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Sample records for akt inhibitor ly294002

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor(LY294002) induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether PI3K/Akt pathway could effect on apoptosis and its mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Methods The activation of the PI3K/Akt and its effect on CNE-2Z cells in vivo and in vitro was investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometry, western blot, ELISA, terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated nick-end labeling assays (TUNEL), and immunohistochemical analyses, using PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Results The results showed that LY294002 inhibited the phosphorylating of Akt (S473), cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in CNE-2Z cells. However, our experiment results also demonstrated that apoptosis-induced LY294002 was directly regulated by caspase-9 activation pathway. Conclusion These data suggested that PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, induced apoptosis by caspase-9 activation pathway and might be as a potentially useful target for therapeutic intervention in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. PMID:20412566

  2. PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and IC87114 reduce inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw oedema and down-regulate inflammatory gene expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eräsalo, Heikki; Laavola, Mirka; Hämäläinen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    PI3K/Akt pathway is a well-characterized pathway controlling cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and survival, and its role in cancer is vastly studied. There is also evidence to suggest the involvement of this pathway in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the role of PI3Ks in acute inflammation in vivo using pharmacological inhibitors against PI3Ks in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. A non-selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and a PI3Kδ-selective inhibitor IC87114 were used. Both of these inhibitors reduced inflammatory oedema upon carrageenan challenge in the mouse paw. To explain this result, the effects of the two inhibitors on inflammatory gene expression were investigated in activated macrophages. LY294002 and IC87114 prevented Akt phosphorylation as expected and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors IL-6, MCP-1,TNFα and iNOS. These findings suggest that PI3K inhibitors could be used to attenuate inflammatory responses and that the mechanism of action behind this effect is the down-regulation of inflammatory gene expression.

  3. Direct inhibition of the signaling functions of the mammalian target of rapamycin by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002.

    PubMed Central

    Brunn, G J; Williams, J; Sabers, C; Wiederrecht, G; Lawrence, J C; Abraham, R T

    1996-01-01

    The immunosuppressant, rapamycin, inhibits cell growth by interfering with the function of a novel kinase, termed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The putative catalytic domain of mTOR is similar to those of mammalian and yeast phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinases. This study demonstrates that mTOR is a component of a cytokine-triggered protein kinase cascade leading to the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF-4E) binding protein, PHAS-1, in activated T lymphocytes. This event promotes G1 phase progression by stimulating eIF-4E-dependent translation initiation. A mutant YAC-1 T lymphoma cell line, which was selected for resistance to the growth-inhibitory action of rapamycin, was correspondingly resistant to the suppressive effect of this drug on PHAS-1 phosphorylation. In contrast, the PI 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, reduced the phosphorylation of PHAS-1 in both rapamycin-sensitive and -resistant T cells. At similar drug concentrations (0.1-1 microM), wortmannin irreversibly inhibited the serine-specific autokinase activity of mTOR. The autokinase activity of mTOR was also sensitive to the structurally distinct PI 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, at concentrations (1-30 microM) nearly identical to those required for inhibition of the lipid kinase activity of the mammalian p85-p110 heterodimer. These studies indicate that the signaling functions of mTOR, and potentially those of other high molecular weight PI 3-kinase homologs, are directly affected by cellular treatment with wortmannin or LY294002. Images PMID:8895571

  4. Vesicular trafficking and stress response coupled to PI3K inhibition by LY294002 as revealed by proteomic and cell biological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takáč, Tomáš; Pechan, Tibor; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    LY294002 is a synthetic quercetin-like compound which, unlike wortmannin, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). It inhibits endocytosis and vacuolar transport. We report here on the proteome-wide effects of LY294002 on Arabidopsis roots focusing on proteins involved in vesicular trafficking and stress response. At the subcellular level, LY294002 caused swelling and clustering of late endosomes leading to inhibition of vacuolar transport. At the proteome level, this compound caused changes in abundances of proteins categorized to 10 functional classes. Among proteins involved in vesicular trafficking, a small GTPase ARFA1f was more abundant, indicating its possible contribution to the aggregation and fusion of late endosomes triggered by LY294002. Our study provides new information on storage proteins and vacuolar hydrolases in vegetative tissues treated by LY294002. Vacuolar hydrolases were downregulated while storage proteins were more abundant, suggesting that storage proteins were protected from degradation in swollen multivesicular bodies upon LY294002 treatment. Upregulation of 2S albumin was validated by immunoblotting and immunolabelling analyses. Our study also pointed to the control of antioxidant enzyme machinery by PI3K because LY294002 downregulated two isozymes of superoxide dismutase. This most likely occurred via PI3K–mediated downregulation of protein AtDJ1A. Finally, we discuss specificity differences of LY294002 and wortmannin against PI3K which are reflected at the proteome level. Compared to wortmannin, LY294002 showed more narrow and perhaps also more specific effects on proteins as suggested by gene ontology functional annotation. PMID:23931732

  5. LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX-2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Haipeng; Xu Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena; Chen, Qin M.

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes.

  6. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  7. Endothelium-independent hypoxic contraction of porcine coronary arteries may be mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huixia; Chen, Zhengju; Liu, Juan; Liu, Limei; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular tone. The present study aimed to determine its role in hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction. Isometric tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries was measured with organ chamber technique; the protein levels of phosphorylated and total MLC were examined by Western blotting; the activities of PI3K and Rho kinase were determined by the phosphorylation of their respective target protein Akt and MTPT1. Acute hypoxia induced a rapid contraction followed by a short-term relaxation and then a sustained contraction in porcine coronary arteries. The rapid but not the sustained contraction was abolished by endothelium removal. The sustained contraction was attenuated by inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002) and Akt (Akt-I). The attenuation effect caused by LY294002 was not affected by nifedipine, but was abolished by Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase. The sustained hypoxic contraction was associated with altered phosphorylation of MLC and Akt, which was inhibited by LY294002. The sustained hypoxic contraction was also accompanied with increased phosphorylation of MYPT1, which was inhibited by LY294002 and Y27632. This study demonstrates that sustained hypoxia causes porcine coronary artery to contract in an endothelium-independent manner. An increased PI3K/Akt/Rho kinase signaling may be involved. PMID:24685819

  8. PI3K/AKT signaling is essential for communication between tissue infiltrating mast cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells in colitis-induced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad W.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gounaris, Elias; Melson, Joshua E.; Cheon, Eric; Blatner, Nichole R.; Chen, Zongmin E.; Tsai, Fu-Nien; Lee, Goo; Ryu, Hyunji; Barrett, Terrence A.; Bentrem, David; Beckhove, Philipp; Khazaie, Khashayarsha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To understand signaling pathways that shape inflamed tissue and predispose to cancer is critical for effective prevention and therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. We have explored PI3K activity in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and mouse colitis models. Experimental Design We performed immunostaining of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) and unbiased high throughput image acquisition and quantitative analysis of samples of non-inflamed normal colon, colitis, dysplasia, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo studies of cell interactions, the Piroxicam / IL-10−/− mouse model of progressive colitis, and use of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Results Progressive increase in densities of pAKT-positive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and increase in densities of mast cells (MCs) in the colonic submucosa were noted with colitis and progression to dysplasia and cancer. MCs recruited macrophages in ex vivo migration assays, and both MCs and TAMs promoted invasion of cancer cells. Pre-treatment of MCs with LY294002 blocked recruitment of TAMs. LY294002 inhibited MC and TAM-mediated tumor invasion, and in mice, blocked stromal PI3K, colitis, and cancer. Conclusion The PI3K / AKT pathway is active in cells infiltrating inflamed human colon tissue. This pathway sustains the recruitment of inflammatory cells through a positive feed back loop. The PI3K / AKT pathway is essential for tumor invasion and the malignant features of the Piroxicam / IL-10−/− mouse model. LY294002 targets the PI3K pathway and hinders progressive colitis. These findings indicate that colitis and progression to cancer are dependent on stromal PI3K and sensitive to treatment with LY294002. PMID:23487439

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR42 regulates telomerase activity in human glioma cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Luen; Huang, Po-Hsien; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Huan-Da; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2013-05-24

    Epigenetic regulation via abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a mechanism that leads to cancer initiation and promotion. Activation of HDACs results in transcriptional upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and increases telomerase activity during cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. However, the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the transcription of hTERT vary in different cancer cells. Here, we studied the effects of a novel HDAC inhibitor, AR42, on telomerase activity in a PTEN-null U87MG glioma cell line. AR42 increased hTERT mRNA in U87MG glioma cells, but suppressed total telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Further analyses suggested that AR42 decreases the phosphorylation of hTERT via an Akt-dependent mechanism. Suppression of Akt phosphorylation and telomerase activity was also observed with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 further supporting the hypothesis that Akt signaling is involved in suppression of AR42-induced inhibition of telomerase activity. Finally, ectopic expression of a constitutive active form of Akt restored telomerase activity in AR42-treated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the novel HDAC inhibitor AR42 can suppress telomerase activity by inhibiting Akt-mediated hTERT phosphorylation, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the regulation of telomerase activity in response to this HDAC inhibitor.

  10. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26786697

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  13. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Ding, Xiuyan; Zhu, Xiaofang; Meng, Songshu; Wang, Jianye; Zhou, Hong; Duan, Qiangde; Tao, Jie; Schifferli, Dieter M; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2011-04-14

    Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2) signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2), respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  14. Chloroquine or Chloroquine-PI3K/Akt Pathway Inhibitor Combinations Strongly Promote γ-Irradiation-Induced Cell Death in Primary Stem-Like Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Firat, Elke; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Gaedicke, Simone; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is highly active in cancer stem cells (CSCs) and upregulated in response to genotoxic treatments, promote γ-irradiationγIR)-induced cell death in highly radioresistant, patient-derived stem-like glioma cells (SLGCs). Surprisingly, in most cases the inhibitors did not promote γIR-induced cell death. In contrast, the strongly cytostatic Ly294002 and PI-103 even tended to reduce it. Since autophagy was induced we examined whether addition of the clinically applicable autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) would trigger cell death in SLGCs. Triple therapy with CQ at doses as low as 5 to 10 µM indeed caused strong apoptosis. At slightly higher doses, CQ alone strongly promoted γIR-induced apoptosis in all SLGC lines examined. The strong apoptosis in combinations with CQ was invariably associated with strong accumulation of the autophagosomal marker LC3-II, indicating inhibition of late autophagy. Thus, autophagy-promoting effects of PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors apparently hinder cell death induction in γ-irradiated SLGCs. However, as we show here for the first time, the late autophagy inhibitor CQ strongly promotes γIR-induced cell death in highly radioresistant CSCs, and triple combinations of CQ, γIR and a PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor permit reduction of the CQ dose required to trigger cell death. PMID:23091617

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Akt Phosphorylation Regulates Bax Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sadidi, Mahdieh; Lentz, Stephen I.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in many cellular processes that positively and negatively regulate cell fate. H2O2, acting as an intracellular messenger, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target Akt, and promotes cell survival. The aim of the current study was to understand the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt signaling promotes survival in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt mediates phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax. This phosphorylation suppresses apoptosis and promotes cell survival. Increased survival in the presence of H2O2 was blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K activation. LY294002 prevented Bax phosphorylation and resulted in Bax translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism by which H2O2-induced activation of PI3K/Akt influences posttranslational modification of Bax and inactivate a key component of the cell death machinery. PMID:19278624

  16. Combination of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors and PDT in endothelial and tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateye, Babasola; Chen, Bin

    2011-02-01

    The PI3/Akt/mTOR kinase signaling pathway is a major signaling pathway in eukaryotic cells, and dysregulation of this signaling pathway has been implicated in tumorigenesis and malignancy in several cancers including prostate cancer. We assessed the effects of combination PI3K pathway inhibition on the efficacy of PDT in human prostate tumor cell line (PC3) and SV40-transformed mouse endothelial cell line (SVEC-40). Combination of PDT and BEZ 235 (BEZ), a pan-PI3/ mTOR kinase inhibitor additively enhanced efficacy of sub-lethal PDT in both cell lines. The combination of the pan-PI3/ mTOR kinase inhibitor LY294002 (LY) with PDT also enhanced efficacy of PDT in PC3 in an additive manner but synergistically in SVEC. In order to determine the mechanism of enhancement of efficacy, we assessed apoptosis and autophagy following PDT. PDT-mediated apoptosis was enhanced in endothelial cells, by both BEZ and LY rapidly after treatment. Compared to SVEC, PC3 cells are apoptosis-deficient and apoptosis was not significantly enhanced by either LY or BEZ. However, lethal PDT of PC3 cells induced a delayed autophagic response which may be enhanced by combination, depending on PI3K inhibitor and dose.

  17. Gardenamide A Protects RGC-5 Cells from H₂O₂-Induced Oxidative Stress Insults by Activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rikang; Peng, Lizhi; Zhao, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Laitao; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Wenhua; Chen, Heru

    2015-01-01

    Gardenamide A (GA) protects the rat retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells against cell apoptosis induced by H₂O₂. The protective effect of GA was completely abrogated by the specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the specific protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor Akt VIII respectively, indicating that the protective mechanism of GA is mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 could not block the neuroprotection of GA. GA attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by H₂O₂. Western blotting showed that GA promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), respectively, and effectively reversed the H₂O₂-inhibited phosphorylation of these three proteins. LY294002 completely inhibited the GA-activated phosphorylation of Akt, while only partially inhibiting eNOS. This evidence implies that eNOS may be activated directly by GA. PD98059 attenuated only partially the GA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 with/without the presence of H₂O₂, indicating that GA may activate ERK1/2 directly. All these results put together confirm that GA protects RGC-5 cells from H₂O₂ insults via the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Whether the ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved requires further investigations.

  18. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  19. XJP-1 protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by inhibiting NADPH oxidase subunit expression and modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Qiujuan; Guo, Qinglong; Xu, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial apoptosis triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can accelerate the progression of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. (±)7,8-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-isochromanone-4 (XJP-1) is a natural phenolic compound derived from banana peel. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of XJP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL and explored underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that in the presence of ox-LDL, XJP-1 significantly attenuated ox-LDL-mediated cytotoxicity, apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and NADPH oxidase subunit (p22phox and p47phox) expression in HUVECs. In addition, the anticytotoxic and anti-apoptotic effect of XJP-1 was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an Akt inhibitor (SH-6), a specific eNOS inhibitor (l-NAME) and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor (DPI). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of XJP-1 action, we found that XJP-1 eliminated ox-LDL-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in a dose-dependent manner. However, XJP-1 alone upregulation of Akt and eNOS phosphorylation were blocked by LY294002 and SH-6. Moreover, XJP-1 increased NO production, but this effect was abolished by LY294002, SH-6 and l-NAME. The inhibition of ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction by XJP-1 is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  20. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect against Trimethyltin Chloride-Induced Apoptosis via Sonic Hedgehog and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in Mouse Neuro-2a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wanyun; Pan, Xiaoqi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Changchun; Shi, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a classic neurotoxicant that can cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. Some signaling pathways involving cell death play pivotal roles in the central nervous system. In this study, the role of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and PI3K/Akt pathways in TMT-induced apoptosis and protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells were investigated. Results showed that TMT treatment significantly enhanced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic Bax, downregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner in N2a cells. TMT induced oxidative stress in cells, performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) excessive generation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduction. TMT significantly decreased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibited Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways. However, the addition of LBP upregulated GSK-3β phosphorylation, activated Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways, and eventually reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress caused by TMT. The interaction between Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways was clarified by specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Shh inhibitor GDC-0449. Moreover, LY294002 and GDC-0449 pretreatment both induced phosphorylated GSK-3β downregulation and significantly promoted apoptosis induced by TMT. These results suggest that LBP could reduce TMT-induced N2a cells apoptosis by regulating GSK-3β phosphorylation, Shh, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27143997

  1. Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT) Suppresses Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Blocking PI3K-Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Zhen; Xie, Fang; Liu, Chenhai; Shao, Feng; Zhu, Cheng-lin; Hu, Sanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a tumor suppressor protein that regulates cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, its exact mechanism of action is poorly understood. Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt-survivin is an important signaling pathway that was regulated by FHIT in lung cancer cells. To determine whether FHIT can regulate this pathway in cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells, we constructed an FHIT expression plasmid and used it to transfect QBC939 cells. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and qRT-PCR, respectively. The viability and apoptosis of QBC939 cells were then assessed using MTT assays and flow cytometry. Our results revealed that the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 was downregulated, and caspase 3 was upregulated, in cells overexpressing FHIT. In addition, FHIT suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt. The changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis were obvious in cells overexpressing FHIT which parallels that of treatment with LY294002, a potent inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases. Treatment with LY294002 further decreased the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 and increased caspase-3 levels. These results suggest that FHIT can block the PI3K-Akt-survivin pathway by suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt and the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 and upregulating caspase 3. PMID:24757411

  2. 5-AIQ inhibits H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Jun Chul; Kang, Do-Hyun; Jang, Yong Chang; Yi, Kyu Yang; Chung, Hun-Jong; Park, Jong Seok; Kim, Bokyung; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2013-04-01

    Poly(adenosine 5′-diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA strand breaks and plays an important role in the tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ), a PARP inhibitor, against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. 5-AIQ pretreatment significantly protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death, as determined by the XTT assay, cell counting, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins such as caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2. Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes such as manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase accompanied the protective effect of 5-AIQ on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death. Our data also showed that 5-AIQ pretreatment protected H9c2 cells from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis by triggering activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and that the protective effect of 5-AIQ was diminished by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at a concentration that effectively abolished 5-AIQ-induced Akt and GSK-3β activation. In addition, inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β pathway by LY294002 significantly attenuated the 5-AIQ-mediated decrease in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax activation and H9c2 cell apoptosis induction. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 5-AIQ prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species production, regulating apoptosis-related proteins, and activating the Akt/GSK-3β pathway. - Highlights: ► 5-AIQ, a PARP inhibitor, decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced H9c2 cell death and apoptosis. ► 5-AIQ upregulated antioxidant Mn-SOD and catalase, while decreasing ROS production. ► 5-AIQ decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced increase in cleaved caspase-3 and Bax and decrease in Bcl2. ► 5-AIQ activated Akt and GSK-3

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 Contributes to the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Rei; Edamura, Kazuya; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Narita, Takanori; Okabayashi, Ken; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered as candidates for regenerative therapy and a useful model for studying neuronal differentiation. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in neuronal differentiation has been previously studied; however, the signaling pathway involved in this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. bFGF induced the mRNA expression of the neuron marker, microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) and the neuron-like morphological change in canine BMSCs. In the presence of inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, i.e., SU5402, LY294002, and MK2206, respectively, bFGF failed to induce the MAP2 mRNA expression and the neuron-like morphological change. bFGF induced Akt phosphorylation, but it was attenuated by the FGFR inhibitor SU5402 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In canine BMSCs, expression of FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 was confirmed, but only FGFR-2 activation was detected by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGFR-2 in canine BMSCs resulted in the attenuation of bFGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that the FGFR-2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. PMID:26523832

  4. Glimepiride Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in Rat Osteoblasts via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathway in a High Glucose Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wei; Tan, Baosheng; Geng, Wei; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment. PMID:25391146

  5. Glimepiride promotes osteogenic differentiation in rat osteoblasts via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Gu, Bin; Xiong, Wei; Tan, Baosheng; Geng, Wei; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment. PMID:25391146

  6. Elevated autocrine chemokine ligand 18 expression promotes oral cancer cell growth and invasion via Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun; Wu, Tong; Chen, Xiaobing; Xia, Juan; Cheng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers; however, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the role of CCL18 is unknown. In this study, we found that CCL18 was overexpressed in primary OSCC tissues and was associated with an advanced clinical stage. CCL18 was found in both the cytoplasm and cell membrane of OSCC cells and was predominantly produced by cancer epithelial cells, as opposed to tumor-infiltrating macrophages. In vitro studies indicated that the effects of endogenous CCL18 on OSCC cell growth, migration, and invasion could be blocked by treatment with a neutralizing anti-CCL18 antibody or CCL18 knockdown, while exogenous recombinant CCL18 (rCCL18) rescued those effects. Akt was activated in rCCL18-treated OSCC cells, while LY294002, a pan-PI3K inhibitor, abolished both endogenous and exogenous CCL18-induced OSCC cell invasion. In vivo, LY294002 treatment attenuated rCCL18-induced OSCC cell growth. Our results indicate that CCL18 acts in an autocrine manner via Akt activation to stimulate OSCC cell growth and invasion during OSCC progression. They also provide a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26919103

  7. Restoration of Akt activity by the bisperoxovanadium compound bpV(pic) attenuates hippocampal apoptosis in experimental neonatal pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sury, Matthias D; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Agarinis, Claudia; Yousefi, Shida; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Christen, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis causes apoptosis of developing neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The death of these cells is accompanied with long-term learning and memory deficits in meningitis survivors. Here, we studied the role of the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) survival pathway in hippocampal apoptosis in a well-characterized infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Meningitis was accompanied by a significant decrease of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) and of phosphorylated (i.e., activated) Akt in the hippocampus. At the cellular level, phosphorylated Akt was decreased in both the granular layer and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the region where the developing neurons undergo apoptosis. Protein levels and activity of PTEN, the major antagonist of PI3K, were unaltered by infection, suggesting that the observed decrease in PIP(3) and Akt phosphorylation is a result of decreased PI3K signaling. Treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV(pic) restored Akt activity and significantly attenuated hippocampal apoptosis. Co-treatment with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the restoration of Akt activity and attenuation of hippocampal apoptosis, while it had no significant effect on these parameters on its own. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was mediated by PI3K-dependent activation of Akt, strongly suggesting that bpV(pic) acted on PTEN. Treatment with bpV(pic) also partially inhibited the concentration of bacteria and cytokines in the CSF, but this effect was not reversed by LY294002, indicating that the effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was independent of its effect on CSF bacterial burden and cytokine levels. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the death and survival of developing hippocampal neurons during the acute phase of pneumococcal meningitis.

  8. Aminofurazans as potent inhibitors of AKT kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, Meagan B.; Seefeld, Mark A.; Leber, Jack D.; McNulty, Kenneth C.; Sun, Lihui; Miller, William H.; Zhang, ShuYun; Minthorn, Elisabeth A.; Concha, Nestor O.; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Schaber, Michael D.; Heerding, Dirk A.

    2009-06-24

    AKT inhibitors containing an imidazopyridine aminofurazan scaffold have been optimized. We have previously disclosed identification of the AKT inhibitor GSK690693, which has been evaluated in clinical trials in cancer patients. Herein we describe recent efforts focusing on investigating a distinct region of this scaffold that have afforded compounds (30 and 32) with comparable activity profiles to that of GSK690693.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of allicin against traumatic brain injury via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Jun; Feng, Feng; Wang, Mao-de; Bao, Gang; Wang, Tuo; Xiang, Mu; Xie, Wan-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro and in vivo studies. Here, we sought to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of allicin against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. We found that allicin treatment (10 and 50mg/kg, not 1mg/kg) significantly reduced brain edema and motor functional deficits, as well as apoptotic neuronal cell death in injured cortex. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4h after injury. Moreover, allicin treatment decreased the expression levels of MDA and protein carbonyl, preserved the endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, and suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The results of Western blot analysis showed that allicin increased the phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Blocking Akt/eNOS pathway activation by specific inhibitor LY294002 (10μL, 10mmol/L) or L-NIO (0.5mg/kg) partly reversed the protective effects of allicin and its anti-inflammatory activities. The allicin induced anti-oxidative activity was partly prevented by LY294002, but not L-NIO. In summary, our data strongly suggested that allicin treatment at an appropriate dose can exert protective effect against TBI through Akt/eNOS pathway-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities.

  10. Oxidized LDL at low concentration promotes in-vitro angiogenesis and activates nitric oxide synthase through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shan; Wong, Siu Ling; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-concentration oxidized LDL enhances angiogenesis through nitric oxide (NO). {yields} Oxidized LDL increases intracellular NO levels via eNOS phosphorylation. {yields} Akt/PI3K signaling mediates oxidized LDL-induced eNOS phosphorylation. -- Abstract: It has long been considered that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes endothelial dysfunction and is remarkably related to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of oxLDL at very low concentration (<10 {mu}g/ml) on the endothelial cells remains speculative. Nitric oxide (NO) has a crucial role in the endothelial cell function. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxLDL at low concentration on NO production and proliferation, migration, tube formation of the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Results showed that oxLDL at 5 {mu}g/ml enhanced HCAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. These phenomena were accompanied by an increased intracellular NO production. L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor), LY294002 and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors) could abolish oxLDL-induced angiogenic effects and prevent NO production in the HCAEC. The phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K and eNOS were up-regulated by oxLDL, which was attenuated by LY294002. Our results suggested that oxLDL at low concentration could promote in-vitro angiogenesis and activate nitric oxide synthesis through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in HCAEC.

  11. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway is Involved in S100A4-induced Viability and Migration in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Liang; Zou, Zhengyu; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yunyuan; Li, Xueru; Sun, Hui; Zha, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The S100 protein family member S100A4 regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of S100A4 is associated with progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about whether and how S100A4 contributes to CRC development. In our present study, the elevated expression of S100A4 in CRC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Adenovirus-mediated S100A4 overexpression obviously enhanced viability and migration of CRC cells, which was detected by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Additionally, S100A4 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K. These effects of S100A4 were abolished by treatment with either the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, or the specific mTOR/p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of S100A4 resulted in upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin, which were strongly reversed by either LY294002 or rapamycin. Altogether, our results demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in S100A4-induced viability, migration, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin in CRC cells. PMID:24936148

  12. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Three Different Postzygotic Mutations in PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) Patients: Effects on PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling and Sensitivity to PIK3 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Giovanna; Bagnulo, Rosanna; Stella, Alessandro; Lastella, Patrizia; Cutrone, Mario; Benedicenti, Francesco; Susca, Francesco C.; Patruno, Margherita; Varvara, Dora; Germani, Aldo; Chessa, Luciana; Laforgia, Nicola; Tenconi, Romano; Simone, Cristiano; Resta, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Background PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) include a group of disorders that affect only the terminal portion of a limb, such as type I macrodactyly, and conditions like fibroadipose overgrowth (FAO), megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) syndrome, congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies (CLOVES) syndrome and Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML). Heterozygous postzygotic PIK3CA mutations are frequently identified in these syndromes, while timing and tissue specificity of the mutational event are likely responsible for the extreme phenotypic variability observed. Methods We carried out a combination of Sanger sequencing and targeted deep sequencing of genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in three patients (1 MCAP and 2 FAO) to identify causative mutations, and performed immunoblot analyses to assay the phosphorylation status of AKT and P70S6K in affected dermal fibroblasts. In addition, we evaluated their ability to grow in the absence of serum and their response to the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 in vitro. Results and Conclusion Our data indicate that patients’ cells showed constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Of note, PI3K pharmacological blockade resulted in a significant reduction of the proliferation rate in culture, suggesting that inhibition of PI3K might prove beneficial in future therapies for PROS patients. PMID:25915946

  13. Akt regulates basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor-coactivator complex formation and activity during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, Anne B; Taylor, Jennifer; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Figueroa, Claudia; Kwok, Roland P S; Turner, David L

    2003-07-01

    Neural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulate neurogenesis in vertebrates. Signaling by peptide growth factors also plays critical roles in regulating neuronal differentiation and survival. Many peptide growth factors activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and subsequently the Akt kinases, raising the possibility that Akt may impact bHLH protein function during neurogenesis. Here we demonstrate that reducing expression of endogenous Akt1 and Akt2 by RNA interference (RNAi) reduces neuron generation in P19 cells transfected with a neural bHLH expression vector. The reduction in neuron generation from decreased Akt expression is not solely due to decreased cell survival, since addition of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-FMK rescues cell death associated with loss of Akt function but does not restore neuron formation. This result indicates that Akt1 and Akt2 have additional functions during neuronal differentiation that are separable from neuronal survival. We show that activated Akt1 enhances complex formation between bHLH proteins and the transcriptional coactivator p300. Activated Akt1 also significantly augments the transcriptional activity of the bHLH protein neurogenin 3 in complex with the coactivators p300 or CBP. In addition, inhibition of endogenous Akt activity by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 abolishes transcriptional cooperativity between the bHLH proteins and p300. We propose that Akt regulates the assembly and activity of bHLH-coactivator complexes to promote neuronal differentiation.

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates heme oxygenase-1 expression via the PI3K/Akt and NF-kappaB pathways in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Chiang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Chien-Huang; Shih, Chung-Hung; Liao, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Bing-Chang

    2007-04-10

    A previous report showed that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) can induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, attenuate cellular injury, and maintain tissue homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of phosphoinositide-3-OH-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway in TGF-beta1-induced HO-1 expression in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Treatment of A549 cells with TGF-beta1 caused HO-1 to be expressed in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of A549 cells with LY 294002 (2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, a PI3K inhibitor), an Akt inhibitor, and the dominant negative mutant of Akt (Akt DN) inhibited TGF-beta1-induced HO-1 expression and HO-1-luciferase activity. Stimulation of cells with TGF-beta1 caused an increase in Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner, which was inhibited by wortmannin and LY 294002 (PI3K inhibitors). In addition, treatment of A549 cells with Bay 117082 ((E)-3-[4-methylphenylsulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile, an IkappaB phosphorylation inhibitor), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-kappaB inhibitor), and the dominant negative mutant of IkappaBalpha (IkappaBalphaM) inhibited TGF-beta1-induced HO-1 expression and HO-1-luciferase activity. Treatment of A549 cells with TGF-beta1-induced IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKKalpha/beta) phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 Ser536 phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity. The TGF-beta1-mediated increases in IKKalpha/beta phosphorylation, p65 Ser536 phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity were inhibited by LY 294002, an Akt inhibitor, and Akt DN. Taken together, these results suggest that the PI3K/Akt dependent IKKalpha/beta/NF-kappaB signaling pathway plays an important role in TGF-beta1-induced HO-1 expression in A549 cells.

  15. Polysaccharides from the root of Angelica sinensis promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis through the PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dozens of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas have been used for promotion of "blood production" for centuries, and we are interested in developing novel thrombopoietic medicines from these TCMs. Our previous studies have demonstrated the hematopoietic effects of DangGui BuXue Tong (DBT), a formula composed of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Radix Astragali in animal and cellular models. As a step further to identify and characterize the active chemical components of DBT, we tested the hematopoietic and particularly, thrombopoietic effects of polysaccharide-enriched fractions from the root of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (APS) in this study. Methods A myelosuppression mouse model was treated with APS (10 mg/kg/day). Peripheral blood cells from APS, thrombopoietin and vehicle-treated samples were then counted at different time-points. Using the colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, we determined the effects of APS on the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and megakaryocytic lineages. Using a megakaryocytic cell line M-07e as model, we analyzed the cellular apoptosis progression with and without APS treatment by Annexin V, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Caspase 3 assays. Last, the anti-apoptotic effect of APS on cells treated with Ly294002, a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinse inhibitor (PI3K) was also tested. Results In animal models, APS significantly enhanced not only the recovery of platelets, other blood cells and their progenitor cells, but also the formation of Colony Forming Unit (CFU). In M-07e cells, we observed the anti-apoptotic effect of APS. Treatment by Ly294002 alone increased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. However, addition of APS to Ly294002-treated cells significantly reduced the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Conclusions APS promotes hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in the mouse model. This effect likely resulted from the anti-apoptosis activity of APS and is likely to involve

  16. Apelin induces vascular smooth muscle cells migration via a PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a/MMP-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianyan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Li; Cui, Xiaobing; Wang, Jinyu; Pan, Lin; Ye, Zhidong; Liu, Peng; Wu, Liling

    2015-12-01

    Apelin is an adipokine that has a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, which may offer potential for therapy. Because migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis, understanding its effect on the atherosclerotic vasculature is needed. Here we investigated the effect of apelin on VSMC migration and the possible signaling mechanism. In cultured rat VSMCs, apelin dose- and time-dependently promoted VSMC migration. Apelin increased the phosphorylation of Akt, whereas LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and an Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor blocked the apelin-induced VSMC migration. Apelin dose-dependently induced phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and promoted its translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm, which were blocked by LY294002 and Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, apelin increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression and gelatinolytic activity. Overexpression of a constitutively active, phosphorylation-resistant mutant, TM-FoxO3a, in VSMCs abrogated the effect of apelin on MMP-2 expression and VSMC migration. ARP101, an inhibitor of MMP-2, suppressed apelin-induced VSMC migration. Moreover, the levels of apelin, phosphorylated Akt, FoxO3a, and MMP-2 were higher in human carotid-artery atherosclerotic plaque than in adjacent normal vessels. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling may be involved in apelin inducing VSMC migration. Phosphorylation of FoxO3a plays a central role in mediating the apelin-induced MMP-2 activation and VSMC migration.

  17. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 may protect against cognitive impairment in rats of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yue-Qing; Wu, Yi-Fang; Wang, Da-Peng; Lin, Qi; Hai, Jian

    2016-10-15

    The present study further investigated the protective effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (URB) on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze and by measuring Long-term potentiation. The expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP)-2, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP)-43, synaptophysin, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), FAAH, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D(NAPE-PLD) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MGL) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway molecules and downstream targets including AKT, phosphorylated (p-)AKT, cyclic AMP response element- binding protein (CREB), p-CREB, Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD), p-BAD, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, p-GSK-3β, forkhead box protein (FOXO) 3A and p-FOXO3A was determined by western blotting. WIN and URB treatment improved learning and memory performance, effects that were abolished by co-administration of the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, WIN and URB reversed the decreases in MAP-2 and synaptophysin expression resulting from CCH, and stimulated BDNF and CB1 expression as well as CREB, FOXO3A, GSK-3β, and BAD phosphorylation, confirming that WIN and URB mediate neuroprotection by preventing neuronal apoptosis and improving cognition via PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings suggest that WIN and URB are promising agents for therapeutic management of CCH. PMID:27424778

  18. PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibition affects expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Han, C C; Xiong, X P; He, F; Gan, W; Wei, S H; Liu, H H; Li, L; Xu, H Y

    2016-01-01

    PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it is not clear how this signaling pathway affects the ER stress. The present study aimed to determine whether the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway regulates tunicamycin (TM)-induced increases in mRNA levels of genes involved in the ER stress, to help elucidate the mechanism by which this pathway affects the ER stress in primary goose hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from geese and cultured in vitro. After 12 h in a serum-free medium, the hepatocytes were incubated for 24 h in a medium with either no addition (control) or with supplementation of TM or TM together with PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235). Thereafter, the expression levels of genes involved in the ER stress (BIP, EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1) were assessed. The results indicated that the mRNA level of BIP was up-regulated in 0.2, 2, and 20 μM TM treatment group (P < 0.05), whereas the mRNA levels of EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1 were up-regulated in the 2 μM TM treatment group (P < 0.05). However, the TM mediated induction of mRNA levels of genes involved in the ER stress (BIP, EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1) was down-regulated after the treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, NVP-BEZ235, and rapamycin). Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway might be involved in the down-regulation of the TM-induced ER stress in primary goose hepatocytes. PMID:27525855

  19. Lipopolysaccharide induces VCAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion to human tracheal smooth muscle cells: Involvement of Src/EGFR/PI3-K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-N.; Luo, S.-F.; Wu, C.-B.; Lin, C.-C.; Yang, C.-M.

    2008-04-15

    In our previous study, LPS has been shown to induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression through MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs). In addition to these pathways, the non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src), EGF receptor (EGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to be implicated in the expression of several inflammatory target proteins. Here, we reported that LPS-induced up-regulation of VCAM-1 enhanced the adhesion of neutrophils onto HTSMC monolayer, which was inhibited by LY294002 and wortmannin. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases including Src, PYK2, and EGFR, which were further confirmed using specific anti-phospho-Src, PYK2, or EGFR Ab, respectively, revealed by Western blotting. LPS-stimulated Src, PYK2, EGFR, and Akt phosphorylation and VCAM-1 expression were attenuated by the inhibitors of Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PI3-K (LY294002 and wortmannin), and Akt (SH-5), respectively, or transfection with siRNAs of Src or Akt and shRNA of p110. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was also blocked by pretreatment with curcumin (a p300 inhibitor) or transfection with p300 siRNA. LPS-stimulated Akt activation translocated into nucleus and associated with p300 and VCAM-1 promoter region was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This association of Akt and p300 to VCAM-1 promoter was inhibited by pretreatment with PP1, AG1478, wortmannin, and SH-5. LPS-induced p300 activation enhanced VCAM-1 promoter activity and VCAM-1 mRNA expression. These results suggested that in HTSMCs, Akt phosphorylation mediated through transactivation of Src/PYK2/EGFR promoted the transcriptional p300 activity and eventually led to VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS.

  20. Pharmacologic Profiling of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibitors as Mitigators of Ionizing Radiation–Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Epperly, Michael W.; Lira, Ana; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces genotoxic stress that triggers adaptive cellular responses, such as activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade. Pluripotent cells are the most important population affected by IR because they are required for cellular replenishment. Despite the clear danger to large population centers, we still lack safe and effective therapies to abrogate the life-threatening effects of any accidental or intentional IR exposure. Therefore, we computationally analyzed the chemical structural similarity of previously published small molecules that, when given after IR, mitigate cell death and found a chemical cluster that was populated with PI3K inhibitors. Subsequently, we evaluated structurally diverse PI3K inhibitors. It is remarkable that 9 of 14 PI3K inhibitors mitigated γIR-induced death in pluripotent NCCIT cells as measured by caspase 3/7 activation. A single intraperitoneal dose of LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], administered to mice at 4 or 24 hours, or PX-867 [(4S,4aR,5R,6aS,9aR,Z)-11-hydroxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-4a,6a-dimethyl-2,7,10-trioxo-1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethylene)-1,2,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,9a,10-dodecahydroindeno[4,5-H]isochromen-5-yl acetate (CID24798773)], administered 4 hours after a lethal dose of γIR, statistically significantly (P < 0.02) enhanced in vivo survival. Because cell cycle checkpoints are important regulators of cell survival after IR, we examined cell cycle distribution in NCCIT cells after γIR and PI3K inhibitor treatment. LY294002 and PX-867 treatment of nonirradiated cells produced a marked decrease in S phase cells with a concomitant increase in the G1 population. In irradiated cells, LY294002 and PX-867 treatment also decreased S phase and increased the G1 and G2 populations. Treatment with LY294002 or PX-867 decreased γIR-induced DNA damage as measured by γH2AX, suggesting reduced DNA damage. These results indicate pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K after

  1. Dihydrotestosterone induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in HaCaT cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and the synthesis and secretion of lipids, in HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were treated with DHT and either the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059. Real time-PCR, Western blot, Oil Red staining and flow cytometry were employed to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1, the gene transcription of lipid synthesis, and lipid secretion in HaCaT cells. Findings We found that DHT upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1. DHT also significantly upregulated the transcription of lipid synthesis-related genes and increased lipid secretion, which can be inhibited by the addition of LY294002. Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that DHT induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis in HaCaT cells via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway. PMID:23153363

  2. Gefitinib induces lung cancer cell autophagy and apoptosis via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, ZHONG-QUAN; YU, ZHONG-YANG; LI, JIE; OUYANG, XUE-NONG

    2016-01-01

    Gefitinib is a selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor, which inhibits tumor pathogenesis, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as promoting apoptosis. Therefore, gefitinib presents an effective drug for the targeted therapy of lung cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gefitinib induces lung cancer cell death remain unclear. To investigate the effects of gefitinib on lung cancer cells and the mechanism of such, the present study analyzed the effect of gefitinib on the autophagy, apoptosis and proliferation of the A549 and A549-gefitinib-resistant (GR) cell lines GR. The regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was also investigated. Acridine orange staining revealed that gefitinib induced autophagy of A549 cells but not A549-GR cells. In addition, gefitinib promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of A549 cells but not A549-GR cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that gefitinib treatment led to the downregulation of PI3K, AKT, pAKT, mTOR and phosphorylated-mTOR protein expression in A549 cells but not A549-GR cells. LY294002 blocked the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and induced autophagy and apoptosis of A549 cells, however, no synergistic effect was observed following combined treatment with gefitinib and LY294002. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that gefitinib promotes autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which leads to lung cancer cell death. PMID:27347100

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid induces cell migration through the selective activation of Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Yun, Sung Ji; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Mong; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Chi Dae; Kim, Jae Ho; Birnbaum, Morris J.

    2008-01-01

    Akt plays pivotal roles in many physiological responses including growth, proliferation, survival, metabolism, and migration. In the current studies, we have evaluated the isoform-specific role of akt in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration. Ascites from ovarian cancer patients (AOCP) induced mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, ascites from liver cirrhosis patients (ALCP) did not induce MEF cell migration. AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely blocked by pre-treatment of cells with LPA receptor antagonist, Ki16425. Both LPA- and AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely attenuated by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, cells lacking Akt1 displayed defect in LPA-induced cell migration. Re-expression of Akt1 in DKO (Akt1-/-Akt2-/-) cells restored LPA-induced cell migration, whereas re-expression of Akt2 in DKO cells could not restore the LPA-induced cell migration. Finally, Akt1 was selectively phosphorylated by LPA and AOCP stimulation. These results suggest that LPA is a major factor responsible for AOCP-induced cell migration and signaling specificity of Akt1 may dictate LPA-induced cell migration. PMID:18779657

  4. Development of sulfonamide AKT PH domain inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ahad, Ali Md.; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Moses, Sylvestor A.; Zhou, Li Li; Zhang, Shuxing; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Mash, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway can lead to apoptosis in cancer cells. Previously we identified a lead sulfonamide that selectively bound to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT and induced apoptosis when present at low micromolar concentrations. To examine the effects of structural modification, a set of sulfonamides related to the lead compound was designed, synthesized, and tested for binding to the expressed PH domain of AKT using a surface plasmon resonance-based competitive binding assay. Cellular activity was determined by means of an assay for pAKT production and a cell killing assay using BxPC3 cells. The most active compounds in the set are lipophilic and possess an aliphatic chain of the proper length. Results were interpreted with the aid of computational modeling. This paper represents the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of a large family of AKT PH domain inhibitors. Information obtained will be used in the design of the next generation of inhibitors of AKT PH domain function. PMID:21353784

  5. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt Signaling Blocks Exercise-Mediated Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Veyrac, Alexandra; Dufour, Franck; Horwood, Jennifer; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and enhances synaptic plasticity. The antiapoptotic kinase, Akt has also been shown to be phosphorylated following voluntary exercise; however, it remains unknown whether the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is involved in exercise-induced neurogenesis and the associated facilitation of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the potential role of this signaling pathway in exercise-induced neurogenesis and LTP in the dentate gyrus rats were infused with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 or vehicle control solution (icv) via osmotic minipumps and exercised in a running wheel for 10 days. Newborn cells in the dentate gyrus were date-labelled with BrdU on the last 3 days of exercise. Then, they were either returned to the home cage for 2 weeks to assess exercise-induced LTP and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, or were killed on the last day of exercise to assess proliferation and activation of the PI3K-Akt cascade using western blotting. Conclusions/Significance Exercise increases cell proliferation and promotes survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Immediately after exercise, we found that Akt and three downstream targets, BAD, GSK3β and FOXO1 were activated. LY294002 blocked exercise-induced phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target proteins. This had no effect on exercise-induced cell proliferation, but it abolished most of the beneficial effect of exercise on the survival of newly generated dentate gyrus neurons and prevented exercise-induced increase in dentate gyrus LTP. These results suggest that activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role via an antiapoptotic function in promoting survival of newly formed granule cells generated during exercise and the associated increase in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:19936256

  6. Down-Regulation of MicroRNA-223 Promotes Degranulation via the PI3K/Akt Pathway by Targeting IGF-1R in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Qian-Yuan; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Mast cells play a central role in allergic and inflammatory disorders by inducing degranulation and inflammatory mediator release. Recent reports have shown that miRNAs play an important role in inflammatory response regulation. Therefore, the role of miR-223 in mast cells was investigated. Methods The expression of miR-223 was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mast cells. After successful miR-223 inhibition by transfection, degranulation was detected in IgE-mediated mast cells. The phosphorylation of IκB-α and Akt were examined using western blotting. NF-κB was tested using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. PI3K-inhibitor (LY294002) was used to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt pathway was essential for mast cell activation. The TargetScan database and a luciferase reporter system were used to identify whether insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a direct target of miR-223. Results MiR-223 expression was up-regulated in IgE-mediated mast cells, whereas its down-regulation promoted mast cell degranulation. Levels of IκB-α and Akt phosphorylation as well as NF-κB were increased in miR-223 inhibitor cells. LY294002 could block the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and rescue the promotion caused by suppressing miR-223 in mast cells. IGF-1R was identified as a direct target of miR-223. Conclusions These findings suggest that down-regulation of miR-223 promotes degranulation via the PI3K/Akt pathway by targeting IGF-1R in mast cells. PMID:25875646

  7. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Lin; Ding, Yi; Li, Qi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan; Yang, Hua; Peng, Shunli; Wang, Wei; Chen, Longhua

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC.

  8. Osseointegration of chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway under diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Feng, Ya-Fei; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Ma, Tian-Cheng; Qi, Wei; Lei, Wei; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant (CTI) is demonstrated a promising approach to improve osseointegration capacity of pure porous titanium alloy implant (TI). Since chitosan has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant activity, we propose CTI may ameliorate the ROS overproduction, thus reverse the poor osseointegration under diabetic conditions, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Primary rat osteoblasts incubated on the TI and the CTI were subjected to normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS + NAC (a potent ROS inhibitor) and DS + LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT-specific inhibitor). In vivo study was performed on diabetic sheep implanted with TI or CTI into the bone defects on crista iliaca. Results showed that diabetes-induced ROS overproduction led to osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, concomitant with the inhibition of AKT in osteoblasts on the TI substrate. While CTI stimulated AKT phosphorylation through ROS attenuation, thus reversed osteoblast dysfunction evidenced by improved osteoblast adhesion, increased proliferation and ALP activity, and decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic rate, which exerted same effect to NAC treatment on the TI. These effects were further confirmed by the improved osseointegration within the CTI in vivo evidenced by Micro-CT and histological examinations. In addition, the aforementioned promotive effects afforded by CTI were abolished by blocking PI3K/AKT pathway with addition of LY294002. These results demonstrate that the chitosan coating markedly ameliorates diabetes-induced impaired bio-performance of TI via ROS-mediated reactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway, which elicits a new surface functionalization strategy for better clinical performance of titanium implant in diabetic patients.

