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Sample records for aki requiring dialysis

  1. Outpatient Dialysis for Patients with AKI: A Policy Approach to Improving Care.

    PubMed

    Heung, Michael; Faubel, Sarah; Watnick, Suzanne; Cruz, Dinna N; Koyner, Jay L; Mour, Girish; Liu, Kathleen D; Cerda, Jorge; Okusa, Mark D; Lukaszewski, Mark; Vijayan, Anitha

    2015-10-07

    The rate of AKI requiring dialysis has increased significantly over the past decade in the United States. At the same time, survival from AKI seems to be improving, and thus, more patients with AKI are surviving to discharge while still requiring dialysis. Currently, the options for providing outpatient dialysis in patients with AKI are limited, particularly after a 2012 revised interpretation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines, which prohibited Medicare reimbursement for acute dialysis at ESRD facilities. This article provides a historical perspective on outpatient dialysis management of patients with AKI, reviews the current clinical landscape of care for these patients, and highlights key areas of knowledge deficit. Lastly, policy changes that have the opportunity to significantly improve the care of this at-risk population are suggested.

  2. Characteristics and Outcomes of AKI Treated with Dialysis during Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Liu, Kuan; Shariff, Salimah Z; Ray, Joel G; Sontrop, Jessica M; Clark, William F; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Garg, Amit X

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, but may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in young and often otherwise healthy women. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of all consecutive pregnancies over a 15-year period (1997-2011) in Ontario, Canada, and describe the incidence and outcomes of AKI treated with dialysis during pregnancy or within 12 weeks of delivery. Of 1,918,789 pregnancies, 188 were complicated by AKI treated with dialysis (incidence: 1 per 10,000 [95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.1]). Only 21 of 188 (11.2%) women had record of a preexisting medical condition; however, 130 (69.2%) women experienced a major pregnancy-related complication, including preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathy, heart failure, sepsis, or postpartum hemorrhage. Eight women died (4.3% versus 0.01% in the general population), and seven (3.9%) women remained dialysis dependent 4 months after delivery. Low birth weight (<2500 g), small for gestational age, or preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) were more common in pregnancies in which dialysis was initiated (35.6% versus 14.0%; relative risk, 3.40; 95% confidence interval, 2.52 to 4.58). There were no stillbirths and fewer than five neonatal deaths (<2.7%) in affected pregnancies compared with 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the general population. In conclusion, AKI treated with dialysis during pregnancy is rare and typically occurs in healthy women who acquire a major pregnancy-related medical condition such as preeclampsia. Many affected women and their babies have good short-term outcomes.

  3. Six-year single-center survey on AKI requiring renal replacement therapy: epidemiology and health care organization aspects.

    PubMed

    Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Mattozzi, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Evidence regarding hospital-based acute kidney injury (AKI) reveals a continuous increase in incidence over the years, at least in intensive care units (ICU). Fewer reports are available for non critically-ill patients admitted to general or specialist wards other than ICU (non-ICU). The consequence of greater incidence is an increase in therapies such as dialysis; but how the health care organization deals with this problem is not clearly known. Here we quantified the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI (AKI-D) among patients admitted to a University Hospital which serves a population of 354,000 inhabitants. Between 2007 and 2012, the incidence of AKI-D increased from 209 to 410 per million population (pmp)/year; age of patients and cardiovascular comorbid pathologies also increased. AKI-D was more frequent in non-ICU and 32% of patients were admitted to ICU. Considering the site of treatment of non-ICU patients, in 2007 the ratio of patients admitted to non-ICU wards apart from Nephrology to those admitted to Nephrology was 1:1, but in 2012 the ratio increased to 2.4:1 (p < 0.05). The complexity of acute disease, measured with the New Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II), did not reveal differences over the years. The number of dialysis treatments/year increased by 82%, and the total hours/year increased by 86%. Low-efficiency daily dialysis was performed in 52.4% of patients admitted to ICU, but dialysis sessions longer than 8 h were performed in only 40% of cases. Overall, 6-year mortality was 48.8%, without significant differences over the years. Mortality in ICU was 65.6%, and in non-ICU 41.2% (p < 0.001). Dialysis treatments needed to be continued after hospital discharge in 21% of patients. We conclude that dialysis-requiring AKI is becoming more common, and that two-thirds of patients are admitted as non-ICU: in these patients, during the last year of the study, the treatment site was more frequently in non-ICUs other than Nephrology. Over the 6

  4. Efficacy and Safety of a Citrate-Based Protocol for Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis in AKI Using Standard Dialysis Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Cademartiri, Carola; Cabassi, Aderville; Picetti, Edoardo; Barbagallo, Maria; Gherli, Tiziano; Castellano, Giuseppe; Morabito, Santo; Maggiore, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A simple anticoagulation protocol was developed for sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in patients with AKI, based on the use of anticoagulant citrate dextrose solution formulation A (ACD-A) and standard dialysis equipment. Patients’ blood recalcification was obtained from calcium backtransport from dialysis fluid. Design, setting, participants, & measurements All patients treated with SLED (8- to 12-hour sessions) for AKI in four intensive care units of a university hospital were studied over a 30-month period, from May 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010. SLED interruptions and their causes, hemorrhagic complications, as well as coagulation parameters, ionized calcium, and blood citrate levels were recorded. Results This study examined 807 SLED sessions in 116 patients (mean age of 69.7 years [SD 12.1]; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.8 [4.6]). Major bleeding was observed in six patients (5.2% or 0.4 episodes/100 person-days follow-up while patients were on SLED treatment). Citrate accumulation never occurred, even in patients with liver dysfunction. Intravenous calcium for ionized hypocalcemia (< 3.6 mg/dl or < 0.9 mmol/L) was needed in 28 sessions (3.4%); in 8 of these 28 sessions (28.6%), low ionized calcium was already present before SLED start. In 92.6% of treatments, SLED was completed within the scheduled time (median 8 hours). Interruptions of SLED by impending/irreversible clotting were recorded in 19 sessions (2.4%). Blood return was complete in 98% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 45 of 116 patients (38.8%). Conclusions This study protocol affords efficacious and safe anticoagulation of the SLED circuit, avoiding citrate accumulation and, in most patients, systematic calcium supplementation; it can be implemented with commercial citrate solutions, standard dialysis equipment, on-line produced dialysis fluid, and minimal laboratory monitoring. PMID:23990164

  5. Long-term risk of coronary events after AKI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vin-Cent; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Lai, Chun-Fu; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Chang, Chia-Hsui; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Yung-Ming; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Chen, Likwang; Ko, Wen-Je

    2014-03-01

    The incidence rate of AKI in hospitalized patients is increasing. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the association of AKI with long-term risk of adverse coronary events. Our study investigated hospitalized patients who recovered from de novo dialysis-requiring AKI between 1999 and 2008 using patient data collected from inpatient claims from Taiwan National Health Insurance. We used Cox regression with time-varying covariates to adjust for subsequent CKD and ESRD after discharge. Results were further validated by analysis of a prospectively constructed database. Among 17,106 acute dialysis patients who were discharged, 4869 patients recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI (AKI recovery group) and were matched with 4869 patients without AKI (non-AKI group). The incidence rates of coronary events were 19.8 and 10.3 per 1000 person-years in the AKI recovery and non-AKI groups, respectively. AKI recovery associated with higher risk of coronary events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36 to 2.04) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.79) independent of the effects of subsequent progression to CKD and ESRD. The risk levels of de novo coronary events after hospital discharge were similar in patients with diabetes alone and patients with AKI alone (P=0.23). Our results reveal that AKI with recovery associated with higher long-term risks of coronary events and death in this cohort, suggesting that AKI may identify patients with high risk of future coronary events. Enhanced postdischarge follow-up of renal function of patients who have recovered from temporary dialysis may be warranted.

  6. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis as a Result of Concomitant Use of Atypical Neuroleptics and Synthetic Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Aiyu; Tan, Maybel; Maung, Aung; Salifu, Moro; Mallappallil, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) is associated with many severe adverse effects that are not observed with marijuana use. We report a unique case of a patient who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis after use of SCBs combined with quetiapine. Causes for the different adverse effects profile between SCBs and marijuana are not defined yet. Cases reported in literature with SCBs use have been associated with reversible AKI characterized by acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Recent studies have showed the involvement of cytochromes P450s (CYPs) in biotransformation of SCBs. The use of quetiapine which is a substrate of the CYP3A4 and is excreted (73%) as urine metabolites may worsen the side effect profiles of both quetiapine and K2. SCBs use should be included in the differential diagnosis of AKI and serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level should be monitored. Further research is needed to identify the mechanism of SCBs nephrotoxicity. PMID:26550500

  7. AKI Associated with Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Robert H.; Isbell, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 18% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery experience AKI (on the basis of modern standardized definitions of AKI), and approximately 2%–6% will require hemodialysis. The development of AKI after cardiac surgery portends poor short- and long-term prognoses, with those developing RIFLE failure or AKI Network stage III having an almost 2-fold increase in the risk of death. AKI is caused by a variety of factors, including nephrotoxins, hypoxia, mechanical trauma, inflammation, cardiopulmonary bypass, and hemodynamic instability, and it may be affected by the clinician’s choice of fluids and vasoactive agents as well as the transfusion strategy used. The risk of AKI may be ameliorated by avoidance of nephrotoxins, achievement of adequate glucose control preoperatively, and use of goal-directed therapy hemodynamic strategies. Remote ischemic preconditioning is an exciting future strategy, but more work is needed before widespread implementation. Unfortunately, there are no pharmacologic agents known to reduce the risk of AKI or treat established AKI. PMID:25376763

  8. Outcome in noncritically ill patients with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) treatment has significantly increased in incidence over the years, with more than 400 new cases per million population/y, 2/3 of which concern noncritically ill patients. In these patients, there are little data on mortality or on information of care organization and its impact on outcome. Specialty training and integrated teams, as well as a high volume of activity, seem to be linked to better hospital outcome. The study investigates mortality of patients admitted to and in-care of nephrology (NEPHROpts), a closed-staff organization, and to other medical wards (MEDpts), representing a model of open-staff organization. This is a single center, case–control cohort study derived from a prospective epidemiology investigation on patients with AKI-D admitted to or in-care of the Hospital of Perugia during the period 2007 to 2014. Noncritically ill AKI-D patients were analyzed: inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to avoid possible bias on the cause of hospital admittance and comorbidities, and a propensity score (PS) matching was performed. Six hundred fifty-four noncritically ill patients were observed and 296 fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. PS matching resulted in 2 groups: 100 NEPHROpts and 100 MEDpts. Characteristics, comorbidities, acute kidney injury causes, risk–injury–failure acute kidney injury criteria, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 2) were similar. Mortality was 36%, and a difference was reported between NEPHROpts and MEDpts (20% vs 52%, χ2 = 23.2, P < 0.001). Patients who died differed in age, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen/s.Creatinine ratio, dialysis urea reduction rate (URR), SAPS 2 and Charlson score; they presented a higher rate of heart disease, and a larger proportion required noradrenaline/dopamine for shock. After correction for mortality risk factors, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that site of treatment (medical vs nephrology wards

  9. Predictors of Recurrent AKI.

    PubMed

    Siew, Edward D; Parr, Sharidan K; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Eden, Svetlana K; Peterson, Josh F; Bansal, Nisha; Hung, Adriana M; Fly, James; Speroff, Ted; Ikizler, T Alp; Matheny, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent AKI is common among patients after hospitalized AKI and is associated with progressive CKD. In this study, we identified clinical risk factors for recurrent AKI present during index AKI hospitalizations that occurred between 2003 and 2010 using a regional Veterans Administration database in the United States. AKI was defined as a 0.3 mg/dl or 50% increase from a baseline creatinine measure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge from the index hospitalization. Time to recurrent AKI was examined using Cox regression analysis, and sensitivity analyses were performed using a competing risk approach. Among 11,683 qualifying AKI hospitalizations, 2954 patients (25%) were hospitalized with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge. Median time to recurrent AKI within 12 months was 64 (interquartile range 19-167) days. In addition to known demographic and comorbid risk factors for AKI, patients with longer AKI duration and those whose discharge diagnosis at index AKI hospitalization included congestive heart failure (primary diagnosis), decompensated advanced liver disease, cancer with or without chemotherapy, acute coronary syndrome, or volume depletion, were at highest risk for being hospitalized with recurrent AKI. Risk factors identified were similar when a competing risk model for death was applied. In conclusion, several inpatient conditions associated with AKI may increase the risk for recurrent AKI. These findings should facilitate risk stratification, guide appropriate patient referral after AKI, and help generate potential risk reduction strategies. Efforts to identify modifiable factors to prevent recurrent AKI in these patients are warranted.

  10. Early peritoneal dialysis reduces lung inflammation in mice with ischemic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Chris; Ahuja, Nilesh; Kiekhaefer, Carol M; Andres Hernando, Ana; Okamura, Kayo; Bhargava, Rhea; Duplantis, Jane; Kirkbride-Romeo, Lara A; Huckles, Jill; Fox, Benjamin M; Kahn, Kashfi; Soranno, Danielle; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Faubel, Sarah

    2017-03-16

    Although dialysis has been used in the care of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) for over 50 years, very little is known about the potential benefits of uremic control on systemic complications of AKI. Since the mortality of AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is greater than half in the intensive care unit, a better understanding of the potential of RRT to improve outcomes is urgently needed. Therefore, we sought to develop a technically feasible and reproducible model of RRT in a mouse model of AKI. Models of low- and high-dose peritoneal dialysis (PD) were developed and their effect on AKI, systemic inflammation, and lung injury after ischemic AKI was examined. High-dose PD had no effect on AKI, but effectively cleared serum IL-6, and dramatically reduced lung inflammation, while low-dose PD had no effect on any of these three outcomes. Both models of RRT using PD in AKI in mice reliably lowered urea in a dose-dependent fashion. Thus, use of these models of PD in mice with AKI has great potential to unravel the mechanisms by which RRT may improve the systemic complications that have led to increased mortality in AKI. In light of recent data demonstrating reduced serum IL-6 and improved outcomes with prophylactic PD in children, we believe that our results are highly clinically relevant.

  11. Outcome in noncritically ill patients with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis: Effects of differing medical staffs and organizations.

    PubMed

    Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) treatment has significantly increased in incidence over the years, with more than 400 new cases per million population/y, 2/3 of which concern noncritically ill patients. In these patients, there are little data on mortality or on information of care organization and its impact on outcome. Specialty training and integrated teams, as well as a high volume of activity, seem to be linked to better hospital outcome. The study investigates mortality of patients admitted to and in-care of nephrology (NEPHROpts), a closed-staff organization, and to other medical wards (MEDpts), representing a model of open-staff organization.This is a single center, case-control cohort study derived from a prospective epidemiology investigation on patients with AKI-D admitted to or in-care of the Hospital of Perugia during the period 2007 to 2014. Noncritically ill AKI-D patients were analyzed: inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to avoid possible bias on the cause of hospital admittance and comorbidities, and a propensity score (PS) matching was performed.Six hundred fifty-four noncritically ill patients were observed and 296 fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. PS matching resulted in 2 groups: 100 NEPHROpts and 100 MEDpts. Characteristics, comorbidities, acute kidney injury causes, risk-injury-failure acute kidney injury criteria, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 2) were similar. Mortality was 36%, and a difference was reported between NEPHROpts and MEDpts (20% vs 52%, χ = 23.2, P < 0.001). Patients who died differed in age, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen/s.Creatinine ratio, dialysis urea reduction rate (URR), SAPS 2 and Charlson score; they presented a higher rate of heart disease, and a larger proportion required noradrenaline/dopamine for shock. After correction for mortality risk factors, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that site of treatment (medical vs nephrology wards) represents an

  12. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP--defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit--during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization.

  13. Elevated BP after AKI

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Raymond K.; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D.; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP—defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit—during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  14. Renal Hemodynamics in AKI: In Search of New Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Matejovic, Martin; Ince, Can; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Blantz, Roland; Molitoris, Bruce A; Rosner, Mitchell H; Okusa, Mark D; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic interventions are required to prevent or treat AKI. To expedite progress in this regard, a consensus conference held by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative was convened in April of 2014 to develop recommendations for research priorities and future directions. Here, we highlight the concepts related to renal hemodynamics in AKI that are likely to reveal new treatment targets on investigation. Overall, we must better understand the interactions between systemic, total renal, and glomerular hemodynamics, including the role of tubuloglomerular feedback. Furthermore, the net consequences of therapeutic maneuvers aimed at restoring glomerular filtration need to be examined in relation to the nature, magnitude, and duration of the insult. Additionally, microvascular blood flow heterogeneity in AKI is now recognized as a common occurrence; timely interventions to preserve the renal microcirculatory flow may interrupt the downward spiral of injury toward progressive kidney failure and should, therefore, be investigated. Finally, development of techniques that permit an integrative physiologic approach, including direct visualization of renal microvasculature and measurement of oxygen kinetics and mitochondrial function in intact tissue in all nephron segments, may provide new insights into how the kidney responds to various injurious stimuli and allow evaluation of new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Renal Hemodynamics in AKI: In Search of New Treatment Targets

    PubMed Central

    Matejovic, Martin; Ince, Can; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Blantz, Roland; Molitoris, Bruce A.; Okusa, Mark D.; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic interventions are required to prevent or treat AKI. To expedite progress in this regard, a consensus conference held by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative was convened in April of 2014 to develop recommendations for research priorities and future directions. Here, we highlight the concepts related to renal hemodynamics in AKI that are likely to reveal new treatment targets on investigation. Overall, we must better understand the interactions between systemic, total renal, and glomerular hemodynamics, including the role of tubuloglomerular feedback. Furthermore, the net consequences of therapeutic maneuvers aimed at restoring glomerular filtration need to be examined in relation to the nature, magnitude, and duration of the insult. Additionally, microvascular blood flow heterogeneity in AKI is now recognized as a common occurrence; timely interventions to preserve the renal microcirculatory flow may interrupt the downward spiral of injury toward progressive kidney failure and should, therefore, be investigated. Finally, development of techniques that permit an integrative physiologic approach, including direct visualization of renal microvasculature and measurement of oxygen kinetics and mitochondrial function in intact tissue in all nephron segments, may provide new insights into how the kidney responds to various injurious stimuli and allow evaluation of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26510884

  16. The Medical Director and Quality Requirements in the Dialysis Facility

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Four decades after the successful implementation of the ESRD program currently providing life-saving dialysis therapy to >430,000 patients, the definitions of and demands for a high-quality program have evolved and increased at the same time. Through substantial technological advances ESRD care improved, with a predominant focus on the technical aspects of care and the introduction of medications such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and active vitamin D for anemia and bone disease management. Despite many advances, the size of the program and the increasingly older and multimorbid patient population have contributed to continuing challenges for providing consistently high-quality care. Medicare's Final Rule of the Conditions for Coverage (April 2008) define the medical director of the dialysis center as the leader of the interdisciplinary team and the person ultimately accountable for quality, safety, and care provided in the center. Knowledge and active leadership with a hands-on approach in the quality assessment and performance improvement process (QAPI) is essential for the achievement of high-quality outcomes in dialysis centers. A collaborative approach between the dialysis provider and medical director is required to optimize outcomes and deliver evidence-based quality care. In 2011 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services introduced a pay-for-performance program—the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP)— with yearly varying quality metrics that result in payment reductions in subsequent years when targets are not achieved during the performance period. Success with the QIP requires a clear understanding of the structure, metrics, and scoring methods. Information on achievement and nonachievement is publicly available, both in facilities (through the facility performance score card) and on public websites (including Medicare’s Dialysis Facility Compare). By assuming the leadership role in the quality program of dialysis facilities, the medical

  17. The medical director and quality requirements in the dialysis facility.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Brigitte

    2015-03-06

    Four decades after the successful implementation of the ESRD program currently providing life-saving dialysis therapy to >430,000 patients, the definitions of and demands for a high-quality program have evolved and increased at the same time. Through substantial technological advances ESRD care improved, with a predominant focus on the technical aspects of care and the introduction of medications such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and active vitamin D for anemia and bone disease management. Despite many advances, the size of the program and the increasingly older and multimorbid patient population have contributed to continuing challenges for providing consistently high-quality care. Medicare's Final Rule of the Conditions for Coverage (April 2008) define the medical director of the dialysis center as the leader of the interdisciplinary team and the person ultimately accountable for quality, safety, and care provided in the center. Knowledge and active leadership with a hands-on approach in the quality assessment and performance improvement process (QAPI) is essential for the achievement of high-quality outcomes in dialysis centers. A collaborative approach between the dialysis provider and medical director is required to optimize outcomes and deliver evidence-based quality care. In 2011 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services introduced a pay-for-performance program-the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP)- with yearly varying quality metrics that result in payment reductions in subsequent years when targets are not achieved during the performance period. Success with the QIP requires a clear understanding of the structure, metrics, and scoring methods. Information on achievement and nonachievement is publicly available, both in facilities (through the facility performance score card) and on public websites (including Medicare's Dialysis Facility Compare). By assuming the leadership role in the quality program of dialysis facilities, the medical

  18. The cytohesin guanosine exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote HGF-mediated renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice.

    PubMed

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M; Santy, Lorraine C

    2015-06-01

    The lack of current treatment and preventable measures for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients results in an increased mortality rate of up to 80% and elevated health costs. Additionally, if not properly repaired, those who survive AKI may develop fibrosis and long-term kidney damage. The molecular aspects of kidney injury and repair are still uncertain. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes recovery of the injured kidney by inducing survival and migration of tubular epithelial cells to repopulate bare tubule areas. HGF-stimulated kidney epithelial cell migration requires the activation of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) and Rac1 via the cytohesin family of Arf-guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), in vitro. We used an ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) mouse model to analyze the effects of modulating this signaling pathway on kidney recovery. We treated IRI mice with either HGF, the cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3, or a combination of both. As previously reported, HGF treatment promoted rapid improvement of kidney function as evidenced by creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In contrast, simultaneous treatment with SecinH3 and HGF blocks the ability of HGF to promote kidney recovery. Immunohistochemistry showed that HGF treatment promoted recovery of tubule structure, and had enhanced levels of active, GTP-bound Arf6 and GTP-Rac1. SecinH3 treatment, however, caused a dramatic decrease in GTP-Arf6 and GTP-Rac1 levels when compared to kidney sections from HGF-treated IRI mice. Additionally, SecinH3 counteracted the renal reparative effects of HGF. Our results support the conclusion that cytohesin function is required for HGF-stimulated renal IRI repair.

  19. Septic AKI in ICU patients. diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment type, dosing, and timing: a comprehensive review of recent and future developments.

    PubMed

    Honore, Patrick M; Jacobs, Rita; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; De Regt, Jouke; Boer, Willem; De Waele, Elisabeth; Collin, Vincent; Spapen, Herbert D

    2011-08-09

    Evidence is accumulating showing that septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is different from non-septic AKI. Specifically, a large body of research points to apoptotic processes underlying septic AKI. Unravelling the complex and intertwined apoptotic and immuno-inflammatory pathways at the cellular level will undoubtedly create new and exciting perspectives for the future development (e.g., caspase inhibition) or refinement (specific vasopressor use) of therapeutic strategies. Shock complicating sepsis may cause more AKI but also will render treatment of this condition in an hemodynamically unstable patient more difficult. Expert opinion, along with the aggregated results of two recent large randomized trials, favors continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) as preferential treatment for septic AKI (hemodynamically unstable). It is suggested that this approach might decrease the need for subsequent chronic dialysis. Large-scale introduction of citrate as an anticoagulant most likely will change CRRT management in intensive care units (ICU), because it not only significantly increases filter lifespan but also better preserves filter porosity. A possible role of citrate in reducing mortality and morbidity, mainly in surgical ICU patients, remains to be proven. Also, citrate administration in the predilution mode appears to be safe and exempt of relevant side effects, yet still requires rigorous monitoring. Current consensus exists about using a CRRT dose of 25 ml/kg/h in non-septic AKI. However, because patients should not be undertreated, this implies that doses as high as 30 to 35 ml/kg/h must be prescribed to account for eventual treatment interruptions. Awaiting results from large, ongoing trials, 35 ml/kg/h should remain the standard dose in septic AKI, particularly when shock is present. To date, exact timing of CRRT is not well defined. A widely accepted composite definition of timing is needed before an appropriate study challenging this major issue can be

  20. Progression after AKI: Understanding Maladaptive Repair Processes to Predict and Identify Therapeutic Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V.; Mehta, Ravindra; Nangaku, Masaomi; Unwin, Robert; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical studies indicate a strong link between AKI and progression of CKD. The increasing prevalence of AKI must compel the nephrology community to consider the long-term ramifications of this syndrome. Considerable gaps in knowledge exist regarding the connection between AKI and CKD. The 13th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative meeting entitled “Therapeutic Targets of Human Acute Kidney Injury: Harmonizing Human and Experimental Animal Acute Kidney Injury” convened in April of 2014 and assigned a working group to focus on issues related to progression after AKI. This article provides a summary of the key conclusions and recommendations of the group, including an emphasis on terminology related to injury and repair processes for both clinical and preclinical studies, elucidation of pathophysiologic alterations of AKI, identification of potential treatment strategies, identification of patients predisposed to progression, and potential management strategies. PMID:26519085

  1. Renalase protects against ischemic AKI.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Thomas; Kim, Joo Yun; Kim, Mihwa; Wang, Peili; Tang, Lieqi; Baroni, Sara; D'Agati, Vivette D; Desir, Gary V

    2013-02-01

    Elevated levels of plasma catecholamines accompany ischemic AKI, possibly contributing the inflammatory response. Renalase, an amine oxidase secreted by the proximal tubule, degrades circulating catecholamines and reduces myocardial necrosis, suggesting that it may protect against renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Here, mice subjected to renal ischemia reperfusion injury had significantly lower levels of renalase in the plasma and kidney compared with sham-operated mice. Consistent with this, plasma NE levels increased significantly after renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Furthermore, renal tubular inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis were more severe and plasma catecholamine levels were higher in renalase-deficient mice subjected to renal ischemia reperfusion compared with wild-type mice. Administration of recombinant human renalase reduced plasma catecholamine levels and ameliorated ischemic AKI in wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that renalase protects against ischemic AKI by reducing renal tubular necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation, and that plasma renalase might be a biomarker for AKI. Recombinant renalase therapy may have potential for the prevention and treatment of AKI.

  2. The ABO Histo-Blood Group and AKI in Critically Ill Patients with Trauma or Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Holena, Daniel N.; Wu, Qufei; Nguyen, Ethan T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Lanken, Paul N.; Christie, Jason D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shashaty, Michael G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria. Results Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort. Conclusions Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility. PMID:26342043

  3. Pheniramine Maleate-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Aki: Is it Fatal?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, K; Reddy, M Mallikarjun; Bharathraj, M.Y; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Kushal, D.P

    2014-01-01

    Pheniramine maleate is an easily accessible, over-the-counterantihistaminic, which is frequently involved in overdoses. Pheniramine has antimuscarinic effect causing tachycardia, dilated pupils, urinary retention, and dry flushed skin, and decreased bowel sounds, confusion, mild increase in body temperature, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures at lethal doses. It has not been implicated as an important cause of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis causing AKI is rarely reported in the literature. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis in pheniramine maleate overdose which required hemodialysis. Since there is a lack of a specific antidote, treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. We report a fatal case of a young male with a very high dose of consumption of pheniramine maleate (4.077 g), which was complicated by seizures, respiratory depression, nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, and AKI. Despite hemodialysis, ventilator support, and other intensive supportive care, patient could not survive and death ensued due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. PMID:25948974

  4. Benefit of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism in AKI: Role of Vascular Smooth Muscle Rac1.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; André-Grégoire, Gwennan; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Lechner, Sebastian M; Cau, Jérôme; Prince, Sonia; Kolkhof, Peter; Loirand, Gervaise; Sauzeau, Vincent; Hauet, Thierry; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    AKI is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, there is no effective pharmacologic approach for treating or preventing AKI. In rodents, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We investigated the specific role of vascular MR in mediating AKI induced by IR. We also assessed the protective effect of MR antagonism in IR-induced AKI in the Large White pig, a model of human AKI. In mice, MR deficiency in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protected against kidney IR injury. MR blockade by the novel nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone, or genetic deletion of MR in SMCs associated with weaker oxidative stress production. Moreover, ischemic kidneys had higher levels of Rac1-GTP, required for NADPH oxidase activation, than sham control kidneys, and genetic deletion of Rac1 in SMCs protected against AKI. Furthermore, genetic deletion of MR in SMCs blunted the production of Rac1-GTP after IR. Pharmacologic inhibition of MR also prevented AKI induced by IR in the Large White pig. Altogether, we show that MR antagonism, or deletion of the MR gene in SMCs, limited the renal injury induced by IR through effects on Rac1-mediated MR signaling. The benefits of MR antagonism in the pig provide a rational basis for future clinical trials assessing the benefits of this approach in patients with IR-mediated AKI.

  5. Does AKI truly lead to CKD?

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Dena E; Coca, Steven G; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2012-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of CKD in recent observational studies. The presumption in the nephrology community is that this association represents a causal relationship. However, because of potential problems related to residual confounding (shared risk factors), ascertainment bias (sicker patients have more follow-up assessments), misclassification of exposure (problems with defining baseline kidney function and AKI representing a discrete event versus progression of renal disease), and misclassification of outcome (de novo CKD versus CKD progression), it is difficult to conclude with certainty that AKI is truly causal for CKD. In this review we highlight several of the Hill causality criteria to examine the existing evidence and point out the missing elements that preclude defining AKI as a cause of CKD in the general population. Only well-designed studies with rigorous assessment of kidney function in all participants (AKI and non-AKI) before and after the episode or hospitalization or randomized, controlled trials demonstrating that prevention or treatment of AKI reduces the incidence of subsequent CKD can clarify the causal nature of the AKI-CKD relationship.

  6. Urgent peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis catheter dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, there is a steady incident rate of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who require renal replacement therapy. Of these patients, approximately one-third have an "unplanned" or "urgent" start to dialysis. This can be a very challenging situation where patients have either not had adequate time for education and decision making regarding dialysis modality and appropriate dialysis access, or a decision was made and plans were altered due to unforeseen circumstances. Despite such unplanned starts, clinicians must still consider the patient's ESKD "life-plan", which includes the best initial dialysis modality and access to suit the patient's individual goals and their medical, social, logistic, and facility circumstances. This paper will discuss the considerations of peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis catheter access and hemodialysis and central venous catheter access in patients who require an urgent start to dialysis.

  7. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis in septic shock: Hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shakti Bedanta; Singh, Ratender Kumar; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Poddar, Banani; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the Study: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic shock has poor outcomes. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) is increasingly replacing continuous renal replacement therapy as the preferred modality in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). However, the essential aspects of hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy of SLED in septic shock AKI has been minimally studied. Patients and Methods: We describe hemodynamic tolerability using modified vasopressor index (VI) and vasopressor dependency (VD) and efficacy using a combination of Kt/v, correction of acidosis, electrolyte, and fluid overload. Adult ICU patients of septic shock in AKI requiring SLED were included in this study. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients of septic shock AKI requiring SLED were enrolled in the study. There were 74 nonsurvivors (NSs). Approximately, 56% (278/498) of the sessions in which vasopressors were required were studied. Metabolic acidosis (49%) was the predominant indication for the initiation of SLED in these patients. Baseline characteristics between survivors and NSs were comparable, except for age, severity scores, AKI stage, and coexisting illness. VI and VD prior to the initiation of SLED and delta VI and VD during SLED were significantly higher in NSs. Hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy of SLED was achievable only at lower vasopressor doses. Conclusion: VI, VD, and combination of Kt/v together with correction of acidosis, electrolyte, and fluid overload can be used to describe hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy of SLED in septic shock AKI. However, at higher vasopressor doses in septic shock, hemodynamic tolerability and efficacy of SLED requires further evidence. PMID:28149027

  8. Renal cortical pyruvate depletion during AKI.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Becker, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediary in energy metabolism and can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the fate of pyruvate during AKI remains unknown. Here, we assessed renal cortical pyruvate and its major determinants (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH], and H2O2 levels) in mice subjected to unilateral ischemia (15-60 minutes; 0-18 hours of vascular reflow) or glycerol-induced ARF. The fate of postischemic lactate, which can be converted back to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, was also addressed. Ischemia and glycerol each induced persistent pyruvate depletion. During ischemia, decreasing pyruvate levels correlated with increasing lactate levels. During early reperfusion, pyruvate levels remained depressed, but lactate levels fell below control levels, likely as a result of rapid renal lactate efflux. During late reperfusion and glycerol-induced AKI, pyruvate depletion corresponded with increased gluconeogenesis (pyruvate consumption). This finding was underscored by observations that pyruvate injection increased renal cortical glucose content in AKI but not normal kidneys. AKI decreased PDH levels, potentially limiting pyruvate to acetyl CoA conversion. Notably, pyruvate therapy mitigated the severity of AKI. This renoprotection corresponded with increases in cytoprotective heme oxygenase 1 and IL-10 mRNAs, selective reductions in proinflammatory mRNAs (e.g., MCP-1 and TNF-α), and improved tissue ATP levels. Paradoxically, pyruvate increased cortical H2O2 levels. We conclude that AKI induces a profound and persistent depletion of renal cortical pyruvate, which may induce additional injury.

  9. The Role of Time-Limited Trials in Dialysis Decision Making in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Jennifer S; Holley, Jean L

    2016-02-05

    Technologic advances, such as continuous RRT, provide lifesaving therapy for many patients. AKI in the critically ill patient, a fatal diagnosis in the past, is now often a survivable condition. Dialysis decision making for the critically ill patient with AKI is complex. What was once a question solely of survival now is nuanced by an individual's definition of quality of life, personal values, and short- and long-term prognoses. Clinical evaluation of AKI in the critically ill is multifaceted. Treatment decision making requires consideration of the natural evolution of the patient's AKI within the context of the global prognosis. Situations are often marked by prognostic uncertainty and clinical unknowns. In the face of these uncertainties, establishment of patient-directed therapies is imperative. A time-limited trial of continuous RRT in this setting is often appropriate but difficult to execute. Using patient preferences as a clinical guide, a proper time-limited trial requires assessment of prognosis, elicitation of patient values, strong communication skills, clear documentation, and often, appropriate integration of palliative care services. A well conducted time-limited trial can avoid interprofessional conflict and provide support for the patient, family, and staff.

  10. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis requiring dialysis associated with intermittent rifampicin use: case report.

    PubMed

    Gallieni, M; Braidotti, P; Cozzolino, M; Romagnoli, S; Carpani, P

    1999-07-01

    Rifampicin is one of the most effective antibiotics used for the treatment of tuberculosis and severe staphylococcal infections. Intermittent administration of high doses of rifampicin has been associated with frequent adverse reactions, including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, sometimes resulting in acute renal failure. We describe a case of rifampicin-associated acute renal failure, with biopsy findings of tubulointerstitial nephritis; inflammatory cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, which showed immunoreactivity for CD3 and CD5 (T lymphocytes) and for CD68 (macrophages). The patient presented with a very rapid systemic reaction to the offending drug and rapid deterioration of renal function, which required dialysis treatment. The response to rifampicin discontinuation was excellent: no further therapy was required, as renal function began to improve within several days and returned to normal values (serum creatinine 1.17 mg/dl) seven months after the onset of symptoms. When prescribing rifampicin the physician should investigate previous use of the drug, because re-exposure is a critical factor in predicting the possibility of drug-induced acute renal failure.

  11. Urinary NGAL to define AKI in asphyxiated infants.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with poor outcomes in the critically ill patient. The standard kidney function biomarker, serum creatinine, shows a demonstrable rise in concentration many hours to days after insult to the kidney. Thus, creatinine-based AKI diagnosis is likely delayed, rendering treatments to mitigate or prevent AKI ineffective. Neonatal AKI is further confounded by the fact that infant serum creatinine concentrations reflect maternal levels. The past 15 years has seen a massive research effort to identify early damage markers of AKI, with the hope that earlier "sub-clinical" AKI diagnosis can lead to earlier initiation of AKI treatment, or to adjustment of care to mitigate the adverse effects of AKI until renal function recovery occurs. One of the most promising urinary AKI biomarkers, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), has repeatedly performed well to predict AKI in many pediatric populations, including those post-cardiac surgery, critically ill mechanically ventilated children and children arriving to the emergency department. The study reported by Admani et al. uses NGAL not only to predict serum creatinine-based AKI, but also to define AKI to associate a Day 1 NGAL concentration above a specific threshold with clinical outcomes.

  12. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.

  13. Failed Tubule Recovery, AKI-CKD Transition, and Kidney Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Joel M.; Kriz, Wilhelm; Bidani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of AKI to CKD has major clinical significance. As reviewed here, recent studies show that a subpopulation of dedifferentiated, proliferating tubules recovering from AKI undergo pathologic growth arrest, fail to redifferentiate, and become atrophic. These abnormal tubules exhibit persistent, unregulated, and progressively increasing profibrotic signaling along multiple pathways. Paracrine products derived therefrom perturb normal interactions between peritubular capillary endothelium and pericyte-like fibroblasts, leading to myofibroblast transformation, proliferation, and fibrosis as well as capillary disintegration and rarefaction. Although signals from injured endothelium and inflammatory/immune cells also contribute, tubule injury alone is sufficient to produce the interstitial pathology required for fibrosis. Localized hypoxia produced by microvascular pathology may also prevent tubule recovery. However, fibrosis is not intrinsically progressive, and microvascular pathology develops strictly around damaged tubules; thus, additional deterioration of kidney structure after the transition of AKI to CKD requires new acute injury or other mechanisms of progression. Indeed, experiments using an acute-on-chronic injury model suggest that additional loss of parenchyma caused by failed repair of AKI in kidneys with prior renal mass reduction triggers hemodynamically mediated processes that damage glomeruli to cause progression. Continued investigation of these pathologic mechanisms should reveal options for preventing renal disease progression after AKI. PMID:25810494

  14. Maternal, fetal and renal outcomes of pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury requiring dialysis.

    PubMed

    Krishna, A; Singh, R; Prasad, N; Gupta, A; Bhadauria, D; Kaul, A; Sharma, R K; Kapoor, D

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury (PAKI) is encountered frequently in developing countries. We evaluated the maternal, fetal and renal outcomes in women with PAKI who needed at least one session of dialysis. Of the total of 98 cases (mean age 28.85 ± 5.13 years; mean parity 2.65 ± 1.28) of PAKI, the most common cause of PAKI was postabortal sepsis. Eighteen patients died; those with oligoanuria, sepsis and central nervous system (CNS) involvement were at greater risk of mortality. The relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality was lower after with full-term delivery (RR: 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.96, P = 0.02) compared to preterm delivery. Of the 80 surviving patients, 60 (75%) patients achieved complete recovery of renal function at the end of 3 months; and of the remaining 14 had presumed (n = 4) or, biopsy-proven (n = 10) acute patchy cortical necrosis. The RR of non-recovery of renal function was high (RR: 24.7, 95% CI: 3.4- 179.5) in patients who did not recover at 6 weeks. Of the 14 patients with cortical necrosis, 3 (21.42%) became independent of dialysis at 6 months. PAKI patients should be watched for dialysis independency for 6 months.

  15. Acute Kidney Injury Treated with Dialysis outside the Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Observational Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger-Mähr, Hannelore; Zitt, Emanuel; Lhotta, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU) are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention. Methods We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015. Data on comorbid conditions, renal function and drug therapy prior to AKI-D, and possible causal events were collected. Patients were grouped into those with renal hypoperfusion as the predominant cause of AKI-D (hemodynamic group) and those with other causes (non-hemodynamic group). Results During 66 months 128 patients (57% male, mean age 69.3 years) were treated. AKI-D was community-acquired in 70.3%. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (62.5%), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (58.9%), coronary artery disease (CAD) (46.1%), diabetes (35.9%) and heart failure (34.1%). Most patients were prescribed diuretics (61.7%) and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RASI) (57.8%); 46.1% had a combination of both. In the 88 patients with hemodynamic AKI-D (68.8%) the most frequent initiating events were diarrhea (39.8%), infections (17.0%) and acute heart failure (13.6%). In the 40 patients with non-hemodynamic AKI-D (31.2%) interstitial nephritis (n = 15) was the prominent diagnosis. Patients with hemodynamic AKI-D were older (72.6 vs. 62.1 years, p = 0.001), suffered more often from CKD (68.2% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.003), CAD (54.5% vs. 27.5%, p = 0.004) and diabetes (42.0% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.033), and were more frequently on diuretics (75.0% vs. 32.5%, p<0.001), RASI (67.0% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.002) or their combination (58.0% vs. 20.0%, p<0

  16. Classifying AKI by Urine Output versus Serum Creatinine Level.

    PubMed

    Kellum, John A; Sileanu, Florentina E; Murugan, Raghavan; Lucko, Nicole; Shaw, Andrew D; Clermont, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist.

  17. The Allient dialysis system.

    PubMed

    Ash, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    The Allient is a dialysis system that combines various technologies to allow dialysis to be performed at sites outside of dialysis units (intensive care unit [ICU] or home) with ease and safety. A sorbent column regenerates dialysate, removing toxins and providing ultrapure dialysate from only 6 liters of tap water. The use of the sorbent column eliminates the need for costly and complex water purification systems. The Pulsar Blood Movement System provides blood flow at constant negative or positive pressure through single-lumen or dual-lumen accesses, maximizing blood flow rate while eliminating bothersome pressure alarms. Ultrasonic flow monitors control the operation of the pump and ensure adequate blood flow during each dialysis treatment. A completely disposable blood tubing and dialysate circuit eliminates the need for sterilization of the machine. The Allient should make dialysis in the ICU or home setting much more practical, reducing training requirements and increasing safety.

  18. Bridging Translation by Improving Preclinical Study Design in AKI.

    PubMed

    de Caestecker, Mark; Humphreys, Ben D; Liu, Kathleen D; Fissell, William H; Cerda, Jorge; Nolin, Thomas D; Askenazi, David; Mour, Girish; Harrell, Frank E; Pullen, Nick; Okusa, Mark D; Faubel, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive research, no therapeutic interventions have been shown to prevent AKI, accelerate recovery of AKI, or reduce progression of AKI to CKD in patients. This failure in translation has led investigators to speculate that the animal models being used do not predict therapeutic responses in humans. Although this issue continues to be debated, an important concern that has not been addressed is whether improvements in preclinical study design can be identified that might also increase the likelihood of translating basic AKI research into clinical practice using the current models. In this review, we have taken an evidence-based approach to identify common weaknesses in study design and reporting in preclinical AKI research that may contribute to the poor translatability of the findings. We focused on use of N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced AKI and use of erythropoietin for the prevention of AKI, two therapeutic approaches that have been extensively studied in clinical trials. On the basis of our findings, we identified five areas for improvement in preclinical study design and reporting. These suggested and preliminary guidelines may help improve the quality of preclinical research for AKI drug development.

  19. Bridging Translation by Improving Preclinical Study Design in AKI

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Ben D.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Fissell, William H.; Cerda, Jorge; Nolin, Thomas D.; Askenazi, David; Mour, Girish; Harrell, Frank E.; Pullen, Nick; Okusa, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, no therapeutic interventions have been shown to prevent AKI, accelerate recovery of AKI, or reduce progression of AKI to CKD in patients. This failure in translation has led investigators to speculate that the animal models being used do not predict therapeutic responses in humans. Although this issue continues to be debated, an important concern that has not been addressed is whether improvements in preclinical study design can be identified that might also increase the likelihood of translating basic AKI research into clinical practice using the current models. In this review, we have taken an evidence-based approach to identify common weaknesses in study design and reporting in preclinical AKI research that may contribute to the poor translatability of the findings. We focused on use of N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced AKI and use of erythropoietin for the prevention of AKI, two therapeutic approaches that have been extensively studied in clinical trials. On the basis of our findings, we identified five areas for improvement in preclinical study design and reporting. These suggested and preliminary guidelines may help improve the quality of preclinical research for AKI drug development. PMID:26538634

  20. Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the “Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative,” dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420

  1. Dialysis - hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    Artificial kidneys - hemodialysis; Dialysis; Renal replacement therapy - hemodialysis; End-stage renal disease - hemodialysis; Kidney failure - hemodialysis; Renal failure - hemodialysis; Chronic kidney disease - hemodialysis

  2. Predictors for nephrology outpatient care and recurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after an in-hospital AKI episode.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingyang; Iqbal, Sameena

    2014-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased long-term risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and mortality. Nephrology care following discharge from hospital may improve survival through prevention of recurrent AKI events. In this study, we examined the factors that were associated with outpatient nephrology follow-up after the development of AKI on patients who had a nephrology in-hospital consultation and were discharged from McGill University Health Centre between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. The associated factors for AKI-free survival postdischarge were assessed applying multivariate Cox hazard proportional models. Of 170 patients, only 22% of the AKI admissions studied were booked with nephrology follow-up after discharge. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of outpatient nephrology care postdischarge was 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-3.56) for AKI-free survival postdischarge. The adjusted HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.01-4.12) when we adjusted for follow-up with other medical clinics, significant stage 4 and stage 5 chronic kidney disease and diabetes status. Patients with less comorbidities and higher serum creatinine on discharge received outpatient nephrology care. Nephrology outpatient care is associated with decreased risk of recurrence of AKI after discharge from hospital.

  3. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: relationships with insulin requirement.

    PubMed

    Wong, T Y; Chan, J C; Szeto, C C; Leung, C B; Li, P K

    1999-09-01

    Although glycemic control has an important impact on the clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes undergoing dialysis, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between glucose metabolism and clinical parameters in these patients. In this study, we compared a cohort of 48 patients with type II diabetes undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with 84 age- and sex-matched patients with type II diabetes with similar disease duration but normal renal function. Compared with those with normal renal function, patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing CAPD had greater serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (median, 57.4 U/L; range, 33.5 to 100.0 U/L v 46.9 U/L; range, 11.6 to 111.2 U/L; P < 0.005), fasting C-peptide (median, 9.1 ng/mL; range, 0.9 to 30.0 ng/mL v 2.2 ng/mL; range, 0.2 to 20.3 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) and triglyceride levels, and lower serum albumin concentrations. Among the patients undergoing CAPD, there was a preponderance of men in the insulin-treated group. Insulin-treated patients also had greater plasma albumin levels and body weights and lower fasting serum C-peptide levels (2.81 +/- 1.77 v 3.12 +/- 2.04 ng/mL; analysis of variance, P = 0.007 adjusted for fasting glucose concentration). Multivariate analysis showed duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level, and body weight were independent determinants of insulin requirement in patients undergoing CAPD. The daily insulin dosage required was related to the duration of diabetes (r = 0.5; P = 0.007). In summary, among patients with end-stage renal failure, insulin-treated patients had greater body weights and plasma albumin levels but lower cholesterol levels. Plasma C-peptide concentration and duration of diabetes were the main determinants of insulin requirement, reflecting a decrease in beta-cell reserve, whereas the daily insulin dose correlated mainly with body weight, HbA(1c) level, and duration of diabetes. Kt/V had no effect on insulin resistance or

  4. Extracorporeal light chain elimination: high cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis parallel to chemotherapy allows for a high proportion of renal recovery in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Nils; Denecke, Barbara; Guthoff, Martina; Oehrlein, Katharina; Kanz, Lothar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weisel, Katja C

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and strongly affects prognosis, with particularly poor outcomes in patients requiring hemodialysis. Introduction of the novel therapeutic agents to MM therapy has improved myeloma response and renal outcome. This case series reviews the efficacy of combined systemic and extracorporeal therapy to further optimize time to light chain (serum-free light chain (sFLC)) reduction and renal recovery in MM patients with dialysis-dependent AKI (n = 19). High cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC removal was initiated in parallel to chemotherapy. Combined therapy resulted in early sFLC response after a median of 13 (range 4-48) days and 6 (3-22) HCO hemodialysis sessions. Time to sFLC response was shorter in patients recovering renal function. Median time to dialysis independence was 15 (4-64) days. By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained renal recovery was achieved in 73.7% (77.8% adjusted for death) of patients. In multivariate analysis, duration of AKI prior to initiation of therapy was an independent predictor of renal functional outcome. Combining HCO hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC elimination and effective chemotherapy is a novel treatment strategy allowing for early and sustained sFLC reduction and a high proportion of renal recovery in these patients. Timely diagnosis and onset of therapy is essential for improving renal outcome.

  5. Nutrition Support among Critically Ill Children with AKI

    PubMed Central

    Akcan-Arikan, Ayse; Orellana, Renán A.; Coss-Bu, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Critically ill children are at high risk of underfeeding and AKI, which may lead to further nutritional deficiencies. This study aimed to determine the adequacy of nutrition support during the first 5 days of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A chart review of pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric ICU for >72 hours between August 2007 and March 2008 was conducted. Patients were classified as having no AKI versus AKI by modified pediatric RIFLE criteria. All nutrition was analyzed. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated by the Schofield equation and protein needs by American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines. Results Of the 167 patients, 102 were male and 65 were female (median age 1.4 years). Using the RIFLE criteria, 102 (61%) patients had no AKI, whereas 44 (26%) were classified as category R (risk), 12 (7%) as category I (injury), and 9 (5%) as category F (failure). The median 5-day energy intake was lower relative to estimated BMR. Overall protein provision (19%) was lower than energy provision (55%) compared with estimated needs (P<0.001). I/F patients were more likely to be fasted versus receiving enteral/parenteral nutrition (n=813 patient days) and to receive <90% of BMR (n=832 patient days) than No AKI/R patients. Conclusions Underfeeding, common in critically ill children, was accentuated in AKI. Protein underfeeding was greater than energy underfeeding in the first 5 days of PICU stay. Efforts should be made to provide adequate nutrition in ICU patients with AKI. PMID:23293125

  6. Inflammation in AKI: Current Understanding, Key Questions, and Knowledge Gaps.

    PubMed

    Rabb, Hamid; Griffin, Matthew D; McKay, Dianne B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Pickkers, Peter; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a complex biologic response that is essential for eliminating microbial pathogens and repairing tissue after injury. AKI associates with intrarenal and systemic inflammation; thus, improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response has high potential for identifying effective therapies to prevent or ameliorate AKI. In the past decade, much knowledge has been generated about the fundamental mechanisms of inflammation. Experimental work in small animal models has revealed many details of the inflammatory response that occurs within the kidney after typical causes of AKI, including insights into the molecular signals released by dying cells, the role of pattern recognition receptors, the diverse subtypes of resident and recruited immune cells, and the phased transition from destructive to reparative inflammation. Although this expansion of the basic knowledge base has increased the number of mechanistically relevant targets of intervention, progress in developing therapies that improve AKI outcomes by modulation of inflammation remains slow. In this article, we summarize the most important recent developments in understanding the inflammatory mechanisms of AKI, highlight key limitations of the commonly used animal models and clinical trial designs that may prevent successful clinical application, and suggest priority approaches for research toward clinical translation in this area.

  7. [A case of AKI-caused minimal change nephrotic syndrome with concomitant pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Masaru; Hamauchi, Aki; Yasunaga, Tomoe; Kurata, Satoshi; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Ito, Kenji; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Hisano, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    A twenty-year-old man complaining of chest pain was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome complicated with pleural effusion and ascites. Despite treatment with antibiotics, his fever and high inflammatory reaction persisted. After hospitalization, his urine volume decreased and renal function had deteriorated. As he was suffering from dyspnea, hemodialysis was performed together with chest drainage. His pleural effusion was exudative, and IVIG treatment was added to the antibiotic treatment. He was diagnosed as suspected developed minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) and administered prednisolone intravenously. His renal function ameliorated as a result of this treatment, enabling him to withdraw from hemodialysis. Inflammatory reaction gradually decreased and his general condition improved. The result of a renal biopsy examination carried out after the hemodialysis treatment confirmed MCNS, which suggested that MCNS had induced acute kidney injury (AKI) atypically in this case. Generally AKI is not induced by MCNS in youth, but it may occur under severe inflammatory conditions. Physicians should be aware that MCNS in young patients may lead to the development of AKI requiring hemodialysis treatment.

  8. Prieto receives 2010 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berozar, Gregory C.; Prieto, Germán A.

    2011-06-01

    Germán Prieto received the 2010 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes the scientific accomplishments of a young scientist who makes outstanding contributions to the advancement of seismology.

  9. Dialysis - peritoneal

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some people feel more comfortable having a health care provider handle their treatment. You and your provider can decide what is best for you. TYPES OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PD gives you more flexibility because you do not have to go to ...

  10. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  11. Phosphate control in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-10-04

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.

  12. Forward osmosis process for dialysis fluid regeneration.

    PubMed

    Talaat, Khaled Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, 38% of the spent dialysis fluid water was reclaimed by a forward osmosis process through a cellulose triacetate membrane. The simplicity of forward osmosis and its minimal external energy requirements may allow the construction of a small bulk device that can reclaim a considerable portion of the water used in the patient's dialysis process. For developing an acceptable ambulatory dialysis system, decreasing the bulk of the fluid and equipment carried on the patient is essential. Forward osmosis may feasibly be used for dialysis fluid regeneration in ambulatory dialysis systems.

  13. Prescribing for patients on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Brendan; Jones, Ceridwen; Saunders, John

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered in patients with renal impairment who require dialysis. Some drugs are contraindicated. The drug’s clearance and therapeutic index determine if a dose adjustment is needed. A lower dose or less frequent dosing may be required. Consult a reference source or the patient’s nephrologist before prescribing. Start at a low dose and increase gradually. If possible give once-daily drugs after dialysis. PMID:27041803

  14. Administration of chemotherapy in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, James C; Craft, Paul S

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of patients on dialysis has increased and these patients present a challenge for chemotherapy administration when diagnosed with cancer. A consensus on the dosage and timing of different chemotherapeutic agents in relation to dialysis has not been established. We describe the pattern of care and treatment outcome for cancer patients on dialysis in our institution. The dataset from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry of patients on dialysis who had a diagnosis of cancer was obtained and matched to the pharmacy records in our institution to identify patients who had received chemotherapy while on dialysis. Relevant clinical information including details of the dialysis regimen, chemotherapy administration and adverse events was extracted for analysis. Between July 1999 and July 2014, 21 patients on dialysis were included for analysis. Five (23.8%) received chemotherapy, most of which was administered before dialysis sessions. As a result of adverse events, one patient discontinued treatment; two other patients required dose reduction or treatment delay. Chemotherapy administration was feasible in cancer patients on dialysis, but chemotherapy usage was low. Better understanding of the altered pharmacokinetics in patients on dialysis may improve chemotherapy access and practice.

