delivering Current Hubble Space Telescope (HST) News to the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, R.; Eisenhamer, B.; Weaver, D.

    2004-05-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the Formal Education and News Divisions at STScI's Office of Public Outreach joined forces to deliver current Hubble Space Telescope (HST) news events that have an educational backbone. Starting with the momentum of HST scientific discoveries, the team blends their skill for producing timely news pieces with educational expertise to maximize the potential learning impact of an HST news event. The partnership also allows the Office of Public Outreach to maximize cost effectiveness and efficiency of staff resources for a stellar product that brings the universe a little closer into view for the classroom. This poster will demonstrate how the two divisions draw on their talents to create their unique educational material as well as the various types of educational material produced by the partnership.

  2. Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) system engineering trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael J.; Moses, Stewart L.; Lillie, Charles F.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    1998-08-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope is intended to extend man's ability to observe the history of the universe to the time when galaxies were first forming. TRW is being funded by NASA to develop mission architectures that can achieve this and other science goals, while still remaining within a rigid cost cap. This paper presents the trade considerations for selecting the optimum NGST architecture. Mission architectures consist of combinations of technologies and mission design elements including different orbits and launch vehicles, aperture sizes, the wavelength bands, thermal control approaches, and observatory configurations. The systems engineering analyses involve defining and assessing the trade spaces for each possible architecture. For example, primary mirror approaches include single-piece, monolithic mirrors of about four meters diameter to much larger segmented mirrors employing advanced deployable technology. The performance of different configurations and mission architectures will be evaluated via end-to-end modeling, so that science utility will be balanced against system cost and risk for each technology. The trades presented suggest optimum directions for further NGST system studies.

  3. Microshutter array development for the James Webb space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mary J.; Acuna, Nadine; Amatucci, Edward; Beamesderfer, Michael; Boucarut, Ray A.; Babu, Sachi; Bajikar, Sateesh; Ewin, Audrey J.; Fettig, Rainer; Franz, David E.; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kelly, Daniel; King, Todd T.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Kotechi, Carl A.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Loughlin, James P.; Lynch, Bernard A.; Moseley, Harvey; Mott, Brent; Newell, Bill; Oh, Lance; Rapchun, David A.; Ray, Chris; Sappington, Carol; Schulte, Eric; Schwinger, Scott; Smith, Wayne; Snodgrass, Steve; Sparr, Leroy M.; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Wang, Liqin L.; Zheng, Yun; Zincke, Chris A.

    2005-02-01

    Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS) microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as a field selector of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the spontaneous selection of a large number of objects in the sky and the transmission of light to the NIRSpec detector with high contrast. The JWST environment requires cryogenic operation at 35 K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) silicon wafers. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100 x 200 μm. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. Light shields are processed for blocking light from gaps between shutters and frames. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes multi-layer metal depositions, the patterning of magnetic stripes and shutter electrodes, a reactive ion etching (RIE) to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, followed by a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch to form mechanical supporting grids and release shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition is used to form back electrodes. Shutters are actuated by a magnetic force and latched using an electrostatic force. Optical tests, addressing tests, and life tests are conducted to evaluate the performance and the reliability of microshutter arrays.

  4. The Scientific Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and dark matter, gas, stars, metals morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. A comprehensive, top-level review of JWST sciences was published in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since that paper was published, the JWST Science Working Group, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. In this poster, the main science themes and white papers are reviewed.

  5. Fabrication of Microshutter Arrays for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary J.; Zheng, Yun; Hess, Larry; Hu, Ron; Kelly, Dan; Lynch, Barney; Oh, Lance; Ray, Chris; Smith, Wayne; Babu, Sachi

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional MEMS microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use in the near-infrared region on the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The microshutter arrays are designed for the selective transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. The NGST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45K. Microshutter arrays are fabricated out of silicon-oxide-insulated (SOI) silicon wafers. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100x100 microns. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated using MEMS technologies. The processing includes a multi-layer metal deposition and patterning of shutter electrodes and magnetic pads, reactive ion etching (RE) of the front side to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, followed by a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form frames and relieve shutters from the silicon substrate. An additional metal deposition and patterning is used to form back electrodes. Shutters are actuated using a magnetic force and latched using an electrostatic force.