  9. In Vivo Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Dorsal Root Ganglia Is Mediated by Nerve Growth Factor-Triggered Akt Activation during Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Li-Ya; Yu, Sharon J.; Kay, Jarren C.; Xia, Chun-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in sensory hypersensitivity has been suggested; however the molecular mechanisms and signal transduction that regulate BDNF expression in primary afferent neurons during visceral inflammation are not clear. Here we used a rat model of cystitis and found that the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF were increased in the L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in response to bladder inflammation. BDNF up-regulation in the L6 DRG was triggered by endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) because neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody reduced BDNF levels during cystitis. The neutralizing NGF antibody also subsequently reduced cystitis-induced up-regulation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt activity in L6 DRG. To examine whether the NGF-induced Akt activation led to BDNF up-regulation in DRG in cystitis, we found that in cystitis the phospho-Akt immunoreactivity was co-localized with BDNF in L6 DRG, and prevention of the endogenous Akt activity in the L6 DRG by inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) with a potent inhibitor LY294002 reversed cystitis-induced BDNF up-regulation. Further study showed that application of NGF to the nerve terminals of the ganglion-nerve two-compartmented preparation enhanced BDNF expression in the DRG neuronal soma; which was reduced by pre-treatment of the ganglia with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and wortmannin. These in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that NGF played an important role in the activation of Akt and subsequent up-regulation of BDNF in the sensory neurons in visceral inflammation such as cystitis. PMID:24303055

  10. The roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast proliferation and differentiation on SLA and SLActive titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying-Xin; Du, Juan; Si, Mi-Si; Mo, Jia-Ji; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2013-03-01

    Chemical modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium (Ti) implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topography alone. This study aimed to investigate the roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in response to surface microroughness and hydrophilicity. Ti disks were manufactured to present different surface morphologies: a smooth pretreatment surface (PT), a rough hydrophobic surface that was sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA), and an SLA surface with the same roughness that was chemically modified to possess high wettability/hydrophilicity (SLActive/modSLA). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on these substrates with or without LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and their behaviors, including cell viability (MTT colorimetric assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic genes expression of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway proteins. The results showed that a decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the Ti surfaces (SLActive > SLA > PT) correlated with an increase in activity of the osteogenic differentiation markers ALP. The peak of ALP activity appeared earlier at 7 days for the SLActive surfaces compared with the SLA and PT surfaces. Osteoblast proliferation, as well as the level of p-Akt, was significantly inhibited by LY294002 in all three Ti surfaces. The top value of ALP activity was increased with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway while the time of the peak appeared was not advanced. The expression levels of OPN and OCN were upregulated by the effect of surface roughness and hydrophilicity, which were further enhanced by LY294002. In conclusion, osteogenic responses to SLActive surface were moderately better than the SLA surface and protein expression studies indicated that PI3K/Akt signaling activation may be

  11. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Shin-il; Yoo, Kyu-dong; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Role of TLR4-Mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway in Apoptosis of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Daorong; Jiang, Wei; Zhao, Min; Gan, Jianhe

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of the Toll-like receptor 4- (TLR4-) mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in rat hepatocytes apoptosis induced by LPS. The cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with LPS alone or first pretreated with TLR4 inhibitor, AKT inhibitor, and GSK-3β inhibitor, respectively, and then stimulated with the same dose of LPS. Cell viability, cell apoptotic rate, and apoptosis morphology were assessed; the level of P-AKTSer473, P-GSK-3βSer9, and active Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were evaluated. The results indicated that cell viability decreased, while cell apoptotic rate increased with time after LPS stimulation. The expression of P-AKTSer473 and P-GSK-3βSer9 in the LPS group decreased compared with the control, while the level of active Caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significantly increased. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with CLI-095. In addition, the apoptotic ratio decreased after pretreatment with LiCl but increased following pretreatment with LY294002. The expression of P-AKTSer473 further decreased following pretreatment with LY294002 and the expression of P-GSK-3βSer9 increased following pretreatment with LiCl. Moreover, pretreatment with CLI-095 weakened LPS-induced nuclear translocation of GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that the TLR4-mediated PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway is present in rat hepatocytes and participates in apoptosis of BRL-3A cells. PMID:26770978

  13. PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a role in enhancement of eNOS activity by recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Han, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yong-Qin; Xue, Jia-Hong; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wu, Xiao-San; Wang, Cong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the activity of recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) promoted the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured in vitro. Then treated with Ang II (1×10-6 mol/L) for 24 h. The rhACE2 (100 μmol/L) was added and incubated for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min respectively which was based on Ang II intervention. The effect of rhACE2 on phosphorylation eNOS level was also observed in the presence of LY294002 (10 μmol/L) (PI3K/AKT inhibitors). Griess reagent method was applied to measure NO contents in cell culture supernatant, RT-PCR to detect the expression of eNOSmRNA in HUVEC, and Western blot to detect the expression of eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS. In Ang II intervention group, NO contents were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). Through rhACE2 treatment, the NO contents in cell culture medium and the expression level of phosphorylated eNOS were significantly higher than in Ang II intervention group (P < 0.05), but eNOSmRNA and non-phosphorylated eNOS protein expression level showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). After HUVEC was intervened by PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, the expression level of phosphorylated eNOS was significantly lower than that in the rhACE2 30 min treatment group (P < 0.05). rhACE2 may reduce the activity of Ang II inhibited endothelial cell eNOS, which can be blocked by PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, suggesting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays an important role in rhACE2’s promotion of the activity of endothelial cell eNOS. PMID:25550859

  14. Ursolic Acid Attenuates Diabetic Mesangial Cell Injury through the Up-Regulation of Autophagy via miRNA-21/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinxing; Fan, Qiuling; Xu, Li; Li, Lin; Yue, Yuan; Xu, Yanyan; Su, Yan; Zhang, Dongcheng; Wang, Lining

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ursolic acid on autophagy mediated through the miRNA-21-targeted phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose (HG) conditions. Methods Rat glomerular mesangial cells were cultured under normal glucose, HG, HG with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or HG with ursolic acid conditions. Cell proliferation and hypertrophy were assayed using an MTT assay and the ratio of total protein to cell number, respectively. The miRNA-21 expression was detected using RT-qPCR. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/AKT/mTOR signaling signatures, autophagy-associated protein and collagen I was detected by western blotting and RT-qPCR. Autophagosomes were observed using electron microscopy. Results Compared with mesangial cells cultured under normal glucose conditions, the cells exposed to HG showed up-regulated miRNA-21 expression, down-regulated PTEN protein and mRNA expression, up-regulated p85PI3K, pAkt, pmTOR, p62/SQSTMI, and collagen I expression and down-regulated LC3II expression. Ursolic acid and LY294002 inhibited HG-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy and proliferation, down-regulated p85PI3K, pAkt, pmTOR, p62/SQSTMI, and collagen I expression and up-regulated LC3II expression. However, LY294002 did not affect the expression of miRNA-21 and PTEN. Ursolic acid down-regulated miRNA-21 expression and up-regulated PTEN protein and mRNA expression. Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibits the glucose-induced up-regulation of mesangial cell miRNA-21 expression, up-regulates PTEN expression, inhibits the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and enhances autophagy to reduce the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and ameliorate cell hypertrophy and proliferation. PMID:25689721

  15. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 promotes lung cancer cells proliferation and invasion via PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guiping; Chen, Guoqiang; Mi, Yedong

    2015-01-01

    Background While phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 (PEBP4) is a key factor in the malignant proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells, the exact regulatory network governing its roles remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PEBP4 on PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and explore its molecular network that governs the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Methods After the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-PEBP4 was constructed, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-PEBP4 and PEBP4-targeting siRNA were transfected into lung cancer HCC827 cell line. The expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components in HCC827 cells in each group were determined using Western blotting. In the HCC827 cells, the effect of PI3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 on the expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components under the effect of PEBP4 was determined using Western blotting, and the effects of LY294002 on the cell viability, proliferation, and migration capabilities under the overexpression of PEBP4 were determined using MTT method, flow cytometry, and Transwell migration assay. Furthermore, the effect of mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) on the expressions of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components under the effect of PEBP4 was determined using Western blotting, and the effects of RAPA on the cell viability, proliferation, and migration capabilities under the overexpression of PEBP4 were determined using MTT method, flow cytometry, and Transwell migration assay. Results As shown by Western blotting, the protein expressions of p-Akt and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) were significantly higher in the pcDNA3.1-PEBP4-transfected group than in the normal control group and PEBP4 siRNA group (P<0.05); furthermore, the protein expressions of p-Akt and p-mTOR significantly decreased in the PEBP4 targeting siRNA-transfected group (P<0.05). Treatment with LY294002 significantly inhibited the protein expressions of p-Akt and p-mTOR in HCC827 cells (P<0.05). In contrast, treatment with

  16. Stimulatory Effects of Coumestrol on Embryonic and Fetal Development Through AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Whasun; Song, Gwonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Successful establishment of pregnancy is required for fetal-maternal interactions regulating implantation, embryonic development and placentation. A uterine environment with insufficient growth factors and nutrients increases the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leading to an impaired uterine environment. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on conceptus development in the pig that is regarded as an excellent biomedical animal model for research on IUGR. Results of this study indicated that coumestrol induced migration of porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In response to coumestrol, the phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2 MAPK, and P90RSK proteins were activated in pTr cells and ERK1/2 MAPK and P90RSK phosphorylation was prolonged for a longer period than for the other proteins. To identify the signal transduction pathway induced by coumestrol, pharmacological inhibitors U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) were used to pretreat pTr cells. The results showed that coumestrol-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK and P90RSK was blocked by U0126. In addition, the increased phosphorylation in response to coumestrol was completely inhibited following pre-treatment incubation of pTr cells in the presence of LY294002 and U0126. Furthermore, these two inhibitors suppressed the ability of coumestrol to induce migration of pTr cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that coumestrol affects embryonic development through activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK cell signal transduction pathways and improvement in the uterine environment through coumestrol supplementation may provide beneficial effects of enhancing embryonic and fetal survival and development. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2733-2740, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX-1) mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of Akt1 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Manman; Pan, Defeng; Du, Yinping; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Tongda; Luo, Yuanyuan; Li, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic role of Akt1 gene in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the relationship with Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) during ischemia/reperfusion (IR). The cultured original rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (C group), hypoxia/reoxygenation group (HR group), the control vector pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG group (CV group), the gene pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG-Akt1 transfection group (A group), and Akt1 inhibitor LY294002 group (LY group). Cardiomyocyte vitality was determined using MTT, and the apoptosis was determined by TUNEL to verify the anti-apoptotic role of Akt1. The mRNA levels of Akt1 and NCX1 were determined by RT-PCR, the protein expression of Akt1, p-Akt1, NCX1 and the apoptotic proteins of mitochondrial pathway cytochrome C (Cyto C) and caspase-9 were measured by Western blot. As a result, transfected Akt1 (A group) showed increased myocardial cell viability and reduced apoptosis, with increase in Akt1 expression and decrease in NCX1 expression. The levels of apoptotic proteins Cyto C and caspase-9 also declined. This study demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated transfection of Akt1 played an anti-apoptotic role during IR of rat cardiomyocytes, via inhibition of NCX1 and other mitochondrial proteins. PMID:27186265

  18. Tetrandrine suppresses metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells by regulating Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kou, Bo; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Jianjie; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Yongjian; Xu, Suochun; Wang, Haichen

    2016-05-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in traditional Chinese medicines, exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. However, its potential role in the prostate cancer metastatic process has not yet been elucidated. Thus, we investigated the inhibition effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer migration and invasion and the corresponding molecular basis underlying its anticancer activity. Cell migration and invasion were determined using the Transwell chamber model. The protein expression of Akt, phosphorylated Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR and matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) was detected by western blot in the presence or absence of tetrandrine or in the group tetrandrine combination with LY294002 (inhibitor of Akt) and rapamycin (inhibitor of mTOR). Our studies showed that excluding the effect of tetrandrine on cell proliferation, tetrandrine significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. Furthermore, tetrandrine decreased the protein levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and MMP-9. While the inhibition of Akt or mTOR by the respective inhibitors could potentiate this effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer cells, the studies indicate that tetrandrine inhibits the metastasis process by negatively regulating the Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway. These results suggest that tetrandrine might serve as a potential metastasis suppressor to treat cancer cells that have escaped surgical removal or that have disseminated widely. PMID:26935264

  19. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  20. Apelin-36, a potent peptide, protects against ischemic brain injury by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhai, Lijing; Feng, Xing; Chen, Jing; Miao, Zhigang; Ren, Liyan; Qian, Xuanchen; Yu, Jian; Li, Yan; Xu, Xingshun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor-apelin and angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ). The biological effects of apelin-APJ system are reported in multiple systems including cardiovascular, endocrinal, and gastrointestinal system. Previous studies had shown that apelin-13 is a potential protective agent on cardiac ischemia; however, the role of apelin in the central nervous system remained unknown. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of apelin-36, a long form of apelin, in ischemic brain injury models. We found that apelin-36 reduced cerebral infarct volume in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and the neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) injury model. Apelin-36 improved neurological deficits in the MCAO model and promoted long-term functional recovery after H/I brain injury. We further explored the protective mechanisms of apelin-36 on H/I brain injury. We clearly demonstrated that apelin-36 significantly reduced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, two well-established apoptotic markers after H/I injury, indicating the anti-apoptotic activity of apelin-36 in ischemic injury. Since apelin-36 increased the level of phosphorylated Akt after H/I injury, we treated neonates with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002. We found that LY294002 decreased the phosphorylated Akt level and attenuated protective effects of apelin-36 on apoptosis. These suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway was at least in part involved in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of apelin-36. Our findings demonstrated that apelin-36 was a promising therapeutic agent on the treatment of ischemic brain injury.

  1. Inhibition of either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt or the mitogen/extracellular-regulated kinase, MEK/ERK, signaling pathways suppress growth of breast cancer cell lines, but MEK/ERK signaling is critical for cell survival.

    PubMed

    Ripple, Maureen O; Kalmadi, Sahana; Eastman, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways are important integrators of growth and survival signals originating from extracellular stimuli. We assessed the importance of these signaling pathways in the growth and survival of 8 breast cell lines (MCF10A, an immortalized line; and 7 cancer cell lines). The cell lines expressed variable levels of both phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated Akt, but these were unchanged by incubation in serum-free medium. Despite continued activity of these pathways, the cells arrested growth in the absence of serum demonstrating that additional pathways are required for growth. Incubation with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed growth of all cell lines, but most remained viable for at least 7-14 days. This long-term survival may be attributable to recovery of phospho-Akt by 24-48 h despite the continued presence of active LY294002, suggesting that alternate pathways may be activating Akt. In contrast, incubation with the MEK inhibitor U0126 not only arrested growth, but also killed all the cell lines within 2-4 days in the absence of serum; the presence of serum only slighted extended viability, except in MCF10A and MDA-MB-468 cells, in which serum provided significantly greater protection. It is likely that these signaling pathways control the level of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins, yet assessment of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X showed dramatic reduction in level only when large numbers of cells were dead suggesting this may be a consequence rather than cause of death. Overall, the results demonstrate that the MEK/ERK pathway represents the more critical pathway for cell survival of these breast cancer cell lines, and suggest this pathways represents the better target for cancer therapy.

  2. Stimulatory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Proliferation and Migration of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells and Their Regulation by the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-AKT and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cell Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator for angiogenesis, is likely to regulate implantation by stimulating endometrial angiogenesis and vascular permeability. In addition to known angiogenetic effects, VEGF has been suggested to participate in development of the early embryo as a mediator of fetal-maternal dialogue. Current studies have determined VEGF in terms of its role in endometrial vascular events, but VEGF-induced effects on the peri-implantation conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) remains unknown. In the present study, endometrial VEGF, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNAs increased significantly during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as compared to the estrous cycle. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNAs was abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, endothelial blood vessels, and scattered cells in the stroma and conceptus trophectoderm. In addition, porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with VEGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2, p-p70RSK, p-RPS6, and p-4EBP1 in a time-dependent manner. The addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, inhibited VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected. The addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1. Furthermore, VEGF significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells, but these effects were blocked by SB203580, U0126, rapamycin, and LY294002, which inhibit p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, mTOR, and PI3K, respectively. These results suggest that VEGF is critical to successful growth and development of pTr during early pregnancy and that VEGF-induced stimulatory effect is coordinately regulated by multiple cell signaling pathways, including PI3K-AKT1 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24451985

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Xiong, Zhouyi; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Lei, Lei; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUA; XIONG, ZHOUYI; WANG, JIAO; ZHANG, SHUANGSHUANG; LEI, LEI; YANG, LI; ZHANG, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylino-sitol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26717963

  5. Escin activates AKT-Nrf2 signaling to protect retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaijun; Jiang, Yiqian; Wang, Wei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Min

    2015-12-25

    Here we explored the anti-oxidative and cytoprotective potentials of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. We showed that escin remarkably attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of established (ARPE-19) and primary murine RPE cells. Meanwhile, ROS production and lipid peroxidation by H2O2 were remarkably inhibited by escin. Escin treatment in RPE cells resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by transcription of anti-oxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes, including HO-1, NQO-1 and SRXN-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 through targeted shRNAs/siRNAs alleviated escin-mediated ARE gene transcription, and almost abolished escin-mediated anti-oxidant activity and RPE cytoprotection against H2O2. Reversely, escin was more potent against H2O2 damages in Nrf2-over-expressed ARPE-19 cells. Further studies showed that escin-induced Nrf2 activation in RPE cells required AKT signaling. AKT inhibitors (LY294002 and perifosine) blocked escin-induced AKT activation, and dramatically inhibited Nrf2 phosphorylation, its cytosol accumulation and nuclear translocation in RPE cells. Escin-induced RPE cytoprotection against H2O2 was also alleviated by the AKT inhibitors. Together, these results demonstrate that escin protects RPE cells from oxidative stress possibly through activating AKT-Nrf2 signaling. PMID:26505797

  6. O-GlcNAcylation enhances the invasion of thyroid anaplastic cancer cells partially by PI3K/Akt1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chunli; Ma, Tao; You, Shengyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The PI3K family participates in multiple signaling pathways to regulate cellular functions. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and development. O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification, is thought to modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as transcription, cell growth, signal transduction, and cell motility. O-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by the nucleocytoplasmic enzymes, OGT and OGA, which adds or removes O-GlcNAc moieties, respectively. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer is still under-investigated. Understanding the O-GlcNAc-associated molecular mechanism might be significant for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Methods Human thyroid anaplastic cancer 8305C cells were used to evaluate the role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer. The global O-GlcNAc level of intracellular proteins was up-regulated by OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G treatment or OGT over-expression. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Invasion in vitro was determined by Transwell assay, and phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 was assessed by Western blot for activity of Akt1. PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 and RNA interference of Akt1 were used to investigate the impact of PI3K/Akt signaling on the regulation of O-GlcNAcylation during tumor progression. Results Cell models with remarkably up-regulated O-GlcNAcylation were constructed, and then cell proliferation and invasion were determined. The results indicated that the proliferation was not affected by OGA inhibition or OGT overexpression, while the invasion of 8305C cells with OGA inhibition or OGT overexpression was obviously increased. Akt1 activity was stimulated by elevated O-GlcNAcylation by mediating phosphorylation at Ser473. The enhanced invasion of thyroid cancer cells by Thiamet-G treatment or OGT overexpression was

  7. Rapid assembly of diverse and potent allosteric Akt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhicai; Robinson, Ronald G; Fu, Sheng; Barnett, Stanley F; Defeo-Jones, Deborah; Jones, Raymond E; Kral, Astrid M; Huber, Hans E; Kohl, Nancy E; Hartman, George D; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2008-03-15

    This paper describes the rapid assembly of four different classes of potent Akt inhibitors from a common intermediate. Among them, a pyridopyrimidine series displayed the best intrinsic and cell potency against Akt1 and Akt2. This series also showed a promising pharmacokinetic profile and excellent selectivity over other closely related kinases.

  8. The Regulation of Lipid Deposition by Insulin in Goose Liver Cells Is Mediated by the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chunchun; Wei, Shouhai; He, Fang; Liu, Dandan; Wan, Huofu; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hongyong; Du, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that the fatty liver formations observed in overfed geese are accompanied by the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and an increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism; therefore, we hypothesized that insulin affects goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Methods Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with serum-free media supplemented with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively) and 50 or 150 nmol/L insulin. Results Insulin induced strong effects on lipid accumulation as well as the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in primary goose hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis was significantly decreased by treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors. These inhibitors also rescued the insulin-induced down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that the stimulatory effect of insulin on lipid deposition is mediated by PI3K-Akt-mTOR regulation of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes. PMID:25945932

  9. Phospho-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Bpv(Hopic) enhances C2C12 myoblast migration in vitro. Requirement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Dimchev, Georgi A; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire E

    2013-05-01

    Muscle progenitor cell migration is an important step in skeletal muscle myogenesis and regeneration. Migration is required for muscle precursors to reach the site of damage and for the alignment of myoblasts prior to their fusion, which ultimately contributes to muscle regeneration. Limited spreading and migration of donor myoblasts are reported problems of myoblast transfer therapy, a proposed therapeutic strategy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, warranting further investigation into different approaches for improving the motility and homing of these cells. In this article, the effect of protein phospho-tyrosine phosphatase and PTEN inhibitor BpV(Hopic) on C2C12 myoblast migration and differentiation was investigated. Applying a wound healing migration model, it is reported that 1 μM BpV(Hopic) is capable of enhancing the migration of C2C12 myoblasts by approximately 40 % in the presence of myotube conditioned media, without significantly affecting their capacity to differentiate and fuse into multinucleated myotubes. Improved migration of myoblasts treated with 1 μM BpV(Hopic) was associated with activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways, while their inhibition with either LY294002 or UO126, respectively, resulted in a reduction of C2C12 migration back to control levels. These results propose that bisperoxovanadium compounds may be considered as potential tools for enhancing the migration of myoblasts, while not reducing their differentiation capacity and underpin the importance of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signalling for the process of myogenic progenitor migration. PMID:23553034

  10. Motexafin gadolinium modulates levels of phosphorylated Akt and synergizes with inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jason; Sirisawad, Mint; Miller, Richard; Naumovski, Louie

    2006-05-01

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd, Xcytrin) is a tumor-selective expanded porphyrin that targets oxidative stress-related proteins. MGd treatment of the follicular lymphoma-derived cell line HF-1 resulted in growth suppression and apoptosis whereas MGd treatment of the Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line Ramos resulted in growth suppression but not apoptosis. Because phosphorylation status of Akt/protein kinase B is regulated by oxidative stress, we monitored total and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells. Levels of pAkt increased within 30 minutes after MGd treatment of HF-1 but after 4 hours began to show a progressive decline to below baseline levels before cells underwent apoptosis. In MGd-treated Ramos cells, pAkt increased approximately 2-fold within 4 hours and remained persistently elevated. Because pAkt activates survival pathways, we determined if MGd-induced cell death could be enhanced by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt. The addition of specific inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation (Akt inhibitor 1 or SH-5) reduced pAkt levels in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells and synergistically enhanced MGd-induced cell death. MGd was also evaluated in combination with celecoxib, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, or docetaxel, a microtubule inhibitor that can decrease Akt phosphorylation. The combination of MGd/celecoxib or MGd/docetaxel resulted in decreased Akt phosphorylation and in synergistic cytotoxicity compared with either agent alone. These data point to a potential protective role for pAkt in MGd-induced apoptosis and suggest that MGd activity may be enhanced by combining it with agents that inhibit Akt phosphorylation.

  11. Later phase cardioprotection of ischemic post-conditioning against ischemia/reperfusion injury depends on iNOS and PI3K-Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gongming; Li, Xin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ligong; Zhang, Le; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cardioprotection of ischemic post-conditioning (IPO) has been well demonstrated after a short period of reperfusion. However, little is known about the long-term effects of IPO. This study aimed to investigate the long term cardioprotection of IPO in a rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model and to explore the potential mechanism. Methods and results: Rats were either sham-operated (Sham group) or underwent 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery ischemia followed by immediate reperfusion (I/R group) or post-conditioning with 5 cycles of 10-s ischemia and 10-s reperfusion (IPO group). At 24 h after reperfusion, infarct size reduced from 34.7±1.1% in I/R group to 24.9±1.3% in IPO group (P<0.05) and the iNOS expression in IPO group was 4.7-fold higher than in I/R group. iNOS inhibitor 1400 W (1 mg/kg, 5 min before postconditioning or reperfusion) prevented the increase in iNOS expression and abolished IPO-induced protection (34.4±1.0%, P>0.05 vs. I/R group). When rats were treated with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 5 min before reperfusion (0.3 mg/kg), p-Akt expression at R 3 h and iNOS expression at R 24 h were significantly inhibited. Moreover, the delayed infarct-sparing effect of IPO was absent in the presence of LY294002. Conclusion: IPO has prolonged cardioprotective effects and iNOS as an important downstream effector of PI3K-Akt pathway contributes to the delayed phase cardioprotection of IPO. PMID:26885260

  12. Molecular Characterization of Synovial Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Evidence of Akt Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Fabio; Ferrari, Andrea; Negri, Tiziana; Conca, Elena; Luca, Da Riva; Losa, Marco; Casieri, Paola; Orsenigo, Marta; Lampis, Andrea; Meazza, Cristina; Casanova, Michela; Pierotti, Marco A; Tamborini, Elena; Pilotti, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the most frequent nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma encountered in adolescents and young adults, and despite advances in the treatment of local disease, metastases remain the main cause of death. The aim of this study was to characterize a single-center series of pediatric SS molecularly to seek any biomarkers or pathways that might make suitable targets for new agents. Seventeen cases of pediatric SS showing the SYT-SSX fusion transcript were screened immunohistochemically, biochemically, molecularly, and cytogenetically (depending on the available material) to investigate any expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, Akt, and deregulated Wnt pathway. The most relevant outcome was the finding of activated epidermal growth factor receptor, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ, which activated Akt in both the monophasic and biphasic histologic subtypes. Consistently, Akt activation was completely abolished in an SS cell line assay when stimulated by PDGF-AA and treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Our results also showed the nuclear localization of β-catenin and cyclin D1 gene products in monophasic SS and the movement of β-catenin into the cytoplasm in the glandular component of the biphasic subtype. Although they need to be confirmed in larger series, these preliminary data suggest that therapeutic strategies including specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway might be exploited in SS. PMID:18633459

  13. Pemetrexed Induces S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis via a Deregulated Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wu, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Hung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed is approved for first-line and maintenance treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known regulator of cell survival which is activated by pemetrexed, but its role in pemetrexed-mediated cell death and its molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study showed that stimulation with pemetrexed induced S-phase arrest and cell apoptosis and a parallel increase in sustained Akt phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation in the NSCLC A549 cell line. Inhibition of Akt expression by Akt specific siRNA blocked S-phase arrest and protected cells from apoptosis, indicating an unexpected proapoptotic role of Akt in the pemetrexed-mediated toxicity. Treatment of A549 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin and Ly294002, similarly inhibited pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis and Akt phosphorylation, indicating that PI3K is an upstream mediator of Akt and is involved in pemetrexed-mediated cell death. Previously, we identified cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) as the principal kinase that was required for pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis. The current study showed that inhibition of Akt function and expression by pharmacological inhibitors as well as Akt siRNA drastically inhibited cyclin A/Cdk2 activation. These pemetrexed-mediated biological and molecular events were also observed in a H1299 cell line. Overall, our results indicate that, in contrast to its normal prosurvival role, the activated Akt plays a proapoptotic role in pemetrexed-mediated S-phase arrest and cell death through a mechanism that involves Cdk2/cyclin A activation. PMID:24847863

  14. An IκBα phosphorylation inhibitor induces heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) expression through the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-Nrf2-ARE signaling and ROS-PI3K/Akt signaling in an NF-κB-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-jin; Lee, Jung Tae; Joe, Eun-hye; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in cells. Excessive ROS induce expression of inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS and COX2. Antioxidant enzymes, such as, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), tightly regulate ROS levels within cells. Here, we show that Bay 11-7082 (Bay) increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human colon cancer HT29 cells. Bay induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into nuclei and increased the binding activity of the antioxidant response element (ARE). In addition, PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) blocked Bay-induced HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with anti-oxidants (N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione) significantly reduced Bay-induced HO-1 mRNA/protein expression, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of Akt. However, PI3K/Akt signaling was independent of Bay-induced Nrf2 translocation and ARE binding activity. Furthermore, other NF-κB inhibitors, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and MG132, also increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. However, although overexpression of dominant negative inhibitory κB (IκB) reduced NF-κB-driven transcriptional activity, IκB overexpression did not increase HO-1 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that in human colon cancer HT29 cells, Bay induces HO-1 expression by increasing ROS production in an Nrf2-ARE and PI3K dependent manner, but Bay acts independently of NF-κB.

  15. PI3K/Akt contributes to increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages exposed to hypoxic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Young; Jeong, Eunshil; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Joo Young

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxic stress-induced TLR4 expression is mediated by PI3K/Akt in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/Akt regulated HIF-1 activation leading to TLR4 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was not involved in TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia-mediated TLR4 expression by inhibiting PI3K/Akt. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in triggering immune and inflammatory responses by detecting invading microbial pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Increased expression of TLR4 is implicated in aggravated inflammatory symptoms in ischemic tissue injury and chronic diseases. Results from our previous study showed that TLR4 expression was upregulated by hypoxic stress mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) at a transcriptional level in macrophages. In this study, we further investigated the upstream signaling pathway that contributed to the increase of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress. Either treatment with pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of Akt expression by siRNA blocked the increase of TLR4 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages exposed to hypoxia and CoCl{sub 2}. Phosphorylation of Akt by hypoxic stress preceded nuclear accumulation of HIF-1{alpha}. A PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated CoCl{sub 2}-induced nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. In addition, HIF-1{alpha}-mediated upregulation of TLR4 expression was blocked by LY294002. Furthermore, sulforaphane suppressed hypoxia- and CoCl{sub 2}-induced upregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein by inhibiting PI3K/Akt activation and the subsequent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activation of HIF-1{alpha}. However, p38 was not involved in HIF-1{alpha} activation and TLR4 expression induced by hypoxic stress in macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PI3K/Akt

  16. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2012-11-15

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p < 0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer. Highlights:

  17. Medroxyprogestogen enhances apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Yicong; Zhang, Lin; Tang, Weiwei; Ma, Jingjing; Wu, Shan; Cheng, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    We sought to assess the effect of progestin on the apoptosis of epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 and via regulation of phosphorylation signaling in. Epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 was treated with medroxyprogestogen, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and vehicle control. Akt, phospho-Akt, Bcl-2 and phospho-Bad proteins were examined by immunoblotting assays. Medroxyprogestogen-induced apoptosis was assessed by MTT assays and Annexin V apoptosis assay. We found no significant difference in Akt and Bad expression in both the medroxyprogestogen groups and the control group. The levels of phospho-Akt, Bcl-2 and phospho-Bad were decreased in all the medroxyprogestogen groups and significantly decreased in the high dose mitogen-activated protein (MAP) group (10 µmol/L). Viability of SKOV-3 was reduced and apparent apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells was observed with increased doses of MAP. The findings suggest that medroxyprogestogen can induce SKOV-3 cell apoptosis by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation. PMID:23554793

  18. Cancer-specific interruption of glucose metabolism by resveratrol is mediated through inhibition of Akt/GLUT1 axis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gwak, HyeRan; Haegeman, Guy; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic phenotype of cancer is considered an ideal target for anticancer therapy. In ovarian cancer, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is overexpressed and positron emission tomography (PET) using [18(F)] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a metabolic tumor parameter, has been found to be an effective diagnostic tool. In this study, we have characterized the selective cytotoxicity of resveratrol (RSV) in ovarian cancer cells through glucose metabolism regulation via GLUT1 modulation. We have demonstrated that, in contrast to primary normal ovarian epithelial cells, RSV selectively inhibited glucose uptake and induced apoptosis irrespective of p53 status in vitro. RSV had no affect on GLUT1 mRNA and protein expressions but interrupted intracellular GLUT1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Suppressed plasma membrane GLUT1 localization in ovarian cancer was found to be associated with the inhibition of Akt activity by RSV, as confirmed by the action of the Akt inhibitors (LY294002 and Akt inhibitor IV), as well as overexpression of a constitutive active form of Akt. Taken together, these findings suggested that RSV induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by impairing glucose uptake, a process involving Akt-regulated plasma membrane GLUT1 trafficking.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor regulates MT1-MMP and MMP-2 synthesis in SiHa cells via both PI3-K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongfeng; Song, Tiefang; Jin, Yinglan; Pan, Jiaqi; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Lingdi; Li, Peiling

    2009-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) have been identified as important participants in tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase has also been recognized as a major activator of MMP-2. The purpose of this study was to investigate epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediating signal pathways in the regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in SiHa cells, a cervical cancer cell line. We showed here that EGF induced the expression of MT1-MMP and inhibited the expression of MMP-2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase induction was blocked by mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 but not by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. Interestingly, the mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 actually increased MMP-2 mRNA and protein synthesis, whereas the PI3-K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin further suppressed the expression of MMP-2. Our results suggest that EGF receptor up-regulated the expression of MT1-MMP and down-regulated the synthesis of MMP-2 through the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway while concomitantly transmitting a mild positive regulatory signal to the expression of MMP-2 via the PI3-K/AKT pathway in SiHa cells. Furthermore, we found that EGF elevated the activity of MMP-2 in culture media.

  20. Tricin, flavonoid from Njavara reduces inflammatory responses in hPBMCs by modulating the p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and prevents inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Shalini, V; Pushpan, Chithra K; G, Sindhu; A, Jayalekshmy; A, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies revealed the potent anti-inflammatory activity of tricin, the active component of Njavara rice bran. Here, we report the involvement of specific signaling pathways in the protective effect of tricin against LPS induced inflammation in hPBMCs and the role of tricin in modulating endothelial dysfunction in LPS induced HUVECs. Pretreatment with tricin (15μM) significantly inhibited the release of TNF-α and was comparable to the specific pathway blockers like ERK inhibitor (PD98059), JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580), whereas an increased release of TNF-α was observed in PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) treated cells. Tricin alone and combination treatment of tricin and SB203580 showed more significant inhibition of activation of COX-2 and TNF-α than that of SB203580 alone treated group. Combination treatment of tricin and LY294002 showed increased activation of COX-2 and TNF-α, proved that PI3K activation is essential for the anti-inflammatory effect of tricin. Studies conducted on HUVECs revealed the protective effect of tricin against endothelial dysfunction associated with LPS induced inflammation by inhibiting the activation of proinflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP 1 by modulating NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. ELISA and flow cytometric analysis again confirmed the protection of tricin against endothelial damage, especially from the decreased activation of cell adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin upon tricin treatment. This work establishes the mechanism behind the potent anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid tricin.

  1. Overexpression of PIAS3 suppresses cell growth and restores the drug sensitivity of human lung cancer cells in association with PI3-K/Akt inactivation.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Tadashi; Naka, Tetsuji; Iwahori, Kota; Furukawa, Mitsugi; Nagatomo, Izumi; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Isao; Kawase, Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Constitutively activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) are reported to cause uncontrolled transmission of growth signals. In this study, we analyzed the roles of an inhibitor of STAT, protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) 3, in the development of lung cancer. Treatment with an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, LY294002, retarded the growth of human lung cancer cells and rendered them more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents. However, the inhibition of JAK/STAT by AG490 significantly suppressed cell growth but did not increase drug sensitivity at all. Overexpression of PIAS3 not only significantly inhibited cell growth but also rendered cancer cells up to 12.0-fold more sensitive to the above drugs, which was associated with the suppression of Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PIAS3 with small interfering RNA, nevertheless, led cancer cells to accelerate cell proliferation, deteriorate chemosensitivity, and augment Akt phosphorylation. Although the overexpression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 in cancer cells also inhibited cell growth and STAT3 phosphorylation, it neither increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs nor affected the phosphorylation of Akt. These results indicate that PIAS3 may be an attractive candidate for targeting the JAK/STAT and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways in cancer treatment.

  2. Allosteric Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the AKT Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalafave, D. S.

    This research addresses computational design of small druglike molecules for possible anticancer applications. AKT and SGK are kinases that control important cellular functions. They are highly homologous, having similar activators and targets. Cancers with increased SGK activity may develop resistance to AKT-specific inhibitors. Our goal was to design new molecules that would bind both AKT and SGK, thus preventing the development of drug resistance. Most kinase inhibitors target the kinase ATP-binding site. However, the high similarity in this site among kinases makes it difficult to target specifically. Furthermore, mutations in this site can cause resistance to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. We used existing AKT inhibitors as initial templates to design molecules that could potentially bind the allosteric sites of both AKT and SGK. Molecules with no implicit toxicities and optimal drug-like properties were used for docking studies. Binding energies of the stable complexes that the designed molecules formed with AKT and SGK were calculated. Possible applications of the designed putative inhibitors against cancers with overexpressed AKT/SGK is discussed.

  3. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK.

  4. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK. PMID:26614458

  5. Cross regulation between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and Akt in vasodilatation of porcine pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Huixia; Li, Yanjing; Xu, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhengju; Liu, Limei; Yu, Xiaoxing; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2014-11-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) plays a crucial role in vasodilatation induced by cGMP-elevating agents. Akt has been demonstrated to be involved in modulating vasoreactivity. The present study was to determine the interaction between PKG and Akt and their influences on nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasodilatation. Isolated fourth-generation porcine pulmonary arteries were dissected from the lung and cut into rings in ice-cold modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. The relaxant responses of vessels were determined by organ chamber technique, cGMP was assayed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt were examined by Western blotting, and the activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) was assayed by measuring the rate of cGMP degradation. Incubation with DETA NONOate (a stable NO donor) and 8-Br-cGMP (a cell membrane permeable analog of cGMP) attenuated Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473, which was prevented by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (a specific inhibitor of PKG) and calyculin A (an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A) but not by okadaic acid (a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A). Inhibition of Akt enhanced the relaxation and cGMP elevation of porcine pulmonary arteries induced by DETA NONOate or sodium nitroprusside, which was prevented by zaprinast, a specific inhibitor of PDE5. Incubation with LY294002 or Akt inhibitor reduced PDE5 activity in porcine pulmonary arteries. The present study indicates that PKG may attenuate Akt phosphorylation through protein phosphatase 1, which leads to an augmented cGMP elevation by inhibition of PDE5. The increased cGMP in turn activates PKG. Such a positive feedback may play an important role in NO-induced pulmonary vasodilatation.

  6. Leishmania promastigotes activate PI3K/Akt signalling to confer host cell resistance to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Aaron; Leal, Nicole; Kima, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that cells infected with promastigotes of some Leishmania species are resistant to the induction of apoptosis. This would suggest that either parasites elaborate factors that block signalling from apoptosis inducers or that parasites engage endogenous host signalling pathways that block apoptosis. To investigate the latter scenario, we determined whether Leishmania infection results in the activation of signalling pathways that have been shown to mediate resistance to apoptosis in other infection models. First, we showed that infection with the promastigote form of Leishmania major, Leishmania pifanoi and Leishmania amazonensis activates signalling through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NFkappaB and PI3K/Akt. Then we found that inhibition of signalling through the PI3K/Akt pathway with LY294002 and Akt IV inhibitor reversed resistance of infected bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages to potent inducers of apoptosis. Moreover, reduction of Akt levels with small interfering RNAs to Akt resulted in the inability of infected macrophages to resist apoptosis. Further evidence of the role of PI3K/Akt signalling in the promotion of cell survival by infected cells was obtained with the finding that Bad, which is a substrate of Akt, becomes phosphorylated during the course of infection. In contrast to the observations with PI3K/Akt signalling, inhibition of p38 MAPK signalling with SB202190 or NFkappaB signalling with wedelolactone had limited effect on parasite-induced resistance to apoptosis. We conclude that Leishmania promastigotes engage PI3K/Akt signalling, which confers to the infected cell, the capacity to resist death from activators of apoptosis.

  7. MECHANISMS OF SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE INDUCED AKT DEPENDENT SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Roztocil, Elisa; Nicholl, Suzanne M.; Davies, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) is a bioactive sphingolipid released from activated platelets, which stimulates migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. S-1-P will activate akt, which can regulate multiple cellular functions including cell migration. Akt activation is downstream of phosphatidyl-inositol 3′ kinase (PI3-K) and Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Objective To examine the regulation of akt signaling during smooth muscle cell migration in response to S-1-P. Methods Murine arterial SMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of S-1-P with and without an akt inhibitor (aktI). Assays were performed for PI3-K, PDK1, akt and GSK3β activation in the presence of various inhibitors and after transfection with the Gβγ inhibitor. βARKCT. Results S-1-P induced time dependent PI3-K, PDK1 and akt activation. The migratory responses in both assays to S-1-P were blocked by akt inhibitor (aktI). Activation of akt and dephosphorylation of its downstream kinase, GSK3 β, were inhibited by aktI. Inhibition of PI3-K with LY294002 significantly reduced both PI3-K and akt activation. Inhibition of G βγ inhibited akt activation through a reduction in both PI3-K and PDK1 activation. While inhibition of the ras with manumycin A had no effect, inhibition of rho with C3 limited both PI3K and akt activation. PDK1 responses were unchanged by inhibition of GTPases. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation with N-acetylcysteine and of EGFR with AG1478 inhibited PDK1 activation in response to S-1-P. Conclusion S-1-P mediated migration is akt dependent. S-1-P mediated akt phosphorylation is controlled by G βγ dependent, PI3-K activation, which requires the GTPase rho and Gβγ. PDK1 activation requires Gβγ reactive oxygen species generation and EGFR activation. PMID:19081473

  8. Isoginkgetin inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang-Oh; Shin, Sejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Chun, Hyo-Kon; Chung, An-Sik

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a key role in tumor invasion. Inhibitors of MMP-9 were screened from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) and one potent inhibitor, isoginkgetin, a biflavonoid, was identified. Noncytotoxic levels of isoginkgetin decreased MMP-9 production profoundly, but up-regulated the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. The major mechanism of Ras-dependent MMP-9 production in HT1080 cells was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Expression of dominant-active H-Ras and p85 (a subunit of PI3K) increased MMP-9 activity, whereas dominant-negative forms of these molecules decreased the level of MMP-9. H-Ras did not increase MMP-9 in the presence of a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a NF-kappaB inhibitor, SN50. Further studies showed that isoginkgetin regulated MMP-9 production via PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway, as evidenced by the findings that isoginkgetin inhibited activities of both Akt and NF-kappaB. PI3K/Akt is a well-known key pathway for cell invasion, and isoginkgetin inhibited HT1080 tumor cell invasion substantially. Isoginkgetin was also quite effective in inhibiting the activities of Akt and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinomas and B16F10 melanoma. Moreover, isoginkgetin treatment resulted in marked decrease in invasion of these cells. In summary, PI3K/Akt is a major pathway for MMP-9 expression and isoginkgetin markedly decreased MMP-9 expression and invasion through inhibition of this pathway. This suggests that isoginkgetin could be a potential candidate as a therapeutic agent against tumor invasion.

  9. Akt inhibitors reduce glucose uptake independently of their effects on Akt.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Ng, Yvonne; James, David E

    2010-11-15

    The protein kinase Akt is involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, growth and metabolism. Hyperactivation of Akt is commonly observed in human tumours and so this pathway has been the focus of targeted drug discovery. However, Akt also plays an essential role in other physiological processes, such as the insulin-regulated transport of glucose into muscle and fat cells. This process, which is essential for whole-body glucose homoeostasis in mammals, is thought to be mediated via Akt-dependent movement of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we have investigated the metabolic side effects of non-ATP-competitive allosteric Akt inhibitors. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, these inhibitors caused a decrease in the Akt signalling pathway concomitant with reduced glucose uptake. Surprisingly, a similar reduction in GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was not observed. Further investigation revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were independent of the Akt signalling pathway. The inhibitors also inhibited glucose transport into other cell types, including human erythrocytes and T-47D breast cancer cells, suggesting that these effects are not specific to GLUT4. We conclude that these drugs may, at least in part, inhibit tumorigenesis through inhibition of tumour cell glucose transport.