  15. Fully automated dialysis system based on the central dialysis fluid delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Hideki; Moriishi, Misaki; Sato, Takashi; Taoka, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The fully automated dialysis system (FADS) was developed as an improvement over previous patient monitors used in the treatment of hemodialysis, with the aim of standardizing and promoting labor-saving in such treatment. This system uses backfiltration dialysis fluid to perform priming, blood rinse back and rapid fluid replenishment, and causes guiding of blood into the dialyzer by the drainage pump for ultrafiltration. This requires that the dialysis fluid used be purified to a high level. The central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS) combines the process of the creation and supply of dialysis water and dialysis fluid to achieve a level of purity equivalent with ultrapure dialysis fluid. FADS has the further advantages of greater efficiency and streamlined operation, reducing human error and the risk of infection without requiring the storage or disposal of normal saline solution. The simplification of hemodialysis allows for greater frequency of dialysis or extended dialysis, enabling treatment to be provided in line with the patient's particular situation. FADS thus markedly improves the reliability, safety and standardization of dialysis procedures while ensuring labor-saving in these procedures, making it of particular utility for institutions dealing with dialysis on a large scale.

  16. Trace elements in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  17. Tsai Receives 2012 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-10-01

    Victor Tsai is the well-deserved winner of the 2012 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award. He received his bachelor's degree from the California Institute of Technology, then went to Harvard for graduate school, where he received his Ph.D. in 2009. He did a Mendenhall postdoc at the U.S. Geological Survey in Golden, Colo., for 2 years, then returned to Caltech as an assistant professor last year. Victor has worked on an incredible range of topics, including the 2004 and 2012 Sumatra earthquakes, glacial earthquakes and more general problems of glacier physics, microseism generation and ambient noise cross-correlation theory, river turbulence, and tsunami modeling. All of his research is elegant and theoretically rigorous. Victor has 26 papers to date, including 7 this year alone. He already has a substantial body of work, which promises an outstanding career.

  18. Tsai Receives 2012 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2013-10-01

    I am honored to receive the Aki Award, but I would not be receiving this award without the benefit of many collaborations and inspirations as well as extensive mentoring and infrastructural, personal, and financial support. Although there are more individuals to thank than can be listed here, special thanks are due to Jim Rice, Hiroo Kanamori, Dave Stevenson, and Göran Ekström, who have all been irreplaceable mentors. I am also indebted to many other teachers, colleagues, and friends and to my parents, who have inspired in me a curiosity about the world, taught me the importance of hard work and persistence, supported my endeavors, and provided unimaginably rich opportunities throughout my life.

  19. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.

  20. AKI and Long-Term Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Wong, Christopher X; Farkouh, Michael; Altman, Douglas G; Hopewell, Sally; Emdin, Connor A; Hunn, Benjamin H

    2017-01-01

    AKI associates with increased long-term risk of mortality, but the prognostic significance of AKI in terms of long-term cardiovascular disease remains unconfirmed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether AKI associates with long-term cardiovascular disease. We included cohort studies that examined adults with and without AKI and reported a multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) for the association between AKI and cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and disease-specific events: congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke. Twenty-five studies involving 254,408 adults (55,150 with AKI) were included. AKI associated with an 86% and a 38% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events, respectively ([RR 1.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.72 to 2.01] and [RR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.55], respectively). For disease-specific events, AKI associated with a 58% increased risk of heart failure (RR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.72) and a 40% increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (RR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.59). The elevated risk of heart failure and acute myocardial infarction persisted in subgroup analyses on the basis of AKI severity and the proportion of adults with baseline ischemic heart disease. Finally, AKI was associated with a 15% increased risk of stroke (RR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.28). In conclusion, AKI associates with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events, particularly heart failure and acute myocardial infarction.

  1. [Anemia in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2006-01-01

    A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron

  2. First Post-Operative Urinary Kidney Injury Biomarkers and Association with the Duration of AKI in the TRIBE-AKI Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Coca, Steven G.; Nadkarni, Girish N.; Garg, Amit X.; Koyner, Jay; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; McArthur, Eric; Shlipak, Michael G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that assessment of the duration of AKI, in addition to magnitude of rise in creatinine alone, adds prognostic information for long-term survival. We evaluated whether post-operative kidney injury biomarkers in urine collected immediately after cardiac surgery associate with duration of serum creatinine elevation. Methods We studied 1199 adults undergoing cardiac surgery in a prospective cohort study (TRIBE-AKI) and examined the association between the levels of five urinary biomarkers individually at 0–6 hours after surgery: interleukin-18 (IL-18), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and albumin with duration of serum creatinine-based AKIN criteria for AKI (0 (no AKI), 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 days). Results Overall, 407 (34%) patients had at least stage 1 AKI, of whom 251 (61.7%) had duration of 1–2 days, 118 (28.9%) had duration 3–6 days, and 38 (9.3%) had duration of ≥7 days. Higher concentrations of all biomarkers (per log increase) were independently associated with a greater odds of a longer duration of AKI; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using ordinal logistic regression were the following: IL-18: 1.22, 1.13–1.32; KIM-1: 1.36, 1.21–1.52; albumin 1.20, 1.09–1.32; L-FABP 1.11, 1.04–1.19; NGAL 1.06, 1.00–1.14). AKI duration of 7 days or longer was associated with a 5-fold adjusted risk of mortality at 3 years. Conclusions There was an independent dose-response association between urinary levels of injury biomarkers immediately after cardiac surgery and longer duration of AKI. Duration of AKI was also associated with long term mortality. Future studies should explore the potential utility of these urinary kidney injury biomarkers to enrich enrollment of patients at risk for longer duration of AKI into trials of interventions to prevent or treat post-operative AKI. PMID:27537050

  3. Critical Care Dialysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Organon Teknika Corporation's REDY 2000 dialysis machine employs technology originally developed under NASA contract by Marquardt Corporation. The chemical process developed during the project could be applied to removing toxic waste from used dialysis fluid. This discovery led to the development of a kidney dialysis machine using "sorbent" dialysis, a method of removing urea from human blood by treating a dialysate solution. The process saves electricity and, because the need for a continuous water supply is eliminated, the patient has greater freedom.

  4. Cultural Artifacts: Using "Sylvia and Aki" for Opening up Authoring Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Minda Morren; Ynostroza, Adeli; Fránquiz, María E.; Curiel, Lucía Cárdenas

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms of teachers who participated in Proyecto Bilingüe, a cohort-based master's degree program, used the historical novel, "Sylvia and Aki". The research question was: What spaces for authoring were created when using "Sylvia and Aki" in the figured worlds of bilingual elementary classrooms? The first theme in relation to…

  5. Acute kidney injury in 2013: Breaking barriers for biomarkers in AKI--progress at last.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dinna N; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2014-02-01

    In 2013, four important papers were published that provide new insights on biomarkers in acute kidney injury (AKI). These studies demonstrate the potential for biomarkers to aid clinicians in improving the therapeutic management of patients with AKI and potentially improve patient outcomes.

  6. Ferroptosis, but Not Necroptosis, Is Important in Nephrotoxic Folic Acid-Induced AKI.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Poveda, Jonay; Carrasco, Susana; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Ruiz Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Linkermann, Andreas; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana B

    2017-01-01

    AKI is histologically characterized by necrotic cell death and inflammation. Diverse pathways of regulated necrosis have been reported to contribute to AKI, but the molecular regulators involved remain unclear. We explored the relative contributions of ferroptosis and necroptosis to folic acid (FA)-induced AKI in mice. FA-AKI in mice associates with lipid peroxidation and downregulation of glutathione metabolism proteins, features that are typical of ferroptotic cell death. We show that ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), an inhibitor of ferroptosis, preserved renal function and decreased histologic injury, oxidative stress, and tubular cell death in this model. With respect to the immunogenicity of ferroptosis, Fer-1 prevented the upregulation of IL-33, an alarmin linked to necroptosis, and other chemokines and cytokines and prevented macrophage infiltration and Klotho downregulation. In contrast, the pancaspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk did not protect against FA-AKI. Additionally, although FA-AKI resulted in increased protein expression of the necroptosis mediators receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage domain-like protein (MLKL), targeting necroptosis with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 or genetic deficiency of RIPK3 or MLKL did not preserve renal function. Indeed, compared with wild-type mice, MLKL knockout mice displayed more severe AKI. However, RIPK3 knockout mice with AKI had less inflammation than their wild-type counterparts, and this effect associated with higher IL-10 concentration and regulatory T cell-to-leukocyte ratio in RIPK3 knockout mice. These data suggest that ferroptosis is the primary cause of FA-AKI and that immunogenicity secondary to ferroptosis may further worsen the damage, although necroptosis-related proteins may have additional roles in AKI.

  7. [The DIALYSIS AMICA project].

    PubMed

    Marchionni, B

    2000-01-01

    The denominated Plan "DIALYSIS FRIEND" organized in the region March in the 1998, has seen involved almost all the centers of Dialysis of the region. He has the purpose of furnish the sanitary operators the tools for face the varied strife-torn situations in first person and emotional that they present themselves in an U.O. to "high tension" like result be the Dialysis and the "particularity" personality of whom affection from chronic uraemia comes subjected to dialysis. Besides through the identification of a "profile of fitness" furnishes data on the compliance of the person dialyzed or in pre-dialysis to the different techniques of dialysis. The share of the doctor, of a chief ward, and of any nurses of the U.O. of Nefro/Dialysis of Fano to such plan has resulted to be a very significance experience. The participants to the course tell their experience.

  8. Potential use of biomarkers in acute kidney injury: report and summary of recommendations from the 10th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick T; Mehta, Ravindra L; Shaw, Andrew; Ronco, Claudio; Endre, Zoltan; Kellum, John A; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Cruz, Dinna; Ince, Can; Okusa, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been considerable progress in the discovery and development of biomarkers of kidney disease, and several have now been evaluated in different clinical settings. Although there is a growing literature on the performance of various biomarkers in clinical studies, there is limited information on how these biomarkers would be utilized by clinicians to manage patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Recognizing this gap in knowledge, we convened the 10th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative meeting to review the literature on biomarkers in AKI and their application in clinical practice. We asked an international group of experts to assess four broad areas for biomarker utilization for AKI: risk assessment, diagnosis, and staging; differential diagnosis; prognosis and management; and novel physiological techniques including imaging. This article provides a summary of the key findings and recommendations of the group, to equip clinicians to effectively use biomarkers in AKI.

  9. Schmandt Receives 2013 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2014-09-01

    I appreciate Karen's generous words, and I am sincerely honored to receive this year's Aki Award. I would like to acknowledge that my research has been enabled by excellent mentors and colleagues and by a unique community of scientists. I was particularly lucky to wander into Gene Humphrey's office as a first-year graduate student with a curiosity about western U.S. tectonics and seismology. Gene always matched my energy and enthusiasm and allowed me to find my path. Later, as a postdoc, I benefited from a similarly flexible and supportive environment in the Seismo Lab at Caltech. I also feel fortunate to be part of the seismology community. It is a special community that will strive to collect a world-class data set, such as the EarthScope seismic data, and then openly put those data in the hands of any eager scientist. This unselfish and open-minded perspective is a great motivation for me, and I expect it is for many young scientists. I am excited for the future as a member of the seismology community.

  10. AKI transition of care: a potential opportunity to detect and prevent CKD.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L; Jaber, Bertrand L; Faubel, Sarah; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2013-03-01

    The incidence rate of AKI is increasing across the spectrum of hospitalized children and adults. Given the increased morbidity and mortality associated with AKI, significant research effort has been appropriately focused on standardizing AKI definitions, identifying risk factors, and discovering and validating novel, earlier structural biomarkers of kidney injury. In addition, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that AKI is a risk factor for the future development or accelerated progression of CKD. Unfortunately, prospective observational studies have not consistently followed survivors of episodes of AKI for longitudinal outcomes after hospital discharge, which could lead to ascertainment bias in terms of over- or underestimation of CKD development. Furthermore, data show that clinical follow-up of AKI survivors is low. This lack of systematic study and clinical follow-up represents a potential missed opportunity to prevent chronic disease after an acute illness and improve outcomes. Therefore, prospective study of transitions of care after episodes of AKI is needed to identify which patients are at risk for CKD development and to optimally target therapeutic interventions.

  11. Health status, renal function, and quality of life after multiorgan failure and acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faulhaber-Walter, Robert; Scholz, Sebastian; Haller, Herrmann; Kielstein, Jan T; Hafer, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in need of renal replacement therapy (RRT) may have a protracted and often incomplete rehabilitation. Their long-term outcome has rarely been investigated. Study design Survivors of the HANnover Dialysis OUTcome (HANDOUT) study were evaluated after 5 years for survival, health status, renal function, and quality of life (QoL). The HANDOUT study had examinded mortality and renal recovery of patients with AKI receiving either standard extendend or intensified dialysis after multi organ failure. Results One hundred fifty-six former HANDOUT participants were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 56.4%. Five-year survival after AKI/RRT was 40.1% (86.5% if discharged from hospital). Main causes of death were cardiovascular complications and sepsis. A total of 19 survivors presented to the outpatient department of our clinic and had good renal recovery (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 72.5±30 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean proteinuria 89±84 mg/d). One person required maintenance dialysis. Seventy-nine percent of the patients had a pathological kidney sonomorphology. The Charlson comorbidity score was 2.2±1.4 and adjusted for age 3.3±2.1 years. Numbers of comorbid conditions averaged 2.38±1.72 per patient (heart failure [52%] > chronic kidney disease/myocardial infarction [each 29%]). Median 36-item short form health survey (SF-36™) index was 0.657 (0.69 physical health/0.66 mental health). Quality-adjusted life-years after 5 years were 3.365. Conclusion Mortality after severe AKI is higher than short-term prospective studies show, and morbidity is significant. Kidney recovery as well as general health remains incomplete. Reduction of QoL is minor, and social rehabilitation is very good. Affectivity is heterogeneous, but most patients experience emotional well-being. In summary, AKI in critically ill patients leads to incomplete rehabilitation but acceptable QoL after 5 years. PMID:27284261

  12. Establishing a successful home dialysis program.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Buxo, Jose A; Crawford-Bonadio, Terri L; St Pierre, Donna; Ingram, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    The renewed interest in home dialysis therapies makes it pertinent to address the essentials of establishing and running a successful home dialysis program. The success of a home program depends on a clear understanding of the structure of the home program team, the physical plant, educational tool requirements, reimbursement sources and a business plan. A good command of the technical and economic aspects is important, but the primary drivers for the creation and growth of a home dialysis program are the confidence and commitment of the nephrological team.

  13. [Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) will remain the most widely adopted dialysis modality in the critically ill].

    PubMed

    Morabito, S; Pistolesi, V; Cibelli, L; Pierucci, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last 10-15 years, user-friendly continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines have played a major role in increasing the popularity of these techniques in intensive care settings. At present it is not clear which modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is optimal for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). The choice between different modalities should therefore not be based on unproven ''outcome'' advantages but on evaluation of the clinical picture and logistical circumstances. In hypercatabolic patients, CRRT and sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) have been shown to provide similar metabolic control, but uncontrolled studies suggested a better hemodynamic stability during CRRT, intended as a higher mean arterial pressure and/or less frequent need to increase inotropic or vasoactive drugs. The incidence of hemorrhagic complications is higher with CRRT; however, in particular conditions, such as in patients at high risk of bleeding, CRRT can be performed without anticoagulation or with the use of alternative anticoagulation protocols. Among the different modalities, regional anticoagulation with citrate appears to be the most promising, and the continuous development of simplified protocols for citrate CRRT might facilitate the more extensive use of this technique in the near future. The presence of a mismatch between prescribed and delivered dialysis dose is frequently reported as an important drawback of CRRT. However, data from a recent study designed to evaluate the prognostic impact of the intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with AKI showed that the target Kt/V was obtained in only 67-69% of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) sessions. Data from several studies comparing the costs of different RRT modalities showed that CRRT is more expensive than IHD or SLED. However, the costs related to SLED can fluctuate within a wide range and in particular settings the higher costs of CRRT could be partially

  14. Phosphorus balance with daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kooienga, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.

  15. Furosemide Stress Test and Biomarkers for the Prediction of AKI Severity

    PubMed Central

    Koyner, Jay L.; Davison, Danielle L.; Brasha-Mitchell, Ermira; Chalikonda, Divya M.; Arthur, John M.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Tumlin, James A.; Trevino, Sharon A.; Bennett, Michael R.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Seneff, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians have access to limited tools that predict which patients with early AKI will progress to more severe stages. In early AKI, urine output after a furosemide stress test (FST), which involves intravenous administration of furosemide (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg), can predict the development of stage 3 AKI. We measured several AKI biomarkers in our previously published cohort of 77 patients with early AKI who received an FST and evaluated the ability of FST urine output and biomarkers to predict the development of stage 3 AKI (n=25 [32.5%]), receipt of RRT (n=11 [14.2%]), or inpatient mortality (n=16 [20.7%]). With an area under the curve (AUC)±SEM of 0.87±0.09 (P<0.0001), 2-hour urine output after FST was significantly better than each urinary biomarker tested in predicting progression to stage 3 (P<0.05). FST urine output was the only biomarker to significantly predict RRT (0.86±0.08; P=0.001). Regardless of the end point, combining FST urine output with individual biomarkers using logistic regression did not significantly improve risk stratification (ΔAUC, P>0.10 for all). When FST urine output was assessed in patients with increased biomarker levels, the AUC for progression to stage 3 improved to 0.90±0.06 and the AUC for receipt of RRT improved to 0.91±0.08. Overall, in the setting of early AKI, FST urine output outperformed biochemical biomarkers for prediction of progressive AKI, need for RRT, and inpatient mortality. Using a FST in patients with increased biomarker levels improves risk stratification, although further research is needed. PMID:25655065

  16. Furosemide Stress Test and Biomarkers for the Prediction of AKI Severity.

    PubMed

    Koyner, Jay L; Davison, Danielle L; Brasha-Mitchell, Ermira; Chalikonda, Divya M; Arthur, John M; Shaw, Andrew D; Tumlin, James A; Trevino, Sharon A; Bennett, Michael R; Kimmel, Paul L; Seneff, Michael G; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-08-01

    Clinicians have access to limited tools that predict which patients with early AKI will progress to more severe stages. In early AKI, urine output after a furosemide stress test (FST), which involves intravenous administration of furosemide (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg), can predict the development of stage 3 AKI. We measured several AKI biomarkers in our previously published cohort of 77 patients with early AKI who received an FST and evaluated the ability of FST urine output and biomarkers to predict the development of stage 3 AKI (n=25 [32.5%]), receipt of RRT (n=11 [14.2%]), or inpatient mortality (n=16 [20.7%]). With an area under the curve (AUC)±SEM of 0.87±0.09 (P<0.0001), 2-hour urine output after FST was significantly better than each urinary biomarker tested in predicting progression to stage 3 (P<0.05). FST urine output was the only biomarker to significantly predict RRT (0.86±0.08; P=0.001). Regardless of the end point, combining FST urine output with individual biomarkers using logistic regression did not significantly improve risk stratification (ΔAUC, P>0.10 for all). When FST urine output was assessed in patients with increased biomarker levels, the AUC for progression to stage 3 improved to 0.90±0.06 and the AUC for receipt of RRT improved to 0.91±0.08. Overall, in the setting of early AKI, FST urine output outperformed biochemical biomarkers for prediction of progressive AKI, need for RRT, and inpatient mortality. Using a FST in patients with increased biomarker levels improves risk stratification, although further research is needed.

  17. Achieving more frequent and longer dialysis for the majority: wearable dialysis and implantable artificial kidney devices.

    PubMed

    Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.

  18. p53 activates miR-192-5p to mediate vancomycin induced AKI

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinwen; Wang, Juan; Li, Huiling; Wang, Shixuan; Xiang, Xudong; Zhang, Dongshan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic role of p53 in AKI remains controversial and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we tested whether the inhibition of p53 may ameliorate vancomycin (VAN) induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Mice with p53 knock out (p53-KO) were resistant to VAN induced AKI, indicated by the analysis of renal function, histology, and apoptosis. Mechanistically, AKI was associated with the upregulation of several known p53 target genes, including Bax and p21, and this association was attenuated in p53-KO mice. Furthermore, the expression of miR-192-5p was significantly decreased in the p53-KO kidney tissues. In human renal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2), VAN induced p53 accumulation and miR-192-5p expression. Both apoptosis of HK-2 cells and expression of miR-192-5p were also suppressed by pifithrin-α. Anti-miR-192-5p significantly blocked VAN-induced apoptosis and caspase activity in HK-2 cells. Consistently, in vivo inhibition of miR-192-5p also suppressed VAN induced AKI. Thus, we provided clinical and genetic evidence that p53 was associated with the development of VAN induced AKI through upregulation of miR-192-5p. PMID:27941921

  19. Switching Patients with Non-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease from Oral Iron to Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose: Effects on Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Requirements, Costs, Hemoglobin and Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Di Gennaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) often receive an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and oral iron treatment. This study evaluated whether a switch from oral iron to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose can reduce ESA requirements and improve iron status and hemoglobin in patients with ND-CKD. Methods This prospective, single arm and single-center study included adult patients with ND-CKD (creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min), hemoglobin 11–12 g/dL and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 μg/L or transferrin saturation <20%), who were regularly treated with oral iron and ESA during 6 months prior to inclusion. Study patients received an intravenous ferric carboxymaltose dose of 1,000 mg iron, followed by a 6-months ESA/ ferric carboxymaltose maintenance regimen (target: hemoglobin 12 g/dL, transferrin saturation >20%). Outcome measures were ESA dose requirements during the observation period after initial ferric carboxymaltose treatment (primary endpoint); number of hospitalizations and transfusions, renal function before and after ferric carboxymaltose administration, number of adverse reactions (secondary endpoints). Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and transferrin saturation were measured monthly from baseline until end of study. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase bimonthly from baseline until end of study. Results Thirty patients were enrolled (age 70.1±11.4 years; mean±SD). Mean ESA consumption was significantly reduced by 83.2±10.9% (from 41,839±3,668 IU/patient to 6,879±4,271 IU/patient; p<0.01). Hemoglobin increased by 0.7±0.3 g/dL, ferritin by 196.0±38.7 μg/L and transferrin saturation by 5.3±2.9% (month 6 vs. baseline; all p<0.01). No ferric carboxymaltose-related adverse events were reported and no patient withdrew or required transfusions during the study. Conclusion Among patients with ND

  20. Laughter and humor therapy in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul N; Parsons, Trisha; Ben-Moshe, Ros; Weinberg, Melissa; Neal, Merv; Gilbert, Karen; Rawson, Helen; Ockerby, Cherene; Finlay, Paul; Hutchinson, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Laughter and humor therapy have been used in health care to achieve physiological and psychological health-related benefits. The application of these therapies to the dialysis context remains unclear. This paper reviews the evidence related to laughter and humor therapy as a medical therapy relevant to the dialysis patient population. Studies from other groups such as children, the elderly, and persons with mental health, cancer, and other chronic conditions are included to inform potential applications of laughter therapy to the dialysis population. Therapeutic interventions could range from humorous videos, stories, laughter clowns through to raucous simulated laughter and Laughter Yoga. The effect of laughter and humor on depression, anxiety, pain, immunity, fatigue, sleep quality, respiratory function and blood glucose may have applications to the dialysis context and require further research.

  1. Dialysis modality selection: physician guided or patient led?*

    PubMed Central

    Winterbottom, Anna; Bekker, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    The process of choosing dialysis modality for patients is complex and requires input from the expert renal team. Although it is commonplace for nephrologists to recommend dialysis modalities to patients, this might not always lead to the patient receiving treatment which they regard as most suitable. Nephrologists should consider whether it is appropriate for pre-dialysis education to be directive, or whether the choice between treatment options should be led by the patient. PMID:27994862

  2. The removal of protein-bound solutes by dialysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    Protein-bound solutes that accumulate in plasma when the kidneys fail are poorly cleared by conventional dialysis. Means have been developed to reduce the levels of such solutes, either by modifying the dialysis procedure to increase their clearance or by limiting their production. A trial testing whether reducing bound solute levels clinically benefits dialysis patients is required to determine whether these measures should be adopted in routine clinical practice.

  3. Quantitation of dialysis: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Shinaberger, J H

    2001-01-01

    This article is an attempt to provide a historical perspective to the ongoing attempts to quantify dialysis therapy. It is immediately apparent that motivated chemists, physicists, engineers, mathematicians, and other scientists from all over the world have greatly aided this effort. Dialysis, described by Graham in 1861, was furthered by Abel et al. and Hass before World War I. Willem Kolff attempted to evaluate mass removed and Alwall used a solute extraction ratio. However, the concept of "clearance" and "dialysance" awaited the studies of Wolf et al. in 1951. This classic work describes most of the information concerning actual dialyzer performance known today. A. S. Michaels provided the equations leading to the KoA/Ro/A concept in 1966 which only very recently required updating. The interaction of diffusion and convection is complex and was studied by Villarroel in 1977 and recently by Jaffrin. L. W. Henderson studied and described hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration from 1967-1975. Efforts to relate the patient's outcome to the dialyzer's performance have been difficult and ongoing since 1971; the Babb-Scribner Square meter-hour (which included the expression "Kt/V"); the Kopp et al. Liter-Kilogram concept; 1972 Kjellstrand clearance * time/kg or Liter. A NIH sponsored conference on the Adequacy of Dialysis in Monterey, California in March of 1974 was focused somewhat on the "middle molecule" theory of uremic toxicity, but contained a presentation by Sargent and Gotch on the possibilities of urea kinetic modeling. They developed iterative computer programs to obtain the best estimates of the required variables. At about this same time, Teschan, Ginn et al. published a series of neurofunctional tests and EEG power spectra analyses which most convincingly showed that dialysis two times a week was inadequate, and that dialysis delivered three times a week at urea clearance equal to body water volume was required to normalize these abnormalities: a major

  4. Peritoneal Dialysis Complicated by Pleuroperitoneal Communication and Hydrothorax

    PubMed Central

    Yaxley, Julian; Twomey, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hydrothorax is an uncommon but well-recognized complication of peritoneal dialysis. It is a potentially serious condition that frequently requires cessation of peritoneal dialysis and permanent transition to hemodialysis. Hydrothorax is produced by movement of peritoneal dialysate through pleuroperitoneal fistulas. Pleural fluid analysis typically detects a high glucose concentration, and contrast imaging reveals tracer uptake transgressing the diaphragm. Experience with the treatment of hydrothorax related to peritoneal dialysis is limited. Case Report: We describe the case of a 54-year-old female on peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal failure who developed a hydrothorax soon after beginning treatment. Conclusion: This case describes a classical presentation of hydrothorax in the context of peritoneal dialysis. Treatment is frequently unsuccessful. All clinicians prescribing peritoneal dialysis should be aware of this complication. PMID:28331461

  5. Dialysis Extraction for Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    Chromatographic-sample pretreatment by dialysis detects traces of organic contaminants in water samples analyzed in field with minimal analysis equipment and minimal quantities of solvent. Technique also of value wherever aqueous sample and solvent must not make direct contact.

  6. NF-κB transcriptional inhibition ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).

    PubMed

    Ozkok, Abdullah; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Wang, Qian; Ljubanovic, Danica; Edelstein, Charles L

    2016-01-05

    The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) cell signaling pathway is important in inflammation and cell survival. Inflammation and cell death in the kidney are features of cisplatin-induced AKI. While it is known that cisplatin induces NF-κB signaling in the kidney, the NF-κB responsive genes and the effect of direct NF-κB transcriptional inhibition in cisplatin-induced AKI is not known. Mice injected with cisplatin, 25mg/kg, developed AKI, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and apoptosis on day 3. Mice were treated with JSH-23 (20 or 40 mg/kg) which directly affects NF-κB transcriptional activity. Kidney function, tubular injury (ATN, serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], but not apoptosis) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were significantly improved by JSH-23 (40 mg/kg). Sixty one NF-κB responsive genes were increased by cisplatin of which 21 genes were decreased by JSH-23. Genes that were decreased by JSH-23 that are known to play a role in cisplatin-induced AKI were IL-10, IFN-γ, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2 (CCL2) and caspase-1. Another gene, caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11), not previously known to play a role in AKI, was increased more than 20-fold and completely inhibited by JSH-23. CXCL1 and TNF-α, known mediators of cisplatin-induced AKI, were decreased by JSH-23. RIPK1 and 3, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinases, that play an important role in necroptosis, were decreased by JSH-23. In mouse proximal tubule cells in culture, JSH-23 resulted in an increase in apoptosis suggesting that the mechanism of protection against AKI by JSH-23 is not due to a direct effect on proximal tubules. In conclusion, NF-κB transcriptional inhibition in cisplatin-induced AKI ameliorates kidney function and ATN without a significant effect on apoptosis and is associated with a decrease pro-inflammatory mediators and CARD11.

  7. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for physician services to patients in... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required to create the...

  8. Obituary: Janet Akyüz Mattei, 1943-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Willson, Lee Anne

    2004-12-01

    As director of the American Association of Variable Star Observers for thirty years, Janet Mattei led the organization through a series of major improvements and in the process, helped and influenced amateur and professional astronomers around the world. Having successfully tackled many challenges, however, Janet lost her battle with acute myelogenous leukemia on 22 March 2004. One of five children of Bella and Baruk Akyüz, Janet was born on 2 January 1943 in Bodrum, Turkey and received her pre-collegiate education there. She attended Brandeis University from 1962 until 1965 on a full Wein Scholarship, earning a BA in General Science. After eighteen months of supervising a cardiopulmonary laboratory, in 1967 she returned to Turkey to teach physics and mathematics in a high school, and then entered graduate school at Turkey's Ege University. Janet learned of the summer scholarships available at the Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket, and applied to observatory director Dorrit Hoffleit for the opportunity to come back to the United States and learn about variable stars. That summer (1969) she learned to love variable stars, became acquainted with the AAVSO, and met her future husband, Michael Mattei. In 1970, after she earned her master's degree in astronomy at Ege University, Janet entered the University of Virginia where she earned a second master's degree in 1972 with a thesis on T Tauri stars. After receiving her degree in Virginia, Janet married Mike Mattei and became an assistant to Margaret Mayall at AAVSO headquarters. When Mayall decided to retire in 1973, the AAVSO Council asked Janet to assume the helm as director of the association. With such a sudden advance in her responsibilities, Janet had to rapidly learn the management side of running the organization as well as keep up with the day-to-day scientific activities - responding to requests for data, recording observations as pencil-points on paper charts, and predicting future maxima of long

  9. Dialysis: Hypokalaemia and cardiac risk in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun

    2012-09-01

    Dialysis, particularly haemodialysis, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A new study confirms that hypokalaemia confers an excess cardiovascular risk and contributes disproportionately to the high risk of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, which may partially account for the fact that observed cardiac risk is similar for patients on peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.

  10. AKI-CLIF-SOFA: a novel prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan-Qin; Zheng, Chen-Fei; Liu, Wen-Yue; Van Poucke, Sven; Mao, Zhi; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with high mortality rates. The aims of this study were to develop a specific prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI, the acute kidney injury - Chronic Liver Failure - Sequential Organ Failure- Assessment score (AKI-CLIF-SOFA) score. This study focused on 527 cirrhotic patients with AKI admitted to intensive care unit and constructed a new scoring system, the AKI-CLIF-SOFA, which can be used to prognostically assess mortality in these patient population. Parameters included in this model were analysed by cox regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) of AKI-CLIF-SOFA scoring system was 0.74 in 30 days, 0.74 in 90 days, 0.72 in 270 days and 0.72 in 365 days. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the new model had more discriminatory power than chronic liver failure- sequential organ failure assessment score (CLIF-SOFA), SOFA, model for end stage liver disease (MELD), kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) (auROC: 0.72, 0.66, 0.64, 0.62, 0.63 and 0.65 respectively, all P < 0.05) for the prediction of the 365-days mortality. Therefore, AKI-CLIF-SOFA demonstrated a valuable discriminative ability compared with KDIGO, CLIF-SOFA, MELD, SAPS II and SOFA in critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI. PMID:28114104

  11. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bande-Fernández, José Joaquín; García-Castro, Raúl; Sánchez-Alvarez, José Emilio; Rodríguez-Suárez, Carmen; Coronel-Aguilar, Diego; Hidalgo, Carlos; Istanbuli, Beatriz; Merino-Bueno, Carmen; Del Rio-García, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A case of Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a congenital generalised lipodystrophy, is reported. Symptoms first appeared when the patient was 20 years old. She showed severe insulin resistance as well as micro- and macro-angiopathic complications, including chronic kidney disease, which required renal replacement therapy with peritoneal dialysis. The patient's clinical course was reviewed since paediatric age (when initial signs of the disease being already evident) to present time. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome is very uncommon, and the present case is particularly rare because it is the only case (at least as reported in the literature) in a patient receiving dialysis.

  12. Enabling self-management: selecting patients for home dialysis?

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Alastair J; Courthold, Jonathan J

    2011-12-01

    Pre-emptive living donor transplantation should always be promoted as the first-line treatment for kidney failure. Where that is not possible, patients must receive timely information and advice regarding all dialysis options available, including home-based peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Where a dialysis unit enables and actively encourages self-management, patients will tend to select themselves, and if well motivated may overcome significant difficulties to exceed the expectations or predictions of dialysis staff. Patients then become advocates themselves and can provide other patients with the necessary motivation to consider a home treatment, such that they approach staff, rather than vice versa. For staff to be able to talk to patients with confidence requires direct experience of home dialysis, but in units which do not have a full range of home therapies, this may initially be difficult. Visiting patients in their home environment is an essential part of training for both medical and nursing staff. Before a patient is able to begin to engage in discussion about any dialysis therapy, they must have reached a point of acceptance that dialysis is necessary. If they are not at this point, then any attempt at 'education' will be largely futile. Once a patient has arrived at the point of choosing a home therapy, the pathway to their first dialysis at home must be as smooth and problem-free as possible.

  13. Standardising haemodialysis care by restricting nutrition during dialysis: introducing a quality improvement initiative for renal outpatients.

    PubMed

    De, Diana; Xiang Ai, Anna Tian

    2015-01-01

    A number of relevant issues are considered which show that it is essential to address the issue of in-centre meals during dialysis. This discussion paper critically explores the potential complications posed to patients who consume a large calorific intake during their dialysis treatment. The mission is to appeal to more dialysis units and outpatient departments to gradually implement a 'no food' policy during regular scheduled dialysis treatment sessions. The authors aim to put forward the significances and challenges and offer some possible solutions when introducing a 'no eating policy' like this into dialysis units. Nutritional supplements could, however, be offered on an as required basis.

  14. Metabolic consequences of peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Burkart, John

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription includes attempts to normalize the patient's blood pressure and extracellular volume. To do so, one must utilize crystalloid or colloid osmotic agents to achieve ultrafiltration. These osmotic agents are systemically absorbed and thus have both potential benefits and adverse effects. With glucose-based dialysate solutions, the average patient absorbs 300-450 kcal of glucose per day on either continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or the cycler. The amount of glucose absorbed varies based on peritoneal transport characteristics, prescription, and tonicity of fluids used. Alternative osmotic agents such as amino acids and macromolecular solutions, including polypeptides and polyglucose (icodextrin) solutions, have a different rate of systemic absorption and thus a different caloric load profile. In addition, there are protein losses that average about 10 g/day with glucose-based solutions and glucose losses with either amino acid or icodextrin dialysate solutions. There are also potential advantages of these alternative solutions with regard to ultrafiltration. Glucose-based solutions require the development of significant crystalloid osmotic forces, which are dissipated as glucose is absorbed systemically. In contrast, macromolecular solutions achieve ultrafiltration via differences in colloid osmotic pressure, and the absorption of these agents is of a lesser magnitude than glucose-based solutions. Further research is needed to determine other potential risks and benefits of these alternative dialysate solutions.

  15. Growth of children following the initiation of dialysis: a comparison of three dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B A; Polinsky, M S; Stover, J; Morgenstern, B Z; Baluarte, H J

    1994-12-01

    Maintenance dialysis usually serves as an interim treatment for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) until transplantation can take place. Some children, however, may require dialytic support for an extended period of time. Although dialysis improves some of the problems associated with growth failure in ESRD (acidosis, uremia, calcium, and phosphorus imbalance), many children continue to grow poorly. Therefore, three different dialysis modalities, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), cycler/intermittent peritoneal dialysis (CPD), and hemodialysis (HD), were evaluated with regard to their effects on the growth of children initiating dialysis and remaining on that modality for 6-12 months. Growth was best for children undergoing CAPD when compared with the other two modalities with regard to the following growth parameters: incremental height standard deviation score for chronological age [-0.55 +/- 2.06 vs. -1.69 +/- 1.22 for CPD (P < 0.05) and -1.80 +/- 1.13 for HD (P < 0.05)]; incremental height standard deviation score for bone age [-1.68 +/- 1.71 vs. -2.45 +/- 1.43 for CPD (P = NS) and -2.03 +/- 1.28 for HD (P = NS)]; change in height standard deviation score during the dialysis period [0.00 +/- 0.67 vs. -0.15 +/- .29 for CPD (P = NS) and -0.23 +/- .23 for HD (P = NS)]. The reasons why growth appears to be best in children receiving CAPD may be related to its metabolic benefits: lower levels of uremia, as reflected by the blood urea nitrogen [50 +/- 12 vs. 69 +/- 16 mg/dl for CPD (P < 0.5) and 89 +/- 17 for HD (P < 0.05)], improved metabolic acidosis, as indicated by a higher serum bicarbonate concentration [24 +/- 2 mEq/l vs. 22 +/- 2 for CPD (P < 0.05) and 21 +/- 2 for HD (P < 0.05)]. In addition, children undergoing CAPD receive significant supplemental calories from the glucose absorbed during dialysis. CAPD, and possibly, other types of prolonged-dwell daily peritoneal dialysis appear to be most beneficial for growth, which may be of

  16. A meta-analysis of the association of estimated GFR, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension with AKI

    PubMed Central

    James, Matthew T.; Grams, Morgan E.; Woodward, Mark; Elley, C. Raina; Green, Jamie A.; Wheeler, David C.; de Jong, Paul; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Levey, Andrew S.; Warnock, David G.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) remain risk factors for AKI in the presence and absence of these conditions is uncertain. Study Design Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Setting & Population 8 general population (1,285,045 participants) and 5 CKD (79,519 participants) cohorts. Selection Criteria for Studies Cohorts participating in the CKD Prognosis Consortium. Predictors Diabetes and hypertension status, eGFR by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration 2009 creatinine equation, urine ACR, and interactions. Outcome Hospitalization with AKI, using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of AKI and random effects meta-analysis to pool results. Results Over a mean follow-up period of 4 years, there were 16,480 episodes of AKI in the general population and 2,087 episodes in the CKD cohorts. Low eGFR and high ACR were associated with higher risks of AKI in individuals with or without diabetes and with or without hypertension. When compared to a common reference of eGFR 80 mL/min/1.73m2 in non-diabetic patients, HRs for AKI were generally higher in diabetic patients at any level of eGFR. The same was true for diabetic patients at all levels of ACR compared to non-diabetic patients. The risk gradient for AKI with lower eGFR was greater in those without diabetes than with diabetes, but similar with higher ACR in those without versus with diabetes. Those with hypertension had a higher risk of AKI at eGFR greater than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 than those without hypertension. However, the risk gradients for AKI with both lower eGFR and higher ACR were greater for those without than with hypertension. Limitations AKI identified by diagnostic code. Conclusions Lower eGFR and higher ACR are associated with higher risks of AKI among individuals with or without either diabetes or hypertension. PMID:25975964

  17. Predialysis Health, Dialysis Timing, and Outcomes among Older United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scialla, Julia J.; Liu, Jiannong; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Tangri, Navdeep; Shafi, Tariq; Meyer, Klemens B.; Wu, Albert W.; Powe, Neil R.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Studies of dialysis initiation timing have not accounted for predialysis clinical factors that could impact postdialysis outcomes. We examined the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients in the United States and contrasted morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early [estimated GFR (eGFR)≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m2] versus later (eGFR<10 ml/min per 1.73 m2) initiation. We included all patients from the US Renal Data System who initiated dialysis between 2006 and 2008, were ≥67 years old, and had ≥2 years of prior Medicare coverage (n=84,654). We calculated patients’ propensity to initiate dialysis early and matched patients by propensity scores. Cox models were used to compare risks of mortality and hospitalization among initiation groups. The majority (58%) of patients initiated dialysis early. Early initiators were more likely to have had AKI, multiple congestive heart failure admissions, and other hospitalizations preceding initiation. Among propensity-matched patients (n=61,930), early initiation associated with greater all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.14), cardiovascular (CV; HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17), and infectious (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22) mortality and greater all-cause (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05) and infectious (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.13) hospitalizations. There was no difference in CV hospitalizations. Among these older adults, early dialysis initiation associates with greater mortality and hospitalizations, even after accounting for predialysis clinical factors. These findings do not support the common practice of early dialysis initiation in the United States. PMID:24158988

  18. Predialysis health, dialysis timing, and outcomes among older United States adults.

    PubMed

    Crews, Deidra C; Scialla, Julia J; Liu, Jiannong; Guo, Haifeng; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ephraim, Patti L; Jaar, Bernard G; Sozio, Stephen M; Miskulin, Dana C; Tangri, Navdeep; Shafi, Tariq; Meyer, Klemens B; Wu, Albert W; Powe, Neil R; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-02-01

    Studies of dialysis initiation timing have not accounted for predialysis clinical factors that could impact postdialysis outcomes. We examined the association of predialysis health with timing of dialysis initiation in older adult patients in the United States and contrasted morbidity and mortality outcomes among patients with early [estimated GFR (eGFR)≥10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)] versus later (eGFR<10 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) initiation. We included all patients from the US Renal Data System who initiated dialysis between 2006 and 2008, were ≥67 years old, and had ≥2 years of prior Medicare coverage (n=84,654). We calculated patients' propensity to initiate dialysis early and matched patients by propensity scores. Cox models were used to compare risks of mortality and hospitalization among initiation groups. The majority (58%) of patients initiated dialysis early. Early initiators were more likely to have had AKI, multiple congestive heart failure admissions, and other hospitalizations preceding initiation. Among propensity-matched patients (n=61,930), early initiation associated with greater all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.14), cardiovascular (CV; HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17), and infectious (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22) mortality and greater all-cause (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05) and infectious (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.13) hospitalizations. There was no difference in CV hospitalizations. Among these older adults, early dialysis initiation associates with greater mortality and hospitalizations, even after accounting for predialysis clinical factors. These findings do not support the common practice of early dialysis initiation in the United States.

  19. Delayed administration of a single dose of lithium promotes recovery from AKI.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hui; Ge, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhuang, Shougang; Dworkin, Lance; Peng, Ai; Gong, Rujun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) contributes to AKI; however, its role in post-AKI kidney repair remains uncertain. Here, delayed treatment with a single dose of lithium, a selective inhibitor of GSK3β and a US Food and Drug Administration-approved mood stabilizer, accelerated recovery of renal function, promoted repopulation of renal tubular epithelia, and improved kidney repair in murine models of cisplatin- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. These effects associated with reduced GSK3β activity and elevated expression of proproliferative molecules, including cyclin D1, c-Myc, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), in renal tubular epithelia. In cultured renal tubular cells, cisplatin exposure led to transient repression of GSK3β activity followed by a prolonged upregulation of activity. Rescue treatment with lithium inhibited GSK3β activity, enhanced nuclear expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and HIF-1α, and boosted cellular proliferation. Similarly, ectopic expression of a kinase-dead mutant of GSK3β enhanced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and HIF-1α and amplified cellular proliferation after cisplatin injury, whereas forced expression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3β abrogated the effects of lithium. Mechanistically, GSK3β colocalized and physically interacted with cyclin D1, c-Myc, and HIF-1α in tubular cells. In silico analysis revealed that cyclin D1, c-Myc, and HIF-1α harbor putative GSK3β consensus phosphorylation motifs, implying GSK3β-directed phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of these molecules. Notably, cotreatment with lithium enhanced the proapoptotic effects of cisplatin in cultured colon cancer cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that pharmacologic targeting of GSK3β by lithium may be a novel therapeutic strategy to improve renal salvage after AKI.

  20. [The contribution of dialysis and laboratoristic methods for the control of phosphates].

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is the first main goal of CKD-MBD management. Therefore, special attention is required to prevent a positive phosphate balance. In addition to a careful use of phosphate binders and dietary, phosphate control is needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance. In well-nourished patients is necessary to provide an optimal dialysis removal schedule. A solution could be the increase of the number of dialysis sessions per week and to carry out longer dialysis session strategies. Nevertheless, many patients have a high phosphate (P) intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients, hence the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately the phosphate molecule must be considered as a medium molecular toxin. Nowadays it remains difficult to remove with modern dialysis strategies and ones clearance is still dependent on dialysis time. The best solutions are: hemodiafiltration with high-volume reinfusion, daily dialysis, long dialysis and modern peritoneal dialysis. Today, this scheduled strategies are difficult because of logistic and cost problems. However the milestone will be an adequate nutrition surveillance, especially with nursing collaboration toward dialysis treatments. This strategy should start in outpatient pre-dialysis ambulatory.

  1. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 Concentrations Predict AKI and Long-Term Mortality in Adults after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garg, Amit X.; Coca, Steven G.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Eikelboom, John; Kavsak, Peter; McArthur, Eric; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Shortt, Colleen; Shlipak, Michael; Whitlock, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has an integral role in the pathophysiology of AKI. We investigated the associations of two biomarkers of inflammation, plasma IL-6 and IL-10, with AKI and mortality in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were enrolled at six academic centers (n=960). AKI was defined as a ≥50% or ≥0.3-mg/dl increase in serum creatinine from baseline. Pre- and postoperative IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were categorized into tertiles and evaluated for associations with outcomes of in-hospital AKI or postdischarge all-cause mortality at a median of 3 years after surgery. Preoperative concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 were not significantly associated with AKI or mortality. Elevated first postoperative IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (second tertile adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.61 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.10 to 2.36]; third tertile adjusted OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.45 to 3.13]). First postoperative IL-6 concentration was not associated with risk of mortality; however, the second tertile of peak IL-6 concentration was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99]). Elevated first postoperative IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with higher risk of AKI (adjusted OR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.04 to 2.38]) and lower risk of mortality (adjusted HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.56 to 0.93]). There was a significant interaction between the concentration of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, an established AKI biomarker, and the association of IL-10 concentration with mortality (P=0.01). These findings suggest plasma IL-6 and IL-10 may serve as biomarkers for perioperative outcomes. PMID:25855775

  2. Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor AKI603 Induces Cellular Senescence in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells Harboring T315I Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Xun; Wang, Jun-Dan; Chen, Jia-Jie; Long, Bing; Liu, Ling-Ling; Tu, Xi-Xiang; Luo, Yu; Hu, Yuan; Lin, Dong-Jun; Lu, Gui; Long, Zi-Jie; Liu, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to imatinib mediated by mutations in the BCR-ABL has become a major challenge in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Alternative therapeutic strategies to override imatinib-resistant CML are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the effect of AKI603, a novel small molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinase A (AurA) to overcome resistance mediated by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. Our results showed that AKI603 exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity in leukemic cells. AKI603 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation capacities in imatinib-resistant CML cells by inducing cell cycle arrest with polyploidy accumulation. Surprisingly, inhibition of AurA by AKI603 induced leukemia cell senescence in both BCR-ABL wild type and T315I mutation cells. Furthermore, the induction of senescence was associated with enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Moreover, the anti-tumor effect of AKI603 was proved in the BALB/c nude mice KBM5-T315I xenograft model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the small molecule AurA inhibitor AKI603 may be used to overcome drug resistance induced by BCR-ABL-T315I mutation in CML. PMID:27824120

  3. Many Dialysis Patients Get Unnecessary Colonoscopies

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant. Therefore, dialysis patients who have a limited life expectancy and no signs or symptoms of colon cancer ... weren't on dialysis but had similarly limited life expectancies, the dialysis patients had an 8 times higher ...

  4. Modelling the "ideal" self care--limited care dialysis center.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, G B; Calderini, M; Bechis, F; Iadarola, A M; Iacuzzo, C; Mezza, E; Vischi, M; Trione, L; Poltronieri, E; Gai, M; Anania, P; Pacitti, A; Jeantet, A; Segoloni, G P

    2001-01-01

    Limited care dialysis is an interesting option, which has gained attention in several settings because of the aging of the uremic cohort. The aim of this study was to assess its potential in the Piedmont region in northern Italy, evaluating patients' and care-givers' preferences and testing them in a mathematical model of organisation. The study was conducted in the satellite unit of a university hospital (200-210 dialysis patients), following 35 patients (15 at home, 20 in the center, 10 on daily dialysis). Opinions were collected with a questionnaire and features identified were empirically tested through a simulation model. Most patients (34/35) preferred a small unit, with a stable caring team. Further options were flexibility of dialysis schedule, multiple treatment options, integrated center/home care. These needs could be met by a flexible organization including conventional dialysis (3/week) and daily dialysis (6/week). We employed a simulation model (ARENA software) to calculate the nurses required for each shift and the opening hours and best schedule for the unit. Addition of daily dialysis (2-3 hours) to two conventional 4-5 hour sessions to increased the number of patients followed or "spared" beds, ensuring flexibility. According to patients' best choice (7 dialysis stations), and to the recorded calls, the needs are for two nurses per shift, two shifts per day and six nurses for up to 30 patients in limited care. In conclusion, small centers with flexible schedules can tailor dialysis to patients' needs. A managerial approach is valuable for testing cost/benefit ratios in specific contexts.

  5. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  6. What's the Deal with Dialysis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ih-sis) uses a filtering machine to remove waste and extra fluid from your blood. In the second type, called peritoneal (say: per-uh-tuh-NEE-ul) dialysis , the actual filtering is done by the lining of the person's belly! Kids who need dialysis are most likely ...

  7. A nationwide survey of clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) - patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease have different prognoses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Heng-Chih; Wu, Pei-Chen; Wu, Vin-Cent; Yang, Ya-Fei; Huang, Tao-Min; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Chen, Te-Chuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yang, Wei-Shun; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Wu, Mai-Szu; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chen, Yung-Chang; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients. The International Society of Nephrology implemented the "0 by 25" initiative aimed at preventing deaths from treatable AKI worldwide by 2025 and conducted a global snapshot survey in 2014. We joined in the project and conducted this study to compare the epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis between patients with pure AKI and those with acute-on-chronic kidney disease (ACKD). In this study, we prospectively collected demographic parameters and data on clinical characteristics, baseline comorbidities, management, and outcomes of 201 AKI patients in 18 hospitals in Taiwan from September 2014 to November 2014. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16%. AKI was mostly attributed to sepsis (52%). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that oliguria was a positive independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, whereas preexisting CKD and exposure to nephrotoxic agents were negative independent predictors. The prevalence of vasopressor use, intensive care unit care, and mortality were significantly higher in pure AKI patients than in ACKD patients. Moreover, serum creatinine (SCr) levels significantly increased within 7 days after AKI diagnosis in nonsurvivors but not in survivors in the pure AKI group. By contrast, SCr levels were persistently lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the ACKD group during the same period. We thus determined that the prognosis of ACKD patients differed from that of pure AKI patients. Considering the CKD history in the future AKI staging system may improve prognosis prediction.

  8. Withdrawal from dialysis: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H

    1998-04-01

    Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.

  9. An evidence-based approach to earlier initiation of dialysis.

    PubMed

    Churchill, D N

    1997-12-01

    time bias are potential confounders. A randomized clinical trial is required to resolve this important issue. However, there is sufficient evidence to justify initiation of dialysis at a Ccr of 9 to 14 mL/min if there is any clinical or laboratory evidence of malnutrition.

  10. Emerging biomarkers and metabolomics for assessing toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Mussap, M; Noto, A; Fanos, V; Van Den Anker, J N

    2014-01-01

    Identification of novel drug-induced toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers has been designated as a top priority by the American Society of Nephrology. Increasing knowledge in the science of biology and medicine is leading to the discovery of still more new biomarkers and of their roles in molecular pathways triggered by physiological and pathological conditions. Concomitantly, the development of the so-called "omics" allows the progressive clinical utilization of a multitude of information, from those related to the human genome (genomics) and proteome (proteomics), including the emerging epigenomics, to those related to metabolites (metabolomics). In preterm newborns, one of the most important factors causing the pathogenesis and the progression of AKI is the interaction between the individual genetic code, the environment, the gestational age, and the disease. By analyzing a small urine sample, metabolomics allows to identify instantly any change in phenotype, including changes due to genetic modifications. The role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and other emerging technologies is strategic, contributing basically to the sudden development of new biochemical and molecular tests. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) are closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage. To become routine tests, uNGAL and KIM-1 should be carefully tested in multicenter clinical trials and should be measured in biological fluids by robust, standardized analytical methods.

  11. Managing diabetes in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A

    2012-03-01

    Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with

  12. Herbs, menopause, and dialysis.

    PubMed

    Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Dahl, Naomi V

    2002-01-01

    Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for menstrual disorders, early menopause, and osteoporosis, and rarely discuss gynecologic and reproductive issues with their nephrologist. Various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products are of interest to women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have these disorders. However, very little is known about the specifics of using herbal medicines in patients on chronic dialysis, resulting in numerous problems when patients and providers try to ascertain the safety and efficacy of these products. This article reviews evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of black cohosh, ginseng, chastetree, dong quai, evening primrose oil, soy products, and the so-called natural hormones. Pharmacologic parameters important to evaluating the quality of botanical products are discussed, along with recommendations and information resources.

  13. Peritoneal dialysis solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gault, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094

  14. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  15. [Epidemiology of HTN in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Simon, P

    2007-10-01

    Increased cardio-vascular morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients is particularly due to an insufficiency of blood pressure control. Previous epidemiological surveys show that prevalence of dialysis hypertension is high, from 55 to 85% according to period and mean age of the studied population, despite an improvement of dialysis strategies during the last decade. Control of hypertension is not better in peritoneal dialysis than in haemodialysis. Antihypertensive drugs are administered to 3/4 of dialysed patients. Dialysis strategies which increase the number of sessions per week or the duration of each session in conventional haemodialysis improve the volume control and consequently the blood pressure. Atherosclerosis, cause or consequence of hypertension in dialysed elderly patients, more and more old, lead to adapt treatment strategies in order to prevent hypotension, which is also, a major risk factor of morbidity-mortality in dialysed patients (reverse epidemiology).

  16. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  17. Metal speciation by Donnan dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.A.; Slonawska, K.; Gatchell, D.K.; Hiebert, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    In Donnan dialysis aqueous samples are separated from receiver electrolytes by an ion exchange membrane. The present work demonstrates that the dialysis of metals into salt solutions occurs in proportion to the sum of the concentrations of the free metal and the metal held in the form of labile complexes; however, with strongly acidic or chelating receivers, the dialysis occurs in proportion to the total soluble metal. Hence, Donnan dialysis provides the basis for a rapid estimation of the total soluble (i.e., free plus labile complexed) metal and nonlabile-complexed metal. The method is demonstrated with Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd complexes of glycine, humic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid and is applied to a lake water sample. The results are compared to values obtained from an established approach that utilizes stripping voltammetry and separations with a chelating ion exchange resin.