  6. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark; Lopez Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas; Turtle, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is an ambitious next-generation large-aperture (6.5 m) space observatory focused on pushing the boundaries of infrared astronomy (0.6-28.0 μm). This long-wavelength focus gives it very substantial potential for solar system science, since the thermal emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of many planets, moons and small bodies peak in this part of the spectrum. Here we report the findings of a task team convened to examine the potential for Titan science using JWST. These can be divided into five broad areas: (i) the surface, especially the rotational lightcurve; (ii) clouds in the lower atmosphere from direct imaging and near-IR spectroscopy; (iii) composition of the lower atmosphere, especially methane relative humidity; (iv) composition of the middle atmosphere, including thermal and fluorescent emissions from gases; (v) hazes in the middle atmosphere, including seasonal changes in hemispheric contrast. The capability of the major JWST instruments in each area is considered, and limitations such as potential saturation is noted and mitigation strategies (such as sub-arraying) discussed. Overall we find that JWST can make significant contributions to Titan science in many areas, not least in temporal monitoring of seasonal change after the end of the Cassini mission in 2017, in partnership with other next-generation observing facilities (TMT, GMT, EELT, ALMA).

  7. A Mechanical Cryogenic Cooler for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrich, Nicholas; Zimbelman, Darell; Swift, Walter; Dolan, Francis; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Cryo Cooler (NCC), the cutting edge technology involved, its evolution, performance, and future space applications. The NCC is the primary hardware component of the NICMOS Cooling System comprised of the NCC, an Electronics Support Module, a Capillary Pumped Loop/Radiator, and associated interface harnessing. The system will be installed during extravehicular activities on HST during Servicing Mission 3B scheduled for launch in February 2002. The NCC will be used to revive the NICMOS instrument, which experienced a reduced operational lifetime due to an internal thermal short in its dewar structure, and restore HST scientific infrared capability to operational status. The NCC is a state-of-the-art reverse Turbo-Brayton cycle cooler employing gas bearing micro turbo machinery, driven by advanced power conversion electronics, operating at speeds up to 7300 revolutions per second (rps) to remove heat from the NICMOS instrument.

  8. Navigation Concepts for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Leung, Dominic; Kelbel, David; Beckman, Mark; Grambling, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance that can be achieved using candidate ground and onboard navigation approaches for operation of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be in an orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 libration point. The ground navigation approach processes standard range and Doppler measurements from the Deep Space Network The onboard navigation approach processes celestial object measurements and/or ground-to- spacecraft Doppler measurements to autonomously estimate the spacecraft s position and velocity and Doppler reference frequency. Particular attention is given to assessing the absolute position and velocity accuracy that can be achieved in the presence of the frequent spacecraft reorientations and momentum unloads planned for this mission. The ground navigation approach provides stable navigation solutions using a tracking schedule of one 30-minute contact per day. The onboard navigation approach that uses only optical quality celestial object measurements provides stable autonomous navigation solutions. This study indicates that unmodeled changes in the solar radiation pressure cross-sectional area and modeled momentum unload velocity changes are the major error sources. These errors can be mitigated by modeling these changes, by estimating corrections to compensate for the changes, or by including acceleration measurements.