  10. α-2,8-Sialyltransferase Is Involved in the Development of Multidrug Resistance via PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Dong, Weijie; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Hongshuai; Wang, Ning; Miao, Xiaoyan; Jia, Li

    2015-02-01

    Cell surface sialylation is emerging as an important feature of cancer cell multidrug resistance (MDR). We have focused on the influence of 2,8-sialyltransferases in key steps of the development of MDR in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The expressional profiles of six α-2,8-sialyltransferases were generated in three pairs of CML cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CML patients. Cellular MDR phenotype positively correlated with ST8SIA4 and ST8SIA6 levels. Furthermore, ST8SIA4 mediated the activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway by its specific inhibitor LY294002, or by Akt RNA interfering reversed the MDR phenotype of K562/ADR cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway also attenuated the effects caused by the overexpression of ST8SIA4 on MDR. Therefore this study indicated that α-2,8-sialyltransferases involved in the development of MDR of CML cells probably through ST8SIA4 regulating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp. PMID:25855199

  11. Inactivation of Akt by arsenic trioxide induces cell death via mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Hao-Peng; Yang, Shu-Meng; Yang, Yue; Ma, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been recognized as a potential chemotherapeutic agent, yet the details concerning its mechanism of action in solid cancers remain undetermined. The present study assessed the role of Akt in the cell death induced by As2O3. The MTT assay showed that As2O3 suppressed the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Characteristic apoptotic changes were observed in the As2O3‑treated cells by Hoechst 33342 staining, and FACS analysis showed that As2O3 caused dose-dependent apoptotic cell death. As2O3 activated caspase-3 and -9, and PARP cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Compromised mitochondrial membrane potential and an increased protein level of Bax indicated involvement of mitochondia. As2O3 decreased the levels of p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308) and p-GSK-3β (Ser9), suggesting that As2O3 inactivated Akt kinase. In addition, LY294002 (a PI3 kinase inhibitor) augmented the apoptosis induced by As2O3. These results demonstrated that inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in As2O3-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. PMID:24482137

  12. Early single Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin blocked morphine anti-nociception tolerance through inhibiting NALP1 inflammasome: Involvement of PI3k/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Liu, Ming; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Qian; Liu, Shen-Bin; Mi, Wen-Li; Ma, Hong-Jian; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Clinical usage of opioids in pain relief is dampened by analgesic tolerance after chronic exposure, which is related to opioid-associated neuroinflammation. In the current study, which is based on a chronic morphine tolerance rat model and sustained morphine treatment on primary neuron culture, it was observed that Akt phosphorylation, cleaved-Caspase-1-dependent NALP1 inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation in spinal cord neurons were significantly enhanced by morphine. Moreover, treatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3k/Akt signaling, significantly reduced Caspase-1 cleavage, NALP1 inflammasome activation and attenuated morphine tolerance. Tail-flick tests demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition on Caspase-1 activation or antagonizing IL-1β dramatically blocked the development of morphine tolerance. The administration of an exogenous analogue of lipoxin, Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin (ATL), caused a decline in Caspase-1 cleavage, inflammasome activation and mature IL-1β production and thus attenuated the development of morphine tolerance by inhibiting upstream Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with DAMGO, a selective μ-opioid receptor peptide, significantly induced Akt phosphorylation, Caspase-1 cleavage and anti-nociception tolerance, all of which were attenuated by ATL treatment. Taken together, the present study revealed the involvement of spinal NALP1 inflammasome activation in the development of morphine tolerance and the role of the μ-receptor/PI3k-Akt signaling/NALP1 inflammasome cascade in this process. By inhibiting this signaling cascade, ATL blocked the development of morphine tolerance. PMID:26162710

  13. Early single Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin blocked morphine anti-nociception tolerance through inhibiting NALP1 inflammasome: Involvement of PI3k/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Liu, Ming; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Qian; Liu, Shen-Bin; Mi, Wen-Li; Ma, Hong-Jian; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Clinical usage of opioids in pain relief is dampened by analgesic tolerance after chronic exposure, which is related to opioid-associated neuroinflammation. In the current study, which is based on a chronic morphine tolerance rat model and sustained morphine treatment on primary neuron culture, it was observed that Akt phosphorylation, cleaved-Caspase-1-dependent NALP1 inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation in spinal cord neurons were significantly enhanced by morphine. Moreover, treatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3k/Akt signaling, significantly reduced Caspase-1 cleavage, NALP1 inflammasome activation and attenuated morphine tolerance. Tail-flick tests demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition on Caspase-1 activation or antagonizing IL-1β dramatically blocked the development of morphine tolerance. The administration of an exogenous analogue of lipoxin, Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin (ATL), caused a decline in Caspase-1 cleavage, inflammasome activation and mature IL-1β production and thus attenuated the development of morphine tolerance by inhibiting upstream Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with DAMGO, a selective μ-opioid receptor peptide, significantly induced Akt phosphorylation, Caspase-1 cleavage and anti-nociception tolerance, all of which were attenuated by ATL treatment. Taken together, the present study revealed the involvement of spinal NALP1 inflammasome activation in the development of morphine tolerance and the role of the μ-receptor/PI3k-Akt signaling/NALP1 inflammasome cascade in this process. By inhibiting this signaling cascade, ATL blocked the development of morphine tolerance.

  14. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt Pathway Impairs G2/M Transition of Cell Cycle in Late Developing Progenitors of the Avian Embryo Retina

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, Isis Moraes; Silva, Thayane Martins; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques

    2013-01-01

    PI3K/Akt is an important pathway implicated in the proliferation and survival of cells in the CNS. Here we investigated the participation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in cell cycle of developing retinal progenitors. Immunofluorescence assays performed in cultures of chick embryo retinal cells and intact tissues revealed the presence of phosphorylated Akt and 4E-BP1 in cells with typical mitotic profiles. Blockade of PI3K activity with the chemical inhibitor LY 294002 (LY) in retinal explants blocked the progression of proliferating cells through G2/M transition, indicated by an expressive increase in the number of cells labeled for phosphorylated histone H3 in the ventricular margin of the retina. No significant level of cell death could be detected at this region. Retinal explants treated with LY for 24 h also showed a significant decrease in the expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3 and the hyperphosphorylated form of 4E-BP1. Although no change in the expression of cyclin B1 was detected, a significant decrease in CDK1 expression was noticed after 24 h of LY treatment both in retinal explants and monolayer cultures. Our results suggest that PI3K/Akt is an active pathway during proliferation of retinal progenitors and its activity appears to be required for proper CDK1 expression levels and mitosis progression of these cells. PMID:23301080

  15. IL-10 Protects Neurites in Oxygen-Glucose-Deprived Cortical Neurons through the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixian; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yong; Li, Tin; Zeng, Yongping; Chen, Jianhao; Du, Houwei; Chen, Ronghua; Tan, Yi; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    IL-10, as a cytokine, has an anti-inflammatory cascade following various injuries, but it remains blurred whether IL-10 protects neurites of cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation injury. Here, we reported that IL-10, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced neuronal apoptosis and increased neuronal survival in oxygen-glucose-deprived primary cortical neurons, producing an optimal protective effect at 20ng/ml. After staining NF-H and GAP-43, we found that IL-10 significantly protected neurites in terms of axon length and dendrite number by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, it induced the phosphorylation of AKT, suppressed the activation of caspase-3, and up-regulated the protein expression of GAP-43. In contrast, LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/AKT, reduced the level of AKT phosphorylation and GAP-43 expression, increased active caspase-3 expression and thus significantly weakened IL-10-mediated protective effect in the OGD-induced injury model. IL-10NA, the IL-10 neutralizing antibody, reduced the level of p-PI3K phosphorylation and increased the expression of active caspase-3. These findings suggest that IL-10 provides neuroprotective effects by protecting neurites through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in oxygen-glucose-deprived primary cortical neurons. PMID:26366999

  16. Serine 1179 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase caused by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene through PI3K/Akt signaling in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Sumi, Daigo; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    Although 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been found to uncouple nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular response against TNT still remains unclear. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to TNT (100 {mu}M) resulted in serine 1179 phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS). With specific inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002), we found that PI3K/Akt signaling participated in the eNOS phosphorylation caused by TNT, whereas the ERK pathway did not. ROS were generated following exposure of BAECs to TNT. However, TNT-mediated phosphorylation of either eNOS or Akt was drastically blocked by NAC and PEG-CAT. Interestingly, pretreatment with apocynin, a specific inhibitor for NADPH oxidase, diminished the phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt. These results suggest that TNT affects NADPH oxidase, thereby generating hydrogen peroxide, which is capable of activating PI3K/Akt signaling associated with eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation.

  17. Atorvastatin attenuates cognitive deficits through Akt1/caspase-3 signaling pathway in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Pan, Ying; Li, Xuejing; Wang, Xianying

    2015-12-10

    Neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation is more sensitive to ischemic stimulation and easily injured, causing severe learning and memory impairment. Therefore, protection of hippocampal neuronal damage is the main contributor for learning and memory impairment during cerebral ischemia. Atorvastatin has been reported to ameliorate ischemic brain damage after ischemia reperfusion (I/R). However, its molecular mechanism has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we established four-vessel occlusion model in rats with cerebral ischemia. Here, we demonstrated that atorvastatin significantly improves the behavior of I/R-rat in open field tasks. We also found that atorvastatin significantly shortens the distance and time of loading onto the hidden platform in the positioning navigation process, decreases the latency in the space exploration process when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed during ischemic stroke in rats. Furthermore, the survival rate of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) in the neurons are increased, whereas the expression of caspase-3 are inhibited by atorvastatin. However, after an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002 (an inhibitor of Akt1), the above neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin are attenuated. In summary, our results imply atorvastatin may improve the survival rate of hippocampal neurons and reduce the impairment of learning and memory by downregulating the activation of the caspase-3 via increasing the phosphorylation of Akt1 during ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:26597376

  18. Myricitrin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis through Activating Akt-Nrf2 Signaling in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yaping; Shen, Qiang; Liu, Guiyan; Ye, Jingxue; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, as well as diabetes mellitus, has been shown to trigger cardiac cell apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that myricitrin prevents endothelial cell apoptosis. However, whether myricitrin can attenuate H9c2 cell apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we established an experiment model in H9c2 cells exposed to high glucose. We tested the hypothesis that myricitrin may inhibit high glucose (HG)-induced cardiac cell apoptosis as determined by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, myricitrin promoted antioxidative enzyme production, suppressed high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in H9c2 cells. This agent significantly inhibited apoptotic protein expression, activated Akt and facilitated the transcription of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) expression as determined by Western blotting. Significantly, an Akt inhibitor (LY294002) or HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP) not only inhibited myricitrin-induced HO-1/NQO-1 upregulation but also alleviated its anti-apoptotic effects. In summary, these observations demonstrate that myricitrin activates Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant signaling and attenuates H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose via activation of Akt signaling. PMID:27399653

  19. Herbacetin induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: Involvements of ROS and PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Xiang, Qisen; Yuan, Li; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Herbacetin (HER) is a natural flavonoid compound that can be extracted from Ramose Scouring Rush Herb, and its biological and pharmacological activities lack of corresponding attention. In this study, the apoptotic effect of HER against the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was investigated. The results showed that HepG2 cells apoptosis occurred in a dose-dependent manner within 48h incubated with HER, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. HER at 25-100μM induced a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway associated with Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) collapse, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Increasing expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) was also observed in HER-treated cells. Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) significantly attenuated the apoptosis induced by HER and also blocked the expression of PGC-1α protein. Additionally, HER effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 increased the inhibition effect of HER on Akt phosphorylation. These findings provide evidences that HER induces HepG2 apoptosis in a ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent manner that correlate with the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23063593

  20. PDGF stimulation of Mueller cell proliferation: Contributions of c-JNK and the PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Sang Woong; Chung, Eun Jee; Jung, Sun-Ah; Lee, Joon H.

    2009-10-09

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has a critical role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) as a chemoattractant and mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal glial cells. Here, we investigated the potential effects of PDGF on the proliferation of Mueller cells and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. PDGF induced Mueller cell proliferation and increased phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR), as shown by an MTT assay and immunoprecipitation analyses. Both effects were blocked by JNJ, a PDGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of c-JNK and Akt. PDGF-induced Mueller cell proliferation was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with SP600125 and LY294002, inhibitors of c-JNK and Akt phosphorylation, respectively. Our findings collectively indicate that PDGF-stimulated Mueller cell proliferation occurs via activation of the c-JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These data provide useful information in establishing the role of Mueller cells in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  1. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  2. Bimatoprost protects retinal neuronal damage via Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Takano, Norihito; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Yuta; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-02-28

    Worldwide, prostaglandin analogs, such as bimatoprost, have become the major therapeutic class for medical treatment of glaucoma because of their efficacy and generally well tolerated systemic safety profile. However, the detailed mechanism of the direct action of bimatoprost on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) has rarely been understood. Thus, in this study, we elucidated the mechanism of the protective effects of bimatoprost on RGC against oxidative stress. To examine the protective effects of bimatoprost, cultured RGC with various concentrations of bimatoprost (in both free acid and amide form) were exposed to l-buthionin-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) plus glutamate or serum depletion in vitro and intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was used to induce retinal damage in vivo. To elucidate the protective mechanism of bimatoprost, we used western blot analysis to investigate the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Bimatoprost significantly reduced BSO plus glutamate- and serum deprivation-induced death in concentration-dependent manners. Bimatoprost induced activation of Akt and ERK, and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the protective effect of bimatoprost. On the other hand, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, U0126, exhibited protective effect unexpectedly. Moreover, ERK was more phosphorylated by attenuation of Akt activity in cultured RGC. In an in vivo study, bimatoprost reduced NMDA-induced RGC death. Taken together, these findings indicate that bimatoprost has protective effects on in vitro and in vivo retinal damage, suggesting that the mechanism underlying may be via the Akt pathway, which may modulate the ERK pathway.

  3. Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. Objective To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs), and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. Methods Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB). Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. Results HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. Conclusion IL-10 apparently inhibits

  4. Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a protective effect of osteocalcin (OCN) on glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome. However, its role in vascular function remains unknown. This study investigated the contribution of OCN to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in the thoracic aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Methods Eight-week-old ApoE–KO mice were given chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks with or without daily intraperitoneal injection of OCN. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT),measurement of serum lipid profiles and blood pressure were carried out. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured by wire myography. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the role of OCN on eNOS levels in vitro. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and Akt inhibitor V were used ex-vivo to determine whether PI3K/Akt/eNOS contributes to the beneficial effect of OCN for the vascular or not. Results Daily injections of OCN can significantly improve lipid metabolism, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in ApoE-KO mice. In ApoE-KO mice fed with HFD, the OCN-treated mice displayed an improved acetylcholine-stimulated EDR compared to the vehicle-treated group. In addition, compared to vehicle-treated HUVECs, OCN-treated HUVECs displayed increased activation of the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway, as evidenced by significantly higher levels of phosphorylated Akt and eNOS. Furthermore, a similar beneficial effect of OCN on thoracic aorta was observed using ex vivo organ culture of isolated mouse aortic segment. However, this effect was attenuated upon co-incubation with PI3K inhibitor or Akt inhibitor V. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:24708830

  5. Potentiation of antileukemic therapies by the dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, BAG956: effects on BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Banerji, Lolita; Wright, Renee D.; Barrett, Rosemary; Ray, Arghya; Moreno, Daisy; Catley, Laurence; Jiang, Jingrui; Hall-Meyers, Elizabeth; Sauveur-Michel, Maira; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Fox, Edward; Kung, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Mediators of PI3K/AKT signaling have been implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies have shown that inhibitors of PI3K/AKT signaling, such as wortmannin and LY294002, are able to inhibit CML and AML cell proliferation and synergize with targeted tyrosine kinase inhi-bitors. We investigated the ability of BAG956, a dual PI3K/PDK-1 inhibitor, to be used in combination with inhibitors of BCR-ABL and mutant FLT3, as well as with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and the rapamycin derivative, RAD001. BAG956 was shown to block AKT phosphorylation induced by BCR-ABL–, and induce apoptosis of BCR-ABL–expressing cell lines and patient bone marrow cells at concentrations that also inhibit PI3K signaling. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and nilotinib, by BAG956 was demonstrated against BCR-ABL expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have also shown that BAG956 is effective against mutant FLT3-expressing cell lines and AML patient bone marrow cells. Enhancement of the inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412, by BAG956 was demonstrated against mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Finally, BAG956 and rapamycin/RAD001 were shown to combine in a nonantagonistic fashion against BCR-ABL– and mutant FLT3-expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18184863

  6. ets-2 Is a Target for an Akt (Protein Kinase B)/Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway in Macrophages of motheaten-viable Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James L.; Schaffner, Alicia E.; Hofmeister, Joseph K.; Hartman, Matthew; Wei, Guo; Forsthoefel, David; Hume, David A.; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    The transcription factor ets-2 was phosphorylated at residue threonine 72 in a colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent manner in macrophages isolated from motheaten-viable (me-v) mice. The CSF-1 and ets-2 target genes coding for Bcl-x, urokinase plasminogen activator, and scavenger receptor were also expressed at high levels independent of CSF-1 addition to me-v cells. Akt (protein kinase B) was constitutively active in me-v macrophages, and an Akt immunoprecipitate catalyzed phosphorylation of ets-2 at threonine 72. The p54 isoform of c-jun N-terminal kinase–stress-activated kinase (JNK- SAPK) coimmunoprecipitated with Akt from me-v macrophages, and treatment of me-v cells with the specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell survival, Akt and JNK kinase activities, ets-2 phosphorylation, and Bcl-x mRNA expression. Therefore, ets-2 is a target for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt–JNK action, and the JNK p54 isoform is an ets-2 kinase in macrophages. Constitutive ets-2 activity may contribute to the pathology of me-v mice by increasing expression of genes like the Bcl-x gene that promote macrophage survival. PMID:11027273

  7. CCL21 Facilitates Chemoresistance and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Colorectal Cancer Cells through AKT/GSK-3β/Snail Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Zong-Cai; Wu, Nong; Wang, Hao; Qi, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cai, Shao Hui; Du, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Some evidence indicated that chemoresistance associates with the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties. Recent studies suggested that chemokines can promote the chemoresistance and stem cell properties in various cancer cells, while the underling mechanism is still not completely illustrated. In our study, we found that CCL21 can upregulate the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and stem cell property markers such as Bmi-1, Nanog, and OCT-4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells and then improve the cell survival rate and mammosphere formation. Our results suggested that Snail was crucial for CCL21-mediated chemoresistance and cancer stem cell property in CRC cells. Further, we observed that CCL21 treatment increased the protein but not mRNA levels of Snail, which suggested that CCL21 upregulates Snail via posttranscriptional ways. The downstream signals AKT/GSK-3β mediated CCL21 induced the upregulation of Snail due to the fact that CCL21 treatment can obviously phosphorylate both AKT and GSK-3β. The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, LY294002 significantly abolished CCL21 induced chemoresistance and mammosphere formation of HCT116 cells. Collectively, our results in the present study revealed that CCL21 can facilitate chemoresistance and stem cell property of CRC cells via the upregulation of P-gp, Bmi-1, Nanog, and OCT-4 through AKT/GSK-3β/Snail signals, which suggested a potential therapeutic approach to CRC patients. PMID:27057280

  8. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26950279

  9. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-09-25

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway.

  10. Context-dependent antagonism between Akt inhibitors and topoisomerase poisons.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Flatten, Karen S; Loegering, David A; Peterson, Kevin L; Schneider, Paula A; Erlichman, Charles; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2014-05-01

    Signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is aberrantly activated in >50% of carcinomas, inhibits apoptosis and contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, several Akt inhibitors are currently undergoing preclinical or early clinical testing. To examine the effect of Akt inhibition on the activity of multiple widely used classes of antineoplastic agents, human cancer cell lines were treated with the Akt inhibitor A-443654 [(2S)-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-3-[5-(3-methyl-2H-indazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]oxypropan-2-amine; ATP-competitive] or MK-2206 (8-[4-(1-aminocyclobutyl)phenyl]-9-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-f][1,6]naphthyridin-3-one;dihydrochloride; allosteric inhibitor) or with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) along with cisplatin, melphalan, camptothecin, or etoposide and assayed for colony formation. Surprisingly different results were observed when Akt inhibitors were combined with different drugs. Synergistic effects were observed in multiple cell lines independent of PI3K pathway status when A-443654 or MK-2206 was combined with the DNA cross-linking agents cisplatin or melphalan. In contrast, effects of the Akt inhibitors in combination with camptothecin or etoposide were more complicated. In HCT116 and DLD1 cells, which harbor activating PI3KCA mutations, A-443654 over a broad concentration range enhanced the effects of camptothecin or etoposide. In contrast, in cell lines lacking activating PI3KCA mutations, partial inhibition of Akt signaling synergized with camptothecin or etoposide, but higher A-443654 or MK-2206 concentrations (>80% inhibition of Akt signaling) or PDK1 siRNA antagonized the topoisomerase poisons by diminishing DNA synthesis, a process that contributes to effective DNA damage and killing by these agents. These results indicate that the effects of combining inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway with certain classes of chemotherapeutic agents might be more

  11. IGF1-induced AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation are suppressed with the increase in PTEN during luteinization in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Maki; Iwase, Akira; Harata, Toko; Takigawa, Sachiko; Suzuki, Kyosuke; Manabe, Shuichi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2009-05-01

    Granulosa cells proliferate and then undergo differentiation; an inverse relationship between these processes is observed during terminal follicular growth. During terminal follicular growth and initial luteinization, there is a necessary transition of granulosa cells to a less proliferative and highly steroidogenic form in response to LH. Although the expression of several molecules has been reported to be up-regulated by LH, proliferation/differentiation transition is not fully understood. Here, we show that the expression of a tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) was induced with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment in human luteinized granulosa cells. Pretreatment with hCG attenuated insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-induced phosphorylation of AKT and cell proliferation, not phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, suppression of hCG-induced PTEN expression with siRNA increased AKT phosphorylation and cell proliferation in response to IGF1. We also demonstrate that a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, not a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited IGF1-induced cell proliferation. In conclusion, PTEN induced to express by hCG in luteinized granulosa cells that inactivates AKT, not ERK, and attenuates IGF1-induced cell proliferation. PTEN expression may be a trigger for proliferation/differentiation transition in human granulosa cells.

  12. S-Propargyl-cysteine Exerts a Novel Protective Effect on Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Fatty Liver via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenwen; Ma, Fenfen; Zhang, Laiyin; Huang, Yong; Li, Xinghui; Zhang, Aijie; Hou, Cuilan; Zhu, Yichun; Zhu, YiZhun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidative effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) by treating mice fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet with SPRC for four weeks. We found that SPRC significantly reduced hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) levels. Moreover, SPRC also increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. By Western blot, we found that this protective effect of SPRC was importantly attributed to the regulated hepatic antioxidant-related proteins, including protein kinase B (Akt), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide). Next, we examined the detailed molecular mechanism of the SPRC protective effect using oleic acid- (OA-) induced HepG2 cells. The results showed that SPRC significantly decreased intracellular ROS and MDA levels in OA-induced HepG2 cells by upregulating the phosphorylation of Akt, the expression of HO-1 and CSE, and the translocation of Nrf2. SPRC-induced HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation were abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the antioxidative effect of SPRC was abolished by CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and HO-1 siRNA. Therefore, these results proved that SPRC produced an antioxidative effect on NAFLD through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27313828

  13. The fibrotic role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    PubMed

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, Q-G; Chen, J-W; Chen, S-Q; Chen, S-Y

    2013-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine with fibrogenic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ mammalian target of Ramycin (mTOR), a non-Smad TGF-β pathway, plays an important role in the fibrotic pathogenesis of different organs such as the lung, kidney, skin and liver. However, the role of PI3k-Akt pathway in fibrosis in injured skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, we determined the fibrotic role of PI3K-Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle. We established a mouse model for acute muscle contusion. Western blotting analysis showed that TGF-β, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated mTOR were increased in muscles after acute contusion, which indicated that the PI3K-Akt- mTOR pathway was activated in skeletal muscle after acute contusion. The pathway was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis markers vimentin, α SMA and collagen I and the area of scar decreased in injured skeletal muscle after PI3K pathway was blocked. The muscle function improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength after PI3K/Akt pathway was inhibited in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway might promote collagen production and scar formation in the acute contused skeletal muscle. Blocking of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway could improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:23444088

  14. An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN and AKT mutations in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Davies, Michael; Carey, Mark; Hu, Zhi; Guan, Yinghui; Sahin, Aysegul; Symmans, W. Fraser; Pusztai, Lajos; Nolden, Laura K.; Horlings, Hugo; Berns, Katrien; Hung, Mien-Chie; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Bernards, Rene; Mills, Gordon B.; Hennessy, Bryan T.

    2008-05-06

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway aberrations are common in cancer. By applying mass spectroscopy-based sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays to 547 human breast cancers and 41 cell lines, we determined the subtype specificity and signaling effects of PIK3CA, AKT and PTEN mutations, and the effects of PIK3CA mutations on responsiveness to PI3K inhibition in-vitro and on outcome after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations were more common in hormone receptor positive (33.8%) and HER2-positive (24.6%) than in basal-like tumors (8.3%). AKT1 (1.4%) and PTEN (2.3%) mutations were restricted to hormone receptor-positive cancers with PTEN protein levels also being significantly lower in hormone receptor-positive cancers. Unlike AKT1 mutations, PIK3CA (39%) and PTEN (20%) mutations were more common in cell lines than tumors, suggesting a selection for these but not AKT1 mutations during adaptation to culture. PIK3CA mutations did not have a significant impact on outcome in 166 hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations, in comparison with PTEN loss and AKT1 mutations, were associated with significantly less and indeed inconsistent activation of AKT and of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling in tumors and cell lines, and PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation were frequently concordant, suggesting different contributions to pathophysiology. PTEN loss but not PIK3CA mutations rendered cells sensitive to growth inhibition by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Thus, PI3K pathway aberrations likely play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of different breast cancer subtypes. The specific aberration may have implications for the selection of PI3K-targeted therapies in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  15. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase–Akt Signaling Pathway Is Important for Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Endothelial Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Yu, Hong B.; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J.; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Finlay, B. Brett; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2011-01-01

    Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) is increased by tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation and NF-κB activation. Because the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signaling pathway also modulates NF-κB activity, we considered whether the internalization of S. aureus by BEC is associated with the activity of PI3K and Akt. We found a time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 in BEC infected with S. aureus. This phosphorylation was inhibited by LY294002 (LY), indicating the participation of PI3K. Inhibition of either PI3K with LY or wortmannin, or Akt with SH-5, strongly reduced the internalization of S. aureus. Transfection of BEC with a dominant-negative form of the Akt gene significantly decreased S. aureus internalization, whereas transfection with the constitutively active mutant increased the number of internalized bacterium. Inhibition of PDK1 activity with OSU-03012 did not affect the level of S. aureus internalization, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 is not important for this process. Compared to the untreated control, the adherence of S. aureus to the surface of BEC was unaltered when cells were transfected or incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, Akt activation by internalized S. aureus triggered a time-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) on Ser21 and GSK-3β on Ser9 that was partially inhibited with SH-5. Finally, treatment of BEC with LY prior to S. aureus infection inhibited the NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation on Ser536, indicating the involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that PI3K-Akt activity is important for the internalization of S. aureus and phosphorylation of GSK-3α, GSK-3β, and NF-κB. PMID:21844240

  16. Vitamin E succinate induces apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in EC109 esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Zhao, Jiaying; Hou, Liying; Yang, Lei; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth most common gastrointestinal cancer, it generally has a poor prognosis and novel strategies are required for prevention and treatment. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is a potential chemical agent for cancer prevention and therapy as it exerts anti‑tumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the role of VES in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of VES in regulating the survival and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cells. EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were used to investigate the anti‑proliferative effects of VES. The MTT and Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays demonstrated that VES inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, VES downregulated constitutively active basal levels of phosphorylated (p)‑serine‑threonine kinase AKT (AKT) and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT substrates Bcl‑2‑associated death receptor and caspase‑9, in addition to mTOR effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 and eIF4E‑binding protein 1. Phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 suppressed p‑AKT and p‑mTOR, indicating PI3K is a common upstream mediator. The apoptosis induced by VES was increased by inhibition of AKT or mTOR with their respective inhibitor in esophageal cancer cells. The results of the present study suggested that VES targeted the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, the current study suggests that VES may be useful in a combinational therapeutic strategy employing an mTOR inhibitor.

  17. Vitamin E succinate induces apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in EC109 esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Zhao, Jiaying; Hou, Liying; Yang, Lei; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth most common gastrointestinal cancer, it generally has a poor prognosis and novel strategies are required for prevention and treatment. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is a potential chemical agent for cancer prevention and therapy as it exerts anti-tumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the role of VES in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of VES in regulating the survival and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cells. EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of VES. The MTT and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays demonstrated that VES inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, VES downregulated constitutively active basal levels of phosphorylated (p)-serine-threonine kinase AKT (AKT) and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT substrates Bcl-2-associated death receptor and caspase-9, in addition to mTOR effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 suppressed p-AKT and p-mTOR, indicating PI3K is a common upstream mediator. The apoptosis induced by VES was increased by inhibition of AKT or mTOR with their respective inhibitor in esophageal cancer cells. The results of the present study suggested that VES targeted the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, the current study suggests that VES may be useful in a combinational therapeutic strategy employing an mTOR inhibitor. PMID:27357907

  18. Salidroside Improves Behavioral and Histological Outcomes and Reduces Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Hsin-Ju; Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Chao Yu; Wu, Chun-Hu; Wang, Pei-Yi; Liao, Nien-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a complex sequence of apopototic cascades that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salidroside, a phenolic glycoside with potent anti-apoptotic properties, on behavioral and histological outcomes, brain edema, and apoptosis following experimental TBI and the possible involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received intraperitoneal salidroside (20, or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle injection 10 min after injury. Behavioral studies, histology analysis and brain water content assessment were performed. Levels of PI3K/Akt signaling-related molecules, apoptosis-related proteins, cytochrome C (CytoC), and Smac/DIABLO were also analyzed. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, was administered to examine the mechanism of protection. The protective effect of salidroside was also investigated in primary cultured neurons subjected to stretch injury. Treatment with 20 mg/kg salidroside_significantly improved functional recovery and reduced brain tissue damage up to post-injury day 28. Salidroside_also significantly reduced neuronal death, apoptosis, and brain edema at day 1. These changes were associated with significant decreases in cleaved caspase-3, CytoC, and Smac/DIABLO at days 1 and 3. Salidroside increased phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and the mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratio at day 1, and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 at day 3. This beneficial effect was abolished by pre-injection of LY294002. Moreover, delayed administration of salidroside at 3 or 6 h post-injury reduced neuronal damage at day 1. Salidroside treatment also decreased neuronal vulnerability to stretch-induced injury in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Post-injury salidroside improved long-term behavioral and histological outcomes and reduced brain edema and apoptosis

  19. Role of Akt signaling in resistance to DNA-targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Abolfazl; Narayan, Ravi; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2016-01-01

    The Akt signal transduction pathway controls most hallmarks of cancer. Activation of the Akt cascade promotes a malignant phenotype and is also widely implicated in drug resistance. Therefore, the modulation of Akt activity is regarded as an attractive strategy to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy and irradiation. This pathway consists of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin, and the transforming serine-threonine kinase Akt protein isoforms, also known as protein kinase B. DNA-targeted agents, such as platinum agents, taxanes, and antimetabolites, as well as radiation have had a significant impact on cancer treatment by affecting DNA replication, which is aberrantly activated in malignancies. However, the caveat is that they may also trigger the activation of repairing mechanisms, such as upstream and downstream cascade of Akt survival pathway. Thus, each target can theoretically be inhibited in view of improving the potency of conventional treatment. Akt inhibitors, e.g., MK-2206 and perifosine, or PI3K modulators, e.g., LY294002 and Wortmannin, have shown some promising results in favor of sensitizing the cancer cells to the therapy in vitro and in vivo, which have provided the rationale for incorporation of these novel agents into multimodality treatment of different malignancies. Nevertheless, despite the acceptable safety profile of some of these agents in the clinical studies, with regard to the efficacy, the results are still too preliminary. Hence, we need to wait for the upcoming data from the ongoing trials before utilizing them into the standard care of cancer patients. PMID:27777878

  20. Tumors with AKT1E17K Mutations Are Rational Targets for Single Agent or Combination Therapy with AKT Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Davies, Barry R; Guan, Nin; Logie, Armelle; Crafter, Claire; Hanson, Lyndsey; Jacobs, Vivien; James, Neil; Dudley, Philippa; Jacques, Kelly; Ladd, Brendon; D'Cruz, Celina M; Zinda, Michael; Lindemann, Justin; Kodaira, Makoto; Tamura, Kenji; Jenkins, Emma L

    2015-11-01

    AKT1(E17K) mutations occur at low frequency in a variety of solid tumors, including those of the breast and urinary bladder. Although this mutation has been shown to transform rodent cells in culture, it was found to be less oncogenic than PIK3CA mutations in breast epithelial cells. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of AKT inhibitors in human tumors with an endogenous AKT1(E17K) mutation is not known. Expression of exogenous copies of AKT1(E17K) in MCF10A breast epithelial cells increased phosphorylation of AKT and its substrates, induced colony formation in soft agar, and formation of lesions in the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. These effects were inhibited by the allosteric and catalytic AKT inhibitors MK-2206 and AZD5363, respectively. Both AKT inhibitors caused highly significant growth inhibition of breast cancer explant models with AKT1(E17K) mutation. Furthermore, in a phase I clinical study, the catalytic Akt inhibitor AZD5363 induced partial responses in patients with breast and ovarian cancer with tumors containing AKT1(E17K) mutations. In MGH-U3 bladder cancer xenografts, which contain both AKT1(E17K) and FGFR3(Y373C) mutations, AZD5363 monotherapy did not significantly reduce tumor growth, but tumor regression was observed in combination with the FGFR inhibitor AZD4547. The data show that tumors with AKT1(E17K) mutations are rational therapeutic targets for AKT inhibitors, although combinations with other targeted agents may be required where activating oncogenic mutations of other proteins are present in the same tumor.

  1. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Ping; Li, Chen-Long; Du, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N‑terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and MMP‑9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP‑2- and MMP‑9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH‑induced upregulation of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP‑2 and ‑9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26299938

  2. Follistatin could promote the proliferation of duck primary myoblasts by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Wang, Haohan; Sun, Lingli; Ding, Fang; Sun, Wenqiang; Han, Chunchun; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    FST (follistatin) is essential for skeletal muscle development, but the intracellular signalling networks that regulate FST-induced effects are not well defined. We sought to investigate whether FST promotes the proliferation of myoblasts through the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling. In the present study, we transfected the pEGFP-duFST plasmid and added PI3K and mTOR inhibitors to the medium of duck primary myoblasts. Then, we analysed the cellular phenotypic changes that occurred and analysed the expression of target genes. The results showed that FST promoted myoblast proliferation, induced the mRNA expression of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6K (S6 kinase) and the protein expression of phospho-Akt (Thr308), mTOR, phospho-mTOR (serine 2448), phospho-S6K (Ser417), inhibited the mRNA expression of FoxO1, MuRF1 (muscle RING finger-1) and the protein expression of phospho-FoxO1 (Ser256). Moreover, we found that the overexpression of FST could alleviate the inhibitory effect of myoblast proliferation caused by the addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. Additionally, the overexpression of duck FST also relieved the inhibition of myoblast proliferation caused by the addition of rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling. In light of the present results, we hypothesize that duck FST could promote myoblast proliferation, which is dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling. PMID:25200144

  3. GD2 ganglioside specific antibody treatment downregulates PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Durbas, Małgorzata; Horwacik, Irena; Boratyn, Elżbieta; Kamycka, Elżbieta; Rokita, Hanna

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms leading to inhibitory effects of an anti-GD2 ganglioside (GD2) 14G2a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors on human neuroblastoma cell survival were studied in vitro. We have recently shown on IMR-32, CHP‑134, and LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells that targeting GD2 with the mAb decreases cell viability of the cell lines. In this study we used cytotoxicity assays, proteomic arrays and immunoblotting to evaluate the response of the three cell lines to the anti‑GD2 14G2a mAb and specific PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors. We show here that the mAb modulates intracellular signal transduction through changes in several kinases and their substrates phosphorylation. More detailed analysis of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway showed significant decrease in activity of Akt, mTOR, p70 S6 and 4E-BP1 proteins and transient increase in PTEN (a suppressor of the pathway), leading to inhibition of the signaling network responsible for stimulation of translation and proliferation. Additionally, combining the GD2-specific 14G2a mAb with an Akt inhibitor (perifosine), dual mTOR/PI3K inhibitors (BEZ-235 and SAR245409), and a pan-PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) was shown to enhance cytotoxic effects against IMR-32, CHP‑134 and LA-N-1 cells. Our study extends knowledge on mechanisms of action of the 14G2a mAb on the neuroblastoma cells. Also, it stresses the need for further delineation of molecular signal orchestration aimed at more reasonable selection of drugs to target key cellular pathways in quest for better cure for neuroblastoma patients. PMID:26134970

  4. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts. PMID:26093985

  5. Licochalcone A induces autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR inactivation and autophagy suppression enhances Licochalcone A-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lin, Chu-Liang; Lin, Chia-Liang; Hsueh, Jung-Tsung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    The use of dietary bioactive compounds in chemoprevention can potentially reverse, suppress, or even prevent cancer progression. However, the effects of licochalcone A (LicA) on apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, LicA treatment was found to significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay results showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in four cervical cancer cell lines treated with LicA. We found that LicA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells, with decreasing Bcl-2 expression. LicA also induced autophagy effects were examined by identifying accumulation of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) enhanced LicA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we suggested the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of mTOR pathway by LicA. Furthermore, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002/si-Akt or of mTOR by rapamycin augmented LicA-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the in vivo mice bearing a SiHa xenograft, LicA dosed at 10 or 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the chemotherapeutic potential of LicA for treatment of human cervical cancer.

  6. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts.

  7. Novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one derivative, MHY-449, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the downregulation of Akt in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Sook; Kang, Yong Jung; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-11-01

    The anticancer properties of MHY-449, a novel dihydrobenzofuro[4,5-b][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one derivative, in various human cancer cell lines have been previously reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of MHY-449 on human lung cancer cells in order to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The result showed that MHY-449 treatment inhibited cell growth in a time- and concentration‑dependent manner. Specifically, MHY-449 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and the resulting increased sub-G1 fraction led to the induction of apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation. In addition, MHY-449 was shown to induce alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression, and contribute to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These cellular events then triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase cleavage. The apoptotic cell death induced by MHY-449 was inhibited by pretreatment with Z-VAD‑FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Moreover, MHY-449 downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt inhibitor LY294002 was found to enhance its induction of apoptosis. Taken together, the results suggested that MHY-449 exerts anticancer effects by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the downregulation of Akt. Based on these data, MHY-449 serves as a potential candidate in the chemoprevention and/or treatment of lung cancer.

  8. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  9. Integrin α6/Akt/Erk signaling is essential for human breast cancer resistance to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ting; Zhou, Rui; Zhao, Yanxia; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Integrin α6 (ITGA6), a transmembrane glycoprotein adhesion receptor protein, is widely upregulated in many types of tumors and promotes migration and invasion in cancer cells. However, the role that the ITGA6-associated signaling network plays in radiosensitivity in breast cancer has not been described. The expression of ITGA6 was examined in human breast cancer and normal breast cell lines using western blot analysis. We also explored the role of ITGA6 in the regulation of radiation sensitivity in breast cancer using the colony formation assays, cell cycle analyses, apoptosis assays and immunofluorescence analyses. The results showed that the protein and mRNA expression levels of ITGA6 was higher in breast cancer cells than in normal cells. ITGA6 protectived responses to radiotherapy in breast cancer cells by altering cell apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell-cycle regulation. Furthermore, ITGA6 enhanced radiation resistance via PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk signaling. In addition, overexpressing ITGA6 promoted radiation resistance in cells, and this effect was neutralized by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these findings indicate that ITGA6 might be involved in a mechanism that underlies radiation resistance and that ITGA6 could be a potential target for therapies aimed at overcoming radiation resistance in breast cancer. PMID:27624978

  10. Integrin α6/Akt/Erk signaling is essential for human breast cancer resistance to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Zhou, Rui; Zhao, Yanxia; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Integrin α6 (ITGA6), a transmembrane glycoprotein adhesion receptor protein, is widely upregulated in many types of tumors and promotes migration and invasion in cancer cells. However, the role that the ITGA6-associated signaling network plays in radiosensitivity in breast cancer has not been described. The expression of ITGA6 was examined in human breast cancer and normal breast cell lines using western blot analysis. We also explored the role of ITGA6 in the regulation of radiation sensitivity in breast cancer using the colony formation assays, cell cycle analyses, apoptosis assays and immunofluorescence analyses. The results showed that the protein and mRNA expression levels of ITGA6 was higher in breast cancer cells than in normal cells. ITGA6 protectived responses to radiotherapy in breast cancer cells by altering cell apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell-cycle regulation. Furthermore, ITGA6 enhanced radiation resistance via PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk signaling. In addition, overexpressing ITGA6 promoted radiation resistance in cells, and this effect was neutralized by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these findings indicate that ITGA6 might be involved in a mechanism that underlies radiation resistance and that ITGA6 could be a potential target for therapies aimed at overcoming radiation resistance in breast cancer. PMID:27624978

  11. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Jayant S.; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies. PMID:27121513

  12. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goda, Jayant S; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-02-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies.

  13. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes.

  14. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes. PMID:25489416

  15. IL-8 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the activation of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Lu, Fuding; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Kewei; Huang, Jian; Yu, Dexin; Bi, Liangkuan

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has increasingly been examined due to its role in the progression of human tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological tumors that results in patient mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that the EMT process is closely associated with the metastasis of RCC; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. The present study revealed that interleukin (IL)-8 was highly expressed in metastatic RCC. IL-8 could induce the EMT of an RCC cell line by enhancing N-cadherin expression and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, IL-8 could induce AKT phosphorylation, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit the EMT of RCC cells that was induced by IL-8. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-8 is able to promote the EMT of RCC through the activation of the AKT signal transduction pathway, and this may provide a possible molecular mechanism for RCC metastasis. PMID:27588140

  16. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes. PMID:25489416

  17. Exendin-4 enhances the migration of adipose-derived stem cells to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-stromal cell-derived factor-1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, HAO; YANG, JUNJIE; XIN, TING; ZHANG, TAO; HU, SHUNYIN; ZHOU, SHANSHAN; CHEN, GUANGHUI; CHEN, YUNDAI

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered a suitable source of cells for the repair of tissue following acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, the transplantation efficiency of ADSCs remains low. Therefore, identification of an efficient method to enhance the migration of engrafted cells to the target site is required. The present study used exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, to optimize the migratory capacity of ADSCs. The aim was to determine the effect and mechanisms of Ex-4 on the migration of ADSCs to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium (NRVC-CM). The ADSCs and cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro. Following incubation of the ADSCs with Ex-4, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay and the expression levels of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were investigated by reverse transctiption quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and flow cytometry. In addition, the expression levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) were evaluated in the NRVC-CM treated with Ex-4 by ELISA, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The migration of the ADSCs to the NRVC-CM was examined using a Transwell assay. Changes in the protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p−)Akt were examined in the two types of cell by western blot analysis. The results suggested that Ex-4 promoted the proliferation and expression of CXCR4 in the ADSCs, increased the secretion of SDF-1α in the cardiomyocytes and increased the expression levels of p-Akt in both cells. However, the alterations to the SDF-1α/C XC R4 cascade in the cells were abrogated following pretreatment with LY-294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, a Transwell migration assay revealed marked translocation of the ADSCs through the membranes, towards the NRVC-CM, following treatment with Ex-4. However, these effects were reduced significantly by pretreatment of the cells with the SDF-1

  18. The Neuroprotection of Liraglutide Against Ischaemia-induced Apoptosis through the Activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huili; Zhang, Yusheng; Shi, Zhongshan; Lu, Dan; Li, Tingting; Ding, Yan; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Anding

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion to reduce the glucose level. Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, has been found to have neuroprotective action in various experimental models. However, the protective mechanisms of liraglutide in ischaemic stroke remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that liraglutide significantly decreased the infarct volume, improved neurologic deficits, and lowered stress-related hyperglycaemia without causing hypoglycaemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Liraglutide inhibited cell apoptosis by reducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the function of mitochondria in neurons under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and MCAO in vivo. Liraglutide up-regulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Moreover, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and/or the ERK inhibitor U0126 counteracted the protective effect of liraglutide. Taken together, these results suggest that liraglutide exerts neuroprotective action against ischaemia-induced apoptosis through the reduction of ROS and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Therefore, liraglutide has therapeutic potential for patients with ischaemic stroke, especially those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or stress hyperglycaemia. PMID:27240461

  19. Overexpression of osteopontin induces angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells via the avβ3/PI3K/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling pathway in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingyi; Yan, Wei; Lu, Xiaoming; Qian, Chunfa; Zhang, Junxia; Li, Ping; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Peng; Fu, Zhen; Pu, Peiyu; Kang, Chunshen; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Ning; You, Yongping

    2011-08-01

    Angiogenesis, a hallmark of tumor growth, is regulated by various angiogenic factors. Recent studies have shown that osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted, integrin-binding protein that contributes to glioma progression. However, its effect on the angiogenesis of gliomas is not fully understood. To elucidate the role of OPN in the process of glioma angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were treated with conditioned media of human glioma SHG44 cells overexpressing OPN. Here, we identified that OPN secreted by glioma cells accelerated EPCs angiogenesis in vitro, including proliferation, migration, and tube formation. OPN also induced the activation of AKT and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased NO production without affecting the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, or VEGFR-2. Moreover, the avβ3 antibody, the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 and the eNOS inhibitor NMA suppressed the OPN-mediated increase in NO production and angiogenesis in EPCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that OPN directly stimulates angiogenesis via the avβ3/PI3-K/AKT/eNOS/NO signaling pathway and may play an important role in tumorigenesis by enhancing angiogenesis in gliomas.

  20. Discovery of novel AKT inhibitors with enhanced anti-tumor effects in combination with the MEK inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dumble, Melissa; Crouthamel, Ming-Chih; Zhang, Shu-Yun; Schaber, Michael; Levy, Dana; Robell, Kimberly; Liu, Qi; Figueroa, David J; Minthorn, Elisabeth A; Seefeld, Mark A; Rouse, Meagan B; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Heerding, Dirk A; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cells upregulate many cell signaling pathways, with AKT being one of the key kinases to be activated in a variety of malignancies. GSK2110183 and GSK2141795 are orally bioavailable, potent inhibitors of the AKT kinases that have progressed to human clinical studies. Both compounds are selective, ATP-competitive inhibitors of AKT 1, 2 and 3. Cells treated with either compound show decreased phosphorylation of several substrates downstream of AKT. Both compounds have desirable pharmaceutical properties and daily oral dosing results in a sustained inhibition of AKT activity as well as inhibition of tumor growth in several mouse tumor models of various histologic origins. Improved kinase selectivity was associated with reduced effects on glucose homeostasis as compared to previously reported ATP-competitive AKT kinase inhibitors. In a diverse cell line proliferation screen, AKT inhibitors showed increased potency in cell lines with an activated AKT pathway (via PI3K/PTEN mutation or loss) while cell lines with activating mutations in the MAPK pathway (KRAS/BRAF) were less sensitive to AKT inhibition. Further investigation in mouse models of KRAS driven pancreatic cancer confirmed that combining the AKT inhibitor, GSK2141795 with a MEK inhibitor (GSK2110212; trametinib) resulted in an enhanced anti-tumor effect accompanied with greater reduction in phospho-S6 levels. Taken together these results support clinical evaluation of the AKT inhibitors in cancer, especially in combination with MEK inhibitor.