  18. Dialysis membranes for blood purification.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K

    2000-01-01

    All of the artificial membranes in industrial use, such as a reverse-osmosis membrane, dialysis membrane, ultrafiltration membrane, microfiltration membrane and gas separation membrane, also have therapeutic applications. The most commonly used artificial organ is the artificial kidney, a machine that performs treatment known as hemodialysis. This process cleanses the body of a patient with renal failure by dialysis and filtration, simple physicochemical processes. Hemodialysis membranes are used to remove accumulated uremic toxins, excess ions and water from the patient via the dialysate, and to supply (deficit) insufficient ions from the dialysate. Dialysis membranes used clinically in the treatment of patients with renal failure account for by far the largest volume of membranes used worldwide; more than 70 million square meters are used a year. Almost all dialyzers now in use are of the hollow-fiber type. A hollow-fiber dialyzer contains a bundle of approximately 10000 hollow fibers, each with an inner diameter of about 200 microm when wet. The membrane thickness is about 20-45 microm, and the length is 160-250 mm. The walls of the hollow fibers function as the dialysis membrane. Various materials, including cellulose-based materials and synthetic polymers, are used for dialysis membranes. This paper reviews blood purification, hemodialysis and dialysis membranes.

  19. A Pentacyclic Aurora Kinase Inhibitor (AKI-001) With High in Vivo Potency And Oral Bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, T.E.; Ruth, M.; Blackwood, E.; Burdick, D.; Corson, L.; Dotson, J.; Drummond, J.; Fields, C.; Georges, G.J.; Goller, B.; Halladay, J.; Hunsaker, T.; Kleinheinz, T.; Krell, H.-W.; Li, J.; Liang, J.; Limberg, A.; McNutt, A.; Moffat, J.; Phillips, G.; Ran, Y.

    2009-05-21

    Aurora kinase inhibitors have attracted a great deal of interest as a new class of antimitotic agents. We report a novel class of Aurora inhibitors based on a pentacyclic scaffold. A prototype pentacyclic inhibitor 32 (AKI-001) derived from two early lead structures improves upon the best properties of each parent and compares favorably to a previously reported Aurora inhibitor, 39 (VX-680). The inhibitor exhibits low nanomolar potency against both Aurora A and Aurora B enzymes, excellent cellular potency (IC{sub 50} < 100 nM), and good oral bioavailability. Phenotypic cellular assays show that both Aurora A and Aurora B are inhibited at inhibitor concentrations sufficient to block proliferation. Importantly, the cellular activity translates to potent inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. An oral dose of 5 mg/kg QD is well tolerated and results in near stasis (92% TGI) in an HCT116 mouse xenograft model.

  20. Emerging Biomarkers and Metabolomics for Assessing Toxic Nephropathy and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Neonatology

    PubMed Central

    Mussap, M.; Noto, A.; Fanos, V.; Van Den Anker, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of novel drug-induced toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers has been designated as a top priority by the American Society of Nephrology. Increasing knowledge in the science of biology and medicine is leading to the discovery of still more new biomarkers and of their roles in molecular pathways triggered by physiological and pathological conditions. Concomitantly, the development of the so-called “omics” allows the progressive clinical utilization of a multitude of information, from those related to the human genome (genomics) and proteome (proteomics), including the emerging epigenomics, to those related to metabolites (metabolomics). In preterm newborns, one of the most important factors causing the pathogenesis and the progression of AKI is the interaction between the individual genetic code, the environment, the gestational age, and the disease. By analyzing a small urine sample, metabolomics allows to identify instantly any change in phenotype, including changes due to genetic modifications. The role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and other emerging technologies is strategic, contributing basically to the sudden development of new biochemical and molecular tests. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) are closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage. To become routine tests, uNGAL and KIM-1 should be carefully tested in multicenter clinical trials and should be measured in biological fluids by robust, standardized analytical methods. PMID:25013791

  1. The evaluation of sequential platelet counts has prognostic value for acute kidney injury patients requiring dialysis in the intensive care setting

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Carla; Soares, Márcio; Rocha, Eduardo; Cardoso, Lucio; Maccariello, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of platelet counts in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed in three tertiary-care hospitals. Platelet counts were obtained upon admission to the intensive care unit and during the first week of renal replacement therapy on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. The outcome of interest was the hospital mortality rate. With the aim of minimizing individual variation, we analyzed the relative platelet counts on days 3, 5, 7 and at the point of the largest variation during the first week of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the prognostic value of the platelet counts. RESULTS: The study included 274 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 62%. The survivors had significantly higher platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit compared to the non-survivors [175.5×103/mm3 (108.5–259×103/mm3) vs. 148×103/mm3 (80−141×103/mm3)] and during the first week of renal replacement therapy. The relative platelet count reductions were significantly associated with a higher hospital mortality rate compared with the platelet count increases (70% vs. 44% at the nadir, respectively). A relative platelet count reduction >60% was significantly associated with a worse outcome (mortality rate = 82.6%). Relative platelet count variations and the percentage of reduction were independent risk factors of hospital mortality during the first week of renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: Platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit and at the beginning of renal replacement therapy as well as sequential platelet count evaluation have prognostic value in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. PMID:23778497

  2. 42 CFR 410.52 - Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patient in his or her home: (1) Purchase or rental, installation, and maintenance of all dialysis... equipment such as blood pumps, bubble detectors, and other alarm systems. (2) Items and supplies required... installation and maintenance of dialysis equipment, testing and appropriate treatment of water, and ordering...

  3. 42 CFR 410.52 - Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patient in his or her home: (1) Purchase or rental, installation, and maintenance of all dialysis... equipment such as blood pumps, bubble detectors, and other alarm systems. (2) Items and supplies required... installation and maintenance of dialysis equipment, testing and appropriate treatment of water, and ordering...

  4. Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Lori; Clark, Alexander M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease This paper examines home-dialysis decision making in people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from the perspective of critical realism. CKD programmes focus on patient education for self-management to delay the progression of kidney disease and the preparation and support for renal replacement therapy e.g.) dialysis and transplantation. Home-dialysis has clear health, societal and economic benefits yet service usage is low despite efforts to realign resources and educate individuals. Current research on the determinants of modality selection is superficial and insufficient to capture the complexities embedded in the process of dialysis modality selection. Predictors of home-dialysis selection and the effect of chronic kidney disease educational programmes provide a limited explanation of this experience. A re-conceptualization of the problem is required in order to fully understand this process. The epistemology and ontology of critical realism guides our knowledge and methodology particularly suited for examination of these complexities. This approach examines the deeper mechanisms and wider determinants associated with modality decision making, specifically who chooses home dialysis and under what circumstances. Until more is known regarding dialysis modality decision making service usage of home dialysis will remain low as interventions will be based on inadequate epistemology.

  5. [Computer-assisted optimization of dialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Rieck, B; Reinschke, P

    1988-01-01

    In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.

  6. Double-Negative αβ T Cells Are Early Responders to AKI and Are Found in Human Kidney.

    PubMed

    Martina, Maria N; Noel, Sanjeev; Saxena, Ankit; Bandapalle, Samatha; Majithia, Richa; Jie, Chunfa; Arend, Lois J; Allaf, Mohamad E; Rabb, Hamid; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A

    2016-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of AKI, and previous studies established important roles for conventional CD4(+) T cells, natural killer T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in AKI pathogenesis. We recently identified CD4(-)CD8(-) (double-negative; DN) T cells as an important subset of αβ T cell receptor-positive cells residing in mouse kidney. However, little is known about the pathophysiologic functions of kidney DN T cells. In this study, we phenotypically and functionally characterized murine kidney DN T cells in the steady state and in response to IRI. Unlike CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, DN T cells in the steady state expressed high levels of CD69, CD28, and CD40L; differentially expressed IL-27 and IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokines; spontaneously proliferated at a very high rate; and suppressed in vitro proliferation of activated CD4(+) T cells. Within the first 3-24 hours after IRI, kidney DN T cells expanded significantly and upregulated expression of IL-10. In adoptive transfer experiments, DN T cells significantly protected recipients from AKI by an IL-10-dependent mechanism. DN T cells also made up a large fraction of the T cell compartment in human kidneys. Our results indicate that DN T cells are an important subset of the resident αβ(+) T cell population in the mammalian kidney and are early responders to AKI that have anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Predicting AKI in emergency admissions: an external validation study of the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, L E; Dimitrov, B D; Roderick, P J; Venn, R; Forni, L G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) is associated with a high risk of mortality. Prediction models or rules may identify those most at risk of HA-AKI. This study externally validated one of the few clinical prediction rules (CPRs) derived in a general medicine cohort using clinical information and data from an acute hospitals electronic system on admission: the acute kidney injury prediction score (APS). Design, setting and participants External validation in a single UK non-specialist acute hospital (2013–2015, 12 554 episodes); four cohorts: adult medical and general surgical populations, with and without a known preadmission baseline serum creatinine (SCr). Methods Performance assessed by discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROC) and calibration. Results HA-AKI incidence within 7 days (kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) change in SCr) was 8.1% (n=409) of medical patients with known baseline SCr, 6.6% (n=141) in those without a baseline, 4.9% (n=204) in surgical patients with baseline and 4% (n=49) in those without. Across the four cohorts AUCROC were: medical with known baseline 0.65 (95% CIs 0.62 to 0.67) and no baseline 0.71 (0.67 to 0.75), surgical with baseline 0.66 (0.62 to 0.70) and no baseline 0.68 (0.58 to 0.75). For calibration, in medicine and surgical cohorts with baseline SCr, Hosmer-Lemeshow p values were non-significant, suggesting acceptable calibration. In the medical cohort, at a cut-off of five points on the APS to predict HA-AKI, positive predictive value was 16% (13–18%) and negative predictive value 94% (93–94%). Of medical patients with HA-AKI, those with an APS ≥5 had a significantly increased risk of death (28% vs 18%, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), p=0.015). Conclusions On external validation the APS on admission shows moderate discrimination and acceptable calibration to predict HA-AKI and may be useful as a severity marker when HA-AKI occurs

  8. Occurrence of endotoxin in dialysis fluid from 39 dialysis units.

    PubMed

    Kulander, L; Nisbeth, U; Danielsson, B G; Eriksson, O

    1993-05-01

    Endotoxin exposure during haemodialysis may cause acute and chronic adverse reactions. In order to estimate the risk to the patient, samples of dialysis fluid from 39 of the 45 dialysis units in Sweden were analysed by the chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Higher levels were obtained after the usual weekend shutdowns. The length of the tubing delivering the reverse osmosis water seemed to influence the extent of contamination. Fifty-nine percent of the units showed low mean endotoxin levels (i.e. mean concentration below the recommended limit in Sweden: < 25 ng l-1), while 18% of units had high levels (mean concentration > 100 ng l-1).

  9. Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163270.html Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients Sometimes it's the ... 26, 2017 THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression is common among kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis. ...

  10. Vitamin D in dialysis: defining deficiency and rationale for supplementation.

    PubMed

    Singer, Richard Francis

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D status is determined by the serum concentration of one of its metabolites, 25-hydroxy-D. Defining vitamin D deficiency based on its classical roles in gut calcium absorption and bone mineralization is problematic in dialysis patients and, until recently, was ignored in the nephrology literature. The newly recognized nonclassical functions of vitamin D include effects on the immune system, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The nonclassical effects are likely to be equally relevant in the dialysis population, but suffer from a lack of strong evidence on which to base therapeutic targets. Past medical opinion in the nondialysis population warned that higher dose vitamin D supplementation may be toxic and was unnecessary. This is because older supplementation recommendations were based on early twentieth century studies using cod-liver oil to treat rickets. The clinical resolution of rickets requires a relatively low dose of vitamin D. Current vitamin D guidelines generally target higher 25-hydroxy-D levels of 30 ng/ml, based on optimizing markers of bone health. This results in very high estimates of 50-100% for the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in dialysis patients. This review examines the relevance of data on the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D in dialysis patients. An evidence-based dosing regimen for use in dialysis patients is suggested to safely and reliably achieve vitamin D sufficiency.

  11. [Management of color-Doppler imaging in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Yuri; Granata, Antonio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Lusenti, Tiziano; Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Logias, Franco; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the survival of dialysis patients has gradually increased thanks to the evolution of dialysis techniques and the availability of new drug therapies. These elements have led to an increased incidence of a series of dialysis-related diseases that might compromise the role of dialysis rehabilitation: vascular disease, skeletal muscle disease, infectious disease, cystic kidney disease and cancer. The nephrologist is therefore in charge of a patient group with complex characteristics including the presence of indwelling vascular and/or peritoneal catheters, conditions secondary to chronic renal failure (hyperparathyroidism, anemia, amyloid disease, etc.) and superimposed disorders due to old age (cardiac and respiratory failure, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc.). Early clinical and organizational management of such patients is essential in a modern and ''economic'' vision of nephrology. The direct provision of ultrasound services by the nephrologist responds to these requirements. A minimum level of expertise in diagnostic ultrasonography of the urinary tract and dialysis access should be part of the nephrologist's cultural heritage, acquired through theoretical and practical training programs validated by scientific societies, especially for those who choose to specialize in these procedures and become experts in imaging or interventional ultrasonography.

  12. Clinical research: making it work in the outpatient dialysis facility.

    PubMed

    Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte; Fox, Rosemary; Moran, John

    2009-01-01

    Performing clinical research in the outpatient dialysis facility can be very challenging. Research protocols define time-specific and detailed procedures to be performed. In dialysis units where staff members are responsible for the delivery of life-sustaining therapy to an aging end stage renal disease patient population with multiple co-morbidities, these requirements can easily be considered too burdensome to be implemented successfully. In the authors'facility, clinical research has been successfully implemented with a close team approach supported by a dedicated research group and unit staff

  13. Dialysis in the haemophilia patient: a practical approach to care.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Lanzon, J; Kachalsky, E

    2009-01-01

    The major focus of care for patients with haemophilia is to ensure health with minimal joint dysfunction. As this population ages, additional coexisting conditions can develop including rare instances of nephrotic syndrome in haemophilia B inhibitor patients undergoing immune tolerance, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, all of which can adversely affect the renal system over time. In haemophilia patients, co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C, these conditions can also increase the risk of renal problems resulting in the need for dialysis. This article provides a practical approach for the haemophilia patient who requires dialysis and outlines the decision making process to ensure a positive outcome. The goal of care is to optimize dialysis treatment without increasing the bleeding risk.

  14. The economic considerations of patients and caregivers in choice of dialysis modality

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kirsten; Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia C.; Marshall, Mark R.; Morton, Rachael L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Broader adoption of home dialysis could lead to considerable cost savings for health services. Globally, however, uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to describe patient and caregiver perspectives of the economic considerations that influence dialysis modality choice, and elicit policy‐relevant recommendations. Methods Semistructured interviews with predialysis or dialysis patients and their caregivers, at three hospitals in New Zealand. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Findings 43 patients and 9 caregivers (total n = 52) participated. The three themes related to economic considerations were: (i) productivity losses associated with changes in employment; (ii) the need for personal subsidization of home dialysis expenses; and (iii) the role of socio‐economic disadvantage as a barrier to home dialysis. Patients weighed the flexibility of home dialysis which allowed them to remain employed, against time required for training and out‐of‐pocket costs. Patients saw the lack of reimbursement of home dialysis costs as unjust and suggested that reimbursement would incentivize home dialysis uptake. Social disadvantage was a barrier to home dialysis as patients’ housing was often unsuitable; they could not afford the additional treatment costs. Home hemodialysis was considered to have the highest out‐of‐pocket costs and was sometimes avoided for this reason. Discussion Our data suggests that economic considerations underpin the choices patients make about dialysis treatments, however these are rarely reported. To promote home dialysis, strategies to improve employment retention and housing, and to minimize out‐of‐pocket costs, need to be addressed directly by healthcare providers and payers. PMID:27196634

  15. [Reflections on abortion in the films of Aki Kaurismäki].

    PubMed

    Millán Atenciano, Miguel Ángel; Tomás y Garrido, Gloria María

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary reality presents the paradoxical world of information at its most extensive against the subsequent global spread of the individual's isolation. Isolation presented from the perspective of Finnish filmmaker Aki Kaurismäki. His film The Match Factory Girl is a story about human frailty, which brings us to recognize some of the weaknesses of our time and at the same time allows us to expose a bioethical analysis that aims to go beyond sociological reflection on cultural anthropology in the Western world. The attitude towards the life of the protagonist shows the ambivalence of personal values as opposed to the social counter values, placing the pregnant woman at a crossroads of responses that make violence the manifestation of learning from a relational and emotional origin. Aggression that puts the woman in the position of silent suffering victim of human conflict, as is abortion that is ingrained and coexisting opposing emotions. The reality of the young woman can be analysed from the behavioural somatization that has reduced her personal dignity to the value of an object that, under probably post traumatic effects, that directs her individual freedom towards an inconsequential personal destiny.

  16. Statins decrease all-cause mortality only in CKD patients not requiring dialysis therapy--a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 21,295 participants.

    PubMed

    Barylski, Marcin; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Toth, Peter P; Salari, Pooneh; Ray, Kausik K; Pencina, Michael J; Rizzo, Manfredi; Rysz, Jacek; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nicholls, Stephen J; Banach, Maciej

    2013-06-01

    The available studies have reported the benefits of statins on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However studies in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis and provide the most reliable trial data to date on the impact of statin therapy on cardiovascular events and death from all causes in CKD patients. Data from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for the years 1966 to October 2012 were searched. The final meta-analysis included 11 randomized controlled trials involving 21,295 participants with CKD. Among them 6857 were on dialysis. The use of statins in subjects with non-dialysis-dependent CKD resulted in a marked reduction in death from all causes (relative risk [RR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.79; p<0.0001), cardiac causes (RR: 0.69; 95%CI: 0.55-0.68; p=0.0012), cardiovascular events (RR: 0.55; 95%CI: 0.4-0.75; p=0.0001) and stroke (RR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.5-0.88; p=0.0022). The use of statins in dialysis-dependent CKD patients resulted in a non-significant effect on death from all causes (RR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.88-1.11; p=0.85) and stroke (RR: 1.31; 95%CI: 0.9-1.89; p>0.05), but had the effect of reducing death from cardiac causes (RR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.64-0.98; p<0.05) and cardiovascular events (RR: 0.81; 95%CI: 0.7-0.94; p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of statins should be indicated in cardiovascular disease prevention especially in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. According to the very limited data the obtained results suggest caution in expecting a reduction in cardiovascular events in patients on dialysis.

  17. [Guidelines for quality management of dialysis solutions].

    PubMed

    Pérez García, R; González Parra, E; Ceballos, F; Escallada Cotero, R; Gómez-Reino, Ma I; Martín-Rabadán, P; Pérez García, A; Ramírez Chamond, R; Sobrino, P E; Solozábal, C

    2004-01-01

    A Best Practice Guideline about Dialysis fluid purity has been developed under the leadership of the Spanish Society of Nephrology. The Guideline has established recommendations for standards for preparing dialysate: water, concentrates and hemodialysis proportioning systems. The Guideline was based on the European pharmacopoeia, the Real Farmacopea Española, the AAMI Standards and Recommended Practices, European Best Practice Guidelines for Haemodialysis (Section IV), literature reviews, according to their level of evidence, and the opinion of the expert spanish group. Two levels of quality of water were defined: purified water and high purified water (Ultra pure) and for dialysate: standard dialysate and ultra pure dialysate. Regular use of ultra pure dialysate is necessary for hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration on-line and desirable for high-flux hemodialysis to prevent and delay the occurrence of complications: inflammation, malnutrition, anemia and amyloidosis. Water, concentrates and dialysate quality requirements are defined as maximum allowable contaminant levels: chemicals (1.1.2), microbial and endotoxins: [table: see text] Monitoring frequency, maintenance and corrective actions were specified. Methods of sampling and analysis were described in appendix (Anexos). For microbiological monitoring, TSA or R2A medium are recommended, incubated during 5 days at a temperature of 30-35 degrees C. The dialysate quality assurance process involves all dialysis staff members and requires strict protocols. The physician in charge of hemodialysis has the ultimate responsibility for dialysate quality. All suggestions and questions about this Guideline are wellcome to www.senefro.org

  18. Developing an assisted automated peritoneal dialysis (aAPD) service—a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nina

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing increase in the number of elderly or frail patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Assisted automated peritoneal dialysis (aAPD) is one treatment option for this patient group and is becoming increasingly recognized as a distinct dialysis modality. In this article, we review the current status of aAPD and its evolution across Europe, describing the differences in service provision. We also report our experience locally of outcomes on our aAPD population over the last 4 years. We found that aAPD is a viable dialysis modality in the frail and elderly with limited lifespan, and complications of peritoneal dialysis are perhaps lower than would be expected in this population. This form of therapy also avoids the disruption to life which results from hospital-based dialysis. PMID:25949510

  19. Impact of acute kidney injury on distant organ function: recent findings and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kent; Rabb, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients and subsequently worsens outcomes. Although many drugs to prevent and treat AKI have shown benefits in preclinical models, no specific agent has been shown to benefit AKI in humans. Moreover, despite remarkable advances in dialysis techniques that enable management of AKI in hemodynamically unstable patients with shock, dialysis-requiring severe AKI is still associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate. Thus, focusing only on kidney damage and loss of renal function has not been sufficient to improve outcomes of patients with AKI. Recent data from basic and clinical research have begun to elucidate complex organ interactions in AKI between kidney and distant organs, including heart, lung, spleen, brain, liver, and gut. This review serves to update the topic of organ cross talk in AKI and focuses on potential therapeutic targets to improve patient outcomes during AKI-associated multiple organ failure.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, George; Aguilera, Didier; Carceles, Odette; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Boletis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage renal disease patients is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients is relatively high and varies in different studies from 17% to 49.53% depending on the mode of dialysis and other selection factors, such as the presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that have been studied in relatively small studies mainly include arteriovenous fistula-induced increased cardiac output, which cannot be accomodated by, the spacious under normal conditions pulmonary circulation. Additionally, pulmonary vessels show signs of endothelial dysfunction, dysregulation of vascular tone due to an imbalance in vasoactive substances, and local as well as systemic inflammation. It is also believed that microbubbles escaping from the dialysis circuit can trigger vasoconstriction and vascular sclerosis. The non-specific therapeutic options that proved to be beneficial in pulmonary artery pressure reduction are endothelin inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil, and vasodilatory prostaglandins in various forms. The specific modes of treatment are renal transplantation, size reduction or closure of high-flow arteriovenous fistulas, and transfer from hemodialysis to peritoneal dialysis-a modality that is associated with a lesser prevalence of pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Uremic toxins and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N; Vanholder, R; De Smet, R

    2001-02-01

    Uremic toxicity is related in part to the accumulation of toxic substances, the nature of which has only partly been characterized. Because of the use of a highly permeable membrane and better preservation of the residual renal function, it could be anticipated that some of these uremic toxins are more efficiently cleared across the peritoneal membrane, and that the plasma and tissue levels of these compounds are lower than in hemodialysis patients. This article analyzes the generation and removal of several uremic toxins in peritoneal dialysis patients. The following uremic toxins are discussed: beta2-microglobulin, advanced glycation end products, advanced oxidation protein products, granulocyte inhibitory proteins, p-Cresol, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Some recent studies are reviewed suggesting that uremic toxins are involved in the progression of renal failure and are at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis. We conclude that, although the plasma levels of some of these compounds are lower in peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis patients, it does not mean that the peritoneal dialysis patient is "better" protected against the numerous disturbances caused by these toxins.

  2. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns.

  3. Impact of weaning from acute dialytic therapy on outcomes of chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Shih-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuation of acute, unplanned dialysis is always an important therapeutic goal in dialysis-requiring patients with existing chronic kidney disease. Only a limited proportion of patients could be weaned off dialysis and remained dialysis-free. Here we performed a multicenter, observational study to investigate factors associated with successful weaning from acute dialysis, and to explore the potential impact of weaning itself on outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis. We recruited 440 chronic kidney disease patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1/73 m2, and used propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analysis to measure the effect of weaning from acute dialysis on death during the index hospitalization and death or readmission after discharge. Over 2 years, 64 of 421 (15.2%) patients who survived >1 month died, and 36 (8.6%) were removed from dialysis, with 26 (6.2%) remaining alive and dialysis-free. Logistic regression analysis found that age ≧ 65 years, ischemic acute tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic exposure, urinary obstruction, and higher predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum hemoglobin were predictors of weaning off dialysis. After adjustment for propensity scores for dialysis weaning, Cox proportional hazards models showed successful weaning from dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.06; 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.35), along with a history of hypertension and serum albumin, were independent protectors for early death. Conversely, a history of stroke, peripheral arterial disease and cancer predicted the occurrence of early mortality. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study shows that compared to patients with chronic kidney disease who became end-stage renal disease after acute dialysis, patients who could be weaned off acute dialytic therapy were associated with reduced risk of premature death over a 2-year observation period.

  4. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.

    1986-11-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.

  5. Peritoneal Dialysis Tailored to Pediatric Needs

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, C. P.; Zaloszyc, A.; Schaefer, B.; Fischbach, M.

    2011-01-01

    Consideration of specific pediatric aspects is essential to achieve adequate peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment in children. These are first of all the rapid growth, in particular during infancy and puberty, which must be accompanied by a positive calcium balance, and the age dependent changes in body composition. The high total body water content and the high ultrafiltration rates required in anuric infants for adequate nutrition predispose to overshooting convective sodium losses and severe hypotension. Tissue fragility and rapid increases in intraabdominal fat mass predispose to hernia and dialysate leaks. Peritoneal equilibration tests should repeatedly been performed to optimize individual dwell time. Intraperitoneal pressure measurements give an objective measure of intraperitoneal filling, which allow for an optimized dwell volume, that is, increased dialysis efficiency without increasing the risk of hernias, leaks, and retrofiltration. We present the concept of adapted PD, that is, the combination of short dwells with low fill volume to promote ultrafiltration and long dwells with a high fill volume to improve purification within one PD session. The use of PD solutions with low glucose degradation product content is recommended in children, but unfortunately still not feasible in many countries. PMID:21761001

  6. Acute kidney injury in the era of big data: the 15(th) Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI).

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A

    2016-01-01

    The world is immersed in "big data". Big data has brought about radical innovations in the methods used to capture, transfer, store and analyze the vast quantities of data generated every minute of every day. At the same time; however, it has also become far easier and relatively inexpensive to do so. Rapidly transforming, integrating and applying this large volume and variety of data are what underlie the future of big data. The application of big data and predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise to drive innovation, reduce cost and improve patient outcomes, health services operations and value. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be an ideal syndrome from which various dimensions and applications built within the context of big data may influence the structure of services delivery, care processes and outcomes for patients. The use of innovative forms of "information technology" was originally identified by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) in 2002 as a core concept in need of attention to improve the care and outcomes for patients with AKI. For this 15(th) ADQI consensus meeting held on September 6-8, 2015 in Banff, Canada, five topics focused on AKI and acute renal replacement therapy were developed where extensive applications for use of big data were recognized and/or foreseen. In this series of articles in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, we describe the output from these discussions.

  7. Conflict in the dialysis clinic.

    PubMed

    Payton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Conflict is common in healthcare settings and can affect the functioning of a dialysis clinic. Unresolved conflict can decrease staff productivity and teamwork, and potentially decrease the quality of patient care. This article discusses the causes and effects of conflict, describes the five basic conflict-handling styles that can be useful when dealing with conflict (avoidance, accommodation, competing, compromise, and collaboration), and provides resources for resolving patient-provider conflict.

  8. [Ocular changes in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Popa, M; Nicoară, S

    2000-01-01

    The study analyzes the ocular aspects in patients receiving hemodialysis, in order to define the importance of the ophthalmological exam as prognosis and follow-up parameter. The prospective study includes 84 patients with renal insufficiency who received hemodialysis between 1994-1998. The ocular aspects and their connection with the dialysis and the basic disease are described and analyzed. The most important were the retinal vascular complications: hypertensive retinopathy, anterior optic ischaemic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Maintenance of employment on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Rasgon, S; James-Rogers, A; Chemleski, B; Ledezma, M; Mercado, L; Besario, M; Trivedi, J; Miller, M; Dee, L; Pryor, L; Yeoh, H

    1997-04-01

    This article describes the components of a multidisciplinary effort focused on promoting, among other goals, continued employment during end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment. The education and guidance of the patient begin during the pre-ESRD period, intensify through dialysis treatment, and continue even through posttransplantation follow-up. Such focused programs support patients in retaining their usual lifestyle, staying in their current jobs where possible, and maximizing self-esteem and quality of life.

  10. Malfunction of dialysis catheters: management of fibrin sheath and related problems.

    PubMed

    Faintuch, Salao; Salazar, G M M

    2008-09-01

    Suitable central venous access for hemodialysis is frequently required in patients with end-stage renal disease, whenever an arteriovenous fistula or peritoneal dialysis fails or is not a possibility. Ultimately, long-term dialysis via central access may result in dysfunctional catheter with problems such as malpositioning of catheter tip, fibrin sheath formation, thrombosis, infection, and bleeding. The role of interventional radiology is to deliver appropriate treatment to maintain patent and functional access, while minimizing the risk of venous occlusive disease. This article aims at describing different techniques and approaches for management of fibrin sheath associated with malfunctioning tunneled dialysis catheters, as well as to provide scientific evidence from the current literature.

  11. Management of Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy for the Obstetrician.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anjali

    2016-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex disorder that occurs in several clinical settings. During pregnancy, there are additional unique conditions that contribute to AKI. The clinical manifestations of AKI during pregnancy range from a minimal elevation in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, similar to AKI in the general population. Recent epidemiologic studies in the general population show an increase in mortality associated with AKI, particularly when dialysis is required. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality.

  12. Acute kidney injury requiring haemodialysis following ingestion of mephedrone

    PubMed Central

    Rhidian, Rhys; Babu, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man was found to have acute kidney injury (AKI) following ingestion of mephedrone. He presented to this local emergency department with worsening bilateral loin pain. He became oligoanuric, serum creatine peaked at 1214 µmol/l and he required several sessions of haemodialysis before kidney function began to improve. The mechanism of AKI and legal aspects of the use of mephedrone are discussed. PMID:23456157

  13. A geometricla error in some Computer Programs based on the Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) Method of Teleseismic Tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Foulger, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Some computer programs based on the Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) method of teleseismic tomography contain an error caused by identifying local grid directions with azimuths on the spherical Earth. This error, which is most severe in high latitudes, introduces systematic errors into computed ray paths and distorts inferred Earth models. It is best dealt with by explicity correcting for the difference between true and grid directions. Methods for computing these directions are presented in this article and are likely to be useful in many other kinds of regional geophysical studies that use Cartesian coordinates and flat-earth approximations.

  14. Impact of environmental particulate matter and peritoneal dialysis-related infection in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Jiun

    2014-11-01

    In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), PD-related infection is a major cause of PD failure and hospital admission. Good air quality is required when dialysate exchange or exit site wound care is performed. To our knowledge, investigation of air pollution as a factor for PD-related infection in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. This study aimed to assess the effect of environmental particulate matter (PM) and other important risk factors on 1-year PD-related infection in patients undergoing PD.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD were recruited in this 1-year retrospective observational study. Differences in environmental PMs (PM10 and PM2.5) were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The patients undergoing PD were categorized into 2 groups according to PM2.5 exposure: high (n = 61) and low (n = 114). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze 1-year PD-related infection.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD (50 men and 125 women) were enrolled. Thirty-five patients had PD-related infection within 1 year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high environmental PM2.5 exposure (hazard ratio (HR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03-3.91]; P = .04) and female sex (HR: 2.77, 95% CI [1.07-7.19]; P = .03) were risk factors for 1-year PD-related infection.Patients undergoing PD with high environmental PM2.5 exposure had a higher 1-year PD-related infection rate than that in those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with PD-related infection in such patients.

  15. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) fails as an early predictor of contrast induced nephropathy in chronic kidney disease (ANTI-CI-AKI study)

    PubMed Central

    Ribitsch, Werner; Schilcher, Gernot; Quehenberger, Franz; Pilz, Stefan; Portugaller, Rupert H.; Truschnig-Wilders, Martini; Zweiker, Robert; Brodmann, Marianne; Stiegler, Philipp; Rosenkranz, Alexander R.; Pickering, John W.; Horina, Joerg H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urinary neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (uNGAL) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as an early biomarker for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and to investigate whether patients with an uNGAL increase might benefit from an additional intravenous volume expansion with regard to CI-AKI-incidence. We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial in 617 CKD-patients undergoing intra-arterial angiography. Urinary NGAL was measured the day before and 4–6hrs after angiography. In the event of a significant rise of uNGAL patients were randomized either into Group A, who received intravenous saline post procedure or Group B, who did not receive post-procedural i.v. fluids. Ten patients (1.62%) exhibited a significant rise of uNGAL after angiography and were randomized of whom one developed a CI-AKI. In the entire cohort the incidence of CI-AKI was 9.4% (58 patients) resulting in a specificity of 98.4% (95% CI: 97.0–99.3%) and a sensitivity of 1.72% (95% CI: 0.044–9.2%) of uNGAL for the diagnosis of CI-AKI. In this study uNGAL failed to predict CI-AKI and was an inadequate triage tool to guide an early intervention strategy to prevent CI-AKI. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01292317. PMID:28128223

  16. Intravenous Cyclophosphamide and Plasmapheresis in Dialysis-Dependent ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Ruth J.; Chanouzas, Dimitrios; Tarzi, Ruth; Little, Mark A.; Casian, Alina; Walsh, Michael; Pusey, Charles D.; Harper, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Induction therapy with oral cyclophosphamide (CYP) has been a mainstay of treatment in patients with severe renal failure secondary to ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Recent evidence proposes using pulsed intravenous CYP in less severe disease to minimize adverse events. It is unclear if this can be translated to those with dialysis-dependent renal insufficiency. Design, setting, participants, & methods All AAV patients presenting between 2005 and 2010 requiring dialysis at presentation were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with plasma exchange, corticosteroids, and intravenous CYP. Rate of dialysis independence at 3 and 12 months and adverse effects were assessed and compared with the outcome of the plasmapheresis, prednisolone, and oral CYP arm of the randomized MEPEX (methylprednisolone versus plasma exchange) trial. Results Forty-one patients were included. At 3 months, 3 (7.3%) patients had died on dialysis, 12 (29.3%) remained dialysis dependent, and 26 (63.4%) were dialysis independent (creatinine, 2.5 mg/dl; GFR, 26 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Four patients subsequently reached ESRD at a median time of 83 days. Thirty-seven (90%) patients reached 1 year follow-up, 13 (35%) remained dialysis dependent, and 24 (65%) had independent renal function. Eleven patients (27%) had episodes of leukopenia (white cell count <4×109/L) during CYP therapy and 17 (41%) experienced infectious complications. This compares favorably with the dialysis-dependent cohort treated with plasmapheresis in the MEPEX study in which 51% were alive with independent renal function at 1 year. Conclusions Intravenous CYP used with corticosteroids and plasmapheresis may be an effective alternative to oral CYP in patients with dialysis-dependent AAV. PMID:23160261

  17. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  18. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Nia; Hussain, Farida K; Connell, Roy; Shenoy, Manoj U

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease in children is increasing. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the modality of choice in many European countries and is increasingly applied worldwide. PD enables children of all ages to be successfully treated while awaiting the ultimate goal of renal transplantation. The advantages of PD over other forms of renal replacement therapy are numerous, in particular the potential for the child to lead a relatively normal life. Indications for commencing PD, the rationale, preparation of family, technical aspects, and management of complications are discussed. PMID:26504404

  19. Factors influencing access to education, decision making, and receipt of preferred dialysis modality in unplanned dialysis start patients

    PubMed Central

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). Methods The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. Results The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Conclusion Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on

  20. Magnesium and Dialysis: The Neglected Cation.

    PubMed

    Alhosaini, Mohamad; Leehey, David J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription. Further interventional studies to determine the effect of normalization of plasma magnesium concentration on clinical outcomes are needed. At the present time, we recommend that predialysis plasma magnesium be measured on a regular basis, with the dialysate magnesium concentration adjusted to maintain plasma magnesium concentration within the normal range.

  1. The new Medicare PPS and home dialysis.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jim; Schatell, Dori

    2010-09-01

    Overall, we believe that bundling of payments to dialysis facilities is positive for home dialysis. The incentive for higher utilization of home therapies comes down to the fact that, with treatments for all modalities being paid at the same rate, providers will see that home modalities cost less than facility-based treatments. The adjustment for home training treatments is certainly helpful, but it is not incentive enough on its own. From our perspective, one of the biggest financial incentives for home dialysis and more frequent dialysis therapies is that these patients are statistically known to spend less time in the hospital, over time costing taxpayers and the ESRD Program less money. We will continue to encourage CMS to consider the overall cost implications of more frequent dialysis. We are hopeful that when hospitalization costs are accounted for, CMS will do even more to encourage the use of these modalities.

  2. Risky business for dialysis services.

    PubMed

    Schohl, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    When self-insured health plans and their third-party administrators pay an artificially low out-of-network rate for dialysis services, they could be liable for the difference between that rate and the reimbursement level provided for by their health plan. Paying a rate that the repricers advised them to pay does not relieve self-insured health plans and third-party administrators of that obligation; only where the repricer has legitimately secured a negotiated contract rate is a lower payment justified. [Editor's note: The term "repricer" has no universally-accepted or formal definition, but it will be used here to describe those companies formed to act as middlemen between health care payers-like self-insured employer plans and TPAs working on behalf of such plans-and health care providers.] Failing to adhere to this will result in lawsuits against self-insured health plans and third-party administrators where they will be forced to defend the repricers' recommended payment amounts, while the repricers try to get themselves dismissed. A better option for plan holders and third-party administrators would be to negotiate directly with the dialysis providers and agree upon a mutually acceptable rate.

  3. Uraemic toxins and new methods to control their accumulation: game changers for the concept of dialysis adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Griet; Tattersall, James

    2015-01-01

    The current concept of an adequate dialysis based only on the dialysis process itself is rather limited. We now have considerable knowledge of uraemic toxicity and improved tools for limiting uraemic toxin accumulation. It is time to make use of these. A broader concept of adequacy that focusses on uraemic toxicity is required. As discussed in the present review, adequacy could be achieved by many different methods in combination with, or instead of, dialysis. These include preservation of renal function, dietary intake, reducing uraemic toxin generation rate and intestinal absorption, isolated ultrafiltration and extracorporeal adsorption of key uraemic toxins. A better measure of the quality of dialysis treatment would quantify the uraemic state in the patient using levels of a panel of key uraemic toxins. Treatment would focus on controlling uraemic toxicity while reducing harm or inconvenience to the patient. Delivering more dialysis might not be the best way to achieve this. PMID:26251699

  4. Insights into nephrologist training, clinical practice, and dialysis choice.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Joseph R; Schatell, Dorian R; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Witten, Beth; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2012-04-01

    There is variable emphasis on dialysis-specific training among US nephrology fellowship programs. Our study objective was to determine the association between nephrology training experience and subsequent clinical practice. We conducted a national survey of clinical nephrologists using a fax-back survey distributed between March 8, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (N = 629). The survey assessed the time distribution of clinical practice, self-assessment of preparedness to provide care for dialysis patients at the time of certification examination, distribution of dialysis modality among patients, and nephrologists' choice of dialysis modality for themselves if their kidneys failed. While respondents spent 28% of their time caring for dialysis patients, 38% recalled not feeling very well prepared to care for dialysis patients when taking the nephrology certification examination. Sixteen percent obtained additional dialysis training after fellowship completion. Only 8% of US dialysis patients use home dialysis; physicians very well prepared to care for dialysis patients at the time of certification or who obtained additional dialysis training were significantly more likely to provide care to home peritoneal dialysis patients. Even though 92% of US dialysis patients receive thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, only 6% of nephrologists selected this for themselves; selection of therapy for self was associated with dialysis modalities used by their patients. Nephrology training programs need to ensure that all trainees are very well prepared to care for dialysis patients, as this is central to nephrology practice. Utilization of dialysis therapies other than standard hemodialysis is dependent, in part, on training experience.

  5. Palliative dialysis in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha D

    2011-12-01

    Dialysis patients are often denied hospice benefits unless they forego dialysis treatments. However, many of those patients might benefit from as-needed dialysis treatments to palliate symptoms of uremia, fluid overload, etc. The current Medicare payment system precludes this "palliative dialysis" except in those few cases where the terminal diagnosis is unrelated to renal failure. As approximately three quarters of all US patients on dialysis have Medicare as their primary insurance, a of review of Medicare policy is suggested, with a goal of creating a new "palliative dialysis" category that would allow patients to receive treatments on a less regular schedule without affecting the quality statistics of the dialysis center.( 1 ).

  6. [Epidemiology and prevention in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Cherubini, C; Barbera, G; Petrosillo, N; Di Giulio, S

    2003-01-01

    During the last years, prevention of hospital infections assumed the role of primary objective for active interventions and dedicated laws for safety in work areas and for facilities accreditation defined responsibilities and preventive measures to reduce the biological risk. Dialysis centers are areas where the infective risk is high but the strict application of the Universal Measures and of specific recommendations are sufficient to reduce the risk of diffusion and transmission of pathogens. The late referral of the ESRD patient, with or without infectious comorbidity, shows an intervention field, in which a local epidemiological survey gives useful data and stimulates the data management at hospital level (Epidemiologists and nefrologists) and family doctors, to improve the disease management of very complex and high cost patients.

  7. Dialysis technicians' perception of certification.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen F; Garbin, Margery

    2015-03-01

    The Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission initiated this research project to study the viewpoint of dialysis technicians regarding the value of certification. A national convenience sample was obtained using both paper-and-pencil and online forms of the survey instrument. Demographic characteristics were obtained concerning age, race, ethnicity, education, and future employment planning. Technicians' primary work settings, the roles they fill, and the types of certification they hold are described. Incentives offered by employers are considered to explore how they contribute to job satisfaction. Understanding the perceptions of technicians regarding the benefits of certification and the limitations of workplace incentives should enable employers to improve their recruitment and retention programs. Information obtained may offer a baseline for future observations of the characteristics of these significant and essential contributors to the nephrology workforce.

  8. Dialysis therapies: a National Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Rajnish; Agarwal, Anil; Bargman, Joanne M; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Johansen, Kirsten L; Watnick, Suzanne; Work, Jack; McBryde, Kevin; Flessner, Michael; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-04-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and disease. Kidney Research National Dialogue participants identified the need to improve outcomes in ESRD by decreasing mortality and morbidity and enhancing quality of life as high priority areas in kidney research. To reach these goals, we must identify retained toxins in kidney disease, accelerate technologic advances in dialysate composition and devices to remove these toxins, advance vascular access, and identify measures that decrease the burden of disease in maintenance dialysis patients. Together, these research objectives provide a path forward for improving patient-centered outcomes in ESRD.

  9. Cross polarization compatible dialysis chip.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy

    2014-10-07

    We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber.

  10. Death or dialysis? The risk of dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure after trauma nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Kristopher C; Yeung, Louise Y; Miranda, Marvin A; Miraflor, Emily J; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Victorino, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.

  11. Being-in-dialysis: The experience of the machine-body for home dialysis users.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rhonda

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand leads the world in rates of home dialysis use, yet little is known about the experience of home dialysis from the patient's perspective. This article contributes to the literature on the self-care of dialysis patients by examining the relevance of the concept of the machine-body and cyborg embodiment for the lived experience of people with end-stage renal failure. The article, which presents a discussion of 24 in-depth interviews undertaken between 2009 and 2012, shows that although dialysis therapy is disruptive of being and time, study participants experience home dialysis in terms of flexibility, control and independence. While they do not use the term machine-body as a descriptor, the concept resonates with felt experience. Data also indicate that positive experience of home dialysis is relative to socio-economic positioning and the lived relation of patients to others, necessitating further research to examine these factors.

  12. Evaluation of Bacteriological and Chemical Quality of Dialysis Water and Fluid in Isfahan, Central Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHAHRYARI, Ali; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; VAHID DASTJERDI, Marzieh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemical and microbial quality of water used in hemodialysis play key roles in a number of dialysis-related complications. In order to avoid the complications and to guarantee safety and health of patients therefore, vigorous control of water quality is essential. The objective of present study was to investigate the chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water used in dialysis centers of five hospitals in Isfahan, central Iran. Methods: A total of 30 water samples from the input of dialysis purification system and dialysis water were analyzed for chemical parameters. Heterotrophic plate count and endotoxin concentration of drinking water, dialysis water and dialysis fluid of 40 machines were also monitored over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. Results: Concentration of the determined chemicals (copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, chloramines and free chlorine) did not exceed the recommended concentration by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) exclude lead, nitrate, aluminum and calcium. Furthermore, the magnesium; cadmium and chromium concentration exceeded the maximum level in some centers. No contamination with heterotrophic bacteria was observed in all samples, while the AMMI standard for endotoxin level in dialysis fluid (<2 EU/ml) was achieved in 95% of samples. Conclusion: Dialysis water and fluid failed to meet the all chemical and bacteriological requirements for hemodialysis. To minimize the risk of contaminants for hemodialysis patients therefore, a water quality management program including monitoring, maintenance and development of water treatment system in hemodialysis centers is extremely important. In addition, an appropriate disinfection program is needed to guarantee better control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. PMID:27398338

  13. Managing progressive renal disease before dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To enhance awareness of issues affecting patients with chronic renal failure and to provide guidance for primary care practitioners managing such patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized trials establish the efficacy of blood pressure control and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in slowing the progression of chronic renal disease. Some randomized trials and many prospective studies address management of anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and multidisciplinary predialysis care. The benefits of lipid lowering are suggested by randomized trials among patients without renal disease. MAIN MESSAGE: Progression of renal failure, particularly in patients with proteinuria, can be slowed by lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are more beneficial than other antihypertensives in this situation. Partial correction of anemia with iron, erythropoietin, or androgens can improve quality of life and potentially prevent cardiac disease. Renal bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism can be prevented in part by early dietary phosphate restriction, use of calcium-containing phosphate binders, and activated vitamin D. Correction of acidosis could improve protein metabolism and bone and cardiovascular health. Treatment of hyperlipidemia might reduce cardiovascular disease. Early involvement of a nephrology-based multidisciplinary team has the potential to reduce morbidity and costs, enhance patients' knowledge of their condition, and prolong the period before dialysis is required. CONCLUSIONS: Care of patients with progressive renal failure is complex and requires attention to detail. Family doctors play a vital role in these efforts and should be involved in all aspects of care. PMID:10216796

  14. Naturally nonanemic dialysis patients: Who are they?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murvet; Kircelli, Fatih; Artan, Ayse Serra; Oto, Ozgur; Asci, Gulay; Gunestepe, Kutay; Basci, Ali; Ok, Ercan; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Not only anemia, but also erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)s for treating anemia may adversely affect prognosis of chronic hemodialysis patients. Various features of naturally (with no ESA usage) nonanemic patients may be useful for defining several factors in the pathogenesis of anemia. Methods Data, retrieved from the European Clinical Database (EuCliD)-Turkey on naturally nonanemic prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients (n: 201) were compared with their anemic (those who required ESA treatment) counterparts (n: 3948). Findings Mean hemoglobin values were 13.5 ± 0.8 and 11.5 ± 0.9 g/dL in nonanemic and anemic patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Nonanemia status was associated with younger age, male gender, longer dialysis vintage, nondiabetic status, more frequent hepatitis-C virus seropositivity and more frequent arteriovenous fistula usage. Serum ferritin and CRP levels and urea reduction ratio were higher in ESA-requiring patients. One (99%) and two (95.3%) years survival rates of the "naturally nonanemic" patients were superior as compared to anemics (91.0% and 82.6%, respectively), (P < 0.001). Discussion "Naturally nonanemic" status is associated with better survival in prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients; underlying mechanisms in this favorable outcome should be investigated by randomized controlled trials including large number of patients.

  15. [Dialysis dose quantification in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.

  16. Twenty-one year mortality in a dialysis unit: changing effect of withdrawal from dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, K; Tzamaloukas, A H; Conneen, S; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Murata, G H

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the factors affecting the decision to withdraw from dialysis, the authors compared patients withdrawing from dialysis (n=62) with patients dying from all other causes (n=242) over 21 years (1976-1996) in a single dialysis unit. Compared with those who died from other causes, patients who withdrew were older (67+/-11 vs 61+/-11 years); were more likely to have severe physical impairment (87% vs 62%) and severe restriction of activities of daily living (77% vs 46%); and had higher frequencies of congestive heart failure (81 % vs 62%), myocardial infarction (60% vs 42%), peripheral vascular disease (71 % vs 40%), and diabetes mellitus (66% vs 36%) (p < or = 0.014). Dialysis modality; duration of dialysis; the degree of family support; index of disease severity; the use of tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs; and the frequency of ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmia, pericarditis, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, hypertension, obstructive lung disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus did not differ between the two groups. Stepwise logistic regression showed that dialysis during 1990-1996, severe limitation of activities of daily living, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for withdrawal. During 1990-1996, 44% of the deaths were caused by withdrawal from treatment. In addition to other factors, dialysis in the 1990s is a strong predictor of withdrawal from dialysis. The reasons for the increased rate of withdrawal from dialysis in recent years, and the effect of this increased rate of withdrawal on mortality, need further evaluation.

  17. Defining Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A.; Zaritsky, Joshua; Suarez, Angela; Wong, William; Ranchin, Bruno; Qi, Cao; Szabo, Attila J.; Coccia, Paula A.; Harambat, Jérôme; Mitu, Florin; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different pediatric reference systems on the estimated prevalence of LVH in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Echocardiographic studies in 507 pediatric CPD patients from neonatal age to 19 years were collected in 55 pediatric dialysis units around the globe. We compared the prevalence of LVH on the basis of the traditional cutoff of left ventricular mass (LVM) index (>38.5 g/m2.7) with three novel definitions of LVH that were recently established in healthy pediatric cohorts. Results Application of the new reference systems eliminated the apparently increased prevalence of LVH in young children obtained by the traditional fixed LVM index cutoff currently still recommended by consensus guidelines. However, substantial differences of LVM distribution between the new reference charts resulted in a marked discrepancy in estimated LVH prevalence ranging between 27.4% and 51.7%. Conclusions Although our understanding of the anthropometric determinants of heart size during childhood is improving, more consistent normative echocardiographic data from large populations of healthy children are required for cardiovascular diagnostics and research. PMID:21737857

  18. Dialysis treatment in Australia, 1982 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of new dialysis-dependent patients in Australia increased rapidly from 1982, due mainly to acceptance for treatment of more elderly patients. In 1988, 21% of patients beginning dialysis were 65 to 74 years old, and a further 26% were 55 to 64 years. Consequently, the prevalence of dialysis-dependent patients increased considerably during the same period, particularly in the age range 55 to 74 years. Diabetes-induced renal failure accounted for a constant low proportion of new patients, approximately 10%, which contrasted with the experience in some other countries. Hemodialysis (HD) was the more common method of treatment compared with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in 1988 (70% v 30%, respectively). Home dialysis treatment, HD or CAPD, supported 50% of all dialysis-dependent patients. Patient survival at 1, 2, and 5 years after initiating treatment was 89%, 78%, and 48%, respectively. Age and method of dialysis significantly influenced survival; the elderly and diabetic had a lower expectation of survival. The difference in survival of HD compared with CAPD increased with the duration of treatment, reaching 20% at 5 years (5-year survival, 59% HD; 39% CAPD). There was no evidence of increasing mortality among patients beginning treatment recently. Withdrawal from treatment represented 16% of deaths during 1988; 19% of the deaths were in the age group 65 to 74 years. The influence of the morbidity and mortality of dialysis on provision of such treatment for end-stage renal failure in the elderly population warrants an objective review of both the benefits to the individual and the availability of health care to the whole society.

  19. Old and New Perspectives on Peritoneal Dialysis in Italy Emerging from the Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group Census

    PubMed Central

    Marinangeli, Giancarlo; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Neri, Loris; Viglino, Giusto; Russo, Roberto; Teatini, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: To understand how peritoneal dialysis (PD) was being used in Italy in 2005 and 2008, a census of all centers was carried out. ♦ Methods: In 2005 and 2008, data were collected from, respectively, 222 and 223 centers, with respect to 4432 and 4094 prevalent patients. ♦ Results: In the two periods, the PD incidence remained stable (24.3% vs 22.9%), varying from center to center. Continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) was the main initial method (55%), but APD was more widespread among prevalent patients (53%). Among patients returning to dialysis from transplantation (Tx), PD was used in 10%. The use of incremental CAPD increased significantly from 2005 to 2008, in terms both of the number of centers (27.0% vs 40.9%) and of patients (13.6% vs 25.7%). Late referrals remained stable at 28%, with less use of PD. The overall drop-out rate (episodes/100 patient-years) remained unchanged (31.0 vs 32.8), with 13.1 and 12.9 being the result of death, and 11.8 and 12.4 being the result of a switch to hemodialysis, mainly after peritonitis. A dialysis partner was required by 21.8% of the PD patients. The incidence of peritonitis was 1 episode in 36.5 and 41.1 patient-months, with negative cultures occurring in 17.1% of cases in both periods. The incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (episodes/100 patient-years) was 0.70, representing 1.26% of patients treated. The catheter types used and the sites and methods of insertion varied widely from center to center. ♦ Conclusions: These censuses confirm the good results of PD in Italy, and provide insight into little-known aspects such as the use of incremental PD, the presence of a dialysis partner, and the incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. PMID:22383633

  20. Effect of sertraline hydrochloride on dialysis hypotension.

    PubMed

    Dheenan, S; Venkatesan, J; Grubb, B P; Henrich, W L

    1998-04-01

    Hemodialysis hypotension (HH) is a very common disorder and has a multifactorial etiology. Autonomic dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and plays a key role in HH in some patients. Sertraline hydrochloride, a central nervous system serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction in disorders such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. This study sought to determine whether sertraline was effective in ameliorating HH. A retrospective chart analysis was performed that included nine consecutive patients (aged > or = 54 years, time on hemodialysis > or = 2.2 years) placed on sertraline (50 to 100 mg/d) for depression who also had HH (defined as prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure [SBP] < or = 100 mm Hg, > or = 40 mm Hg decrease in SBP during hemodialysis, SBP <90 mm Hg, any diastolic blood pressure <40 mm Hg, or a decrease in blood pressure-causing symptoms) before treatment with sertraline. The data from a 6-week pre-sertraline period were compared with the data from a 6-week sertraline period (defined as 6 weeks after drug begun). Blood pressure medications were unchanged during the trial period of sertraline. However, nadir mean arterial pressure recorded during a given dialysis session in the pre-sertraline period (55+/-4 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that recorded in the sertraline period (68+/-5 mm Hg; P < 0.05). In addition, the number of hypotensive episodes (same definition as HH) per dialysis session during the sertraline period was significantly lower than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 0.6+/-0.2 episodes per session v 1.4+/-0.3 episodes per session; P < 0.005). The number of therapeutic interventions required for hypotension during the sertraline period was also significantly less than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 1.7+/-0.8 interventions v 11.0+/-3.0 interventions; P < 0

  1. Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) specific induction and temporal stability in urine samples as a reliable biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Trejo, Juan Antonio; Pérez-Villalva, Rosalba; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego L; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E; Gamba, Gerardo; Flores, María Elena; Bobadilla, Norma A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that urinary heat shock protein of 72 KDa (Hsp72) is a sensitive biomarker for the early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, whether Hsp72 induction during an AKI episode is kidney-specific is unknown, as well as, the degree of Hsp72 stability in urine samples. In rats that underwent bilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), Hsp72 levels were evaluated in several tissues and in collected urines under different storage and temperature conditions, as well as in variable numbers of freeze-thaw cycles. The effect of room temperature and five freeze-thaw cycles on urinary Hsp72 levels was also evaluated in urine samples from AKI patients. We found that Hsp72 increased exclusively in the renal cortex of I/R group, emphasizing its performance as an AKI biomarker. Urinary-Hsp72 remained constant at room temperature (48 h), during 9 months of storage and was not affected by five freeze/thaw cycles.