  9. Lightweight in-plane actuated deformable mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Michael J.

    This research focused on lightweight, in-plane actuated, deformable mirrors, with the ultimate goal of developing a 20-meter or larger diameter light gathering aperture for space telescopes. Membrane optics is the study of these structures which may be stowed compactly and unfurled in orbit. This effort comprised four research areas: modelling, analytical solutions, surface control strategy, and scaling. Initially, experimental results were compared to theory using a 0.127 meter diameter deformable mirror testbed. The mirror was modelled using finite elements with MSC.Nastran software, where a boundary tension field was determined using laser vibrometer data. A non-linear solution technique was used to incorporate the membrane stiffening from the applied tension. Statically obtained actuator influence functions were compared to experimentally achieved data, and then a least squares approach was used as the basis for creating a quasi-static control algorithm. Experimental simultaneous tracking of Zernike tip, tilt, and defocus modes was successfully demonstrated. The analytical solutions to plate-membrane and beam-string ordinary differential equation representing the deformable mirror equations were developed. A simplified approach to modelling the axisymmetric cases was also presented. Significantly, it was shown both analytically and through numerical analysis that static actuation for a mirror with a discrete electrode pattern and a high tension-to-stiffness ratio was simply a localized piston displacement in the region of the actuator. Next, a novel static control strategy, the Modal Transformation Method, was developed for membrane mirrors. The method was implemented in finite element simulation, and shows the capability of the in-plane actuated mirror to form Zernike surfaces within an interior, or clear aperture, region using a number of statically-actuated structural modes. Lastly, the scaling problem for membrane optics was addressed. Linear modelling was

  10. Hubble Space Telescope: SRM/QA observations and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Optical Systems Board of Investigation was established on July 2, 1990 to review, analyze, and evaluate the facts and circumstances regarding the manufacture, development, and testing of the HST Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). Specifically, the board was tasked to ascertain what caused the spherical aberration and how it escaped notice until on-orbit operation. The error that caused the on-orbit spherical aberration in the primary mirror was traced to the assembly process of the Reflective Null Corrector, one of the three Null Correctors developed as special test equipment (STE) to measure and test the primary mirror. Therefore, the safety, reliability, maintainability, and quality assurance (SRM&QA) investigation covers the events and the overall product assurance environment during the manufacturing phase of the primary mirror and Null Correctors (from 1978 through 1981). The SRM&QA issues that were identified during the HST investigation are summarized. The crucial product assurance requirements (including nonconformance processing) for the HST are examined. The history of Quality Assurance (QA) practices at Perkin-Elmer (P-E) for the period under investigation are reviewed. The importance of the information management function is discussed relative to data retention/control issues. Metrology and other critical technical issues also are discussed. The SRM&QA lessons learned from the investigation are presented along with specific recommendations. Appendix A provides the MSFC SRM&QA report. Appendix B provides supplemental reference materials. Appendix C presents the findings of the independent optical consultants, Optical Research Associates (ORA). Appendix D provides further details of the fault-tree analysis portion of the investigation process.

  11. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  12. Image inversion analysis of the HST OTA (Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly), phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Technical work during September-December 1990 consisted of: (1) analyzing HST point source images obtained from JPL; (2) retrieving phase information from the images by a direct (noniterative) technique; and (3) characterizing the wavefront aberration due to the errors in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mirrors, in a preliminary manner. This work was in support of JPL design of compensating optics for the next generation wide-field planetary camera on HST. This digital technique for phase retrieval from pairs of defocused images, is based on the energy transport equation between these image planes. In addition, an end-to-end wave optics routine, based on the JPL Code 5 prescription of the unaberrated HST and WFPC, was derived for output of the reference phase front when mirror error is absent. Also, the Roddier routine unwrapped the retrieved phase by inserting the required jumps of +/- 2(pi) radians for the sake of smoothness. A least-squares fitting routine, insensitive to phase unwrapping, but nonlinear, was used to obtain estimates of the Zernike polynomial coefficients that describe the aberration. The phase results were close to, but higher than, the expected error in conic constant of the primary mirror suggested by the fossil evidence. The analysis of aberration contributed by the camera itself could be responsible for the small discrepancy, but was not verified by analysis.

  13. Analysis of a tethered stabilized Schmidt telescope asserved to the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, F.; Rafanelli, P.; Angrilli, F.; Bianchini, G.; da Forno, R.

    The concept of a Schmidt telescope connected to the Space Station by a 2-10 km long tether is discussed. A mission scenario and the optical characteristics of the telescope are described. A linearized mathematical model is used to study the dynamic behavior of the telescope platform in space. Simulations are conducted to account for environmental perturbations, thermal effects, atmospheric drag, micrometeor impact, and the dynamical response to slewing motion.