  1. Titration of signalling output: insights into clinical combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A.; Thavasu, P.; de Bono, J. S.; Banerji, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to understand the relative contributions of inhibiting MEK and AKT on cell growth to guide combinations of these agents. Materials and methods A panel of 20 cell lines was exposed to either the MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, or AKT inhibitor, AKT 1/2 inhibitor. p-ERK and p-S6 ELISAs were used to define degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, respectively. Growth inhibition to different degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, either singly or in combination using 96-h sulphorhodamine assays was then studied. Results A significantly greater growth inhibition was seen in BRAFM and PIK3CAM cells upon maximal MEK (P = 0.004) and AKT inhibition (P = 0.038), respectively. KRASM and BRAF/PIK3CA/KRASWT cells were not significantly more likely to be sensitive to MEK or AKT inhibition. Significant incremental growth inhibition of the combination of MEK + AKT over either MEK or AKT inhibition alone was seen when MEK + AKT was inhibited maximally and not when sub-maximal inhibition of both MEK + AKT was used (11/20 cell lines versus 1/20 cell lines; P = 0.0012). Conclusions KRASM cells are likely to benefit from combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors. Sub-maximally inhibiting both MEK and AKT within a combination, in a majority of instances, does not significantly increase growth inhibition compared with maximally inhibiting MEK or AKT alone and alternative phase I trial designs are needed to clinically evaluate such combinations. PMID:25908604

  2. Polyphenols Isolated from Allium cepa L. Induces Apoptosis by Induction of p53 and Suppression of Bcl-2 through Inhibiting PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in AGS Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Sup; Yi, Sang Mi; Yun, Jeong Won; Jung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Seong-Hwan; Kim, GonSup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extract of Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as adjuvant food for cancer therapy. We assumed that it includes a potential source of anti-cancer properties. Methods: We investigated anti-cancer effects of polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn (PEAL) in AGS human cancer cells. Results: PEAL inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was related to caspase-dependent apoptosis. We confirmed this finding with annexin V staining. PEAL up-regulated p53 expression, and subsequent Bax induction, down regulated Bcl-2 protein, anti-apoptotic protein. In addition, PEAL suppressed Akt activity and PEAL-induced apoptosis were significantly accentuated with Akt inhibitor (LY294002). Conclusions: Our data suggested that PEAL induce caspase-dependent apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by up-regulating p53 protein, and subsequent Bax protein as well as by modulating Bcl-2 protein, and that PEAL induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that PEAL might be useful for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25337568

  3. Targeting AKT1-E17K and the PI3K/AKT Pathway with an Allosteric AKT Inhibitor, ARQ 092

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Meade, Justin; Wick, Michael J.; Hall, Terence; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    As a critical component in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, AKT has become an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. ARQ 092 and a next generation AKT inhibitor, ARQ 751 are selective, allosteric, pan-AKT and AKT1-E17K mutant inhibitors that potently inhibit phosphorylation of AKT. Biochemical and cellular analysis showed that ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 inhibited AKT activation not only by dephosphorylating the membrane-associated active form, but also by preventing the inactive form from localizing into plasma membrane. In endometrial PDX models harboring mutant AKT1-E17K and other tumor models with an activated AKT pathway, both compounds exhibited strong anti-tumor activity. Combination studies conducted in in vivo breast tumor models demonstrated that ARQ 092 enhanced tumor inhibition of a common chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel). In a large panel of diverse cancer cell lines, ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 inhibited proliferation across multiple tumor types but were most potent in leukemia, breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, inhibition by ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 was more prevalent in cancer cell lines containing PIK3CA/PIK3R1 mutations compared to those with wt-PIK3CA/PIK3R1 or PTEN mutations. For both ARQ 092 and ARQ 751, PIK3CA/PIK3R1 and AKT1-E17K mutations can potentially be used as predictive biomarkers for patient selection in clinical studies. PMID:26469692

  4. COMP-angiopoietin 1 increases proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem-like cells through Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Cho, Eui-Sic; Lee, Young-Hoon; Han, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Kwon, Jungkee; Hwang, Jae-Won; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Seo, Young-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COMP-Ang1 induces Tie-2 activation in BMMSCs, but not in primary osteoblasts. • Tie-2 knockdown inhibits COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation and osteoblastogenesis. • Tie-2 knockdown prevents COMP-Ang1-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK. • COMP-Ang1 induces migration of cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and CXCR4 pathways. • COMP-Ang1 stimulates in vivo migration of PDLSCs into a calvarial defect site of rats. - Abstract: Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), is under consideration as a therapeutic agent capable of inducing the homing of cells with increased angiogenesis. However, the potentials of COMP-Ang1 to stimulate migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the associated mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the potential of COMP-Ang1 on bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and calvarial osteoblasts. COMP-Ang1 augmented Tie-2 induction at protein and mRNA levels and increased proliferation and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix, and CXCR4 in BMMSCs, but not in osteoblasts. The COMP-Ang1-mediated increases were inhibited by Tie-2 knockdown and by treating inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB203580. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt was prevented by siRNA-mediated silencing of Tie-2. COMP-Ang1 also induced in vitro migration of BMMSCs and PDLSCs. The induced migration was suppressed by Tie-2 knockdown and by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist or LY294002, but not by SB203580. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of PDLSCs into calvarial defect site of rats. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration of progenitor cells may involve the Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  5. Subtoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury through TrkB receptor- and calmodulin-mediated PI-3K/Akt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Quan-Guang; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subtoxic NMDA moderated the neuronal survival in vitro and vivo. We performed this experiment to clarify the precise mechanism underlie subtoxic NMDA delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury. We found that pretreatment of NMDA (100 mg/kg) increased the number of the surviving CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampus at 5 days of reperfusion. This dose of NMDA could also enhance Akt activation after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Here, we examined the possible mechanism that NMDA induced Akt activation. On the one hand, we found NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was associated with increased expression of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and activation of its high-affinity receptor TrkB after I/R in the hippocampus CA1 region, which could be held down by TrkB receptor antagonist K252a. On the other hand, we found that NMDA enhanced the binding of Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) to p85 (the regulation subunit of PI-3K), which led to the activation of Akt. W-13, an active CaM inhibitor, prevented the combination of CaM and p85 and subsequent Akt activation. Furthermore, NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was reversed by combined treatment with LY294002, the specific blockade of PI-3K. Taken together, our results suggested that subtoxic NMDA exerts the neuroprotective effect via activation of prosurvival PI-3K/Akt pathway against ischemic brain injury, and BDNF-TrkB signaling and Ca2+-dependent CaM cascade might contribute to NMDA induced activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway.

  6. Interleukin-6 upregulates paraoxonase 1 gene expression via an AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsueh, Chi-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •IL-6 could induce PON1 gene expression. •IL-6 increased NF-κB protein expression and NF-κB-p50 and -p65 subunits nuclear translocation. •IL-6-induced PON1 up-regulation was through an AKT/NF-κB pathway. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and atherosclerosis-related inflammation. In this study, human hepatoma HepG2 cell line was used as a hepatocyte model to examine the effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on PON1 expression. The results showed that IL-6, but not TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly increased both the function and protein level of PON1; data from real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the IL-6-induced PON1 expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Increase of IκB kinase activity and IκB phosphorylation, and reduction of IκB protein level were also observed in IL-6-treated HepG2 cells compared with untreated culture. This event was accompanied by increase of NF-κB-p50 and -p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, treatment with IL-6 augmented the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by PDTC and BAY 11-7082, markedly suppressed the IL-6-mediated PON1 expression. In addition, IL-6 increased the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB, AKT). An AKT inhibitor LY294002 effectively suppressed IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling and PON1 gene expression induced by IL-6. Our findings demonstrate that IL-6 upregulates PON1 gene expression through an AKT/NF-κB signaling axis in human hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cell line.

  7. Apelin-13 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Liu, Wei; Feng, Fen; Li, Xin; He, Lu; Lv, Deguan; Qin, Xuping; Li, Lifang; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2015-12-01

    Apelin is highly expressed in rat left ventricular hypertrophy Sprague Dawley rat models, and it plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular system. The aim this study was to clarify whether apelin-13 promotes hypertrophy in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes and to investigate its underlying mechanism. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed by measuring the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells. The activation of autophagy was evaluated by observing the morphology of autophagosomes by transmission electron microscopy, observing the subcellular localization of LC3 by light microscopy, and detecting the membrane-associated form of LC3 by western blot analysis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was identified and the proteins expression was detected using western blot analysis. The results revealed that apelin-13 increased the diameter, volume, and protein content of H9c2 cells and promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, and p70S6K. Apelin-13 activated the PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K pathway. PI3K inhibitor LY294002, Akt inhibitor 1701-1, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the increase of the cell diameter, volume, protein content induced by apelin-13. Apelin-13 increased the autophagosomes and up-regulated the expressions of beclin 1 and LC3-II/I both transiently and stably. The autophagy inhibitor 3MA ameliorated the increase of cell diameter, volume, and protein content that were induced by apelin-13. These results suggested that apelin-13 promotes H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy. PMID:26607438

  8. The molecular mechanism of polygalasaponin F-mediated decreases in TNFα: emphasizing the role of the TLR4-PI3K/AKT-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Fen; Shao, Qian-Hang; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polygalasaponin F (PS-F), an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from Polygala japonica, decreases the release of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), but the precise molecular mechanisms by which this event occurs are not fully understood. To study the anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of PS-F, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the secretion of TNFα from BV-2 microglial cells. Nuclear proteins extracted from BV-2 microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pretreated with/without inhibitors were measured by Western blotting, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT analysis. The results indicated that inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (CLI-095 1 μg/ml), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (Ly294002 10 μM) or IκBα phosphorylation (Bay11-7082 10 μM) completely prevents the release of TNFα induced by LPS without affecting cell viability and attenuated the nuclear translocation of p65 stimulated by LPS. In addition, PS-F exhibited a similar trend regarding TNFα release, AKT phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation. These results suggest that PS-F reduces neuroinflammatory cytokine secretion through the regulation of the TLR4-PI3K/AKT-NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26235355

  9. EPO-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signalling mediates neuroprotection in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Mo, Shi-Jing; Feng, Qi-Qi; Zhan, Ma-Li; OuYang, Li-Si; Chen, Jia-Chang; Ma, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jia-Jia; Lei, Wan-Long

    2014-05-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may become a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder -- Parkinson's disease (PD), since EPO has been found to prevent neuron apoptosis through the activation of cell survival signalling. However, the underlying mechanisms of how EPO exerts its neuroprotective effect are not fully elucidated. Here we investigated the mechanism by which EPO suppressed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuron death in in vitro and in vivo models of PD. EPO knockdown conferred 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity. This effect was reversed by EPO administration. Treatment of PC12 cells with EPO greatly diminished the toxicity induced by 6-OHDA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EPO effectively reduced apoptosis of striatal neurons and induced a significant improvement on the neurological function score in the rat models of PD. Furthermore, EPO increased the expression of phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated FoxO3a, and abrogated the 6-OHDA-induced dysregulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in PC12 cells and in striatal neurons. Meanwhile, the EPO-dependent neuroprotection was notably reversed by pretreatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signalling pathway may be a possible mechanism involved in the neuroprotective effect of EPO in PD. PMID:24390959

  10. An involvement of BDNF and PI3-K/Akt in the anti-apoptotic effect of memantine on staurosporine-evoked cell death in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Szymanska, M; Budziszewska, B; Lason, W

    2009-07-01

    Memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist possesses neuroprotective properties, but the exact mechanisms of its beneficial action on neuronal survival are poorly recognized. In the present study, some intracellular mechanisms of memantine effects on staurosporine-evoked cell death were investigated in primary cortical neurons. Memantine (0.1-2 muM) suppressed neuronal apoptosis evoked by staurosporine in 7 DIV cortical neurons, whereas other antagonists of NMDA receptor, MK-801 (1 muM) and AP-5 (100 muM) were ineffective. The anti-apoptotic effects of memantine were not connected with any changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentration or reactive oxygen species level. The immunoblot analysis showed that the staurosporine induced a decrease in p-Akt protein kinase level and that this effect was reversed by memantine treatment. Moreover, the PI3-K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY 294002 attenuated the anti-apoptotic action of memantine on staurosporine-induced cell damage. Furthermore, the ELISA studies showed increased cellular and released BDNF protein level after combined treatment with memantine and staurosporine. There was no effect of memantine on the activation and expression of other protein kinases involved in the mechanism of cellular survival, i.e. ERK1/2, JNK and GSK3-beta. The obtained data suggest an NMDAR-independent action of memantine in attenuation of neuronal apoptosis and point to the engagement of BDNF and PI3-K/Akt pathway in these processes.

  11. The molecular mechanism of polygalasaponin F-mediated decreases in TNFα: emphasizing the role of the TLR4-PI3K/AKT-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Fen; Shao, Qian-Hang; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Yuan, Yu-He; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polygalasaponin F (PS-F), an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from Polygala japonica, decreases the release of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), but the precise molecular mechanisms by which this event occurs are not fully understood. To study the anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of PS-F, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the secretion of TNFα from BV-2 microglial cells. Nuclear proteins extracted from BV-2 microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pretreated with/without inhibitors were measured by Western blotting, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT analysis. The results indicated that inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (CLI-095 1 μg/ml), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (Ly294002 10 μM) or IκBα phosphorylation (Bay11-7082 10 μM) completely prevents the release of TNFα induced by LPS without affecting cell viability and attenuated the nuclear translocation of p65 stimulated by LPS. In addition, PS-F exhibited a similar trend regarding TNFα release, AKT phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation. These results suggest that PS-F reduces neuroinflammatory cytokine secretion through the regulation of the TLR4-PI3K/AKT-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. A novel compound DSC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses by inhibition of Akt/NF-κB signalling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Pan, Li-Long; Jia, Yao-Ling; Wu, Dan; Xiong, Qing-Hui; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2013-05-15

    A novel compound [4-(2-acetoxy-3-((R)-3-(benzylthio)-1-methoxy-1-oxopropan-2-ylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,2-phenylene diacetate (DSC)], derived from Danshensu, exerted cytoprotective effects by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities in vitro. Herein, we reported the protective effects of DSC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that DSC concentration-dependently attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression with less cytotoxicity. Signal transduction studies indicated that DSC significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38, or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Meanwhile, LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by DSC. Furthermore, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, iNOS expression, and NO production, which was also mimicked by pretreatment with DSC. These results suggested that DSC attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages, at least in part, through suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling and NF-κB activation.

  13. Interleukin-21 promotes osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway independently of RANKL.

    PubMed

    Xing, Rui; Zhang, Yingjian; Li, Changhong; Sun, Lin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Jinxia; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the bone destruction of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) promotes osteoclastogenesis in RA in a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent way. Whether IL-21 is capable of promoting osteoclastogenesis directly in the absence of RANKL remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the osteoclastogenic activity of IL-21 in RAW264.7 cells in the absence of RANKL. We found that IL-21 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and this was demonstrated by increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive stained, multinucleated cells compared with the negative control. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed the positive expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) in the IL-21 group. RT-PCR and RT-qPCR also verified the increased mRNA expression of CTR and cathepsin K in the IL-21 group compared with the negative control. The scanning electronic microscope images showed a few resorption pits on the bone slices cultured with IL-21. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed IL-21-induced osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-21 has direct osteoclastogenic potential independently of RANKL. IL-21 may promote osteoclastogenesis through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Therapy targeting IL-21 may be of value in preventing bone erosions in patients with RA. PMID:27599586

  14. Interleukin-21 promotes osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway independently of RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Rui; Zhang, Yingjian; Li, Changhong; Sun, Lin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Jinxia; Liu, Xiangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the bone destruction of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-21 (IL-21) promotes osteoclastogenesis in RA in a receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent way. Whether IL-21 is capable of promoting osteoclastogenesis directly in the absence of RANKL remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the osteoclastogenic activity of IL-21 in RAW264.7 cells in the absence of RANKL. We found that IL-21 enhanced osteoclastogenesis and this was demonstrated by increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive stained, multinucleated cells compared with the negative control. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed the positive expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) in the IL-21 group. RT-PCR and RT-qPCR also verified the increased mRNA expression of CTR and cathepsin K in the IL-21 group compared with the negative control. The scanning electronic microscope images showed a few resorption pits on the bone slices cultured with IL-21. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed IL-21-induced osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-21 has direct osteoclastogenic potential independently of RANKL. IL-21 may promote osteoclastogenesis through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Therapy targeting IL-21 may be of value in preventing bone erosions in patients with RA. PMID:27599586

  15. FGF2 regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion of ECA109 cells through PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Xu, Jingjing; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Huiqun; Gu, Luo; Chen, Yijiang

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers that arise from esophagus tissues. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been implicated in multiple biological functions and was considered as an oncogenic factor in tumorigenesis. However, the effects of FGF2 in esophageal carcinoma are yet to be fully elucidated. To better understand the function of FGF2 in esophageal cancer, we used the esophageal cancer cell line ECA109 as a cell model and downregulated FGF2 expression using RNAi; the results showed that insufficient expression of FGF2 inhibited cells proliferation, migration, and invasion of ECA109 cells. Meanwhile, the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities were stimulated after treatment of exogenous FGF2. In addition, a PI3K/Akt signalling pathway inhibitor (LY294002) alleviated the tumorigenic effects of FGF2. These findings implied that the oncogenic effects of FGF2 was mediated, at least in part, through the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and FGF2 may be a potential therapeutic target to constrain the tumorigenesis of esophageal cancer. PMID:26833879

  16. Krüppel-like factor 14 increases insulin sensitivity through activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ren, Yan; Lin, Zhimin; Tang, Chenchen; Jia, Yanjun; Lai, Yerui; Zhou, Tingting; Wu, Shaobo; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no report has demonstrated a relationship between KLF14 and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLF14 is associated with glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in vitro. The mRNA and protein expressions of KLF14 were determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting. Glucose uptake was assessed by 2-[(3)H]-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. Western blotting was used to identify the activation of insulin signaling proteins. KLF14 mRNA and protein in fat and muscle were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice, db/db mice and T2DM patients. Overexpression of KLF14 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the activation of Akt kinase in Hepa1-6 cells. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt also elevated significantly by up-regulation of KLF14. KLF14 overexpression in Hepa1-6 cells prevented the inhibition of glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation induced by high glucose and/or high insulin, or T2DM serum. However, KLF14's ability to increase glucose uptake and Akt activation was significantly attenuated by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. These data suggested that KLF14 could increase insulin sensitivity probably through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26226221

  17. Rutin, A Natural Flavonoid Protects PC12 Cells Against Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Neurotoxicity Through Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rikang; Sun, Yongbing; Huang, Hesong; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jinlong; Shen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Free radicals induced neural damage is implicated in CNS diseases and rutin isolated form Lonicera japonica are reported to have neuroprotective activity. Previously, we confirmed that rutin exerted neuroprotective effect against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of rutin is still not fully uncovered. Here, we found that rutin significantly decreased SNP-induced reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells. Rutin reversed the declined GSH/GSSG ratio and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by SNP. Moreover, rutin activated both the protein Akt/mTOR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways and the neuroprotective effects of rutin were blocked by either the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059. In summary, these results demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of rutin might be through activating both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings support that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS diseases related to NO neurotoxicity. PMID:26255195

  18. WISP1 overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells via AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Liu, Hao; Lu, Lihe; Wan, Heng; Lin, Zhiqi; Qian, Kai; Yao, Xingxing; Chen, Qing; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jianyun; Liu, Zhengjun

    2016-10-01

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of vascular restenosis. Our previous study showed that CCN4, namely Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), significantly promotes proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs, but its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether and how WISP1 stimulates proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Western blot analysis showed that FBS treatment increased WISP1 protein levels in human VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of WISP1 using adenovirus encoding WISP1 (AD-WISP1) significantly increased proliferation rate of human VSMCs by 2.98-fold compared with empty virus (EV)-transfected cells, shown by EdU incorporation assay. Additionally, Scratch-induced wound healing assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WISP1 significantly increased cell migration compared with EV-transfected cells from 6h (4.56±1.14% vs. 11.23±2.25%, P<0.05) to 48h (25.25±5.51% vs. 97.54±13.12%, P<0.01) after injury. Transwell Migration Assay confirmed that WISP1 overexpression significantly promoted human VSMC migration by 2.25-fold compared with EV. Furthermore, WISP1 overexpression stimulated Akt signaling activation in human VSMCs. Blockage of Akt signaling by Akt inhibitor AZD5363 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002, led to an inhibitory effect of WISP1-induced proliferation and migration in human VSMCs. Moreover, we found that WISP1 overexpression stimulated GSK3α/β phosphorylation, and increased expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9 in human VSMCs, and this effect was abolished by AZD5363. Collectively, we demonstrated that Akt signaling pathway mediates WISP1-induced migration and proliferation of human VSMCs, suggesting that WISP1 may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for vascular restenosis.

  19. Equol inhibits proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cells via modulating Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan; Huang, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yao, Ya-Hong; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Nan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of equol in gastric cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: MGC-803 cells were employed for in vitro experiments in this study. Cells were treated with control (vehicle, 0.1% DMSO) or equol under specified dose titration or time courses. Cell viability was examined by MTS assay, and the levels of Ki67 were determined by qPCR and immunofluorescent assay. Changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of cyclin E1 and P21WAF1 was determined by qPCR. The protein levels of cell cycle regulators, PARP and Caspase-3 cleavage, and the phosphorylation of Akt were examined by Western blot. In addition, to characterize the role of elevated Akt activation in the anti-tumor effect exerted by equol, Ly294002, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, was used to pretreat MGC-803 cells. RESULTS: Equol (5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μmol/L) inhibited viability of MGC-803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment for 24, 36, or 48 h (P < 0.05 for all). Equol also decreased the mRNA (P < 0.05 for 12 and 24 h treatment) and protein levels of Ki67. Equol treatment significantly induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (P < 0.05), with the percentages of G0/G1 cells of 32.23% ± 3.62%, 36.31% ± 0.24%, 45.58% ± 2.29%, and 65.10% ± 2.04% for equol (0, 10, 20, or 30 μmol/L) treatment, respectively, accompanied by a significant decrease of CDK2/4 (P < 0.05 for 24 and 48 h treatment) and Cyclin D1/Cyclin E1 (P < 0.05), and an increased level of P21WAF1 (P < 0.05). A marked increase of apoptosis was observed, with the percentages of apoptotic cells of 5.01% ± 0.91%, 14.57% ± 0.99%, 37.40% ± 0.58%, and 38.46% ± 2.01% for equol (0, 5, 10, or 20 μmol/L) treatment, respectively, accompanied by increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3. In addition, we found that equol treatment increased P-Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) at 12 and 24 h compared to vehicle-treated control

  20. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Myoung Hee; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim; Kim, Jun Suk

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  1. The PI3K/Akt pathway: recent progress in the development of ATP-competitive and allosteric Akt kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Craig W; Barnett, Stanley F; Layton, Mark E; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    This article describes recent advances in the development and biological evaluation of allosteric and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors for the serine/threonine kinase Akt (protein kinase B, PKB). Unregulated activation of the PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers and Akt is over-expressed or activated in all major cancers making Akt an exciting new target for cancer therapy. The development of Akt inhibitors has been complicated and hampered by the presence of three Akt isozymes, (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) which differ in function and tissue distribution, as well as a lack of Akt specific inhibitors. In the past 18 months, a large number of reports have appeared describing the discovery and development of allosteric Akt kinase inhibitors and classical ATP-competitive Akt kinase inhibitors. This review will discuss the PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway, allosteric and ATP-competitive Akt kinase inhibitors, their biological evaluation and progress towards target validation.

  2. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  3. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  4. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit+ CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:27803763

  5. MKP1 repression is required for the chemosensitizing effects of NF-kappaB and PI3K inhibitors to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Sempere, María; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Rovira, Ana; Rodriguez-Fanjul, Vanessa; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Tapia, Marian; Cejas, Paloma; Machado-Pinilla, Rosario; Manguan-García, Cristina; Sánchez-Pérez, Isabel; Nistal, Manuel; Moratilla, Carmen; de Castro-Carpeño, Javier; Gonzalez-Barón, Manuel; Albanell, Joan; Perona, Rosario

    2009-12-28

    Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cisplatin has a level of antitumor activity still modest. We have shown previously that MKP1/DUSP1 inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells and is overexpressed in tumors from most patients with stage I-II NSCLC. Here, using different NSCLC cell lines we found that MKP1 and NF-kappaB are differentially expressed. We studied whether targeting MKP1, NF-kappaB or both affects cisplatin-induced cell death. MKP1 is expressed in H460 and H727 cells. H727 and H1299 cells showed constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and increased NF-kappaB activity than did H460 cells. H460-MKP1-siRNA-expressing cells (but not H727-MKP1-siRNA or H1299-MKP1-siRNA cells) exhibit a marked increase in cisplatin response compared with parental cells. Treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the NF-kappaB inhibitor BAY11-7082 enhanced cisplatin antitumor activity in parental H1299 cells but only weakly affected responses of H727 and H460 cells. MKP1-siRNA expression enhanced the chemosensitization effect of LY294002 and BAY11-7082 on H727 and H460 cells. Additionally, NSCLC cell lines with higher NF-kappaB-constitutive activation were the most sensitive to PS-341 (Bortezomib), a non-specific NF-kappaB inhibitor. This finding suggests the proteasome as a suitable strategy in treating NSCLC tumors with high constitutive NF-kappaB activity. Altogether, these results showed that either an activated PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathway and/or high MKP1 was linked to reduced sensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-kappaB or PI3K potently enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity in cells with endogenous or genetically induced low MKP1 levels. These findings support the potential improvement in cisplatin responses by co-targeting NF-kappaB or Akt and MKP1.

  6. Is There a Future for AKT Inhibitors in the Treatment of Cancer?

    PubMed

    Jansen, Valerie M; Mayer, Ingrid A; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2016-06-01

    An AKT inhibitor plus an antiestrogen exhibited no significant clinical activity in patients with ER(+)/HER2(-) breast cancer despite laboratory studies supporting an antitumor effect for both drugs combined. These results raise concerns about the development of AKT inhibitors in unselected patients whose tumors have unknown dependence on the PI3K/AKT pathway. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2599-601. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Ma et al., p. 2650.

  7. Regulation of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1 gene expression in liver: role of insulin and protein kinase B/cAkt.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, M; Iynedjian, P B

    2000-01-01

    Insulin stimulates the transcription of the sterol regulatory- element binding protein (SREBP) 1/ADD1 gene in liver. Hepatocytes in primary culture were used to delineate the insulin signalling pathway for induction of SREBP1 gene expression. The inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), wortmannin and LY 294002, abolished the insulin-dependent increase in SREBP1 mRNA, whereas the inhibitor of the mitogen- activated protein kinase cascade, PD 98059, was without effect. To investigate the role of protein kinase B (PKB)/cAkt downstream of PI 3-kinase, hepatocytes were transduced with an adenovirus encoding a PKB--oestrogen receptor fusion protein. The PKB activity of this recombinant protein was rapidly activated in hepatocytes challenged with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT), as was endogenous PKB in hepatocytes challenged with insulin. The addition of OHT to transduced hepatocytes resulted in accumulation of SREBP1 mRNA, with a time-course and magnitude similar to the effect of insulin in non-transduced cells. The level of SREBP1 mRNA was not increased by OHT in hepatocytes expressing a mutant form of the recombinant protein whose PKB activity was not activated by OHT. Thus acute activation of PKB is sufficient to induce SREBP1 mRNA accumulation in primary hepatocytes, and might be the major signalling event by which insulin induces SREBP1 gene expression in the liver. PMID:10861205

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor induces Mcl-1 in primary human hepatocytes and inhibits CD95-mediated apoptosis via Akt.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Brenner, Dirk; Krueger, Andreas; Suess, Dorothee; Fas, Stefanie C; Frey, Christian R; Dax, Andreas; Zink, Dorothea; Büchler, Peter; Müller, Martina; Krammer, Peter H

    2004-03-01

    CD95 (APO-1/Fas)-mediated apoptosis of hepatocytes plays a central role in the pathophysiology of various human liver diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was shown to exert antiapoptotic functions in rodent hepatocytes. We previously showed that primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are a valuable tool for the investigation of apoptotic processes in liver cells. In this study, we analyzed the influence of HGF on CD95-mediated apoptosis of PHH and its molecular determinants. HGF significantly inhibited CD95-mediated apoptosis of PHH as well as cleavage of caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose)polymerase. HGF transcriptionally induced the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). In contrary, HGF did not alter the expression levels of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L). HGF activated survival pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Notably, HGF triggered serine(727)--but not tyrosine(705)--phosphorylation of STAT3. Pretreatment of PHH with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 as well as adenoviral transduction of dominant negative Akt1 prevented HGF-mediated Mcl-1 induction and reversed the antiapoptotic effects of HGF. In conclusion, HGF confers survival of PHH by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PI3K/Akt activation by HGF results in the induction of antiapoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Thus, application of HGF may be a therapeutic approach to prevent CD95-mediated hepatocellular damage in human liver diseases. PMID:14999683

  9. Cox-2 Inhibition Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via Akt-Dependent Enhancement of iNOS Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yin; Tang, Eva Hoi Ching; Yan, Dan; Kosuru, Ramoji

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the potential causal link between ischemia-driven cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and enhanced apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by using H9C2 cardiomyocytes and primary rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The results showed that H/R resulted in higher COX-2 expression than that of controls, which was prevented by pretreatment with Helenalin (NFκB specific inhibitor). Furthermore, pretreatment with NS398 (COX-2 specific inhibitor) significantly attenuated H/R-induced cell injury [lower lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and enhanced cell viability] and apoptosis (higher Bcl2 expression and lower level of cleaved caspases-3 and TUNEL-positive cells) in cardiomyocytes. The amelioration of posthypoxic apoptotic cell death was paralleled by significant attenuation of H/R-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)] and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and by higher protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and enhanced nitric oxide production. Moreover, the application of LY294002 (Akt-specific inhibitor) or 1400W (iNOS-selective inhibitor) cancelled the cellular protective effects of NS398. Findings from the current study suggest that activation of NFκB during cardiomyocyte H/R induces the expression of COX-2 and that higher COX-2 expression during H/R exacerbates cardiomyocyte H/R injury via mechanisms that involve cross talks among inflammation, ROS, and Akt/iNOS/NO signaling. PMID:27795807

  10. HIV-1 Tat promotes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by regulating PI3K/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Xue, Min; Qin, Di; Zhu, Xiaofei; Wang, Cong; Zhu, Jianzhong; Hao, Tingting; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Xiuying; Bai, Zhiqiang; Feng, Ninghan; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lu, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. KS is characterized by vast angiogenesis and hyperproliferative spindle cells. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can trigger KSHV reactivation and accelerate Kaposin A-induced tumorigenesis. Here, we explored Tat promotion of KSHV vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Tat promotes vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation and VEGF production in culture. Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. In an allograft model, Tat promotes vIL-6-induced tumorigenesis and expression of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1. Mechanistic studies indicated Tat activates PI3K and AKT, and inactivates PTEN and GSK-3β in vIL-6 expressing cells. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, effectively impaired Tat's promotion of vIL-6-induced tumorigenesis. Together, these results provide the first evidence that Tat might contribute to KS pathogenesis by synergizing with vIL-6, and identify PI3K/AKT pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AIDS-related KS patients.

  11. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan; Jiang, Qin; Yao, Jin

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  12. Quercetin ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting ASK1/JNK3/caspase-3 by enhancing the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing; Yang, Miaomiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Shen, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Fayong

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of severe disability and death all worldwide. However, therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of cerebral I/R injury are limited. Recent research has demonstrated that quercetin mediates neuroprotective effects associated with the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the cerebral I/R brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of cognitive deficits induced by cerebral I/R injury and the effects of quercetin on these mechanisms. First, we assessed anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive impairment using the open field test and the Morris water maze test, respectively. Next, we examined the severity of apoptosis by staining hippocampal neurons by the Cresyl violet method. Third, we used western blot analysis to investigate the expression of total and phosphorylated Akt, ASK1, JNK3, c-Jun and caspase-3 after I/R injury. Our results revealed that mice subjected to bilateral common carotid occlusion exhibited severe anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These severe effects were attenuated by administration of quercetin. Further, western blot analysis revealed that quercetin increased p-Akt expression and decreased p-ASK1, p-JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 expression after cerebral I/R injury and led to inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of Akt1) reversed the effects of quercetin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the important role of quercetin in protecting against cognitive deficits and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. We believe that quercetin might prove to be a useful therapeutic component in treating cerebral I/R diseases in the near future. PMID:27450812

  13. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hong-Yan; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xi-Yan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yue, Xiu-Qin

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic brain injury (IBI) can cause nerve injury and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The neuroprotective effects of propofol against IBI have been previously demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons are not yet entirely clear. In the present study, models of IBI were established in hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells. Cell viability assay and apoptosis assay were performed to examine the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons in IBI. A significant decrease in cell viability and a significant increase in cell apoptosis were observed in the IBI group compared with the control group, accompanied by a decrease in glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT‑1) expression as determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The effects of IBI were reversed by propofol treatment. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GLT‑1 in the hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells led to an increase in cell apoptosis, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1 and NR2B) activation, as well as to a decrease in cell viability and a decrease in Akt activation. The effects of RNA interference-mediated GLT‑1 gene silencing on cell viability, JNK activation, NMDAR activation, cell apoptosis and Akt activation in the hippocampal neuronal cells were slightly reversed by propofol treatment. The JNK agonist, anisomycin, and the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, both significantly blocked the effects of propofol on hippocampal neuronal cell viability and apoptosis in IBI. The decrease in JNK activation and the increase in Akt activation caused by GLT‑1 overexpression were reversed by NMDA. Collectively, our findings suggest that propofol treatment protects hippocampal neurons against IBI by enhancing GLT‑1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27430327

  14. Biphasic Modulation of Paracellular Claudin-5 Expression in Mouse Brain Endothelial Cells Is Mediated through the Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase/AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Camire, Ryan B.; Beaulac, Holly J.; Brule, Stephanie A.; McGregor, Annie I.; Lauria, Emily E.

    2014-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is compromised in many central nervous system disorders. Complex astrocyte and vascular endothelial cell interactions that regulate BBB integrity may be disturbed in these disorders. We previously showed that systemic administration of 3-chloropropanediol [(S)-(+)-3-chloro-1,2-propanediol] induces a transitory glial fibrillary acidic protein-astrocyte loss, reversible loss of tight junction complexes, and BBB integrity disruption. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms that induce BBB integrity marker loss are unclear. We hypothesize that 3-chloropropanediol–induced modulation of tight junction protein expression is mediated through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) exposed to 3-chloropropanediol for up to 3 days. Results showed early reversible loss of sharp paracellular claudin-5 expression 90, 105, and 120 minutes after 3-chloropropanediol (500 μM) treatment. Sharp paracellular claudin-5 profiles were later restored, but lost again by 2 and 3 days after 3-chloropropanediol treatment. Western blot and immunofluorescence studies showed increased p85-PI3K expression and transitory increased AKT (Thr308) phosphorylation at 15 and 30 minutes after 3-chloropropanediol administration. PI3K inhibitors LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride; 2.5–25 μM] and PI-828 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-(4-aminopheny)l-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0.1–10 μM] prevented the 3-chloropropanediol–induced AKT (Thr308) phosphorylation and both early and late loss of paracellular claudin-5. However, AKT inhibitors only prevented the early changes in claudin-5 expression. This mechanistic study provides a greater understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways mediating tight junction protein expression and supports a hypothesis that two independent pathways triggered by PI3K mediate early and late loss of paracellular

  15. The hepatocyte growth factor antagonist NK4 inhibits indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression via the c-Met-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONGDONG; SAGA, YASUSHI; SATO, NAOTO; NAKAMURA, TOSHIKAZU; TAKIKAWA, OSAMU; MIZUKAMI, HIROAKI; MATSUBARA, SHIGEKI; FUJIWARA, HIROYUKI

    2016-01-01

    Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor malignancy. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying its involvement remains largely uncharacterized. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that NK4, an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), can regulate IDO and to characterize the signaling mechanism involved. Following successful transfection of the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 (which constitutively expresses IDO) with an NK4 expression vector, we observed that NK4 expression suppressed IDO expression; furthermore, NK4 expression did not suppress cancer cell growth in vitro [in the absence of natural killer (NK) cells], but did influence tumor growth in vivo. In addition, NK4 enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to NK cells in vitro and promoted NK cell accumulation in the tumor stroma in vivo. In an effort to clarify the mechanisms by which NK4 interacts with IDO, we performed investigations utilizing various biochemical inhibitors. The results of these investigations were as follows. First, c-Met (a receptor of HGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor PHA-665752, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 both suppress IDO expression. Second, enhanced expression of PTEN (a known tumor suppressor) via negative regulation within a PI3K-AKT pathway, inhibits IDO expression. Conversely, neither the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 nor the STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 affects IDO expression. These results suggest that NK4 inhibits IDO expression via a c-Met-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27082119

  16. Non-tumor tissue derived interleukin-17B activates IL-17RB/AKT/β-catenin pathway to enhance the stemness of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Qingli; Sun, Caixia; Gong, Aihua; Li, Chunye; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Ji, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Qi; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a critical component involved in tumor progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has been associated with the progression of cancers. However, the role of IL-17B/IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) signaling to stemness of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that the expression of IL-17RB in gastric cancer tissues was significantly increased, that overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and that overexpression was positively correlated with some stemness markers. Interestingly, the expression of IL-17B was upregulated in patient serum rather than gastric tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-17B significantly promoted the stemness of gastric cancer cells depending on IL-17RB and induced the expression of IL-17RB. Simultaneously, the expression of phosphorylated AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin as well as the nuclear translocation of β-catenin were significantly increased in the MGC-803 cell in a dose-dependent manner, when treated with rIL-17B. The AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the knockdown of AKT expression reversed the rIL-17B-induced upregulation of β-catenin and some stemness markers. Together, our results indicate that the IL-17B/IL-17RB signal can promote the growth and migration of tumor cells, and upregulate cell stemness through activating the AKT/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer, suggesting that IL-17RB may be a novel target in human gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27146881

  17. Non-tumor tissue derived interleukin-17B activates IL-17RB/AKT/β-catenin pathway to enhance the stemness of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bie, Qingli; Sun, Caixia; Gong, Aihua; Li, Chunye; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Ji, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Qi; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-05-05

    Inflammation is a critical component involved in tumor progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has been associated with the progression of cancers. However, the role of IL-17B/IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) signaling to stemness of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that the expression of IL-17RB in gastric cancer tissues was significantly increased, that overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and that overexpression was positively correlated with some stemness markers. Interestingly, the expression of IL-17B was upregulated in patient serum rather than gastric tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-17B significantly promoted the stemness of gastric cancer cells depending on IL-17RB and induced the expression of IL-17RB. Simultaneously, the expression of phosphorylated AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin as well as the nuclear translocation of β-catenin were significantly increased in the MGC-803 cell in a dose-dependent manner, when treated with rIL-17B. The AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the knockdown of AKT expression reversed the rIL-17B-induced upregulation of β-catenin and some stemness markers. Together, our results indicate that the IL-17B/IL-17RB signal can promote the growth and migration of tumor cells, and upregulate cell stemness through activating the AKT/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer, suggesting that IL-17RB may be a novel target in human gastric cancer therapy.

  18. Isoquercitrin Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis of EA.hy926 Cells via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meixia; Li, Jiankuan; Wang, Ke; Hao, Xuliang; Ge, Rui; Li, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in endothelial injury and the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-glucoside), a flavonoid distributed widely in plants, exhibits many biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of isoquercitrin on H2O2-induced apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells was evaluated. MTT assays showed that isoquercitrin significantly inhibited H2O2-induced loss of viability in EA.hy926 cells. Hoechst33342/PI and Annexin V-FITC/PI fluorescent double staining indicated that isoquercitrin inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells. Western blotting demonstrated that isoquercitrin prevented H2O2-induced increases in cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, while increasing expression of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Additionally, isoquercitrin significantly increased the expression of p-Akt and p-GSK3β in a dose-dependent manner in EA.hy926 cells. LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, inhibited isoquercitrin-induced GSK3β phosphorylation and increase of Mcl-1 expression, which indicated that regulation of isoquercitrin on Mcl-1 expression was likely related to the modulation of Akt activation. These results demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic effect of isoquercitrin on H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells was likely associated with the regulation of isoquercitrin on Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway and that isoquercitrin could be used clinically to interfere with the progression of endothelial injury-associated cardiovascular disease. PMID:27007368

  19. Mutant p53 promotes ovarian cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells via integrin β4 and Akt signals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Jin Kim, Tae; Ho Lee, Jae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations in the TP53 gene resulting in the accumulation of mutant proteins are extremely common in advanced ovarian cancer, which is characterised by peritoneal metastasis. Attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneal mesothelium is regarded as an initial, key step for the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of a p53 mutant in the mesothelial adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. We found that OVCAR-3 cells with the R248 TP53 mutation (p53R248) were more adhesive to mesothelial Met5A cells than were A2780 cells expressing wild-type p53. In addition, ectopic expression of p53R248 in p53-null SKOV-3 cells significantly increased adhesion to Met5A cells. Knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised p53R248-induced cell adhesion to Met5A cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several adhesion-related genes, including integrin β4, were markedly up-regulated, and certain signalling pathways, including PI3K/Akt, were activated in p53R248 transfectants of SKOV-3 cells. Inhibition of integrin β4 and Akt signalling using blocking antibody and the inhibitor LY294002, respectively, significantly attenuated p53R248-mediated ovarian cancer-mesothelial adhesion. These data suggest that the p53R248 mutant endows ovarian cancer cells with increased adhesiveness and that integrin β4 and Akt signalling are associated with the mutation-enhanced ovarian cancer-mesothelial cell adhesion. PMID:26223322

  20. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26621443

  1. Fluid shear stress suppresses TNF-α-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells: Involvement of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bin, Geng; Bo, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Jin, Jiang; Xiaoyi, Tan; Cong, Chen; Liping, An; Jinglin, Ma; Cuifang, Wang; Yonggang, Chen; Yayi, Xia

    2016-05-01

    TNF-α is known to induce osteoblasts apoptosis, whereas mechanical stimulation has been shown to enhance osteoblast survival. In the present study, we found that mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stress (FSS) suppresses TNF-α induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that has been implicated in cell survival. We also demonstrated that FSS imposed by flow chamber in vitro leads to a markedly activation of ERK5, which was shown to be protective against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas the transfection of siRNA against ERK5 (ERK5-siRNA) reversed the FSS-medicated anti-apoptotic effects. An initial FSS-mediated activation of ERK5 that phosphorylates AKT to increase its activity, and a following forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) was phosphorylated by activated AKT. Phosphorylated FoxO3a is sequestered in the cytoplasm, and prevents it from translocating to nucleus where it can increase the expression of FasL and Bim. The inhibition of AKT-FoxO3a signalings by a PI3K (PI3-kinase)/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) or the transfection of ERK5-siRNA led to the nuclear translocation of non-phosphorylated FoxO3a, and increased the protein expression of FasL and Bim. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 by TNF-α was significantly inhibited by aforementioned FSS-medicated mechanisms. In brief, the activation of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a signaling pathways by FSS resulted in a decreased expression of FasL and Bim and an inhibition of caspase-3 activation, which exerts a protective effect that prevents osteoblasts from apoptosis.

  2. Folic Acid Represses Hypoxia-Induced Inflammation in THP-1 Cells through Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; He, Zhiying; Jiang, Xinwei; Hou, Mengjun; Tang, Zhihong; Zhen, Xiaozhou; Liang, Yuming; Ma, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Though hypoxia has been implicated as a cause of inflammation, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Folic acid has been shown to provide protection against oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease and various models approximating insult to tissue via inflammation. It has been reported that hypoxia-induced inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Whether folic acid protects human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) against hypoxia-induced damage, however, remains unknown. We used THP-1 cells to establish a hypoxia-induced cellular injury model. Pretreating THP-1 cells with folic acid attenuated hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses, including a decrease in protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), coupled with increased levels of IL-10. Folic acid also reduced hypoxia-induced Akt phosphorylation and decreased nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Both LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, PI3K) and KC7F2 (a HIF-1α inhibitor) reduced levels of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines. We also found that insulin (an Akt activator) and dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α activator) induced over-expression of inflammatory cytokines, which could be blocked by folic acid. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how folic acid attenuates the hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses of THP-1 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway.

  3. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether promotes human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells migration via the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, P-C; Wang, H-L; Chen, G-H; Luo, Q; Chen, Z; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is the predominant tumor of early childhood. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) has the highest concentration among all polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human body, particularly for children. Considering that accumulating evidences showed developmental neurotoxicity of PBDE, there is an urgent need to investigate the effects of BDE-47 on the development of neuroblastoma. This study revealed that BDE-47 had limited effects on the cytotoxicity while significantly increased the in vitro migration and invasion of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This was further confirmed by the results that BDE-47 treatment significantly downregulated the expression of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 and upregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Silencing of MMP-9 by specific small interfering RNA significantly abolished the BDE-47-induced migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Further, the signals G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) mediated the BDE-47-induced upregulation of MMP-9 and in vitro migration of SH-SY5Y cells since G15 (GPER inhibitor) and LY 294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor) significantly abolished the effects of BDE-47. Our results revealed that BDE-47 significantly triggered the metastasis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via upregulation of MMP-9 by the GPER/PI3K/Akt signal pathway. This study revealed for the first time that BDE-47 can promote the migration of SH-SY5Y cells. It also provided a better understanding about the metastasis of human neuroblastoma induced by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway Inhibition by Doxazosin Promotes Glioblastoma Cells Death, Upregulation of p53 and Triggers Low Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Coelho, Bárbara Paranhos; de Quadros, Alice Hoffmann; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Terra, Silvia Resende; Guerra, Maria Cristina Barea; Usach, Vanina; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Setton-Avruj, Patrícia; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Treatment includes chemotherapy with temozolomide concomitant with surgical resection and/or irradiation. However, a number of cases are resistant to temozolomide, as well as the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG. We investigated doxazosin’s (an antihypertensive drug) activity against glioblastoma cells (C6 and U138-MG) and its neurotoxicity on primary astrocytes and organoptypic hippocampal cultures. For this study, the following methods were used: citotoxicity assays, flow cytometry, western-blotting and confocal microscopy. We showed that doxazosin induces cell death on C6 and U138-MG cells. We observed that doxazosin’s effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway were similar as LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor). In glioblastoma cells treated with doxasozin, Akt levels were greatly reduced. Upon examination of activities of proteins downstream of Akt we observed upregulation of GSK-3β and p53. This led to cell proliferation inhibition, cell death induction via caspase-3 activation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in glioblastoma cells. We used in this study Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a comparison with doxazosin because they present similar chemical structure. We also tested the neurocitotoxicity of doxazosin in primary astrocytes and organotypic cultures and observed that doxazosin induced cell death on a small percentage of non-tumor cells. Aggressiveness of glioblastoma tumors and dismal prognosis require development of new treatment agents. This includes less toxic drugs, more selective towards tumor cells, causing less damage to the patient. Therefore, our results confirm the potential of doxazosin as an attractive therapeutic antiglioma agent. PMID:27123999

  5. Resveratrol exerts growth inhibitory effects on human SZ95 sebocytes through the inactivation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Go, Kyung Chan; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kim, Beom Joon

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol is known to be a naturally produced polyphenol that is able to reduce cell proliferation in several types of cancer cells and adipocytes. However, the antiproliferative effects of resveratrol on the growth of human sebocytes are not yet clear. In the present study, we investigated possible cellular pathways associated with these growth inhibitory effects on human SZ95 sebocytes. Our results revealed that resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of sebocytes, and that this resulted in disruption of the cell cycle. The inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), Akt and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ was also shown to be involved in the inhibition of sebocyte growth by resveratrol. To examine the antiproliferative effects of resveratrol, we determined the levels of cell cycle control proteins. Resveratrol inhibited cyclin D1 synthesis, whereas it stimulated p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) and p27KIP1 (p27) synthesis. In addition, we demonstrated that the resveratrol-mediated cell cycle arrest resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase. Moreover, we found that the growth inhibitory effects of resveratrol were enhanced by treatment with LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor] more so than by treatment with PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor), which indicates that resveratrol exerts its inhibitory effects on sebocyte proliferation through the inhibition of Akt. Linoleic acid (LA) is a well-established lipid inducer in sebocytes and is known to stimulate sebocyte differentiation through the upregulation of PPAR-γ. In this study, resveratrol was found to decrease the lipid content and PPAR-γ expression during LA-stimulated lipogenesis. Our results indicate that resveratrol plays a critical role in the inhibition of sebocyte growth through the inactivation of the Akt pathway. The present data suggest that resveratrol may be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  6. Reactivation of AKT signaling following treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors attenuates their antitumor effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, Marc; Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •PI3K inhibitors inhibit AKT only transiently. •Re-activation of AKT limits the anti-cancer effect of PI3K inhibitors. •The results suggest to combine PI3K and AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: Targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a promising approach in cancer therapy. In particular, PI3K blockade leads to the inhibition of AKT, a major downstream effector responsible for the oncogenic activity of PI3K. However, we report here that small molecule inhibitors of PI3K only transiently block AKT signaling. Indeed, treatment of cancer cells with PI3K inhibitors results in a rapid inhibition of AKT phosphorylation and signaling which is followed by the reactivation of AKT signaling after 48 h as observed by Western blot. Reactivation of AKT signaling occurs despite effective inhibition of PI3K activity by PI3K inhibitors. In addition, wortmannin, a broad range PI3K inhibitor, did not block AKT reactivation suggesting that AKT signals independently of PI3K. In a therapeutical perspective, combining AKT and PI3K inhibitors exhibit stronger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects compared to AKT or PI3K inhibitors alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft mouse model, concomitant PI3K and AKT blockade results in stronger anti-cancer activity compared with either blockade alone. This study shows that PI3K inhibitors only transiently inhibit AKT which limits their antitumor activities. It also provides the proof of concept to combine PI3K inhibitors with AKT inhibitors in cancer therapy.