  2. Transcription initiation in vivo without classical transactivators: DNA kinks flanking the core promoter of the housekeeping yeast adenylate kinase gene, AKY2, position nucleosomes and constitutively activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, Michaela; Oechsner, Ulrich; Gregor, Kerstin; Schroth, Gary P; Bandlow, Wolfhard

    2002-10-01

    The housekeeping gene of the major adenylate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AKY2, ADK1) is constitutively transcribed at a moderate level. The promoter has been dissected in order to define elements that effect constitutive transcription. Initiation of mRNA synthesis at the AKY2 promoter is shown to be mediated by a non-canonic core promoter, (TA)(6). Nucleotide sequences 5' of this element only marginally affect transcription suggesting that promoter activation can dispense with transactivators and essentially involves basal transcription. We show that the core promoter of AKY2 is constitutively kept free of nucleosomes. Analyses of permutated AKY2 promoter DNA revealed the presence of bent DNA. DNA structure analysis by computer and by mutation identified two kinks flanking an interstitial stretch of 65 bp of moderately bent core promoter DNA. Kinked DNA is likely incompatible with packaging into nucleosomes and responsible for positioning nucleosomes at the flanks allowing unimpeded access of the basal transcription machinery to the core promoter. The data show that in yeast, constitutive gene expression can dispense with classical transcriptional activator proteins, if two prerequisites are met: (i) the core promoter is kept free of nucleosomes; this can be due to structural properties of the DNA as an alternative to chromatin remodeling factors; and (ii) the core promoter is pre-bent to allow a high rate of basal transcription initiation.

  3. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and the Risk of AKI: A Cohort Study of Eight Administrative Databases and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Renoux, Christel; Lix, Lisa M.; Patenaude, Valérie; Bresee, Lauren C.; Paterson, J. Michael; Lafrance, Jean-Philippe; Tamim, Hala; Mahmud, Salaheddin M.; Alsabbagh, Mhd. Wasem; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Dormuth, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives A safety signal regarding cases of AKI after exposure to serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) was identified by Health Canada. Therefore, this study assessed whether the use of SNRIs increases the risk of AKI compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and examined the risk associated with each individual SNRI. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Multiple retrospective population-based cohort studies were conducted within eight administrative databases from Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom between January 1997 and March 2010. Within each cohort, a nested case-control analysis was performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) of AKI associated with SNRIs compared with SSRIs using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for high-dimensional propensity scores. The overall effect across sites was estimated using meta-analytic methods. Results There were 38,974 cases of AKI matched to 384,034 controls. Current use of SNRIs was not associated with a higher risk of AKI compared with SSRIs (fixed-effect RR, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.94 to 1.01). Current use of venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine considered together was not associated with a higher risk of AKI (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.00). For current use of duloxetine, there was significant heterogeneity among site-specific estimates such that a random-effects meta-analysis was performed showing a 16% higher risk, although this risk was not statistically significant (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.40). This result is compatible with residual confounding, because there was a substantial imbalance in the prevalence of diabetes between users of duloxetine and users of others SNRIs or SSRIs. After further adjustment by including diabetes as a covariate in the model along with propensity scores, the fixed-effect RR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.10). Conclusions There is no evidence that use of SNRIs is associated with a

  4. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  5. Patency and complications of translumbar dialysis catheters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fanna; Bennett, Stacy; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse; Heyka, Robert; McLennan, Gordon; Navaneethan, Sankar D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Translumbar tunneled dialysis catheter (TLDC) is a temporary dialysis access for patients exhausted traditional access for dialysis. While few small studies reported successes with TLDC, additional studies are warranted to understand the short and long-term patency and safety of TLDC. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients who received TLDC for hemodialysis access from June 2006 to June 2013. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, dialysis details, catheter insertion procedures and associated complications, catheter patency, and patient survival data were collected. Catheter patency was studied using Kaplan-Meier curve; catheter functionality was assessed with catheter intervals and catheter related complications were used to estimate catheter safety. Results There were 84 TLDCs inserted in 28 patients with 28 primary insertions and 56 exchanges. All TLDC insertions were technically successful with good blood flow during dialysis (>300 ml/min) and no immediate complications (major bleeding or clotting) were noted. The median number of days in place for initial catheter, secondary catheter and total catheter were 65, 84 and 244 respectively. The catheter patency rate at 3, 6 and 12 months were 43%, 25% and 7% respectively. The main complications were poor blood flow (40%) and catheter related infection (36%), which led to 30.8% and 35.9% catheter removal respectively. After translumbar catheter, 42.8% of the patients were successfully converted to another vascular access or peritoneal dialysis. Conclusion This study data suggests that TLDC might serve as a safe, alternate access for dialysis patients in short-term who have exhausted conventional vascular access. PMID:25800550

  6. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing of carboplatin and etoposide during peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    English, M. W.; Lowis, S. P.; Peng, B.; Boddy, A.; Newell, D. R.; Price, L.; Pearson, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Two patients with relapsed Wilms' tumour and renal failure requiring dialysis were given carboplatin and etoposide by pharmacokinetically guided dosing. The target area under the drug plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 6 mg ml-1 min for carboplatin and 18 and 21 mg ml-1 min for etoposide. On course 1 measured AUCs of carboplatin and etoposide were 6 and 20 mg ml-1 min for patient 1 and 6 and 21 mg ml-1 min for patient 2 respectively. Peritoneal dialysis did not remove carboplatin or etoposide from the plasma, however carboplatin but not etoposide was cleared by haemodialysis. Therapy with carboplatin and etoposide is possible in children and adults with renal failure who require dialysis, but in this situation pharmacokinetic monitoring is essential. PMID:8611379

  7. Strategies to improve clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis patients: delivered dose and membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Churchill, D N

    1998-12-01

    For patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis, prospective cohort studies using multivariate statistical analysis have shown an association between greater urea clearance and a decreased relative risk for death. The recommended weekly Kt/V for urea is 2.0, with the corresponding creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 60 L/1.73 m2. This is considered adequate dialysis but fails to define optimum urea and CrCl targets. The assumption that renal and peritoneal clearances are equivalent has been challenged by circumstantial data and is probably untenable. The relative importance of these clearances requires definition. The suggestion that CrCl is a more important indicator of adequacy of dialysis is confounded by association with renal, rather than peritoneal, clearance and perhaps by the early referral and initiation of dialysis. Recent reports have shown an association between increased peritoneal membrane transport and an increased relative risk for technique failure and/or death. Patients with higher peritoneal transport should have greater clearance of urea and creatinine and better clinical outcomes. Possible explanations for this apparent contradiction include the adverse effects of increased glucose absorption, malnutrition, and fluid overload, the latter caused by decreased ultrafiltration. Available data suggest an important role for the failure of ultrafiltration among patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Strategies to improve the clearance of urea and creatinine include the preservation of residual renal function and increased peritoneal clearance. Loss of residual renal function may be delayed by the avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs and angiographic dye. Peritoneal clearance can be enhanced by a combination of increased volume and frequency of peritoneal dialysis cycles. Ultrafiltration failure, but not protein loss, can be addressed with shorter cycles with nocturnal peritoneal dialysis. Development of

  8. Selection bias explains apparent differential mortality between dialysis modalities.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert R; Hux, Janet E; Oliver, Matthew J; Austin, Peter C; Tonelli, Marcello; Laupacis, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The relative risk of death for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis compared with those treated with hemodialysis appears to change with duration of dialysis therapy. Patients who start dialysis urgently are at high risk for mortality and are treated almost exclusively with hemodialysis, introducing bias to such mortality comparisons. To better isolate the association between dialysis treatment modality and patient mortality, we examined the relative risk for mortality for peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis among individuals who received ≥4 months of predialysis care and who started dialysis electively as outpatients. From a total of 32,285 individuals who received dialysis in Ontario, Canada during a nearly 8-year period, 6,573 patients met criteria for elective, outpatient initiation. We detected no difference in survival between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis after adjusting for relevant baseline characteristics. The relative risk of death did not change with duration of dialysis therapy in our primary analysis, but it did change with time when we defined our patient population using the more inclusive criteria typical of previous studies. These results suggest that peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis associate with similar survival among incident dialysis patients who initiate dialysis electively, as outpatients, after at least 4 months of predialysis care. Selection bias, rather than an effect of the treatment itself, likely explains the previously described change in the relative risk of death over time between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

  9. Dialysis utilization in the Toronto region from 1981 to 1992. Toronto Region Dialysis Committee.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Chery, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in the demand for and supply of dialysis in the Toronto region and to determine whether planned dialysis expansion will be sufficient to provide for the projected growth of the dialysis population. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of data reported to the Toronto Region Dialysis Registry between 1981 and 1992, compared with provincial and national equivalents. SETTING: All secondary and tertiary care dialysis programs in the Toronto region participating in the registry. PATIENTS: All 504 existing patients enrolled in dialysis programs in 1981 and all 3794 new patients entering programs from 1982 to 1992. Patients with acute renal failure were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demand for dialysis: dialysis population at year end, age distribution, crude mortality rate and transplant rate. Supply of resources: distribution of modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), number of patients treated per hemodialysis station, number of hemodialysis stations per million population and hemodialysis utilization index (actual/budgeted treatments). RESULTS: During the study period the number of dialysis patients in the Toronto region went from 504 to 1422, for an increase of 182.1%. The average rate of growth was 9.8% per year. Of the total increment of 918 patients from 1981 to 1992, 390 (42.5%) were 65 years of age or more; none the less, the average annual crude mortality rate remained relatively constant, at 13.8% to 17.3%. The transplantation rate declined from a peak of 20.2% in 1982 to 7.8% in 1992. During the study period the Toronto region had much higher numbers of dialysis patients, and hemodialysis patients, per hemodialysis station than the rest of Ontario or Canada. The region's hemodialysis utilization index was 101% in 1991 and 102% in 1992; the index in individual hospitals varied from 98% to 124% (85% was considered optimal). CONCLUSIONS: The growth of the dialysis population in the Toronto region has caused a critical shortage of

  10. Dialysis for acute kidney injury associated with influenza a (H1N1) infection.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Augusto; Arias, Marcelo; Cusumano, Ana; Coste, Eduardo; Simon, Miguel; Martinez, Ricardo; Mendez, Sandra; Raño, Miguel; Sintado, Luis; Lococo, Bruno; Blanco, Carlos; Cestari, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a novel influenza A, S-OIV (H1N1), pandemic. We observed 44 consecutive patients during the "first wave" of the pandemic. 70.5% of them showed co-morbidities (hypertension, obesity, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, pregnancy). Serious cases were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), particularly those with severe acute respiratory failure. Some of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI) and required renal replacement therapy (RRT). The average time between admission to the ICU and initiation of RRT was 3.16 ± 2.6 days. At initiation of RRT, most patients required mechanical ventilation. No relationship was found with creatinine-kinase levels. Seventy-five percent of the cases were observed during a 3-week period and mortality, related to respiratory failure, doubling of alanine amino transferase and use of inotropics was 81.8%. In conclusion, the H1N1-infected patients who developed RRT-requiring AKI, in the context of multi-organ failure, showed a high mortality rate. Thus, it is mandatory that elaborate strategies aimed at anticipating potential renal complications associated to future pandemics are implemented.

  11. Continuous flow peritoneal dialysis: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Buxo, José A

    2002-01-01

    Continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) can be considered a special form of hemodialysis, during which peritoneal effluent, rather than blood, is being dialyzed using standard hemodialysis technology. Preliminary clinical data have identified poor mixing of the dialysis solution, streaming and recirculation as a significant limitation in achieving maximal solute removal and ultrafiltration. Better catheter designs remain a research priority in this field. Although the clinical experience is limited to short-lasting experiments with CFPD, the preliminary data strongly support the superiority of CFPD as the most effective peritoneal dialysis modality in removing small solutes and providing high ultrafiltration rates. The levels of clearance attained are similar to quotidian hemodialysis. In addition, it is expected that the current methodology will provide a new standard of solution biocompatibility.

  12. Exit-site care in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Nand K; Reddy, Gampala H

    2007-01-01

    Exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection and associated peritonitis are major causes of morbidity and catheter loss in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Meticulous exit-site care is vital in preventing ESI. Avoiding trauma to the exit-site and daily cleaning of the exit-site with a dedicated antimicrobial soap is essential for the longevity of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. Antibiotics cream and disinfectant agents including povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, electrolytic chloroxidizing solutions (Amuchina 10% - ExSept Plus, Amuchina 5% - ExSept) are useful to keep the resident micro-organisms inhibited. ESI rates in peritoneal dialysis patients treated with Amuchina 10% (ExSept Plus) and Amuchina 5% (ExSept) for the exit-site care are similar or lower compared to povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine. Electrolytic chloroxidizing (Amuchina 10% - ExSept Plus and Amuchina 5% - ExSept) solutions for exit-site care are effective for prevention and treatment of ESI.

  13. Diclofenac sodium injection (akis(®), dicloin (®)): a review of its use in the management of pain.

    PubMed

    Blair, Hannah A; Plosker, Greg L

    2015-06-01

    A novel formulation of diclofenac sodium suitable for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection (Akis(®), Dicloin(®)) has been developed using the complexing agent hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as a solubility enhancer. Diclofenac HPβCD is available in several European countries, where it is indicated for use in adults with acute forms of pain, including postoperative pain. Clinical trials have demonstrated the analgesic efficacy of diclofenac HPβCD in terms of relieving moderate to severe postoperative pain in patients undergoing dental surgery or minor orthopaedic surgery. Subcutaneous diclofenac HPβCD also effectively relieved moderate to severe neuropathic pain, related to cancer or not. Diclofenac HPβCD was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with injection-site reactions among the most commonly reported adverse events. The local tolerability of diclofenac HPβCD was consistently rated as 'good' or 'excellent' across all studies. Subcutaneous administration of diclofenac is a valid alternative to intramuscular delivery, with the advantages of easier administration, the availability of additional body sites suitable for injection and the potential for self-administration. Thus, diclofenac HPβCD 25, 50 or 75 mg/mL solution for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection extends the treatment options available for use in the management of pain in adults.

  14. Physiological benefits of exercise in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gould, Douglas W; Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Watson, Emma L; Viana, João L; Smith, Alice C

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and muscle wasting, arising from numerous factors associated with declining renal function and lifestyle factors. Exercise has the ability to impact beneficially on the comorbidities associated with CKD and is accepted as an important intervention in the treatment, prevention and rehabilitation of other chronic diseases, however, the role of exercise in CKD is overlooked, with the provision of rehabilitation programmes well behind those of cardiology and respiratory services. Whilst there is now a large evidence base demonstrating the efficacy and safety of exercise training interventions in patients receiving dialysis, and this is now becoming incorporated into clinical guidelines for treatment of dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. Despite this, existing studies indicate that exercise can improve physical functioning and impact positively on the mediators of co-morbid diseases and upstream factors associated with progression of renal disease. Although preliminary evidence appears positive, more research is required to identify the best modes, frequency and intensities of exercise in order to optimise exercise prescription in pre-dialysis CKD patients. This review summarizes what is known about the main effects of exercise in pre-dialysis CKD patients, discusses the potential of exercise in the rehabilitation and treatment of disease and highlights the need for further research.

  15. Safety of Regular-Dose Imatinib Therapy in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Undergoing Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Ryota; Serizawa, Takako; Yamada, Atsuo; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Tanaka, Mariko; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The number of cancer patients undergoing dialysis has been increasing, and the number of these patients on chemotherapy is also increasing. Imatinib is an effective and safe therapy for KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but the efficacy and safety of imatinib in dialysis patients remain unclear. Because clinical trials have not been conducted in this population, more investigations are required. We report on a 75-year-old Japanese man undergoing dialysis who presented with massive tarry stool from a duodenal GIST. The duodenal GIST was 14 cm in diameter with multiple liver and bone metastases. The patient underwent an urgent pancreaticoduodenectomy to achieve hemostasis. After surgery, he was administered imatinib 400 mg/day. No severe adverse event including myelosuppression, congestive heart failure, liver functional impairment, intestinal pneumonia, or Steven-Johnson syndrome occurred, and the liver metastasis remained stable for 4 months. During chemotherapy, hemodialysis continued three times per week without adverse events. We suggest that regular-dose imatinib is an effective and safe treatment in patients with GIST undergoing dialysis. In addition, we present a literature review of the effectiveness and safety of imatinib treatment in dialysis patients.

  16. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.

  17. Peritoneal Dialysis Registry With 2012 Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Shigeru; Moriishi, Misaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Itami, Noritomo; Masakane, Ikuto; Hanafusa, Norio; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Hamano, Takayuki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Shinoda, Toshio; Kazama, Junichiro; Watanabe, Yuzo; Shigematsu, Takashi; Marubayashi, Seiji; Morita, Osamu; Wada, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Seiji; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kimata, Naoki; Wakai, Kenji; Fujii, Naohiko; Ogata, Satoshi; Tsuchida, Kenji; Nishi, Hiroshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009, the peritoneal dialysis (PD) registry survey has been carried out as part of the annual nationwide survey conducted by the Statistical Survey Committee of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy with the cooperation of the Japanese Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. In this report, the current status of PD patients is presented on the basis of the results of the survey conducted at the end of 2012. The subjects were PD patients who lived in Japan and participated in the 2012 survey. Descriptive analysis of various items was performed, which included the current status of the combined use of PD and another dialysis method such as hemodialysis (HD) or hemodiafiltration (HDF), the method of exchanging dialysate, the use of an automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) machine, and the rates of peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection. From the results of the facility survey in 2012, the number of PD patients was 9514, a decrease of 128 from 2011. Among the entire dialysis patient population, 3.1% were PD patients, a decrease of 0.1%. Among the studied patients, 347 had a peritoneal catheter and underwent peritoneal lavage, 175 were started on PD in 2012 but introduced to other blood purification methods in the same year, and 1932 underwent both PD and another dialysis method such as HD or HDF. The percentage of patients who underwent PD and another dialysis method increased with PD vintage: <1 year, 4.8%; 1 to <2 years, 9.2%; 2 to <4 years, 16.3%; 4 to <8 years, 32.0%; and ≥8 years, 47.5%. The percentage of PD patients who completely manually exchanged the dialysate was 29.8%. The percentages of PD patients who used a double-bag exchange system with ultraviolet-light irradiation and those who used the same system but with a sterile connecting device were 54.7 and 13.9%, respectively. The percentage of patients on PD for <1 year using an APD machine was 43.4%, and it decreased with a PD vintage of ≥2 years. The mean rate of peritonitis was 0.22 per patient

  18. Avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Filitsa H

    2012-05-01

    This review is focused on minimizing complications and avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Issues related to planning for PD are covered first, with emphasis on PD versus hemodialysis outcomes. Catheter types and insertion techniques are described next, including relevant recommendations by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. A brief review of both noninfectious and infectious complications follows, with emphasis on cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Finally, recommendations for preventing PD-related infections are provided. In conclusion, with proper catheter insertion technique, good training, and attention to detail during the tenure in PD, excellent outcomes can be obtained in a well-informed motivated patient.

  19. Wearable impedance monitoring system for dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.

  20. Where does the nephrologist stand with a non-compliant, abusive dialysis patient?

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, Elizabeth B. D.

    2010-01-01

    Physicians have sworn to treat for the good of their patients. However, there are often conflicting needs and pressures which are ethical, medical, and legal which impact the ability of the physician to provide that care. Although most dialysis patients work with the physician and dialysis facility to obtain quality care, there are a few which are noncompliant and even abusive. This small minority requires an inordinate amount of work and presents the physician with a variety of ethical and legal issues. Unlike many other specialties, dialysis care presents additional problems due to the frequent interactions, limited treatment options, and morbid consequences of lack of care. This article outlines these issues and summarizes the difficult position that the nephrologist encounters when dealing with a noncompliant or abusive patient. PMID:21152373

  1. Just the Facts: Skin and Hair Problems on Dialysis

    MedlinePlus

    Just the Facts: Skin and Hair Problems on Dialysis How does dialysis affect my skin? Many people on dialysis have skin changes. The skin may seem more ... treated by a skin specialist. Why is my hair falling out? Hair is made of protein. If ...

  2. 42 CFR 415.176 - Renal dialysis services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not...

  3. 42 CFR 415.176 - Renal dialysis services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not...

  4. 42 CFR 415.176 - Renal dialysis services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not paid under...

  5. 42 CFR 415.176 - Renal dialysis services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renal dialysis services. 415.176 Section 415.176 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 415.176 Renal dialysis services. In the case of renal dialysis services, physicians who are not...

  6. An Alternative Approach to Delivering Intensive Dialysis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise E; Swift, Pauline A; Newbold, Sandra M; Bramham, Kate; Hurley, Anne; Gallagher, Hugh

    Pregnancy outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis are improving. Recent literature supports intensive hemodialysis (HD) as the modality of choice during pregnancy in ESRD. We report the successful delivery of a healthy infant at full term in a patient with ESRD by supplementing peritoneal dialysis (PD) with intermittent HD to achieve adequate dialysis intensity.

  7. Kidney Dialysis: When Is It Time to Stop?

    MedlinePlus

    ... My 82-year-old husband has been on kidney dialysis for a year. He's not a good candidate for a kidney transplant. How will we know when dialysis is ... Robert Albright, D.O. To determine how well kidney dialysis is working, your husband's doctor can check ...

  8. Survey of the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis program.

    PubMed

    Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2006-09-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we sent a questionnaire to 160 physicians; the heads of the 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA and 12 other consultants working in these centers. This covered decision makers in 109 centers (73.6%) in the Ministry of Health (MOH), 18 (12.2%) in Governmental-non-MOH centers, and 21 (14.2%) in private hospitals that, together, care for a population of more than 7300 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 559 on PD. The study was performed between September and December 2005. A total of 145 of the 160 physicians (90.6%) from 141 dialysis centers (95.2%) answered the questionnaire. There were 81 respondents (56.3%) who believed that follow-up of the PD patients should be available in all the dialysis centers, 80 (55.2%) would like to have a PD clinic at their centers, and only 20 (13.8%) had PD clinics in their centers. However, 93 (66.4%) respondents did not request from the administration of their hospitals to open a PD clinic and 62 (44.6%) admitted to having no expertise in managing the patients on PD, while 53 (38.1%) claimed that they did not have enough space in their dialysis centers to start a PD program. Regarding training and expertise, 57 (40.7%), 58 (43.3%), 48 (35.6%) and 72 (52.9%) physicians had training in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD), automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and acute PD, respectively. The comparisons between the health sectors in the KSA showed that MOH had significantly less active PD programs, and this reflected tremendously on the knowledge of the staff. Our survey indicates that the current practices concerning the PD programs in the KSA are modest, and that a new strategy is required to spread this modality of therapy horizontally in all the dialysis centers, and vertically by

  9. AngioJet Thrombectomy for Occluded Dialysis Fistulae: Outcome Data

    SciTech Connect

    Littler, Peter Cullen, Nicola; Gould, Derek; Bakran, Ali; Powell, Steven

    2009-03-15

    This study evaluates AngioJet thrombectomy of occluded autogenous dialysis fistulae and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in a UK hemodialysis population. Comparison is made with published data of alternative percutaneous thrombectomy methods. All patients with occluded dialysis fistulae who sought care at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital between October 2006 and June 2008 were included in the study. All patients were treated with the AngioJet Rheolytic Thrombectomy Device (Possis, Minneapolis, MN). Demographics, time of occlusion, adjunctive therapies, complications, and follow-up data have been prospectively recorded. A total of 64 thrombectomy procedures were performed in 48 patients. Forty-four autogenous fistulas were treated in 34 patients (19 brachiocephalic, 8 radiocephalic, and 7 transposed brachiobasilic). Twenty PTFE grafts were treated in 14 patients (9 brachioaxillary, 3 brachiocephalic loop grafts, 1 brachiobasilic, and 1 femoro-femoral). The average length of occlusion was 24 cm. Average time to intervention was 4 days. Immediate primary patency was 91%. Primary patency at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, was 71%, 60%, and 37%. Secondary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 87%, 77%, and 62%, respectively. Angioplasty was carried out in all procedures. Patients required stent insertion in 34 of the 64 thrombectomies to treat angioplasty-resistant stenoses. Complications included a puncture-site hematoma, and three angioplasty-related vein ruptures in one patient, all treated with covered stent grafts. Two cases of distal brachial arterial embolization were successfully treated by thrombosuction. AngioJet thrombectomy in dialysis access occlusion is safe and effective, comparing favorably with other methods.

  10. Iron Treatment Strategies in Dialysis-Dependent CKD.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Richa; Daloul, Reem; Coyne, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency is common in patients on chronic dialysis, and most require iron-replacement therapy. In addition to absolute iron deficiency, many patients have functional iron deficiency as shown by a suboptimal response to the use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents. Both absolute and functional iron-deficiency anemia have been shown to respond to intravenous (IV) iron replacement. Although parenteral iron is an efficacious method and superior to standard doses of oral iron in patients on hemodialysis, there are ongoing safety concerns about repeated exposure potentially enhancing infection risk and cardiovascular disease. Each IV iron product is composed of an iron core with a carbohydrate shell. The avidity of iron binding and the type of carbohydrate shell play roles in the safe maximal dose and the frequency and severity of acute infusion reactions. All IV iron products are taken up into the reticuloendothelial system where the shell is metabolized and the iron is stored within tissue ferritin or exported to circulating transferrin. IV iron can be given as large intermittent doses (loading therapy) or in smaller doses at frequent intervals (maintenance dosing regimen). Limited trial data and observational data suggest that a maintenance dosing regimen is more efficacious and possibly safer than loading therapy. There is no consensus regarding the preferred method of iron repletion in patients on peritoneal dialysis, although small studies comparing oral and parenteral iron regimens in these patients have shown the latter to be more efficacious. Use of IV iron in virtually all hemodialysis and many peritoneal dialysis patients remains the standard of care.

  11. Policies and health care financing issues for dialysis in Latin America: extracts from the roundtable discussion on the economics of dialysis and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Campos, Camilo; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Fortes, Paulo; Jarpa, Cecilia; Just, Paul; Luconi, Paulo; Lugon, Jocemir R; Pacheco, Alejandro; Paniagua, Ramon; Rodriguez, Konniev; Sanabria, Mauricio; Sciaraffia, Vito; Velasco, Carlos; De Arteaga, Javier

    2009-02-01

    During the 2008 Congress of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis, academic nephrologists, nephrology societies, and government officials from Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Central America, Ecuador, and Mexico participated in a roundtable discussion on the Economics of Dialysis and Chronic Kidney Disease in Latin America. The main focus was policy and health care financing. The roundtable promoted open discussion between policymakers and clinicians on how to find viable solutions to contain spending on treatment for end-stage renal disease into the future. A number of options were proposed, including early medical intervention (disease management programs) to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease in high-risk patients, promotion of pre-emptive renal transplantation, and use of the most cost-effective dialysis therapy that can be offered to a patient without compromising outcome. It was concluded that the burden of treating more patients in the future could be alleviated by wider utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, important changes in health care reimbursement systems and realignment of incentives in the region are required to support wider PD penetration.

  12. Peritoneal Dialysis in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Edelbaum, David N.; Sokol, Albert; Gaynor, Sanford; Rubini, Milton E.

    1968-01-01

    The long-term results of intermittent peritoneal dialysis in long-term treatment of renal disease have yet to equal those of intermittent hemodialysis. However, further exploration and refinement of this technique is justified. Performed in acute stages of disease, both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis relieve the symptoms of uremia and specifically “buy time” for the patient so that proper medical or surgical therapy may be instituted. In acute situations, peritoneal dialysis is the procedure of choice, and is an important adjunct to more conventional treatment for chronic renal disease. It may be useful sometimes even in chronically hemodialyzed patients—for example, when the hemodialysis cannula for one reason or another is inaccessible because of clots, replacement, or infection. It is especially valuable when the hemorrhagic complications of uremia contraindicate hemodialysis treatment. Its use in chronic uremia remains sharply limited in time, but for brief periods chronic peritoneal dialysis appears to be a reasonably satisfactory means of prolonging life while awaiting homotransplant or decision for maintenance hemodialysis therapy. PMID:5639945

  13. Identifying the value of computers in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sargent, John A

    2002-01-01

    Dialysis providers use computers to automate complicated tasks, ease staff burden, and develop knowledge or understanding to improve operations and patient care. Some applications are successful, others are not. Success can be economically quantified. Business--billing and accounts receivable computerization--can yield over $5.00 for $1.00 invested. The clinical case is more complex and difficult to economically justify. Computerization of clinical information for charge capture is the simplest application (< $1.00/treatment) yielding the greatest benefit. Economic benefits for improving quality of care through electronic medical records are more problematic. Provider benefit of clinical computing is strictly the net income from more dialysis treatments. Greater complexity--e.g., total electronic records--means more expensive systems and increased staff effort. Many systems cost in the $5.00 + range which must be paid by increasing provider overhead. Dialysis providers must determine the point where computerization no longer decreases operational costs as computing cost increases. This is a classical optimization problem; its solution is crucial to the economic health of the dialysis enterprise.

  14. Vitamin D and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Coral; Gutgarts, Victoria; Eisenberg, Elliot; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Most dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, including deficiencies in both activated vitamin D (1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and the less active 25-hydroxyvitamin D. These and other abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), if they remain untreated, lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone changes, such as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Activated vitamin D has been proven to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in dialysis patients and is currently used for this indication. There are multiple other potential “pleotrophic” effects associated with vitamin D therapy. These include associations with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, lower rates of infections and improved glycemic indexes. Meta-analyses of multiple observational studies have shown activated vitamin D therapy to be associated with improved survival. Observational data also suggest fewer infections and better glucose control. There have been no randomized clinical trials powered to evaluate mortality or other clinical outcomes. Small trials of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol) showed increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels without hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia, even when given in addition to activated vitamin D therapy. While activated vitamin D therapy is associated with improved outcomes, it also leads to higher fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels, which may be detrimental in dialysis patients. Further research is needed to evaluate whether activated or nutritional vitamin D therapy are beneficial in dialysis patients for outcomes other than secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26424141

  15. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Mathew, Milli; Hinduja, Anish; Padma, G

    2002-03-01

    Chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) has been initiated as a treatment modality for chronic renal failure patients in the Indian subcontinent since 1990. Over a period of 9 years both continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) have emerged as accepted forms of renal replacement therapy in our country. Although there were government restrictions on import of dialysis fluid until 1993, the availability of locally manufactured fluid in collapsible bags had facilitated the expansion of the programme to the far corners of the country and in neighbouring countries. Initially majority (78%) of the patients who were started on this programme were diabetics with other comorbid conditions who were drop-outs from haemodialysis and unfit for transplantation. Both CAPD and CCPD have been used for all age groups and for men and women. Majority of the patients do 3 x 2 l exchanges a day on CAPD; 8-10 l using a cycler at night those who are onCCPD. Peritonitis rate was 1 episode every 18 patient months. With the introduction of new connection and disposable sets the incidence of peritonitis is dropping down. The major cause of drop-out is cardiovascular death followed by peritonitis. Malnutrition is a major problem in both CAPD and haemodialysis patients. The programme has been expanded and there are over one thousand patients on this treatment in the country. The introduction of CPD had a major impact on the treatment of renal failure in India.

  16. [Dialysis and ecology: can we do better in the future?].

    PubMed

    Vuignier, Y; Pruijm, M; Jarrayah, F; Burnier, M

    2013-02-27

    Development of dialysis has saved the lives of many patients. However, haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are very demanding in resources such as water and electricity, and generate a large amount of waste. In this article, we will review the environmental aspects of dialysis. Different solutions will be discussed, such as recycling of water discharged during reverse osmosis, the integration of solar energy, recycling of waste plastics, and the use of other techniques such as sorbent dialysis. In a world where natural resources are precious and where global warming is a major problem, it is important that not only dialysis, but all branches of medicine become more attentive to ecology.

  17. Effect of ultrafiltration on peritoneal dialysis drug clearances.

    PubMed

    Lau, A H; Chow-Tung, E; Assadi, F K; Fornell, L; John, E

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of dialysate osmolarity on peritoneal dialysis drug transfer, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital, and tobramycin were determined in 10 rabbits using dialysate containing 1.5 and 4.25% glucose. Urea and creatinine clearances were also obtained for comparison. Under similar dialysis conditions, the peritoneal clearances of the three drugs remained unchanged for the two types of dialysate. In contrast, the peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine were significantly higher with the use of 4.25% glucose dialysate (p less than 0.001). Thus, peritoneal dialysis clearances of theophylline, phenobarbital and tobramycin are not significantly affected by hypertonicity-induced ultrafiltration during acute peritoneal dialysis.

  18. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, Naoki; Seki, George; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes.

  19. How Should Disaster Base Hospitals Prepare for Dialysis Therapy after Earthquakes? Introduction of Double Water Piping Circuits Provided by Well Water System

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    After earthquakes, continuing dialysis for patients with ESRD and patients suffering from crush syndrome is the serious problem. In this paper, we analyzed the failure of the provision of dialysis services observed in recent disasters and discussed how to prepare for disasters to continue dialysis therapy. Japan has frequently experienced devastating earthquakes. A lot of dialysis centers could not continue dialysis treatment owing to damage caused by these earthquakes. The survey by Japanese Society for Dialysis Treatment (JSDT) after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 showed that failure of lifelines such as electric power and water supply was the leading cause of the malfunction of dialysis treatment. Our hospital is located in Shizuoka Prefecture, where one of the biggest earthquakes is predicted to occur in the near future. In addition to reconstructing earthquake-resistant buildings and facilities, we therefore have adopted double electric and water lifelines by introducing emergency generators and well water supply systems. It is very important to inform politicians, bureaucrats, and local water departments that dialysis treatment, a life sustaining therapy for patients with end stage renal diseases, requires a large amount of water. We cannot prevent an earthquake but can curb the extent of a disaster by preparing for earthquakes. PMID:27999820

  20. Recent advances in the management of peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is a form of kidney dialysis that is used to remove accumulated metabolic waste products and water in patients with end stage kidney disease. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of glucose and its by-products, both found in peritoneal dialysis fluid, has been implicated in contributing to peritoneal damage over time, in turn limiting long-term use of the technique. Newer peritoneal dialysis solutions have been developed in the hope of reducing the unfavorable effects of peritoneal dialysis solutions. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that newer peritoneal dialysis fluids have salutary effects on the peritoneal membrane. Short-term clinical studies have also found some metabolic benefits of glucose-sparing regimens in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mixed results have been found in studies examining whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids reduce peritonitis rates. Long-term studies are needed to investigate whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids provide better peritoneal dialysis technique and/or patient survival, compared to standard glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids. PMID:26097730

  1. The Impact of Macro-and Micronutrients on Predicting Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Somlaw, Nicha; Lakananurak, Narisorn; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Phonork, Chayanat; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Susantithapong, Paweena; Loaveeravat, Passisd; Suwachittanont, Nattachai; Wirotwan, Thaksa-on; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Kittiskulnam, Piyawan

    2016-01-01

    Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who receive renal replacement therapy (RRT) have very high mortality rate. During RRT, there are markedly loss of macro- and micronutrients which may cause malnutrition and result in impaired renal recovery and patient survival. We aimed to examine the predictive role of macro- and micronutrients on survival and renal outcomes in critically ill patients undergoing continuous RRT (CRRT). This prospective observational study enrolled critically ill patients requiring CRRT at Intensive Care Unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from November 2012 until November 2013. The serum, urine, and effluent fluid were serially collected on the first three days to calculate protein metabolism including dietary protein intake (DPI), nitrogen balance, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Serum zinc, selenium, and copper were measured for micronutrients analysis on the first three days of CRRT. Survivor was defined as being alive on day 28 after initiation of CRRT.Dialysis status on day 28 was also determined. Of the 70 critically ill patients requiring CRRT, 27 patients (37.5%) survived on day 28. The DPI and serum albumin of survivors were significantly higher than non-survivors (0.8± 0.2 vs 0.5 ±0.3g/kg/day, p = 0.001, and 3.2±0.5 vs 2.9±0.5 g/dL, p = 0.03, respectively) while other markers were comparable. The DPI alone predicted patient survival with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69. A combined clinical model predicted survival with AUC of 0.78. When adjusted for differences in albumin level, clinical severity score (APACHEII and SOFA score), and serum creatinine at initiation of CRRT, DPI still independently predicted survival (odds ratio 4.62, p = 0.009). The serum levels of micronutrients in both groups were comparable and unaltered following CRRT. Regarding renal outcome, patients in the dialysis independent group had higher serum albumin levels than the dialysis dependent group, p = 0.01. In

  2. Peritoneal dialysis: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis was first employed in patients with acute renal failure in the 1940s and since the 1960s for those with end-stage renal disease. Its popularity increased enormously after the introduction of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the end of 1970s. This stimulated both clinical and basic research. In an ideal situation, this should lead to cross-fertilization between the two. The present review describes two examples of interactions: one where it worked out very well and another where basic science missed the link with clinical findings. Those on fluid transport are examples of how old physiological findings on absorption of saline and glucose solutions were adopted in peritoneal dialysis by the use of glucose as an osmotic agent. The mechanism behind this in patients was first solved mathematically by the assumption of ultrasmall intracellular pores allowing water transport only. At the same time, basic science discovered the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), and a few years later, studies in transgenic mice confirmed that AQP-1 was the ultrasmall pore. In clinical medicine, this led to its assessment in patients and the notion of its impairment. Drugs for treatment have been developed. Research on biocompatibility is not a success story. Basic science has focussed on dialysis solutions with a low pH and lactate, and effects of glucose degradation products, although the first is irrelevant in patients and effects of continuous exposure to high glucose concentrations were largely neglected. Industry believed the bench more than the bedside, resulting in ‘biocompatible’ dialysis solutions. These solutions have some beneficial effects, but are evidently not the final answer. PMID:26120456

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Hypertension in Chronic Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-11-07

    Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized. To individualize therapy, consideration should be given to intra- and interdialytic pharmacokinetics, effect on cardiovascular reflexes, ability to treat comorbid illnesses, and adverse effect profile. β-Blockers followed by dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are our first- and second-line choices for antihypertensive drug use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be reasonable third-line choices, because the evidence base to support their use in patients on dialysis is sparse. Add-on therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in specific subgroups of patients on dialysis (i.e., those with severe congestive heart failure) seems to be another promising option in anticipation of the ongoing trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. Adequately powered, multicenter, randomized trials evaluating hard cardiovascular end points are urgently warranted to elucidate the comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drug classes in patients on dialysis. In this review, we provide an overview of the randomized evidence on pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients on dialysis, and we conclude with suggestions for future research to address critical gaps in this important area.

  4. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Scarpioni, R; Ricardi, M; Albertazzi, V; De Amicis, S; Rastelli, F; Zerbini, L

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to the extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low-molecular-weight subunits of a variety of proteins. These deposits may result in a wide range of clinical manifestations depending upon their type, location, and the amount of deposition. Dialysis-related amyloidosis is a serious complication of long-term dialysis therapy and is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils, principally composed of β2 microglobulins (β2M), in the osteoarticular structures and viscera. Most of the β2M is eliminated through glomerular filtration and subsequent reabsorption and catabolism by the proximal tubules. As a consequence, the serum levels of β2M are inversely related to the glomerular filtration rate; therefore, in end-stage renal disease patients, β2M levels increase up to 60-fold. Serum levels of β2M are also elevated in several pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, and above all, in renal dysfunction. Retention of amyloidogenic protein has been attributed to several factors including type of dialysis membrane, prolonged uremic state and/or decreased diuresis, advanced glycation end products, elevated levels of cytokines and dialysate. Dialysis treatment per se has been considered to be an inflammatory stimulus, inducing cytokine production (such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and complement activation. The released cytokines are thought to stimulate the synthesis and release of β2M by the macrophages and/or augment the expression of human leukocyte antigens (class I), increasing β2M expression. Residual renal function is probably the best determinant of β2M levels. Therefore, it has to be maintained as long as possible. In this article, we will focus our attention on the etiology of dialysis-related amyloidosis, its prevention, therapy, and future solutions. PMID:27994478

  5. Dialysis adequacy today: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Canaud, Bernard

    2012-08-01

    The need to improve haemodialysis (HD) therapies and to reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality frequently encountered by dialysis patients has been recognized and addressed for many years. A number of approaches, including increasing the frequency versus duration of treatment, have been proposed and debated in terms of their clinical efficacy and economic feasibility. Future prescription of dialysis to an expanding end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD-5D) population needs a re-evaluation of existing practices while maintaining the emphasis on patient well-being both in the short and in the long term. Efficient cleansing of the blood of all relevant uraemic toxins, including fluid and salt overload, remains the fundamental objective of all dialysis therapies. Simultaneously, metabolic disorders (e.g. anaemia, mineral bone disease, oxidative stress) that accompany renal failure need to be corrected also as part of the delivery of dialysis therapy itself. Usage of high-flux membranes that enable small and large uraemic toxins to be eliminated from the blood is the first prerequisite towards the aforementioned goals. Application of convective therapies [(online-haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF)] further enhances the detoxification effects of high-flux haemodialysis (HF-HD). However, despite an extended clinical experience with both HF-HD and OL-HDF spanning more than two decades, a more widespread prescription of convective treatment modalities awaits more conclusive evidence from large-scale prospective randomized controlled trials. In this review, we present a European perspective on the need to implement optimal dialysis and to improve it by adopting high convective therapies and to discuss whether inertia to implement these practice patterns may deprive patients of significantly improved well-being and survival.

  6. More Use of Peritoneal Dialysis Gives Significant Savings: A Systematic Review and Health Economic Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Eva; Hamidi, Vida; Ringerike, Tove; Wisloff, Torbjorn; Klemp, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are in need of renal replacement therapy as dialysis and/or transplantation. The prevalence of ESRD and, thus, the need for dialysis are constantly growing. The dialysis modalities are either peritoneal performed at home or hemodialysis (HD) performed in-center (hospital or satellite) or home. We examined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HD performed at different locations (hospital, satellite, and home) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) at home in the Norwegian setting. Methods We conducted a systematic review for patients above 18 years with end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis in several databases and performed several meta-analyses of existing literature. Mortality and major complications that required were our main clinical outcomes. The quality of the evidence for each outcome was evaluated using GRADE. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by developing a probabilistic Markov model. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective, and effects were expressed in quality-adjusted life-years. Uncertainties in the base-case parameter values were explored with a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Scenario analyses were conducted by increasing the proportion of patients receiving PD with a corresponding reduction in HD patients in-center both for Norway and Europian Union. We assumed an annual growth rate of 4% in the number of dialysis patients, and a relative distribution between PD and HD in-center of 30% and 70%, respectively. Results From a societal perspective and over a 5-year time horizon, PD was the most cost-effective dialysis alternative. We found no significant difference in mortality between peritoneal and HD modalities. Our scenario analyses showed that a shift toward more patients on PD (as a first choice) with a corresponding reduction in HD in-center gave a saving over a 5-year period of 32 and 10,623 million EURO, respectively, for Norway and the European Union. Conclusions PD was

  7. [Dialysis as a system integrated into nephrology care (project no. 3 of the Italian Society of Nephrology) - president's letter].

    PubMed

    Coppo, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    The nephrology, dialysis and transplant system is facing considerable changes, many of them fear-provoking. The fear is not only related to changes in the working activities, but to the fact that these changes are perceived as being driven by purely economic laws in an attempt to save money. This generates a sense of uncertainty, which is never constructive. Chronic dialysis seems to be at particular risk. Nephrologists fear that dialysis will be undervalued as merely a routine technical procedure. The disappearance of chronic dialysis from the nephrology department is felt as a weakening of the system, leading ultimately to its incorporation into the broader system of internal medicine. In order to gain insight into the possible new organization of nephrology and dialysis activities, the Italian Society of Nephrology has launched a study titled ''Dialysis as a System Integrated into Nephrology Care'' in collaboration with CERGAS-Bocconi University of Economics, the Center for the Management of Health Care, and CUSAS-University of Florence. The study is aimed at comparing, by on-site investigation, different approaches to the management of nephrology and dialysis care offered in five centers representative of various Italian regions. Its final objective is to find ways to reconcile patients' needs with financial considerations. The Italian Society foresees the need for a strong coordination among various, apparently heterogeneous activities (from outpatient clinic to chronic dialysis care, kidney transplantation and follow-up of transplant recipients). Instead of moving towards a fragmented whole of individual entities, the care for kidney patients has to be perceived as a service devoted to a single disease entity which requires the activation of the entire service network. The nephrologist should have the responsibility for the entire process for the benefit of the patient.

  8. Should dialysis modalities be designed to remove specific uremic toxins?

    PubMed

    Baurmeister, Ulrich; Vienken, Joerg; Ward, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    The definition of optimal dialysis therapy remains elusive. Randomized clinical trials have neither supported using urea as a surrogate marker for uremic toxicity nor provided clear cut evidence in favor of larger solutes. Thus, where to focus resources in the development of new membranes, and therapies remains unclear. Three basic questions remain unanswered: (i) what solute(s) should be used as a marker for optimal dialysis; (ii) should dialytic therapies be designed to remove a specific solute; and (iii) how can current therapies be modified to provide better control of uremic toxicity? Identification of a single, well-defined uremic toxin appears to be unlikely as new analytical tools reveal an increasingly complex uremic milieu. As a result, it is probable that membranes and therapies should be designed for the nonspecific removal of a wide variety of solutes retained in uremia. Removal of the widest range of solutes can best be achieved using existing therapies that incorporate convection in conjunction with longer treatment times and more frequent treatments. Membranes capable of removing solutes over an expanded effective molecular size range can already be fabricated; however, their use will require novel approaches to conserve proteins, such as albumin.

  9. Dialysis access and the impact on body image: role of the nephrology nurse.

    PubMed

    Muringai, T; Noble, H; McGowan, A; Channey, M

    End-stage renal disease is a chronic condition, without cure, requiring dialysis therapy to maintain life or transplantation for those fortunate enough to receive a kidney. To commence dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis), access is required in the form of a fistula, vascular catheter or peritoneal catheter, and changes in body image will ensue, no matter what treatment option is selected. Renal transplantation, the treatment of choice for many patients, is also associated with body image issues. Despite these problems, the role of the nurse in managing body image problems in the renal population is rarely discussed. The aim of this article is to outline the concepts of dialysis and body image, and discuss the role of the nephrology nurse at the authors' current place of work. It highlights suggestions on how renal nurses can prepare and educate patients regarding changes in body image following a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease, and emphasizes the need for future research in this area.

  10. Safety and efficacy of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Lila J; Marathias, Katerina P; Alivizatos, Petros A; Michalis, Alkiviadis; Palatianos, George M; Stavridis, George T; Demesticha, Theano; Koussi, Theophili; Agroyannis, Basil; Vlahakos, Demetrios V

    2003-02-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been recently revived, because cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) appears to worsen the multiple organ dysfunction after conventional CABG. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the off-pump CABG in chronic dialysis patients, we compared the perioperative morbidity and mortality between 15 dialysis patients who underwent off-pump CABG at our center over the past 8 years with that of a concurrent group of 19 patients who underwent conventional CABG. Patients were selected for off-pump CABG only when complete revascularization was technically feasible. We found that off-pump CABG is as safe and effective as conventional CABG in selected dialysis patients. It might even be beneficial, because it is associated with less hematocrit drop and blood product use, a lower catabolic rate, and fewer dialysis requirements after surgery. However, the impact of off-pump technique on the long-term clinical outcome and resource utilization in renal patients requires further investigation.

  11. Biofeedback-driven dialysis: where are we?

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Mancini, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The progressive increase in the mean age and the growing conditions of co-morbidity, especially of cardiovascular pathologies and diabetes, have significantly worsened the patients' clinical status and tolerance to the hemodialysis (HD) treatment. On the other hand, the demand for short treatment times enhances the risk for hemodynamic instability as well as for inadequate depuration. The traditional management of the dialysis session, setting of predefined treatment parameters, with active therapeutic interventions only in the event of complications, is definitely unsuitable for short-lasting treatments, often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in critical patients. The first step to improve the management of the dialysis session is the utilization of continuous and uninvasive monitoring systems for hemodynamic or biochemical parameters involved in the dialysis quality. Special sensors for the continuous measurement of blood volume, blood temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, electrolytes, have been realized throughout the last 10 years. As a second step, some of these devices have been implemented in the dialysis instrumentation, mainly with a view to preventing cardiocirculatory instability but also to control the dialysis efficiency (biofeedback control systems). The basic components of a biofeedback system are: the plant, the sensors, the actuators and the controller. The plant is the biological process that we need to control, while the sensors are the devices used for measuring the output variables. The actuators are the working arms of the controller. The controller is the mathematical model that continuously sets the measured output variable against the reference input and modifies the actuators in order to reduce any discrepancies. Yet, in practice there are a number of conceptual, physical and technological difficulties to be overcome. In particular, the behavior of what is to be controlled may be non-linear and time-varying, with

  12. Patient assessment of quality of care in a chronic peritoneal dialysis facility.

    PubMed

    Wuerth, D B; Finkelstein, S H; Kliger, A S; Finkelstein, F O

    2000-04-01

    30 patients, whereas the physician-patient interaction was cited by only 14 patients. The most frequently cited area of dissatisfaction noted by all 30 patients concerned the dialysis regimen itself. The present study focuses attention on patient perceptions of their CPD facility, identifying areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The analysis is important not only in providing a framework for CPD facilities with which to review their own interactions with CPD patients, but also for identifying those areas that require attention to maintain the long-term viability of CPD therapy.

  13. Bidirectional association between ESRD dialysis and diabetes: National cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yeh-Wen; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Hsu, Chen-Fang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chien, Chih-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis, but it is not clear whether ESRD dialysis is a risk factor for new-onset diabetes (NODM). Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we designed two cohort studies to determine the association between dialysis and diabetes. Analysis 1 estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of ESRD dialysis in 20,585 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 82,340 gender- and age- matched controls without diabetes. Analysis 2 estimated the HRs of NODM in 18,489 ESRD patients undergoing dialysis and 73,956 gender- and age- matched controls without ESRD dialysis. The follow-up period was from 2000 to date of endpoint, the date of death, or December 31, 2008. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the relative hazards. Results In analysis 1, the incidence of ESRD dialysis was higher in the T2DM cohort than in the non-diabetes cohort (6.78 vs. 0.61 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 7.97; 95%CI: 7.05–8.00). In analysis 2, the incidence of NODM was higher in the ESRD dialysis cohort than in the without-ESRD dialysis cohort (22.84 vs. 13.99 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.34–1.47). Conclusions ESRD dialysis and diabetes were bidirectionally associated. The relationship between T2DM and incident ESRD dialysis was much stronger than between ESRD dialysis and NODM. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of ESRD dialysis-related NODM. PMID:28296932

  14. Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device with regional citrate anticoagulation and portable sorbent dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pino, Christopher J; Farokhrani, Amin; Lou, Liandi; Smith, Peter L; Johnston, Kimberly; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H David

    2013-02-01

    Selective cytopheretic inhibitory device (SCD) therapy is an immunomodulatory treatment provided by a synthetic biomimetic membrane in an extracorporeal circuit, which has shown promise in preclinical large animal models of severe sepsis as well as in clinical trials treating patients with acute kidney injury and multiple organ failure. During SCD therapy, citrate is administered to lower ionized calcium levels in blood for anticoagulation and inhibition of leukocyte activation. Historically, citrate has been known to interfere with sorbent dialysis, therefore, posing a potential issue for the use of SCD therapy with a portable dialysis system. This sorbent dialysis SCD (sorbent SCD) would be well suited for battlefield and natural disaster applications where the water supply for standard dialysis is limited, and the types of injuries in those settings would benefit from SCD therapy. In order to explore the compatibility of sorbent and SCD technologies, a uremic porcine model was tested with the Allient sorbent dialysis system (Renal Solutions Incorporated, Fresenius Medical Care, Warrendale, PA, USA) and concurrent SCD therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation. The hypothesis to be assessed was whether the citrate load required by the SCD could be metabolized prior to recirculation from systemic blood back into the therapeutic circuit. Despite the fact that the sorbent SCD maintained urea clearance without any adverse hematologic events, citrate load for SCD therapy caused an interaction with the sorbent column resulting in elevated, potentially toxic aluminum levels in dialysate and in systemic blood. Alternative strategies to implement sorbent-SCD therapy will be required, including development of alternate urease-sorbent column binding chemistry or further changes to the sorbent-SCD therapeutic circuit along with determining the minimum citrate concentration required for efficacious SCD treatment.

  15. Exploring Dynamic Risk Prediction for Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ganssauge, Malte; Padman, Rema; Teredesai, Pradip; Karambelkar, Ameet

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in the treatment of end-stage renal disease, mortality of hemodialysis patients remains high. Several models exist that predict mortality for this population and identify patients at risk. However, they mostly focus on patients at a particular stage of dialysis treatment, such as start of dialysis, and only use the most recent patient data. Generalization of such models for predictions in later periods can be challenging since disease characteristics change over time and the evolution of biomarkers is not adequately incorporated. In this research, we explore dynamic methods which allow updates of initial predictions when patients progress in time and new data is observed. We compare a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) to regularized logistic regression models and a Cox model with landmarking. Our preliminary results indicate that the DBN achieves satisfactory performance for short term prediction horizons, but needs further refinement and parameter tuning for longer horizons. PMID:28269937

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapies for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis: a case for excluding dialysis costs.