  14. Simulation of MEMS for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, Brent; Kuhn, Jonathan; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing optical micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) components for potential application in Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) science instruments. In this work, we present an overview of the electro-mechanical simulation of three MEMS components for NGST, which include a reflective micro-mirror array and transmissive microshutter array for aperture control for a near infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrometer and a large aperture MEMS Fabry-Perot tunable filter for a NIR wide field camera. In all cases the device must operate at cryogenic temperatures with low power consumption and low, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible, voltages. The goal of our simulation efforts is to adequately predict both the performance and the reliability of the devices during ground handling, launch, and operation to prevent failures late in the development process and during flight. This goal requires detailed modeling and validation of complex electro-thermal-mechanical interactions and very large non-linear deformations, often involving surface contact. Various parameters such as spatial dimensions and device response are often difficult to measure reliably at these small scales. In addition, these devices are fabricated from a wide variety of materials including surface micro-machined aluminum, reactive ion etched (RIE) silicon nitride, and deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) bulk single crystal silicon. The above broad set of conditions combine to be a formidable challenge for space flight qualification analysis. These simulations represent NASA/GSFC's first attempts at implementing a comprehensive strategy to address complex MEMS structures.

  15. Astronaut Story Musgrave during first of five Hubble Space Telescope EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, holding to one of many strategically placed handrails on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is photographed during the first of five space walks on the STS-61 HST-servicing mission.

  16. Ice Mapping Observations in Galactic Star-Forming Regions: the AKARI Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen Jane; Suutarinnen, Aleksi; Noble, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that explaining the small-scale distribution of many gas-phase molecules relies on our interpretation of the complex inter-connectivity between gas- and solid-phase interstellar chemistries. Inputs to proto-stellar astrochemical models are required that exploit ice compositions reflecting the historical physical conditions in pre-stellar environments when the ices first formed. Such data are required to translate the near-universe picture of ice-composition to our understanding of the role of extra-galactic ices in star-formation at higher redshifts.Here we present the first attempts at multi-object ice detections, and the subsequent ice column density mapping. The AKARI space telescope was uniquely capable of observing all the ice features between 2 and 5 microns, thereby detecting H2O, CO and CO2 ices concurrently, through their stretching vibrational features. Our group has successfully extracted an unprecedented volume of ice spectra from AKARI, including sources with not more than 2 mJy flux at 3 microns, showing:(a) H2O CO and CO2 ices on 30 lines of sight towards pre-stellar and star-forming cores, which when combined with laboratory experiments indicate how the chemistries of these three ices are interlinked (Noble et al (2013)),(b) ice maps showing the spatial distribution of water ice across 12 pre-stellar cores, in different molecular clouds (Suutarinnen et al (2015)), and the distribution of ice components within these cores on 1000 AU scales (Noble et al (2015)),(c) over 200 new detections of water ice, mostly on lines of sight towards background sources (> 145), indicating that water ice column density has a minimum value as a function of Av, but on a cloud-by-cloud basis typically correlates with Av, and dust emissivity at 250 microns (Suutarinnen et al (2015)),(d) the first detections of HDO ice towards background stars (Fraser et al (2015)).We discuss whether these results support the picture of a generic chemical