  7. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  8. PARP1 inhibitors attenuate AKT phosphorylation via the upregulation of PHLPP1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Huibo; Davis, Ben C.; Liang, Jiyong; Cui, Rutao; Chen, Sai-Juan; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} PARP1 inhibitors cause a cytotoxic effect independent of DNA repair impairment. {yields} PARP1 inhibitors attenuated AKT-FOXO3A signaling by activating PHLPP1. {yields} PHLPP1 regulates the sensitivity of cancer cells to PARP1 inhibitors. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors are emerging as an important class of drugs for treating BRCA-deficient cancers. Recent discoveries have shown that PARP1 inhibitors may treat other cancer patients in addition to the relatively small proportion of patients carrying BRCA mutations. However, the additional targets by which PARP1 inhibitor-mediated tumor suppression remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that two PARP1 inhibitors, PJ-34 and 3-AB, attenuate AKT phosphorylation at serine 473 (S473) independent of DNA repair impairment. These inhibitors decrease the AKT-associated phosphorylation of FOXO3A, enhance the nuclear retention of FOXO3A, and activate its transcriptional activity. We further demonstrate that treatment with PJ-34 or 3-AB dramatically increases the level of PHLPP1. Overexpression of PHLPP1 enhances the PARP1 inhibitor-induced downregulation of AKT phosphorylation and increases tumor cell death. In contrast, knockdown of PHLPP1 abrogates the PARP1 inhibitor-mediated AKT inhibition and desensitizes cells to its treatment. Therefore, our findings not only show the robust role of PARP1 inhibitors in AKT inhibition but also develop a novel strategy to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment via PARP1 inhibitor-induced PHLPP1 upregulation.

  9. Akt inhibitors in cancer treatment: The long journey from drug discovery to clinical use (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NITULESCU, GEORGE MIHAI; MARGINA, DENISA; JUZENAS, PETRAS; PENG, QIAN; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; SALOUSTROS, EMMANOUIL; FENGA, CONCETTINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapies are used to inhibit the growth, progression, and metastasis of the tumor by interfering with specific molecular targets and are currently the focus of anticancer drug development. Protein kinase B, also known as Akt, plays a central role in many types of cancer and has been validated as a therapeutic target nearly two decades ago. This review summarizes the intracellular functions of Akt as a pivotal point of converging signaling pathways involved in cell growth, proliferation, apoptotis and neo-angiogenesis, and focuses on the drug design strategies to develop potent anticancer agents targeting Akt. The discovery process of Akt inhibitors has evolved from adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive agents to alternative approaches employing allosteric sites in order to overcome the high degree of structural similarity between Akt isoforms in the catalytic domain, and considerable structural analogy to the AGC kinase family. This process has led to the discovery of inhibitors with greater specificity, reduced side-effects and lower toxicity. A second generation of Akt has inhibitors emerged by incorporating a chemically reactive Michael acceptor template to target the nucleophile cysteines in the catalytic activation loop. The review outlines the development of several promising drug candidates emphasizing the importance of each chemical scaffold. We explore the pipeline of Akt inhibitors and their preclinical and clinical examination status, presenting the potential clinical application of these agents as a monotherapy or in combination with ionizing radiation, other targeted therapies, or chemotherapy. PMID:26698230

  10. Andrographolide inhibits growth of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and upregulation of p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingfang; Yao, Shuluan; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a prevalent hematologic malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide in children. Andrographolide (Andro), the major active component from Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to possess antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. However, whether Andro would inhibit T-ALL cell growth remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of Andro on human T-ALL Jurkat cells and explored the mechanisms of cell death. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry, and the signaling transduction for Andro was analyzed by Western blotting. The results indicated 10 μg/mL Andro could significantly induce Jurkat cells’ apoptosis, depending on the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, Andro-induced apoptosis is enhanced by AKT-selective inhibitor LY294002. ERK- or JNK-selective inhibitors PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on Andro-induced apoptosis. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 could reverse Andro-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We also found that the protein expression of p-p53 and p-p38 were increased after Andro treatments. The result of an in vivo study also demonstrated Andro’s dose-dependent inhibition in subcutaneous Jurkat xenografts. In conclusion, our findings explained a novel mechanism of drug action by Andro in Jurkat cells and suggested that Andro might be developed into a new candidate therapy for T-ALL patients in the coming days. PMID:27114702

  11. Tianeptine sodium salt suppresses TNF-α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human carcinoma cells via suppression of the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-09-01

    Tianeptine sodium salt (TSS) is a selective facilitator of serotonin, but there are no reports regarding anti-invasive effects of TSS. Therefore, we investigated the effect of TSS on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion in three different human carcinoma cell lines. Our findings showed that MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and that TSS reduced TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. TSS also downregulated both MMP-9 expression and TNF-α-induced MMP-9 promoter activity. Using a matrigel invasion assay, we showed that TSS significantly attenuated invasive rates in TNF-α-stimulated LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Furthermore, TSS suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity, which is a potential transcriptional factor for regulating many invasive genes, including MMP-9, by suppressing IκB degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits in LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. TSS also downregulated TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, and a selective PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, diminished TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation followed by levels of MMP-9, suggesting that TSS also reduces MMP-9 expression by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that TSS is a potential anti-invasive agent by suppression of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via inhibition of PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB activity.

  12. Tianeptine sodium salt suppresses TNF-α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human carcinoma cells via suppression of the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Choi, Yung Hyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Gi-Young

    2014-09-01

    Tianeptine sodium salt (TSS) is a selective facilitator of serotonin, but there are no reports regarding anti-invasive effects of TSS. Therefore, we investigated the effect of TSS on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion in three different human carcinoma cell lines. Our findings showed that MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and that TSS reduced TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. TSS also downregulated both MMP-9 expression and TNF-α-induced MMP-9 promoter activity. Using a matrigel invasion assay, we showed that TSS significantly attenuated invasive rates in TNF-α-stimulated LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. Furthermore, TSS suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity, which is a potential transcriptional factor for regulating many invasive genes, including MMP-9, by suppressing IκB degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits in LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. TSS also downregulated TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, and a selective PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, diminished TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation followed by levels of MMP-9, suggesting that TSS also reduces MMP-9 expression by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that TSS is a potential anti-invasive agent by suppression of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression via inhibition of PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB activity. PMID:25168152

  13. Calycosin ameliorates diabetes-induced cognitive impairments in rats by reducing oxidative stress via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Linhui

    2016-04-29

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), but there is currently no effective method of prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen for it. In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on cognitive behavior and the potential mechanism involved in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of diabetes and calycosin treatment on spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze, passive avoidance and motor coordination tests. Histological analysis of the hippocampus cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region was conducted in rats. The decreased expression of the synapsin (SYN) and postsynatptic density protein (PSD-95), as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic rats was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with calycosin promoted a reduction in the expression of SYN, PSD-95 and BDNF. In addition, diabetic rats showed increased MDA levels, and decreased SOD levels and GSH-Px activities in the hippocampus, as well as increased AChE activity in the cerebral cortex; these changes were reversed by calycosin supplementation. Thus, the impairment of learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats was alleviated by calycosin, and that the degree of alleviation was associated with oxidative stress. We also found that calycosin treatment significantly stimulated Akt phosphorylation and decreased GSK-3β and tau phosphorylation, and that these changes could be restored by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, calycosin had a beneficial effect on the amelioration, prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, through its involvement in oxidative stress, synaptic function and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26970304

  14. Licochalcone A induces autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR inactivation and autophagy suppression enhances Licochalcone A-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lin, Chu-Liang; Lin, Chia-Liang; Hsueh, Jung-Tsung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary bioactive compounds in chemoprevention can potentially reverse, suppress, or even prevent cancer progression. However, the effects of licochalcone A (LicA) on apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, LicA treatment was found to significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay results showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in four cervical cancer cell lines treated with LicA. We found that LicA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells, with decreasing Bcl-2 expression. LicA also induced autophagy effects were examined by identifying accumulation of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) enhanced LicA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we suggested the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of mTOR pathway by LicA. Furthermore, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002/si-Akt or of mTOR by rapamycin augmented LicA-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the in vivo mice bearing a SiHa xenograft, LicA dosed at 10 or 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the chemotherapeutic potential of LicA for treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:26311737

  15. Cinnamaldehyde affects the biological behavior of human colorectal cancer cells and induces apoptosis via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiepin; Teng, Yuhao; Liu, Shenlin; Wang, Zifan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Xi, Songyang; Xu, Song; Wang, Ruiping; Zou, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a bioactive compound isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, that has been identified as an antiproliferative substance with pro-apoptotic effects on various cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, the effects of CA on human colon cancer cells were investigated at both the molecular and cellular levels. Three types of colorectal cancer cells at various stages of differentiation and invasive ability (SW480, HCT116 and LoVo) were treated with CA at final concentrations of 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml for 24 h. Compared with the control group, the proliferation inhibition rate of the human colorectal cancer cells following treatment with CA increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The invasion and adhesion abilities of the cells were significantly inhibited as indicated by Transwell and cell-matrix adhesion assays. Meanwhile, CA also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin and downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. CA also elevated the apoptotic rate. The levels of pro-apoptotic genes were upregulated while the levels of apoptosis inhibitory genes were decreased which further confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of CA. In order to explore the mechanism of CA-induced apoptosis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) were used to regulate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The transcription activity of PI3K/AKT was markedly inhibited by CA, as well as IGF-1 which functions as an anti-apoptotic factor. In conclusion, CA has the potential to be developed as a new antitumor drug. The mechanisms of action involve the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis, invasion and adhesion via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26677144

  16. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance autophagy via PI3K/AKT signalling to reduce the severity of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Song, Yuanlin; She, Jun; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a type II programmed cell death, is essential for cell survival under stress, e.g. lung injury, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have great potential for cell therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying the BM-MSC activation of autophagy to provide a therapeutic effect in ischaemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury (IRI) remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the activation of autophagy in IRI following transplantation with BM-MSCs. Seventy mice were pre-treated with BM-MSCs before they underwent lung IRI surgery in vivo. Human pulmonary micro-vascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) were pre-conditioned with BM-MSCs by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) in vitro. Expression markers for autophagy and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway were analysed. In IRI-treated mice, administration of BM-MSCs significantly attenuated lung injury and inflammation, and increased the level of autophagy. In OGD-treated HPMVECs, co-culture with BM-MSCs attenuated endothelial permeability by decreasing the level of cell death and enhanced autophagic activation. Moreover, administration of BM-MSCs decreased the level of PI3K class I and p-Akt while the expression of PI3K class III was increased. Finally, BM-MSCs-induced autophagic activity was prevented using the inhibitor LY294002. Administration of BM-MSCs attenuated lung injury by improving the autophagy level via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. These findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms related to BM-MSCs and will help to develop new cell-based therapeutic strategies in lung injury. PMID:26177266

  17. Cinnamaldehyde affects the biological behavior of human colorectal cancer cells and induces apoptosis via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiepin; Teng, Yuhao; Liu, Shenlin; Wang, Zifan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yingying; Xi, Songyang; Xu, Song; Wang, Ruiping; Zou, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is a bioactive compound isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, that has been identified as an antiproliferative substance with pro-apoptotic effects on various cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, the effects of CA on human colon cancer cells were investigated at both the molecular and cellular levels. Three types of colorectal cancer cells at various stages of differentiation and invasive ability (SW480, HCT116 and LoVo) were treated with CA at final concentrations of 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml for 24 h. Compared with the control group, the proliferation inhibition rate of the human colorectal cancer cells following treatment with CA increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The invasion and adhesion abilities of the cells were significantly inhibited as indicated by Transwell and cell-matrix adhesion assays. Meanwhile, CA also upregulated the expression of E-cadherin and downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. CA also elevated the apoptotic rate. The levels of pro-apoptotic genes were upregulated while the levels of apoptosis inhibitory genes were decreased which further confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of CA. In order to explore the mechanism of CA-induced apoptosis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) were used to regulate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The transcription activity of PI3K/AKT was markedly inhibited by CA, as well as IGF-1 which functions as an anti-apoptotic factor. In conclusion, CA has the potential to be developed as a new antitumor drug. The mechanisms of action involve the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis, invasion and adhesion via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Agmatine Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Oxidant Response via Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway and Up-Regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianshen; Luo, Li; Hou, Fengyan; Fan, Xia; Yu, Jing; Ma, Wei; Tang, Wangqi; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Junyu; Kang, Wenyuan; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key responders of inflammation and are closely related with oxidative stress. Activated macrophages can enhance oxygen depletion, which causes an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to further excessive inflammatory response and tissue damage. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects based on its antioxidant properties. However, the antioxidant effects of agmatine in peripheral tissues and cells, especially macrophages, remain unclear. In this study we explored the role of agmatine in mediating antioxidant effects in RAW 264.7 cells and studied its antioxidant mechanism. Our data demonstrate that agmatine is an activator of Nrf2 signaling that markedly enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increases nuclear Nrf2 protein level, up-regulates the expression of the Nrf2 downstream effector HO-1, and attenuates ROS generation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We further demonstrated that the agmatine-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely through the PI3K/Akt pathway. LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, abolished agmatine-induced HO-1 up-regulation and ROS suppression significantly. Inhibiting HO-1 pathway significantly attenuated the antioxidant effect of agmatine which the products of HO-1 enzymatic activity contributed to. Furthermore, the common membrane receptors of agmatine were evaluated, revealing that α2-adrenoceptor, I1-imidazoline receptor or I2-imidazoline receptor are not required by the antioxidant properties of agmatine. Taken together, our findings revealed that agmatine has antioxidant activity against LPS-induced ROS accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells involving HO-1 expression induced by Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:27685463

  19. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji; Zhu, Li-juan; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhou, Xiao-zhong

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  20. CCN1 acutely increases nitric oxide production via integrin αvβ3-Akt-S6K-phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at the serine 1177 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Gyungah; Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Yoon Shin; Jo, Inho

    2015-12-01

    Although CCN1 (also known as cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer 61, CYR61) has been reported to promote angiogenesis and neovascularization in endothelial cells (ECs), its effects on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production have never been studied. Using human umbilical vein ECs, we investigated whether and how CCN1 regulates NO production. CCN1 acutely increased NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine 1177 (eNOS-Ser(1177)), but not that of eNOS-Thr(495) or eNOS-Ser(114). The level of total eNOS expression was unaltered. Treatment with either LY294002, a selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase known as an upstream kinase of Akt, or H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), inhibited CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and subsequent NO production. Ectopic expression of small interfering RNA against Akt and S6K significantly inhibited the effects of CCN1. Consistently, CCN1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt-Ser(473) and S6K-Thr(389). However, CCN1 did not alter the expression or secretion of VEGF, a known downstream factor of CCN1 and a potential upstream factor of Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation. Furthermore, neutralization of integrin αvβ3 with corresponding antibody completely reversed all of the observed effects of CCN1. Moreover, CCN1 increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat aortas. Finally, we also found that CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and NO production are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, CCN1 acutely increases NO production via activation of a signaling axis in integrin αvβ3-Akt-S6K-eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, suggesting an important role for CCN1 in vasodilation.

  1. Procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds regulate ARE-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1-F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  2. PI3K/AKT, JNK, and ERK pathways are not crucial for the induction of cholesterol biosynthesis gene transcription in intestinal epithelial cells following treatment with the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine.

    PubMed

    Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Baykus, Hakan; Poortman, Jenneke; Garza, Cutberto; Kuiper, Harry; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2008-09-24

    We previously reported that exposure of the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line to noncytotoxic concentrations of potato glycoalkaloids resulted in increased expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes. Genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (AKT) pathways and their downstream effectors such as Jun, c-Myc, and Fos also were induced. MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways have been described to regulate the activity of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBPs) and consequently the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes. In this study, to understand the mechanism of induction of cholesterol biosynthesis upon alpha-chaconine treatment, its effect on SREBP-2 protein levels was investigated. We also examined whether MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways are required for the observed induction of these genes following exposure of cells to alpha-chaconine. Differentiated Caco-2 cells were pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor), or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) or a combination of all inhibitors for 24 h prior to coincubation with 10 microM alpha-chaconine for 6 h. Significant increases in precursor and mature protein levels of SREBP-2 were observed after alpha-chaconine exposure. We also observed that alpha-chaconine treatment resulted in significant phosphorylation of AKT, extracellular signal related protein kinase (ERK), and c-jun N terminal protein kinase (JNK) but not that of p38. In general, the kinase inhibitor experiments revealed that phosphorylation of kinases of PI3K/AKT, ERK, and JNK pathways was not crucial for the induction of expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes, with the exception of SC5DL. The transcription of this later gene was reduced when all three pathways were inhibited. On the basis of these results, it can be postulated that other mechanisms, which may be independent of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes myoblast proliferation and skeletal muscle growth of embryonic chickens via the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Minli; Wang, Huan; Xu, Yali; Yu, Debing; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Xiuhong; Du, Wenxing

    2015-08-01

    During embryonic development, IGF-1 fulfils crucial roles in skeletal myogenesis. However, the involvement of IGF-1-induced myoblast proliferation in muscle growth is still unclear. In the present study, we have characterised the role of IGF-1 in myoblast proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and have revealed novel details of how exogenous IGF-1 influences myogenic genes in chicken embryos. The results show that IGF-1 significantly induces the proliferation of cultured myoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the IGF-1 treatment significantly promoted myoblasts entering a new cell cycle and increasing the mRNA expression levels of cell cycle-dependent genes. However, these effects were inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the Akt inhibitor KP372-1. These data indicated that the pro-proliferative effect of IGF-1 was mediated in response to the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Moreover, we also showed that exogenous IGF-1 stimulated myoblast proliferation in vivo. IGF-1 administration obviously promoted the incorporation of BrdU and remarkably increased the number of PAX7-positive cells in the skeletal muscle of chicken embryos. Administration of IGF-1 also significantly induced the upregulation of myogenic factors gene, the enhancement of c-Myc and the inhibition of myostatin (Mstn) expression. These findings demonstrate that IGF-1 has strong activity as a promoter of myoblast expansion and muscle fiber formation during early myogenesis. Therefore, this study offers insight into the mechanisms responsible for IGF-1-mediated stimulation of embryonic skeletal muscle development, which could have important implications for the improvement of chicken meat production.

  4. Akt inhibitors as an HIV-1 infected macrophage-specific anti-viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Pauline; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Monteiro-Filho, Carlos MR; Planelles, Vicente; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Dewhurst, Stephen; Kim, Baek

    2008-01-01

    Background Unlike CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 infected macrophages exhibit extended life span even upon stress, consistent with their in vivo role as long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs. Results Here, we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt inhibitors, including clinically available Miltefosine, dramatically reduced HIV-1 production from long-living virus-infected macrophages. These PI3K/Akt inhibitors hyper-sensitize infected macrophages to extracellular stresses that they are normally exposed to, and eventually lead to cell death of infected macrophages without harming uninfected cells. Based on the data from these Akt inhibitors, we were able to further investigate how HIV-1 infection utilizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to establish the cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 infection, which extends the lifespan of infected macrophages, a key viral reservoir. First, we found that HIV-1 infection activates the well characterized pro-survival PI3K/Akt pathway in primary human macrophages, as reflected by decreased PTEN protein expression and increased Akt kinase activity. Interestingly, the expression of HIV-1 or SIV Tat is sufficient to mediate this cytoprotective effect, which is dependent on the basic domain of Tat – a region that has previously been shown to bind p53. Next, we observed that this interaction appears to contribute to the downregulation of PTEN expression, since HIV-1 Tat was found to compete with PTEN for p53 binding; this is known to result in p53 destabilization, with a consequent reduction in PTEN protein production. Conclusion Since HIV-1 infected macrophages display highly elevated Akt activity, our results collectively show that PI3K/Akt inhibitors may be a novel therapy for interfering with the establishment of long-living HIV-1 infected reservoirs. PMID:18237430

  5. A Novel, Potent, Small Molecule AKT Inhibitor Exhibits Efficacy against Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dinavahi, Saketh S.; Prasanna, Rajagopalan; Dharmarajan, Sriram; Perumal, Yogeeswari; Viswanadha, Srikant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anomalies of Akt regulation, including overexpression in lung cancer, impart resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, thereby implicating this kinase as a therapeutic intervention point. A novel scaffold of Akt inhibitors was developed through virtual screening of chemical databases available at Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Hyderabad, based on docking studies using Maestro. A benzothienopyrimidine derivative (BIA-6) was identified as a potential lead molecule that inhibited Akt1 enzyme activity with an IC50 of 256 nM. Materials and Methods BIA-6 was tested for in vitro Akt1 inhibition using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer kit. Anti-proliferative activity was tested in NCI-H460, A549, NCI-H1975, and NCI-H2170 cell lines. The effect of the compound on p-Akt (S473) was estimated. Results BIA-6 allosterically caused a dose dependent reduction of growth of cell lines with a half maximal growth inhibition (GI50) range of 0.49 μM to 6.6 μM. Cell cycle analysis indicated that BIA-6 caused a G1 phase arrest at < 100 nM but led to apoptosis at higher doses. BIA-6 also exhibited synergism with standard chemotherapeutic agents. Conclusion BIA-6 is a novel, allosteric Akt inhibitor with potent anti-cancer activity in lung cancer cell lines, that effectively blocks the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway with a high margin selectivity towards normal cells. PMID:25687876

  6. Therapeutic ultrasound reverses peripheral ischemia in type 2 diabetic mice through PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhao-Yang; Li, Rui-Lin; Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Huang, Jing-Juan; Su, Zhi-Xiao; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Lan; Li, Yue; Shi, Yi-Qin; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) has been demonstrated to improve endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, which played a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) impairs eNOS activity. We tested the hypothesis that DM may retard unilateral hindlimb ischemia-induced angiogenesis by inhibiting eNOS in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, and that TUS may reverse DM-related impairment of angiogenesis. C57BL/6 mice were allocated to four groups: (A) mice were fed standard diet (control); (B) mice were fed standard diet and treated with TUS (control+TUS); (C) type-2 DM mice were induced by HFD/STZ (diabetic); and (D) type-2 DM mice and treated with TUS (dabetic+TUS). All mice were surgically induced unilateral limb ischemia. The ischemic skeletal muscles in groups B and D were irradiated with extracorporeal TUS for 9 minutes/day (frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 0.3 W/cm2) for 14 consecutive days. The result showed that TUS augmented the blood perfusion, increased capillary density accompanied by an upregulation of angiogenic factors and a downregulation of apoptotic proteins in group D relative to group C. In vitro, TUS inhibited the apoptosis, promoted tubule formation, proliferation and migration capacities, increased angiogenic factors expression and reduced apoptotic protein levels in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, TUS can robust reverse the inhibiting effect induced by high glucose (HG) on HUVECs, and these benefits could be blocked by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or eNOS inhibitor (L-NAME). Together, TUS restored type-2 DM-mediated inhibition of ischemia-induced angiogenesis, partially via PI3K-Akt-eNOS signal pathway. PMID:27725849

  7. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathways in the Protective Effect of Fluoxetine Against Corticosterone-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bingqing; Li, Yiwen; Niu, Bo; Wang, Xinyi; Cheng, Yufang; Zhou, Zhongzhen; You, Tingting; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Haitao; Xu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine is neuroprotective in several brain injury models. It is commonly used to treat major depressive disorder and related conditions, but its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/forkhead box O3a (PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a) and protein kinase A/cAMP-response element binding protein (PKA/CREB) signaling pathways has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and might be the downstream target of fluoxetine. Here, we used PC12 cells exposed to corticosterone (CORT) to study the neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB signaling pathways. Our results show that CORT reduced PC12 cells viability by 70 %, and that fluoxetine showed a concentration-dependent neuroprotective effect. Neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, Akt, and PKA using LY294002, KRX-0401, and H89, respectively. Treatment of PC12 cells with fluoxetine resulted in increased phosphorylation of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB. Fluoxetine also dose-dependently rescued the phosphorylation levels of Akt, FoxO3a, and CREB, following administration of CORT (from 99 to 110, 56 to 170, 80 to 170 %, respectively). In addition, inhibition of PKA and PI3K/Akt resulted in decreased levels of p-CREB, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a in the presence of fluoxetine. Furthermore, fluoxetine reversed CORT-induced upregulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling pathway. H89 treatment reversed the effect of fluoxetine on the mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was decreased in the presence of CORT. Our data indicate that fluoxetine elicited neuroprotection toward CORT-induced cell death that involves dual regulation from PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a and PKA/CREB pathways. PMID:27412469

  8. Astragaloside IV inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Daiying; Li, Zengqiang; Liu, Hanmo; Dai, Zhengning; Cai, Jiayi; Pang, Lili; Wu, Yingliang

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug whose application is seriously limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of astragaloside IV (3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, AS-IV), a pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Immunocytochemistry and Microculture Tetrazolium (MTT) assays showed that AS-IV significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiomyocyte loss. Additionally, AS-IV markedly ameliorated DOX-caused cardiomyocyte dysfunction via restoring the beating cell ratio and beating rate in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, AS-IV substantially reduced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cytochrome c (CytC) release, and restored the reduced ATP level, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase activities induced by DOX, suggesting that AS-IV significantly attenuated DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. It was further observed that DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as qualitatively evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining and accurately quantified by flow cytometry, was markedly inhibited by AS-IV. Western blot analysis manifested that AS-IV significantly inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (MAP) via inducing the phosphorylation of Akt and Bad. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) remarkably inhibited the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV. Moreover, AS-IV didn't compromise the antitumor activity of DOX. Taken together, our findings indicate that AS-IV ameliorates DIC, and this beneficial effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the PI3K/Akt

  9. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  10. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin. PMID:26909550

  11. Chinese herbal medicine formula tao hong si wu decoction protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Na; Nin, Ling; Zhao, Zhilong; Chen, Lu; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Zhuyun; Zhong, Zhendong; Zeng, Daiwen; Qi, Hongyi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD) is traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of ischemic stroke. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a battery of phase II enzymes and is known as the major mechanism of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of THSWD on the Nrf2 signaling pathway and the consequent effect during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We found that THSWD reduced infarct volume and improved neurological function in a rat stroke model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a key endogenous antioxidant enzyme regulated by Nrf2, was significantly further induced by THSWD in this in vivo model. In neuronal-like PC12 cells, THSWD remarkably up-regulated HO-1 expression and promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase was found to be involved in the upstream of Nrf2 regulation. In an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model, THSWD treatment significantly reduced cell death induced by OGD-Rep insult. Importantly, the protective action was attenuated while PI3K activity was inhibited by a specific inhibitor, LY294002, and the Nrf2 signaling pathway was blocked by antioxidant response element (ARE) decoy oligonucleotides. Collectively, these results demonstrated that THSWD exhibited notable neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo and activation of PI3K/Akt and the Nrf2 signaling pathway may be, at least in part, responsible for the protection. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of the Chinese herbal medicine formula THSWD.

  12. PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Modulates Influenza Virus Induced Mouse Alveolar Macrophage Polarization to M1/M2b

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiangfeng; Dai, Jianping; Xiao, Xuejun; Wu, Liqi; Zeng, Jun; Sheng, Jiangtao; Su, Jinghua; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Kangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages polarized to M1 (pro-inflammation) or M2 (anti-inflammation) phenotypes in response to environmental signals. In this study, we examined the polarization of alveolar macrophage (AM), following induction by different influenza virus strains (ST169 (H1N1), ST602 (H3N2) and HKG9 (H9N2)). Macrophages from other tissues or cell line exert alternative responding pattern, and AM is necessary for investigating the respiratory system. AM polarized toward the M1 phenotype after 4 hours of infection by all three virus strains, and AM to presented M2b phenotype after 8 hours induction, and immunosuppressive phenotype after 24 hours of induction. Protein expression assay showed similar results as the gene expression analysis for phenotype verification. The ELISA assay showed that TNF-α secretion was up-regulated after 4 and 8 hours of infection by influenza viruses, and it returned to basal levels after 24 hours of infection. IL-10 expression was elevated after 8 and 24 hours of infection. Immunofluorescence showed that iNOS expression was up-regulated but not Arg1 expression. Influenza virus notably increased phospho-Akt but not phospho-Erk1/2 or phospho-p38, and the AM polarization pattern have been changed by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor). In conclusion, our results demonstrate the dynamic polarization of AM induced by influenza viruses, and suggested that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway modulates AM polarization to M1/M2b. PMID:25105760

  13. Nicotine Inhibits Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Regulating α5-nAChR/AKT Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanfei; Sun, Haiji; Wu, Hongqiao; Zhang, Huilin; Zhang, Xiuping; Xiao, Dongjie; Ma, Xiaoli; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer incidence demonstrates a strong etiologic association with smoking. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, is a survival agonist that inhibits apoptosis induced by certain chemotherapeutic agents, but the precise mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α5-nAChR) is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, no information has been available about whether nicotine also affects proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through regulation of α5-nAChR. To evaluate the hypothesis that α5-nAChR may play a role in gastric cancer, we investigated its expression in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of α5-nAChR increased in gastric cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissues. In view of the results, we proceeded to investigate whether nicotine inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis via regulating α5-nAChR in gastric cancer cell. The results showed that nicotine significantly promoted cell proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner through α5-nAChR activation in human gastric cells. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Silence of α5-nAChR ablated the protective effects of nicotine. However, when co-administrating LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K/AKT pathway, an increased apoptosis was observed. This effect correlated with the induction of Bcl-2, Bax, Survivin and Caspase-3 by nicotine in gastric cell lines. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine might negatively impact the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic drugs and that α5-nAChR/AKT signaling plays a key role in the anti-apoptotic activity of nicotine induced by cisplatin.

  14. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Promotes the Angiogenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from iPSCs via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Guan, Junjie; Qi, Xin; Ding, Hao; Yuan, Hong; Xie, Zongping; Chen, Chunyuan; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue-engineered bone is a prerequisite step for the successful repair of bone defects. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an essential role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration and can activate the expression of angiogenic factors in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) is an angiogenic small molecule that can inhibit prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes and thus regulate the stability of HIF-1α in cells at normal oxygen tension. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (hiPSC-MSCs) are promising alternatives for stem cell therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DMOG on promoting hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis in tissue-engineered bone and simultaneously explored the underlying mechanisms in vitro. The effectiveness of DMOG in improving the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream angiogenic genes in hiPSC-MSCs demonstrated that DMOG significantly enhanced the gene and protein expression profiles of angiogenic-related factors in hiPSC-MSCs by sustaining the expression of HIF-1α. Further analysis showed that DMOG-stimulated hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis was associated with the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and with an increase in VEGF production. The effects could be blocked by the addition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. In a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats, DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs showed markedly improved angiogenic capacity in the tissue-engineered bone, leading to bone regeneration. Collectively, the results indicate that DMOG, via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, promotes the angiogenesis of hiPSC-MSCs in tissue-engineered bone for bone defect repair and that DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs can be exploited as a potential therapeutic tool in bone regeneration. PMID:27194942

  15. Exenatide exerts direct protective effects on endothelial cells through the AMPK/Akt/eNOS pathway in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rui; Ma, Shifeng; Wang, Chen; Ke, Jing; Yang, Jin; Li, Weihong; Liu, Ye; Hou, Wenfang; Feng, Xinheng; Wang, Guang; Hong, Tianpei

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may have direct favorable effects on cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 analog exenatide on improving coronary endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled and given either lifestyle intervention or lifestyle intervention plus exenatide treatment. After 12-wk treatment, coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), an important indicator of coronary endothelial function, was improved significantly, and serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were remarkably decreased in the exenatide treatment group compared with the baseline and the control group. Notably, CFVR was correlated inversely with hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) and positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, exendin-4 (a form of exenatide) significantly increased NO production, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) level in a dose-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist exendin (9-39) or GLP-1R siRNA, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, AMPK inhibitor compound C, and PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 abolished the effects of exendin-4. Furthermore, exendin-4 reversed homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by decreasing sICAM-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and upregulating NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. Likewise, exendin (9-39) diminished the protective effects of exendin-4 on the homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, exenatide significantly improves coronary endothelial function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The effect may be mediated through activation of AMPK/PI3K-Akt/eNOS pathway via a GLP-1R/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:27072494

  16. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice.

    PubMed

    Ludka, Fabiana Kalyne; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Zomkowski, Andréa; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2016-11-01

    Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering statin that has been shown to exert several pleiotropic effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective and antidepressant-like agent. Antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice is mediated by glutamatergic and serotoninergic receptors, although the precise intracellular signaling pathways involved are unknown. PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway has been associated to neurobiology of depression and seems to be modulated by some pharmacological antidepressant strategies. The present study investigated the participation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of an acute atorvastatin treatment in mice. Atorvastatin sub-effective (0.01 mg/kg) or effective (0.1 mg/kg) doses in the tail suspension test (TST) was administered orally alone or in combination with PI3K, GSK-3β or mTOR inhibitors. The administration of PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 (10 nmol/site, i.c.v) completely prevented the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). The participation of GSK-3β in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin was demonstrated by co-administration of a sub-effective dose of atorvastatin (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) with AR-A014418 (0.01 μg/site, i.c.v., a selective GSK-3β inhibitor) or with lithium chloride (10 mg/kg, p.o., a non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor). The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v.) was also able to prevent atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) antidepressant-like effect. These behavioral findings were supported by neurochemical observations, as atorvastatin treatment increased the immunocontent of the phosphorylated isoforms of Akt, GSK-3β and mTOR in the hippocampus of mice. Taken together, our results suggest an involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice.

  17. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice.

    PubMed

    Ludka, Fabiana Kalyne; Constantino, Leandra Celso; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Zomkowski, Andréa; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2016-11-01

    Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering statin that has been shown to exert several pleiotropic effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective and antidepressant-like agent. Antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice is mediated by glutamatergic and serotoninergic receptors, although the precise intracellular signaling pathways involved are unknown. PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway has been associated to neurobiology of depression and seems to be modulated by some pharmacological antidepressant strategies. The present study investigated the participation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of an acute atorvastatin treatment in mice. Atorvastatin sub-effective (0.01 mg/kg) or effective (0.1 mg/kg) doses in the tail suspension test (TST) was administered orally alone or in combination with PI3K, GSK-3β or mTOR inhibitors. The administration of PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 (10 nmol/site, i.c.v) completely prevented the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). The participation of GSK-3β in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin was demonstrated by co-administration of a sub-effective dose of atorvastatin (0.01 mg/kg, p.o.) with AR-A014418 (0.01 μg/site, i.c.v., a selective GSK-3β inhibitor) or with lithium chloride (10 mg/kg, p.o., a non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor). The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v.) was also able to prevent atorvastatin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) antidepressant-like effect. These behavioral findings were supported by neurochemical observations, as atorvastatin treatment increased the immunocontent of the phosphorylated isoforms of Akt, GSK-3β and mTOR in the hippocampus of mice. Taken together, our results suggest an involvement of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/mTOR signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of atorvastatin in mice. PMID:27468164

  18. Up-regulation of the Ang II/AT1 receptor may compensate for the loss of gastric antrum ICC via the PI3k/Akt signaling pathway in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C M; Huang, X; Lu, H L; Meng, X M; Liu, D H; Kim, Young-Chul; Xu, W X

    2016-03-01

    The classic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a complex system in which angiotensin II (Ang II) has been identified as an important endogenous regulator that influences both smooth muscle contraction and cell growth. Although a local RAS is known to exist in the gastrointestinal tract, it is unclear whether Ang II is involved in the loss of gastric interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in diabetic mice. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Ang II on ICC survival in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Western blot, immunofluorescence, isometric muscle recording, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a cell counting kit-8 were used in this research. Our results demonstrate that the c-Kit and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) protein expression levels in gastric smooth muscle were decreased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, the angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) expression levels in gastric smooth muscle and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression levels in gastric mucosa were increased. The effect of Ang II on the tonic contraction of gastric smooth muscle was potentiated in diabetic mice, and the plasma Ang II level was enhanced. Ang II increased mSCF expression, cell proliferation, and Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in cultured gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs). These effects were reduced by specific inhibitors ZD7155 (an AT1R antagonist) and LY294002 (a PI3-kinase inhibitor). Our results suggest that Ang II increases mSCF expression and cell proliferation in cultured GSMCs in a PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent manner. ACE and AT1R up-regulation in the stomach may help compensate for ICC loss in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  19. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation.

  20. 6-OH-BDE-47 promotes human lung cancer cells epithelial mesenchymal transition via the AKT/Snail signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bao-Lin; Yu, Wei; Huang, Yu-Rong; Cai, Bo-Ning; Du, Le-Hui; Liu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in the various human tissues. The OH-PBDEs are suggested to be stronger endocrine-disrupting compounds than PBDEs, therefore the toxicological effects of OH-PBDEs had received lots of attention. However, there is no study about the carcinogenic effect of OH-PBDEs and their estrogen potencies on the tumorigenesis and development of cancer. In the present study, we found that 6-hydroxy-2,2',4',4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), the most abundant OH-PBDE congeners in human serum, promoted the in vitro migration of lung cancer A549 and H358 cells by induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was confirmed by that 6-OH-BDE-47 significantly down regulated the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin (E-Cad) and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) while up regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin (Vim) and N-cadherin (N-Cad). 6-OH-BDE-47 up regulated the protein while not mRNA levels of Snail, which was the key transcription factor of EMT. Silencing of Snail by use of siRNA attenuated the 6-OH-BDE-47 induced EMT. This suggested that the stabilization of Snail was essential for 6-OH-BDE-47 induced EMT. Further, the treatment of 6-OH-BDE-47 increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in A549 cells. Only PI3K/AKT inhibitor (LY294002), but not ERK inhibitor (PD98059), completely blocked the 6-OH-BDE-47 induced up regulation of Snail and down regulation of E-Cad, suggesting that PI3K/AKT pathway is important for 6-OH-BDE-47-mediated Snail stabilization and EMT in A549 cells. Generally, our results revealed for the first time that 6-OH-BDE-47 promoted the EMT of lung cancer cells via AKT/Snail signals. This suggested that more attention should be paid to the effects of OH-PBDEs on tumorigenesis and development of lung cancer. PMID:25531265

  1. The PI3K/Akt, p38MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways mediate the protection of SO2 against acute lung injury induced by limb ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Rui; Wang, Dong; Liu, Yang; Shan, Lei; Zhou, Jun-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is naturally synthesized by glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) from L-cysteine in mammalian cells. We found that SO2 may have a protective effect on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. The PI3K/Akt, p38MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3 pathways are crucial in cell signaling transduction. The present study aims to verify the role of SO2 on limb I/R-induced ALI, and investigate whether PI3K/Akt, p38MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3 pathways were involved, as well as the relationship among the three pathways; we used specific inhibitors (LY294002, SB03580, and Stattic) to block them, respectively. The experimental methods of Western, ELISA, TUNEL, etc., were used to test the results. In the I/R group, the parameters of lung injury (MDA, MPO, TUNEL, cytokines) increased significantly, but the administration of Na2SO3/NaHSO3 attenuated the damage in the lung. The Western results showed that the rat's lung exist expression of P-STAT3, P-AKT, and P-p38 proteins. After I/R, P-STAT3, P-Akt, and P-p38 proteins expression all increased. After using Na2SO3/NaHSO3, P-Akt, and P-p38 proteins expression increased, but P-STAT3 protein expression decreased. We also found a strange phenomenon; compared to the I/R + SO2 group, the administration of stattic, P-p38 protein expression showed no change, but P-Akt protein expression increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SO2 has a protective effect on rats with limb I/R-induced ALI. The JAK2/STAT3, PI3K/Akt, and p38MAPK pathways are likely all involved in the process, and the JAK2/STAT3 pathway may have an impact on the P13K/Akt pathway.

  2. Novel Inhibitors of AKT: Assessment of a Different Approach Targeting the Pleckstrin Homology Domain

    PubMed Central

    Meuillet, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase B/AKT plays a central role in cancer. The serine/threonine kinase is overexpressed or constitutively active in many cancers and has been validated as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, targeting the kinase activity has revealed itself to be a challenge due to non-selectivity of the compounds towards other kinases. This review summarizes other approaches scientists have developed to inhibit the activity and function of AKT. They consist of targeting the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT. Indeed, upon the generation of 3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PI3Ps) by PI3-kinase (PI3K), AKT translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and binds to the PI3Ps via its PH domain. Thus, several analogs of PI3Ps (PI Analogs or PIAs), alkylphospholipids (APLs), such as edelfosine or inositol phosphates (IPs) have been described to inhibit the binding of the PH domain to PI3Ps. Recent allostetic inhibitors and small molecules that do not bind the kinase domain but affect the kinase activity of AKT, presumably by interacting with the PH domain, have been also identified. Finally, several drug screening studies spawned novel chemical scaffolds that bind the PH domain of AKT. Together, these approaches have been more or less sucessful in vitro and to some extent translated in preclinical studies. Several of these new AKT PH domain inhibitors exhibit promising anti-tumor activity in mouse models and some of them show synergy with ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. Early clinical trials have started and results will attest to the validity and efficacy of such approaches in the near future. PMID:21649580

  3. Involvement of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoform 1 (NCX1) in Neuronal Growth Factor (NGF)-induced Neuronal Differentiation through Ca2+-dependent Akt Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Secondo, Agnese; Esposito, Alba; Sirabella, Rossana; Boscia, Francesca; Pannaccione, Anna; Molinaro, Pasquale; Cantile, Maria; Ciccone, Roselia; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Scorziello, Antonella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    NGF induces neuronal differentiation by modulating [Ca2+]i. However, the role of the three isoforms of the main Ca2+-extruding system, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), in NGF-induced differentiation remains unexplored. We investigated whether NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 isoforms could play a relevant role in neuronal differentiation through the modulation of [Ca2+]i and the Akt pathway. NGF caused progressive neurite elongation; a significant increase of the well known marker of growth cones, GAP-43; and an enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ content and of Akt phosphorylation through an early activation of ERK1/2. Interestingly, during NGF-induced differentiation, the NCX1 protein level increased, NCX3 decreased, and NCX2 remained unaffected. At the same time, NCX total activity increased. Moreover, NCX1 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with GAP-43, and NCX1 silencing prevented NGF-induced effects on GAP-43 expression, Akt phosphorylation, and neurite outgrowth. On the other hand, the overexpression of its neuronal splicing isoform, NCX1.4, even in the absence of NGF, induced an increase in Akt phosphorylation and GAP-43 protein expression. Interestingly, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ currents and 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4′-[1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane-7,13-diylbis(5-methoxy-6,12-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetrakis[(acetyloxy)methyl] ester-detected [Na+]i significantly increased in cells overexpressing NCX1.4 as well as ER Ca2+ content. This latter effect was prevented by tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, either the [Ca2+]i chelator(1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid) (BAPTA-AM) or the PI3K inhibitor LY 294002 prevented Akt phosphorylation and GAP-43 protein expression rise in NCX1.4 overexpressing cells. Moreover, in primary cortical neurons, NCX1 silencing prevented Akt phosphorylation, GAP-43 and MAP2 overexpression, and neurite elongation. Collectively, these data show that NCX1 participates in neuronal differentiation

  4. Rumex acetosa L. induces vasorelaxation in rat aorta via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt- AND Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Su, X H; Jin, J Y; Zhou, Z Q; Sun, S S; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N

    2015-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (RA) (Polygonaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in clinic for a long history in China and the aerial parts of RA has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as diuretic, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanisms involved are to be defined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect and define the mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of Rumex acetosa L. (ERA) in rat aorta. ERA was examined for its vascular relaxant effect in isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat thoracic aorta and its acute effects on arterial blood pressure. In addition, the roles of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the ERA-induced effects were tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The phosphorylation levels of Akt and eNOS were assessed by Western blot analysis in the cultured HUVECs. ERA induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The ERA-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by L-NAME (an NOS inhibitor) or ODQ (a sGC inhibitor), but not by indomethacin. Inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway markedly reduced the ERA-induced vasorelaxation. In HUVECs, ERA increased NO formation in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by L-NAME and by removing extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, ERA promoted phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which was prevented by wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that ERA induces eNOS phosphorylation through the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Further, in anesthetized rats, intravenously administered ERA decreased arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner through an activation of the NOS-NO system. In summary, the ERA- induced vasorelaxation was dependent on endothelial integrity and NO production, and was mediated by activation of both the endothelial PI3-kinase/Akt- and Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling and muscular NO-sGC-cGMP signaling. PMID:26769840

  5. Butein sensitizes HeLa cells to cisplatin through the AKT and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways by targeting FoxO3a

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LIRUI; YANG, XIAOFENG; LI, XU; LI, CHEN; ZHAO, LE; ZHOU, YUANYUAN; HOU, HUILIAN

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major challenge in cancer therapy. Butein, a polyphenolic compound, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity through the inhibition of the activation of the protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are two pathways known to be involved in resistance to cisplatin. Hence, we hypotheiszed that butein may be a chemosensitizer to cisplatin. In the present study, we demonstrated that butein synergistically enhanced the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of cisplatin on HeLa cells. Moreover, the combination of butein and cisplatin led to G1 phase arrest. We then aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that butein inhibited the activation of AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERKs) and p38 kinases in the presence of cisplatin. The use of the AKT inhibitor, LY294002, in combination with cisplatin, induced an increase in apoptosis compared to treatment with cisplatin alone, although this effect was not as prominent as that exerted by butein in combination with cisplatin. Of note, the inhibition of ERK or p38 MAPK by U0126 or SB203580, respectively, decreased the apoptosis induced by cisplatin; however, enhanced apoptotic effects were observed with the use of ERK/p38 MAPK inhibitor in combination with butein. These data suggest that the AKT and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways are involved in the synergistic effects of butein and cisplatin. Furthermore, co-treatment with butein and cisplatin promoted the nuclear translocation and expression of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3 or FoxO3a). FoxO3a may be the key molecule on which these pathways converge and is thus implicated in the synergistic effects of butein and cisplatin. This was further confirmed by the RNAi-mediated suppression of FoxO3a. FoxO3a target genes involved in cell cycle progression and apoptosis were also investigated, and combined treatment with butein and cisplatin resulted in the downregulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl

  6. Rumex acetosa L. induces vasorelaxation in rat aorta via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt- AND Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Su, X H; Jin, J Y; Zhou, Z Q; Sun, S S; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N

    2015-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (RA) (Polygonaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in clinic for a long history in China and the aerial parts of RA has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as diuretic, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanisms involved are to be defined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect and define the mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of Rumex acetosa L. (ERA) in rat aorta. ERA was examined for its vascular relaxant effect in isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat thoracic aorta and its acute effects on arterial blood pressure. In addition, the roles of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the ERA-induced effects were tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The phosphorylation levels of Akt and eNOS were assessed by Western blot analysis in the cultured HUVECs. ERA induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The ERA-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by L-NAME (an NOS inhibitor) or ODQ (a sGC inhibitor), but not by indomethacin. Inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway markedly reduced the ERA-induced vasorelaxation. In HUVECs, ERA increased NO formation in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by L-NAME and by removing extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, ERA promoted phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which was prevented by wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that ERA induces eNOS phosphorylation through the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Further, in anesthetized rats, intravenously administered ERA decreased arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner through an activation of the NOS-NO system. In summary, the ERA- induced vasorelaxation was dependent on endothelial integrity and NO production, and was mediated by activation of both the endothelial PI3-kinase/Akt- and Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling and muscular NO-sGC-cGMP signaling.