    PubMed

    Grima, Daniel T; Bernard, Lisa M; Dunn, Elizabeth S; McFarlane, Philip A; Mendelssohn, David C

    2012-11-01

    In many jurisdictions, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) plays an important role in determining drug coverage and reimbursement and, therefore, has the potential to impact patient access. Health economic guidelines recommend the inclusion of future costs related to the intervention of interest within CEAs but provide little guidance regarding the definition of 'related'. In the case of CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis but do not impact the need for or the intensity of dialysis, the determination of the relatedness of future dialysis costs to the therapy of interest is particularly ambiguous. The uncertainty as to whether dialysis costs are related or unrelated in these circumstances has led to inconsistencies in the conduct of CEAs for such products, with dialysis costs included in some analyses while excluded in others. Due to the magnitude of the cost of dialysis, whether or not dialysis costs are included in CEAs of such therapies has substantial implications for the results of such analyses, often meaning the difference between a therapy being deemed cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are excluded) or not cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are included). This paper explores the issues and implications surrounding the inclusion of dialysis costs in CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of dialysis patients but do not impact the need for dialysis. Relevant case studies clearly demonstrate that, regardless of the clinical benefits of a life-extending intervention for dialysis patients, and due to the high cost of dialysis, the inclusion of dialysis costs in the analysis essentially eliminates the possibility of obtaining a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. This raises the significant risk that dialysis patients may be denied access to interventions that are cost effective in other populations due solely to the high background cost of dialysis itself. Finally, the

  17. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  18. Green dialysis: the environmental challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation website begins: "Natural resource and energy conservation is achieved by managing materials more efficiently--reduce, reuse, recycle," yet healthcare agencies have been slow to heed and practice this simple message. In dialysis practice, notable for a recurrent, per capita resource consumption and waste generation profile second to none in healthcare, efforts to: (1) minimize water use and wastage; (2) consider strategies to reduce power consumption and/or use alternative power options; (3) develop optimal waste management and reusable material recycling programs; (4) design smart buildings that work with and for their environment; (5) establish research programs that explore environmental practice; all have been largely ignored by mainstream nephrology. Some countries are doing far better than others. In the United Kingdom and some European jurisdictions, exceptional recent progress has been made to develop, adopt, and coordinate eco-practice within dialysis programs. These programs set an example for others to follow. Elsewhere, progress has been piecemeal, at best. This review explores the current extent of "green" or eco-dialysis practices. While noting where progress has been made, it also suggests potential new research avenues to develop and follow. One thing seems certain: as global efforts to combat climate change and carbon generation accelerate, the environmental impact of dialysis practice will come under increasing regulatory focus. It is far preferable for the sector to take proactive steps, rather than to await the heavy hand of government or administration to force reluctant and costly compliance on the un-prepared.

  19. [Exploration of ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Salvatore; Coche, Emmanuel; Goffin, Eric

    2008-12-01

    Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It may be due to a technical problem (PD catheter obstruction or migration, peritoneal leaks or intraperitoneal adhesions) or because of a peritoneal membrane alteration (hyperpermeability, aquaporin dysfunction, peritoneal sclerosis or enhanced lymphatic reabsorption). We, here, present the case of a patient who developed several consecutive PD complications that eventually led to UFF. We also present an algorithm, which may help clinicians to establish a precise etiological diagnosis of UFF.

  20. Dialysis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Dialysis (Arabic) غسيل الكلى - العربية Bilingual PDF ...

  1. Lower Extremity Permanent Dialysis Vascular Access.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Vishal B; Niyyar, Vandana D; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2016-09-07

    Hemodialysis remains the most commonly used RRT option around the world. Technological advances, superior access to care, and better quality of care have led to overall improvement in survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Maintaining a functioning upper extremity vascular access for a prolonged duration continues to remain a challenge for dialysis providers. Frequently encountered difficulties in clinical practice include (1) a high incidence of central venous catheter-related central vein stenosis and (2) limited options for creating a functioning upper extremity permanent arteriovenous access. Lack of surgical skills, fear of complications, and limited involvement of the treating nephrologists in the decision-making process are some of the reasons why lower extremity permanent dialysis access remains an infrequently used option. Similar to upper extremity vascular access options, lower extremity arteriovenous fistula remains a preferred access over arteriovenous synthetic graft. The use of femoral tunneled catheter as a long-term access should be avoided as far as possible, especially with the availability of newer graft-catheter hybrid devices. Our review provides a summary of clinical evidence published in surgical, radiology, and nephrology literature highlighting the pros and cons of different types of lower extremity permanent dialysis access.

  2. Nephrologists' professional ethics in dialysis practices.

    PubMed

    Ozar, David T; Kristensen, Cynthia; Fadem, Stephen Z; Blaser, Robert; Singer, Dale; Moss, Alvin H

    2013-05-01

    Although the number of incidents is unknown, professional quality-oriented renal organizations have become aware of an increased number of complaints regarding nephrologists who approach patients with the purpose of influencing patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities (hereinafter referred to as patient solicitation). This development prompted the Forum of ESRD Networks and the Renal Physicians Association to publish a policy statement on professionalism and ethics in medical practice as these concepts relate to patient solicitation. Also common but not new is the practice of nephrologists trying to recruit their own patients to a new dialysis unit in which they have a financial interest. This paper presents two illustrative cases and provides an ethical framework for analyzing patient solicitation and physician conflict of interest. This work concludes that, in the absence of objective data that medical treatment is better elsewhere, nephrologists who attempt to influence patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities fall short of accepted ethical standards pertaining to professional conduct, particularly with regard to the physician-patient relationship, informed consent, continuity of care, and conflict of interest.

  3. Satisfaction with care in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, J; Perera-Chang, M; Klinkner, G; Soley, I; Marcelli, D; Arkossy, O; Stopper, A; Kimmel, P L

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important aspect of dialysis care, only recently evaluated in clinical studies. We developed a tool to assess peritoneal dialysis (PD) customer satisfaction, and sought to evaluate and validate the Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), quantifying PD patient satisfaction. The CSQ included questions regarding administrative issues, Delivery Service, PD Training, Handling Requests, and transportation. The study was performed using interviews in all Hungarian Fresenius Medical Care dialysis centers offering PD. CSQ results were compared with psychosocial measures to identify if patient satisfaction was associated with perception of social support and illness burden, or depression. We assessed CSQ internal consistency and validity. Factor analysis explored potential underlying dimensions of the CSQ. One hundred and thirty-three patients treated with PD for end-stage renal disease for more than 3 months were interviewed. The CSQ had high internal consistency. There was high patient satisfaction with customer service. PD patient satisfaction scores correlated with quality of life (QOL) and social support measures, but not with medical or demographic factors, or depressive affect. The CSQ is a reliable tool to assess PD customer satisfaction. PD patient satisfaction is associated with perception of QOL. Efforts to improve customer satisfaction may improve PD patients' quantity as well as QOL.

  4. What Medical Directors Need to Know about Dialysis Facility Water Management.

    PubMed

    Kasparek, Ted; Rodriguez, Oscar E

    2015-06-05

    The medical directors of dialysis facilities have many operational clinic responsibilities, which on first glance, may seem outside the realm of excellence in patient care. However, a smoothly running clinic is integral to positive patient outcomes. Of the conditions for coverage outlined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, one most critical to quality dialysis treatment is the provision of safe purified dialysis water, because there are many published instances where clinic failure in this regard has resulted in patient harm. As the clinical leader of the facility, the medical director is obliged to have knowledge of his/her facility's water treatment system to reliably ensure that the purified water used in dialysis will meet the standards for quality set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for conditions for coverage. The methods used to both achieve and maintain these quality standards should be a part of quality assessment and performance improvement program meetings. The steps for water treatment, which include pretreatment, purification, and distribution, are largely the same, regardless of the system used. Each water treatment system component has a specific role in the process and requires individualized maintenance and monitoring. The medical director should provide leadership by being engaged with the process, knowing the facility's source water, and understanding water treatment system operation as well as the clinical significance of system failure. Successful provision of quality water will be achieved by those medical directors who learn, know, and embrace the requirements of dialysis water purification and system maintenance.

  5. What Medical Directors Need to Know about Dialysis Facility Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    The medical directors of dialysis facilities have many operational clinic responsibilities, which on first glance, may seem outside the realm of excellence in patient care. However, a smoothly running clinic is integral to positive patient outcomes. Of the conditions for coverage outlined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, one most critical to quality dialysis treatment is the provision of safe purified dialysis water, because there are many published instances where clinic failure in this regard has resulted in patient harm. As the clinical leader of the facility, the medical director is obliged to have knowledge of his/her facility’s water treatment system to reliably ensure that the purified water used in dialysis will meet the standards for quality set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for conditions for coverage. The methods used to both achieve and maintain these quality standards should be a part of quality assessment and performance improvement program meetings. The steps for water treatment, which include pretreatment, purification, and distribution, are largely the same, regardless of the system used. Each water treatment system component has a specific role in the process and requires individualized maintenance and monitoring. The medical director should provide leadership by being engaged with the process, knowing the facility’s source water, and understanding water treatment system operation as well as the clinical significance of system failure. Successful provision of quality water will be achieved by those medical directors who learn, know, and embrace the requirements of dialysis water purification and system maintenance. PMID:25979976

  6. Limitations of the peritoneal equilibration test in prescribing and monitoring dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Harty, J C; Goldsmith, D J; Boulton, H; Heelis, N; Uttley, L; Morris, J; Venning, M C; Gokal, R

    1995-01-01

    Based on correlation analysis with 24-h dialysis collections the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) has been promoted as an aid to prescribe and monitor dialysis dose. However correlation is an incorrect statistical technique to demonstrate the similarity of one measure to another. The closeness (or limits) of agreement should be measured using the technique of Bland and Altman. One hundred and nineteen patients underwent a 24-h dialysate collection and a PET. D/P ratios for urea and creatinine, dialysate volume, urea and creatinine clearance and KT/V (urea) were calculated using both methods and compared using correlation analysis. In addition the limits of agreement, reflecting the potential margins of difference between the two methods, were determined. When used to calculate a daily dialysate volume required to achieve adequacy targets, the PET was found to result in a prescription error range of -0.6 to +1.51/day for creatinine clearance and -0.9 to +0.61/day for urea clearance. The tendency of the PET to exaggerate clearance resulted in 14% of patients incorrectly achieving a target creatinine clearance of 50 1/week and 17% incorrectly reaching a target KT/V of 1.7. The PET cannot be used in place of 24-h dialysis collections to prescribe or monitor dialysis therapy.

  7. [A rapid dialysis method for analysis of artificial sweeteners in food].

    PubMed

    Tahara, Shoichi; Fujiwara, Takushi; Yasui, Akiko; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Uematsu, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharin (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. Conventional dialysis uses a membrane dialysis tube approximately 15 cm in length and is carried out over many hours owing to the small membrane area and owing to inefficient mixing. In particular, processed cereal products such as cookies required treatment for 48 hours to obtain satisfactory recovery of the compounds. By increasing the tube length to 55 cm and introducing efficient mixing by inversion at half-hour intervals, the dialysis times of the four artificial sweeteners, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in the cookie, were shortened to 4 hours. Recovery yields of 88.9-103.2% were obtained by using the improved method, whereas recovery yields were low (65.5-82.0%) by the conventional method. Recovery yields (%) of Sa, AK, APM, and Du, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in various foods, were 91.6-100.1, 93.9-100.1, 86.7-100.0 and 88.7-104.7 using the improved method.

  8. Patient perspectives on informed decision-making surrounding dialysis initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Lin, Feng-Chang; Gilet, Constance A.; Arnold, Robert M.; Bridgman, Jessica C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Careful patient–clinician shared decision-making about dialysis initiation has been promoted, but few studies have addressed patient perspectives on the extent of information provided and how decisions to start dialysis are made. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance dialysis patients recruited from 15 outpatient dialysis centers in North Carolina completed semistructured interviews on information provision and communication about the initiation of dialysis. These data were examined with content analysis. In addition, informed decision-making (IDM) scores were created by summing patient responses (yes/no) to 10 questions about the decision-making. Results The mean IDM score was 4.4 (of 10; SD = 2.0); 67% scored 5 or lower. Age at the time of decision-making (r = −0.27, P = 0.006), years of education (r = 0.24, P = 0.02) and presence of a warning about progressing to end-stage kidney disease (t = 2.9, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with IDM scores. Nearly 70% said that the risks and burdens of dialysis were not mentioned at all, and only one patient recalled that the doctor offered the option of not starting dialysis. While a majority (67%) said that they felt they had no choice about starting dialysis (because the alternative would be death) or about dialysis modality, only 21.2% said that they had felt rushed to make a decision. About one-third of the patients perceived that the decision to start dialysis and modality was already made by the doctor. Conclusions A majority of patients felt unprepared and ill-informed about the initiation of dialysis. Improving the extent of IDM about dialysis may optimize patient preparation prior to starting treatment and their perceptions about the decision-making process. PMID:23901048

  9. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  10. Palliative peritoneal dialysis: Implementation of a home care programme for terminal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD).

    PubMed

    Gorrin, Maite Rivera; Teruel-Briones, José Luis; Vion, Victor Burguera; Rexach, Lourdes; Quereda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a shortterm life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis.

  11. Association of increased travel distance to dialysis units with the risk of anemia in rural chronic hemodialysis elderly.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lai, Chun-Fu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Sheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) = -0.34, P value = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1 km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9 g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value = 0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value = 0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings.

  12. Effects of exercise therapy during dialysis for elderly patients undergoing maintenance dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chigira, Yusuke; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Masataka; Yoshimura, Tukasa

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise therapy during dialysis is currently being recommended since it is easy for patients to follow and results in high participation rates. In this study, this therapy was performed for elderly patients undergoing maintenance dialysis, and its effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Seven elderly patients (age: 70.6 ± 4.4) with chronic renal failure, who were able to perform exercises during maintenance dialysis, received the exercise therapy 2 or 3 times weekly for 3 months. Lower-limb muscle strength as well as the standardized dialysis dose (Kt/V) was measured before and after intervention. The patients were also evaluated using the 30-sec chair stand test (CS-30), the World Health Organization QOL Assessment 26 (WHO-QOL26), and a questionnaire. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and circumference, CS-30 score, and Kt/V values improved after intervention, but the difference was not significant. Significant differences were observed only in the WHO-QOL26 score. [Conclusion] The outcome was particularly favorable in terms of the quality of life (QOL). Based on the results from the questionnaire, the higher QOL may be due to the patients’ development of a positive attitude toward these activities. Although there were no significant differences, the values for the other criteria also improved, thereby supporting the effectiveness of exercise therapy to maintain or improve the patients’ motor functions and activity daily living (ADL) ability. PMID:28210031

  13. Comorbidities in Chronic Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Report of the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Alicia M.; Sander, Anja; Borzych-Dużałka, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Vallés, Patricia G.; Ha, Il Soo; Patel, Hiren; Askenazi, David; Balasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Lauronen, Jouni; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Feber, Janusz; Schaefer, Franz; Warady, Bradley A.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background, Objectives, and Methods: Hospitalization and mortality rates in pediatric dialysis patients remain unacceptably high. Although studies have associated the presence of comorbidities with an increased risk for death in a relatively small number of pediatric dialysis patients, no large-scale study had set out to describe the comorbidities seen in pediatric dialysis patients or to evaluate the impact of those comorbidities on outcomes beyond the newborn period. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of comorbidities in a large international cohort of pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry and began to assess potential associations between those comorbidities and hospitalization rates and mortality. ♦ Results: Information on comorbidities was available for 1830 patients 0 - 19 years of age at dialysis initiation. Median age at dialysis initiation was 9.1 years [interquartile range (IQR): 10.9], median follow-up for calculation of hospitalization rates was 15.2 months (range: 0.2 - 80.9 months), and total follow-up time in the registry was 2095 patient-years. At least 1 comorbidity had been reported for 602 of the patients (32.9%), with 283 (15.5%) having cognitive impairment; 230 (12.6%), motor impairment; 167 (9.1%), cardiac abnormality; 76 (4.2%), pulmonary abnormality; 212 (11.6%), ocular abnormality; and 101 (5.5%), hearing impairment. Of the 150 patients (8.2%) that had a defined syndrome, 85% had at least 1 nonrenal comorbidity, and 64% had multiple comorbidities. The presence of at least 1 comorbidity was associated with a higher hospitalization rate [hospital days per 100 observation days: 1.7 (IQR: 5.8) vs 1.2 (IQR: 3.9), p = 0.001] and decreased patient survival (4-year survival rate: 73% vs 90%, p < 0.0001). ♦ Conclusions: Nearly one third of pediatric CPD patients in a large international cohort had at least 1 comorbidity, and multiple

  14. Shortage of Peritoneal Dialysis Solution and the Food and Drug Administration's Response.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Valerie; Throckmorton, Douglas C

    2015-08-07

    Although the number of new drug shortages has been lower in recent years than in the past, severe shortages have occurred that have affected large numbers of patients. A new law entitled the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act was enacted in July of 2012, which requires companies to notify the Food and Drug Administration of anticipated shortages. This notification requirement has allowed the Food and Drug Administration to work closely with manufacturers earlier to mitigate and, often, prevent shortages. However, not all shortages are able to be prevented, and the shortage of peritoneal dialysis solution is one that has had a significant effect on patients. The Food and Drug Administration continues to use all available tools to address this shortage with manufacturers, including temporary availability of imported peritoneal dialysis solution from Ireland. Mitigating shortages is a top priority for the Food and Drug Administration, and communication with all stakeholders is essential.

  15. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics.

  16. Optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Bengt; Venturoli, Daniele

    2008-06-01

    In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal failure, the optimum electrolyte composition of a dialysis solution is that which best serves the homeostatic needs of the body. Comparing the transperitoneal removal of electrolytes by conventional PD solutions (CPDSs) with that by normal kidneys, it is evident that peritoneal removal is in the lower range of what can be considered "normal." Given the electrolyte composition of CPDSs and a total dwell volume of 4 exchanges of 2 L each, approximately 90 mmol NaCl, 40 mmol K(+), 10 - 15 mmol HPO(4)(-) and 1 - 2 mmol Ca(2+) can be removed daily [plus 1 L ultrafiltration (UF)]. Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) are supplied in CPDSs in concentrations close to their plasma concentrations, which makes their removal almost entirely dependent on UF. In UF failure (UFF), plasma levels of the foregoing ions will tend to rise, producing a higher diffusion gradient to compensate for their defective UF removal. Peritoneal removal of HCO(3)(-), HPO(4)(-), and K(+) are usually quite efficient because of the zero CPDS concentrations of these ions. Approximately 150 mmol HCO(3)(-) is lost daily with CPDSs, compensated for by the addition of 30 - 40 mmol/L lactate, or, with the use of multi-compartment bags, bicarbonate instead. However, a mixture of bicarbonate and lactate should be preferred as a buffer, to avoid intracellular acidosis from high levels of pCO(2) in the dialysis fluid. For patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) without UFF and with some residual renal function, PD fluid concentrations of Na(+) 130 - 133 mmol/L, Ca(2+) 1.25 - 1.35 mmol/L, and Mg(2+) 0.25 - 0.3 mmol/L seem appropriate. With reduced UF after a few years of PD, the removal of fluid and electrolytes often becomes deficient. Dietary salt restriction can be prescribed, but it is hard to implement. The use of low-Na(+) solution (LNa) is a potential alternative. The reduction in osmolality resulting from Na(+) removal in LNa

  17. Viral hepatitis C and B among dialysis patients at the Rabat University Hospital: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lioussfi, Zineb; Errami, Zineb; Radoui, Aicha; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at the Rabat University Hospital and to identify the major risk factors for transmission. A retrospective study was performed in 67 chronic HD and 36 peritoneal dialysis patients. For the screening of viral infections, we tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HBs antigen (Hbs Ag). We compared infected and non-infected patients in order to determine the risk factors for contamination. In the HD unit, the prevalence of anti-HCV was 60% and the prevalence of HBs Ag was 6%. Duration of dialysis (P = 0.001) was the only risk factor in our HD patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD), the prevalence of anti-HCV was 8%. Hbs Ag was detected in 2.6% of our PD patients. Viral hepatitis C is the main viral infection in our HD unit. The duration of dialysis is the main risk factor for infection in our study. The transmission is essentially nosocomial, requiring a strict adherence to infection control procedures.

  18. Kidney Dialysis Patients Discover New Hope through ABE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda; And Others

    A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…

  19. Renal replacement therapy in elderly patients: peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Catizone, Luigi; Malacarne, Franco; Bortot, Alessia; Annaloro, Mariangela; Russo, Giorgia; Barillà, Antonio; Storari, Alda

    2010-01-01

    Management of chronic uremia in elderly patients presents several clinic and organizational difficulties. Hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) are both available for the elderly, and the choice depends on the individual, clinical and familial conditions. Several reports have compared the outcomes for older patients treated by HD or peritoneal dialysis, with those for younger or older patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. CPD is a successful dialysis option for elderly patients, in both patient and technique survival terms. All nutritional parameters are of pivotal importance. Several barriers, such as medical and social factors, physician bias, late referral and education irrespective of the needs of older patients, influence the choice of CPD. The development of assisted peritoneal dialysis, using community-based nurses or health care assistants, can overcome some of the barriers and enable frail older patients to have home-based dialysis treatment. Increasing age is associated with higher peritonitis rates among patients who started CPD in the 1990s, while age is not associated with peritonitis in more recent CPD cohorts, and no greater frequency of adverse outcomes of peritonitis has been seen among those who began CPD after the year 2000. In elderly dialysis patients, the management of quality of life (QOL) is important as well as adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status and survival rate. To obtain a good standard of QOL, it is essential to select carers who are properly educated and who can access an adequate support system, both physical and psychological, to help them cope with their burden.

  20. Microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among dialysis patients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and aims Dialysis patients appear to be at special risk for exposure to cyanobacteria toxins; episodes of microcystin (MCYST) exposure via dialysate during 1996 and 2001 have been previously reported. During 2001, as many as 44 dialysis patients were exposed to contam...

  1. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  2. An opportunistic pathogen in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Ochrobactrum anthropi.

    PubMed

    Alparslan, Caner; Yavascan, Onder; Kose, Engin; Sanlioglu, Pinar; Aksu, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of chronic peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis from Ochrobactrum anthropi. O. anthropi is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. O. anthropi-related peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients has rarely been reported. To the authors' knowledge, no pediatric case of O. anthropi peritonitis has been reported to date in the literature.

  3. Study of prolonged administration of lanthanum carbonate in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Junichi; Kukita, Kazutaka; Tsuchihashi, Seiichiro; Hattori, Masahiro; Iida, Junichi; Horie, Takashi; Onodera, Kazuhiko; Furui, Hidenori; Tamaki, Toru; Meguro, Junichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kawamura, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Data of 36 months were accumulated regarding the effects of lanthanum carbonate (LA) on serum phosphate concentrations in dialysis patients. Fifty-three patients (average age and dialysis history 58.4 years and 9.1 years) were included in this study who have been receiving outpatient treatment since March 2009, and who have been unable to maintain serum phosphate concentrations of ≤6.0 mg/dL via traditional therapeutic agents used for hyperphosphatemia. Patients were given dosage of LA in addition to, or instead of, co-hyperphosphatemia treatments already being received. Mean dosages of calcium carbonate (CC) and sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) before starting LA administration were 1301.9 mg and 2462.3 mg, respectively. Dosage of LA for all cases was 750 mg at initial dose; 1528.3 mg at 5 months; and 1416.7 mg at 30 months. Dosage of other phosphate binders were 905.7 mg of CC and 820.8 mg of SH at 5 months; and 687.5 mg of CC and 1031.3 mg of SH at 30 months. Serum phosphorus levels (P levels) were significantly decreased at 1 month of LA administration, and continued until 30 months of La treatment. These results suggest that LA successfully controlled serum P and Ca concentrations simultaneously within target ranges without affecting serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration, although further long-term prospective cohort study on LA would be required.

  4. Dialysis-dependency: the reformulated or remnant person.

    PubMed

    Martin-McDonald, Kristine

    Being dependent on dialysis is a potentially overwhelming experience where life as previously known is permanently altered. A dialysis-dependent individual may reformulate their identify or perceive that they are a remnant of their former self. This paper will explore and expand Morse and Penrod's (1999) model as a useful way to understand how a person might reconstruct their identify. Grounded in a narrative methodology, interviews of those on haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were thematically analysed. It was found that dialysis dependency brings an acknowledgment of a lost past, an inescapable present and an unknowable future, filtered through hope and despair. Nurses need to understand the suffering, wrought by such a struggle, to facilitate the positive re-envisioning of those who are dialysis dependent.

  5. Sustaining continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis after herniotomy.

    PubMed

    Mettang, T; Stoeltzing, H; Alscher, D M; Magadum, S; Dunst, R; Kuhlmann, U

    2001-01-01

    Controversy still exists as to whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment can be safely continued after herniotomy. Many nephrologists withhold PD treatment for several weeks after herniotomy for fear of dialysate leakage and hernia recurrence. Here, we report on 9 patients (2 women, 7 men) in whom herniotomy was performed for umbilical (n = 3), inguinal (n = 5), or cicatricial hernia (n = 2), or for open processus vaginalis (n = 2). Surgery was performed according to the Lichtenstein method with insertion of a polypropylene mesh and ligation of the hernia sac. In all patients, PD treatment was paused for the day of surgery and for 1-3 days postoperatively, depending on residual renal function. Over the next several days, low-volume (1.0-1.5 L), high-frequency (6 per day) exchanges were started. The patient's original PD regimen was gradually reinstated over the next 2-4 weeks. All patients recovered rapidly, with no uremia or dialysis-related complications. Particularly, no leakage and no hernia recurrence could be observed 3 months thereafter. None of the patients had to be hemodialyzed intercurrently. In conclusion, continuing a modified regimen of CAPD treatment after herniotomy seems to be safe, with excellent patient comfort.

  6. Ultrathin silicon membranes for wearable dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dean G; Khire, Tejas S; Lyubarskaya, Yekaterina L; Smith, Karl J P; Desormeaux, Jon-Paul S; Taylor, Jeremy G; Gaborski, Thomas R; Shestopalov, Alexander A; Striemer, Christopher C; McGrath, James L

    2013-11-01

    The development of wearable or implantable technologies that replace center-based hemodialysis (HD) hold promise to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients with ESRD. A prerequisite for these technologies is the development of highly efficient membranes that can achieve high toxin clearance in small-device formats. Here we examine the application of the porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si) to HD. pnc-Si is a molecularly thin nanoporous membrane material that is orders of magnitude more permeable than conventional HD membranes. Material developments have allowed us to dramatically increase the amount of active membrane available for dialysis on pnc-Si chips. By controlling pore sizes during manufacturing, pnc-Si membranes can be engineered to pass middle-molecular-weight protein toxins while retaining albumin, mimicking the healthy kidney. A microfluidic dialysis device developed with pnc-Si achieves urea clearance rates that confirm that the membrane offers no resistance to urea passage. Finally, surface modifications with thin hydrophilic coatings are shown to block cell and protein adhesion.

  7. Evolution of technology for automated peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio; Amerling, Richard; Dell'aquila, Roberto; Rodighiero, Maria Pia; Di Loreto, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is important for the further penetration of PD in the dialysis marketplace. Long dwell, equilibration PD (CAPD) has limited applicability in many patients due to inadequate solute clearance or fast membrane transport characteristics. Providing large volumes of dialysate over circumscribed hours is highly labor intensive without an automated system. Early attempts at APD were crude but effective in reducing labor, which was generally provided by nursing staff. Later evolution of PD technology has been greatly accelerated by the microchip, and by miniaturization of components. Current generation machines allow individualized fill volumes, variable tidal volumes and additional daytime automated exchanges, teledialysis, memorized delivery control, and full portability. The ideal machine should not only be able to perform all treatment schedules, but it should also optimize the performance of a selected treatment strategy. Biocompatible solutions, improved osmotic agents, and sorbent technology are all adaptable to APD. The eventual evolution toward continuous flow PD will resolve many of the current problems with both CAPD and APD.

  8. International Quotidian Dialysis Registry: Annual report 2010.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Robert M; Suri, Rita S; Moist, Louise M; Garg, Amit X; Cuerden, Meaghan; Langford, Sarah; Hakim, Raymond; Ofsthun, Norma J; McDonald, Stephen P; Hawley, Carmel; Caskey, Ferqus J; Couchoud, Cecile; Awaraji, Christian; Nesrallah, Gihad E

    2011-01-01

    The International Quotidian Dialysis Registry (IQDR) is a global initiative designed to study practices and outcomes associated with the use of hemodialysis (HD) regimens of increased frequency and/or duration. The IQDR grew out of the initiative that lead to the randomized prospective studies of nocturnal HD and short hours daily dialysis vs. conventional thrice weekly HD that are conducted by the Frequent Hemodialysis Network sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. These 2 separate studies are drawing to a close and the first results are expected to be reported later this year. These studies use surrogate outcomes for their primary endpoints as they are not powered to look at outcomes of mortality and hospitalization. The IQDR attempts to aggregate long-term follow-up data from centers utilizing alternative HD regimens worldwide and will have adequate statistical power to examine those important outcomes. To date, the IQDR has enrolled patients from Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and France and has linked with commercial databases and national registries. This sixth annual report of the IQDR describes: (1) An update on the governance structure; (2) The recommendations made at the first general meetings of the IQDR Scientific Committee and Advisory Board; (3) The status of those recommendations; (4) A summary of current data sources and participating registries; (5) The status of recruitment to date; (6) The creation of a specific Canadian IQDR data set and; (7) The current research agenda.

  9. ELECTROLYTIC MEMBRANE DIALYSIS FOR TREATING WASTEWATER STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe

    2000-04-01

    This project will determine whether electrolytic dialysis has promise in the separation of charged particles in an aqueous solution. The ability to selectively move ions from one aqueous solution to another through a semipermeable membrane will be studied as a function of emf, amperage, and particle electrical charge. The ions selected for the study are Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. These ions are of particular interest because of their electrical conduction properties in aqueous solution resulting with their association with the corrosive action of metals. The studies will be performed with commercial membranes on solutions prepared in the laboratory from reagent salts. pH adjustments will be made with dilute reagent acid and base. Specific objectives of the project include testing a selected membrane currently available for electrolytic dialysis, membrane resistance to extreme pH conditions, the effectiveness of separating a mixture of two ions selected on the basis of size, the efficiency of the membranes in separating chloride (Cl{sup 1-}) from sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and separation efficiency as a function of electromotive force (emf).

  10. Comparison of oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis patients with non-diabetic dialysis patients and healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. Objectives: In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. Patients and Methods: During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients’ data were compared before and after dialysis. Results: The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Conclusion: Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria. PMID:27689112

  11. Study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial: Safety, Tolerability, efficacy and quality of life Of a human recombinant alkaline Phosphatase in patients with sepsis-associated Acute Kidney Injury (STOP-AKI)

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Esther; Mehta, Ravindra L; Murray, Patrick T; Hummel, Jürgen; Joannidis, Michael; Kellum, John A; Arend, Jacques; Pickkers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 55–60% of critically ill patients, and sepsis is the most common underlying cause. No pharmacological treatment options are licensed to treat sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI); only supportive renal replacement therapy (RRT) is available. One of the limited number of candidate compounds in clinical development to treat SA-AKI is alkaline phosphatase (AP). The renal protective effect of purified bovine intestinal AP has been demonstrated in critically ill sepsis patients. To build on these observations, a human recombinant AP (recAP) was developed, of which safety and efficacy in patients with SA-AKI will be investigated in this trial. Methods This is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-arm, proof-of-concept, dose-finding adaptive phase IIa/IIb study, conducted in critically ill patients with SA-AKI. A minimum of 290 patients will be enrolled at ∼50 sites in the European Union and North America. The study involves 2 parts. Patients enrolled during Part 1 will be randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n=30) or 1 of 3 different doses of recAP (n=30 per group) once daily for 3 days (0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mg/kg). In Part 2, patients will be randomly assigned to receive the most efficacious dose of recAP (n=85), selected during an interim analysis, or placebo (n=85). Treatment must be administered within 24 hours after SA-AKI is first diagnosed and within 96 hours from first diagnosis of sepsis. The primary end point is the area under the time-corrected endogenous creatinine clearance curve from days 1 to 7. The key secondary end point is RRT incidence during days 1–28. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the relevant institutional review boards/independent ethics committees and is conducted in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, guidelines of Good Clinical Practice, Code of Federal Regulations and all other applicable regulations. Results of this

  12. Patients with learning difficulties: outcome on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Mercè; Sorolla, Carol; Carrera, Dolores; Martín, Marisa; Villagrassa, Esther; Fernández, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we identified patients who had difficulties learning the minimum knowledge and skills required to carry out peritoneal dialysis (PD), and we compared the outcomes in this subgroup of patients with outcomes in the general PD population. We calculated the mean learning sessions needed by our total PD population during the training period. We then assigned patients to one of two groups according to the number of learning sessions they needed. Patients who required a number of sessions equal to or less than the mean were placed in the "standard learning" group; patients who required more sessions but who reached the minimum knowledge and skills were placed in the "learning difficulties " group. We compared these two groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes status, autonomy to perform PD, family support, education level, residual renal function, and Charlson comorbidity index. Outcomes on PD included time to first peritonitis episode, peritonitis rate, percentage of patients free of peritonitis during follow-up, survival time on PD, and transfer to hemodialysis. Patients with learning difficulties were older and had more comorbidities. Outcomes on PD in the learning difficulties group were similar to those in the standard learning group, except for time to first peritonitis.

  13. Peritoneal dialysis and its role in the demography and epidemiology of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2009-12-01

    In a population of patients who have undergone renal replacement therapy, the 21st century brought a rise in the number of elderly people as well as patients with obesity, with renal complications of systemic diseases, especially diabetes and hypertension, and a constantly increasing number of patients with congestive heart failure who require intermittent or permanent dialysis support. In keeping with the concept of an integrated approach to renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis should be the first option in renal replacement treatment, especially in patients with residual renal function. This paper summarizes the current evidence supporting the view that the changing demography and epidemiology of chronic kidney disease imposes an introduction of patient-friendly modifications of therapeutic options available in these patient groups.

  14. The role of molecular adsorbent recirculating system dialysis for extracorporeal liver support in children.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Betti; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2013-09-01

    The majority of children with acute, acute-on-chronic, and progressive chronic liver failure require liver transplantation. Since organ availability is limited, extracorporeal liver support systems are increasingly applied to bridge the time until transplantation. At present, four different devices are available: the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS), Prometheus dialysis, plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis (PE/HD), and single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD). Randomized trials in adults have demonstrated efficient toxin removal, improved portal hypertension, hemodynamic stability, and improved hepatic encephalopathy compared with standard medical therapy. None of the liver support systems has yet been evaluated systematically in children. Knowledge of the specific indications and technical features of the different devices is essential if applied in children. MARS combines albumin dialysis with conventional hemodialysis and allows for efficient removal of water and protein-bound toxins without exogenous protein delivery and the associated infectious and allergic risks. It has successfully been applied in children with otherwise intractable cholestatic pruritus and with liver failure. The benefits, however, need to be balanced against the costs and the risk of volume and nitrogen overload if repeated plasma infusion is required. In cases of active bleeding, plasma exchange in combination with hemodialysis should be preferred.

  15. Parenteral nutrition in the malnourished: dialysis, cancer, obese, and hyperemesis gravidarum patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mary Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a complication of many disease processes and can have deleterious effects on patient care outcomes. Providing adequate nutritional support requires a plan that is tailored to the individual needs of the patient and occasionally requires the use of parenteral nutrition. The varied nutritional needs of malnourished dialysis, cancer, obese, and hyperemesis gravidarum patients will be discussed. The infusion nurse specialist is a vital member of the nutrition support team in the care and recovery of the malnourished patient who requires parenteral nutrition.

  16. Aliskiren Prevents the Toxic Effects of Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids during Chronic Dialysis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Juan; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco C.; Carrión, Blanca; Masiá, Jesús; Ortega, Agustín; Simarro, Esther; Nam-Cha, Syong H.; Ceña, Valentín

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with end-stage renal failure are short-lived due to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. In this report, we provide evidence for the in vitro and in vivo participation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the signaling pathway leading to peritoneal fibrosis during PD. Exposure to high-glucose PD fluids (PDFs) increases damage and fibrosis markers in both isolated rat peritoneal mesothelial cells and in the peritoneum of rats after chronic dialysis. In both cases, the addition of the RAAS inhibitor aliskiren markedly improved damage and fibrosis markers, and prevented functional modifications in the peritoneal transport, as measured by the peritoneal equilibrium test. These data suggest that inhibition of the RAAS may be a novel way to improve the efficacy of PD by preventing inflammation and fibrosis following peritoneal exposure to high-glucose PDFs. PMID:22558414

  17. Fifty years of dialysis in Africa: challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S; Khalil, Soha S; Arogundade, Fatiu A

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses the development of dialysis services in Africa in the face of past and contemporary challenges. Maintenance dialysis treatment programs developed in 29 countries over the past 50 years, usually many years after their independence and the end of subsequent territorial and civil wars. Eight countries had the resources to launch national dialysis programs, conventionally defined as those accommodating at least 100 patients per million population. Additionally, based on information obtained from international and local publications, conference proceedings, and personal communications, it appears that limited short-term dialysis therapy currently is available in most African countries. Currently, the prevalence of and outcomes associated with dialysis in Africa are influenced significantly by the following: (1) local health indexes, including the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic infections; (2) per capita gross domestic product; (3) national expenditures on health and growth of these expenditures with incremental demand; (4) availability and adequate training of health care providers; and (5) literacy. In an attempt to reduce the socioeconomic burden of maintenance dialysis treatment, 12 countries have adopted active transplantation programs and 5 are striving to develop screening and prevention programs. Our recommendations based on these observations include optimizing dialysis treatment initiatives and integrating them with other health strategies, as well as training and motivating local health care providers. These steps should be taken in collaboration with regulatory authorities and the public.

  18. Growth rates in pediatric dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J

    1997-08-01

    We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.

  19. Management of chronic kidney disease and dialysis in homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Podymow, Tiina; Turnbull, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    End-stage renal disease and dialysis are complicated illnesses to manage in homeless persons, who often suffer medical comorbidities, psychiatric disease, cognitive impairment and addictions; descriptions of this population and management strategies are lacking. A retrospective review of dialysis patients who were homeless or unstably housed was undertaken at an urban academic Canadian center from 2001 to 2011. Electronic hospital records were analyzed for demographic, housing, medical, and psychiatric history, dialysis history, adherence to treatment, and outcomes. Two detailed cases of homeless patients with chronic kidney disease are presented. Eleven homeless dialysis patients with a mean age of 52.7±12.3 years, mostly men and mostly from minority groups were dialyzed for 41.1±29.2 months. Most resided permanently in shelters, eventually obtained fistula access, and were adherent to dialysis schedules. Patients were often nonadherent to pre-dialysis management, resulting in emergency starts. Many barriers to care for homeless persons with end-stage kidney disease and on dialysis are identified, and management strategies are highlighted. Adherence is optimized with shelter-based health care and intensive team-oriented case management.

  20. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.

  1. Determinants of survival in patients receiving dialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice.

  2. Prescription and practice of dialysis in Australia, 1988.

    PubMed

    Disney, A P

    1990-05-01

    Facilities for provision of treatment of end-stage renal failure with hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are available in many centers, most of which are government-funded. Medicare provides free treatment for all patients. There are no specific criteria for determining a patient's acceptance for dialysis treatment: age, quality of life, and capacity for independent living are important factors. The usual HD prescription is three dialysis periods weekly, hollow-fiber dialyzer, 1.0-1.2 m2 surface area, for 4 to 5 hours, with blood flow rate 250 mL/min and acetate-based dialysate flow rate 500 mL/min. Reuse of the dialyzer is common, but many units practice single use to reduce the expense and time necessary for processing the dialyzer and the risks of formalin exposure. There is only limited use of hemofiltration, or highly efficient dialyzers for shortened hours at higher blood flow rates. The choice of dialysis prescription is influenced by the physician's preference for the patient to be treated at home or in a self-care center with limited assistance. CAPD is preferred for home dialysis, especially for elderly or diabetic patients. There is no personal financial incentive to the physician to favor any particular form of dialysis. The costs of dialysis do influence the provision and prescription of treatment, causing the reuse of dialyzers and the limited use of bicarbonate-based HD and highly permeable dialyzers. Nevertheless, adequate dialysis should be available to all patients, and noncompliance with prescribed dialysis is infrequent. Quality-assurance programs have been developed both for nursing and medical care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. High Risk of Herpes Zoster among Patients with Advance Acute Kidney Injury--A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Shun; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2015-09-03

    The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.52; p = 0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster.

  4. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  5. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    PubMed

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  6. Dialysis membrane for separation on microchips

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2010-07-13

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  7. Ambulatory setting for peritoneal dialysis catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ivan D

    2008-01-01

    A modified fluoroscopic technique by adding ultrasound-assistance ensuring entry into the abdominal cavity and avoiding the risk of epigastric artery injury under direct ultrasound visualization was recently published. This study demonstrated that the technique was minimally invasive and allowed for accurate assessment of entry into the abdominal cavity and avoidance of vascular injury. In the current analysis, we report the impact of this technique on hospital stay during a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion. Twenty-six PD catheters have been placed on an outpatient basis using this technique. All catheter insertions were successful. Patients were discharge on the same day of the procedure. There were no procedure-related complication or related to short hospital stay. An ambulatory setting allows for a short hospital stay without compromising patient care. This brief paper explains in detail the pre, peri and postoperative period and follow-up.

  8. The evolving ethics of infant dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, John D; Warady, Bradley A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review ethical issues that arise when families and doctors face clinical decisions about renal replacement therapy for an infant with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Over the last twenty years, many centers have begun to routinely offer renal replacement therapy. However, doctors and nurses both continue to view such therapy as optional, rather than mandatory. We speculate that the burdens of therapy on the family, and the uncertainties about satisfactory outcomes have led to a situation in which renal replacement therapy remains desirable but non-obligatory. We discuss the reasons why this is likely to remain so, and the ways in which renal replacement therapy for infants with ESRD is similar to, or different from, other clinical situations in pediatrics. Finally, we propose a research agenda to answer questions that are crucial to making good ethical decisions about infant dialysis. PMID:23131864

  9. Living with a Change in Dialysis Modalities: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology nurses play a major role in every aspect of caring for patients on dialysis. It is always challenging to witness patients and families struggling through dialysis modality changes coupled with end-of-life decisions. Open discussions and care provided by an interdisciplinary team approach provides the foundational structure for quality care necessary for this population. In the case of Mr. T., a dialysis modality change was a necessary change in his life. The FNP PCP played a significant role in coordinating his care to achieve the desired outcomes and ensure there was a coordinated team approach.

  10. Knowledge Translation Interventions to Improve the Timing of Dialysis Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Elaine M. T.; Manns, Braden J.; Garg, Amit X.; Sood, Manish M.; Kim, S. Joseph; Naimark, David; Nesrallah, Gihad E.; Soroka, Steven D.; Beaulieu, Monica; Dixon, Stephanie; Alam, Ahsan; Tangri, Navdeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early initiation of chronic dialysis (starting dialysis with higher vs lower kidney function) has risen rapidly in the past 2 decades in Canada and internationally, despite absence of established health benefits and higher costs. In 2014, a Canadian guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation, recommending an intent-to-defer approach, was published. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a knowledge translation intervention to promote the intent-to-defer approach in clinical practice. Design: This study is a multicenter, 2-arm parallel, cluster randomized trial. Setting: The study involves 55 advanced chronic kidney disease clinics across Canada. Patients: Patients older than 18 years who are managed by nephrologists for more than 3 months, and initiate dialysis in the follow-up period are included in the study. Measurements: Outcomes will be measured at the patient-level and enumerated within a cluster. Data on characteristics of each dialysis start will be determined by linkages with the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Primary outcomes include the proportion of patients who start dialysis early with an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 and start dialysis in hospital as inpatients or in an emergency room setting. Secondary outcomes include the rate of change in early dialysis starts; rates of hospitalizations, deaths, and cost of predialysis care (wherever available); quarterly proportion of new starts; and acceptability of the knowledge translation materials. Methods: We randomized 55 multidisciplinary chronic disease clinics (clusters) in Canada to receive either an active knowledge translation intervention or no intervention for the uptake of the guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation. The active knowledge translation intervention consists of audit and feedback as well as patient- and provider-directed educational tools delivered at a comprehensive in

  11. A New Method for Evaluating Actual Drug Release Kinetics of Nanoparticles inside Dialysis Devices via Numerical Deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yousheng; He, Chunsheng; Chen, Kuan; Ni, Jieren; Cai, Yu; Guo, Xiaodi; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-12-10

    Nanoparticle formulations have found increasing applications in modern therapies. To achieve desired treatment efficacy and safety profiles, drug release kinetics of nanoparticles must be controlled tightly. However, actual drug release kinetics of nanoparticles cannot be readily measured due to technique difficulties, although various methods have been attempted. Among existing experimental approaches, dialysis method is the most widely applied one due to its simplicity and avoidance of separating released drug from the nanoparticles. Yet this method only measures the released drug in the medium outside a dialysis device (the receiver), instead of actual drug release from the nanoparticles inside the dialysis device (the donor). Thus we proposed a new method using numerical deconvolution to evaluate actual drug release kinetics of nanoparticles inside the donor based on experimental release profiles of nanoparticles and free drug solution in the receptor determined by existing dialysis tests. Two computer programs were developed based on two different numerical methods, namely least square criteria with prescribed Weibull function or orthogonal polynomials as input function. The former was used for all analyses in this work while the latter for verifying the reliability of the predictions. Experimental data of drug release from various nanoparticle formulations obtained from different dialysis settings and membrane pore sizes were used to substantiate this approach. The results demonstrated that this method is applicable to a broad range of nanoparticle and microparticle formulations requiring no additional experiments. It is independent of particle formulations, drug release mechanisms, and testing conditions. This new method may also be used, in combination with existing dialysis devices, to develop a standardized method for quality control, in vitro-in vivo correlation, and for development of nanoparticles and other types of dispersion formulations.

  12. Hemoglobinuria and acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis following intravenous immunoglobulin infusion.

    PubMed

    Welles, Christine C; Tambra, Shouieb; Lafayette, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a product initially developed for patients with immunodeficiencies, now has multiple other indications and increasing off-label use. IVIG generally is well tolerated, with few adverse effects. Antibody-mediated (Coombs-positive) hemolysis is known to occur after IVIG infusion, but often is subclinical and previously has not been reported to lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). The predominantly known mechanism of AKI after IVIG infusion has been osmotic nephrosis, primarily associated with sucrose-containing formulations. We present a case of a bone marrow transplant recipient who was treated with a sucrose-free IVIG product and subsequently developed Coombs-positive hemolysis leading to AKI requiring hemodialysis, who ultimately died secondary to infectious complications. The severity of this case emphasizes the importance of identifying populations who may be at increased risk of pigment-mediated kidney injury before consideration of IVIG therapy.

  13. Acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Okunola, Oluyomi O; Ayodele, Olugbenga E; Adekanle, Adebode D

    2012-11-01

    The morbidity and mortality from acute kidney injury (AKI) have remained relatively high over the last six decades. The triad of infections, nephrotoxins and obstetric complications are still major causes of acute kidney injury in the tropics. This retrospective study is a five-year audit of acute renal failure (ARF) (or stage 3 AKI) in patients requiring hemodialysis at the renal unit of the Department of Medicine of the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. A total of 80 patients with AKI were treated over a five-year period at our center, of which 45 (56.2%) were in ARF, i.e. stage 3 AKI requiring hemodialysis. There were 24 males and 21 females. The most common cause of ARF among the patients was sepsis syndrome 16 (35.5%), while pregnancy-related cases accounted for 15 (33.3%) and nephrotoxins for 6 (13.3%). Five (33%) of the 15 pregnancy-related patients survived, and all were cases of septic abortion. Of the other 10 patients that did not survive, three (30%) had post-partum hemorrhage and seven (70%) post-partum eclampsia. In all, the mortality rate among our AKI presenting for hemodialysis at our center over a given year period was 28.8%. Majority of these were eclampsia related. The causes of ARF still remain the same in the tropics, eclampsia portends poor prognosis. Concerted efforts should be made at limiting this trend by active preventive services and early recognition of high-risk obstetrics cases.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Dialysis Methods (Haemodialysis vs Peritoneal Dialysis) on Diastolic Left Ventricular Function Dialysis Methods and Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Ellouali, Fedoua; Berkchi, Fatimazahra; Bayahia, Rabia; Benamar, Loubna; Cherti, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In patients undergoing chronic dialysis, several factors appear to influence the occurrence of cardiac abnormalities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of two different methods of renal replacement therapy (chronic haemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 63 patients: 21 patients on CAPD, and 42 age- and gender-matched patients on HD; 35 patients were men (55.6%). Median of age was 46.4 (35-57) years. The median duration of renal replacement therapy was 3(2-5) years. Results: The two groups (HD vs PD) were similar concerning body mass index, dialysis duration and cardiovascular risk factors. The comparison of echocardiographic parameters showed statistically significant differences between two groups, regarding the presence of calcification, cardiac effusion, severely abnormal left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) and the ratio of mitral velocity to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E/e’) >13 (p= 0.001, p= 0.003, p= 0.02, p= 0.004, respectively). In multivariate analysis, an E/e’>13 was higher in PD group ( OR= 5.8, CI [1.3-25.5], p=0.002). Conclusion: The method of dialysis seems to influence LV diastolic function. We observed a higher prevalence of diastolic LV dysfunction in the PD group. Echocardiographic follow up is essential as this could improve the management of cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients. PMID:27583042

  15. Sleep disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis: comparison between hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Losso, Ricardo L M; Minhoto, Gisele R; Riella, Miguel C

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders for patients on dialysis are significant causes of a poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. No study has evaluated patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assess their sleep disorders compared to hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A total of 166 clinically stable patients who had been on dialysis for at least 3 months were randomly selected for the study and divided into HD, CAPD or APD. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters and self-administered questionnaires were collected for the investigation of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), bruxism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression and anxiety. Insomnia was detected in more than 80 % of patients on the three modalities. OSAS was lower for patients on HD (36 %) than on CAPD (65 %) (p < 0.01) or APD (60 %) (p < 0.04). Patients on APD were more likely to have RLS compared to those on HD or CAPD (p < 0.04) (50 vs. 23 vs. 33 %). No differences among the modalities were found in bruxism, EDS, sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression or anxiety. ESRD patients undergoing any one of the three dialysis modalities studied had a high prevalence of sleep disorders. Patients on HD had a lower proportion of OSAS than those on CAPD and APD, which is most likely attributed to their lower body mass indices. The possible causes of higher RLS rates in APD patients have not been established.

  16. The role of peritoneal scintigraphy in the detection of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis complications.

    PubMed

    Tokmak, Handan; Mudun, Ayşe; Türkmen, Cuneyt; Sanli, Yasemin; Cantez, Sema; Bozfakioğlu, Semra

    2006-01-01

    While continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) offers several advantages over hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease, several complications have been recognized. The intraperitoneal instillation of dialysate increases intra-abdominal pressure and consequently predisposes the patient to leaks and herniations through defects in the abdominal wall. The use of an intraperitoneal radiolabeled colloid has been previously described to image entities such as hernias, patent processus vaginalis, abdominal wall, and diaphragmatic leakage. This study shows a simple, non-invasive method of determining the site of dialysate leak and its importance to assist further patient management. There has been a continuing increase in the number of end stage renal disease patients maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). Many patients choose CPD as their preferred chronic dialysis treatment, though approximately 20% of patients who drop out transfer to hemodialysis annually.[1] Although peritonitis remains the major reason for transfer to hemodialysis, other factors such as exit site infections, catheter-related problems, abdominal wall and inguinal hernias, loss of ultrafiltrations, and poor clearance contribute to CPD technique failure.[2] In order to permit the continuation of long-term therapy with CPD, these complications should be resolved. Routine laboratory evaluation or physical examination can detect some CPD-related problems; however, some patients require more complicated investigations to evaluate their problems properly.

  17. Bench-to-bedside review: current evidence for extracorporeal albumin dialysis systems in liver failure.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Gibney, Noel; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios; Wendon, Julia; Bain, Vincent G

    2007-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) and acute on chronic liver failure (AoCLF) carry a high mortality. The rationale for extracorporeal systems is to provide an environment facilitating recovery or a window of opportunity for liver transplantation. Recent technologies have used albumin as a scavenging molecule. Two different albumin dialysis systems have been developed using this principle: MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System) and SPAD (Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis). A third system, Prometheus (Fractionated Plasma Separation and Adsorption), differs from the others in that the patient's albumin is separated across a membrane and then is run over adsorptive columns. Although several trials have been published (particularly with MARS), currently there is a lack of controlled studies with homogenous patient populations. Many studies have combined patients with ALF and AoCLF. Others have included patients with different etiologies. Although MARS and Prometheus have shown biochemical improvements in AoCLF and ALF, additional studies are required to show conclusive benefit in short- and long-term survival. The appropriate comparator is standard medical therapy rather than head-to-head comparisons of different forms of albumin dialysis.

  18. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...”) or dialysate prepared from dialysate concentrate and sterile purified water (for automatic...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...”) or dialysate prepared from dialysate concentrate and sterile purified water (for automatic...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the...”) or dialysate prepared from dialysate concentrate and sterile purified water (for automatic...

  1. Peritoneal dialysis prescription during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Batarse, Rodolfo R; Steiger, Ralph M; Guest, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Management of the pregnant patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is potentially challenging because uterine enlargement may negatively affect catheter function and prescribed dwell volumes. Additional reports of the management of these patients are needed. Here, we describe a near-full-term delivery in a 27-year-old woman who had been on dialysis for 7 years. Peritoneal dialysis was continued during the entire pregnancy. In the third trimester, a higher delivered automated PD volume allowed for adequate clearance and control of volume status. A decision to hospitalize the patient to limit activity and facilitate the delivery of increased dialysate is believed to have contributed to the successful outcome for mother and infant. Our report discusses the management of this patient and reviews published dialysis prescriptions used during the third trimester of pregnancy in patients treated with PD.

  2. Peritoneal Dialysis Prescription During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Batarse, Rodolfo R.; Steiger, Ralph M.; Guest, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Management of the pregnant patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is potentially challenging because uterine enlargement may negatively affect catheter function and prescribed dwell volumes. Additional reports of the management of these patients are needed. Here, we describe a near-full-term delivery in a 27-year-old woman who had been on dialysis for 7 years. Peritoneal dialysis was continued during the entire pregnancy. In the third trimester, a higher delivered automated PD volume allowed for adequate clearance and control of volume status. A decision to hospitalize the patient to limit activity and facilitate the delivery of increased dialysate is believed to have contributed to the successful outcome for mother and infant. Our report discusses the management of this patient and reviews published dialysis prescriptions used during the third trimester of pregnancy in patients treated with PD. PMID:24711639

  3. Assessment of degree of hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Kotanko, P.; Handelman, G. J.; Raimann, J.; Liu, L.; Carter, M.; Kuhlmann, M. K.; Siebert, E.; Leonard, E. F.; Levin, N. W.