  17. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  18. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  19. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  20. Custom CMOS Reed Solomon coder for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Owsley, P.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI coder is presented that can function either as an encoder or decoder for Reed-Solomon codes. VLSI is one approach to implementing high-performance Reed-Solomon decoders. There are three VLSI technologies that could be used: gate arrays, standard cells, and full custom. The first two approaches are relatively easy to implement, but are limited in both performance and density. Full-custom VLSI is used to achieve both circuit density and speed, and allows control of the amount of interconnect. Speed, which is a function of capacitance, which is a function of interconnect, is an important parameter in high-performance VLSI. A single 8.2 mm x 8.4 mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed-Solomon code required by the Hubble Space Telescope is reported. The chip features a 10-MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6-micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes and shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections and random error corrections are supported with programmable correction of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors in the incoming message.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Spectral Library Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) is a Hubble Large Treasury Project, whose aim is to collect high-quality ultraviolet (1150-3100 Å) spectra of bright stars, utilizing the echelle modes of powerful Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; with resolution and signal-to-noise rivaling the best that can be achieved at ground-based observatories in the visible. During HST Cycle 18 (2010-2011), ASTRAL was allocated 146 orbits to record eight representative late-type ("cool") stars, including well-known cosmic denizens like Procyon and Betelgeuse. In Cycle 21 (2013-2014), ASTRAL was awarded an additional 230 orbits to extend the project to the hot side of the H-R diagram: 21 targets covering the O-A spectral types, including household favorites Vega and Sirius. The second part of the program was completed in January 2015. I describe the scientific motivations for observing hot and cool stars in the UV; the unique instrumental characteristics of STIS that enabled a broad survey like ASTRAL; progress in the program to date; and prospects for the future.

  2. Replacing a technology - The Large Space Telescope and CCDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. W.; Tatarewicz, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The technological improvements, design choices and mission goals which led to the inclusion of CCD detectors in the wide field camera of the Large Space Telescope (LST) to be launched by the STS are recounted. Consideration of CCD detectors began before CCDs had seen wide astronomical applications. During planning for the ST, in the 1960s, photographic methods and a vidicon were considered, and seemed feasible provided that periodic manual maintenance could be performed. The invention of CCDs was first reported in 1970 and by 1973 the CCDs were receiving significant attention as potential detectors instead of a vidicon, which retained its own technological challenges. The CCD format gained new emphasis when success was achieved in developments for planetary-imaging spacecraft. The rapidity of progress in CCD capabilities, coupled with the continued shortcomings of the vidicon, resulted in a finalized choice for a CCD device by 1977. The decision was also prompted by continuing commercial and military interest in CCDs, which was spurring the development of the technology and improving the sensitivities and reliability while lowering the costs.

  3. Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

  4. Astrometry of the omega Centauri Hubble Space Telescope Calibration Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2000-01-01

    Astrometry, on the International Celestial Reference Frame (epoch J2000.0), is presented for the Walker (1994, PASP, 106, 828) stars in the omega Centauri (=NGC 5139=C 1323-1472) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) calibration field of Harris et al. (1993, AJ, 105, 1196). Harris et al. stars were first identified on a WFPC2 observation of the omega Cen HST calibration field. Relative astrometry of the Walker stars in this field was then obtained using Walker's CCD positions and astrometry derived using the STSDAS METRIC task on the positions of the Harris et al. stars on the WFPC2 observation. Finally, the relative astrometry, which was based on the HST Guide Star Catalog, is placed on the International Celestial Reference Frame with astrometry from the USNO-A2.0 catalog. An ASCII text version of the astrometric data of the Walker stars in the omega Cen HST calibration field is available electronically in the online version of the article.

  5. Formation Flying of Components of a Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Quadrelli, Marco; Breckenridge, William

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual space telescope having an aperture tens of meters wide and a focal length of hundreds of meters would be implemented as a group of six separate optical modules flying in formation: a primary-membrane-mirror module, a relay-mirror module, a focal-plane-assembly module containing a fast steering mirror and secondary and tertiary optics, a primary-mirror-figure-sensing module, a scanning-electron-beam module for controlling the shape of the primary mirror, and a sunshade module. Formation flying would make it unnecessary to maintain the required precise alignments among the modules by means of an impractically massive rigid structure. Instead, a control system operating in conjunction with a metrology system comprising optical and radio subsystems would control the firing of small thrusters on the separate modules to maintain the formation, thereby acting as a virtual rigid structure. The control system would utilize a combination of centralized- and decentralized-control methods according to a leader-follower approach. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated in computational simulations that showed that relative positions could be maintained to within a fraction of a millimeter and orientations to within several microradians.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope: extending the science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-09-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb’s capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; JWST Science Working Group