  7. Exploitation of the ability of γ-tocopherol to facilitate membrane co-localization of Akt and PHLPP1 to develop PHLPP1-targeted Akt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ribai; Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Kapuriya, Naval; Chou, Chih-Chien; Lai, Po-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Yang, Chia-Ning; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2015-03-12

    Previously, we reported that Akt inactivation by γ-tocopherol (2) in PTEN-negative prostate cancer cells resulted from its unique ability to facilitate membrane co-localization of Akt and PHLPP1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase isoform 1), a Ser473-specific Akt phosphatase, through pleckstrin homology (PH) domain binding. This finding provided a basis for exploiting 2 to develop a novel class of PHLPP1-targeted Akt inhibitors. Here, we used 3 (γ-VE5), a side chain-truncated 2 derivative, as a scaffold for lead optimization. The proof-of-concept of this structural optimization was obtained by 20, which exhibited higher antitumor efficacy than 3 in PTEN-negative cancer cells through PHLPP1-facilitated Akt inactivation. Like 3, 20 preferentially recognized the PH domains of Akt and PHLPP1, as its binding affinities for other PH domains, including those of ILK and PDK1, were an order-of-magnitude lower. Moreover, 20 was orally active in suppressing xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, which underlines the translational potential of this new class of Akt inhibitor in PTEN-deficient cancers.

  8. Tanshinone IIA protects H9c2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death via microRNA-133 upregulation and Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunfei; Liang, Zhuo; Wang, Haijun; Jin, Jun; Zhang, Shouyan; Xue, Shufeng; Chen, Jianfeng; He, Huijuan; Duan, Kadan; Wang, Jing; Chang, Xuewei; Qiu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of tanshinone IIA and the underlying molecular mechanisms. An in vitro model of oxidative stress injury was established in cardiac H9c2 cells, and the effects of tanshinone IIa were investigated using cell viability, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays. The results demonstrated that tanshinone IIA protects H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, via a mechanism involving microRNA-133 (miR-133), and that treatment with TIIA alone exerted no cytotoxic effects on H9c2. In order to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the actions of TIIA, reverse transcription-quantitative polymease chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed. Reductions in miR-133 expression levels induced by increasing concentrations of H2O2 were reversed by treatment with tanshinone IIA. In addition, the inhibition of miR-133 by transfection with an miR-133 inhibitor abolished the cardioprotective effects of tanshinone IIA against H2O2-induced cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that tanshinone IIA activated Akt kinase via the phosphorylation of serine 473. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by pretreatment with the PI3K specific inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 also eliminated the cardioprotective effects of tanshinone IIA against H2O2-induced cell death. Western blot analysis demonstrated that H2O2-induced reductions in B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression levels were reversed by tanshinone IIA. In addition, the effect of tanshinone IIA on Bcl-2 protein expression level in an oxidative environment was suppressed by a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, indicating that tanshinone IIA exerts cardioprotective effects against H2O2-induced cell death via the activation of the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway and the consequent upregulation of Bcl-2. In

  9. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chenchen Xing Tairan Tang Mingliang Yong Wu Yan Dan Deng Hongmin Wang Huili Wang Ming Chen Jutao Ruan Diyun

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.

  10. Synthesis and SAR studies of dual AKT/NF-κB inhibitors against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Barile, Elisa; De, Surya K; Feng, Yongmei; Chen, Vida; Yang, Li; Ronai, Ze'ev; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The protein Kinase B alpha (AKT) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways are central regulators of cellular signaling events at the basis of tumor development and progression. Both pathways are often up-regulated in different tumor types including melanoma. We recently reported the identification of compound 1 (BI-69A11) as inhibitor of the AKT and the NF-κB pathways. Here, we describe SAR studies that led to novel fluorinated derivatives with increased cellular potency, reflected in efficient inhibition of AKT and IKKs. Selected compounds demonstrated effective toxicity on melanoma, breast, and prostate cell lines. Finally, a representative derivative showed promising efficacy in an in vivo melanoma xenograft model. PMID:23790042

  11. Akt inhibitor MK2206 prevents influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Oxana V; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kainov, Denis E

    2014-07-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus. PMID:24752266

  12. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  13. Dual phosphorylation of Btk by Akt/protein kinase b provides docking for 14-3-3ζ, regulates shuttling, and attenuates both tonic and induced signaling in B cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Nore, Beston F; Hussain, Alamdar; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard

    2013-08-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is crucial for B-lymphocyte activation and development. Mutations in the Btk gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice. Using tandem mass spectrometry, 14-3-3ζ was identified as a new binding partner and negative regulator of Btk in both B-cell lines and primary B lymphocytes. The activated serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylated Btk on two sites prior to 14-3-3ζ binding. The interaction sites were mapped to phosphoserine pS51 in the pleckstrin homology domain and phosphothreonine pT495 in the kinase domain. The double-alanine, S51A/T495A, replacement mutant failed to bind 14-3-3ζ, while phosphomimetic aspartate substitutions, S51D/T495D, caused enhanced interaction. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002 abrogated S51/T495 phosphorylation and binding. A newly characterized 14-3-3 inhibitor, BV02, reduced binding, as did the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 (ibrutinib). Interestingly, in the presence of BV02, phosphorylation of Btk, phospholipase Cγ2, and NF-κB increased strongly, suggesting that 14-3-3 also regulates B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated tonic signaling. Furthermore, downregulation of 14-3-3ζ elevated nuclear translocation of Btk. The loss-of-function mutant S51A/T495A showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Conversely, the gain-of-function mutant S51D/T495D exhibited intense tyrosine phosphorylation, associated with Btk ubiquitination and degradation, likely contributing to the termination of BCR signaling. Collectively, this suggests that Btk could become an important new candidate for the general study of 14-3-3-mediated regulation.

  14. Biomarkers of Response to Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sangai, Takafumi; Akcakanat, Argun; Chen, Huiqin; Tarco, Emily; Wu, Yun; Do, Kim-Anh; Miller, Todd W.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Mills, Gordon B.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 inhibits tumor growth, and that PTEN/PIK3CA mutations confer MK-2206 sensitivity. Experimental Design MK-2206 effects on cell signaling were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Its antitumor efficacy was assessed in vitro in a panel of cancer cell lines with differing PIK3CA and PTEN status. Its in vivo efficacy was tested as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel. Results MK-2206 inhibited Akt signaling and cell-cycle progression, and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cell lines. Cell lines with PTEN or PIK3CA mutations were significantly more sensitive to MK-2206; however, several lines with PTEN/PIK3CA mutations were MK-2206 resistant. siRNA knockdown of PTEN in breast cancer cells increased Akt phosphorylation concordant with increased MK-2206 sensitivity. Stable transfection of PIK3CA E545K or H1047R mutant plasmids into normal-like MCF10A breast cells enhanced MK-2206 sensitivity. Cell lines that were less sensitive to MK-2206 had lower ratios of Akt1/Akt2 and had less growth inhibition with Akt siRNA knockdown. In PTEN-mutant ZR75-1 breast cancer xenografts, MK-2206 treatment inhibited Akt signaling, cell proliferation, and tumor growth. In vitro, MK-2206 showed a synergistic interaction with paclitaxel in MK-2206–sensitive cell lines, and this combination had significantly greater antitumor efficacy than either agent alone in vivo. Conclusions MK-2206 has antitumor activity alone and in combination with chemotherapy. This activity may be greater in tumors with PTEN loss or PIK3CA mutation, providing a strategy for patient enrichment in clinical trials. PMID:22932669

  15. Erythropoietin protects cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through an Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tramontano, Anthony F; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Black, Aislinn D; Blendea, Mihaela C; Cohen, Inna; Deng, Lili; Sowers, James R; Cutaia, Michael V; El-Sherif, Nabil

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis is a contributing cause of myocyte loss in ischemic heart disease. Recent work has shown that erythropoietin (EPO) offers protection against apoptosis in a wide variety of tissues. We demonstrate that the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is expressed in the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM). Exposure of NRVMs to hypoxia, with recombinant human EPO, significantly decreased apoptosis as measured by TUNEL, flow cytometry, and caspase 3/7 like activity when compared to hypoxia treatment alone. EPO administered at the initiation of coronary artery occlusion in the rat significantly decreased apoptosis in the myocardial ischemic region. In the NRVM, EPO increased the activity of Akt. The anti-apoptotic effect of EPO was abrogated by co-treatment with LY294002, a specific blocker of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). Our study demonstrates that EPO inhibits apoptosis in the NRVM exposed to hypoxia, through an Akt-dependent pathway. EPO also inhibits apoptosis in the in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia.

  16. Transmembrane-Bound IL-15-Promoted Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Renal Cancer Cells Requires the Src-Dependent Akt/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaqin; Meng, Xiaoxin; Guo, Wenjie; Cai, Peifen; Li, Wanshuai; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Gu, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15) plays a major role controlling epithelial survival and polarization both in physiological and pathologic conditions. Herein, we confirmed that human renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) express a membrane-bound IL-15 isoform displaying an unusual molecular weight of 27 kDa. Its stimulation with soluble IL-15 receptor α chain (s-IL-15Rα) triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as shown by the down-regulation of E-cadherin and zona occludens 1 and the up-regulation of vimentin and N-cadherin and promotes the migratory and invasive properties of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment triggered the Src/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and promoted β-catenin nuclei translocation. Deactivation of this pathway by using Src-specific inhibitor PP2, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and AKT inhibitor MK2206 hampered β-catenin nuclei translocation and suppressed EMT, migration, and invasion of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment also enhanced Src-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). FAK knockdown significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC, which suggest that Src-FAK signaling was involved in s-IL-15Rα-favored migration and invasion of RCC. At the same time, inhibitors of Erk1/2 also significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC but could not reverse s-IL-15Rα-induced EMT. Taken together, our results reveal that Src-dependent PI3K/Akt/GSK3b/β-catenin pathway is required for s-IL-15Ra-dependent induction of EMT in RCC, while Src-FAK and Src-Erk1/2 signaling were involved in s-IL-15Rα-promoted migration and invasion properties of RCC. Our study provides a better understanding of IL-15 signaling in RCC tumor progression, which may lead to novel targeted therapies and provide some suggestions when using IL-15 in clinic. PMID:26025664

  17. Novel Kinase Inhibitors Targeting the PH Domain of AKT for Preventing and Treating Cancer | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Medical Oncology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing and co-development collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel kinase inhibitors targeting the PH domain of AKT.

  18. Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    REN, MIN; WANG, XUDONG; DU, GUOQING; TIAN, JIAWEI; LIU, YUJIE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. Hemodynamic parameters, including ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were monitored using an ultrasound system, and infarct size was measured using Evans blue/tetrazolium chloride double staining. The activities of serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to assess the degree of myocardial injury and oxidative stress-induced damage. The protein expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, phosphorylated (p)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85, PI3K p85, p-Akt and Akt were determined using western blotting. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with high dose (H)-CG markedly improved cardiac function, as evidenced by upregulated EF, FS and LVESP, and downregulated LVEDP. In addition, administration of CG resulted in significant decreases in infarct size in the I/R+low dose-CG and I/R+H-CG groups, compared with the I/R group. The activities of CK and LDH, and the levels of MDA in the I/R+H-CG group were reduced, compared with those in the I/R group, whereas SOD activity was elevated. Treatment with CG inhibited the cleavage and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K p85 and Akt. Notably, administration of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, markedly lowered the levels of p-PI3K p85/p-Akt, and eradicated the inhibitory effects of H-CG on infarct size, myocardial injury and oxidative stress-induced damage. Taken together, the results suggested that CG may alleviate I/R injury by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26648122

  19. Puerarin attenuates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells through the JNK- and Akt-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongdong; Mu, Shuai; Zhao, Danyang; Wang, Guangbin; Chen, Zhiguang; Ren, Hongfei; Fu, Qin

    2015-08-01

    Puerarin is an active component of Pueraria lobata, which is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of puerarin on glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts in vitro. The effects of puerarin on dexamethasone (DEX)-induced cell apoptosis were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and found that the viability of hFOB1.19 cells was significantly increased following exposure to between 10(-6) and 10(-10) M puerarin, with a maximal anti-apoptotic effect at a concentration of 10(-8) M. In addition, compared with the control group, puerarin upregulated the transcription and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 and downregulated B-cell-associated X protein in the hFOB1.19 cells. Puerarin attenuated the DEX-induced release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase-3, and treatment with puerarin inhibited the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the hFOB1.19 cells. Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partly eliminated the protective effect of puerarin on DEX-induced apoptosis, and puerarin combined with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed DEX-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent than in the cells treated with SP600125 alone. These results suggested that the JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways mediate the inhibitory effects of puerarin on apoptosis in the hFOB1.19 cells. In conclusion, puerarin prevented DEX-induced apoptosis of hFOB1.19 cells via inhibition of the JNK pathway and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cells, dependent on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These results support puerarin as a promising target in the treatment of GC-induced osteoporosis. PMID:26101183

  20. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of Danshensu and hydroxysafflor yellow A against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are mediated through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    HU, TIANXIN; WEI, GUO; XI, MIAOMIAO; YAN, JIAJIA; WU, XIAOXIAO; WANG, YANHUA; ZHU, YANRONG; WANG, CHAO; WEN, AIDONG

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius L., are usually prescribed in combination due to their significant cardioprotective effects. However, the mechanisms responsible for these combined effects remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the combined effects of Danshensu (DSS) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) by establishing a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), as well as a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) using H9c2 cells. The combination index (CI) was calculated using the median-effect method. DSS and HSYA in combination led to a CI value of <1 as regards infarct size in vivo and cell viability in vitro. The rats with MI/R injury that were treated with DSS and/or HSYA were found to have significantly lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a lower expressoin of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and markedly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Our in vitro experiments revealed that the cells treated with DSS and/or HSYA had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a decreased percentage of cell apoptosis (increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3). DSS and HSYA increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the phosphorylation of Akt and the trans-location of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partially hampered the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX), did not decrease the expression of p-Akt and Nrf2, although it abolished the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of DSS and HSYA. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that DSS and HSYA confer synergistic cardioprotective effects through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, to certain extent, by enhancing the antioxidant defense system and exerting

  1. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of Danshensu and hydroxysafflor yellow A against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are mediated through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianxin; Wei, Guo; Xi, Miaomiao; Yan, Jiajia; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yanhua; Zhu, Yanrong; Wang, Chao; Wen, Aidong

    2016-07-01

    In clinical practice, the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius L., are usually prescribed in combination due to their significant cardioprotective effects. However, the mechanisms responsible for these combined effects remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the combined effects of Danshensu (DSS) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) by establishing a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), as well as a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) using H9c2 cells. The combination index (CI) was calculated using the median-effect method. DSS and HSYA in combination led to a CI value of <1 as regards infarct size in vivo and cell viability in vitro. The rats with MI/R injury that were treated with DSS and/or HSYA were found to have significantly lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a lower expressoin of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and markedly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Our in vitro experiments revealed that the cells treated with DSS and/or HSYA had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a decreased percentage of cell apoptosis (increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3). DSS and HSYA increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the phosphorylation of Akt and the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partially hampered the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP‑IX), did not decrease the expression of p-Akt and Nrf2, although it abolished the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of DSS and HSYA. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that DSS and HSYA confer synergistic cardioprotective effects through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, to certain extent, by enhancing the antioxidant

  2. Novel Cancer Chemotherapy Hits by Molecular Topology: Dual Akt and Beta-Catenin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves; Recio-Iglesias, Maria Carmen; Garcia-Domenech, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Colorectal and prostate cancers are two of the most common types and cause of a high rate of deaths worldwide. Therefore, any strategy to stop or at least slacken the development and progression of malignant cells is an important therapeutic choice. The aim of the present work is the identification of novel cancer chemotherapy agents. Nowadays, many different drug discovery approaches are available, but this paper focuses on Molecular Topology, which has already demonstrated its extraordinary efficacy in this field, particularly in the identification of new hit and lead compounds against cancer. This methodology uses the graph theoretical formalism to numerically characterize molecular structures through the so called topological indices. Once obtained a specific framework, it allows the construction of complex mathematical models that can be used to predict physical, chemical or biological properties of compounds. In addition, Molecular Topology is highly efficient in selecting and designing new hit and lead drugs. According to the aforementioned, Molecular Topology has been applied here for the construction of specific Akt/mTOR and β-catenin inhibition mathematical models in order to identify and select novel antitumor agents. Experimental Approach Based on the results obtained by the selected mathematical models, six novel potential inhibitors of the Akt/mTOR and β-catenin pathways were identified. These compounds were then tested in vitro to confirm their biological activity. Conclusion and Implications Five of the selected compounds, CAS n° 256378-54-8 (Inhibitor n°1), 663203-38-1 (Inhibitor n°2), 247079-73-8 (Inhibitor n°3), 689769-86-6 (Inhibitor n°4) and 431925-096 (Inhibitor n°6) gave positive responses and resulted to be active for Akt/mTOR and/or β-catenin inhibition. This study confirms once again the Molecular Topology’s reliability and efficacy to find out novel drugs in the field of cancer. PMID:25910265

  3. Effects of AKT inhibitor therapy in response and resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical use of BRAF inhibitors for treatment of metastatic melanoma is limited by the development of drug resistance. In this study we investigated whether co-targeting the MAPK and the PI3K-AKT pathway can prevent emergence of resistance or provide additional growth inhibitory effects in vitro. Methods Anti-tumor effects of the combination of the BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) dabrafenib and GSK2141795B (AKTi) in a panel of 23 BRAF mutated melanoma cell lines were evaluated on growth inhibition by an ATP-based luminescent assay, on cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry and on cell signaling by western blot. Moreover, we investigated the possibilities of delaying or reversing resistance or achieving further growth inhibition by combining AKTi with dabrafenib and/or the MEK inhibitor (MEKi) trametinib by using long term cultures. Results More than 40% of the cell lines, including PTEN-/- and AKT mutants showed sensitivity to AKTi (IC50 < 1.5 μM). The combination of dabrafenib and AKTi synergistically potentiated growth inhibition in the majority of cell lines with IC50 > 5 nM dabrafenib. Combinatorial treatment induced apoptosis only in cell lines sensitive to AKTi. In long term cultures of a PTEN-/- cell line, combinatorial treatment with the MAPK inhibitors, dabrafenib and trametinib, and AKTi markedly delayed the emergence of drug resistance. Moreover, combining AKTi with the MAPK inhibitors from the beginning provided superior growth inhibitory effects compared to addition of AKTi upon development of resistance to MAPK inhibitors in this particular cell line. Conclusions AKTi combined with BRAFi-based therapy may benefit patients with tumors harboring BRAF mutations and particularly PTEN deletions or AKT mutations. PMID:24735930

  4. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Walton, Mike I.; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K.; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D.; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P.; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J.; Thompson, Neil T.; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G1 arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective and potent AKT inhibitor, which blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being employed in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  5. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity, and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Walton, Mike I; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J; Thompson, Neil T; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment- and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G(1) arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective, and potent AKT inhibitor that blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being used in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  6. Recent Syntheses of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the syntheses of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors that have been reported outside of the patent literature in the last 5 years but is largely centered on synthetic work reported in 2011 and 2012. While focused on syntheses of inhibitors, some information on in vitro and in vivo testing of compounds is also included. Many of these reported compounds are reversible, competitive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding inhibitors, so given the structural similarities of many of these compounds to the adenine core, this review presents recent work on inhibitors based on where the synthetic chemistry was started, i.e. inhibitor syntheses which started with purines/pyrimidines are followed by inhibitor syntheses which began with pyridines, pyrazines, azoles, and triazines then moves to inhibitors which bear no structural resemblance to adenine: liphagal, wortmannin and quercetin analogs. The review then finishes with a short section on recent syntheses of phosphotidyl inositol (PI) analogs since competitive PI binding inhibitors represent an alternative to the competitive ATP binding inhibitors which have received the most attention. PMID:23735831

  7. BRAF inhibitor resistance mediated by the AKT pathway in an oncogenic BRAF mouse melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Perna, Daniele; Karreth, Florian A; Rust, Alistair G; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Rashid, Mamunur; Iorio, Francesco; Alifrangis, Constantine; Arends, Mark J; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Bollag, Gideon; Tuveson, David A; Adams, David J

    2015-02-10

    BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors elicit a transient anti-tumor response in ∼ 80% of BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma patients that almost uniformly precedes the emergence of resistance. Here we used a mouse model of melanoma in which melanocyte-specific expression of Braf(V618E) (analogous to the human BRAF(V600E) mutation) led to the development of skin hyperpigmentation and nevi, as well as melanoma formation with incomplete penetrance. Sleeping Beauty insertional mutagenesis in this model led to accelerated and fully penetrant melanomagenesis and synchronous tumor formation. Treatment of Braf(V618E) transposon mice with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 resulted in tumor regression followed by relapse. Analysis of transposon insertions identified eight genes including Braf, Mitf, and ERas (ES-cell expressed Ras) as candidate resistance genes. Expression of ERAS in human melanoma cell lines conferred resistance to PLX4720 and induced hyperphosphorylation of AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), a phenotype reverted by combinatorial treatment with PLX4720 and the AKT inhibitor MK2206. We show that ERAS expression elicits a prosurvival signal associated with phosphorylation/inactivation of BAD, and that the resistance of hepatocyte growth factor-treated human melanoma cells to PLX4720 can be reverted by treatment with the BAD-like BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Thus, we define a role for the AKT/BAD pathway in resistance to BRAF inhibition and illustrate an in vivo approach for finding drug resistance genes.

  8. BRAF inhibitor resistance mediated by the AKT pathway in an oncogenic BRAF mouse melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Perna, Daniele; Karreth, Florian A; Rust, Alistair G; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Rashid, Mamunur; Iorio, Francesco; Alifrangis, Constantine; Arends, Mark J; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Bollag, Gideon; Tuveson, David A; Adams, David J

    2015-02-10

    BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors elicit a transient anti-tumor response in ∼ 80% of BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma patients that almost uniformly precedes the emergence of resistance. Here we used a mouse model of melanoma in which melanocyte-specific expression of Braf(V618E) (analogous to the human BRAF(V600E) mutation) led to the development of skin hyperpigmentation and nevi, as well as melanoma formation with incomplete penetrance. Sleeping Beauty insertional mutagenesis in this model led to accelerated and fully penetrant melanomagenesis and synchronous tumor formation. Treatment of Braf(V618E) transposon mice with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 resulted in tumor regression followed by relapse. Analysis of transposon insertions identified eight genes including Braf, Mitf, and ERas (ES-cell expressed Ras) as candidate resistance genes. Expression of ERAS in human melanoma cell lines conferred resistance to PLX4720 and induced hyperphosphorylation of AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), a phenotype reverted by combinatorial treatment with PLX4720 and the AKT inhibitor MK2206. We show that ERAS expression elicits a prosurvival signal associated with phosphorylation/inactivation of BAD, and that the resistance of hepatocyte growth factor-treated human melanoma cells to PLX4720 can be reverted by treatment with the BAD-like BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Thus, we define a role for the AKT/BAD pathway in resistance to BRAF inhibition and illustrate an in vivo approach for finding drug resistance genes. PMID:25624498

  9. Lovastatin Inhibits VEGFR and AKT Activation: Synergistic Cytotoxicity in Combination with VEGFR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Christina L.; Dimitroulakos, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Background In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. Methodology/Principal Findings The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1), play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors. PMID:20838437

  10. MicroRNA-214 acts as a potential oncogene in breast cancer by targeting the PTEN-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Mingzhi; Gu, Yuanting

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer ranks as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in females worldwide. It has been proven that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), a type of non‑coding RNA, are involved in tumorigenesis. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the critical role of miR‑214 in certain types of cancer. Nevertheless, the biological function of miR‑214, as well as its underlying mechanisms of action in breast cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of miR‑214 was found to be upregulated in four human breast cancer cell lines in contrast to its expression level in the non‑malignant breast epithelial cell line, MCF‑10A. Moreover, the overexpression of miR‑214 markedly increased cell viability and abrogated the apoptosis triggered by serum starvation, indicating that miR‑214 plays a pivotal role in breast cancer cell growth. Further analysis suggested that the upregulation of miR‑214 markedly induced the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which largely accounted for the protective effects of miR‑124 on cancer cell growth. This was further confimed by pre‑treatment with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, which markedly attenuated the miR‑214‑induced increase in cell viability and resistance to apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was decreased following transfection wtih miR‑214 mimics and PTEN was confirmed as the direct target of miR‑214 by bioinformatics analysis and a dual‑firefly luciferase reporter assay. Importantly, the introduction of PTEN cDNA lacking the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) significantly inhibited the miR‑214‑induced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and abrogated the protetive effects of miR‑214 on cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR‑214 possesses oncogenic activity and that its effects are mediated through the promotion of cell growth

  11. PI3K/Akt pathway involving into apoptosis and invasion in human colon cancer cells LoVo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun Guang; Li, Tai Yuan; Liu, Dong Ning; Zhang, Hai Tao

    2014-05-01

    In this study we determined the effects of Curcumin on human colon cancer cells line LoVo. We found that Curcumin significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, and clone formation of LoVo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also dose-dependently reduced the phosphorylation of proteins Akt and increased expression levels of the genes caspase-3, cytochrome-c, Bax mRNA in LoVo cells. In addition, Curcumin dose-dependently decreased gene Bcl-2 mRNA expression. Similar results were observed in LoVo cells treated with LY294002. These in vitro studies suggest that Curcumin may play its anti-cancer actions partly via suppressing PI3K/Akt signal pathway in LoVo cells.

  12. Molecular characterization of anastrozole resistance in breast cancer: pivotal role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in the emergence of de novo or acquired resistance and importance of combining the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 with an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vilquin, Paul; Villedieu, Marie; Grisard, Evelyne; Ben Larbi, Sabrina; Ghayad, Sandra E; Heudel, Pierre-Etienne; Bachelot, Thomas; Corbo, Laura; Treilleux, Isabelle; Vendrell, Julie A; Cohen, Pascale A

    2013-10-01

    Acquisition of resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) remains a major drawback in the treatment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers. The Res-Ana cells, a new model of acquired resistance to anastrozole, were established by long-term exposure of aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells to this drug. These resistant cells developed ER-independent mechanisms of resistance and decreased sensitivity to the AI letrozole or to ERα antagonists. They also displayed a constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and a deregulated expression of several ErbB receptors. An observed increase in the phospho-Akt/Akt ratio between primary and matched recurrent breast tumors of patients who relapsed under anastrozole adjuvant therapy also argued for a pivotal role of the Akt pathway in acquired resistance to anastrozole. Ectopic overexpression of constitutively active Akt1 in control cells was sufficient to induce de novo resistance to anastrozole. Strikingly, combining anastrozole with the highly selective and allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 or with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased sensitivity to this AI in the control cells and was sufficient to overcome resistance and restore sensitivity to endocrine therapy in the resistant cells. Our findings lead to us proposing a model of anastrozole-acquired resistance based on the selection of cancer-initiating-like cells possessing self-renewing properties, intrinsic resistance to anastrozole and sensitivity to MK-2206. Altogether, our work demonstrated that the Akt/mTOR pathway plays a key role in resistance to anastrozole and that combining anastrozole with Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors represents a promising strategy in the clinical management of hormone-dependent breast cancer patients.

  13. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. PMID:25233217

  14. Soyasaponins Can Blunt Inflammation by Inhibiting the Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. PMID:25233217

  15. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

  16. AMR-Me inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling in hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells and inactivates NF-κB in hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Thangaiyan; Huwiler, Andrea; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    AMR-Me, a C-28 methylester derivative of triterpenoid compound Amooranin isolated from Amoora rohituka stem bark and the plant has been reported to possess multitude of medicinal properties. Our previous studies have shown that AMR-Me can induce apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic and MAPK signaling pathways by regulating the expression of apoptosis related genes in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. However, the molecular mechanism of AMR-Me induced apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Our results showed that AMR-Me dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells under serum-free conditions supplemented with 1 nM estrogen (E2) with an IC50 value of 0.15 µM, 0.45 µM, respectively. AMR-Me had minimal effects on human normal breast epithelial MCF-10A + ras and MCF-10A cells with IC50 value of 6 and 6.5 µM, respectively. AMR-Me downregulated PI3K p85, Akt1, and p-Akt in an ERα-independent manner in MCF-7 cells and no change in expression levels of PI3K p85 and Akt were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated under similar conditions. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 suppressed Akt activation similar to AMR-Me and potentiated AMR-Me induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. EMSA revealed that AMR-Me inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity in MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner and abrogated EGF induced NF-κB activation. From these studies we conclude that AMR-Me decreased ERα expression and effectively inhibited Akt phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells and inactivate constitutive nuclear NF-κB and its regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells. Due to this multifactorial effect in hormone-dependent and independent breast cancer cells AMR-Me deserves attention for use in breast cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:23475563

  17. Modulation of Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation Using a Pan-PI3K Inhibitor S14161

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lijie; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Qi; He, Sudan; Wu, Qingyu; Hu, Hu; Mao, Xinliang; Zhu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3–kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is critical in modulating platelet functions. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of S14161, a recently identified pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, on platelet activation and thrombus formation. Results showed that S14161 inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by collagen, thrombin, U46619, and ADP in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric studies showed that S14161 inhibited convulxin- or thrombin-induced P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding of single platelet. S14161 also inhibited platelet spreading on fibrinogen and clot retraction, processes mediated by outside-in signaling. Using a microfluidic chamber we demonstrated that S14161 decreased platelet adhesion on collagen-coated surface by about 80%. Western blot showed that S14161 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt at both Ser473 and Thr308 sites, and GSK3β at Ser9 in response to collagen, thrombin, or U46619. Comparable studies showed that S14161 has a higher potential bioavailability than LY294002, a prototypical inhibitor of pan-class I PI3K. Finally, the effects of S14161 on thrombus formation in vivo were measured using a ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury model in mice. The intraperitoneal injection of S14161 (2 mg/kg) to male C57BL/6 mice significantly extended the first occlusion time (5.05±0.99 min, n = 9) compared to the vehicle controls (3.72±0.95 min, n = 8) (P<0.05), but did not prolong the bleeding time (P>0.05). Taken together, our data showed that S14161 inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation without significant bleeding tendency and toxicity, and considering its potential higher bioavailability, it may be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of thrombotic disorders. PMID:25115838

  18. Akt mediates 17β-estradiol and/or estrogen receptor-α inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necresis factor-α expression and myocardial cell apoptosis by suppressing the JNK1/2-NFκB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Jung; Lo, Jeng-Fan; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Li-Ming; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tzang, Bor-Show; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Evidence shows that women have lower tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and lower incidences of heart dysfunction and sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. To identify the cardioprotective effects and precise cellular/molecular mechanisms behind estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs), we investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) on LPS-induced apoptosis by analyzing the activation of survival and death signalling pathways in doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Tet-On/ERα H9c2 myocardial cells and ERα-transfected primary cardiomyocytes overexpressing ERα. We found that LPS challenge activated JNK1/2, and then induced IκB degradation, NFκB activation, TNF-α up-regulation and subsequent myocardial apoptotic responses. In addition, treatments involving E2, membrane-impermeable BSA-E2 and/or Dox, which induces ERα overexpression, significantly inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing LPS-up-regulated JNK1/2 activity, IκB degradation, NFκB activation and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. TNF-α, active caspases-8, t-Bid, Bax, released cytochrome c, active caspase-9, active caspase-3) in myocardial cells. However, the cardioprotective properties of E2, BSA-E2 and ERα overexpression to inhibit LPS-induced apoptosis and promote cell survival were attenuated by applying LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and PI3K siRNA. These findings suggest that E2, BSA-E2 and ERα expression exert their cardioprotective effects by inhibiting JNK1/2-mediated LPS-induced TNF-α expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activation of Akt. PMID:20196785

  19. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory action and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells through PI3K/AKT/Nrf-2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative skin damage and skin inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of skin-related diseases. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid abundantly found in several vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been shown to exert various positive biological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects. In this study, we investigate the skin protective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of fisetin in hydrogen peroxide- and TNF-α-challenged human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of fisetin (1-20μM), heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fisetin dose-dependently increased cell viability and reduced ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated HaCaT cells. Fisetin also inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 IL-1β, IL-6, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and activation of NF-κB in HaCaT cells treated with TNF-α. Fisetin induced Nrf2 translocation to the nuclei. HO-1 siRNA transient transfection reversed the effects of fisetin on cytoprotection, ROS reduction, NO, PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Moreover, fisetin increased Akt phosphorylation and a PI3K pathway inhibitor (LY294002) abolished fisetin-induced cytoprotection and NO inhibition. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a beneficial role of fisetin in skin therapy. PMID:26590114

  20. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory action and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells through PI3K/AKT/Nrf-2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative skin damage and skin inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of skin-related diseases. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid abundantly found in several vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been shown to exert various positive biological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects. In this study, we investigate the skin protective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of fisetin in hydrogen peroxide- and TNF-α-challenged human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of fisetin (1-20μM), heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fisetin dose-dependently increased cell viability and reduced ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated HaCaT cells. Fisetin also inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 IL-1β, IL-6, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and activation of NF-κB in HaCaT cells treated with TNF-α. Fisetin induced Nrf2 translocation to the nuclei. HO-1 siRNA transient transfection reversed the effects of fisetin on cytoprotection, ROS reduction, NO, PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Moreover, fisetin increased Akt phosphorylation and a PI3K pathway inhibitor (LY294002) abolished fisetin-induced cytoprotection and NO inhibition. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a beneficial role of fisetin in skin therapy.

  1. Feedback loops blockade potentiates apoptosis induction and antitumor activity of a novel AKT inhibitor DC120 in human liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Deng, R; Qian, X-J; Chang, S-H; Wu, X-Q; Qin, J; Feng, G-K; Ding, K; Zhu, X-F

    2014-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT is generally accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. However, the relief of feedback inhibition and enhancement of other survival pathways often attenuate the anticancer effects of AKT inhibitors. These compensatory mechanisms are very complicated and remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found a novel 2-pyrimidyl-5-amidothiazole compound, DC120, as an ATP competitive AKT kinase inhibitor that suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. DC120 blocked the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway in dose- and time-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo. However, unexpectedly, DC120 activated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway that was suggested by increased phosphorylation of 70KD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The activated mTORC1 signal was because of increase of intracellular Ca(2+) via Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/ signaling to human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34) upon AKT inhibition. Meanwhile, DC120 attenuated the inhibitory effect of AKT on CRAF by decreasing phosphorylation of CRAF at Ser259 and thus activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The activation of the mTORC1 and MAPK pathways by DC120 was not mutually dependent, and the combination of DC120 with mTORC1 inhibitor and/or MEK inhibitor induced significant apoptosis and growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the combination of AKT, mTORC1 and/or MEK inhibitors would be a promising therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24625973

  2. The novel Akt inhibitor Palomid 529 (P529) enhances the effect of radiotherapy in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, R; Nguewa, P A; Diaz-Gonzalez, J A; Hamel, E; Gonzalez-Moreno, O; Catena, R; Serrano, D; Redrado, M; Sherris, D; Calvo, A

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment for localised prostate cancer, but can cause important side effects. The therapeutic efficacy of RT can be enhanced by pharmacological compounds that target specific pathways involved in cell survival. This would elicit a similar therapeutic response using lower doses of RT and, in turn, reducing side effects. This study describes the antitumour activity of the novel Akt inhibitor 8-(1-Hydroxy-ethyl)-2-methoxy-3-(4-methoxy-benzyloxy)-benzo[c]chromen-6-one (Palomid 529 or P529) as well as its ability to decrease radiation-activated phospho-Akt (p-Akt) signalling in a prostate cancer model. P529 showed a potent antiproliferative activity in the NCI-60 cell lines panel, with growth inhibitory 50 (GI50) <35 μM. In addition, P529 significantly enhanced the antiproliferative effect of radiation in prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Analysis of signalling pathways targeted by P529 exhibited a decrease in p-Akt, VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and Id-1 levels after radiation treatment. Moreover, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was also reduced. Treatment of PC-3 tumour-bearing mice with 20 mg kg−1 P529 or 6 Gy radiation dose decreased tumour size by 42.9 and 53%, respectively. Combination of both treatments resulted in 77.4% tumour shrinkage. Decreased tumour growth was due to reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis (as assessed by PCNA and caspase-3 immunostaining). Our results show the antitumour efficacy of P529 alone, and as a radiosensitiser, and suggest that this compound could be used in the future to treat human prostate cancer. PMID:19240717

  3. Autophagy inhibitors as a potential antiamoebic treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, So-Hee; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to extreme physical and chemical conditions. Autophagy is an essential pathway for encystation of Acanthamoeba cells. To evaluate the possibility of an autophagic Acanthamoeba encystation mechanism, we evaluated autophagy inhibitors, such as 3-methyladenine (3MA), LY294002, wortmannin, bafilomycin A, and chloroquine. Among these autophagy inhibitors, the use of 3MA and chloroquine showed a significant reduction in the encystation ratio in Acanthamoeba cells. Wortmannin also inhibited the formation of mature cysts, while LY294002 and bafilomycin A did not affect the encystation of Acanthamoeba cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 3MA and wortmannin inhibited autophagy formation and that chloroquine interfered with the formation of autolysosomes. Inhibition of autophagy or autolysosome formation resulted in a significant block in the encystation in Acanthamoeba cells. Clinical treatment with 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) showed high cytopathic effects on Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts; however, it also revealed high cytopathic effects on human corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated effects of the combination of a low (0.00125%) concentration of PHMB with each of the autophagy inhibitors 3MA, wortmannin, and chloroquine on Acanthamoeba and human corneal epithelial cells. These new combination treatments showed low cytopathic effects on human corneal cells and high cytopathic effects on Acanthamoeba cells. Taken together, these results provide fundamental information for optimizing the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  4. Safflower yellow B suppresses HepG2 cell injury induced by oxidative stress through the AKT/Nrf2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    MA, ZHONGYING; LI, CAIXIA; QIAO, YI; LU, CHENGTAO; LI, JIANKANG; SONG, WEI; SUN, JIN; ZHAI, XIAOHU; NIU, JING; REN, QIAN; WEN, AIDONG

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. Safflower yellow B (SYB) has been reported to protect the brain against damage induced by oxidative stress; however, whether SYB can also protect hepatocytes from oxidative stress remains unknown. In the present study, to determine whether pre-treatment with SYB reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, we investigated H2O2-induced oxidative damage to HepG2 cells treated with or without SYB. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using respective kits. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the HepG2 cells was monitored using the fluorescent marker, 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by determining the activity of caspase-3 and by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Protein expression levels were measured by western blot analysis, and the levels of related cellular kinases were also determined. H2O2 induced pronounced injury to the HepG2 cells, as evidenced by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, the decreased activity of SOD and GSH-Px, the increased activitation of caspase-3 and cell apoptosis, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. SYB significantly inhibited the damaging effects of H2O2, indicating that it protected the cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Moreover, pre-treatment with SYB increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) which are peroxiredoxins. SYB also significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT. However, this inductive effect was blunted in the presence of the AKT inhibitor, LY294002. The findings of our study

  5. Safflower yellow B suppresses HepG2 cell injury induced by oxidative stress through the AKT/Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongying; Li, Caixia; Qiao, Yi; Lu, Chengtao; Li, Jiankang; Song, Wei; Sun, Jin; Zhai, Xiaohu; Niu, Jing; Ren, Qian; Wen, Aidong

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases. Safflower yellow B (SYB) has been reported to protect the brain against damage induced by oxidative stress; however, whether SYB can also protect hepatocytes from oxidative stress remains unknown. In the present study, to determine whether pre-treatment with SYB reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, we investigated H2O2-induced oxidative damage to HepG2 cells treated with or without SYB. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using respective kits. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the HepG2 cells was monitored using the fluorescent marker, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA). Cell apoptosis was evaluated by determining the activity of caspase-3 and by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Protein expression levels were measured by western blot analysis, and the levels of related cellular kinases were also determined. H2O2 induced pronounced injury to the HepG2 cells, as evidenced by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, the decreased activity of SOD and GSH-Px, the increased activitation of caspase-3 and cell apoptosis, and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. SYB significantly inhibited the damaging effects of H2O2, indicating that it protected the cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Moreover, pre-treatment with SYB increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) which are peroxiredoxins. SYB also significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT. However, this inductive effect was blunted in the presence of the AKT inhibitor, LY294002. The findings of our study

  6. 17β-Estradiol modulates the prolactin secretion induced by TRH through membrane estrogen receptors via PI3K/Akt in female rat anterior pituitary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Liliana d V; Gutiérrez, Silvina; Petiti, Juan P; Palmeri, Claudia M; Mascanfroni, Iván D; Soaje, Marta; De Paul, Ana L; Torres, Alicia I

    2012-05-01

    Considering that estradiol is a major modulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion, the aim of the present study was to analyze the role of membrane estradiol receptor-α (mERα) in the regulatory effect of this hormone on the PRL secretion induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) by focusing on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway activation. Anterior pituitary cell cultures from female rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (E(2), 10 nM) and its membrane-impermeable conjugated estradiol (E(2)-BSA, 10 nM) alone or coincubated with TRH (10 nM) for 30 min, with PRL levels being determined by RIA. Although E(2), E(2)-BSA, TRH, and E(2)/TRH differentially increased the PRL secretion, the highest levels were achieved with E(2)-BSA/TRH. ICI-182,780 did not modify the TRH-induced PRL release but significantly inhibited the PRL secretion promoted by E(2) or E(2)-BSA alone or in coincubation with TRH. The PI3K inhibitors LY-294002 and wortmannin partially inhibited the PRL release induced by E(2)-BSA, TRH, and E(2)/TRH and totally inhibited the PRL levels stimulated by E(2)-BSA/TRH, suggesting that the mER mediated the cooperative effect of E(2) on TRH-induced PRL release through the PI3K pathway. Also, the involvement of this kinase was supported by the translocation of its regulatory subunit p85α from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in the lactotroph cells treated with E(2)-BSA and TRH alone or in coincubation. A significant increase of phosphorylated Akt was induced by E(2)-BSA/TRH. Finally, the changes of ERα expression in the plasmalemma of pituitary cells were examined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, which revealed that the mobilization of intracellular ERα to the plasma membrane of lactotroph cells was only induced by E(2). These finding showed that E(2) may act as a modulator of the secretory response of lactotrophs induced by TRH through mER, with the contribution by PI3K/Akt pathway activation providing a new

  7. Donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, and ABT-239, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, require the integrity of brain histamine system to exert biochemical and procognitive effects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Provensi, Gustavo; Costa, Alessia; Passani, M Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-10-01

    Histaminergic H3 receptors (H3R) antagonists enhance cognition in preclinical models and modulate neurotransmission, in particular acetylcholine (ACh) release in the cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. The cognitive deficits seen in aging and Alzheimer's disease have been associated with brain cholinergic deficits. Donepezil is one of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor approved for use across the full spectrum of these cognitive disorders. We addressed the question if H3R antagonists and donepezil require an intact histamine neuronal system to exert their procognitive effects. The effect of the H3R antagonist ABT-239 and donepezil were evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT), and on the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) phosphorylation in normal and histamine-depleted mice. Systemic administration of ABT-239 or donepezil ameliorated the cognitive performance in the ORT. However, these compounds were ineffective in either genetically (histidine decarboxylase knock-out, HDC-KO) or pharmacologically, by means of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the HDC irreversible inhibitor a-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), histamine-deficient mice. Western blot analysis revealed that ABT-239 or donepezil systemic treatments increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in cortical and hippocampal homogenates of normal, but not of histamine-depleted mice. Furthermore, administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 that blocks GSK-3β phosphorylation, prevented the procognitive effects of both drugs in normal mice. Our results indicate that both donepezil and ABT-239 require the integrity of the brain histaminergic system to exert their procognitive effects and strongly suggest that impairments of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β intracellular pathway activation is responsible for the inefficacy of both drugs in histamine-deficient animals. PMID:27291828

  8. Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2010-04-09

    Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3{beta}. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  9. The Akt inhibitor MK-2206 enhances the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel (Taxol) and cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Bert Yu-Hung; Lai, Wei-Ting; Wu, Shao-Fu; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway are commonly observed in human cancers and contribute to chemotherapy resistance. Combination therapy, involving the use of molecular targeted agents and traditional cytotoxic drugs, may represent a promising strategy to lower resistance and enhance cytotoxicity. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, in increasing the cytotoxic effect of either paclitaxel (Taxol) or cisplatin against the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 (with constitutively active Akt) and ES2 (with inactive Akt). Sequential treatment of Taxol or cisplatin, followed by MK-2206, induced a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation and effectively promoted cell death, either by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream effectors 4E-BP1 and p70S6K in SKOV3 cells or by restoring p53 levels, which were downregulated after Taxol or cisplatin treatment, in ES2 cells. Combination treatment also downregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2 in both SKOV3 and ES2 cells, which may have contributed to cell death. In addition, we discovered that Taxol/MK-2206 or cisplatin/MK-2206 combination treatment resulted in significant enhancement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MK-2206, in both SKOV3 and ES2 cells; however, MK-2206-induced growth inhibition was reversed by a ROS scavenger only in ES2 cells. MK-2206 also suppressed DNA repair, particularly in SKOV3 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 enhances the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in both Akt-active and Akt-inactive ovarian cancer cells but through different mechanisms.