    2010-04-01

    Prescription of an appropriate post hemodialysis (HD) dialysis target weight requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) could be characterized in HD and normal subjects (NS). cBIS was performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m /14 f) pre- and post-dialysis to measure extracellular resistance. Normalized calf resistivity at 5 kHz (ρN,5) was defined as resistivity divided by body mass index. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at a state of normal hydration (NH) established following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the ρN,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρN,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS (20.5±1.99 vs 21.7±2.6 10-2 Ωm3/kg, p>0.05). In patients, ρN,5 notably increased and reached NH range due to progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and NBH respectively. This establishes the use of ρN,5 as a new comparator allowing the clinician to incrementally monitor the effect of removal of extracellular fluid from patients over a course of dialysis treatments.

  4. [An irritating cough in dialysis patients. A rare differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Meyer, E

    1992-02-01

    Soft tissue calcification is a well-known complication in chronic dialysis patients. These calcifications are mainly located around the large joints. Calcification of the visceral organs also occurs in these patients, even though this fact is far less known. These visceral calcifications are mostly diagnosed post mortem as they tend to be discrete and asymptomatic. In this article, we report on a chronic dialysis patient in whom extensive pulmonary calcifications occurred, leading to clinical symptoms.

  5. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  6. Comparing the incomparable: hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    A randomized trial comparing survival in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis remains a utopian aspiration. Dialysis is still relatively rare on a population basis, and a natural tension exists between desirability and feasibility in terms of quality of evidence. In practice, it is very difficult to perform prospective comparisons with large groups of contemporary representative subjects, and much of the literature comes from retrospective national registries. This article considers several questions to address when trying to compare the outcomes of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Prognostic similarity at baseline is a fundamental issue. Traditionally, adjustment for known prognostic factors has been used in an attempt to minimize the bias caused by nonrandom treatment assignment. Propensity scores have been suggested to be superior, and matched-case analysis may also be a useful method for comparison. Other questions include, when, in relation to starting dialysis, to start the observation clock; the definition and handling of switches of dialysis therapy; and the decision to censor at transplantation. Finally, comparisons are complicated by hazards ratios that vary over time, and time-segmented analysis is obligatory. Many types of analytical approaches are needed to begin to appreciate outcome disparities between dialysis therapies.

  7. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  8. Peritonitis in children undergoing dialysis. 10 years experience.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Balfe, J W; Geary, D F; Fryer-Keene, S P; Bannatyne, R M

    The clinical aspects of peritonitis were reviewed in 83 patients treated with continuous ambulatory or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis between May 1978 and April 1988. Peritonitis occurred in 50 patients whose mean duration of dialysis was 17.8 months, but not in 33 patients with a mean duration of dialysis of 10.4 months. The mean time from starting dialysis to the first episode of peritonitis was 7.1 months. The peritonitis rate was lower for continuous cyclic than for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (1 episode per 12.9 vs. 1 episode per 8.1 patient months, respectively). In 39% of the episodes, gram stain of the dialysate was positive. The dialysate leukocyte count was higher in gram-negative than in gram-positive peritonitis. Seventy percent of the peritonitis episodes were gram positive, and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant. Only 1 of the 7 diapered infants had gram-negative organisms associated with peritonitis. Catheters were replaced in 48 cases, 26 because of infection. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were cured with antibiotic therapy alone. Although peritonitis was associated with a mortality rate of 1.2%, peritoneal dialysis remains the favored dialytic mode for children.

  9. How automated peritoneal dialysis is applied and maintained in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2012-01-01

    According to a nationwide statistical survey in Japan, only 9,858 patients (3.3% of dialysis patients) were on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) at the end of 2009. In this survey, 8,635 patients answered questions about the PD method, while 1,223 patients did not respond. In Japan, at the end of 2009, 5,143 patients (59.6%) on PD were treated with CAPD and 3,492 patients (40.4%) on PD were treated with automated PD (APD). It is well known that around 20% of Japanese PD patients choose to apply and maintain PD + HD combination therapy. The number of PD + HD patients (1,569) accounted for 20.7% of the PD-treated patients (7,591). In Japan, patients with fluid overloading preferably select PD + HD combination therapy with or without icodextrin use. Young patients select APD while patients on PD suffered from fluid overloading with high transporter membrane. What then are the factors that effect APD selection in Japan? The use of various forms of APD has increased considerably in the past few years. Important factors that contribute to APD selection are better adjustment of APD to the patient's lifestyle and the flexibility that APD offers to patients. In addition, patients with APD will be able to have good quality of life (QOL). Young patients on PD select APD because of good QOL. It is well known that almost all of children younger than 19 years with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are undergoing APD. APD has a pivotal role in the management of pediatric patients with ESRD. Children on APD had a lower incidence of peritonitis compared with those with CAPD. The switch from CAPD to APD resulted in better ultrafiltration, less edema, lower mean arterial blood pressure, lower peritonitis rate and fewer hospital admissions. As in young patients, APD is also good method to select in elderly patients on PD. The need for the exchange to be performed by another person is increased in elderly and handicapped ESRD patients, however APD therapy is a good selection for them

  10. The short peritoneal equilibration test in pediatric peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Cano, Francisco; Sanchez, Lorena; Rebori, Anabella; Quiroz, Lily; Delucchi, Angela; Delgado, Iris; Aguilar, Maria Alejandra; Azócar, Marta; Castro, Florencia; Ibacache, Maria José; Cuevas, Mónica; Esquivel, Maria

    2010-10-01

    The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is the gold standard method for defining peritoneal membrane permeability and for prescribing peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy on an individual basis. However, it is laborious, consumes nursing time, and requires many hours to be performed. Therefore, several authors have attempted to validate a short PET protocol, with controversial results. To evaluate the concordance between the 2-h (short) and 4-h (classical) peritoneal equilibrium test, a prospective observational protocol was applied in three PD centers (Mexico, Chile, and Uruguay) between July 1, 2008 and July 31 2009. PET protocol: the night prior to the test, each patient received five exchanges, 1 h each, at the same glucose concentration as previously used. Afterwards, a 2.5% glucose dialysis solution was used for a dwell time of 4 h. Exchange fill volume was 1,100 ml/m2 body surface area. The next morning, the 4-h dwell was drained, and Dianeal 2.5% was infused. Three dialysate samples at 0, 2, and 4 h were obtained. A single blood sample was obtained at 120 min. Creatinine D/P and glucose D/D0 ratios were calculated at hours 0, 2, and 4. Patients were categorized as low, low average, high average, or high transporters according creat D/P and gluc D/D0 results. Pearson and Kappa test were used for numerical and categorical correlations, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Eighty-seven PET studies were evaluated in 74 patients, 33 males, age 11.1+/-5.05 years old. A positive linear correlation of 92% between 2 and 4-h creat D/P and 80% between 2 and 4-h gluc D/D0 (p<0.001) was founded. The Kappa test showed a significant concordance between creat D/P and gluc D/D0 categories at 2 and 4 h (p<0.001). When analyzing cut-off-value categories, creat D/P was founded to be lower and gluc D/D0 higher than other experiences. This multicentric prospective study strongly suggests that PET obtained at 2 h and 4 h, based on either creatinine or glucose

  11. Comparison of proposed alternative methods for rescaling dialysis dose: resting energy expenditure, high metabolic rate organ mass, liver size, and body surface area.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter; Depner, Thomas A; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Chertow, Glenn M; Rocco, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    A number of denominators for scaling the dose of dialysis have been proposed as alternatives to the urea distribution volume (V). These include resting energy expenditure (REE), mass of high metabolic rate organs (HMRO), visceral mass, and body surface area. Metabolic rate is an unlikely denominator as it varies enormously among humans with different levels of activity and correlates poorly with the glomerular filtration rate. Similarly, scaling based on HMRO may not be optimal, as many organs with high metabolic rates such as spleen, brain, and heart are unlikely to generate unusually large amounts of uremic toxins. Visceral mass, in particular the liver and gut, has potential merit as a denominator for scaling; liver size is related to protein intake and the liver, along with the gut, is known to be responsible for the generation of suspected uremic toxins. Surface area is time-honored as a scaling method for glomerular filtration rate and scales similarly to liver size. How currently recommended dialysis doses might be affected by these alternative rescaling methods was modeled by applying anthropometric equations to a large group of dialysis patients who participated in the HEMO study. The data suggested that rescaling to REE would not be much different from scaling to V. Scaling to HMRO mass would mandate substantially higher dialysis doses for smaller patients of either gender. Rescaling to liver mass would require substantially more dialysis for women compared with men at all levels of body size. Rescaling to body surface area would require more dialysis for smaller patients of either gender and also more dialysis for women of any size. Of these proposed alternative rescaling measures, body surface area may be the best, because it reflects gender-based scaling of liver size and thereby the rate of generation of uremic toxins.

  12. Factors influencing skin autofluorescence of patients with peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Mácsai, Emília; Benke, A; Cseh, A; Vásárhelyi, B

    2012-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement is a simple, noninvasive method to assess tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE). In patients with end-stage renal disease and in those on hemodialysis AGE production is increased. Less is known about those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study we tested if SAF is influenced by clinical and treatment characteristics in PD patients.This cross-sectional study included 198 PD patients (of those, 128 were on traditional glucose-based solutions and 70 patients were partially switched to icodextrin-based PD). SAF measurements were done with a specific AGE Reader device. The impact of patients' age, gender, current diabetes, duration of PD, cumulative glucose exposure, body mass index, smoking habits and use of icodextrin on SAF values were tested with multiple regression analysis.Our analysis revealed that patients' age, current diabetes and icodextrin use significantly increase patients' SAF values (p = 0.015, 0.012, 0.005, respectively). AGE exposure of PD patients with diabetes and on icodextrin solution is increased. Further investigation is required whether this finding is due to the icodextrin itself or for a still unspecified clinical characteristic of PD population treated with icodextrin.

  13. The time for surgery of peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Mihalache, O; Bugă, C; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Bobircă, F; Andreescu, A; Mustățea, P; Pătrașcu, T

    2016-01-01

    Peritonitis is the main complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and also an important factor for raising the cost of the method to the level of hemodialysis. Associated with PD, peritonitis is responsible for the increase of morbidity and mortality of the procedure and, at the same time, the main cause of the technique failure. Severe and prolonged peritonitis or repeated episodes of peritonitis lead to ultrafiltration failure. Peritonitis treatment should aim for a rapid remission of inflammation in order to preserve the peritoneal membrane functional integrity. The treatment of PD peritonitis consists mainly of antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention not being usually required. However, it is of outmost importance to differentiate the so-called "catheter related" peritonitis from secondary peritonitis due to visceral lesions, in which the surgical treatment comes first. The confusion between secondary and "catheter related" peritonitis may lead to serious errors in choosing the correct treatment, endangering the patient's life. The differential diagnosis between a refractory or secondary peritonitis in a peritoneal dialyzed patient may be very difficult. In front of a refractory PD peritonitis, surgical exploration must not be delayed. Also we have to keep in mind that the aim of peritonitis treatment is the saving of the peritoneal membrane and not the catheter.

  14. Pleural effusion complicating acute peritoneal dialysis in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butani, L; Polinsky, M S; Kaiser, B A; Baluarte, H J

    1998-11-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in children, and one for which treatment with peritoneal dialysis (PD) is often necessary. Between January 1982 and December 1996, 176 children received PD for ARF at St. Christopher's Hospital for Children; 34 (19%) of whom had HUS. Of these 34, 7 (20%) developed pleural effusions (PE) while receiving PD, whereas none of the remaining 142 children with other causes of ARF did so. The mean age of the 7 affected children was 5.2 (range 0.4-17) years; none had heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, nor had any of them undergone thoracic surgery. PE were diagnosed by chest radiograph at an interval of 2 (range 1-3) days after starting PD. Thereafter, 4 (57%) patients were successfully maintained on a modified PD prescription; 2 others were converted to hemodialysis and 1 to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Although PE are a known complication of PD, none of the patients so treated for non-HUS related ARF developed them. Whether they represent a purely mechanical complication of PD, or are in some way attributable to HUS itself, is not entirely clear. Regardless, when children with HUS require PD, physicians should monitor for the development of this potential complication to minimize the risk of serious respiratory compromise.

  15. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21-87) years; median time on PD 19 (3-100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters--rather than solute transport parameters--are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.

  16. Trends and outcomes of infective endocarditis in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Aakash; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Abhishek; Agarwal, Manyoo; Garg, Lohit; Agrawal, Nikhil; Singh, Amitoj; Nanda, Sudip; Shirani, Jamshid

    2017-03-16

    Dialysis patients are at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE); however, no large contemporary data exist on this issue. We examined outcomes of 44 816 patients with IE on dialysis and 202 547 patients with IE not on dialysis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2006 thorough 2011. Dialysis patients were younger (59 ± 15 years vs 62 ± 18 years) and more likely to be female (47% vs 40%) and African-American (47% vs 40%; all P < 0.001). Hospitalizations for IE in the dialysis group increased from 175 to 222 per 10 000 patients (P trend  = 0.04). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism isolated in both dialysis (61%) and nondialysis (45%) groups. IE due to S aureus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-1.84), non-aureus staphylococcus (aOR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.64-1.80), and fungi (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.12-1.78) were more likely in the dialysis group, whereas infection due to gram-negative bacteria (aOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81-0.89), streptococci (aOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.36-0.39), and enterococci (aOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.74-0.82) were less likely (all P < 0.001). Dialysis patients had higher in-hospital mortality (aOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 2.04-2.21), lower likelihood of valve-replacement surgery (aOR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.86), and higher incidence of stroke (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12; all P < 0.001). We demonstrate rising incidence of IE-related hospitalizations in dialysis patients, highlight significant differences in baseline comorbidities and microbiology of IE compared with the general population, and validate the association of long-term dialysis with worse in-hospital outcomes.

  17. Automated peritoneal dialysis as the modality of choice: a single-center, 3-year experience with 458 children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fabian Velasco, Rosaura; Lagunas Muñoz, Jesus; Sanchez Saavedra, Veronica; Mena Brito Trejo, Jorge E; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; García-López, Elvia; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-03-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) has been considered as the ideal dialysis modality for pediatric patients. This study reports the 3-year APD experience with 458 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) children who started APD in a single pediatric center in Mexico City between June 2003 and June 2006. By June 2003, there were 310 patients being treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). At that time, these patients were gradually switched to APD, with priority being given to those prescribed more than four exchanges per day, younger than 6 years of age, or presenting complications [hernias or decreased ultrafiltration (UF)]. An improvement of daily UF was observed when the patients were switched from CAPD (590 +/- 340 ml/day) to APD (846 +/- 335 ml/day). The presence of edema decreased (from 67% to 8%) as well as the percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive drugs (from 83% to 38%), the peritonitis rate improved from one episode every 35 patient/month to one episode every 47 patient/month, the total number of hospitalizations decreased (from 384 to 51), and 85% of children attended school. While waiting for renal transplant, APD is the dialysis modality of choice for ESRD children at the La Raza Medical Center in Mexico City.

  18. Efficacy, toxicity and mortality of autologous SCT in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure.

    PubMed

    St Bernard, R; Chodirker, L; Masih-Khan, E; Jiang, H; Franke, N; Kukreti, V; Tiedemann, R; Trudel, S; Reece, D; Chen, C I

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the feasibility and safety of autologous SCT (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and mild to moderate renal impairment, but there are limited data in dialysis-dependent patients. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the toxicities and efficacy outcomes of 33  MM patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure who underwent ASCT at our institution from 1998 to 2012. The most common grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities were mucositis (49%), infection (15%) and bleeding (6%). Atrial dysrhythmias (24%) and delirium (30%) of all grades were also common. Hematologic toxicities included febrile neutropenia (88%); and RBC and platelet transfusions were required by 71 and 100% of patients, respectively. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was high at 15%, predominantly caused by septic shock. Response to ASCT was at least VGPR (very good PR) in 50%, PR in 46.2% and stable disease (SD) in 3.8%. Median OS was 5.6 years, comparable to our overall institutional data. Overall, seven patients became dialysis independent. We conclude that ASCT can be an effective treatment for dialysis-dependent MM patients, with high response rates and survival. However, toxicities and a high TRM are observed indicating that further studies are needed to enhance the safety of this approach.

  19. Abnormalities of serum potassium concentration in dialysis-associated hyperglycemia and their correction with insulin: review of published reports.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S; Elisaf, Moses S; Raj, Dominic S C; Siamopoulos, Kostas C; Rohrscheib, Mark; Murata, Glen H

    2011-06-01

    The main difference between dialysis-associated hyperglycemia (DH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) occurring in patients with preserved renal function is the absence of osmotic diuresis in DH, which eliminates the need for large fluid and solute (including potassium) replacement. We analyzed published reports of serum potassium (K(+)) abnormalities and their treatment in DH. Hyperkalemia was often present at presentation of DH with higher frequency and severity than in hyperglycemic syndromes in patients with preserved renal function. The frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were higher in DH episodes with DKA than those with NKH in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For DKA, the frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were similar in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For NKH, hyperkalemia was more severe and frequent in hemodialysis than in peritoneal dialysis. Insulin infusion corrected the hyperkalemia of DH in most cases. Additional measures for the management of hyperkalemia or modest potassium infusions for hypokalemia were needed in a few DH episodes. The predictors of the decrease in serum K(+) during treatment of DH with insulin included the starting serum K(+) level, the decreases in serum values of glucose concentration and tonicity, and the increase in serum total carbon dioxide level. DH represents a risk factor for hyperkalemia. Insulin infusion is the only treatment for hyperkalemia usually required.

  20. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: no longer experimental.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G.; Khanna, R.; Vas, S. I.; Digenis, G.; Oreopoulos, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Many patients with end-stage renal disease have now been maintained for 5 years or more with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Viewed initially as an experimental alternative to be used only when hemodialysis was not feasible, CAPD is now seen as the treatment of choice in an increasing number of situations. CAPD is suitable for self-care. The main concern in the early years--peritonitis--is now less frightening and less frequent (one episode occurring every 18 patient-months as compared with every 8 initially), and this has allowed chronic complications of CAPD, such as malnutrition and loss of the peritoneum's capacity for ultrafiltration, to come to light. As would be expected, among patients of advanced age and those who have heart disease or diabetes, survival rates tend to be lower than among other CAPD patients. However, hypertension seems to be more easily controlled, pre-existing anemia can be significantly ameliorated, and young children grow more normally than they do with hemodialysis. Diabetes-related changes in vision stabilize in most CAPD patients, and control of the blood glucose level is good; insulin is administered intraperitoneally. CAPD is thus showing itself to be a feasible form of long-term treatment for end-stage renal disease. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6697277

  1. Hemodynamic Simulations in Dialysis Access Fistulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Riley, James; Aliseda, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. It has long been hypothesized that the hemodynamic and mechanical forces (such as wall shear stress, wall stretch, or flow- induced wall vibrations) constitute the primary external influence on the remodeling process. Given that nearly 50% of fistulae fail after one year, understanding fistulae hemodynamics is an important step toward improving patency in the clinic. We perform numerical simulations of the flow in patient-specific models of AV fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans with physiologically-realistic boundary conditions also obtained from Doppler ultrasound. Comparison of the flow features in different geometries and configurations e.g. end-to-side vs. side-to-side, with the in vivo longitudinal outcomes will allow us to hypothesize which flow conditions are conducive to fistulae success or failure. The flow inertia and pulsatility in the simulations (mean Re 700, max Re 2000, Wo 4) give rise to complex secondary flows and coherent vortices, further complicating the spatio- temporal variability of the wall pressure and shear stresses. Even in mature fistulae, the anastomotic regions are subjected to non-physiological shear stresses (>10.12pcPa) which may potentially lead to complications.

  2. Why does three times per week hemodialysis provide inadequate dialysis for children?

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Laetitia, Higel; Menouer, Soraya; Terzic, Joelle

    2014-10-01

    The duration of chronic conventional dialysis is a risk factor in children, both in terms of growth retardation and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we need to develop alternative strategies, such as preemptive kidney transplantation and/or more intensive dialysis prescription. Indeed, conventional hemodialysis could be improved in all children by the use of high permeable membrane and ultrapure dialysis fluids (having very low endotoxin levels); by the addition of a convective dialysis dose to the urea diffusion dialysis dose (Kt/Vurea), i.e., hemodiafiltration; moreover, by the preservation of cardiovascular morphology and function (optimized blood pressure control); and also by the prescription of more frequent/longer dialysis sessions.

  3. Pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 in acute decompensated heart failure: workgroup statements from the eleventh consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI).

    PubMed

    Haase, Michael; Müller, Christian; Damman, Kevin; Murray, Patrick T; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio; McCullough, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) types 1-5 are still sparsely characterized. In an attempt to address this issue, a consensus conference on CRS was held in Venice, Italy, in November 2012 under the auspices of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI). Working group 1 discussed monodirectional mechanisms of CRS type 1 which is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Pre-conference we performed a systematic search and review of the available literature using a modified Delphi analysis. Hereby identified and in this review discussed questions were: (i) What are the predominant pathophysiologic mechanisms of CRS type 1 in acute decompensated heart failure? (ii) Could biomarker profiling identify pathomechanisms or hemodynamic phenotype of patients with CRS type 1? Could predictive biomarkers improve renal safety of therapy in CRS type 1? (iii) How do the timing, severity and duration relate to the mechanisms and outcomes of CRS type 1? In summary, after discussion and appraisal of the best available evidence, working group 1 makes consensus recommendations for future research on pathologic mechanisms of CRS type 1 and recommendations for clinical practice where treatment is in either proof or disproof of a mechanism.

  4. [Dialysis adequacy: Kt/V on its way out?].

    PubMed

    Mandolfo, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Kt/V index started being used in the 1980s to determine the adequacy of dialysis treatment. Based on a pharmacokinetic model and on urea as a marker of uremia, its use in clinical practice has allowed the development of new dialyzers that can provide high diffusive clearance but, above all, has established the knowledge that dialysis treatment should be tailored to the characteristics of the patient. After an initial period of uncertainty in which it was discussed which formula or model should be employed, there came a phase of excitement in which it was believed that the Kt/V index was synonymous with adequate dialysis. In the following years, several studies highlighted the limitations of Kt/V; in particular, the rescaling of Kt for the volume of distribution is a confounding factor because in patients on dialysis, sex and body mass index per se affect the mortality and morbidity. Doubts were also raised about urea as a marker of uremia. Whereas the measurement of Kt/V urea should not be abandoned, it should be viewed in the broader context of the definition of ''adequate dialysis'' as an index of the removal of small molecules, possibly together with Kt/V B2M as an index of the removal of middle molecules.

  5. Vitamins in dialysis: who, when and how much?

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, George; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Carceles, Odette; Somda, Frederic; Aguilera, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the significant technical evolution of the blood purification methods, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients is still several times higher than that observed in the general population. Vitamins are playing a crucial role in multiple key metabolic pathways. Due to multiple factors, dialysis patients present very often hypo- or hypervitaminosis for a broad range of vitamins. Dialysis in the context of renal replacement therapy is associated with a non-physiological potassium-sparing dietetic regime. Additionally, there is a non-selective intradialytic loss of micro- and macronutrients, deranged intracellular kinetics and gastrointestinal malabsorption due to uratemia. Frequent treatment with antibiotics due to infections associated with the acquired uremia-related immunosuppression may derange the vitamin-producing intestinal microflora. Certain agents prescribed in the context of renal failure or other conditions may reduce the absorption of vitamins from the gastrointestinal tract. These factors may deplete a dialysis patient from vitamins, especially the ones with antioxidant activity that may be associated with cardioprotective properties. In other cases, vitamins metabolized and excreted by the kidneys may be accumulated and exert toxic effects. The scope of this paper is to describe the main issues on vitamin therapy in dialysis patients in view of the ever contradictory opinions and practices.

  6. Optical indicators of baseline blood status in dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagali, Neil S.; Burns, Kevin D.; Zimmerman, Deborah L.; Munger, Rejean

    2007-06-01

    In a step towards the development of improved long-term prognostic indicators for patients with end-stage renal disease, we utilized absorption spectroscopy to determine the baseline status of whole blood in a cohort of 5 clinically-stable hemodialysis patients. The optical absorption spectrum of pre-dialysis and post-dialysis blood samples in the 400-1700nm wavelength range was measured for the cohort over a four-week period. Absorption spectra were consistent over time, with a maximum coefficient of variation (CV) of absorption under 2% (650-1650nm) for any given patient over the four-week period (pre and post-dialysis). Spectra varied by a greater amount across patients, with a maximum CV of 5% in any given week. Analysis of variance indicated a broad spectral range (650-1400nm) where within-patient spectral variation was significantly less than between-patient variation (p<0.001), providing the potential for development of stable baseline blood status indicators. The spectra were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) including a further set of whole blood absorption spectra obtained from 4 peritoneal dialysis patients. PCA revealed the fingerprint-like nature of the blood spectrum, an overall similarity of the spectrum within each treatment mode (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), and a distinct spectral difference between the treatment modes.

  7. Management of Anemia in Children Receiving Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Borzych-Duzalka, Dagmara; Bilginer, Yelda; Ha, Il Soo; Bak, Mustafa; Rees, Lesley; Cano, Francisco; Munarriz, Reyner Loza; Chua, Annabelle; Pesle, Silvia; Emre, Sevinc; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Quiroz, Lily; Ruscasso, Javier Darío; White, Colin; Pape, Lars; Ramela, Virginia; Printza, Nikoleta; Vogel, Andrea; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Simkova, Eva; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk E.; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists regarding the efficacy, modifiers, and outcomes of anemia management in children with CKD or ESRD. We assessed practices, effectors, and outcomes of anemia management in 1394 pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) who were prospectively followed in 30 countries. We noted that 25% of patients had hemoglobin levels below target (<10 g/dl or <9.5 g/dl in children older or younger than 2 years, respectively), with significant regional variation; levels were highest in North America and Europe and lowest in Asia and Turkey. Low hemoglobin levels were associated with low urine output, low serum albumin, high parathyroid hormone, high ferritin, and the use of bioincompatible PD fluid. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were prescribed to 92% of patients, and neither the type of ESA nor the dosing interval appeared to affect efficacy. The weekly ESA dose inversely correlated with age when scaled to weight but did not correlate with age when normalized to body surface area. ESA sensitivity was positively associated with residual diuresis and serum albumin and inversely associated with serum parathyroid hormone and ferritin. The prevalence of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy increased with the degree of anemia. Patient survival was positively associated with achieved hemoglobin and serum albumin and was inversely associated with ESA dose. In conclusion, control of anemia in children receiving long-term PD varies by region. ESA requirements are independent of age when dose is scaled to body surface area, and ESA resistance is associated with inflammation, fluid retention, and hyperparathyroidism. Anemia and high ESA dose requirements independently predict mortality. PMID:23471197

  8. Assay of In Vivo Chromium with a Hollow-fiber Dialysis Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Suw Young; Yoo, Hai-Soo; Jung, Minki; Ko, Kwang Hee; Kim, Byung Jin; Lee, Ki Chul; Choi, Byung Min

    2010-01-01

    The analytical in vivo chromium ion was searched for using a voltammetric hollow-fiber dialysis sensor via square wave stripping voltammetry (SW) , cyclic voltammetry (CV) , and chronoamperometry. Under optimum parameters, the analytical results indicated linear working ranges of 50~400 mg/l CV and 10~80 μg/l SW within a 30-sec accumulation time. The analytical detection limit (S/N) was 6.0 μg/l. The developed method can be applied to in vivo tissues and in ex vivo toxicity assay, as well as to other materials that require chromium analysis. PMID:24278529

  9. [Clinical dialysis: new problems and new prospects].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, F; Manzoni, C; Pozzoni, P; Pontoriero, G; Di Filippo, L

    2004-01-01

    The main problem nephrologists have to face today is the very high patient morbidity and mortality. A number of traditional and non-traditional risk factors have a role; among these anaemia, hypertension, dislipidemia, abnormalities in calcium-phosphate metabolism, hyperhomocysteinemia and endothelial dysfunction. An important innovation in the field of hemodialysis has been the availability of high-permeable and high-flux membranes, characterized by a high biocompatibility and ultrafiltration coefficient. The development of automatic systems to control ultrafiltration has enabled the utilisation of these membranes in the clinical setting (high-flux hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration). It is common opinion that high-flux membranes can positively influence cardiovascular instability, but this has not been confirmed by clinical trials. Although preliminary data indicated a favorable effect on the correction of anemia in patients treated with high-permeable membranes, randomized trials have not shown a significant effect. Better control of anemia could be possible by means of on-line treatments, given their higher removal of medium- and large molecules and reduced microbiological and pyrogenic contamination of the dialysate. A number of analyses showed a lower incidence of bone cysts and/or carpal tunnel syndrome in patients treated with high-flux membranes compared to low-flux ones. High-flux treatments could reduce morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, despite its large sample size, the HEMO Study has not been capable of showing a statistically significant effect of higher dialysis dose and high-flux membranes on survival and morbidity. The MPO study has been expressively designed to do a prospective evaluation of the long-term effect of membrane permeability on clinical outcomes. These results are greatly awaited.

  10. Unusual causes of peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Arzu; Asicioglu, Ebru; Tigen, Elif; Ari, Elif; Arikan, Hakki; Odabasi, Zekaver; Ozener, Cetin

    2011-04-10

    An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  11. [THE RISK FACTORS OF THE DIALYSIS PERITONITIS (THREE-YEARS PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION)].

    PubMed

    Mishalov, V G; Zavodovskiy, E S; Markulan, L Yu; Goyda, S M

    2015-09-01

    The risk factors of the dialysis peritonitis occurrence were determined in patients with chronic renal disease, to whom a substitute renal therapy, using peritoneal dialysis, was conducted. The results of a three-year prospective investigation and treatment of 73 patients in Kyiv City Oleksandrivska Clinical Hospital on the base of the general surgery and nephrology departments in 2007 - 2010 yrs were studied. The dialysis peritonitis (first episode) have occurred in 42 (57.5%) patients. Cumulative rate of a dialysis peritonitis in accordance to a censored data (the dialysis peritonitis suspension or other causes) have constituted 67.7%. Due to the dialysis peritonitis occurrence the peritoneal dialysis was stopped in 14 (19.2%) patients. The obesity, raising of a serum albumin level, constipation, preliminary injection into the site of the catheter exit site we consider a risk factors for the dialysis peritonitis occurrence.

  12. Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients: Beyond Nonadherence to Diet and Binders.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients is routinely attributed to nonadherence to diet, prescribed phosphate binders, or both. The role of individual patient variability in other determinants of phosphate control is not widely recognized. In a manner that cannot be explained by dialysis parameters or serum phosphate levels, dialytic removal of phosphate may vary by >400mg per treatment. Similarly, enteral phosphate absorption, unexplained by diet or vitamin D intake, may differ by ≥250mg/d among patients. Binder efficacy also varies among patients, with 2-fold differences reported. One or more elements of this triple threat-varying dialytic removal, phosphate absorption, and phosphate binding-may account for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients rather than nonadherence to therapy. Just as the cause(s) of hyperphosphatemia may vary, so too may an individual patient's response to different therapeutic interventions.

  13. A crystallization apparatus for temperature-controlled flow-cell dialysis with real-time visualization

    PubMed Central

    Junius, Niels; Oksanen, Esko; Terrien, Maxime; Berzin, Christophe; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Budayova-Spano, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Many instrumentation developments in crystallization have concentrated on massive parallelization assays and reduction of sample volume per experiment to find initial crystallization conditions. Yet improving the size and diffraction quality of the crystals for diffraction studies often requires decoupling of crystal nucleation and growth. This in turn requires the control of variables such as precipitant and protein concentration, equilibration rate, and temperature, which are all difficult parameters to control in the existing setups. The success of the temperature-controlled batch method, originally developed to grow very large crystals for neutron crystallography, demonstrated that the rational optimization of crystal growth has potential in structural biology. A temperature-controlled dialysis button has been developed for our previous device, and a prototype of an integrated apparatus for the rational optimization of crystal growth by mapping and manipulating temperature–precipitant concentration phase diagrams has been constructed. The presented approach differs from the current paradigm, since it involves serial instead of parallel experiments, exploring multiple crystallization conditions with the same protein sample. The sample is not consumed in the experiment and the conditions can be changed in a reversible fashion, using dialysis with a flowing precipitant reservoir as well as precise temperature control. The control software allows visualization of the crystals, as well as control of the temperature and composition of the crystallization solution. The rational crystallization optimization strategies presented here allow tailoring of crystal size, morphology and diffraction quality, significantly reducing the time, effort and amount of expensive protein material required for structure determination. PMID:27275137

  14. Severe defect in clearing postprandial chylomicron remnants in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, M; Burstein, A; Rassin, T; Liron, M; Ringel, Y; Cabili, S; Blum, M; Peer, G; Iaina, A

    1992-11-01

    Lipid abnormalities have been suggested as a major cause of the accelerated atherosclerosis and the high incidence of coronary heart disease in chronic renal failure patients. In the present work the postprandial lipoprotein metabolism was studied in chronic dialysis patients with or without fasting hypertriglyceridemia using the vitamin A loading test. This method investigates specifically postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. The determination of vitamin A ester level retinyl palmitate (RP) differentiates the circulating plasma chylomicron and chylomicron remnant fractions from the endogenous VLDL and IDL. Subjects with normal renal function with or without fasting hypertriglyceridemia served as control groups. Dialysis patients have significantly higher level of chylomicron remnants for a more prolonged period of time than controls, irrespective of their fasting triglyceride levels. The area below retinyl palmitate chylomicron remnants curve was 26308 +/- 12422 micrograms/liter.hr in the normolipidemic dialysis patients, significantly higher than (6393 +/- 2098 micrograms/liter.hr; P < 0.0001) in the normolipidemic controls. The retinyl palmitate chylomicron remnants curve of the hypertriglyceridemic dialysis patients was 21021 +/- 4560 micrograms/liter.hr, which was higher than 12969 +/- 2215 micrograms/liter.hr (P < 0.0001) in the hypertriglyceridemic controls. Moreover, the hypertriglyceridemic dialysis patients had an additional defect in the lipolysis metabolic step, that is, accumulation of chylomicrons in circulation. These findings show a severe defect in postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in chronic renal failure patients. The prolonged exposure of the vascular wall to high chylomicron remnant concentrations might be an important pathogenetic factor in the accelerated atherosclerosis seen in chronic dialysis patients.

  15. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hod, T; Kushnir, R; Paitan, Y; Korzets, Z

    2008-12-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum group species is an atypical rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium. It has been increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen mostly encountered in skin and soft tissue infections. Rarely, however, it has been associated with catheter-related infections, either central venous lines or peritoneal dialysis catheters. In this report we describe 2 patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who developed Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis and a catheter tunnel abscess, respectively. Molecular biology identification of the isolates was performed in both cases. The literature is reviewed regarding all similar cases.

  16. Timing of return to dialysis in patients with failing kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Miklos Z; Ichii, Hirohito; Lineen, James; Foster, Clarence E; Mathe, Zoltan; Schiff, Jeffrey; Kim, S Joseph; Pahl, Madeleine V; Amin, Alpesh N; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of patients starting dialysis after a failed kidney transplant has increased substantially. These patients appear to be different from their transplant-naïve counterparts, and so may be the timing of dialysis therapy initiation. An increasing number of studies suggest that in transplant-naïve patients, later dialysis initiation is associated with better outcomes. Very few data are available on timing of dialysis reinitiation in failed transplant recipients, and they suggest that an earlier return to dialysis therapy tended to be associated with worse survival, especially among healthier and younger patients and women. Failed transplant patients may also have unique issues such as continuation of immunosuppression versus withdrawal or the need for remnant allograft nephrectomy with regard to dialysis reinitiation. These patients may have a different predialysis preparation work-up, worse blood pressure control, higher or lower serum phosphorus levels, lower serum bicarbonate concentration, and worse anemia management. The choice of dialysis modality may also represent an important question for these patients, even though there appears to be no difference in mortality between patients starting peritoneal versus hemodialysis. Finally, failed transplant patients returning to dialysis appear to have a higher mortality rate compared with transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients, especially in the first several months of dialysis therapy. In this review, we will summarize the available data related to the timing of dialysis initiation and outcomes in failed kidney transplant patients after returning to dialysis.

  17. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Selection” form). (iii) In writing, the supplier— (A) Agrees to receive Medicare payment for home dialysis... patient elects to obtain home dialysis equipment and supplies from a supplier that is not a Medicare approved dialysis facility. (ii) The patient certifies to CMS that he or she has only one supplier for...

  18. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Selection” form). (iii) In writing, the supplier— (A) Agrees to receive Medicare payment for home dialysis... to obtain home dialysis equipment and supplies from a supplier that is not a Medicare approved dialysis facility. (ii) The patient certifies to CMS that he or she has only one supplier for all...

  19. Metabolic response to exercise in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Castellino, P; Bia, M; DeFronzo, R A

    1987-12-01

    The metabolic and hormonal response to acute moderate intensity (40% of VO2 max) bicycle exercise was examined in eight uremic subjects maintained on chronic dialysis and in 12 age- and weight-matched controls before and after the administration of low dose, selective (metoprolol) and nonselective (propranolol), beta adrenergic antagonists. The fasting plasma glucose concentration and basal rates of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and tissue glucose disappearance (Rd) were similar in control and uremic subjects. In both groups HGP and Rd increased in parallel during exercise, and the plasma glucose concentration remained constant at the fasting level. However, the increments in Rd (2.27 +/- 0.27 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.31 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) and HGP (2.47 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.19 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) were 2.5-3 fold greater in the control compared to uremic subjects. Although the VO2max was decreased by 50% (39 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 2 ml/min.kg; P less than 0.01), the correlation between Rd and VO2max was weak (r = 0.33, P less than 0.10), suggesting that factors other than diminished physical fitness contribute to diminished tissue uptake of glucose in the dialyzed uremic patients. Following the cessation of exercise, HGP and Rd promptly returned toward basal levels in both uremic and control subjects. The glucose homeostatic response to exercise was not significantly altered by either propranolol or metoprolol. In the postabsorptive state fasting levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine all were significantly increased in the uremic group (P less than 0.01 to 0.05). During exercise in the healthy young controls the plasma insulin concentration declined and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels rose three- to fourfold. In contrast, in uremics plasma insulin failed to fall (P less than 0.05) and the increase in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine levels was markedly impaired (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Rationale and design of the HepZero study: a prospective, multicenter, international, open, randomized, controlled clinical study with parallel groups comparing heparin-free dialysis with heparin-coated dialysis membrane (Evodial) versus standard care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation for chronic dialysis patients with contraindications to heparin administration is challenging. Current guidelines state that in patients with increased bleeding risks, strategies that can induce systemic anticoagulation should be avoided. Heparin-free dialysis using intermittent saline flushes is widely adopted as the method of choice for patients at risk of bleeding, although on-line blood predilution may also be used. A new dialyzer, Evodial (Gambro, Lund, Sweden), is grafted with unfractionated heparin during the manufacturing process and may allow safe and efficient heparin-free hemodialysis sessions. In the present trial, Evodial was compared to standard care with either saline flushes or blood predilution. Methods The HepZero study is the first international (seven countries), multicenter (10 centers), randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority (and if applicable subsequently, superiority) trial with two parallel groups, comprising 252 end-stage renal disease patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis for at least 3 months and requiring heparin-free dialysis treatments. Patients will be treated during a maximum of three heparin-free dialysis treatments with either saline flushes or blood predilution (control group), or Evodial. The first heparin-free dialysis treatment will be considered successful when there is: no complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer rendering dialysis impossible; no additional saline flushes to prevent clotting; no change of dialyzer or blood lines because of clotting; and no premature termination (early rinse-back) because of clotting. The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Evodial dialyzer, compared with standard care in terms of successful treatments during the first heparin-free dialysis. If the non-inferiority of Evodial is demonstrated then the superiority of Evodial over standard care will be tested. The HepZero study results may have major clinical

  1. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2016-05-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.

  2. The Dialysis Exercise: A Clinical Simulation for Preclinical Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Bernstein, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    A clinical decision-making simulation that helps students understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and medical problem-solving is described. A group of medical students and one faculty member comprise a selection committee to agree on the order in which four patients will be selected for renal dialysis. (MLW)

  3. Carers perspective on home dialysis: support, facts and legislation.

    PubMed

    Holman, Cathy

    2011-12-01

    Carers provide unpaid care and support to ill, frail or disabled friends or family members. It is important for health professionals to give carers of home dialysis patients time, space and permission to talk about how caring impacts upon their lives and to look at how best to support them.

  4. Recurrent peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Microbacterium resistens.

    PubMed

    Gallois, Emmanuelle; Lamy, Thomas; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Lobbedez, Thierry; Cattoir, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a recurrent peritonitis due to Microbacterium resistens in a 71-year-old male patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Importantly, this Gram-positive rod was intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and vancomycin, classically used in PD-related peritonitis treatment. His infection resolved after several weeks of appropriate therapy (amoxicillin plus gentamicin) and PD catheter removal.

  5. Severe venous neointimal hyperplasia prior to dialysis access surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Timmy; Chauhan, Vibha; Krishnamoorthy, Mahesh; Wang, Yang; Arend, Lois; Mistry, Meenakshi J.; El-Khatib, Mahmoud; Banerjee, Rupak; Munda, Rino; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

    2011-01-01

    Background. Venous neointimal hyperplasia is the most common cause of arteriovenous (AV) fistula and graft dysfunction following dialysis access surgery. However, the pathogenetic impact of pre-existing venous neointimal hyperplasia at the time of AV access creation on final clinical success is currently unknown in the setting of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analysis of vein specimens in advanced CKD and ESRD patients collected at the time of new vascular access placement. Methods. Vein samples from 12 patients were collected at the time of AV access creation near the site of AV anastomosis. Histological, immunohistochemistry and morphometric studies were performed on these vein samples. Results. Examination of the tissue specimens obtained at the time of surgery showed neointimal hyperplasia in 10 of 12 specimens, ranging from minimal to very severe. The majority of cells within the neointima were myofibroblasts with a minority of contractile smooth muscle cells present. Conclusion. Our work represents a detailed description of the morphometric and cellular phenotypic lesions present in the veins of CKD and ESRD patients, prior to dialysis access placement. These studies (i) suggest the future possibility of a new predictive marker (pre-existing venous neointimal hyperplasia) for AV dialysis access dysfunction and (ii) open the door for the future development of novel local therapies for optimization of the venous substrate on which the dialysis access is created. PMID:21220751

  6. Maintenance Dialysis throughout the World in Years 1990 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wulf, Sarah; Bikbov, Boris; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville de Vaccaro, Karen; Flaxman, Abraham; Peterson, Hannah; Delossantos, Allyne; Haring, Diana; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Murray, Christopher; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rising global rates of chronic diseases portend a consequent rise in ESRD. Despite this, kidney disease is not included in the list of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by the United Nations for 25% reduction by year 2025. In an effort to accurately report the trajectory and pattern of global growth of maintenance dialysis, we present the change in prevalence and incidence from 1990 to 2010. Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 epidemiologic database. The results are on the basis of an analysis of data from worldwide national and regional renal disease registries and detailed systematic literature review for years 1980–2010. Incidence and prevalence estimates of provision of maintenance dialysis from this database were updated using a negative binomial Bayesian meta-regression tool for 187 countries. Results indicate substantial growth in utilization of maintenance dialysis in almost all world regions. Changes in population structure, changes in aging, and the worldwide increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension explain a significant portion, but not all, of the increase because increased dialysis provision also accounts for a portion of the rise. These findings argue for the importance of inclusion of kidney disease among NCD targets for reducing premature death throughout the world. PMID:26209712

  7. Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-04-01

    Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials.

  8. Maintenance Dialysis throughout the World in Years 1990 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bernadette; Wulf, Sarah; Bikbov, Boris; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville de Vaccaro, Karen; Flaxman, Abraham; Peterson, Hannah; Delossantos, Allyne; Haring, Diana; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Murray, Christopher; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    Rapidly rising global rates of chronic diseases portend a consequent rise in ESRD. Despite this, kidney disease is not included in the list of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted by the United Nations for 25% reduction by year 2025. In an effort to accurately report the trajectory and pattern of global growth of maintenance dialysis, we present the change in prevalence and incidence from 1990 to 2010. Data were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 epidemiologic database. The results are on the basis of an analysis of data from worldwide national and regional renal disease registries and detailed systematic literature review for years 1980-2010. Incidence and prevalence estimates of provision of maintenance dialysis from this database were updated using a negative binomial Bayesian meta-regression tool for 187 countries. Results indicate substantial growth in utilization of maintenance dialysis in almost all world regions. Changes in population structure, changes in aging, and the worldwide increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension explain a significant portion, but not all, of the increase because increased dialysis provision also accounts for a portion of the rise. These findings argue for the importance of inclusion of kidney disease among NCD targets for reducing premature death throughout the world.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  10. Prevention of access-related infection in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Hawley, Carmel M; Playford, E Geoffrey; Johnson, David W

    2009-12-01

    Access-related infections (ARIs), such as exit-site infections, tunnel infections, bacteremia, fungemia and peritonitis, are the Achilles' heel of dialysis, and contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patient populations. Despite international guidelines recommending the avoidance of catheters for hemodialysis access, hospital admissions for vascular ARIs have doubled in the last decade. Moreover, repeated use of antibiotics to treat ARIs has been associated with the selection of multiresistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ARIs result from direct inoculation of skin organisms during access cannulation/connection, migration of skin organisms along dialysis catheters into the bloodstream or peritoneal cavity, or contamination and colonization of catheter lumens with subsequent biofilm formation. This paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention of ARIs. It will focus specifically on randomized, controlled trial evidence in relation to the safety and efficacy of aseptic techniques, nasal eradication of S. aureus, oral antimicrobial prophylaxis, topical antimicrobial prophylaxis (including disinfectants, antibiotics and antibacterial honey), antimicrobial catheter lock solutions (including gentamicin, citrate and ethanol), antimicrobial-impregnated catheters, catheter design (straight vs coiled, single vs double cuff), peritoneal dialysis catheter connectology, catheter insertion technique, germicidal devices, vaccines and preinsertion antibiotic prophylaxis.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After the... together with the time course of each cycle of filling, dwell time, and draining of the peritoneal cavity...”) or dialysate prepared from dialysate concentrate and sterile purified water (for automatic...

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in dialysis encephalopathy and primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Rabin, P.; Stone, W.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in patients with dialysis encephalopathy, primary degenerative dementia, dialysis patients with no central nervous system (CNS) complications, and normal controls. Both groups of dialysis patients (with and without CNS complications) demonstrated higher CBF values, and the dementia patients, lower CBF values than the controls. The dialysis patients had lower hematocrit, which correlated inversely with the cerebral blood flow. No such correlations were present in normals and patients with primary degenerative dementia. The dialysis patients and controls obtained similar CBF when the flow values were adjusted for the differences in hematocrit.

  13. [Automatic system control and its application in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Mancini, E; Ferramosca, E

    2007-01-01

    The progressive increase in the mean age of dialysis patients associated with increasing comorbidity factors such as the presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes have significantly worsened patients' clinical status and tolerance to hemodialysis. On the other hand, the demand for short treatment times increases the risk of hemodynamic instability as well as inadequate depuration. The traditional management of the dialysis session by setting predefined treatment parameters and carrying out active therapeutic intervention only in the event of complications is definitely unsuitable for short-lasting treatments, which are often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in critically ill patients. The first step in improving the management of the dialysis session is the use of uninvasive systems for continuous monitoring of the hemodynamic and biochemical parameters that characterize dialysis quality. In the last decade, special sensors have been designed for continuous measurement of blood volume, blood temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and electrolytes. As a second step, some of these devices have been interfaced with the dialysis equipment, mainly with a view to preventing cardiocirculatory instability but also monitoring the efficiency of dialysis (biofeedback control systems). The basic components of a biofeedback system are the plant, the sensors, the actuators, and the controller. The plant is the biological process we need to control, while the sensors are the devices used for measuring the output variables. The actuators are the working arms of the controller. The controller is the mathematical model that continuously sets the measured output variable against the reference input and modifies the actuators in order to reduce any discrepancies. In actual practice, however, there are a number of conceptual, physical and technological difficulties to overcome. In particular, the behavior of what is to be controlled may be nonlinear and time

  14. Quantifying Glomerular Filtration Rates in Acute Kidney Injury: A Requirement for Translational Success.

    PubMed

    Molitoris, Bruce A; Reilly, Erinn S

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a vexing clinical problem that results in unacceptably high patient mortality, development of chronic kidney disease, and accelerated progression to end-stage kidney disease. Although clinical risks factors for developing AKI have been identified, there is no reasonable surveillance technique to definitively and rapidly diagnose and determine the extent of severity of AKI in any patient. Because patient outcomes correlate with the extent of injury, and effective therapy likely requires early intervention, the ability to rapidly diagnose and stratify patients by their level of kidney injury is paramount for translational progress. Many groups are developing and characterizing optical measurement techniques using novel minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques that can quantify kidney function independent of serum or urinary measurements. The use of both one- and two-compartment models, as well as continuous monitoring, are being developed. This review documents the need for glomerular filtration rate measurement in AKI patients and discusses the approaches being taken to deliver this overdue technique that is necessary to help propel nephrology to individualization of care and therapeutic success.

  15. An overview of regular dialysis treatment in Japan (as of 31 December 2002).

    PubMed

    2004-10-01

    The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) has annually conducted a nationwide statistical survey of all dialysis facilities in Japan. The Society conducted this survey of 3625 dialysis facilities at the end of 2002, and responses were received from 3612 facilities (99.61%). Based on the survey investigation results tabulated at the end of 2002, the population of dialysis patients in Japan was 229,538. The gross mortality rate was 9.2% for the year extending from the end of 2001 to the end of 2002. The mean age of patients beginning dialysis was 64.7 years. The mean age of the overall dialysis population in the study year was 62.2 years. In the patients who began dialysis in 2002, the number of patients with diabetic nephropathy as the primary disease increased to 39.1% of patients. 6.5% of 40-64-year-old dialysis patients had taken out long-term-care insurance, but 31% of 65-year-old or older dialysis patients had taken out this insurance. 65.7% of the three-times-weekly facility hemodialysis patients underwent daytime dialysis, while 11.9% of patients underwent evening dialysis.

  16. Oral penicillin-associated acute kidney injury in an infant with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Zieg, Jakub; Hacek, Jaromir

    2015-04-01

    Beta-lactam-associated acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare condition in childhood. We report the case of an infant with penicillin-associated ATIN and concomitant acute pyelonephritis resulting in the development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The treatment consisted of penicillin suspension and appropriate AKI management, which required a short period of dialysis. Finally, full recovery and normalization of laboratory parameters occurred. We present here the first case of oral penicillin-associated ATIN in childhood.

  17. [Educational scheme for patients on home peritoneal dialysis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cirera Segura, F; Martín Espejo, J L; Reina Neyra, M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain information about the training programme for patients undergoing Domiciliary Peritoneal Dialysis (DPD) in Spain. For the purposes of the study we designed a questionnaire comprising 50 closed-ended items and one open response item. The questionnaire was sent to 104 hospitals and was completed by 78.84% of them (n > or = 82). The average of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the hospitals under study was 27.6: 15.8 of them receiving Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and 11.8 Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD). The questionnaire also served to investigate into the training methodology used in the different units, the involvement of the family in the programme, the basic knowledge patients received about Chronic Renal Insufficiency, the procedures associated with the therapy and the preparation they obtained to solve small-scale contingencies and emergency situations as well as the improvement of their quality of life. We also evaluated the training programme of autonomous patients on DPD and at the end of the questionnaire a blank space was left for facilities to add any comments or suggestions they considered relevant. From the results obtained we may conclude that most Spanish hospitals have devised a training planning for patients undergoing PD which helps them or caregivers to perform domiciliary treatment safely, provides them with basic knowledge about the disease and the routine procedures associated with the treatment, enables them to cope with contingencies and emergency situations and improves their quality of life during the dialysis period.

  18. Nephrologists Hate the Dialysis Catheters: A Systemic Review of Dialysis Catheter Associated Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kavita

    2017-01-01

    A 53-year-old Egyptian female with end stage renal disease, one month after start of hemodialysis via an internal jugular catheter, presented with fever and shortness of breath. She developed desquamating vesiculobullous lesions, widespread on her body. She was in profound septic shock and broad spectrum antibiotics were started with appropriate fluid replenishment. An echocardiogram revealed bulky leaflets of the mitral valve with a highly mobile vegetation about 2.3 cm long attached to the anterior leaflet. CT scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed bilateral pleural effusions in the chest, with triangular opacities in the lungs suggestive of infarcts. There was splenomegaly with triangular hypodensities consistent with splenic infarcts. Blood cultures repeatedly grew Candida albicans. Despite parenteral antifungal therapy, the patient deteriorated over the course of 5 days. She died due to a subsequent cardiac arrest. Systemic review of literature revealed that the rate of infection varies amongst the various types of accesses, and it is well documented that AV fistulas have a much less rate of infection in comparison to temporary catheters. All dialysis units should strive to make a multidisciplinary effort to have a referral process early on, for access creation, and to avoid catheters associated morbidity.

  19. Sustainability of the Peritoneal Dialysis-First Policy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Choy, Agnes Shin-Man; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    In Hong Kong, the average annual cost of haemodialysis (HD) per patient is more than double of that of peritoneal dialysis (PD). As the number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has surged, it has posed a great financial burden to the government and society. A PD-first policy has been implemented in Hong Kong for three decades based on its cost-effectiveness, and has achieved successful outcomes throughout the years. A successful PD-first policy requires medical expertise in PD, the support of dedicated staff and a well-designed patient training programme. Addressing patients' PD problems is the key to sustainability of the PD-first policy. In this article, we highlight three important groups of patients: those with frequent peritonitis, ultrafiltration failure or inadequate dialysis. Potential strategies to improve the outcomes of these groups will be discussed. Moreover, enhancing HD as back-up support and promoting organ transplantation are needed in order to maintain sustainability of the PD-first policy.

  20. Determination of trace sulfides in turbid waters by gas dialysis/ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.R.; Francom, D.; Urso, A.; Dieken, F.P.

    1988-02-01

    The accuracy of the methylene blue colorimetric procedure for the determination of sulfide in environmental waters and waste waters is influenced by turbidity interferences even after application of recommended pretreatment techniques. The direct analysis of sulfide by ion chromatography (IC), without sample pretreatment, is complicated by field preservation of samples with zinc ion (or equivalent). A continuous-flow procedure has been developed that converts the acid-extractable sulfide to H/sub 2/S, which is separated from the sample matrix by a gas dialysis membrane and then trapped in a dilute sodium hydroxide solution. A 200-..mu..L portion of this solution is injected into the ion chromatograph for analysis with an electrochemical detector. Detection limits as low as 1.9 ng/mL have been obtained. Good agreement was found between the gas dialysis/IC and methylene blue methods for nonturbid standards. The addition of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant is required to obtain adequate recoveries from spiked tap and well waters.