    2013-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb’s capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this poster, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  8. Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after SM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Alosi, A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Bostroen, K. A.; Cox, C. R.; Diaz, R. I.; Dixon, W. V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Hodge, P.; Kaiser, M. E.; Lallo, M. D.; Lennon, D.; Niemi, S.; Pascucci, I.; Smith, E.; Wolfe, M. A.; York, B.; Zheng. W.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D. J.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    On May 17, 2009, during the fourth EVA of SM4, astronauts Michael Good and Mike Massimino replaced the failed LVPS-2 circuit board on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), restoring this HST instrument to operation after a nearly 6 year hiatus. STIS after this 2009 repair operates in much the same way as it did during the 2001-2004 period of operations with the Side-2 electronics. Internal and external alignments of the instrument are similar to what they had been in 2004, and most changes in performance are modest. The STIS CCD detector continued to experience radiation damage during the hiatus in operations, leading to decreased charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and an increased number of hot pixels. The sensitivities for most modes are surprisingly close to what was expected from simple extrapolation of the 2003-2004 trends, although the echelle modes show somewhat more complex behavior. The biggest surprise was that the dark count rate for the NUV MAMA detector after SM4 has been much larger than had been expected; it is currently about 2.5 times bigger than it was in 2004 and is only slowly decreasing. We discuss how these changes will affect science with STIS now and in the future.

  9. The role of scientists in developing Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Hubble Space Telescope Program is to build and operate a high-performance, fully-instrumented and long-lived optical observatory in earth orbit. Key Program elements are (1) a logistic strategy of Shuttle launch/maintenance and TDRSS communications, (2) overall responsibility at the MSFC Project for developing both the flight and ground systems, and (3) scientific participation in ST development and responsibility after launch for conducting the observing program. The ST Project is a management structure with a budget and schedule for delivering an ST system capable of achieving its established scientific objectives. The Project distributes through contracts the responsibility for supplying particular components, but retains the responsibility for system-level integrity. Scientists have set the performance objectives and now support the Project during the development stage by providing (1) PI management of the five Science Instruments, (2) continuing translations of scientific requirements into engineering specifications, (3) oversight of designs and performance tests, and (4) specific expertise on technical concerns.

  10. Observational magnetometer calibration with the Hubble Space Telescope's new magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broude, Sidney M.

    1995-01-01

    The two magnetometers recently replaced on the Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-61 Servicing Mission are now being used successfully for Coarse Attitude Determination during spacecraft vehicle safemode recovery operation. The magnetometer alignments relative to the spacecraft's vehicle's reference frame and the magnetic coupling of the sensors to the four magnetic torquer bars were determined. Coarse Attitude determination errors are now reduced to an average of 0.6 deg. Magnetometer Sensing System calibration and Coarse Attitude determination testing with the new calibration parameters is a geometrical problem. Telemetered earth magnetic field data was collected at twenty-six different vehicle attitudes. The spacecraft attitudes selected were distributed as widely apart as possible throughout the Geocentric Inertial Coordinate reference frame. It is also desirable to sample the Earth's magnetic field over as many different locations of the spacecraft's passage over the Earth as possible, within the limitation of the +/- 28.5 deg orbital inclination. A full range of magnetic moment outputs from the torquer bars needs to be sampled, +/- 3600 ampmeters squared, as well as data when the torquer bars have zero current. Graphic utilities were also developed to visually aid in optimizing the data collection process. Finally, a brief discussion of a method for collecting data for future calibrations is suggested.

  11. Stress analysis of the space telescope focal plane structure joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shoemaker, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two major efforts were begun concerning the Space Telescope focal plane structure joint. The 3-D solid finite element modeling of the bipod flexure plate was carried out. Conceptual models were developed for the load transfer through the three major bolts to the flexure plate. The flexure plate drawings were reconstructed using DADAM for the purpose of developing a file from which the coordinates of any point on the flexure plate could be determined and also to locate the attachment points of the various components which connect with the flexure plate. For modeling convenience the CADAM drawing of the flexure plate has been divided into several regions which will be subdivided into finite elements using MSGMESH, which is a finite element mesh generator available with MSC/NASTRAN. In addition to the CADAM work on the flexure plate, an effort was also begun to develop computer aided drawings of the peripheral beam which will be used to assist in modeling the connection between it and the flexure plate.