  10. CHRNA7 inhibits cell invasion and metastasis of LoVo human colorectal cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Yu, Feng; Fei, Rushan; Qian, Jing; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-02-01

    The α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) is widely expressed in both the brain and periphery whereas its encoding protein of α7 neuronal acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family. Considerable evidence suggests that α7nAChR plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain signaling and thus has been proposed as a potential target for treating cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of endogenous α7nAChR signaling in human colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. pLVX‑CHRNA7 encoding the full length of CHRNA7 was constructed and transfected into LoVo human colorectal cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured by Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8), and cell migration and invasion were detected by Transwell chamber assays. Expression and activity of metastasis‑related metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. Activation of metastasis-related signaling molecules was detected by western blotting. LY294002 was used to specifically block the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (PI3K/Akt) pathway. We showed that concomitantly with an increase in α7nAChR expression after transfection, LoVo cells presented reduced abilities for migration and invasion, which was accompanied by reduced expression levels of MMP‑1 and MMP‑9 as well as activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The application of LY294002 restored the migration and invasion abilities of the LoVo cells bearing CHRNA7. Collectively, we conclude that overexpression of CHRNA7 negatively controls colorectal cancer LoVo cell invasion and metastasis via PI3K/Akt pathway activation and may serve as either a diagnostic marker or a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer metastasis.

  11. Additive effect by combination of Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, and PDGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1296, in suppressing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell viability and motility

    PubMed Central

    Che, Huan-yong; Guo, Hang-yuan; Si, Xu-wei; You, Qiao-ying; Lou, Wei-ying

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases regulate many tumorigenesis related cellular processes including cell metabolism, cell survival, cell motility, and angiogenesis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare type of thyroid cancer with no effective systemic therapy. It has been shown that Akt activation is associated with tumor progression in ATC. Here we observed the additive effect between an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) and a novel platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor (tyrphostin AG 1296) in ATC therapy. We found an additive effect between MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 in suppressing ATC cell viability. The combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induces additive apoptosis, additive suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, as well as additive inhibition of cell migration and invasion of ATC cells. Furthermore, the combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induced additive suppression of ATC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that the combination of Akt and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an efficient therapeutic strategy for ATC treatment, which might shed new light on ATC therapy. PMID:24665203

  12. Higher risk of infections with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors in patients with advanced solid tumors on Phase I clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Saeed; Roda, Desamparados; Geuna, Elena; Jimenez, Begona; Rihawi, Karim; Capelan, Marta; Yap, Timothy A; Molife, L Rhoda; Kaye, Stanley B; de Bono, Johann S; Banerji, Udai

    2015-01-01

    Novel antitumor therapies against the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway are increasingly used to treat cancer, either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy or other targeted therapies. Although these agents are not known to be myelosuppressive, an increased risk of infection has been reported with rapamycin analogs. However, the risk of infection with new inhibitors of this pathway such as PI3K, AKT, mTORC 1/2 or multi-kinase inhibitors is unknown. Methods In this retrospective case-control study, we determined the incidence of infection in a group of 432 patients who were treated on 15 phase I clinical trials involving PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors (cases) vs a group of 100 patients on 10 phase I clinical trials of single agent non-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors (controls) which did not involve conventional cytotoxic agents. We also collected data from 42 patients who were treated with phase I trials of combinations of PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors and MEK inhibitors and 24 patients with combinations of PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors and cytotoxic chemotherapies. Results The incidence of all grade infection was significantly higher with all single agent PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors compared to the control group (27% vs 8% respectively, OR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, p=0.0001). The incidence of grade 3 and 4 infection was also significantly higher with PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors compared to the control group (10.3% vs 3%, OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.1-12.4, p=0.02). Also the combination of PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors and chemotherapy was associated with a significantly higher incidence of all grade (OR: 4.79, 95% CI: 2.0-11.2, p=0.0001) and high grade (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.0-7.6, p=0.03) infection when compared with single agent PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitors of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway can be associated with a higher risk of infection. Combinations of PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors and cytotoxic chemotherapy significantly increase the risk of infection. This should be taken

  13. Synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives as potential inhibitors of Akt kinase.

    PubMed

    Desplat, Vanessa; Geneste, Ambre; Begorre, Marc-Antoine; Fabre, Solene Belisle; Brajot, Stephane; Massip, Stephane; Thiolat, Denis; Mossalayi, Djavad; Jarry, Christian; Guillon, Jean

    2008-10-01

    Akt kinases are attractive targets for small molecule drug discovery because of their key role in tumor cell survival/proliferation and their overexpression/activation in many human cancers. Recent efforts in the development and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of Akt have led to the identification of novel Akt kinase inhibitors, based on a quinoxaline or pyrazinone scaffold. A series of new substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, structural analogues of these active quinoxaline or pyrazinone pharmacophores, was synthesized from various substituted 2-nitroanilines or 1,2-phenylenediamine via multistep heterocyclization process. These new compounds were tested for their in vitro ability to inhibit the proliferation of the human leukemic cell lines K562, U937 and HL60, and the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Three of these human cell lines (K562, U937 and MCF7) exhibited an active phosphorylated Akt form. The most promising active pyrroloquinoxalines were found to be 1a that inhibited K562 cell line proliferation with an IC(50) of 4.5 microM, and 1h that inhibited U937 and MCF7 cell lines with IC(50) of 5 and 8 microM, respectively. These two candidates exhibited more potent activities than the reference inhibitor A6730.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation: Dominant role of PI-3'K/Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Alexia, Catherine; Fourmatgeat, Pascal; Delautier, Daniele; Groyer, Andre . E-mail: groyer@bichat.inserm.fr

    2006-04-15

    Although hepatocytes are the primary source of endocrine IGF-I and -II in mammals, their autocrine/paracrine role in the dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during hepatocarcinogenesis and in hepatocarcinomas (HCC) remains to be elucidated. Indeed, IGF-II and type-I IGF receptors are overexpressed in HCC cells, and IGF-I is synthesized in adjacent non-tumoral liver tissue. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of type-I IGF receptor signaling on H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation, as estimated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. IGF-I stimulated the rate of DNA synthesis of serum-deprived H{sub 4}II cells, stimulation being maximal 3 h after the onset of IGF-I treatment and remaining elevated until at least 6 h. The IGF-I-induced increase in DNA replication was abolished by LY294002 and only partially inhibited by PD98059, suggesting that phosphoinositol-3' kinase (PI-3'K) and to a lesser extent MEK/Erk signaling were involved. Furthermore, the 3- to 19-fold activation of the Erks in the presence of LY294002 suggested a down-regulation of the MEK/Erk cascade by PI-3'K signaling. Finally, the effect of IGF-I on DNA replication was almost completely abolished in clones of H{sub 4}II cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Akt but was unaltered by rapamycin treatment of wild-type H{sub 4}II cells. Altogether, these data support the notion that the stimulation of H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation by IGF-I is especially dependent on Akt activation but independent on the Akt/mTOR signal0009i.

  15. In vitro and In vivo Activity of Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Pleckstrin Homology Domain of Protein Kinase B/AKT

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sylvestor A.; Ali, M. Ahad; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhou, Li Li; Lemos, Robert; Ihle, Nathan; Skillman, A. Geoffrey; Zhang, Shuxing; Mash, Eugene A.; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in activating survival and antiapoptotic pathways within cancer cells. Several studies have shown that this pathway is constitutively activated in many different cancer types. The goal of this study was to discover novel compounds that bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT, thereby inhibiting AKT activation. Using proprietary docking software, 22 potential PH domain inhibitors were identified. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the binding of the compounds to the expressed PH domain of AKT followed by an in vitro activity screen in Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We identified a novel chemical scaffold in several of the compounds that binds selectively to the PH domain of AKT, inducing a decrease in AKT activation and causing apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. Structural modifications of the scaffold led to compounds with enhanced inhibitory activity in cells. One compound, 4-dodecyl-N-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) benzenesulfonamide, inhibited AKT and its downstream targets in cells as well as in pancreatic cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice; it also exhibited good antitumor activity. In summary, a pharmacophore for PH domain inhibitors targeting AKT function was developed. Computer-aided modeling, synthesis, and testing produced novel AKT PH domain inhibitors that exhibit promising preclinical properties. PMID:19491272

  16. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP. PMID:26823696

  17. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP.

  18. Reduction of metastasis, cell invasion, and adhesion in mouse osteosarcoma by YM529/ONO-5920-induced blockade of the Ras/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Satou, Takao; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Ogaki, Mitsuhiko; Yanae, Masashi; Nishida, Shozo

    2012-03-15

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary malignant bone tumors in children and adolescents. Some patients continue to have a poor prognosis, because of the metastatic disease. YM529/ONO-5920 is a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that has been used for the treatment of osteoporosis. YM529/ONO-5920 has recently been reported to induce apoptosis in various tumors including osteosarcoma. However, the mode of metastasis suppression in osteosarcoma by YM529/ONO-5920 is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited tumor cell migration, invasion, adhesion, or metastasis in the LM8 mouse osteosarcoma cell line. We found that YM529/ONO-5920 significantly inhibited metastasis, cell migration, invasion, and adhesion at concentrations that did not have antiproliferative effects on LM8 cells. YM529/ONO-5920 also inhibited the mRNA expression and protein activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In addition, YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) by the inhibition of Ras prenylation. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, also inhibited LM8 cell migration, invasion, adhesion, and metastasis, as well as the mRNA expression and protein activities of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP. The results indicated that YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed the Ras/MEK/ERK and Ras/PI3K/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting LM8 cell migration, invasion, adhesion, and metastasis. These findings suggest that YM529/ONO-5920 has potential clinical applications for the treatment of tumor cell metastasis in osteosarcoma. -- Highlights: ► We investigated whether YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited tumor metastasis in osteosarcoma. ► YM529/ONO-5920 inhibited metastasis, cell migration, invasion, and adhesion. ► YM529/ONO-5920 suppressed Ras signalings. ► YM529/ONO-5920

  19. Effects of RAF inhibitors on PI3K/AKT signalling depend on mutational status of the RAS/RAF signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche-Guenther, Raphaela; Witzel, Franziska; Kempa, Stefan; Brummer, Tilman; Sers, Christine; Blüthgen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies within the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling axis become increasingly popular, yet cross-talk and feedbacks in the signalling network lead to unexpected effects. Here we look systematically into how inhibiting RAF and MEK with clinically relevant inhibitors result in changes in PI3K/AKT activation. We measure the signalling response using a bead-based ELISA, and use a panel of three cell lines, and isogenic cell lines that express mutant forms of the oncogenes KRAS and BRAF to interrogate the effects of the MEK and RAF inhibitors on signalling. We find that treatment with the RAF inhibitors have opposing effects on AKT phosphorylation depending on the mutational status of two important oncogenes, KRAS and BRAF. If these two genes are in wildtype configuration, RAF inhibitors reduce AKT phosphorylation. In contrast, if BRAF or KRAS are mutant, RAF inhibitors will leave AKT phosphorylation unaffected or lead to an increase of AKT phosphorylation. Down-regulation of phospho-AKT by RAF inhibitors also extends to downstream transcription factors, and correlates with apoptosis induction. Our results show that oncogenes rewire signalling such that targeted therapies can have opposing effects on parallel pathways, which depend on the mutational status of the cell. PMID:26799289

  20. Molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PHT-427 a novel AKT/PDPK1 pleckstrin homology domain inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Zuohe, Song; Lemos, Robert; Ihle, Nathan; Kingston, John; Watkins, Ryan; Moses, Sylvestor A.; Zhang, Shuxing; Cuny, Lei Du; Herbst, Roy; Jacoby, Jörg J.; Zhou, Li Li; Ahad, Ali M.; Mash, Eugene A; Kirkpatrick, D Lynn; Powis, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3)/ PtdIns dependent protein kinase-1(PDPK1)/Akt signaling plays a critical role in activating proliferation and survival pathways within cancer cells. We report the molecular pharmacology and antitumor activity of PHT-427 a compound designed to bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) binding domain of signaling molecules important in cancer. Although originally designed to bind the PH domain of Akt, we now report that PHT-427 also binds to the PH domain of PDPK1. A series of PHT-427 analogs with variable C-4 to C-16 alkyl chain length were synthesized and tested. PHT-427 itself (C-12 chain) bound with the highest affinity to the PH domains of both PDPK1 and Akt. PHT-427 inhibited Akt and PDKP1 signaling and their downstream targets in sensitive but not resistant cells and tumor xenografts. When given orally PHT-427 inhibited the growth of human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice with up to 80% inhibition in the most sensitive tumors and showed greater activity than analogs with C4, C6 or C8 alkyl chains. Inhibition of PDKP1 was more closely correlated to antitumor activity than Akt inhibition. Tumors with PIK3CA mutation were the most sensitive and K-Ras mutant tumors the least sensitive. Combination studies showed that PHT-427 has greater than additive antitumor activity with paclitaxel in breast cancer, and with erlotinib in NSC lung cancer. When given over 5 days PHT-427 caused no weight loss or change in blood chemistry. Thus, we report a novel PH domain binding inhibitor of PDPK1/Akt signaling with significant in vivo antitumor activity and minimal toxicity. PMID:20197390

  1. Sulfiredoxin-1 protects against simulated ischaemia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocyte by inhibiting PI3K/AKT-regulated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiankai; He, Zhangyou; Guo, Jinhua; Li, Zhe; Wang, Xiaohong; Yang, Chun; Cui, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered cardiac cell injury is recognized as the major contributor for the pathogenesis progression of ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. Sulfiredoxin-1 (Srx-1) is an endogenous antioxidant and exerts the crucial neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischaemia. However, its function and the underlying mechanism in ischaemic heart diseases remain poorly defined. Here, a dramatical decrease in Srx-1 was validated in H9c2 cardiomyocytes upon simulated ischaemia–reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Moreover, Srx-1 protected H9c2 cells from SI/R-injured injury as the evidences that Srx-1 up-regulation attenuated the inhibitory effects on cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell apoptosis upon SI/R treatment. Knockdown of Srx-1 accelerated cell injury upon SI/R. Mechanism assay corroborated that SI/R treatment noticeably aggravated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), which was remarkably abated in Ad-Srx-1 groups. Importantly, Srx-1 elevation substantially reduced cytochrome c release, the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompany with the subsequent decrease in the cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). Concomitantly, overexpression of Srx-1 also decreased the expression of pro-apoptosis protein Bax and increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. Further analysis substantiated that Srx-1 treatment remarkably induced the activation of PI3K/AKT signalling. Preconditioning with LY294002 dramatically decreased Srx-1-enhanced cell resistance to SI/R injury. Importantly, LY294002 mitigated the inhibitory effects of Srx-1 on Δψm loss, cytochrome c release, caspase-9/3 activity, and the expression of Bcl-2 family. Together, these results suggested that Srx-1 might protect cardiomyocyte injury upon SI/R by suppressing PI3K/AKT-mediated mitochondria dependent apoptosis, revealing a promising therapeutic agent against ischaemic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26992405

  2. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. METHODS The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. RESULTS The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro. Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. CONCLUSION ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:27784964

  3. Tuning of AKT-pathway by Nef and its blockade by protease inhibitors results in limited recovery in latently HIV infected T-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Colin, Laurence; Khan, Kashif Aziz; Bouchat, Sophie; Varin, Audrey; Larbi, Anis; Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Kabeya, Kabamba; Vanhulle, Caroline; Delacourt, Nadège; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Coquard, Laurie; Borch, Alexandra; König, Renate; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stephane; Rohr, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Fulop, Tamas; Van Lint, Carine; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes, which are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. We found that Akt interacts with HIV-1 Nef protein. In primary T cells treated with exogenous Nef or acutely infected with Nef-expressing HIV-1 in vitro, Akt became phosphorylated on serine473 and threonine308. In vitro, Akt activation mediated by Nef in T-cells was blocked by HIV protease inhibitors (PI), but not by reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). Ex vivo, we found that the Akt pathway is hyperactivated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from cART naïve HIV-1-infected patients. PBLs isolated from PI-treated patients, but not from RTI-treated patients, exhibited decreased Akt activation, T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. We found that PI but not RTI can block HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected J-Lat lymphoid cells stimulated with various stimuli. Using luciferase measurement, we further confirmed that Nef-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latency in 1G5 cells was blocked by PI parallel to decreased Akt activation. Our results indicate that PI-mediated blockade of Akt activation could impact the HIV-1 reservoir and support the need to further assess the therapeutic use of HIV-1 PI in order to curtail latently infected cells in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27076174

  4. DC120, a novel AKT inhibitor, preferentially suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer stem-like cells by downregulating Sox2

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Yang, Fen; Feng, Gong-Kan; Chen, Wen-Dan; Wu, Xiao-Qi; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Ke; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Side population (SP) contains cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). In this study, we characterized SP cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and found that SP cells had a higher self-renewal ability in vitro and greater tumorigenicity in vivo. The AKT pathway was activated in NPC SP cells. DC120, a 2-pyrimidyl-5-amidothiazole inhibitor of the ATP binding site of AKT, inhibited phosphorylation of FKHRL1 and GSK-3β. DC120 inhibited SP fraction, the sphere-forming ability in vitro and growth of primary xenografts as well as secondary xenografts’ tumor recurrence. This inhibition was accompanied by reduced expression of stem-related gene Sox2 due to induction of p27 and miR-30a. A combination of DC120 and CDDP more effectively inhibited NPC cells compared with monotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Clinical evaluation of DC120 is warranted. PMID:25749514

  5. Activation of Akt by lithium: pro-survival pathways in aging.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Yeste-Velasco, Marc; Zhu, Xiongwei; Chou, Steven P; Smith, Mark A; Pallàs, Mercè; Camins, Antoni; Casadesús, Gemma

    2009-04-01

    The effects of lithium on senescence were investigated using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and cultures of aging cerebellar granule cells. Our in vitro findings, using cerebellar granule neurons, demonstrate that lithium (1-10mM) exerts neuroprotective effects in young cultures (7-8 days) against LY294002-induced Akt inhibition. Furthermore, lithium (10mM) inhibits GSK-3beta activity by upregulating p-GSK-3beta (ser-9) and increases p-FOXO1 (Ser256) suggesting an effective anti-apoptotic effect. Our data also showed that lithium in aged cultures exerts anti-apoptotic effects via Akt activation and consequent inhibition of downstream targets regulated by this enzyme. Finally, the administration of lithium to senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1) at 3 months of age also caused increased Akt activity and p-FoxO-1. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of lithium in preventing age-related neural loss and the potential therapeutic applications of lithium in treatment/prevention of neurological disease.

  6. Oncosuppressive suicide gene virotherapy "PVH1-yCD/5-FC" for pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis treatment: NFκB and Akt/PI3K involvement.

    PubMed

    Réjiba, Soukaina; Bigand, Christelle; Parmentier, Celine; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Hajri, Amor

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is common in advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite current standard treatment, patients with this disease until recently were considered incurable. Cancer gene therapy using oncolytic viruses have generated much interest over the past few years. Here, we investigated a new gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach for an oncosuppressive virotherapy strategy using parvovirus H1 (PV-H1) which preferentially replicates and kills malignant cells. Although, PV-H1 is not potent enough to destroy tumors, it represents an attractive vector for cancer gene therapy. We therefore sought to determine whether the suicide gene/prodrug system, yCD/5-FC could be rationally combined to PV-H1 augmenting its intrinsic oncolytic activity for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. We showed that the engineered recombinant parvovirus rPVH1-yCD with 5-FC treatment increased significantly the intrinsic cytotoxic effect and resulted in potent induction of apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells. Additionally, the suicide gene-expressing PV-H1 infection reduced significantly the constitutive activities of NFκB and Akt/PI3K. Combination of their pharmacological inhibitors (MG132 and LY294002) with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in substantial increase of antitumor activity. In vivo, high and sustained expression of NS1 and yCD was observed in the disseminated tumor nodules and absent in normal tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal pancreatic carcinomatosis with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in a drastic inhibition of tumor cell spreading and subsequent increase in long-term survival. Together, the presented data show the improved oncolytic activity of wPV-H1 by yCD/5-FC and thus provides valuable effective and promising virotherapy strategy for prevention of tumor recurrence and treatment. In the light of this study, the suicide gene parvovirotherapy approach represents a new weapon in the war against

  7. Oncosuppressive Suicide Gene Virotherapy “PVH1-yCD/5-FC” for Pancreatic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Treatment: NFκB and Akt/PI3K Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Réjiba, Soukaina; Bigand, Christelle; Parmentier, Celine; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Hajri, Amor

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is common in advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite current standard treatment, patients with this disease until recently were considered incurable. Cancer gene therapy using oncolytic viruses have generated much interest over the past few years. Here, we investigated a new gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach for an oncosuppressive virotherapy strategy using parvovirus H1 (PV-H1) which preferentially replicates and kills malignant cells. Although, PV-H1 is not potent enough to destroy tumors, it represents an attractive vector for cancer gene therapy. We therefore sought to determine whether the suicide gene/prodrug system, yCD/5-FC could be rationally combined to PV-H1 augmenting its intrinsic oncolytic activity for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. We showed that the engineered recombinant parvovirus rPVH1-yCD with 5-FC treatment increased significantly the intrinsic cytotoxic effect and resulted in potent induction of apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells. Additionally, the suicide gene-expressing PV-H1 infection reduced significantly the constitutive activities of NFκB and Akt/PI3K. Combination of their pharmacological inhibitors (MG132 and LY294002) with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in substantial increase of antitumor activity. In vivo, high and sustained expression of NS1 and yCD was observed in the disseminated tumor nodules and absent in normal tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal pancreatic carcinomatosis with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in a drastic inhibition of tumor cell spreading and subsequent increase in long-term survival. Together, the presented data show the improved oncolytic activity of wPV-H1 by yCD/5-FC and thus provides valuable effective and promising virotherapy strategy for prevention of tumor recurrence and treatment. In the light of this study, the suicide gene parvovirotherapy approach represents a new weapon in the war against

  8. Insulin inhibits hepatocyte iNOS expression induced by cytokines by an Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Harbrecht, Brian G; Nweze, Ikenna; Smith, Jason W; Zhang, Baochun

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte inducible nitric oxide synthese (iNOS) expression is a tightly controlled pathway that mediates hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte injury in a variety of disease states. We have shown that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates cytokine-induced hepatocyte iNOS expression through mechanisms that involve protein kinase B/Akt. We hypothesized that insulin, which activates Akt signaling in hepatocytes, as well as signaling through p38 and MAPK p42/p44, would regulate iNOS expression during inflammation. In primary rat hepatocytes, insulin inhibited cytokine-stimulated nitrite accumulation and iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MAPK p42/p44 with PD98059 had no effect on iNOS activation, whereas SB203580 to block p38 reversed insulin's inhibitory effect. However, insulin did not increase p38 activation and inhibition of p38 signaling with a dominant negative p38 plasmid had no effect on cytokine- or insulin-mediated effects on iNOS. We found that SB203580 blocked insulin-induced Akt activation. Inhibition of Akt signaling with LY294002 or a dominant negative Akt plasmid increased cytokine-stimulated nitrite production and iNOS protein expression and blocked the inhibitory effects of insulin. NF-κB induces iNOS expression and can be regulated by Akt, but insulin had no effect on cytokine-mediated IκBα levels or NF-κB p65 translocation. Our data demonstrate that insulin inhibits cytokine-stimulated hepatocyte iNOS expression and does so through effects on Akt-mediated signaling. PMID:22038823

  9. Compensatory activation of Akt in response to mTOR and Raf inhibitors - a rationale for dual-targeted therapy approaches in neuroendocrine tumor disease.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Kathrin; Rüden, Janina von; Brand, Stephan; Göke, Burkhard; Lichtl, Jennifer; Spöttl, Gerald; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have established a link between aberrant PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling and neuroendocrine tumor disease. In this study, we comparatively investigate the antitumor potential of novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting mTOR (RAD001), mTOR/PI(3)K (NVP-BEZ235) and Raf (Raf265) on human NET cell lines of heterogeneous origin. All inhibitors induced potent antitumor effects which involved the induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest. However, the dual mTOR/PI(3)K inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was more efficient compared to the single mTOR inhibitor RAD001. Consistently, NVP-BEZ235 prevented the negative feedback activation of Akt as observed after treatment with RAD001. Raf265 inhibited Erk1/2 phosphorylation but strongly induced Akt phosphorylation and VEGF secretion, suggesting the existence of a compensatory feedback loop on PI3K-Akt signaling. Finally, combined treatment with RAD001 or NVP-BEZ235 and Raf265 was more efficient than single treatment with either kinase inhibitor. Together, our data provide a rationale for dual targeting of PI(3)K-Akt-mTOR- and Ras-Raf-MEK-Erk1/2 signaling in NET disease.

  10. Berberine induces dedifferentiation by actin cytoskeleton reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Chung, Ki-Wha; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a nonrheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, the majority of which is extracted from Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis). Although numerous studies have revealed the anticancer activity of BBR, its effects on normal cells, such as chondrocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions remain elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of BBR on rabbit articular chondrocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. BBR induced dedifferentiation by inhibiting activation of phosphoinositide-3(PI3)-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase and PI3-kinase/Akt with SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation. BBR also caused actin cytoskeletal architecture reorganization and, therefore, we investigated if these effects were involved in the dedifferentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D reversed the BBR-induced dedifferentiation by activating PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. In contrast, the induction of actin filament aggregation by jasplakinolide accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation via PI3-kinase/Akt inhibition and p38 kinase activation. Taken together, these data suggest that BBR strongly induces dedifferentiation, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization is a crucial requirement for this effect. Furthermore, the dedifferentiation activity of BBR appears to be mediated via PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes. PMID:26851252

  11. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological evaluation of diphenylmethylamine derivatives as novel Akt1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhan, Wenhu; Wang, Yanming; Zhang, Liangren; Yang, Bo; Dong, Xiaowu; Hu, Yongzhou

    2014-02-12

    A series of diphenylmethylamine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Most of them exhibited moderate to good Akt1 inhibitory activities, as well as promising anti-proliferative efficacy against cancer cell lines. Besides, molecular docking studies were carried out to probe their binding modes with Akt1. Further kinase selectivity studies of compound 22c were performed, indicating its excellent selectivity against Aurora A, Drak, IKKβ, GSK3β, SYK and JAK2, and moderate selectivity against PKC and BRAF. Finally, a refined pharmacophore model was generated using the most active compounds 2, 12c and 22c via application of HipHop program. PMID:24389511

  12. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological evaluation of diphenylmethylamine derivatives as novel Akt1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Zhan, Wenhu; Wang, Yanming; Zhang, Liangren; Yang, Bo; Dong, Xiaowu; Hu, Yongzhou

    2014-02-12

    A series of diphenylmethylamine derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Most of them exhibited moderate to good Akt1 inhibitory activities, as well as promising anti-proliferative efficacy against cancer cell lines. Besides, molecular docking studies were carried out to probe their binding modes with Akt1. Further kinase selectivity studies of compound 22c were performed, indicating its excellent selectivity against Aurora A, Drak, IKKβ, GSK3β, SYK and JAK2, and moderate selectivity against PKC and BRAF. Finally, a refined pharmacophore model was generated using the most active compounds 2, 12c and 22c via application of HipHop program.

  13. Iterative In situ Click Chemistry Assembles a Branched Capture Agent and Allosteric Inhibitor for Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Millward, Steven W.; Henning, Ryan K.; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Pitram, Suresh; Agnew, Heather D.; Deyle, Kaycie M.; Nag, Arundhati; Hein, Jason; Lee, Su Seong; Lim, Jaehong; Pfeilsticker, Jessica A.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of iterative in situ click chemistry to design an Akt-specific branched peptide triligand that is a drop-in replacement for monoclonal antibodies in multiple biochemical assays. Each peptide module in the branched structure makes unique contributions to affinity and/or specificity resulting in a 200 nM affinity ligand that efficiently immunoprecipitates Akt from cancer cell lysates and labels Akt in fixed cells. Our use of a small molecule to pre-inhibit Akt prior to screening resulted in low micromolar inhibitory potency and an allosteric mode of inhibition, which is evidenced through a series of competitive enzyme kinetic assays. To demonstrate the efficiency and selectivity of the protein-templated in situ click reaction, we developed a novel QPCR-based methodology that enabled a quantitative assessment of its yield. These results point to the potential for iterative in situ click chemistry to generate potent, synthetically accessible antibody replacements with novel inhibitory properties PMID:21962254

  14. Baicalein inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis via the caveolin-1/AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaoxin; Hu, Xiaolin; Xing, Zhaoquan; Xing, Rui; Lv, Renguang; Cheng, Xiangyu; Su, Jing; Zhou, Zunlin; Xu, Zhonghua; Nilsson, Sten; Liu, Zhaoxu

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is lethal type of genitourinary cancer due to its high morbidity and gradual resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Accumulating evidence has recently suggested that the daily intake of flavonoids is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of baicalein on androgen-independent PCa cells and the underlying mechanisms through which baicalein exerts its actions. Cell viability and flow cytometric apoptosis assays indicated that baicalein potently suppressed the growth and induced the apoptosis of DU145 and PC-3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the inhibitory effects of baicalein on migration and invasion were also observed in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that baicalein can suppress caveolin-1 and the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the inhibition of the activation of AKT with LY294002 significantly promoted the apoptosis and metastasis induced by baicalein. In conclusion, these findings suggested that baicalein can induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of androgen-independent PCa cells through inhibition of the caveolin-1/AKT/mTOR pathway, which implies that baicalein may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer patients.

  15. Presence of both alterations in FGFR/FGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR confer improved outcomes for patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wheler, Jennifer J.; Atkins, Johnique T.; Janku, Filip; Moulder, Stacy L.; Stephens, Philip J.; Yelensky, Roman; Valero, Vicente; Miller, Vincent; Kurzrock, Razelle; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2016-01-01

    There is limited data on co-expression of FGFR/FGR amplifications and PI3K/ AKT/mTOR alterations in breast cancer. Tumors from patients with metastatic breast cancer referred to our Phase I Program were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Genomic libraries were selected for all exons of 236 (or 182) cancer-related genes sequenced to average depth of >500× in a CLIA laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA) and analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations. We report genomic profiles of 112 patients with metastatic breast cancer, median age 55 years (range, 27-78). Twenty-four patients (21%) had at least one amplified FGFR or FGF. Fifteen of the 24 patients (63%) also had an alteration in the PI3K/ AKT/mTOR pathway. There was no association between alterations in FGFR/FGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (P=0.49). Patients with simultaneous amplification in FGFR/FGF signaling and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway had a higher rate of SD≥6 months/PR/ CR when treated with therapies targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway than patients with only alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (73% vs. 34%; P=0.0376) and remained on treatment longer (6.8 vs. 3.7 months; P=0.053). Higher response rates were seen in patients with simultaneous amplification in FGFR/FGF signaling and alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway who were treated with inhibitors of that pathway. PMID:27489863

  16. Presence of both alterations in FGFR/FGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR confer improved outcomes for patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wheler, Jennifer J; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip; Moulder, Stacy L; Stephens, Philip J; Yelensky, Roman; Valero, Vicente; Miller, Vincent; Kurzrock, Razelle; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2016-01-01

    There is limited data on co-expression of FGFR/FGR amplifications and PI3K/ AKT/mTOR alterations in breast cancer. Tumors from patients with metastatic breast cancer referred to our Phase I Program were analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Genomic libraries were selected for all exons of 236 (or 182) cancer-related genes sequenced to average depth of >500× in a CLIA laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA) and analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations. We report genomic profiles of 112 patients with metastatic breast cancer, median age 55 years (range, 27-78). Twenty-four patients (21%) had at least one amplified FGFR or FGF. Fifteen of the 24 patients (63%) also had an alteration in the PI3K/ AKT/mTOR pathway. There was no association between alterations in FGFR/FGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (P=0.49). Patients with simultaneous amplification in FGFR/FGF signaling and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway had a higher rate of SD≥6 months/PR/ CR when treated with therapies targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway than patients with only alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (73% vs. 34%; P=0.0376) and remained on treatment longer (6.8 vs. 3.7 months; P=0.053). Higher response rates were seen in patients with simultaneous amplification in FGFR/FGF signaling and alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway who were treated with inhibitors of that pathway. PMID:27489863

  17. Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas promotes the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis-induced NSC migration via the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a, ERK/MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Wang, Peng; Cui, Ningshan; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-03-11

    The present study describes a positive regulatory loop between SJP and the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in NSC migration. The treatment of NSCs with SJP and SDF-1α increases the cell migration capacity and promotes cell migration from the neurospheres. These effects are accompanied by the up-regulation of Nestin, N-cadherin, TLR4, TNF-α, Cyclin D1, EGFR, Alpha 6 integrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and iNOS, including SDF-1α and CXCR4 themselves. However, these effects are blocked by AMD3100, LY294002, U0126, and PDTC. SJP enhances the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion and NO release. Results demonstrate that interaction of SJP with the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis regulates NSC migration via the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a, ERK-MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:26827717

  18. Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas promotes the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis-induced NSC migration via the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a, ERK/MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Wang, Peng; Cui, Ningshan; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-03-11

    The present study describes a positive regulatory loop between SJP and the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis in NSC migration. The treatment of NSCs with SJP and SDF-1α increases the cell migration capacity and promotes cell migration from the neurospheres. These effects are accompanied by the up-regulation of Nestin, N-cadherin, TLR4, TNF-α, Cyclin D1, EGFR, Alpha 6 integrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and iNOS, including SDF-1α and CXCR4 themselves. However, these effects are blocked by AMD3100, LY294002, U0126, and PDTC. SJP enhances the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion and NO release. Results demonstrate that interaction of SJP with the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis regulates NSC migration via the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a, ERK-MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  19. mTORC1/C2 and pan-HDAC inhibitors synergistically impair breast cancer growth by convergent AKT and polysome inhibiting mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Edell, Kathleen A; Yevtushenko, Mariya A; Rothschild, Daniel E; Rogers, Aric N; Benz, Christopher C

    2014-04-01

    Resistance of breast cancers to targeted hormone receptor (HR) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors often occurs through dysregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Presently, no targeted therapies exist for breast cancers lacking HR and HER2 overexpression, many of which also exhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR hyper-activation. Resistance of breast cancers to current therapeutics also results, in part, from aberrant epigenetic modifications including protein acetylation regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs). We show that the investigational drug MLN0128, which inhibits both complexes of mTOR (mTORC1 and mTORC2), and the hydroxamic acid pan-HDAC inhibitor TSA synergistically inhibit the viability of a phenotypically diverse panel of five breast cancer cell lines (HR-/+, HER2-/+). The combination of MLN0128 and TSA induces apoptosis in most breast cancer cell lines tested, but not in the non-malignant MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. In parallel, the MLN0128/TSA combination reduces phosphorylation of AKT at S473 more than single agents alone and more so in the 5 malignant breast cancer cell lines than in the non-malignant mammary epithelial cells. Examining polysome profiles from one of the most sensitive breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3), we demonstrate that this MLN0128/TSA treatment combination synergistically impairs polysome assembly in conjunction with enhanced inhibition of 4eBP1 phosphorylation at S65. Taken together, these data indicate that the synergistic growth inhibiting consequence of combining a mTORC1/C2 inhibitor like MLN0128 with a pan-HDAC inhibitor like TSA results from their mechanistic convergence onto the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, profoundly inhibiting both AKT S473 and 4eBP1 S65 phosphorylation, reducing polysome formation and cancer cell viability.

  20. Matrine induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huiyan; Zhang, Yifei; Wu, Baogang; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Hongfang; He, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality in humans. The prognosis for advanced lung cancer patients is extremely poor. Current standard care is rather ineffective for prolonging patient life while preserving satisfactory quality of life due to adverse side-effects. Matrine extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Sophora flavescens was shown to induce cancer cell death in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the molecular basis of matrine-induced apoptosis. The results showed that matrine inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer A549 and 95D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptotic effects of matrine on lung cancer cells appeared to act via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway and downregulation of the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins. Matrine exerts its cancer-killing effect via promoting apoptosis in lung cancer cells and may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic scheme for treating advanced lung cancer patients.

  1. Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor causes autocrine-mediated migration and invasion in bladder cancer and phosphorylates the EGF receptor, Akt2 and Akt3, and ERK1 and ERK2.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Tania; Mahmood, Asif; Playford, Raymond J

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) is expressed in most bladder carcinomas, where its pathophysiological relevance is unclear. Using recombinant normal sequence PSTI/tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), a variant associated with familial pancreatitis (N34S), an active site-inactivated variant (R18/V19), and immunoneutralization and RNA interference-mediated knockdown techniques, we investigated the actions of PSTI/TATI on cell migration (wounding monolayers), collagen invasion (gel invasion assays), and proliferation (Alamar blue) on 253J, RT4, and HT1376 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. All three forms of PSTI/TATI stimulated migration twofold, and normal sequence PSTI/TATI showed synergistic promigratory effects when added with EGF. Addition of structurally unrelated soybean trypsin inhibitor had no promigratory activity. Similar results were seen using collagen invasion assays, although the active site mutated variant had no proinvasive activity, probably due to reduced Akt2 activation. PSTI/TATI did not stimulate proliferation despite acting, at least partially, through the EGF receptor, as effects of PSTI/TATI were truncated by the addition of an EGF receptor blocking antibody or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin. Cell lines produced endogenous PSTI/TATI, and PSTI/TATI RNA interference knockdown or the addition of PSTI/TATI, EGF receptor, or tyrphostin blocking agents reduced migration and invasion below baseline. PSTI/TATI induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor, ERK1 and ERK2, Akt2 and Akt3, JNK1, MKK3, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1. This profile was more limited than that induced by EGF and did not include Akt1, probably explaining the lack of proproliferative activity. Our findings of autocrine stimulation and synergistic responses between EGF and PSTI/TATI at concentrations found in urine and tissue suggest that PSTI/TATI has pathophysiological relevance.

  2. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  3. The novel AKT inhibitor afuresertib shows favorable safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Andrew; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Harrison, Simon J.; Morris, Shannon R.; Smith, Deborah A.; Brigandi, Richard A.; Gauvin, Jennifer; Kumar, Rakesh; Opalinska, Joanna B.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in hematologic malignancies, providing proliferative and antiapoptotic signals and possibly contributing to drug resistance. We conducted an open-label phase 1 study to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of afuresertib—an oral AKT inhibitor—in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Seventy-three patients were treated at doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg per day. The MTD was established at 125 mg per day because of 2 dose-limiting toxicities in the 150-mg cohort (liver function test abnormalities). The most frequent adverse events were nausea (35.6%), diarrhea (32.9%), and dyspepsia (24.7%). Maximum plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 hours were generally dose proportional at >75-mg doses; the median time to peak plasma concentrations was 1.5 to 2.5 hours post dose, with a half-life of approximately 1.7 days. Three multiple myeloma patients attained partial responses; an additional 3 attained minimal responses. Clinical activity was also observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and Hodgkin disease. Single-agent afuresertib showed a favorable safety profile and demonstrated clinical activity against hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00881946. PMID:25075128

  4. The Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor, OSU-T315, Suppresses Vestibular Schwannoma and Meningioma Growth by Inhibiting PDK2 Function in the AKT Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pimentel, ME; Igarashi, S; Dunn, AM; Behbahani, M; Miller, C; Read, CM; Jacob, A

    2016-01-01

    Activation of PKB/AKT signaling, which requires PDK1 and PDK2 function, drives Vestibular Schwannoma (VS) and meningioma growth. PDK2 function is defined as a molecule that phosphorylates AKT-Ser473. Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) functions as PDK2 in PKB/AKT activation in many cancers; therefore, we hypothesized that OSU-T315, a small molecule ILK inhibitor, will inhibit the ILK-PDK2 function in PKB/AKT signaling activation in VS and meningioma cell growth. OSU-T315 decreased cell viability at IC50 < 2μM in VS (HEI193) and meningioma (Ben-Men-1) cell lines, in primary cells at < 3.5μM, while in normal primary Schwann cells at 7.1μM. OSU-T315 inhibits AKT signaling by decreasing phosphorylation at AKT-Ser473, AKT-Thr308, ILK-Ser246 and ILK-Thr173. In addition, OSU-T315 affected the phosphorylation or expression levels of AKT downstream proliferation effectors as well as autophagy markers. Flow cytometry shows that OSU-T315 increased the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M for both, HEI193 (39.99%) and Ben-Men-1 (26.96%) cells, compared to controls (21.54%, 8.47%). Two hours of OSU-T315 treatment increased cell death in both cell lines (34.3%, 9.1%) versus untreated (12.1%, 8.1%). Though longer exposure increased cell death in Ben-Men-1, TUNEL assays showed that OSU-T315 does not induce apoptosis. OSU-T315 was primarily cytotoxic for HEI193 and Ben-Men-1 inducing a dysregulated autophagy. Our studies suggest that OSU-T315 has translational potential as a chemotherapeutic agent against VS and meningioma.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce WB-F344 oval cell viability and migration capability by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ying; Hu, Ronglin; Li, Dongming; Du, Jun; Jiao, Xingyuan; He, Xiaoshun

    2016-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) can blockDNA replication and transcription and altered HDAC expression was associated with tumorigenesis. This study investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on hepatic oval cells and aimed to delineate the underlying molecular events. Hepatic oval cells were treated with two different HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin-A (TSA). Cells were subjected to cell morphology, cell viability, cell cycle, and wound healing assays. The expression of proteins related to both apoptosis and the cell cycle, and proteins of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were analyzed by Western blot. The data showed that HDAC inhibitors reduced oval cell viability and migration capability, and arrested oval cells at the G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HDAC inhibitors altered cell morphology and reduced oval cell viability, and downregulated the expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, c-Myc and Bmi1 proteins, while also suppressing AKT/mTOR and its downstream target activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HDAC inhibitors affect oval cells by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling. PMID:26558695

  6. MiRNA‑542‑3p downregulation promotes trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer cells via AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) has been widely used in breast cancer treatment. However, the majority of cancers that initially respond to trastuzumab begin to progress again within 1 year. Despite the high resistance rate, the molecular mechanisms underlying this desease are not well understood. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA‑542‑3p modulated trastuzumab resistance in SKBR3 and MCF7/Her2 breast cancer cell lines. Trastuzumab induced miRNA‑542‑3p expression in SKBR3 and MCF7/Her2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miRNA‑542‑3p in the two cell lines resulted in decreased drug sensitivity to trastuzumab and cell apoptosis. The blockage of G1/S checkpoint by trastuzumab was rescued as well. miRNA‑542‑3p knockdown also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)‑Akt pathway, while LY294002 reversed the effect of miRNA‑542‑3p knockdown. In summary, the results suggested that miRNA‑542‑3p downregulation may contribute to the trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer via, at least in part, the PI3K‑akt pathway. Our findings provide new molecular mechanisms in trastuzumab resistance. PMID:25586125

  7. Jolkinolide B induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Cui, Hongxia; Xu, Huiyu; Yue, Liling; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Liyan; Liu, Jicheng

    2012-06-01

    The phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathway is critically important for tumor cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis activation has been reported to be a good target in cancer therapies. In this study, we have found that jolkinolide B (JB), a diterpenoid from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, strongly inhibited the expression of the PI3K p85 subunit and the phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of JB on the proliferation and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Our results show significant induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with JB. This effect was enhanced by combination with LY294002. In addition, treatment with JB could induce downregulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and subsequent promotion of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Taken together, JB-induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells occurs through the mitochondrial pathway. Further, the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade plays a role in the induction of apoptosis in JB-treated cells. These observations suggest that JB may have therapeutic applications in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Withaferin A-Caused Production of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Modulates Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt and JNKinase in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is known as a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, and has been used for thousands of years. Although WFA has been used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and has a wide range of biochemical and pharmacologic activities, there are no findings suggesting its properties on chondrocytes or cartilage. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of WFA on apoptosis with focus on generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we showed that WFA significantly increased the generation of intracellular ROS in a dose-dependent manner. We also determined that WFA markedly leads to apoptosis as evidenced by accumulation of p53 by Western blot analysis. N-Acetyl-L-Cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, prevented WFA-caused expression of p53 and inhibited apoptosis of chondrocytes. We also found that WFA causes the activation of PI3K/Akt and JNKinase. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and JNKinase with LY294002 (LY)/triciribine (TB) or SP600125 (SP) in WFA-treated cells reduced accumulation of p53 and inhibited fragmented DNA. Our findings suggested that apoptosis caused by WFA-induced intracellular ROS generation is regulated through PI3K/Akt and JNKinase in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120312

  9. Naoxintong Protects Primary Neurons from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation Induced Injury through PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pei; Zhu, Jinqiang; Yan, Chen; Li, Lin; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Meng; Gao, Xiumei

    2016-01-01

    Naoxintong capsule (NXT), developed from Buyang Huanwu Decoction, has shown the neuroprotective effects in cerebrovascular diseases, but the neuroprotection mechanisms of NXT on ischemia/reperfusion injured neurons have not yet been well known. In this study, we established the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neurons injury model and treat the neurons with cerebrospinal fluid containing NXT (BNC) to investigate the effects of NXT on OGD/R induced neurons injury and potential mechanisms. BNC improved neuron viability and decreased apoptotic rate induced by OGD/R. BNC attenuated OGD/R induced cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, ROS generation, intracellular NO levels and nNOS mRNA increase, and cytochrome-c release when compared with OGD/R group. BNC significantly inhibited both mPTP opening and ΔΨm depolarization. BNC increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax expression, upregulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, downregulated caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-9 mRNA expression, and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression and caspase-3 activity. BNC increased phosphorylation of Akt following OGD/R, while LY294002 attenuated BNC induced increase of phosphorylated Akt expression. Our study demonstrated that NXT protected primary neurons from OGD/R induced injury by inhibiting calcium overload and ROS generation, protecting mitochondria, and inhibiting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was mediated partially by PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:26949405

  10. A bioinformatic and mechanistic study elicits the antifibrotic effect of ursolic acid through the attenuation of oxidative stress with the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatic stellate cells and rat liver

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenhua; Shi, Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Li, Bimin; Zhang, Kunhe; Zhang, Xinhua; Ouyang, Canhui; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are a predominant mediator of redox homeostasis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with various pharmacological activities, but the molecular targets and underlying mechanisms for its antifibrotic effect in the liver remain elusive. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactome and mechanistically investigate the antifibrotic effect of UA on oxidative stress, with a focus on NOX4 activity and cross-linked signaling pathways in human HSCs and rat liver. Drug–drug interaction via chemical–protein interactome tool, a server that can predict drug–drug interaction via chemical–protein interactome, was used to predict the molecular targets of UA, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery was employed to analyze the signaling pathways of the predicted targets of UA. The bioinformatic data showed that there were 611 molecular proteins possibly interacting with UA and that there were over 49 functional clusters responding to UA. The subsequential benchmarking data showed that UA significantly reduced the accumulation of type I collagen in HSCs in rat liver, increased the expression level of MMP-1, but decreased the expression level of TIMP-1 in HSC-T6 cells. UA also remarkably reduced the gene expression level of type I collagen in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, UA remarkably attenuated oxidative stress via negative regulation of NOX4 activity and expression in HSC-T6 cells. The employment of specific chemical inhibitors, SB203580, LY294002, PD98059, and AG490, demonstrated the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the regulatory effect of UA on NOX4 activity and expression. Collectively, the antifibrotic effect of UA is partially due to the oxidative stress attenuating effect through manipulating NOX4 activity and expression. The results

  11. A bioinformatic and mechanistic study elicits the antifibrotic effect of ursolic acid through the attenuation of oxidative stress with the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatic stellate cells and rat liver.