  1. Let Them Eat During Dialysis: An Overlooked Opportunity to Improve Outcomes in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Alp Ikizler, T

    2013-01-01

    In individuals with chronic kidney disease surrogates of protein-energy wasting (PEW) including a relatively low serum albumin and fat or muscle wasting are by far the strongest death risk factor than any other condition. There are data to indicate that hypoalbuminemia responds to nutritional interventions, which may save lives in the long run. Monitored, in-center provision of high-protein meals and/or oral nutritional supplements during hemodialysis is a feasible, inexpensive and patient-friendly strategy, despite concerns such as postprandial hypotension, aspiration risk, infection control and hygiene, dialysis staff burden, diabetes and phosphorus control, and financial constraints. Adjunct pharmacologic therapies can be added including appetite stimulators (megesterol, ghrelin, and mirtazapine), anabolic hormones (testosterone and growth factors), anti-myostatin agents, and anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxiphylline and cytokine modulators) to increase efficiency of intradialytic food and oral supplementation although adequate evidence is still lacking. If more severe hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL) not amenable to oral interventions prevails or if patient is not capable of enteral interventions, e.g. due to swallowing problems, parenteral interventions such as intra-dialytic parenteral nutrition can be considered. Given the fact that meals and supplements during hemodialysis would require only a small fraction of the funds currently used for the expensive medications of dialysis patients with no proven outcome improvement, this is also an economically feasible strategy. PMID:23313434

  2. [Iron therapy: is it different with peritoneal dialysis compared to haemodialysis?].

    PubMed

    Durand, Pierre-Yves

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews literature data on iron replacement (loading) for peritoneal dialysis patients. The 3 main sources of clinical guidelines (American NKF-K/DOQI, European EBPG and French AFSSAPS) agree about the definition of iron deficience, but are not similar about the haemoglobin/hematocrit targets for EPO treatment, and for the route of iron administration (oral versus intravenous). Iron requirements are less in PD HD patients. That could be explained by several factors: less blood losses, preservation of a residual renal function, better digestive iron absorption due to a greater hepcidin excretion. Intravenous route for iron sucrose is more efficient than oral route. Taking into account the iron requirements for PD patients, monthly 200 mg iron sucrose infusions over 5 mn seem to be safe and sufficient for most patients.

  3. Dialysis exercise team: the way to sustain exercise programs in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2014-01-01

    Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.

  4. Medicare program; end-stage renal disease program; prospective reimbursement for dialysis services and approval of special purpose renal dialysis facilities--HCFA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1983-05-11

    These regulations change the reimbursement system by which Medicare pays for outpatient maintenance dialysis and related physician and laboratory services. These changes establish a prospective method of payment for maintenance dialysis, whether furnished at home or in a hospital-based or independent dialysis facility, and revise other aspects of the reimbursement system to encourage home dialysis and provide incentives for economy and efficiency in furnishing these services. These amendments implement section 2145 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981. We expect that these changes will improve our administration of the end-stage renal disease program and enable us to control the rapidly growing costs of furnishing dialysis. The controls on quality of care that have been in effect since the beginning of the program will continue to apply. These regulations will also ensure access to care by providing for adequate reimbursement to isolated, essential facilities, where patients have no alternative sources of dialysis care. These regulations also provide for time-limited approval for Medicare participation of special purpose renal dialysis facilities. As a general rule we have not approved facilities such as transient or mobile units set up for emergency purposes or to serve vacationing dialysis patients in State parks and children's camps. This change in regulations will remove this limitation.

  5. How to persuade peritoneal dialysis - skeptical hemodialysis fans.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anabela

    2009-01-01

    Already from its early decades, peritoneal dialysis (PD) has proved to be efficient and able to confer similar or better chronic patient survival in comparison with hemodialysis (HD). More recent years allowed many PD therapy advances with further outcomes improvement: mortality, hospitalizations and clinical complications all have been reduced across patient's vintages. Adequacy parameters of PD also compare advantageously with the erroneously named 'high-efficiency' HD which is now facing the limitations of intermittent procedures, frailty of KT/V as measure of adequacy, importance of sustained fluid removal and time of dialysis. Adequacy should also include life satisfaction and PD also compares favorably as a home therapy. The best approach, also the most intelligent and cost-effective, would be not to underestimate a different therapy, but discover how complementary it can be for success of long term patient treatment.

  6. [Just-in-time initiation of optimal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Tom; Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    The IDEAL trial shows that the decision to start renal replacement treatment should not depend on GFR alone, but should be taken on the basis of clinical parameters. Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires and bio-impedance analysis are potential tools for detecting subtle changes in the predialysis clinic. Too early an initiation of dialysis may be deleterious for the patient and the healthcare system. We are convinced that ESRD patients should be informed about intensive haemodialysis (HD), especially nocturnal (home) HD, as the best available dialysis modality. There is substantial evidence which shows that intensive HD improves clinical, biochemical and biological parameters, and may even prolong survival. We believe that 'just-in-time delivery of intensive haemodialysis' may result in optimised QoL and reduced economic burden.

  7. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: nurses' experiences of teaching patients.

    PubMed

    Shubayra, Amnah

    2015-03-01

    Nine nurses were interviewed to determine nurses' experiences of teaching patients to use continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material was analyzed using content analysis. Data were sorted into four themes and ten subthemes. The themes were presented as follows: Importance of language, individualized teaching, teaching needs and structure of care in teaching. The findings highlighted important insights into how nurses experience teaching patients to perform CAPD. The study revealed some barriers for the nurses during teaching. The major barrier was shortage of Arabic speaking nursing staff. Incidental findings involved two factors that played an important role in teaching, retraining and a special team to perform pre-assessments, including home visits. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed several factors that are considered as barriers for the nurses during teaching the CAPD patients and the need to improve the communication and teaching in the peritoneal dialysis units, including the importance of individualized teaching.

  8. A Hyperpigmented Reticular Rash in a Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    South, Andrew M; Crispin, Milene K; Marqueling, Ann L; Sutherland, Scott M

    Chronically ill patients often develop uncommon exam findings. A 16-year-old female with end-stage renal disease secondary to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis on peritoneal dialysis (PD) developed a pruritic, hyperpigmented reticular rash on her abdomen, sparing the PD catheter insertion site. The rash appeared approximately 6 weeks after initiating PD. She used a heating pad nightly during PD for dialysis drain pain. Testing for systemic and autoimmune disease was negative. She was referred to dermatology, where the diagnosis of erythema ab igne (EAI), a well-described but less well-known hyperpigmented reticular cutaneous eruption caused by chronic exposure to low levels of infrared heat, was confirmed. The eruption is typically painless but is often pruritic. Common sources of heat include fires, stoves, portable heaters, heating pads, and laptop computers. The association between EAI and PD is unknown. Our patient discontinued the heating pad and her rash resolved.

  9. Tuberculous peritonitis in a child undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T C; Hsu, J C; Chou, L H; Lee, M L

    1994-01-01

    We present a 13-year-old girl with Arnold-Chiari syndrome and uremia secondary to neurogenic bladder. She had been treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 13 months prior to the development of peritonitis. The patient demonstrated no improvement with a 3-day therapy of intraperitoneal vancomycin and netilmicin. Meanwhile, smear of centrifuged dialysate revealed acid fast bacilli on two occasions. We, then, started anti-TB therapy with oral isoniazid (INAH), rifampin and ethambutal. The symptoms subsided within three days. In the first week, the patient lost her peritoneal ultrafiltration and needed daytime automatic peritoneal dialysis. At the last follow-up examination, 12 months after treatment, she remained well on standard CAPD.

  10. Drug eluting balloons for resistant arteriovenous dialysis access stenosis.

    PubMed

    Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Kitrou, Panagiotis

    2017-03-06

    Vascular access maintenance is vital for hemodialysis patients. Conventional balloon angioplasty is the gold standard of treatment in endovascular therapy according to published guidelines, accompanied by bare metal stents as a bail-out method. Several devices have been used so far with a view to improve patency outcomes, but only covered stents have been proposed as a valid alternative and only for venous juxta-anastomotic stenosis of arteriovenous grafts. Paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCBs) have been extensively investigated in the last few years in pilot studies with small numbers of patients in dialysis access. Results from these studies have been promising so far; however, a larger number of subjects is needed to prove outcomes. Aim of this analysis is to discuss current available studies and explore some critical aspects of PCB use in dialysis access treatment.

  11. Update on the challenging role of biofilms in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Margarida; Rodrigues, Anabela; Pedrosa, Jorge M; Carvalho, Maria J; Cabrita, António; Oliveira, Rosário

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms are commonly associated with an increased risk of patient infection. In peritoneal dialysis (PD), catheter associated infection, especially peritonitis, remains a clinically relevant problem. Although the presence of a biofilm is recognized in relapsing, repeat, and catheter-related peritonitis, it remains poorly characterized. In this review, an update on the role of biofilms in PD infections is presented. The emerging concept that host cells and tissue associated biofilms, in addition to the biofilms on the catheters themselves, contribute to the recalcitrance of infections is discussed. Furthermore, the evidence of biofilms on PD catheters, their developmental stages, and the possible influence of the PD environment are reviewed. The focus is given to ex vivo and in vitro studies that contribute to the elucidation of the interplay between host, microbial, and dialysis factors. The key issues that are still to be answered and the challenges to clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Drawbacks of Dialysis Procedures for Removal of EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Mónico, Andreia; Martínez-Senra, Eva; Cañada, F. Javier; Zorrilla, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent commonly used in protein purification, both to eliminate contaminating divalent cations and to inhibit protease activity. For a number of subsequent applications EDTA needs to be exhaustively removed. Most purification methods rely in extensive dialysis and/or gel filtration in order to exchange or remove protein buffer components, including metal chelators. We report here that dialysis protocols, even as extensive as those typically employed for protein refolding, may not effectively remove EDTA, which is reduced only by approximately two-fold and it also persists after spin-column gel filtration, as determined by NMR and by colorimetric methods. Remarkably, the most efficient removal was achieved by ultrafiltration, after which EDTA became virtually undetectable. These results highlight a potentially widespread source of experimental variability affecting free divalent cation concentrations in protein applications. PMID:28099451

  13. Physical Activity in Patients Treated With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thangarasa, Tharshika; Imtiaz, Rameez; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The

  14. Novel inflammatory marker in dialysis patients: YKL-40.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Gülay Ulusal; Er, Ramazan Erdem; Tekbudak, Merve Yasemin; Paşaoğlu, Özge; Inal, Salih; Öneç, Kürşad; Paşaoğlu, Hatice; Altok, Kadriye; Derici, Ülver; Erten, Yasemin

    2013-04-01

    YKL-40 has been introduced as a marker of inflammation in different clinical situations. The association between YKL-40 and inflammation in chronic renal failure patients has not been researched currently. The objectives of this study were to establish serum YKL-40 concentrations in dialysis patients with chronic renal failure compared to healthy subjects and to explore its relationships with a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukine-6 (IL-6) and an acute phase mediator, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The study population included hemodialysis patients (N = 43; mean age of 40.9 ± 14.5), peritoneal dialysis patients (N = 38; mean age of 45.8 ± 13.7) and healthy subjects (N = 37; mean age of 45.5 ± 10.6). Serum concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP and routine laboratory measures were evaluated. Compared to the healthy subjects, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients had higher concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP, as well as lower concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001). YKL-40 concentrations were positively correlated with serum creatinine (P < 0.001, r = 0.495), IL-6 (P < 0.001, r = 0.306), hs-CRP (P = 0.001, r = 0.306) levels and inversely correlated with hemoglobin (P = 0.002, r = -0.285), serum albumin (P < 0.001, r = -0.355) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.001, r = -0.306). In multivariate regression analysis YKL-40 was associated with creatinine, serum albumin and hs-CRP concentrations after adjustments with covariates. Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure have elevated serum YKL-40 concentrations. Associations with standard inflammatory parameters suggest that YKL-40 might be a novel inflammatory marker in this population.

  15. [Best practices on peritoneal dialysis: the audit of Lazio Region].

    PubMed

    Morosetti, Massimo; Ansali, Ferruccio; Malaguti, Moreno; Lanzetta, Raffaele; Di Giulio, Salvatore; Domenici, Alessandro; Menè, Paolo; Rocca, Anna Rachele; Cerroni, Franca; Valentini, Walter; Filippini, Armando; Musone, Dario; Rosa, Marisa; Tomei, Valeria; De Gennaro, Francesco; Brambilla, Maurizio; Cogliati, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of peritoneal methodology can not be something out of the real organizational context and the regional directive can not be the only means to encourage the diffusion. There is the need to provide effective and sustainable levels of assistance through a clinical scientific support and sharing of best-practises. On one side, the aim is to provide an aid by the centers with great expertise in the methodology, recognized as reference points; on the other side, to establish the shared K.P.I.s (Key Performance Index), to asses the clinical effectiveness and measure the objectives to be achieved, through a modality of valuation to establish the real applicability. For this purpose, a scientific board was founded, composed by the heads of UU.OO, that provide the peritoneal dialysis, to determine which aspects to investigate and identify factors of supply improvement. The selected method was the clinical audit. The analysis of the 2011 data has allowed us to capture the situation of the peritoneal dialysis in the Lazio Region. The formative procedure has enabled the centers to share and standardize protocols and therapeutic procedures, identify the strengths of peritoneal dialysis in the Lazio Region and define the KPIs through whose compare and monitor the centers over time. The conclusive analysis of the audit has enabled to identify a series of activities to be undertaken together in order to improve the situation of the peritoneal dialysis in the Lazio Region. In the following years, surveys will be carried out to verify the KPIs trend.

  16. Using (green) bricks and mortar for dialysis clinic construction.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Bob

    2011-03-01

    The completed dialysis unit demonstrates that building green means creating and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a building's life cycle. The common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the environment on human health and the natural environment by: using energy, water and other resources more efficiently; protecting patient health while improving staff productivity; reducing waste.

  17. Improved protein refolding using hollow-fibre membrane dialysis.

    PubMed

    West, S M; Chaudhuri, J B; Howell, J A

    1998-03-05

    We have used a cellulose acetate, hollow-fibre (HF) ultrafiltration membrane to refold bovine carbonic anhydrase, loaded into the lumen space, by removing the denaturant through controlled dialysis via the shell side space. When challenged with GdnHCl-denatured carbonic anhydrase, 70% of the loaded protein reptated through the membrane into the circulating dialysis buffer. Reptation occurred because the protein, in its fully unfolded configuration, was able to pass through the pores. The loss of carbonic anhydrase through the membrane was controlled by the dialysis conditions. Dialysis against 0.05 M Tris-HCl for 30 min reduced the denaturant around the protein to a concentration that allowed the return of secondary structure, increasing the hydrodynamic radius, thus preventing protein transmission. Under these conditions a maximum of 42% of carbonic anhydrase was recovered (from a starting concentration of 5 mg/mL) with 94% activity. This is an improvement over refolding carbonic anhydrase by simple batch dilution, which gave a maximum reactivation of 85% with 35% soluble protein yield. The batch refolding of carbonic anhydrase is very sensitive to temperature; however, during HF refolding between 0 and 25 degrees C the temperature sensitivity was considerably reduced. In order to reduce the convection forces that give rise to aggregation and promote refolding the dialyzate was slowly heated from 4 to 25 degrees C. This slow, temperature-controlled refolding gave an improved soluble protein recovery of 55% with a reactivation yield of 90%. The effect of a number of additives on the refolding system performance were tested: the presence of PEG improved both the protein recovery and the recovered activity from the membrane, while the detergents Tween 20 and IGEPAL CA-630 increased only the refolding yield.

  18. Coronary artery calcification in Korean patients with incident dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunjin; Seong, Eun Yong; Han, Byoung-Geun; Kim, Dong Ki; Lim, Chun Soo; Kang, Shin-Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Shin, Byung Chul; Kim, Sung Gyun; Chung, Wookyung; Park, Jae Yoon; Lee, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-10-05

    Introduction Patients with chronic kidney disease have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased mortality from CVD. Methods The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors for CAC in Korean patients with incident dialysis. Data on 423 patients with ESRD who started dialysis therapy between December 2012 and March 2014 were obtained from 10 university-affiliated hospitals. CAC was identified by using noncontrast-enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography. The CAC score was calculated according to the Agatston score, with CAC-positive subjects defined by an Agatston score >0. Findings Patients' mean age was 55.6 ± 14.6 years, and 64.1% were men. The CAC-positive rate was 63.8% (270 of 423). Results of univariate analyses showed significant differences in age, sex, etiology of ESRD and comorbid conditions according to the CAC score. However, results of multiple regression analysis showed that only a higher age was significantly associated with the CAC score. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the sensitivity and specificity of L-spine radiography for diagnosing CAC were 56% and 91%, respectively, for diagnosing CAC (area under the curve, 0.735). Discussion CAC was frequent in patients with incident dialysis, and multiple regression analysis showed that only age was significantly associated with the CAC score. In addition, L-spine radiography could be a helpful modality for diagnosing CAC in patients with incident dialysis.

  19. [Bone and joint problems in long-term dialysis].

    PubMed

    Brunner, F P

    1992-05-09

    Bone and joint pathology in patients undergoing long-term dialysis for end-stage renal failure is presented in the light of typical cases and a brief review of the literature. Osteomalacia with bone pain and fractures is caused mainly by aluminium overload due to enteral uptake from aluminium-containing phosphate binders. This is why calcium acetate or calcium carbonate should be used exclusively to lower enteral phosphate reabsorption. If--due to hypercalcemia--aluminium containing phosphate binders--cannot be entirely avoided, they should never be administered together with citrate (citrate-containing medication, fruit juice, etc.), which chelates aluminium and thereby massively increases enteral aluminium uptake. Secondary hyperparathyroidism with overt radiologically demonstrable bone disease develops in many patients on long-term dialysis despite efforts to maintain plasma calcium within or slightly above the upper normal range and concomitant treatment with calcitriol. Intravenous administration of relatively high-dose calcitriol or 1-alpha-OH-D3 (neither readily available at the present time), as well as the newly developed experimental vitamin D analogs such as 22-oxa-(OH)2-D3, which appear to suppress the parathyroid glands without increasing enteral calcium reabsorption, may in future reduce the high incidence of parathyroidectomy in patients on maintenance dialysis. beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is a new disease entity which develops in the majority of long-term dialysis patients. Apart from carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger fingers and tendon ruptures, it is associated with acute and chronic painful erosive arthropathy with joint effusions and fractures, particularly around the hip, due to cystic bone lesions where bone is replaced by nodular amyloid deposits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Retinal dialysis and detachment in a child after airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Eliott, Dean; Hauch, Adam; Kim, Rubin W; Fawzi, Amani

    2011-04-01

    A variety of airbag-associated ocular injuries have been reported in children sitting in the front passenger seat during automobile collisions. These injuries range from corneal abrasions to traumatic hyphema with secondary glaucoma and cataract. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who experienced retinal dialysis and detachment associated with airbag deployment. The patient recovered 20/20 visual acuity after cryopexy and placement of a radial sponge.

  1. Growth in Very Young Children Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may improve growth, but this is not well understood. Here, we analyzed data from 153 children in 18 countries who commenced chronic peritoneal dialysis at <24 months of age. From diagnosis to last observation, 57 patients were fed on demand, 54 by NG tube, and 10 by gastrostomy; 26 switched from NG to gastrostomy; and 6 returned from NG to demand feeding. North American and European centers accounted for nearly all feeding by gastrostomy. Standardized body mass index (BMI) uniformly decreased during periods of demand feeding and increased during NG and gastrostomy feeding. Changes in BMI demonstrated significant regional variation: 26% of North American children were obese and 50% of Turkish children were malnourished at last observation (P < 0.005). Body length decreased sharply during the first 6 to 12 months of life and then tended to stabilize. Time fed by gastrostomy significantly associated with higher lengths over time (P < 0.001), but adjustment for baseline length attenuated this effect. In addition, the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysate and administration of growth hormone independently associated with improved length, even after adjusting for regional factors. In summary, growth and nutritional status vary regionally in very young children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis. The use of gastrostomy feeding, biocompatible dialysis fluid, and growth hormone therapy associate with improved linear growth. PMID:22021715

  2. Are dialysis adequacy indices independent of solute generation rate?

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    KT/V is by definition independent of solute generation rate. Alternative dialysis adequacy indices (DAIs) such as equivalent renal clearance (EKR), standard KT/V (stdKT/V), and solute removal index (SRI) are estimated as the ratio of solute mass removed to an average solute mass in the body or solute concentration in blood; both nominator and denominator in these formulas depend on the solute generation rate. Our objective was to investigate whether and under which conditions the alternative DAIs are independent of solute generation rate. By using general compartment modeling, we show that for the metabolically stable patient (in whom the solute generated during the dialysis cycle, typically, 1 week, is equal to the solute removed from the body), DAIs estimated for the dialysis cycle are in general independent of the average solute generation rate (although they may depend on the pattern of oscillations in the generation rate). However, the alternative adequacy parameters (such as EKR, stdKT/V, and SRI) may depend on solute generation rate for metabolically unstable patients.

  3. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sprague, S M; Corwin, H L; Tanner, C M; Wilson, R S; Green, B J; Goetz, C G

    1988-10-01

    Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.

  4. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, S.M.; Corwin, H.L.; Tanner, C.M.; Wilson, R.S.; Green, B.J.; Goetz, C.G.

    1988-10-01

    Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.

  5. Recent advances in pediatric dialysis: a review of selected articles.

    PubMed

    Mahan, John D; Patel, Hiren P

    2008-10-01

    Important discoveries and studies that help inform us about the best methods to evaluate and manage children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continue to emerge. This review addresses a number of recent publications regarding important clinical issues for children with ESRD. Despite advances made in previous years, many clinical problems remain in the care of the pediatric dialysis patient. This review covers five topics of recent interest: three articles that address important patient outcome measures such as dialysis adequacy and hemoglobin; two articles that address growth failure in a chronic dialysis patients; five articles that address cardiovascular (CV) morbidity, mortality, and interventions to reduce CV risk in children; two articles that address mineral-bone disorder (MBD) and evidence that past strategies for MBD in children may have increased CV disease; and two articles that address nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a recently described disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients that occurs in children as well as adults. Using a concise consistent format, each of the 14 key publications is summarized, and the "conclusion" for the practitioner is identified. The goal of this review is to highlight important work done in this area and focus attention on the important issues raised by each article.

  6. The need for dialysis in Haiti: dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Exantus, Judith; Desrosiers, Florence; Ternier, Alexandra; Métayer, Audie; Abel, Gérard; Buteau, Jean-Hénold

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization reports, nowadays burden of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) is well documented. The high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which are the main causes of CKD, is a big concern in the world health scenario. These NCD can progress slowly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the low-middle income countries (LMIC) like Haiti are not left unscathed by this worldwide scourge. Several well-known public health issues prevalent in Haiti such as acute diarrheal infections, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), can also impair the function of the kidney. Dialysis, a form of renal replacement therapy (RRT), represents a life-saving therapy for all patients affected with impaired kidney. In Haiti, few patients have access to health insurance or disability financial support. Considering that seventy-two percent (72%) of Haitians live with less than USD 2 per day, survival with CKD can be quite stressful for them. Data on the weight of the dialysis and its management are scarce. Addressing the need for dialysis in Haiti is an important component in decision-making and planning processes in the health sector. This paper is intended to bring forth discussion on the use of this type of renal replacement therapy in Haiti: the past, the present, and the challenges it presents. We will also make some recommendations in order to manage this serious problem.

  7. Hepatitis C risk factor for patients submitted to dialysis.

    PubMed

    Baldessar, Maria Zélia; Bettiol, Jane; Foppa, Fabrício; Oliveira, Lúcia Helena das Chagas

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the results of the research which has evaluated the prevalence and factors associated to the presence of Hepatitis C in patients submitted to dialysis at the Clinica de Doenças Renais (Clinic of Renal Diseases) in Tubarao city (CRDT), Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the period between January 1st, 2004 to December 31st in the same year. The prevalence of 16.8% of Hepatitis C in the studied population and the time-length of dialysis as significative risk factor have become evident. The non-correlation of seropositivity of the followings factors is also indicated: age, gender, base diseases, infrastructures, the type of clinic machines, the type of dialyser, used membranes, the machine sterilisation and substances for this process as well as the number of times of the dialyser reutilization. The data represented in this project suggest that the Hepatitis C presents high prevalence in patients in dialysis and the time-length of the treatment is a risky factor to acquire the infection.

  8. Intracellular Dialysis Disrupts Zn2+ Dynamics and Enables Selective Detection of Zn2+ Influx in Brain Slice Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Isamu; West, Adrian K; Sheline, Christian T; Shuttleworth, C. William

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of intracellular dialysis on fluorescence detection of neuronal intracellular Zn2+ accumulation. Comparison between two dialysis conditions (standard; 20minutes, brief; 2minutes) by standard whole-cell clamp revealed a high vulnerability of intracellular Zn2+ buffers to intracellular dialysis. Thus low concentrations of zinc-pyrithione generated robust responses in neurons with standard dialysis, but signals were smaller in neurons with short dialysis. Release from oxidation-sensitive Zn2+ pools were reduced by standard dialysis, when compared with responses in neurons with brief dialysis. The dialysis effects were partly reversed by inclusion of recombinant metallothionein-3 in the dialysis solution. These findings suggested that extensive dialysis could be exploited for selective detection of transmembrane Zn2+ influx. Different dialysis conditions were then used to probe responses to synaptic stimulation. Under standard dialysis conditions, synaptic stimuli generated significant FluoZin-3 signals in wild-type (WT) preparations, but responses were almost absent in preparations lacking vesicular Zn2+ (ZnT3-KO). In contrast, under brief dialysis conditions, intracellular Zn2+ transients were very similar in WT and ZnT3-KO preparations. This suggests that both intracellular release and transmembrane flux can contribute to intracellular Zn2+ accumulation after synaptic stimulation. These results demonstrate significant confounds and potential use of intracellular dialysis to investigate intracellular Zn2+ accumulation mechanisms. PMID:23517525

  9. Phosphate balance in ESRD: diet, dialysis and binders against the low evident masked pool.

    PubMed

    Galassi, A; Cupisti, A; Santoro, A; Cozzolino, M

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate metabolism is crucial in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism and vascular calcification. High phosphate levels have been consistently associated with unfavorable outcomes in dialysis patients, but several limitations are still hampering a resolutive definition of the optimal targets of phosphate serum levels to be achieved in this cohort. Nonetheless, hyperphosphatemia is a late marker of phosphate overload in humans. Clinical nephrologists routinely counteract the positive phosphate balance in dialysis patients through nutritional counseling, stronger phosphate removal by dialysis and prescription of phosphate binders. However, the superiority against placebo of phosphate control by diet, dialysis or binders in terms of survival has never been tested in dedicated randomized controlled trials. The present review discusses this conundrum with particular emphasis on the rationale supporting the value of a simultaneous intervention against phosphate overload in dialysis patients via the improvement of dietary intakes, dialysis efficiency and an individualized choice of phosphate binders.

  10. A communication framework for dialysis decision-making for frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Schell, Jane O; Cohen, Robert A

    2014-11-07

    Frail elderly patients with advanced kidney disease experience many of the burdens associated with dialysis. Although these patients constitute the fastest-growing population starting dialysis, they often suffer loss of functional status, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality after dialysis initiation. Nephrology clinicians face the challenges of helping patients decide if the potential benefits of dialysis outweigh the risks and preparing such patients for future setbacks. A communication framework for dialysis decision-making that aligns treatment choices with patient goals and values is presented. The role of uncertainty is highlighted, and the concept of a goal-directed care plan is introduced. This plan incorporates a time-limited trial that promotes frequent opportunities for reassessment. Using the communication skills presented, the clinician can prepare and guide patients for the dialysis trajectory as it unfolds.

  11. A Case Report of Neisseria Mucosa Peritonitis in a Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Awdisho, Alan; Bermudez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Peritonitis is a leading complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, very rarely does Neisseria mucosa cause peritonitis. We describe an unusual case of N. mucosa peritonitis in a chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient. A 28-year-old Hispanic male presents with diffuse abdominal pain exacerbated during draining of the peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal fluid examination was remarkable for leukocytosis and gramnegative diplococci. Bacterial cultures were positive for N. mucosa growth. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with preservation of the dialysis catheter. This case highlights the rarity and importance of Neisseria mucosa causing peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. There seems to be a unique association between N. mucosa peritonitis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. The patient was successfully managed with ciprofloxacin along with salvaging of the dialysis catheter. PMID:28191300

  12. Humicola sp. as a Cause of Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Nathan; Arthur, Ian; Leung, Michael; Ketharanathan, Selva; Gené, Josepa; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement modality used by ∼20% of patients with end-stage kidney disease (S. McDonald, P. Clayton, and K. Hurst, p. 6.2–6.27, in ANZDATA 2012 Annual Report, 35th ed., 2012). A major complication of peritoneal dialysis is the development of peritonitis. We describe a case of Humicola sp. causing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis, successfully treated with a prolonged course of antifungal therapy. PMID:26157153

  13. Long-term therapy for heart failure with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    McKinnie, J J; Bourgeois, R J; Husserl, F E

    1985-06-01

    This article reports the treatment with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis of a patient with intractable congestive heart failure secondary to an ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the use of peritoneal dialysis to treat refractory heart failure is not new, the advent of an effective continuous peritoneal dialysis system has allowed its use over prolonged periods of time. The two-year treatment interval described herein represents the longest reported application of this technique, to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Consolidation in the Dialysis Industry, Patient Choice, and Local Market Competition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-11-09

    The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (P<0.001). Local markets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to

  15. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-09-02

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.

  16. Rates of Intentional and Unintentional Nonadherence to Peritoneal Dialysis Regimes and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010–2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03), whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002). Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70), lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79), dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80) with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22), self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10), perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90), self-efficacy (OR = 0.76) with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96), of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99) and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30) and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49). Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence. PMID:26919323

  17. A palliative approach to dialysis care: a patient-centered transition to the end of life.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Moss, Alvin H; Cohen, Lewis M; Fischer, Michael J; Germain, Michael J; Jassal, S Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-12-05

    As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients' informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach.

  18. A Palliative Approach to Dialysis Care: A Patient-Centered Transition to the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Alvin H.; Cohen, Lewis M.; Fischer, Michael J.; Germain, Michael J.; Jassal, S. Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E.; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients’ informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach. PMID:25104274

  19. Peritoneal Dialysis by Indwelling Catheter for Chronic Renal Failure, 1963-1968

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Russell A.

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with end-stage chronic renal failure have been treated by prolonged peritoneal dialysis employing an in-lying silicone rubber catheter of original design. The mean duration of treatment was 13.8 months and the longest was over four years. Biochemical and symptomatic results were satisfactory. Rehabilitation was only fairly good, but this was largely determined by the extent of the pre-existing extra-renal disease. Thirteen of the patients were able to manage a major portion of their therapy at home. The main complication was infection which occurred in 85% of cases, but at a mean interval of 10.6 months. There are seven survivors, but only one death was attributed to failure of the system. It is a method that can be used in community hospitals and requires a minimum amount of equipment and experience. PMID:5128710

  20. [Reflux and obstructive nephropathy as a cause of renal failure in chronic dialysis children].

    PubMed

    Kałuzyńska, Anna; Jander, Anna; Puczko-Nogal, Barbara; Nowicki, Michał

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective analysis of medical files to evaluate causes of chronic renal failure in 80 children (M--49, F--31), age 1 month to 20 years) who started renal replacement therapy in the Department of Nephrology and Dialysis of the Polish Mothers Memorial Hospital in the years 1990-2007. In 28 children (35%) reflux and obstructive nephropathy was a cause of renal failure. In 5 children the disease was secondary to the neurogenic bladder. The incidence of these nephropathies in our population was constant in the analyzed years. In our group there were 2 neonates and 7 adolescent who were diagnosed with nephropathy as late as in the endstage phase. Boys with posterior urethral valve required renal replacement therapy earlier (146 +/- 55 months). We conclude that obstructive and reflux nephropathy are still the essential cause of end stage renal disease in children.

  1. Dialysis Practices That Distinguish Facilities with Below- versus Above-Expected Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bolus, Roger; Desai, Amar A.; Zagar, Philip; Parker, Tom; Moran, John; Solomon, Matthew D.; Khawar, Osman; Gitlin, Matthew; Talley, Jennifer; Nissenson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Mortality rates vary widely among dialysis facilities even after adjustment with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). This variation may occur because top-performing facilities use practices not shared by others, because the SMR fails to capture key patient characteristics, or both. Practices were identified that distinguish top- from bottom-performing facilities by SMR. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A cross-sectional survey was performed of staff across three organizations. Staff members rated the perceived quality of their units' patient-, provider-, and facility-level practices using a six-point Likert scale. Facilities were divided into those with above- versus below-expected mortality on the basis of SMRs from U.S. Renal Data Service facility reports. Mean Likert scores were computed for each practice using t tests. Practices that were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) and achieved at least a medium effect size of ≥0.4 were reported. Significant predictors were entered into a linear regression model. Results: Dialysis facilities with below-expected mortality reported that patients in their unit were more activated and engaged, physician communication and interpersonal relationships were stronger, dieticians were more resourceful and knowledgeable, and overall coordination and staff management were superior versus facilities with above-expected mortality. Staff ratings of these practices explained 31% of the variance in SMRs. Conclusions: Patient-, provider-, and facility-level practices partly explain SMR variation among facilities. Improving SMRs may require processes that reflect a coordinated, multidisciplinary environment (i.e., no one group, practice, or characteristic will drive facility-level SMRs). Understanding and improving SMRs will require a holistic view of the facility. PMID:20876677

  2. Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in ESRD Patients: Complications and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingli; Yu, Zanzhe; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Qin; Che, Xiajing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the impact of the dialysis modality on outcome, especially on short-term complications, in urgent-start dialysis has not been directly evaluated. The aim of the current study was to compare the complications and outcomes of PD and HD in urgent-start dialysis ESRD patients. Methods In this retrospective study, ESRD patients who initiated dialysis urgently without a pre-established functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center from January 2013 to December 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to their dialysis modality (PD and HD). Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion (until January 2016). Dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the two groups. Results Our study enrolled 178 patients (56.2% male), of whom 96 and 82 patients were in the PD and HD groups, respectively. Compared with HD patients, PD patients had more cardiovascular disease, less heart failure, higher levels of serum potassium, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum pre-albumin, and lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide. There were no significant differences in gender, age, use of steroids, early referral to a nephrologist, prevalence of primary renal diseases, prevalence of co-morbidities, and other laboratory characteristics between the groups. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly higher in HD than PD patients. HD patients had a significantly higher probability of bacteremia compared to PD patients. HD was an independent predictor of short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications. There was no significant difference between PD and HD patients with respect to patient survival rate. Conclusion In an experienced center, PD is a safe and feasible dialysis alternative to HD

  3. Estimating increases in outpatient dialysis costs resulting from scientific and technological advancement.

    PubMed

    Ozminkowski, R J; Hassol, A; Firkusny, I; Noether, M; Miles, M A; Newmann, J; Sharda, C; Guterman, S; Schmitz, R

    1995-04-01

    The Medicare program's base payment rate for outpatient dialysis services has never been adjusted for the effects of inflation, productivity changes, or scientific and technological advancement on the costs of treating patients with end-stage renal disease. In recognition of this, Congress asked the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission to annually recommend an adjustment to Medicare's base payment rate to dialysis facilities. One component of this adjustment addresses the cost-increasing effects of technological change--the scientific and technological advances (S&TA) component. The S&TA component is intended to encourage dialysis facilities to adopt technologies that, when applied appropriately, enhance the quality of patient care, even though they may also increase costs. We found the appropriate increase to the composite payment rate for Medicare outpatient dialysis services in fiscal year 1995 to vary from 0.18% to 2.18%. These estimates depend on whether one accounts for the lack of previous adjustments to the composite rate. Mathematically, the S&TA adjustment also depends on whether one considers the likelihood of missing some dialysis sessions because of illness or hospitalization. The S&TA estimates also allow for differences in the incremental costs of technological change that are based on the varying advice of experts in the dialysis industry. The major contributors to the cost of technological change in dialysis services are the use of twin-bag disconnect peritoneal dialysis systems, automated peritoneal dialysis cyclers, and the new generation of hemodialysis machines currently on the market. Factors beyond the control of dialysis facility personnel that influence the cost of patient care should be considered when payment rates are set, and those rates should be updated as market conditions change. The S&TA adjustment is one example of how the composite rate payment system for outpatient dialysis services can be modified to provide appropriate

  4. Maps of Ventricular Activation Time (VAT) Differences in Children on Peritoneal Dialysis — a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Laszki-Szcząchor, Krystyna; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta; Salomon, Ewa; Filipowski, Henryk; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    ESRD children treated with peritoneal dialysis regardless of normal 12-lead ECG. 3. Further studies on a larger group of children with ESRD on PD are required to verify the preliminary observations presented herein. PMID:24584601

  5. Present status and future of peritoneal dialysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2015-01-01

    The results of a nationwide statistical survey of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Japan (PD registry) were reported at the end of 2012. There were 9,514 PD patients at the end of 2012 (3.1%), indicating 128 fewer than in the 2011 survey (9,642 patients). There were 347 non-PD+catheter patients, and 175 patients were started on PD in 2012 but were switched to another therapy in the same year. The sum of these 522 patients and the total number of PD patients (i.e. the total number of PD-therapy-related patients) was 10,036 (522 + 9,514). The PD-only patients numbered 7,323 (80.4%), and the PD+hemodialysis (HD) patients numbered 1,788 (19.6%). Of these 9,111 PD patients, 1,428 patients (15.7%) underwent HD once per week; 219 patients (2.4%), twice per week; and 55 patients (0.6%), three times per week. The PD+HD patients (1,788) accounted for 19.6% of all PD patients. In addition, 39.8% of PD patients were using the poly-glucose dialysis solution icodextrin (Extraneal). Around 40% of PD patients were using icodextrin, a much higher percentage than in other countries. What is the likelihood that the number of PD patients in Japan will gradually decrease (or increase) in the future? Regarding the dialysis trend in Japan, it is unlikely that the number of PD patients will increase. I think that if the government greatly increases the medical insurance coverage of PD treatment, the number of PD patients in Japan will increase as much as it recently has in the United States. If not, it is extremely unlikely that there will be a large increase in the number of PD patients in Japan.

  6. Adequacy indices for dialysis in acute renal failure: kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Malgorzata; Lindholm, Bengt; Waniewski, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Many aspects of the management of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure (ARF), including the appropriate assessment of dialysis adequacy, remain unresolved, because ARF patients often are not in a metabolic steady state. The aim of this study was to evaluate a system of adequacy indices for dialysis in ARF patients using urea and creatinine kinetic modeling. Kinetic modeling was performed for two different fictitious patients (A and B) with characteristics described by the average parameters for two patient groups and for two blood purification treatments: sustained low efficiency daily dialysis (SLEDD) in Patient A and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in Patient B, based on data from a clinical report. Urea and creatinine generation rates were estimated according to the clinical data on the solute concentrations in blood. Then, using estimated generation rates, two hypothetical treatments were simulated, CVVH in Patient A and SLEDD in Patient B. KT/V, fractional solute removal (FSR) and equivalent renal clearance (EKR) were calculated according to the definitions developed for metabolically unstable patients. CVVH appeared as being more effective than SLEDD because KT/V, FSR, and EKR were higher for CVVH than SLEDD in Patients A and B. Creatinine KT/V, FSR, and EKR were lower and well correlated to the respective indices for urea. Urea and creatinine generation rates were overestimated more than twice in Patient A and by 30-40% in Patient B if calculated assuming the metabolically stable state than if estimated by kinetic modeling. Adequacy indices and solute generation rates for ARF patients should be estimated using the definition for unsteady metabolic state. EKR and FSR were higher for urea and creatinine with CVVH than with SLEDD, because of higher K.T and minimized compartmental effects for CVVH.

  7. Fatigue experienced by patients receiving maintenance dialysis in hemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.

  8. Compliance in peritoneal dialysis measured by supply inventories.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana E; Santos, Katia S; Creutzberg, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Compliance with the prescribed exchanges in peritoneal dialysis (PD) is important to dialysis success. In the present study, we used measurement of supply inventories to determine compliance by PD patients with the prescribed bag exchanges. We performed home supply inventories by telephone with 30 stable PD patients. Patients who performed at least 90% of prescribed exchanges were considered compliant. Mean age of the patients was 52.8 years. Seven of the patients (23%) had diabetes, and 19 (63%) were women. Peritoneal dialysis was the first choice of renal replacement therapy in 19 patients (63%); the other 11 (37%) had been allocated to PD. Of the 30 patients, 21 (70%) were compliant, and 9 (30%) were not. Among patients choosing PD, 74% were compliant; among those allocated to PD, compliance was found to be 64%. Furthermore, of the compliant patients, 67% had opted for PD and only 33% had been allocated to PD. In the noncompliant group, 56% had opted for and 44% had been allocated to PD. Weekly Kt/V was 1.9 for compliant patients and 1.53 for noncompliant patients. The peritonitis rates in the two groups were similar (0.5 episodes per patient-year for compliant patients and 0.4 episodes per year-patient for noncompliant patients). Participation in the decision-making process improves compliance. Telephone calls about supply inventories is a simple method of monitoring compliance. Developing interventions to enhance compliance in PD patients is a challenge to nurses and to the renal team.

  9. Ultrasound/fluoroscopy-assisted placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ivan D

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters may be inserted blindly, surgically, and either by laparoscopic, peritoneoscopic, or fluoroscopic approach. A modified fluoroscopic technique by adding ultrasound-assistance was performed in the present study to ensure entry into the abdominal cavity under direct ultrasound visualization. From March 2005 to May 2007, ultrasound-fluoroscopic guided placement of PD catheters was attempted in 32 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preoperative evaluation was performed on all patients prior to the procedure. After initial dissection of the subcutaneous tissue anterior to the anterior rectus sheath, the needle was inserted into the abdominal cavity under the guidance of ultrasound. The position of the epigastric artery was also examined using ultrasonography to avoid the risk of arterial injury. PD catheters were successfully placed in 31 of the 32 ESRD patients using this technique. In all of these patients, the needle could be seen entering the abdominal cavity using an ultrasound. In one patient the procedure was abandoned because of bowel puncture by the micro-puncture needle that was inadvertently advanced into a loop of bowel. This patient did not develop acute abdomen nor needed any intervention. One patient died 4 days after placement of the catheter of unrelated causes. One patient was started on acute peritoneal dialysis the same day of catheter placement without any complications. The rest of the patients started peritoneal dialysis within 2-6 weeks of catheter placement. None of the patients had bleeding related to arterial injury as ultrasound was able to visualize the epigastric artery. Our experience shows that ultrasound-fluoroscopic technique is minimally invasive and allows for accurate assessment of the entry into the abdominal cavity. This technique can avoid the risk of vascular injury altogether.

  10. Cardiac, Inflammatory and Metabolic Parameters: Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Silvia; Molfino, Alessio; Russo, Gaspare Elios; Testorio, Massimo; Galani, Alessandro; Innico, Georgie; Frassetti, Nicla; Pistolesi, Valentina; Morabito, Santo; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mortality in dialysis patients is higher than in the general population, and cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of death. Hypertension and volume overload are important risk factors for the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Other factors are mainly represented by hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare blood pressure (BP) and metabolic parameters with cardiovascular changes [cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), aortic arch calcification (AAC) and LV mass index (LVMI)] between PD and HD patients. Materials and Methods 45 patients (23 HD and 22 PD patients) were enrolled. BP measurements, echocardiography and chest X-ray were performed in each patient to determine the LVMI and to evaluate the CTR and AAC. Inflammatory indexes, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and arterial blood gas analysis were also evaluated. Results LVMI was higher in PD than HD patients (139 ŷ 19 vs. 104 ŷ 22; p = 0.04). In PD patients, a significant correlation between iPTH, C-reactive protein and the presence of LVH was observed (r = 0.70, p = 0.04; r = 0.70, p = 0.03, respectively). The CTR was increased in PD patients as compared to HD patients, while no significant differences in cardiac calcifications were determined. Conclusions Our data indicate that HD patients present more effective BP control than PD patients. Adequate fluid and metabolic control are necessary to assess the adequacy of BP, which is strongly correlated with the increase in LVMI and with the increased CTR in dialysis patients. PD is a home therapy and allows a better quality of life, but PD patients may present a further increased cardiovascular risk if not adequately monitored. PMID:25759697

  11. Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ♦ Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ♦ Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ♦ Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD. PMID:22942271

  12. Development aspects of peritoneal dialysis kinetics in dogs.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A Y; Gruskin, A B; Baluarte, H J; Polinsky, M S; Prebis, J W

    1981-05-01

    To determine whether solute transfer during peritoneal dialysis is age related and to identify those factors which might explain age-related differences in dialysis kinetics, the peritoneal dialysance of [14C]urea (DU), [3H]inulin (DI), and the permeability index (DR = DI/DU) were examined in six puppies and five adult dogs. Exchange volume of lactated Ringer's (40 ml/kg) and exchange times (30 min) were identical in all studies. Theoretical calculations for urea dialysance for animals of differing body size were made. Assuming the existence of a similar functional peritoneal surface area per kg and the use of similar exchange volumes per kg and dwell times, theoretical values for the urea dialysance per kg for different sized animals were identical. The experimental studies demonstrated that DI per kg and DU per kg were higher in the puppies (0.146 +/- 0.023 and 0.765 +/- 0.054 ml/min kg; X +/- S.E.) than in the adult (0.052 +/- 0.01 and 0.462 +/- 0.05 ml/min/kg) (P less than 0.01). Also, DR was higher in the puppies (0.187 +/- 0.026), than in the adults (0.11 +/- 0.015) (P less than 0.05). The greater values for DI and DU per kg and DR in the young are best explained by the young having an increased peritoneal membrane permeability as well as an increase in functional peritoneal surface area relative to body weight. This increase in solute movement is independent of the dialysis mechanics used in an exchange and reflects age-related differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the peritoneal membrane.

  13. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  14. Neonatal sepsis with multi-organ failure and treated with a new dialysis device specifically designed for newborns.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, Licia; Bonaudo, Roberto; Amore, Alessandro; Chiale, Federica; Donadio, Maria Elena; Vergano, Luca; Coppo, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal sepsis due to E. coli is often complicated by multiple organ failure (MOF) and a high mortality risk. We report the case of a term newborn discharged in good condition who suddenly fell into septic shock after 11 days and required immediate resuscitation, volume expansion and a high-dosage amine infusion. Extremely severe metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with diffuse bleeding, and unstable hemodynamic status with oliguria turned into strict anuria, and the patient became anuric. The presence of DIC, with gastric and intestinal bleeding, rendered peritoneal dialysis impossible. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started with the new dialysis machine CARPEDIEM(®) (Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine), available on a trial-basis in our center, after the surgical placement of jugular double-lumen central venous catheters. A 'ready to use' neonatal kit with a low-priming volume of the extracorporeal circuit allowed a prompt hemofiltration start. The filtration CRRT was continuously performed for 48 h, then intermittently (12 h/day) for 2 more days and interrupted on day 5 for diuresis reprisal. Acute kidney injury and multi-organ failure resolved after 5 days. The child survived without neurological damage, with a normal renal function and a normal development at 9 months follow-up. In conclusion, a prompt CRRT start with this specifically designed neonatal device allowed a progressive stabilization of hemodynamics, a better control of acidosis, a reduction of amine requirement, a gradual control of fluid overload and a rapid improvement of MOF, DIC as well as a resolution of the acute kidney injury. The device also allowed the extension of CRRT in the neonatal age.

  15. Neonatal Sepsis with Multi-Organ Failure and Treated with a New Dialysis Device Specifically Designed for Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Peruzzi, Licia; Bonaudo, Roberto; Amore, Alessandro; Chiale, Federica; Donadio, Maria Elena; Vergano, Luca; Coppo, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis due to E. coli is often complicated by multiple organ failure (MOF) and a high mortality risk. We report the case of a term newborn discharged in good condition who suddenly fell into septic shock after 11 days and required immediate resuscitation, volume expansion and a high-dosage amine infusion. Extremely severe metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with diffuse bleeding, and unstable hemodynamic status with oliguria turned into strict anuria, and the patient became anuric. The presence of DIC, with gastric and intestinal bleeding, rendered peritoneal dialysis impossible. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was started with the new dialysis machine CARPEDIEM® (Cardio-Renal Pediatric Dialysis Emergency Machine), available on a trial-basis in our center, after the surgical placement of jugular double-lumen central venous catheters. A ‘ready to use’ neonatal kit with a low-priming volume of the extracorporeal circuit allowed a prompt hemofiltration start. The filtration CRRT was continuously performed for 48 h, then intermittently (12 h/day) for 2 more days and interrupted on day 5 for diuresis reprisal. Acute kidney injury and multi-organ failure resolved after 5 days. The child survived without neurological damage, with a normal renal function and a normal development at 9 months follow-up. In conclusion, a prompt CRRT start with this specifically designed neonatal device allowed a progressive stabilization of hemodynamics, a better control of acidosis, a reduction of amine requirement, a gradual control of fluid overload and a rapid improvement of MOF, DIC as well as a resolution of the acute kidney injury. The device also allowed the extension of CRRT in the neonatal age. PMID:25028585

  16. Ankyrin is the major oxidised protein in erythrocyte membranes from end-stage renal disease patients on chronic haemodialysis and oxidation is decreased by dialysis and vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruskovska, T; Bennett, S J; Brown, C R; Dimitrov, S; Kamcev, N; Griffiths, H R

    2015-02-01

    Chronically haemodialysed end-stage renal disease patients are at high risk of morbidity arising from complications of dialysis, the underlying pathology that has led to renal disease and the complex pathology of chronic kidney disease. Anaemia is commonplace and its origins are multifactorial, involving reduced renal erythropoietin production, accumulation of uremic toxins and an increase in erythrocyte fragility. Oxidative damage is a common risk factor in renal disease and its co-morbidities and is known to cause erythrocyte fragility. Therefore, we have investigated the hypothesis that specific erythrocyte membrane proteins are more oxidised in end-stage renal disease patients and that vitamin C supplementation can ameliorate membrane protein oxidation. Eleven patients and 15 control subjects were recruited to the study. Patients were supplemented with 2 × 500 mg vitamin C per day for 4 weeks. Erythrocyte membrane proteins were prepared pre- and post-vitamin C supplementation for determination of protein oxidation. Total protein carbonyls were reduced by vitamin C supplementation but not by dialysis when investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Using a western blot to detect oxidised proteins, one protein band, later identified as containing ankyrin, was found to be oxidised in patients but not controls and was reduced significantly by 60% in all patients after dialysis and by 20% after vitamin C treatment pre-dialysis. Ankyrin oxidation analysis may be useful in a stratified medicines approach as a possible marker to identify requirements for intervention in dialysis patients.

  17. First year survival of patients on maintenance dialysis treatment in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska-Kania, Dorota; Rymarz, Aleksandra; Gibin´ski, Krzysztof; Kiełczewska, Julia; Smoszna, Jerzy; Saracyn, Marek; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data of all patients starting dialysis over two years in our Department (n = 105) has been conducted. Factors such as type of dialysis treatment, reason of end-stage renal disease, Body Mass Index (BMI), laboratory tests results, number and cause of death during first year of dialysis were taken under consideration. Five patients have been excluded from the analysis of mortality (four received renal transplantation, one changed dialysis center). Twenty tree deaths have been noted during first year of dialysis treatment. Nine of them occurred during the first three months of therapy. The leading cause of death was cardio-vascular events (n = 14, 60.9%), the second was malignancy (8, 34,8%), one patient died due to catheter associated infection. Malignancy as a cause of end-stage renal disease, lack of outpatient nephrology care, acute mode of beginning renal replacement therapy and lack of erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality during first year of dialysis. Being under the outpatient nephrology care, etiology of ESRD other than malignancy and erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were independently associated with better survival during this period of time. Other independent variables did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in order to improve one year survival of dialysis patients, outpatient nephrology care with adequate amount of visits and associated dialysis therapy should be employed. PMID:26663941

  18. Patient-Staff Interactions and Mental Health in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…

  19. Discovering New Hope through ABE: A Program for Kidney Dialysis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda M.

    1984-01-01

    Kidney dialysis patients often suffer emotional problems and face life adjustment problems. Adult basic education can be a useful tool to address these and to make positive use of idle time during dialysis. This article describes such a program, emphasizes the self-concept gain for students, and highlights the critical role of the understanding…

  20. Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Atrial Fibrillation in Adult Dialysis Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Okamura, Tomonori; Yonekura, Yuki; Kato, Karen; Fujishima, Yosuke; Obara, Wataru; Abe, Takaya; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Omama, Shinichi; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Makita, Shinji; Yoshida, Yuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Ohta, Mutsuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Okayama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background While it is assumed that dialysis patients in Japan have a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, the magnitude of this difference is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for AF in dialysis patients (n = 1510) were calculated compared to data from the general population (n = 26 454) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of AF were 3.8% and 1.6% in dialysis patients and the general population, respectively. In male subjects, these respective values were 4.9% and 3.3%, and in female subjects they were 1.6% and 0.6%. The SPRs for AF were 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88–3.19) in all dialysis patients, 1.80 (95% CI, 1.30–2.29) in male dialysis patients, and 2.13 (95% CI, 0.66–3.61) in female dialysis patients. Conclusions The prevalence of AF in dialysis patients was twice that in the population-based controls. Since AF strongly contributes to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, further longitudinal studies should be conducted regarding the risk of several outcomes attributable to AF among Japanese dialysis patients. PMID:26804038

  1. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…

  2. Nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis: pitfalls and potentials for practice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juliana; Cuppari, Lilian; Campbell, Katrina L; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2017-03-22

    The chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is aging. Currently a high percentage of patients treated on dialysis are older than 65 years. As patients get older, several conditions contribute to the development of malnutrition, namely protein energy wasting (PEW), which may be compounded by nutritional disturbances associated with CKD and from the dialysis procedure. Therefore, elderly patients on dialysis are vulnerable to the development of PEW and awareness of the identification and subsequent management of nutritional status is of importance. In clinical practice, the nutritional assessment of patients on dialysis usually includes methods to assess PEW, such as the subjective global assessment, the malnutrition inflammation score, and anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Studies investigating measures of nutritional status specifically tailored to the elderly on dialysis are scarce. Therefore, the same methods and cutoffs used for the general adult population on dialysis are applied to the elderly. Considering this scenario, the aim of this review is to discuss specific considerations for nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis addressing specific shortcomings on the interpretation of markers, in addition to providing clinical practice guidance to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients on dialysis.