  12. Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, A.; Bohlin, C.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C. R.; Diaz, R. I.; Dixon, W. V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Hodge, P.; Kaiser, M. E. Lallo, M. D.; Lennon, D.; Niemi, S.; Osten, R. A.; Pascucci, I.; Smith, E.; Wolfe, M. A.; York, B.; Zheng, W.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D. J.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-07-01

    On May 17, 2009, during the fourth EVA of SM4, astronauts Michael Good and Mike Massimino replaced the failed LVPS-2 circuit board on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), restoring this HST instrument to operation after a nearly 6 year hiatus. STIS after this 2009 repair operates in much the same way as it did during the 2001-2004 period of operations with the Side-2 electronics. Internal and external alignments of the instrument are similar to what they had been in 2004, and most changes in performance are modest. The STIS CCD detector continued to experience radiation damage during the hiatus in operations, leading to decreased charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and an increased number of hot pixels. The sensitivities for most modes are surprisingly close to what was expected from simple extrapolation of the 2003-2004 trends, although the echelle modes show somewhat more complex behavior. The biggest surprise was that the dark count rate for the NUV MAMA detector after SM4 has been much larger than had been expected; it is currently about 2.5 times bigger than it was in 2004 and is only slowly decreasing. We discuss how these changes will affect science with STIS now and in the future.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Stationkeeping Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Alberding, Cassandra; Yu, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will launch in 2018 into a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-EarthMoon (SEM) L2 point, with a planned mission lifetime of 11 years. This paper discusses our approach to Stationkeeping (SK) maneuver planning to determine an adequate SK delta-V budget. The SK maneuver planning for JWST is made challenging by two factors: JWST has a large Sunshield, and JWST will be repointed regularly producing significant changes in Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). To accurately model SRP we employ the Solar Pressure and Drag (SPAD) tool, which uses ray tracing to accurately compute SRP force as a function of attitude. As an additional challenge, the future JWST observation schedule will not be known at the time of SK maneuver planning. Thus there will be significant variation in SRP between SK maneuvers, and the future variation in SRP is unknown. We have enhanced an earlier SK simulation to create a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates random draws for uncertainties that affect the budget, including random draws of the observation schedule. Each SK maneuver is planned to optimize delta-V magnitude, subject to constraints on spacecraft pointing. We report the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and discuss possible improvements during flight operations to reduce the SK delta-V budget.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks. to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  15. Ultraviolet interstellar polarization observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, W. B.; Allen, R. G.; Carnochan, D. J.; He, Lida; Mcnally, D.; Martin, P. G.; Morgan, D. H.; Nandy, K.; Walsh, J. R.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope to observe interstellar linear polarization from 1300 to 3300 A in two stars with well-studied interstellar polarization at visible wavelenths. The wavelength dependence of linear polarization declines smoothly with decreasing wavelength and is devoid of structure associated with the prominent 2175 A absorption bump in the interstellar extinction curve. The data for one star (HD 161056) are consistent with an extrapolation based on the Serkowski formula of a fit to the ground-based polariztion; the other star (HD 7252) shows excess (super-Serkowski) polarization relative to the extrapolation. Out of a total of 10 stars now studied by means of spectropolarimetry in the satellite ultraviolet, including eight obseved with the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photopolarimeter, five (those of longest lambda (sub max)) show Serkowski behavior, and four others show super-Serkowski behavior; only one (HD 197770) shows evidence for polarization associated with the 2175 A bump. These results place important constraints on the nature of the bump feature.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The 6.5-m aperture James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool for studying and advancing numerous areas of astrophysics. Its Fine Guidance Sensor, Near-Infrared Camera, Near-Infrared Spectrograph, and Mid-Infrared Instrument will be capable of making very sensitive, high angular resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations spanning 0.7 - 28 ?m wavelength. These capabilities are very well suited for probing the conditions of star formation in the distant and local Universe. Indeed, JWST has been designed to detect first light objects as well as to study the fine details of jets, disks, chemistry, envelopes, and the central cores of nearby protostars. We will be able to use its cameras, coronagraphs, and spectrographs (including multi-object and integral field capabilities) to study many aspects of star forming regions throughout the galaxy, the Local Group, and more distant regions. I will describe the basic JWST scientific capabilities and illustrate a few ways how they can be applied to star formation issues and conditions with a focus on Galactic regions.

  17. Minimizing actuator-induced errors in active space telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.

    2010-07-01

    The trend in future space telescopes points toward increased primary mirror diameter, which improves resolution and sensitivity. However, given the constraints on mass and volume deliverable to orbit by current launch vehicles, creative design solutions are needed to enable increased mirror size while keeping mass and volume within acceptable limits. Lightweight, segmented, rib-stiffened, actively controlled primary mirrors have emerged as a potential solution. Embedded surface-parallel actuators can be used to change the mirror prescription onorbit, lowering mirror mass overall by enabling lighter substrate materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) and relaxing manufacturing constraints. However, the discrete nature of the actuators causes high spatial frequency residual errors when commanding low-order prescription changes. A parameterized finite element model is used to simulate actuator-induced residual error and investigate design solutions that mitigate this error source. Judicious specification of mirror substrate geometry and actuator length is shown to reduce actuator-induced residual while keeping areal density constant. Specifically, a sinusoidally-varying rib shaping function is found to increase actuator influence functions and decrease residual. Likewise, longer actuators are found to offer reduced residual. Other options for geometric shaping are discussed, such as rib-to-facesheet blending and the use of two dimensional patch actuators.

  18. Development of CFRP Mirrors for Space Telescopes Using Replica Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, Shin; Kamiya, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Ryuzo

    2012-07-01

    Ultra-lightweight and high-accuracy CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) mirrors for space telescopes have developed and their feasibility for ultrared applications was demonstrated. The CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) of the all-CFRP sandwich panels was tailored in ±1x10-7/K. The surface accuracy of mirrors of 150 mm in diameter was 0.8 μm RMS (Root Mean Square) as fabricated and the surface smoothness was improved to 5 nm RMS. The surface of front face skins of sandwich panels was coated with epoxy resin and surface accuracy and smoothness were transcribed from an optically-polished glass tool of λ/20 accuracy by replica technique. Surface preciseness was measured before and after replica coating using a 3D optical profiler of white light interferometer. Observed patterns of the asperity of mirror surfaces were classified into four categories, overall warping and line patterns of fiber tows and core patterns and print-through of individual fibers. Replica improved all kinds of asperity.

  19. Stationkeeping Monte Carlo Simulation for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Alberding, Cassandra M.; Yu, Wayne H.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled to launch in 2018 into a Libration Point Orbit (LPO) around the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) L2 point, with a planned mission lifetime of 10.5 years after a six-month transfer to the mission orbit. This paper discusses our approach to Stationkeeping (SK) maneuver planning to determine an adequate SK delta-V budget. The SK maneuver planning for JWST is made challenging by two factors: JWST has a large Sunshield, and JWST will be repointed regularly producing significant changes in Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). To accurately model SRP we employ the Solar Pressure and Drag (SPAD) tool, which uses ray tracing to accurately compute SRP force as a function of attitude. As an additional challenge, the future JWST observation schedule will not be known at the time of SK maneuver planning. Thus there will be significant variation in SRP between SK maneuvers, and the future variation in SRP is unknown. We have enhanced an earlier SK simulation to create a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates random draws for uncertainties that affect the budget, including random draws of the observation schedule. Each SK maneuver is planned to optimize delta-V magnitude, subject to constraints on spacecraft pointing. We report the results of the Monte Carlo simulations and discuss possible improvements during flight operations to reduce the SK delta-V budget.

  20. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.