  3. Transdiaphragmatic peritoneal hernia complicating peritoneal dialysis: demonstration with spiral computed tomography peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Goffin, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The authors describe a rare case of peritoneal transdiaphragmatic hernia discovered immediately after a car accident in a young male patient on peritoneal dialysis. The potential role of CT peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy to demonstrate and understand thoracic complications of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is discussed.

  4. 42 CFR 410.52 - Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installation and maintenance of dialysis equipment, testing and appropriate treatment of water, and ordering of... patient in his or her home: (1) Purchase or rental, installation, and maintenance of all dialysis... equipment such as blood pumps, bubble detectors, and other alarm systems. (2) Items and supplies...

  5. [Massive hydrothorax in a ease of hemolytic uremic syndrome: conservative treatment without interruption of peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Marin, Gustavo R

    2016-12-01

    The hydrothorax is a known but rare complication of acute and chronic peritoneal dialysis. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome seem to be more prone to this complication. Usually discontinuation of treatment is necessary due to the lack of resolution or recurrence of hydrothorax and transfer to hemodialysis, but some patients can continue dialysis with modification of technique and with resolution of hydrothorax.

  6. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: perspectives on patient selection in low- to middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Wearne, Nicola; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Effa, Emmanuel; Davidson, Bianca; Nourse, Peter; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas. However, CAPD is scarcely available in many LMICs, and even where available, there are several hurdles to be confronted regarding patient selection for this modality. High cost of CAPD due to unavailability of fluids, low patient education and motivation, low remuneration for nephrologists, lack of expertise/experience for catheter insertion and management of complications, presence of associated comorbid diseases, and various socio-demographic factors contribute significantly toward reduced patient selection for CAPD. Cost of CAPD fluids seems to be a major constraint given that many countries do not have the capacity to manufacture fluids but instead rely heavily on fluids imported from developed countries. There is need to invest in fluid manufacturing (either nationally or regionally) in LMICs to improve uptake of patients treated with CAPD. Workforce training and retraining will be necessary to ensure that there is coordination of CAPD programs and increase the use of protocols designed to improve CAPD outcomes such as insertion of catheters, treatment of peritonitis, and treatment of complications associated with CAPD. Training of nephrology workforce in CAPD will increase workforce experience and make CAPD a more acceptable RRT modality with improved outcomes. PMID:28115864

  7. The Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) study: Comparative measures of glycemic control in diabetic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark E; Mittman, Neal; Ma, Lin; Brennan, Julia I; Mooney, Ann; Johnson, Curtis D; Jani, Chinu M; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013. The distributions of HgbA1c and the other glycemic indices were analyzed. Intra-patient coefficients of variation and correlations among the four glycemic indices were determined. Patients with low HgbA1c values were both on higher erythropoietin (ESA) doses and more anemic. Serum glucose exhibited the highest intra-patient variability over a 3-month period; variability was modest among the other glycemic indices, and least with HgbA1c. Statistical analyses inclusive of all glycemic markers indicated modest to strong correlations. HgbA1c was more likely to be in the target range than glycated albumin or serum fructosamine, suggesting factors which may or may not be directly related to glycemic control, including anemia, ESA management, and iron administration, in interpreting HgbA1c values. These initial results from the GIDE Study clarify laboratory correlations among glycemic indices and add to concerns about reliance on HgbA1c in patients with diabetes and advanced kidney disease.

  8. Cardiac Geometry in Children Receiving Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: Findings from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network (IPPN) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Borzych, Dagmara; Soo Ha, Il; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Büscher, Rainer; Salas, Paulina; Patel, Hiren; Drozdz, Dorota; Vondrak, Karel; Watanabe, Andreia; Villagra, Jorge; Yavascan, Onder; Valenzuela, Maria; Gipson, Deborah; Ng, K.H.; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor and an intermediate end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular comorbidity. We utilized a global pediatric registry to assess the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of LVH as well as its evolution in the longitudinal follow-up in dialyzed children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Cross-sectional echocardiographic, clinical, and biochemical data were evaluated in 507 children on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and longitudinal data were evaluated in 128 patients. The 95th percentile of LV mass index relative to height age was used to define LVH. Results The overall LVH prevalence was 48.1%. In the prospective analysis, the incidence of LVH developing de novo in patients with normal baseline LV mass was 29%, and the incidence of regression from LVH to normal LV mass 40% per year on PD. Transformation to and regression from concentric LV geometry occurred in 36% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Hypertension, high body mass index, use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, renal disease other than hypo/dysplasia, and hyperparathyroidism were identified as independent predictors of LVH. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and high total fluid output (sum of urine and ultrafiltration) were protective from concentric geometry. The risk of LVH at 1 year was increased by higher systolic BP standard deviation score and reduced in children with renal hypo/dysplasia. Conclusions Using height-adjusted left ventricular mass index reference data, LVH is highly prevalent but less common than previously diagnosed in children on PD. Renal hypo/dysplasia is protective from LVH, likely because of lower BP and polyuria. Hypertension, fluid overload, and hyperparathyroidism are modifiable determinants of LVH. PMID:21737855

  9. Healing of fracturing-bone disease occurring in patients on dialysis. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milne, F J; Hudson, G A; Meyers, A M; Baily, P; Barmeir, E; Dubowitz, B; Reis, P

    1982-06-19

    Ten patients developed fracturing-bone disease (osteomalacia) while on dialysis against water with high levels of aluminium. Eight patients remained on dialysis, using de-ionized or reverse-osmosis water, and 2 received a renal transplant. Clinical improvement as regards bone pain and proximal muscle weakness occurred in 6 months and radiographic evidence of healing of the pseudofractures was seen at approximately 12 months. Associated osteopenia and hyperparathyroidism were found in most patients, but no significant change in either was noted during the study period. The serum parathyroid hormone levels rose significantly in the patients who remained on dialysis. The chest and pelvic deformities typical of healed osteomalacia were seen. This dramatic improvement can only be attributed to the removal of some water-borne element, either by changing the water used in the dialysis or by successful renal transplantation. Aluminium-containing phosphate binders were used throughout the study in the patients on dialysis, and hypophosphataemia was never a feature.

  10. The interview with a patient on dialysis: feeling, emotions and fears.

    PubMed

    Brunori, Francesco; Dozio, Beatrice; Colzani, Sara; Pozzi, Marco; Pisano, Lucia; Galassi, Andrea; Santorelli, Gennaro; Auricchio, Sara; Busnelli, Luisa; Di Carlo, Angela; Viganò, Monica; Calabrese, Valentina; Mariani, Laura; Mossa, Monica; Longoni, Stefania; Scanziani, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    This study has been performed in the Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, in Desio Hospital, Italy. The aim of this study is to evaluate, starting from research questions, which information is given to patient in the pre-dialysis colloquia for his/her chosen dialysis methods. Moreover, the study evaluated feelings, emotions and fears since the announcement of the necessity of dialysis treatment. The objective of the study was reached through the interview with patients on dialysis. The fact-finding survey was based on the tools of social research, as the semi-structured interview. Instead of using the questionnaire, even though it make it easier to collect larger set of data, the Authors decided to interview patients in person, since the interview allows direct patient contact and to build a relationship of trust with the interviewer, in order to allow patient explain better his/her feeling.

  11. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient presenting with complicated Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Simbli, Mohammed Amin; Niaz, Faraz A; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S

    2012-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious complication seen in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysisAPD after prolonged duration on dialysis. Patients usally present with vague complaints of abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, weight loss and change in peritoneal transport characte-ristics. High degree of suspicion is needed in PD patients who have been on dialysis for prolonged duration and have been using high-concentrated dialysis fluid. Mycobacterium fortuitum (MF) is a rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium that has rarely been reported as a pathogen causing peritonits in patients on PD. We report a case of CAPD presenting with culture-negative peritonits, which, on specific culture, grew MF and, on radiological evaluation, showed diagnostic features of EPS.

  12. L-carnitine supplementation in dialysis: treatment in quest of disease.

    PubMed

    Wasserstein, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    L-Carnitine (LC) administration has been recommended for specific indications in dialysis patients, including epoetin-resistant anemia, intradialytic hypotension, cardiomyopathy, fatigue, muscle weakness, and exercise performance; it may ameliorate insulin resistance, inflammation, and protein wasting. Use of LC for anemia and intradialytic hypotension has been approved for reimbursement by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Yet, the data to support these recommendations are inadequate and have not been bolstered over several decades. LC administration continues to appeal to nephrologists because its use in dialysis patients has an attractive rationale, it addresses problems that persist despite dialysis, it is safe, and the existing literature does not refute its use. Nevertheless, definitive trials to justify LC administration have not been conducted and are increasingly unlikely to be funded. In an era of shrinking resources and bundling of dialysis services, the use of LC in dialysis patients will, appropriately, diminish.

  13. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if the services are...

  14. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if the services are...

  15. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...

  16. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...

  17. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...

  18. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare approved...

  19. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49202, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only...

  20. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  1. Improving retention and motivation in non-clinical dialysis employees.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne

    2004-02-01

    For no additional expense, little intrusion into the schedule or duties of the day, and no additional personnel to hire, dialysis facilities can make a dramatic impact on the training, motivation, and retention of employees through the use of classes designed specifically for the needs of newly employed non-clinical personnel. In today's world where many are expected to do a task with little or no orientation to the overall values and goals of the organization and how their tasks matter, what other action can accomplish so much for employee motivation and retention for so little time and expense? At DCI Mid-Missouri this program has been successful in retaining many excellent employees over many years and has been part of an ongoing effort to increase employees' interest and commitment to their work and the organization. It has also made them much more aware of treatments, other personnel and most of all, of our patients and their needs. It fulfills the needs of humans to be valued and have meaningful work. It contains costs and helps efficiency and productivity. Most of all, it keeps excellent people on the job and enjoying their work more than they would have. Participants' words when evaluating the most recent series of classes speak for themselves in demonstrating these important benefits that can be achieved easily in dialysis facilities throughout the United States and the world.

  2. The role of endovascular stents in dialysis access maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Mohamad El; Alghamdi, Issam; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Asif, Arif; Lenz, Oliver; Sanjar, Tina; Fayad, Fadi; Salman, Loay

    2015-01-01

    Vascular stenosis is most often the culprit behind hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction, and while percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) remains the gold standard treatment for vascular stenosis, over the past decade the use of stents as a treatment option has been on the rise. Aside from the two FDA approved stent-grafts for the treatment of venous graft anastomosis (VGA) stenosis, use of all other stents in vascular access dysfunction is off-label. KDOQI recommends limiting stent use to specific conditions, such as elastic lesions and recurrent stenosis; otherwise, additional adapted indications are in procedure-related complications, such as grade 2 and 3 hematomas. Published reports have shown the potential use of stents in a variety of conditions leading to vascular access dysfunction; such as VGA stenosis, cephalic arch stenosis, central venous stenosis, dialysis access aneurysmal elimination, Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device induced stenosis, and thrombosed arteriovenous grafts (AVG). While further research is needed for many of these conditions, evidence for recommendations has been clear in some; for instance, we know now that stents should be avoided along cannulations sites and should not be used in eliminating dialysis access aneurysms. In this review article, we evaluate the available evidence for the use of stents in each of the aforementioned conditions leading to hemodialysis vascular access dysfunctions. PMID:26524950

  3. Cytotoxic glucose degradation products in fluids for peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Adib, Noushin; Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Shalviri, Gloria; Shekarchi, Maral; Imaninejad, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    During the standard heat sterilization process of the lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions, glucose (an osmotic active substance) degrades to form compounds called glucose degradation products which are cytotoxic and affect the survival of the peritoneal membrane. This case presentation is based on an observation of 224 aseptic peritonitis cases of unknown etiology. For the purpose of clarification, we analyzed the peritoneal dialysis solutions for the presence of acetaldehyde by using a developed and validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pre-column derivitazation. The method was validated with respect to validation factors such as linearity, precision, recovery and (LOD). The acetaldehyde level of solutions before heat sterilization was 1.78 ± 2.7 ppm whereas in samples after heat sterilization was about 20 ± 2.07 ppm. Based on the forementioned findings, we hypothesized that the higher levels of acetaldehyde and possibly the other glucose degradation products may have been an etiological factor in these 224 cases of chemical peritonitis. So it is important for the manufacturers to carefully review the heat of sterilization process in the production line.

  4. Preexisting venous calcification prior to dialysis vascular access surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Safdar, Nida; Mistry, Meenakshi J; Wang, Yang; Chauhan, Vibha; Campos, Begoña; Munda, Rino; Cornea, Virgilius; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification is present in arterial vessels used for dialysis vascular access creation prior to surgical creation. Calcification in the veins used to create a new vascular access has not previously been documented. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of venous calcification in samples collected at the time of vascular access creation. Sixty-seven vein samples were studied. A von Kossa stain was performed to quantify calcification. A semi-quantitative scoring system from 0 to 4+ was used to quantify the percentage positive area for calcification as a fraction of total area (0: 0; 1+: 1-10%; 2+: 11-25%; 3+: 26-50%; 4+: >50% positive). Twenty-two of 67 (33%) samples showed evidence of venous calcification. Histologic examination showed varying degrees of calcification within each cell layer. Among the subset of patients with calcification, 4/22 (18%), 19/22 (86%), 22/22 (100%), and 7/22 (32%) had calcification present within the endothelium, intima, media, and adventitia, respectively. The mean semi-quantitative scores of the 22 samples with calcification were 0.18 ± 0.08, 1.2 ± 0.14, 1.6 ± 0.13, and 0.36 ± 0.12 for the endothelium, intima, media, and adventitia, respectively. Our results demonstrate that vascular calcification is present within veins used to create new dialysis vascular access, and located predominately within the neointimal and medial layers.

  5. Peritoneal dialysis: how we can achieve improvement of PD penetration.

    PubMed

    Van Biesen, W

    2007-07-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a well established renal replacement therapy (RRT). It appears to have some excellent properties as a first line RRT, as it preserves residual renal function, improves clearance of middle and larger solutes and preserves vascular access. To improve PD penetration, it is necessary to have a well established pre-dialysis programme, as information seems to be the clue in the choice and the success of PD. Furthermore, it is important that patients and nurses are well educated in the practice of PD. This reduces the need for hypertonic bags by better compliance with the salt restrictive diet, reduces exposure to dialysate per se by adapting the number and length of the dwells to the needs of the patient, and increases peritonitis-free survival, thus prolonging the survival of the peritoneal membrane. In addition, it is clear that the use of new low glucose degradation products and normal pH solutions will also improve the technical success of PD. The collaboration of industry with local health care providers could be a necessity in overcoming the costs induced by the import of dialysate solutions paid for in foreign currency.

  6. Ultrafiltration with an isosmotic solution during long peritoneal dialysis exchanges.

    PubMed

    Mistry, C D; Mallick, N P; Gokal, R

    1987-07-25

    The potential of a starch-derived glucose polymer (molecular weight 16,800) as an osmotic agent for peritoneal dialysis was evaluated. A dialysate isosmotic to uraemic serum (302 [SEM 1.3] mOsm/kg) containing 5% glucose polymer (9.4 mmol/l) was compared with hypertonic (332 [1.0] mOsm/kg) 1.36% glucose (76 mmol/l) solution for ultrafiltration, solute transport, and carbohydrate absorption over 6 h and 12 h peritoneal dialysis exchanges. Glucose polymer solution produced substantially greater net ultrafiltration than glucose, while maintaining stable dialysate osmolality throughout the exchanges. At 6 h and 12 h, 14.4% and 28.1% of glucose polymer had been absorbed, compared with 61.5% and 83.0% of glucose; thus, glucose polymer provided less than 50% of the calorie load of the glucose dialysate per unit volume of ultrafiltrate. There was a 7-9-fold increase in serum maltose with glucose polymer. This high-molecular-weight glucose polymer produced sustained ultrafiltration even when dialysate osmolality remained within the physiological range, by a mechanism resembling "colloid" osmosis. It is a safe and effective osmotic agent but its long-term effects need further study.

  7. Boron diffusion across the dialysis membrane during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Usuda, K; Kono, K; Nishiura, K; Miyata, K; Nishiura, H; Saito, M; Goto, E; Nakaya, H

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the movement of boron across the dialysis membrane, serum and dialysate boron levels of long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 17) were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry in both the inlet and the outlet side of the dialyzer. Results revealed that 77.8% of the serum boron in the inlet side of the dialyzer was filterable and 94.4% of filterable boron was actually filtered during HD. Boron dialysance was found to be 138.6 +/- 16.1 ml/min, and this value was higher than the clearance value of blood urea nitrogen (not significant), phosphorus and creatinine (p < 0.001). It is concluded that HD is effective in eliminating serum boron even at low concentrations, and boron can be classified as an element that is easily diffusible across the dialysis membrane. There seems to be relatively little relation of boron to serum constituents of macromolecules that are reported to have a major impact on the diffusion of trace elements across the HD membrane.

  8. The efficacy and adequacy of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, George; Kim, Donald; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    1985-01-01

    Since it was introduced in 1976, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has won acceptance in many centres and it is now regarded as an important alternative to haemodialysis. CAPD patients have comparable and, in some circumstances, better survival than those on chronic haemodialysis. It is indicated particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular instability and at the extremes of life. The success of kidney transplantation is similar in those maintained on CAPD and on haemodialysis. CAPD also achieves satisfactory physical and psychological rehabilitation, and the quality of life, including the level of sexual function, is similar during CAPD and haemodialysis. Women on CAPD menstruate more often than those on haemodialysis. CAPD provides adequate clearance of metabolic wastes, maintains fluid balance and ameliorates neurotoxic cognitive dysfunction. CAPD gives control of hypertension and anaemia which is superior to that on haemodialysis. Neuropathy remains stable but osteitis fibrosa seems to progress. CAPD is the most economical of the various forms of dialysis. We conclude that CAPD is an adequate form of replacement and should be made available in every nephrology centre providing treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:3909582

  9. Electrolytes and fluid management in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nanovic, Lisa

    2005-04-01

    The kidney is a complex and vital organ, regulating the electrolyte and fluid status of the human body. As hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are forms of renal replacement therapy and not an actual kidney, they do not possess the same physiologic regulation of both fluid and electrolytes. Precise regulation of fluid and electrolytes in the HD and PD population remains a constant challenge. In this review, fluid status of both HD and PD will be examined, as well as sodium, potassium, phosphorous, and calcium. Each electrolyte will be analyzed by its physiological significance, the complications that arise when a proper balance cannot be maintained, and methods to correct these imbalances. An overview of the fluid compartments and volume of distribution within the body will be discussed. Ultrafiltration, a modality used in both forms of renal replacement therapy, will be defined, along with its impact on fluid status. Fluid assessment will be addressed, along with proper maintenance of fluid homeostasis. By having an understanding of the pathophysiology behind the fluid and electrolyte abnormalities that occur in end-stage renal disease, one can direct proper management with medications, diet, and alterations in dialysis to provide patients with the most optimal form of renal replacement therapy available.

  10. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  11. Loss of executive function after dialysis initiation in adults with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Tam, Karman; Seliger, Stephen L; Sozio, Stephen; Fischer, Michael; Chen, Jing; Lustigova, Eva; Strauss, Louise; Deo, Rajat; Go, Alan S; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-04-01

    The association of dialysis initiation with changes in cognitive function among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease is poorly described. To better define this, we enrolled participants with advanced chronic kidney disease from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort in a prospective study of cognitive function. Eligible participants had a glomerular filtration rate of 20 ml/min/1.73m(2) or less, or dialysis initiation within the past two years. We evaluated cognitive function by a validated telephone battery at regular intervals over two years and analyzed test scores as z scores. Of 212 participants, 123 did not transition to dialysis during follow-up, 37 transitioned to dialysis after baseline, and 52 transitioned to dialysis prior to baseline. In adjusted analyses, the transition to dialysis was associated with a significant loss of executive function, but no significant changes in global cognition or memory. The estimated net difference in cognitive z scores at two years for participants who transitioned to dialysis during follow-up compared to participants who did not transition to dialysis was -0.01 (95% confidence interval -0.13, 0.11) for global cognition, -0.24 (-0.51, 0.03) for memory, and -0.33 (-0.60, -0.07) for executive function. Thus, among adults with advanced chronic kidney disease, dialysis initiation was associated with loss of executive function with no change in other aspects of cognition. Larger studies are needed to evaluate cognition during dialysis initiation.

  12. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  13. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Integration of CD24+ Renal Progenitor Cells into Glycerol-Damaged Adult Renal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao; Iglesias, Diana M.; Corsini, Rachel; Chu, LeeLee; Goodyer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    During development, nephron progenitor cells (NPC) are induced to differentiate by WNT9b signals from the ureteric bud. Although nephrogenesis ends in the perinatal period, acute kidney injury (AKI) elicits repopulation of damaged nephrons. Interestingly, embryonic NPC infused into adult mice with AKI are incorporated into regenerating tubules. Since WNT/β-catenin signaling is crucial for primary nephrogenesis, we reasoned that it might also be needed for the endogenous repair mechanism and for integration of exogenous NPC. When we examined glycerol-induced AKI in adult mice bearing a β-catenin/TCF reporter transgene, endogenous tubular cells reexpressed the NPC marker, CD24, and showed widespread β-catenin/TCF signaling. We isolated CD24+ cells from E15 kidneys of mice with the canonical WNT signaling reporter. 40% of cells responded to WNT3a in vitro and when infused into glycerol-injured adult, the cells exhibited β-catenin/TCF reporter activity when integrated into damaged tubules. When embryonic CD24+ cells were treated with a β-catenin/TCF pathway inhibitor (IWR-1) prior to infusion into glycerol-injured mice, tubular integration of cells was sharply reduced. Thus, the endogenous canonical β-catenin/TCF pathway is reactivated during recovery from AKI and is required for integration of exogenous embryonic renal progenitor cells into damaged tubules. These events appear to recapitulate the WNT-dependent inductive process which drives primary nephrogenesis. PMID:26089915

  14. Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Leptospirosis Acute Kidney Injury: A Multicenter Study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srisawat, Nattachai; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Patarakul, Kanitha; Techapornrung, Malee; Daraswang, Tinnapop; Sukmark, Theerapon; Khositrangsikun, Kamol; Fakthongyoo, Apinya; Oranrigsupak, Petchdee; Praderm, Laksamon; Suwattanasilpa, Ummarit; Peerapornratana, Sadudee; Loahaveeravat, Passisd; Suwachittanont, Nattachai; Wirotwan, Thaksa-on; Phonork, Chayanat; Kumpunya, Sarinya; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Chirathaworn, Chintana; Eiam-ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Sitprija, Visith; Kellum, John A.; Townamchai, Natavudh

    2015-01-01

    AKI is one of the most serious complications of leptospirosis, an important zoonosis in the tropics. Recently, NGAL, one of the novel AKI biomarkers, is extensively studied in various specific settings such as sepsis, cardiac surgery, and radiocontrast nephropathy. In this multicenter study, we aimed to study the role of NGAL as an early marker and an outcome predictor of leptospirosis associated AKI. Patients who presented with clinical suspiciousness of leptospirosis were prospectively enrolled in 9 centers from August 2012 to November 2014. The first day of enrollment was the first day of clinical suspicious leptospirosis. Blood and urine samples were serially collected on the first three days and day 7 after enrollment. We used three standard techniques (microscopic agglutination test, direct culture, and PCR technique) to confirm the diagnosis of leptospirosis. KDIGO criteria were used for AKI diagnosis. Recovery was defined as alive and not requiring dialysis during hospitalization or maintaining maximum KDIGO stage at hospital discharge. Of the 221 recruited cases, 113 cases were leptospirosis confirmed cases. Thirty seven percent developed AKI. Median uNGAL and pNGAL levels in those developing AKI were significantly higher than in patients not developing AKI [253.8 (631.4) vs 24.1 (49.6) ng/ml, p < 0.001] and [1,030 (802.5) vs 192.0 (209.0) ng/ml, p < 0.001], respectively. uNGAL and pNGAL levels associated with AKI had AUC-ROC of 0.91, and 0.92, respectively. Both of urine NGAL and pNGAL level between AKI-recovery group and AKI-non recovery were comparable. From this multicenter study, uNGAL and pNGAL provided the promising result to be a marker for leptospirosis associated AKI. However, both of them did not show the potential role to be the predictor of renal recovery in this specific setting. PMID:26629810

  15. New consensus definition for acute kidney injury accurately predicts 30-day mortality in cirrhosis with infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Florence; O’Leary, Jacqueline G; Reddy, K Rajender; Patton, Heather; Kamath, Patrick S; Fallon, Michael B; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Subramanian, Ram M.; Malik, Raza; Maliakkal, Benedict; Thacker, Leroy R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims A consensus conference proposed that cirrhosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) be defined as an increase in serum creatinine by >50% from the stable baseline value in <6 months or by ≥0.3mg/dL in <48 hrs. We prospectively evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict mortality within 30 days among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and infection. Methods 337 patients with cirrhosis admitted with or developed an infection in hospital (56% men; 56±10 y old; model for end-stage liver disease score, 20±8) were followed. We compared data on 30-day mortality, hospital length-of-stay, and organ failure between patients with and without AKI. Results 166 (49%) developed AKI during hospitalization, based on the consensus criteria. Patients who developed AKI had higher admission Child-Pugh (11.0±2.1 vs 9.6±2.1; P<.0001), and MELD scores (23±8 vs17±7; P<.0001), and lower mean arterial pressure (81±16mmHg vs 85±15mmHg; P<.01) than those who did not. Also higher amongst patients with AKI were mortality in ≤30 days (34% vs 7%), intensive care unit transfer (46% vs 20%), ventilation requirement (27% vs 6%), and shock (31% vs 8%); AKI patients also had longer hospital stays (17.8±19.8 days vs 13.3±31.8 days) (all P<.001). 56% of AKI episodes were transient, 28% persistent, and 16% resulted in dialysis. Mortality was 80% among those without renal recovery, higher compared to partial (40%) or complete recovery (15%), or AKI-free patients (7%; P<.0001). Conclusions 30-day mortality is 10-fold higher among infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients with irreversible AKI than those without AKI. The consensus definition of AKI accurately predicts 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and organ failure. PMID:23999172

  16. Morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al Wakeel, Jamal S; Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Al Mohaya, S; Abu-Aisha, Hassan; Tarif, Nauman; Malik, Ghulam H; Hammad, D

    2002-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD), due to its high morbidity and mortality as well as social and financial implications, is a major public health problem. Outcome depends not only on different modalities of treatment like hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, but also on existing co-morbidities, age, duration on dialysis, supportive therapies and infection control strategies. Thus, a detailed study becomes necessary to improve health care delivery, provide medical care and to establish a geographical reference. The present study was undertaken to characterize the ESRD patients by their demographic and co-morbid conditions and relate this to the morbidity and mortality trends. The medical records of 110 ESRD patients seen over a five-year period (June 1995 to December 1999) in two tertiary-care hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were studied retrospectively. There were 79 (64.5%) males and 31 (35.5%) females; their age ranged from 17 to 92 years (mean age 53.8 +/- 17.8 years). Diabetes was the commonest cause of ESRD seen in 26 (26.6%) followed by nephrosclerosis, unknown etiology, lupus nephritis, pyelonephritis and primary glomerulonephritis. Diabetes mellitus was the most prevalent co-morbidity seen during the study period and occurred in 65 patients (59%) followed by heart disease in 36 (32.7%), liver disease in 30 (27.3%), cerebrovascular accidents in 13 (11.8%) and neoplasm in 11 (10%). Seven (6.3%) patients only were smokers. Hemodialysis was the most frequent treatment choice as renal replacement therapy. Among the causes of hospitalization, cardiovascular conditions were the leading single cause (19.1%), followed by access related reasons and infections (11.5% each). The overall hospitalization rate was 11.2 days/year. The overall mortality rate was 8.07 deaths/year. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular in 15 (51.7%) followed by unknown/sudden death in eight (27.5%). Other causes of death included fluid overload, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, septicemia

  17. Membrane transport of several ions during peritoneal dialysis: mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Galach, Magda; Waniewski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis utilizes a complex mass exchange device created by natural permselective membranes of the visceral and abdominal muscle tissues. In mathematical modeling of solute transport during peritoneal dialysis, each solute is typically considered as a neutral, independent particle. However, such mathematical models cannot predict transport parameters for small ions. Therefore, the impact of the electrostatic interactions between ions on the estimated transport parameters needs to be investigated. In this study, transport of sodium, chloride, and a third ion through a permselective membrane with characteristics of the peritoneal transport barrier was described using two models: a model with the Nernst-Planck (NP) equations for a set of interacting ions and a model with combined diffusive and convective transport of each ion separately (DC). Transport parameters for the NP model were calculated using the pore theory, while the parameters for the DC model were estimated by fitting the model to the predictions from the NP model. Solute concentration profiles in the membrane obtained by computer simulations based on these two models were similar, whereas the transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters and sieving coefficients) were generally different. The presence of the third ion could substantially modify the values of diffusive mass parameter for sodium and chloride ions estimated using the DC model compared with those predicted by NP. The extent of this modification depended on the molecular mass and concentration of the third ion, and the rate of volumetric flow. Closed formulas for the transport parameters of the DC model in terms of the NP model parameters, ion concentration profiles in the membrane, and volumetric flow across the membrane were derived. Their reliable approximations, which include only boundary ion concentrations instead of spatial intramembrane concentration profiles, were formulated. The precision of this approximation

  18. Aluminium removal with the double chamber technique: paired filtration-dialysis (PFD).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martín, J L; Douthat, W; Barreto, S; Canteros, A; Acuña, G; Cannata Andía, J B

    1998-01-01

    Several dialysis techniques have been used to improve aluminium removal. So far there are no data available using paired filtration-dialysis (PFD). In this study, we evaluated the aluminium removed by PFD in two phases. Bovine plasma with known concentrations of aluminium and desferrioxamine was used in both experiments. In phase I, the aluminium removal was investigated using the PFD system (single pass) in its usual configuration, modifying the order of the convective and diffusive processes, dialysis with high permeability membranes and dialysis with low permeability membranes. During the second phase, the experiment lasted longer using recirculation, and the PFD was compared with conventional dialysis using high permeability membranes. Changes in the PFD configuration did not alter the aluminium removal; the efficiency of PFD for aluminium removal was very close to that of dialysis with high permeability membranes and much greater than with low permeability membranes. The aluminium is removed mainly in the first part of the dialysis. Aluminium mobilization using the double chamber technique (PFD) was efficient and might be of value for those patients with aluminium overload who needs high depurative techniques and are unable to tolerate high-flux techniques.

  19. Obese and diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease: Peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Ekart, Robert; Hojs, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is increasingly prevalent around the world and is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The obese diabetic patient with ESRD is a challenge for the nephrologist with regard to the type of renal replacement therapy that should be suggested and offered to the patient. There is no evidence that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is contraindicated in obese ESRD patients. In the literature, we can find a discrepancy in the impact of obesity on mortality among hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis patients. Several studies in hemodialysis patients suggest that a higher BMI confers a survival advantage - the so-called "reverse epidemiology". In contrast, the literature among obese peritoneal dialysis patients is inconsistent, with various studies reporting an increased risk of death, no difference, or a decreased risk of death. Many of these studies only spanned across a few years, and this is probably too short of a time frame for a realistic assessment of obesity's impact on mortality in ESRD patients. The decision for dialysis modality in an obese diabetic patient with ESRD should be individualized. According to the results of published studies, we cannot suggest PD or HD as a better solution for all obese diabetic patients. The obese patient should be educated about all their dialysis options, including home dialysis therapies. In this review, the available literature related to the dialysis modality in obese patients with diabetes and ESRD was reviewed.

  20. The value of 'life at any cost': Talk about stopping kidney dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.; Kaufman, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    With the trend toward an older, sicker dialysis population in the USA, discussions of ethical issues surrounding dialysis have shifted from concerns about access to and availability of the therapy, to growing unease about non-initiation and treatment discontinuation. Recent studies report treatment withdrawal as the leading cause of death among elderly dialysis patients. Yet, the actual activities that move patients toward stopping treatment often remain obscure, even to clinicians and patients themselves. This paper explores that paradox, drawing on anthropological research among patients over age 70, their families, and clinicians in two California renal dialysis units. It concludes that many older patients sacrifice a sense of choice about dialysis in the present to maintain “choice” as both value and possibility for the future. Yet, patients desire more information and communication, provided earlier in their illness, about prognosis, how long they can expect to be on dialysis, and what the impact of the treatment will be on their daily lives. That, with time, there is a transition to be made from dialysis as “treatment” to end of life care could be better explained and managed to alleviate patients’ confusion and unneeded isolation. PMID:17418924

  1. Outcomes of vascular access creation prior to dialysis: building the case for early referral.

    PubMed

    Weber, Catherine L; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Levin, Adeera; Kiaii, Mercedeh

    2009-01-01

    A 2-year single institution experience of the successes and complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation before dialysis initiation is reported. Study cohort: all patients who underwent AVF creation before need for dialysis (AVF group, n = 125). "Control" group: all patients with a sustained glomerular filtration rate (GFR) dialysis (no AVF group, n = 198). Median nephrology contact time was >12 months in both groups and mean eGFR at creation (AVF group) was 12 ml/min. In the AVF group, 72% underwent a successful first AVF creation, 11% suffered AVF thrombosis, and 17% had a nonmaturing AVF before need for dialysis. Sixty-six percent (n = 23) of these latter patients underwent a second AVF creation and 48% were mature at dialysis initiation. During the study period, 70% (n = 88, AVF group) and 61% (n = 121, no AVF group) commenced dialysis. Impressively, 72% (n = 66) of the AVF group used a mature fistula as their first dialysis access. A snapshot of "access in use" at the 6-month mark of dialysis revealed the AVF group had a higher number of patients using an AVF (81% vs. 44%) and a lower number with catheters (19% vs. 56%, respectively, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the success rate of early AVF creation is reasonable and complications when identified can be remedied without the need for a catheter, thus ultimately maximizing the use of AVF in dialysis patients.

  2. [Organizational models in the Italian nephrology, dialysis and transplantation network].

    PubMed

    Manno, Carlo; Zuccalà, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Italian Society of Nephrology discusses the recent statement of the Italian National Government regarding the 'The definition of the structure and technological standards of hospital health care' and suggests a new model of organization of the Italian Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Network. In particular, the Italian Society of Nephrology proposes the presence of a nephrologist as part of the Emergency Hospital Network, to oversee all extracorporeal replacement treatments taking place in Intensive Care Units. Finally, this article recommends the cooperation of the nephrologist with primary health care teams and general practitioners as a move to prevent the complications of chronic kidney disease, thus improving short-term and long-term survival outcomes and reducing the costs to the National Health System.

  3. [Infection associated with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis catheters].

    PubMed

    Fariñas, María Carmen; García-Palomo, José Daniel; Gutiérrez-Cuadra, Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Catheter-related infections in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Staphylococcus aureus in HD patients and S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in PD patients are the most common causative organisms isolated. Currently, the diagnostic tests with highest yield in suspected catheter-related infection in HD patients have not been established, and tests used for central venous catheters (CVC) in general are applied. Management of the infected HD catheter and the use of antimicrobial therapy are similar to the measures used for other CVCs, with some specific recommendations. Peritonitis is the most severe complication in PD patients. Improving hygiene conditions in catheter insertion, treatment of S. aureus nasal carriers, regular treatment of the catheter's exit site, and antibiotic lock therapy have been associated with a reduction of infectious episodes in HD and PD patients.

  4. Peritoneal mucormycosis in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Polo, J R; Luño, J; Menarguez, C; Gallego, E; Robles, R; Hernandez, P

    1989-03-01

    A 48-year-old man receiving maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 1 year developed a clinical picture compatible with peritonitis. Three successive fluid cultures were negative, and only after filtration of a large volume of peritoneal fluid a fungus identified as a Rhizopus sp was isolated in cultures of the filtering devices. The same fungus was also isolated from the peritoneal catheter cuff. Intravenous amphotericin B was administered and both the abdominal and general conditions of the patient improved transiently. Twenty days after initiation of antifungal treatment, a clinical suspicion of intestinal perforation arose and an exploratory laparotomy was scheduled, but the patient died during the anesthetic induction. The patient never received deferoxamine; any conditions predisposing to mucormycosis, such as diabetes or immunosuppression, were also absent.

  5. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.

  6. Nationwide peritoneal dialysis nurse training in Thailand: 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Thaiyuenwong, Jutiporn; Mahatanan, Nanta; Jiravaranun, Somsong; Boonyakarn, Achara; Rodpai, Somrak; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Dhanakijcharoen, Prateep; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) center is not possible to operate if there is no availability of dedicated PD nurse. Generally, the nurse has to play many roles, including educator coordinator, and sometimes leader. As professionalism, the PD nurses need to have both theoretical and practical skills. With the tremendous leap of PD population after the launch of "PD First" policy in Thailand, the shortage of skillful PD nurse is concerned. Hence, the nationwide PD nurse training course was established with the collaborations of many organizations and institutes. Until now, 3 generations of 225 PD nurses are the productions of the course. This number represents 80 percent of PD nurses distributed throughout the whole nation. The survey operated in the year 2010 demonstrated that the output of the course was acceptable in terms of quality since most of the trained PD nurses had a confidence in taking care of PD patients. The quality of patient care is good as indicated by KPIs.

  7. Quality Measures for Dialysis: Time for a Balanced Scorecard

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent federal legislation establishes a merit-based incentive payment system for physicians, with a scorecard for each professional. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services evaluate quality of care with clinical performance measures and have used these metrics for public reporting and payment to dialysis facilities. Similar metrics may be used for the future merit-based incentive payment system. In nephrology, most clinical performance measures measure processes and intermediate outcomes of care. These metrics were developed from population studies of best practice and do not identify opportunities for individualizing care on the basis of patient characteristics and individual goals of treatment. The In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey examines patients' perception of care and has entered the arena to evaluate quality of care. A balanced scorecard of quality performance should include three elements: population-based best clinical practice, patient perceptions, and individually crafted patient goals of care. PMID:26316622

  8. Quality Measures for Dialysis: Time for a Balanced Scorecard.

    PubMed

    Kliger, Alan S

    2016-02-05

    Recent federal legislation establishes a merit-based incentive payment system for physicians, with a scorecard for each professional. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services evaluate quality of care with clinical performance measures and have used these metrics for public reporting and payment to dialysis facilities. Similar metrics may be used for the future merit-based incentive payment system. In nephrology, most clinical performance measures measure processes and intermediate outcomes of care. These metrics were developed from population studies of best practice and do not identify opportunities for individualizing care on the basis of patient characteristics and individual goals of treatment. The In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey examines patients' perception of care and has entered the arena to evaluate quality of care. A balanced scorecard of quality performance should include three elements: population-based best clinical practice, patient perceptions, and individually crafted patient goals of care.

  9. Method for dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membrane

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2009-05-19

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  10. Dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membranes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2007-09-04

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and form a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  11. The practical problem of improving quality in multicenter dialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Balter, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Multifacility dialysis groups are frequently interested in improving overall quality and find that there are major differences between individual units. Upper management must consider what strategy is needed for the whole company and what strategy must be formulated by individual facilities. To make substantive changes, management must decide to adopt a new culture of true teamwork, drive out fear, and emphasize leadership and education both at the management level and in the individual unit. Both at the corporate and unit levels, leaders must be chosen who are able to recognize people who have the ability, the educational background, the enthusiasm, and the time to direct change. Empowering the individual units and individual employees to make changes and be enthusiastic about improvement is the key to success.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, E D; Blair, A D

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime were studied in 12 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. After a 3-g intravenous dose, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 +/- 0.05 liter kg-1, with an elimination half-life of 9.7 +/- 5.1 h. The peritoneal clearance of ceftizoxime (2.8 +/- 0.7 ml min-1) contributed modestly to the overall serum clearance of the drug (17.1 +/- 7.4 ml min-1) and was greater than the renal clearance (0.8 +/- 0.8 ml min-1). The peritoneal concentration rose to 91 +/- 29 micrograms ml-1 at 6 h, which was 0.61 +/- 0.17 of the serum concentration. A 3-g intravenous dose of ceftizoxime given every 48 h would result in adequate activity against most susceptible organisms, but more frequent dosing may be necessary for less susceptible organisms. PMID:6314887

  13. Challenges in delivering peritoneal dialysis to a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Hebert, A M

    1997-02-01

    The proposed outcomes for C.Q. were achieved. Communication between dietician, neonatal intensive care and pediatric nursing staff, pediatric nephrology nurses and physicians played a critical role in providing optimal care for C.Q. Due to her multiple problems, it was imperative that all disciplines collaborate and coordinate their care. The meticulous supervision by the staff nurses allowed this tiny patient to overcome her multiple problems. Careful follow-up included monitoring nutritional markers, laboratory results, and adequacy of dialysis. It is also important to note that open communication by the nephrology nurses allows small patients like C.Q. to have enhanced quality of life at home with their families. C.Q. is now a thriving infant, cared for by her mother at home.

  14. Role of dialysis technology in the removal of uremic toxins.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Traditionally, the amount of hemodialysis prescribed for a patient has been based on urea clearance, as urea is not only retained in patients with chronic kidney disease, but also readily measurable, by reliable and inexpensive assays. More recently, other retained solutes, phosphate, β2 microglobulin, and latterly p-cresol have been reported to be associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. As such, developments in dialysis practice that would result in greater clearance of water-soluble middle-sized toxins and also protein-bound and/or organic solutes are being studied. Although session time is a key factor, switching from low flux to dialyzers with larger pores, the addition of convective transport with hemodiafiltration can help increase phosphate and β2 microglobulin clearances. Adsorption techniques can increase the clearance of organic and protein bound toxins either directly or indirectly by regenerating dialysate and ultrafiltrates.

  15. The curious right-sided predominance of peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax.

    PubMed

    Guest, Steven

    2015-04-01

    A known complication of peritoneal dialysis is the movement of dialysate into the pleural space, termed hydrothorax. Peritoneal dialysis-related hydrothorax is almost uniformly right-sided and represents one of many presentations of the porous diaphragm syndrome. In addition to diaphragm porosity, the inherent intestinal circulation, lower hydrostatic pressure in the right upper quadrant and liver capsule may contribute to this right-sided predominance. Similar right-sided presentations have been described in Meigs syndrome, bilious effusions with gastric or duodenal perforations, hepatic hydrothorax and nephrotic syndrome-related chylothorax. PD-related hydrothorax can be repaired by pleurodesis or video-assisted thoracoscopy followed by resumption of peritoneal dialysis.

  16. Regular Deworming: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Basu, Biswanath; Mahapatra, Tks

    2016-01-01

    Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common dialysis treatment modality used to treat children with end-stage renal disease. Dialysis-related infections are the leading cause of technique failure. Enterobius vermicularis infestation indirectly increases the infection rate by causing pruritus around the anus, especially at night. We observed a significant decrease in the total infection rate (2.3 vs 5.4 per patient-year) following regular deworming over a 1-year study period. Regular deworming may be considered to prevent secondary bacterial infections in children on chronic PD.

  17. Design of a multimedia PC-based telemedicine network for the monitoring of renal dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohme, Walid G.; Winchester, James F.; Dai, Hailei L.; Khanafer, Nassib; Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Johnson, Ayah E.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of a multimedia telemedicine application being undertaken by the Imaging Science and Information Systems Center of the Department of Radiology and the Division of Nephrology of the Department of Medicine at the Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC). The Renal Dialysis Patient Monitoring network links GUMC, a remote outpatient dialysis clinic, and a nephrologist's home. The primary functions of the network are to provide telemedicine services to renal dialysis patients, to create, manage, transfer and use electronic health data, and to provide decision support and information services for physicians, nurses and health care workers. The technical parameters for designing and implementing such a network are discussed.

  18. The role of technological progress vs. accidental discoveries and clinical experience in the evolution of dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of dialysotherapy celebrated by nephrologists around the world in 2012 provided an opportunity for discussion on the role of clinical experience in relation to technological progress in the evolution of dialysis, especially of recently observed inadequate decrease in mortality/morbidity rates of patients on chronic dialysis. My report, based on almost 50 years of career in nephrology, refers the evolution of dialysis, from catharsis to modern dialysotherapy with special attention devoted to nowadays gravely underestimated role of clinical experience and personalized professional care for patients. PMID:24226207

  19. Wernicke's encephalopathy that developed during the introduction period of peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuko; Ito, Kenji; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Shirakawa, Aki; Abe, Yasuhiro; Ogahara, Satoru; Sasatomi, Yoshie; Yasunaga, Tomoe; Ifuku, Masakazu; Tsugawa, Jun; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Saito, Takao

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted with end-stage renal disease caused by IgA nephropathy, and was treated with maintenance peritoneal dialysis. The patient developed general fatigue and appetite loss, and his symptoms were gradually aggravated by depression. After approximately 2 months on dialysis, the patient presented with altered consciousness and ophthalmoplegia. Wernicke's encephalopathy was diagnosed based on the presence of classic symptoms and the findings on magnetic resonance imaging. Thiamine replacement therapy was immediately initiated. The patient recovered from most of his neurological symptoms; however, the sequela of Korsakoff syndrome remained. A marginal thiamine deficiency in combination with predisposing factors must be considered when treating dialysis patients.

  20. Roxadustat (FG-4592): Correction of Anemia in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Besarab, Anatole; Chernyavskaya, Elena; Motylev, Igor; Shutov, Evgeny; Kumbar, Lalathaksha M; Gurevich, Konstantin; Chan, Daniel Tak Mao; Leong, Robert; Poole, Lona; Zhong, Ming; Saikali, Khalil G; Franco, Marietta; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2016-04-01

    Safety concerns with erythropoietin analogues and intravenous (IV) iron for treatment of anemia in CKD necessitate development of safer therapies. Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally bioavailable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that promotes coordinated erythropoiesis through HIF-mediated transcription. We performed an open-label, randomized hemoglobin (Hb) correction study in anemic (Hb≤10.0 g/dl) patients incident to hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty patients received no iron, oral iron, or IV iron while treated with roxadustat for 12 weeks. Mean±SD baseline Hb was 8.3±1.0 g/dl in enrolled patients. Roxadustat at titrated doses increased mean Hb by ≥2.0 g/dl within 7 weeks regardless of baseline iron repletion status, C-reactive protein level, iron regimen, or dialysis modality. Mean±SEM maximal change in Hb from baseline (ΔHb(max)), the primary endpoint, was 3.1±0.2 g/dl over 12 weeks in efficacy-evaluable patients (n=55). In groups receiving oral or IV iron, ΔHb(max) was similar and larger than in the no-iron group. Hb response (increase in Hb of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline) was achieved in 96% of efficacy-evaluable patients. Mean serum hepcidin decreased significantly 4 weeks into study: by 80% in HD patients receiving no iron (n=22), 52% in HD and PD patients receiving oral iron (n=21), and 41% in HD patients receiving IV iron (n=9). In summary, roxadustat was well tolerated and corrected anemia in incident HD and PD patients, regardless of baseline iron repletion status or C-reactive protein level and with oral or IV iron supplementation; it also reduced serum hepcidin levels.

  1. Outcome of accidental peritoneal dialysis catheter holes or tip exposure.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Douglas M; Wilcox, Jennifer E

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for acute peritonitis. One risk factor is accidental exposure of the catheter to a non-sterile surface. We studied catheter exposures in 17 pediatric patients receiving PD who developed 16 holes and 12 other accidental exposures. The rate of exposures was 3.7 events/100 patient-months. After exposure, the mean counts (+ or - standard error) of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells, and neutrophils were 39.8 + or - 19.3, 9.5 + or - 7.1, and 24.2 + or - 5.3/mm(3), respectively. There was a trend towards higher peritoneal fluid WBC in patients with holes than in those with exposures (60.1 + or - 34.8 vs. 15.4 + or - 5.1/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.2). The initial peritoneal fluid WBC count was significantly higher if there was a positive culture than a negative culture (165.0 + or - 132.6 vs. 20.3 + or - 6.4/mm(3), respectively; p = 0.01). The percentage of neutrophils was higher in patients with a positive culture than in those with a negative culture (54.7 + or - 14.1 vs. 19.1 + or - 4.9%, respectively; p = 0.01). Of the 28 patients, 27 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotics, as per the protocol at that time. Among those treated, 7% developed a positive culture (all staphylococcal species) while 93% had a negative culture. We conclude that following accidental exposure of the peritoneal dialysis catheter: (1) the prevalence of peritonitis is low; (2) measuring peritoneal fluid WBC provides treatment guidance; (3) if treatment is initiated, it should be applied intraperitoneally and include activity against Gram-positive organisms.

  2. A biocompatibility study on peritoneal dialysis solution bags for CAPD.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, S; Nasini, M G; Schelotto, C; Caviglia, P M; Santoni, O; Pietrucci, A

    1993-01-01

    Numerous factors related to the composition of peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) contribute to the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). They include high osmolarity, low pH, and the presence of lactate, which may be responsible for stimulating the proliferation of peritoneal fibroblasts (PF) and for the toxicity on the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC). Similar effects could be hypothesized for the plasticizers released from the PDS bags, usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), such as the acid esters of phthalic acid, particularly bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP). Recently, however, new BEHP-free bags (Clear-Flex, Bieffe, Italy) made of three layers (polyethylene, nylon, and polypropylene) have been introduced. The aim of this work is to evaluate in vitro the effects of samples of PDS contained in PVC bags (Bieffe) and in Clear-Flex bags on the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and the release of interferon gamma (IFN gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from peritoneal T lymphocytes (PTLs) and macrophages (PM phi s). Results have shown that in the presence of PDS samples contained in PVC bags, the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts was higher than in Clear-Flexbags. There was also an increased release of IFN-gamma and IL-1 from PTLs and PM phi s (cytokines that stimulate the collagen synthesis) and a decreased release of PGE2 (cytokines which inhibit the collagen synthesis). An inhibiting action on peritoneal mesothelial cells was also seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Skin disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: An underdiagnosed subject

    PubMed Central

    Gursu, Meltem; Uzun, Sami; Topcuoğlu, Derya; Koc, Leyli Kadriye; Yucel, Lamiye; Sumnu, Abdullah; Cebeci, Egemen; Ozkan, Oktay; Behlul, Ahmet; Koc, Leyla; Ozturk, Savas; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine all skin changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients followed up in our unit. METHODS: Patients on PD program for at least three months without any known chronic skin disease were included in the study. Patients with already diagnosed skin disease, those who have systemic diseases that may cause skin lesions, patients with malignancies and those who did not give informed consent were excluded from the study. All patients were examined by the same predetermined dermatologist with all findings recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data including measures of dialysis adequacy of patients were recorded also. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 standard version was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among the patients followed up in our PD unit, those without exclusion criteria who gave informed consent, 38 patients were included in the study with male/female ratio and mean age of 26/12 and 50.3 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The duration of CKD was 7.86 ± 4.16 years and the mean PD duration was 47.1 ± 29.6 mo. Primary kidney disease was diabetic nephropathy in 11, nephrosclerosis in six, uropathologies in four, chronic glomerulonephritis in three, chronic pyelonephritis in three, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in three patients while cause was unknown in eight patients. All patients except for one patient had at least one skin lesion. Loss of lunula, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are the most frequent skin disorders recorded in the study group. Diabetic patients had tinea pedis more frequently (P = 0.045). No relationship of skin findings was detected with primary renal diseases, comorbidities and medications that the patients were using. CONCLUSION: Skin abnormalities are common in in PD patients. The most frequent skin pathologies are onychomycosis and tinea pedis which must not be overlooked. PMID:27458566

  4. Microbiological aspects of peritonitis associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    von Graevenitz, A; Amsterdam, D

    1992-01-01

    The process of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has provided a useful, relatively inexpensive, and safe alternative for patients with end-stage renal disease. Infectious peritonitis, however, has limited a more widespread acceptance of this technique. The definition of peritonitis in this patient population is not universally accepted and does not always include the laboratory support of a positive culture (or Gram stain). In part, the omission of clinical microbiological findings stems from the lack of sensitivity of earlier microbiological efforts. Peritonitis results from decreased host phagocytic efficiency with depressed phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages. During episodes of peritonitis, fluid movement is reversed, away from the lymphatics and peritoneal membrane and toward the cavity. As a result, bloodstream infections are rare. Most peritonitis episodes are caused by bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most frequently isolated organisms, usually originating from the skin flora, but a wide array of microbial species have been documented as agents of peritonitis. Clinical microbiology laboratories need to be cognizant of the diverse agents so that appropriate primary media can be used. The quantity of dialysate fluid that is prepared for culture is critical and should constitute at least 10 ml. The sensitivity of the cultural approach depends on the volume of dialysate, its pretreatment (lysis or centrifugation), the media used, and the mode of incubation. The low concentration of microorganisms in dialysate fluids accounts for negative Gram stain results. Prevention of infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with the socioeconomic status of the patient, advances in equipment (catheter) technology, and, probably least important, the application of prophylactic antimicrobial agents. PMID:1735094

  5. Telemedicine system for patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2007-06-01

    Over recent decades, rapid progress in information and telecommunications technology has led to the application of these technologies in the medical field. In 1999, we reported on a telemedicine system (version 1.0) that used an automated peritoneal dialysis machine to collect data on patients with end-stage renal disease. After 2002, we focused on using cellular telephones in a new telemedicine system (version 2.0) to monitor patient data at home, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate, body weight, urine volume, and blood glucose. By 2003, we had developed a fully automatic system called I-converter (version 3.0) to collect data from a fully automatic device and send it via cellular telephone. After the fully automatic device measures a patient's BP, I-converter sends the data directly to the main server in our central data center. That server is directly connected to Web site by application service provider (ASP) technology. Recently, to make the system simpler, we developed a new version called D-converter (version 4.0). The telephone used in this new system is a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS). The PHS has several advantages: high-speed data transmission, low power output, little electromagnetic interference with medical devices, and easy locating of patients. The D-converter system uses a small computer and a PHS card called a Dopa card. Our telemedicine systems monitor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at home. For elderly and handicapped patients, these systems are very advantageous because they reduce visits to the outpatient clinic. In addition, data can be monitored at the patient's home in real time. The present paper reports our recent advances in telemedicine systems for CAPD patients.

  6. Polyelectrolyte complex/PVA membranes for diffusion dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Wu, Cuiming; Wu, Yonghui; Gu, Jingjing; Xu, Tongwen

    2013-10-15

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes are prepared from PVA, anion exchange and cation exchange multisilicon copolymers, which contain plenty of functional groups of OH, N(+)(CH3)3/Si(OCH3)3, and SO3Na/Si(OCH3)3, respectively. The OH and Si(OCH3)3 groups can undertake sol-gel reaction to form crosslinking structure, while the N(+)(CH3)3 and SO3Na groups can be combined through electrostatic interaction. The PECs/PVA membranes exhibit improved thermal stability, swelling resistance and flexibility as compared with single anion or cation exchange hybrid membranes. The PECs/PVA membranes have the water uptakes (WR) of 25.3-70.4%, initial decomposition temperatures (IDTs) of 246-285°C, tensile streng