    PubMed

    He, Wenhua; Shi, Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Li, Bimin; Zhang, Kunhe; Zhang, Xinhua; Ouyang, Canhui; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are a predominant mediator of redox homeostasis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with various pharmacological activities, but the molecular targets and underlying mechanisms for its antifibrotic effect in the liver remain elusive. This study aimed to computationally predict the molecular interactome and mechanistically investigate the antifibrotic effect of UA on oxidative stress, with a focus on NOX4 activity and cross-linked signaling pathways in human HSCs and rat liver. Drug-drug interaction via chemical-protein interactome tool, a server that can predict drug-drug interaction via chemical-protein interactome, was used to predict the molecular targets of UA, and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery was employed to analyze the signaling pathways of the predicted targets of UA. The bioinformatic data showed that there were 611 molecular proteins possibly interacting with UA and that there were over 49 functional clusters responding to UA. The subsequential benchmarking data showed that UA significantly reduced the accumulation of type I collagen in HSCs in rat liver, increased the expression level of MMP-1, but decreased the expression level of TIMP-1 in HSC-T6 cells. UA also remarkably reduced the gene expression level of type I collagen in HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, UA remarkably attenuated oxidative stress via negative regulation of NOX4 activity and expression in HSC-T6 cells. The employment of specific chemical inhibitors, SB203580, LY294002, PD98059, and AG490, demonstrated the involvement of ERK, PI3K/Akt, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the regulatory effect of UA on NOX4 activity and expression. Collectively, the antifibrotic effect of UA is partially due to the oxidative stress attenuating effect through manipulating NOX4 activity and expression. The results suggest that

  12. Activation of Akt/FoxO and inactivation of MEK/ERK pathways contribute to induction of neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia by delayed hypoxic postconditioning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lixuan; Li, Danfang; Liang, Donghai; Wu, Baoxing; Zhu, Pingping; Wang, Yanmei; Sun, Weiwen; Xu, En

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic postconditioning, a series of mechanical interruptions of blood flow immediately after reperfusion, has been described in brain studies. However, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) has never been reported in transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) adult rat model. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of neuroprotection by delayed HPC against tGCI in adult rats and investigate underlying mechanisms involving the Akt/Forkhead transcription factor, class O (FoxO) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Postconditioning with 60-120 min hypoxia significantly reduced cell death in hippocampal CA1 subregion after 10 min of tGCI. Postconditioning was effective only when applied 1-2 days after tGCI. Nevertheless, the combination of hypoxic preconditioning and postconditioning provided no additive protection. Additionally, postconditioning increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxOs after tGCI. Inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and FoxOs with LY294002 suppressed the postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. In addition, postconditioning blocked the increase of MEK and ERK phosphorylation after tGCI. Inhibiting phosphorylation of MEK and ERK with U0126 attenuated neuronal damage after tGCI. These results suggest that delayed HPC exerts neuroprotection against tGCI-induced injury in adult rats. The activation of Akt/FoxO and inactivation of MEK/ERK pathways by postconditioning contributed to the induction of neuroprotection against tGCI.

  13. RES-529: a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor that dissociates the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    RES-529 (previously named Palomid 529, P529) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor that interferes with the pathway through both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) dissociation. This compound is currently being developed in oncology and ophthalmology. The oncology focus is for the treatment of glioblastoma, where it has received orphan designation by the US Food and Drug Administration, and prostate cancer. We present a review of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, its role in tumorigenesis, and the potential of RES-529 in cancer treatment. RES-529 inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2 activity in various cancer cell lines, as noted by decreased phosphorylation of substrates including ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1, and AKT, leading to cell growth inhibition and death, with activity generally in the range of 5–15 μmol/l. In animal tumor models where the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated (i.e. glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and breast cancer), RES-529 reduces tumor growth by as much as 78%. RES-529 treatment is synergistic with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy in reducing tumor growth, potentially by preventing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation associated with these treatments. Furthermore, this compound has shown antiangiogenic activity in several animal models. mTORC1 and mTORC2 have redundant and distinct activities that contribute toward oncogenesis. Current inhibitors of this pathway have primarily targeted mTORC1, but have shown limited clinical efficacy. Inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 such as RES-529 may therefore have the potential to overcome the deficiencies found in targeting only mTORC1. PMID:26918392

  14. PIM and AKT kinase inhibitors show synergistic cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukaemia that is associated with convergence on mTOR and MCL1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Meja, Koremu; Stengel, Chloe; Sellar, Rob; Huszar, Dennis; Davies, Barry R; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Khwaja, Asim

    2014-10-01

    PIM kinases (PIM1, 2 and 3) are involved in cell proliferation and survival signalling and are emerging targets for the therapy of various malignancies. We found that a significant proportion of primary acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples showed PIM1 and PIM2 expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a novel ATP-competitive pan-PIM inhibitor, AZD1897, on AML cell growth and survival. PIM inhibition showed limited single agent activity in AML cell lines and primary AML cells, including those with or without FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation. However, significant synergy was seen when AZD1897 was combined with the Akt inhibitor AZD5363, a compound that is in early-phase clinical trials. AML cells from putative leukaemia stem cell subsets, including CD34+38- and CD34+38+ fractions, were equivalently affected by dual PIM/Akt inhibition when compared with bulk tumour cells. Analysis of downstream signalling pathways showed that combined PIM/Akt inhibition downregulated mTOR outputs (phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and S6) and markedly reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1. The combination of PIM and Akt inhibition holds promise for the treatment of AML. PMID:24975213

  15. PI3K-Akt1 expression and its significance in liver tissues with chronic fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Yu, Yanni; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study was to explore the effect and significance of PI3K signal pathway on mechanism of liver injury in chronic fluorosis. We used 48 Sprague-Dawley rats which were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the body weight, 12 in each group, half of male and female. The control group was fed with the solid feed (the fluorine content was 1.5 mg/kg). The fluorosis animals were fed with the corn containing fluorine content of 17 mg/kg from the endemic fluorosis areas. Blocking agent LY294002 was injected in the blocking group and phosphate buffer solution was injected in the blocking control in the caudal vein with 10 mg/kg once every other day in the one week before the end of the experiment. The animals were drunk by tap water freely. The fluoride contents of urinary and skeletal were determined by the F-ion selective electrode method. The mRNA and protein expressions of PI3K, Akt1 in the liver tissues were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and streptavidin-perosidase and Western blot, respectively. Results showed that fluoride contents of the urine and bone were increased in the fluorosis compared to those in the control. The expression of PI3K and Akt1 mRNA and proteins was significantly increased in fluorosis hepatocytes, and lower than that of the fluorosis in the blocking. The apoptosis and the intracellular calcium concentration were increased. Therefore, we conclude that PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be one of the signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of liver injury caused by fluorosis. PMID:25973007

  16. PI3K-Akt1 expression and its significance in liver tissues with chronic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bin; Yu, Yanni; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study was to explore the effect and significance of PI3K signal pathway on mechanism of liver injury in chronic fluorosis. We used 48 Sprague-Dawley rats which were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the body weight, 12 in each group, half of male and female. The control group was fed with the solid feed (the fluorine content was 1.5 mg/kg). The fluorosis animals were fed with the corn containing fluorine content of 17 mg/kg from the endemic fluorosis areas. Blocking agent LY294002 was injected in the blocking group and phosphate buffer solution was injected in the blocking control in the caudal vein with 10 mg/kg once every other day in the one week before the end of the experiment. The animals were drunk by tap water freely. The fluoride contents of urinary and skeletal were determined by the F-ion selective electrode method. The mRNA and protein expressions of PI3K, Akt1 in the liver tissues were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and streptavidin-perosidase and Western blot, respectively. Results showed that fluoride contents of the urine and bone were increased in the fluorosis compared to those in the control. The expression of PI3K and Akt1 mRNA and proteins was significantly increased in fluorosis hepatocytes, and lower than that of the fluorosis in the blocking. The apoptosis and the intracellular calcium concentration were increased. Therefore, we conclude that PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be one of the signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of liver injury caused by fluorosis.

  17. Dissociation of ERK and Akt signaling in endothelial cell angiogenic responses to {beta}-amyloid

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, Jordi; Christensen, Rial A.; Rosen, Kenneth M.; Veereshwarayya, Vimal; Querfurth, Henry W. . E-mail: hquerf01@granite.tufts.edu

    2006-04-15

    Cerebrovascular deposits of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptides are found in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy with stroke or dementia. Dysregulations of angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier and other critical endothelial cell (EC) functions have been implicated in aggravating chronic hypoperfusion in AD brain. We have used cultured ECs to model the effects of {beta}-amyloid on the activated phosphorylation states of multifunctional serine/threonine kinases since these are differentially involved in the survival, proliferation and migration aspects of angiogenesis. Serum-starved EC cultures containing amyloid-{beta} peptides underwent a 2- to 3-fold increase in nuclear pyknosis. Under growth conditions with sublethal doses of {beta}-amyloid, loss of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cell proliferation were observed. By contrast, cell migration was the most sensitive to A{beta} since inhibition was significant already at 1 {mu}M (P = 0.01, migration vs. proliferation). In previous work, intracellular A{beta} accumulation was shown toxic to ECs and Akt function. Here, extracellular A{beta} peptides do not alter Akt activation, resulting instead in proportionate decreases in the phosphorylations of the MAPKs: ERK1/2 and p38 (starting at 1 {mu}M). This inhibitory action occurs proximal to MEK1/2 activation, possibly through interference with growth factor receptor coupling. Levels of phospho-JNK remained unchanged. Addition of PD98059, but not LY294002, resulted in a similar decrease in activated ERK1/2 levels and inhibition of EC migration. Transfection of ERK1/2 into A{beta}-poisoned ECs functionally rescued migration. The marked effect of extracellular A{beta} on the migration component of angiogenesis is associated with inhibition of MAPK signaling, while Akt-dependent cell survival appears more affected by cellular A{beta}.

  18. Status of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Westin, Jason R

    2014-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is well known to regulate a wide variety of essential cellular functions, including glucose metabolism, translational regulation of protein synthesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. Aberrations in the PI3K pathway are among the most frequently observed in cancer, and include amplifications, rearrangements, mutations, and loss of regulators. As a net result of these anomalies, the PI3K pathway is activated in many malignancies, including in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and yields a competitive growth and survival advantage, increased metastatic ability, and resistance to conventional therapy. Numerous inhibitors targeting various nodes in the PI3K pathway are undergoing clinical development, and their current status in lymphoma will be the focus of this review.

  19. Compound library screening identified Akt/PKB kinase pathway inhibitors as potential key molecules for the development of new chemotherapeutics against schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Lescuyer, Arlette; Lancelot, Julien; Dissous, Colette

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) are one of the largest protein families in most eukaryotic organisms. These enzymes are involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism and a large number of the anticancer drugs currently used are directed against PKs. The structure and function of PKs are well conserved throughout evolution. In schistosome parasites, PKs were shown to be involved in essential functions at every stage of the parasite life cycle, making these enzymes promising anti-parasite drug targets. In this study, we tested a panel of commercial inhibitors for various PKs and analyzed their effects on pairing and egg production by schistosomes as well as their toxicity towards schistosomula larvae. Results obtained confirmed the deleterious effect of PK targeting on Schistosoma mansoni physiology and the important function of different tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases in the biology and reproduction of this parasite. They also indicated for the first time that the Protein kinase B (also called Akt) which is a major downstream target of many receptor tyrosine kinases and a central player at the crossroads of signal transduction pathways activated in response to growth factors and insulin, can constitute a novel target for anti-schistosome chemotherapy. Structural and functional studies have shown that SmAkt is a conserved kinase and that its activity can be inhibited by commercially available Akt inhibitors. In treated adult worms, Akt/PKB kinase pathway inhibitors induced profound alterations in pairing and egg laying and they also greatly affected the viability of schistosomula larvae. PMID:25516836

  20. Neuroprotective effects of preconditioning ischaemia on ischaemic brain injury through inhibition of mixed-lineage kinase 3 via NMDA receptor-mediated Akt1 activation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Quan-Guang; Miao, Bei; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2005-05-01

    A number of works show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway responds actively in cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. We undertook our present studies to clarify the role of mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3), a MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) in MAPK cascades, in global ischaemia and ischaemic tolerance. The mechanism concerning NMDA receptor-mediated Akt1 activation underlying ischaemic tolerance, was also investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 min of ischaemia and differing times of reperfusion. Our results showed MLK3 was activated in the hippocampal CA1 region with two peaks occurring at 30 min and 6 h, respectively. This activation returned to base level 3 days later. Both preconditioning with 3 min of sublethal ischaemia and NMDA pretreatment inhibited the 6-h peak of activation. However, pretreatment of ketamine before preconditioning reversed the inhibiting effect of preconditioning on MLK3 activation at 6 h of reperfusion. In the case of Akt1, however, preconditioning and NMDA pretreatment enhanced Akt1 activation at 10 min of reperfusion. Furthermore, ketamine pretreatment reversed preconditioning-induced increase of Akt1 activation. We also noted that pretreatment of LY294002 before preconditioning reversed both the inhibition of MLK3 activation at 6 h of reperfusion and the increase in Akt1 activation at 10 min of reperfusion. The above-mentioned results lead us to conclude that, in the hippocampal CA1 region, preconditioning inhibits MLK3 activation after lethal ischaemia and reperfusion and, furthermore, this effect is mediated by Akt1 activation through NMDA receptor stimulation.

  1. The promotion of angiogenesis induced by three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with different interconnection sizes via activation of PI3K/Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Haoqiang; Gao, Peng; Geng, Lei; Yuan, Yulin; Lu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The porous architectural characteristics of biomaterials play an important role in scaffold revascularization. However, no consensus exists regarding optimal interconnection sizes for vascularization and its scaffold bioperformance with different interconnection sizes. Therefore, a series of disk-type beta-tricalcium phosphates with the same pore sizes and variable interconnections were produced to evaluate how the interconnection size influenced biomaterial vascularization in vitro and in vivo. We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells on scaffolds with interconnections of various sizes. Results showed that scaffolds with a 150 μm interconnection size ameliorated endothelial cell function evidenced by promoting cell adhesion and migration, increasing cell proliferation and enhancing expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo study was performed on rabbit implanted with scaffolds into the bone defect on femoral condyles. Implantation with scaffolds with 150 μm interconnection size significantly improved neovascularization as shown by micro-CT as compared to scaffolds with 100 and 120 μm interconnection sizes. Moreover, the aforementioned positive effects were abolished by blocking PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway with LY-294002. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the scaffold with 150 μm interconnection size improves neovascularization via the PI3K/Akt pathway and provides a target for biomaterial inner structure modification to attain improved clinical performance in implant vascularization. PMID:25797242

  2. The promotion of angiogenesis induced by three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with different interconnection sizes via activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Haoqiang; Gao, Peng; Geng, Lei; Yuan, Yulin; Lu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The porous architectural characteristics of biomaterials play an important role in scaffold revascularization. However, no consensus exists regarding optimal interconnection sizes for vascularization and its scaffold bioperformance with different interconnection sizes. Therefore, a series of disk-type beta-tricalcium phosphates with the same pore sizes and variable interconnections were produced to evaluate how the interconnection size influenced biomaterial vascularization in vitro and in vivo. We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells on scaffolds with interconnections of various sizes. Results showed that scaffolds with a 150 μm interconnection size ameliorated endothelial cell function evidenced by promoting cell adhesion and migration, increasing cell proliferation and enhancing expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo study was performed on rabbit implanted with scaffolds into the bone defect on femoral condyles. Implantation with scaffolds with 150 μm interconnection size significantly improved neovascularization as shown by micro-CT as compared to scaffolds with 100 and 120 μm interconnection sizes. Moreover, the aforementioned positive effects were abolished by blocking PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway with LY-294002. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the scaffold with 150 μm interconnection size improves neovascularization via the PI3K/Akt pathway and provides a target for biomaterial inner structure modification to attain improved clinical performance in implant vascularization.

  3. Asperosaponin VI promotes bone marrow stromal cell osteogenic differentiation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in an osteoporosis model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ke; Li, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xie, Zhijian; Wang, Yu; Shi, Jue; Chi, Linfeng; Xu, Weijian; Hu, Lingling; Shi, Huali

    2016-01-01

    Asperosaponin VI (ASA VI), a natural compound isolated from the well-known traditional Chinese herb Radix Dipsaci, has an important role in promoting osteoblast formation. However, its effects on osteoblasts in the context of osteoporosis is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of ASA VI action on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells isolated from the ovariectomized rats (OVX rBMSCs). The toxicity of ASA VI and its effects on the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs were measured using a CCK-8 assay. Various osteogenic differentiation markers were also analyzed, such as ALP activity, calcified nodule formation, and the expression of osteogenic genes, i.e., ALP, OCN, COL 1 and RUNX2. The results indicated that ASA VI promoted the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs and enhanced ALP activity and calcified nodule formation. In addition, while ASA VI enhanced the expression of ALP, OCN, Col 1 and RUNX2, treatment with LY294002 reduced all of these osteogenic effects and reduced the p-AKT levels induced by ASA VI. These results suggest that ASA VI promotes the osteogenic differentiation of OVX rBMSCs by acting on the phosphatidylinositol—3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27756897

  4. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-04-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: >PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. >PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx and caspase-3 activity. >PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. >PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. >PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  5. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation, anti-apoptosis, migration effects and accelerates cell cycle progression in multiple myeloma cells via activating the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Chen, Ziang; Chen, Jingfu; Zhuang, Xiaomin; Feng, Jianqiang; Li, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), regarded as the third gaseous transmitter, mediates and induces various biological effects. The present study investigated the effects of H2S on multiple myeloma cell progression via amplifying the activation of Akt pathway in multiple myeloma cells. The level of H2S produced in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and healthy subjects was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MM cells were treated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8). The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the concentration of H2S was higher in MM patients and that it increased in parallel with disease progression. Treating MM cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS for 24 h markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2 and the activation of p-Akt, however, the expression level of caspase-3 was decreased, cell viability was increased, and cell cycle progression was accelerated in MM cells. NaHS also induced migration in MM cells in transwell migration assay. Furthermore, co-treatment of MM cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 50 µmol/l LY294002 for 24 h significantly overset these effects. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the Akt pathway contributes to NaHS-induced cell proliferation, migration and acceleration of cell cycle progression in MM cells. PMID:27513630

  6. Synergistic Effect of Sulindac and Simvastatin on Apoptosis in Lung Cancer A549 Cells through AKT-Dependent Downregulation of Survivin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Seol, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Jae-Wan; Oh, Su-Jin; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and statins are potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents. The mechanism underlying the deregulation of survivin by NSAIDs and statins in human non-small cell lung cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the synergistic interaction of sulindac and simvastatin in lung cancer A549 cells. Materials and Methods Cell viability was measured by an MTT assay, while the expression of apoptotic markers, AKT, and survivin in response to sulindac and simvastatin was examined by Western blotting. DNA fragmentation by apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry in A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by flow cytometry using H2DCFDA and MitoSOX Red, and the effects of pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine were tested. The effects of AKT on survivin expression in sulindac- and simvastatin-treated cells were assessed. Survivin was knocked down or overexpressed to determine its role in apoptosis induced by sulindac and simvastatin. Results Sulindac and simvastatin synergistically augmented apoptotic activity and intracellular ROS production in A549 cells. Inhibition of AKT by siRNA or LY294002 inhibited survivin, while AKT overexpression markedly increased survivin expression, even in the presence of sulindac and simvastatin. Moreover, survivin siRNA enhanced sulindac- and simvastatininduced apoptosis. In contrast, survivin upregulation protected against sulindac- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Combined treatment with sulindac and simvastatin augmented their apoptotic potential in lung cancer cells through AKT signaling-dependent downregulation of survivin. These results indicate that sulindac and simvastatin may be clinically promising therapies for the prevention of lung cancer. PMID:25520153

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of novel pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, potential inhibitors of Akt kinase. Part II.

    PubMed

    Desplat, Vanessa; Moreau, Stephane; Gay, Aurore; Fabre, Solene Belisle; Thiolat, Denis; Massip, Stephane; Macky, Gregory; Godde, Frederic; Mossalayi, Djavad; Jarry, Christian; Guillon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Attenuation of protein kinases by selective inhibitors is an extremely active field of activity in anticancer drug development. Therefore, Akt, a serine/threonine protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), represents an attractive potential target for therapeutic intervention. Recent efforts in the development and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of Akt have led to the identification of novel inhibitors with various heterocycle scaffolds. Based on previous results obtained on the antiproliferative activities of new pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines, a novel series was designed and synthesized from various substituted phenyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid alkyl esters via a multistep heterocyclization process. These new compounds were tested for their in vitro ability to inhibit the proliferation of the human leukemic cell lines K562, U937, and HL60, and the breast cancer cell line MCF7. The first biological evaluation of our new substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines showed antiproliferative activity against the tested cell lines. From a general SAR point of view, these preliminary biological results highlight the importance of substitution at the C-4 position of the pyrroloquinoxaline scaffold by a benzylpiperidinyl fluorobenzimidazole group, and also the need for a functionalization on the pyrrole ring.

  8. Downregulation of Fes inhibits VEGF-A-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis by cultured endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Shigeru; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether the downregulation of endogenous Fes by siRNA in cultured endothelial cells affects vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis, which are considered as angiogenic cellular responses in vitro. VEGF-A-treatment induced autophosphorylation of Fes in cultured endothelial cells.LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited VEGF-A-induced chemotaxis and capillary-like morphogenesis.Downregulation of Fes attenuated these VEGF-A-induced cellular responses but LY294002 did not produce further inhibition of these responses. Downregulation of Fes neither affected VEGF-A-induced autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 nor mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, but markedly decreased Akt activation.Taken together, our novel results indicate the involvement of Fes in VEGF-A-induced cellular responses by cultured endothelial cells. PMID:17521372

  9. North American ginseng protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Lu, Xiangru; Xiang, Fu-Li; Lui, Edmund M K; Feng, Qingping

    2011-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests ginseng has therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the cardioprotective effects of ginseng during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Treatment with ginseng extract significantly increased Akt phosphorylation and eNOS protein levels in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Upregulation of eNOS was blocked by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, suggesting a PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism. To simulate I/R, cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes from eNOS(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to anoxia and reoxygenation (A/R). Ginseng treatment inhibited A/R-induced apoptosis in WT, but not in either eNOS(-/-) cardiomyocytes or WT cardiomyocytes treated with LY294002. To further study the cardioprotective effects of ginseng in vivo, WT and eNOS(-/-) mice were pretreated with ginseng extract (50mg/kg/day, oral gavage) for 7 days before they were subjected to myocardial I/R. Treatment with ginseng significantly increased Akt phosphorylation and eNOS protein levels in the myocardium. Furthermore, ginseng-induced myocardial eNOS expression was inhibited by LY294002. Strikingly, ginseng treatment significantly decreased infarct size and myocardial apoptosis following I/R in WT mice, but not in either eNOS(-/-) mice or WT mice treated with LY294002. We conclude that ginseng treatment protects the heart from I/R injury via upregulation of eNOS expression. Our study suggests that ginseng may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to limit myocardial I/R injury.

  10. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate. PMID:23417763

  11. The role of PI3K/AKT-related PIP5K1α and the discovery of its selective inhibitor for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Semenas, Julius; Hedblom, Andreas; Miftakhova, Regina R.; Sarwar, Martuza; Larsson, Rikard; Shcherbina, Liliya; Johansson, Martin E.; Härkönen, Pirkko; Sterner, Olov; Persson, Jenny L.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are an important class of molecules that are commonly used for the synthesis of candidate drugs. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-α (PIP5Kα) is a lipid kinase, similar to PI3K. However, the role of PIP5K1α in oncogenic processes and the development of inhibitors that selectively target PIP5K1α have not been reported. In the present study we report that overexpression of PIP5K1α is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer and correlates with an elevated level of the androgen receptor. Overexpression of PIP5K1α in PNT1A nonmalignant cells results in an increased AKT activity and an increased survival, as well as invasive malignant phenotype, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α in aggressive PC-3 cells leads to a reduced AKT activity and an inhibition in tumor growth in xenograft mice. We further report a previously unidentified role for PIP5K1α as a druggable target for our newly developed compound ISA-2011B using a high-throughput KINOMEscan platform. ISA-2011B was discovered during our synthetic studies of C-1 indol-3-yl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via a Pictet-Spengler approach. ISA-2011B significantly inhibits growth of tumor cells in xenograft mice, and we show that this is mediated by targeting PIP5K1α-associated PI3K/AKT and the downstream survival, proliferation, and invasion pathways. Further, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α exerts similar effects on PC3 cells as ISA-2011B treatment, significantly inhibiting AKT activity, increasing apoptosis and reducing invasion. Thus, PIP5K1α has high potential as a drug target, and compound ISA-2011B is interesting for further development of targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25071204

  12. The role of PI3K/AKT-related PIP5K1α and the discovery of its selective inhibitor for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Semenas, Julius; Hedblom, Andreas; Miftakhova, Regina R; Sarwar, Martuza; Larsson, Rikard; Shcherbina, Liliya; Johansson, Martin E; Härkönen, Pirkko; Sterner, Olov; Persson, Jenny L

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are an important class of molecules that are commonly used for the synthesis of candidate drugs. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-α (PIP5Kα) is a lipid kinase, similar to PI3K. However, the role of PIP5K1α in oncogenic processes and the development of inhibitors that selectively target PIP5K1α have not been reported. In the present study we report that overexpression of PIP5K1α is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer and correlates with an elevated level of the androgen receptor. Overexpression of PIP5K1α in PNT1A nonmalignant cells results in an increased AKT activity and an increased survival, as well as invasive malignant phenotype, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α in aggressive PC-3 cells leads to a reduced AKT activity and an inhibition in tumor growth in xenograft mice. We further report a previously unidentified role for PIP5K1α as a druggable target for our newly developed compound ISA-2011B using a high-throughput KINOMEscan platform. ISA-2011B was discovered during our synthetic studies of C-1 indol-3-yl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via a Pictet-Spengler approach. ISA-2011B significantly inhibits growth of tumor cells in xenograft mice, and we show that this is mediated by targeting PIP5K1α-associated PI3K/AKT and the downstream survival, proliferation, and invasion pathways. Further, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α exerts similar effects on PC3 cells as ISA-2011B treatment, significantly inhibiting AKT activity, increasing apoptosis and reducing invasion. Thus, PIP5K1α has high potential as a drug target, and compound ISA-2011B is interesting for further development of targeted cancer therapy.

  13. The role of PI3K/AKT-related PIP5K1α and the discovery of its selective inhibitor for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Semenas, Julius; Hedblom, Andreas; Miftakhova, Regina R; Sarwar, Martuza; Larsson, Rikard; Shcherbina, Liliya; Johansson, Martin E; Härkönen, Pirkko; Sterner, Olov; Persson, Jenny L

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are an important class of molecules that are commonly used for the synthesis of candidate drugs. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-α (PIP5Kα) is a lipid kinase, similar to PI3K. However, the role of PIP5K1α in oncogenic processes and the development of inhibitors that selectively target PIP5K1α have not been reported. In the present study we report that overexpression of PIP5K1α is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer and correlates with an elevated level of the androgen receptor. Overexpression of PIP5K1α in PNT1A nonmalignant cells results in an increased AKT activity and an increased survival, as well as invasive malignant phenotype, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α in aggressive PC-3 cells leads to a reduced AKT activity and an inhibition in tumor growth in xenograft mice. We further report a previously unidentified role for PIP5K1α as a druggable target for our newly developed compound ISA-2011B using a high-throughput KINOMEscan platform. ISA-2011B was discovered during our synthetic studies of C-1 indol-3-yl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via a Pictet-Spengler approach. ISA-2011B significantly inhibits growth of tumor cells in xenograft mice, and we show that this is mediated by targeting PIP5K1α-associated PI3K/AKT and the downstream survival, proliferation, and invasion pathways. Further, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIP5K1α exerts similar effects on PC3 cells as ISA-2011B treatment, significantly inhibiting AKT activity, increasing apoptosis and reducing invasion. Thus, PIP5K1α has high potential as a drug target, and compound ISA-2011B is interesting for further development of targeted cancer therapy. PMID:25071204

  14. A novel PKB/Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, effectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and protein synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Liu, Yang; Jacobs, Roxane; Rider, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    PKB (protein kinase B), also known as Akt, is a key component of insulin signalling. Defects in PKB activation lead to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, whereas PKB overactivation has been linked to tumour growth. Small-molecule PKB inhibitors have thus been developed for cancer treatment, but also represent useful tools to probe the roles of PKB in insulin action. In the present study, we examined the acute effects of two allosteric PKB inhibitors, MK-2206 and Akti 1/2 (Akti) on PKB signalling in incubated rat soleus muscles. We also assessed the effects of the compounds on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen and protein synthesis. MK-2206 dose-dependently inhibited insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation, PKBβ activity and phosphorylation of PKB downstream targets (including glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa and Akt substrate of 160 kDa). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity were also decreased by MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with high doses of MK-2206 (10 μM) inhibited insulin-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1) phosphorylation associated with increased eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) phosphorylation. In contrast, Akti only modestly inhibited insulin-induced PKB and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling, with little or no effect on glucose uptake and protein synthesis. MK-2206, rather than Akti, would thus be the tool of choice for studying the role of PKB in insulin action in skeletal muscle. The results point to a key role for PKB in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  15. Abrogation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Akt Signaling by Vandetanib Synergistically Potentiates Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis in Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jane, Esther P.; Premkumar, Daniel R.; Addo-Yobo, Steven O.

    2009-01-01

    Vandetanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Our initial studies demonstrated that this agent blocks vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor phosphorylation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling in glioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Despite these effects, we observed that vandetanib had little effect on apoptosis induction at clinically achievable concentrations. Because histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been suggested to regulate signaling protein transcription and downstream interactions via modulation of protein chaperone function through the 90-kDa heat shock protein, we investigated whether combining vandetanib with an HDACI could synergistically potentiate signaling pathway inhibition and apoptosis induction in a panel of malignant human glioma cell lines. Proliferation assays, apoptosis induction studies, and Western immunoblot analysis were conducted in cells treated with vandetanib and HDACIs as single agents or in combination. Vandetanib and suberoylanalide hydroxamic acid reduced proliferation in all cell lines when used as single agents, and the combination produced marked potentiation of growth inhibition as assessed by combinatorial methods. These effects were paralleled by potentiation of Akt signaling inhibition and apoptosis induction. Our results indicate that inhibition of histone deacetylation enhances the antiproliferative effect of vandetanib in malignant human glioma cell lines by enhancing inhibition of MAPK, Akt, and other downstream effectors that may have application in combinatorial therapeutics for these tumors. PMID:19622715

  16. Spironolactone promotes autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway and reduce adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Zhongwei; Ji, Junya; Zheng, Zhenfeng; Lin, Shan; Yan, Tiekun

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stress which would cause deleterious adhesive effects on podocytes is considered a major contributor to the early progress of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study has shown that spironolactone could ameliorate podocytic adhesive capacity in diabetic rats. Autophagy has been reported to have a protective role against renal injury. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms by which spironolactone reduced adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress, focusing on the involvement of autophagy. Human conditional immortalized podocytes exposed to mechanical stress were treated with spironolactone, LY294002 or rapamycin for 48 h. The accumulation of LC3 puncta was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Podocyte expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), integrin β1, LC3, Atg5, p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting. Podocyte adhesion to collagen type IV was also performed with spectrophotometry. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the normal level of autophagy was reduced in podocytes under mechanical stress. Decreased integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 and abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were also detected in podocytes under mechanical stress. Spironolactone up-regulated integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 expression, down-regulated p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR expression and reduced podocytic adhesive capacity damage. Our data demonstrated that spironolactone inhibited mechanical-stress-induced podocytic adhesive capacity damage through blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and restoring autophagy activity. PMID:27129295

  17. CD147 modulates androgen receptor activity through the Akt/Gsk-3β/β-catenin/AR pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Qin, Yingxin; Hao, Feng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shuang; Zhao, Liangzhong; Wang, Liguo; Cai, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The androgen signaling pathway serves an important role in the development of prostate cancer. β-Catenin is an androgen receptor (AR) cofactor and augments AR signaling. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a target of phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase B (p-Akt), regulates β-catenin stability. In addition, β-catenin, a coregulator of AR, physically interacts with AR and enhances AR-mediated target gene transcription. The multifunctional glycoprotein cluster of differentiation (CD) 147 is highly expressed on the cell surface of the majority of cancer cells, and it promotes tumor invasion, metastasis and growth. In the present study, the molecular effects of CD147 on the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin/AR signaling network were investigated in LNCaP cells. Using short hairpin-mediated RNA knockdown of CD147 in LNCaP cells, it was demonstrated that downregulation of CD147 resulted in inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β, and then promoted degeneration of β-catenin and reduced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In addition, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CD147 downregulation decreased the formation of a complex between β-catenin and AR. It was shown that CD147 knockdown suppressed the expression of the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen and the growth of AR-positive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 augmented CD147-mediated function. The present study indicates that the PI3K/Akt pathway may facilitate CD147-mediated activation of the AR pathway. PMID:27446405

  18. IL-7 splicing variant IL-7{delta}5 induces human breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Deshun; Liu, Bing; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhu, Jiayong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study confirms the role of IL-7{delta}5 in breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. -- Abstract: Various tumor cells express interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-7 variants. IL-7 has been confirmed to stimulate solid tumor cell proliferation. However, the effect of IL-7 variants on tumor cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-7{delta}5 (an IL-7 variant lacking exon 5) on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results showed that IL-7{delta}5 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression from G1 phase to G2/M phase, associated with upregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the downregulation of p27{sup kip1} expression. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7{delta}5 induced the activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 reversed the proliferation and cell cycle progression of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced by IL-7{delta}5. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IL-7{delta}5 variant induces human breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, IL-7{delta}5 may be a potential target for human breast cancer therapeutics intervention.

  19. PI3K/Akt inhibition and down-regulation of BCRP re-sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cell line to mitoxantrone chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Komeili-Movahhed, Tahereh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Barzegar, Elmira; Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Hossein Ghahremani, Mohammad; Nasser Ostad, Seyed; Madjd, Zahra; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Overexpression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is one of the major causes of MDR. In addition, it has been shown that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway involves in drug resistance. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of novel approaches including siRNA directed against BCRP and targeted therapy against PI3K/Akt signaling pathway using LY294002 (LY) to re-sensitize breast cancer MCF7 cell line to mitoxantrone (MTX) chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Anticancer effects of MTX, siRNA, and LY alone and in combination were evaluated in MCF7 cells using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. Results: MTT and apoptosis assays showed that both MTX and LY inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells. Results indicated that inhibition of BCRP by siRNA or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by LY significantly increased sensitivity of MCF7 cells to antiproliferation and apoptosis induction of MTX. Furthermore, MTX showed G2/M arrest, whereas LY induced G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle distribution of MCF7 cells. Combination of siRNA or LY with MTX chemotherapy significantly increased accumulation of MCF7 cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Conclusion: Combination of MTX chemotherapy with BCRP siRNA and PI3K/Akt inhibition can overcome MDR in breast cancer cells. This study furthermore suggests that novel therapeutic approaches are needed to enhance anticancer effects of available drugs in breast cancer. PMID:26124933

  20. Hemiasterlin derivative (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and Akt inhibitor MK-2206 synergistically inhibit SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Kai-Lin; Baruchello, Riccardo; Rondanin, Riccardo; Marchetti, Paolo; Simoni, Daniele; Lee, Ray M; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2016-08-01

    We reported previously that a hemiasterlin derivative BF65 is a potent anticancer agent that can inhibit microtubule assembly. Here we show that a more potent stereospecific diastereomer (R)(S)(S)-BF65 can synergize with an allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 to suppress the growth of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells with constitutively active Akt. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 induced mitotic arrest and MK-2206 caused G0/G1 arrest, while the combination of both induced simultaneous G0/G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 induced phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2, and downregulated Mcl-1, consequently may lead to apoptosis. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which may stimulate cell proliferation upon activation. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 also induced DNA damage after long-term treatment. MK-2206 is known to inhibit phosphorylation and activation of Akt and suppress cancer cell growth. The combination of (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 also inhibited the Akt pathway. Interestingly, MK-2206 upregulated Bcl-2 and induced activation of MAPKs in SKOV3 cells; however, when combined with (R)(S)(S)-BF65, these prosurvival effects were reversed. The combination also more significantly decreased Mcl-1 protein, increased PARP cleavage, and induced γ-H2AX, a DNA damage marker. Remarkably, MK-2206 enhanced the microtubule depolymerization effect of (R)(S)(S)-BF65. The combination of (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 also markedly inhibited cell migration. Thus, MK-2206 synergizes with (R)(S)(S)-BF65 to inhibit SKOV3 cell growth via downregulating the Akt signaling pathway, and enhancing the microtubule disruption effect of (R)(S)(S)-BF65. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 in turn suppresses Bcl-2 and MAPKs induced by MK-2206. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 compensate each other leading to increased apoptosis and enhanced cytotoxicity, and may also suppress cancer cell invasion.

  1. Hemiasterlin derivative (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and Akt inhibitor MK-2206 synergistically inhibit SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Kai-Lin; Baruchello, Riccardo; Rondanin, Riccardo; Marchetti, Paolo; Simoni, Daniele; Lee, Ray M; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2016-08-01

    We reported previously that a hemiasterlin derivative BF65 is a potent anticancer agent that can inhibit microtubule assembly. Here we show that a more potent stereospecific diastereomer (R)(S)(S)-BF65 can synergize with an allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 to suppress the growth of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells with constitutively active Akt. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 induced mitotic arrest and MK-2206 caused G0/G1 arrest, while the combination of both induced simultaneous G0/G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 induced phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2, and downregulated Mcl-1, consequently may lead to apoptosis. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which may stimulate cell proliferation upon activation. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 also induced DNA damage after long-term treatment. MK-2206 is known to inhibit phosphorylation and activation of Akt and suppress cancer cell growth. The combination of (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 also inhibited the Akt pathway. Interestingly, MK-2206 upregulated Bcl-2 and induced activation of MAPKs in SKOV3 cells; however, when combined with (R)(S)(S)-BF65, these prosurvival effects were reversed. The combination also more significantly decreased Mcl-1 protein, increased PARP cleavage, and induced γ-H2AX, a DNA damage marker. Remarkably, MK-2206 enhanced the microtubule depolymerization effect of (R)(S)(S)-BF65. The combination of (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 also markedly inhibited cell migration. Thus, MK-2206 synergizes with (R)(S)(S)-BF65 to inhibit SKOV3 cell growth via downregulating the Akt signaling pathway, and enhancing the microtubule disruption effect of (R)(S)(S)-BF65. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 in turn suppresses Bcl-2 and MAPKs induced by MK-2206. (R)(S)(S)-BF65 and MK-2206 compensate each other leading to increased apoptosis and enhanced cytotoxicity, and may also suppress cancer cell invasion. PMID:27328368

  2. Bortezomib induces apoptosis and growth suppression in human medulloblastoma cells, associated with inhibition of AKT and NF-ĸB signaling, and synergizes with an ERK inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jove, Veronica; Chang, Shirley; Hedvat, Michael; Liu, Lucy; Buettner, Ralf; Tian, Yan; Scuto, Anna; Wen, Wei; Yip, M L Richard; Van Meter, Timothy; Yen, Yun; Jove, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children. Here, we report that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in two established cell lines and a primary culture of human medulloblastomas. Bortezomib increased the release of cytochrome c to cytosol and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, resulting in cleavage of PARP. Caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) could rescue medulloblastoma cells from the cytotoxicity of bortezomib. Phosphorylation of AKT and its upstream regulator mTOR were reduced by bortezomib treatment in medulloblastoma cells. Bortezomib increased the expression of Bad and Bak, pro-apoptotic proteins, and p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, negative regulators of cell cycle progression, which are associated with the growth suppression and induction of apoptosis in these tumor cells. Bortezomib also increased the accumulation of phosphorylated IĸBα, and decreased nuclear translocation of NF-ĸB. Thus, NF-ĸB signaling and activation of its downstream targets are suppressed. Moreover, ERK inhibitors or downregulating ERK with ERK siRNA synergized with bortezomib on anticancer effects in medulloblastoma cells. Bortezomib also inhibited the growth of human medulloblastoma cells in a mouse xenograft model. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors are potentially promising drugs for treatment of pediatric medulloblastomas.

  3. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2015-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. - Highlights: • Netrin-1 attracts RSC96 Schwann cells migration in a dose dependent manner. • Netrin-1 induced Schwann cells migration is p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling dependent. • UNC5B may be dominant receptor mediating Netrin-1′ effect on RSC96 cells motility. • Netrin-1 may promote peripheral nerve repair by enhancing Schwann cells motility.

  4. Nitric oxide decreases subventricular zone stem cell proliferation by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Torroglosa, Ana; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Estrada, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursor cells in adult mice in vivo under physiological conditions. The mechanisms underlying this NO effect have now been investigated using SVZ-derived neural stem cells, which generate neurospheres in vitro when stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In these cultures, NO donors decreased the number of newly formed neurospheres as well as their size, which indicates that NO was acting on the neurosphere-forming neural stem cells and the daughter neural progenitors. The effect of NO was cytostatic, not proapoptotic, and did not involve cGMP synthesis. Neurosphere cells expressed the neuronal and endothelial isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) and produced NO in culture. Inhibition of NOS activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) promoted neurosphere formation and growth, thus revealing an autocrine/paracrine action of NO on the neural precursor cells. Both exogenous and endogenous NO impaired the EGF-induced activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and prevented the EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in neurosphere cells. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly reduced the number of newly formed neurospheres, which indicates that this is an essential pathway for neural stem cell self-renewal. Chronic administration of l-NAME to adult mice enhanced phospho-Akt staining in the SVZ and reduced nuclear p27(Kip1) in the SVZ and olfactory bulb. The inhibition of EGFR and PI3-K pathway by NO explains, at least in part, its antimitotic effect on neurosphere cells and may be a mechanism involved in the physiological role of NO as a negative regulator of SVZ neurogenesis in adult mice.

  5. PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway status affects the sensitivity of high-grade glioma cell cultures to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor NVP-AEW541.

    PubMed

    Hägerstrand, Daniel; Lindh, Maja Bradic; Peña, Cristina; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Nistér, Monica; Hofmann, Francesco; Ostman, Arne

    2010-09-01

    IGF-1 receptor signaling contributes to the growth of many solid tumors, including glioblastoma. This study analyzed the sensitivity of 8 glioblastoma cultures to the IGF-1 receptor inhibitor NVP-AEW541. Growth reduction, caused by a combination of antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, varied between 20% and 100%. Growth-inhibitory effects of IGF-1 receptor siRNA were also demonstrated in 2 of the cultures. Activating mutations in PIK3CA were found in 2 cultures, and 2 other cultures displayed ligand-independent Akt phosphorylation. Growth inhibition was significantly reduced in cultures with PIK3CA mutations or ligand-independent Akt phosphorylation. PTEN siRNA experiments supported the notion that the status of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway is involved in determining NVP-AEW541 sensitivity. Combination treatments with either PI3 kinase or mTOR inhibitors together with NVP-AEW541 were performed. These experiments demonstrated the effects of NVP-AEW541 in cells not responding to mono-treatment with the IGF-1 receptor inhibitor, when used together with either of the 2 other inhibitors. Together, the studies support continued clinical development of IGF-1 receptor antagonists for glioblastomas and identify links between PI3K/PTEN/Akt status and sensitivity to mono-treatment with NVP-AEW541. Furthermore, the studies suggest that NVP-AEW541 is also active together with PI3 kinase and mTOR inhibitors in cultures with a dysregulated PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. These studies should assist in future clinical development of IGF-1 receptor antagonists for glioblastoma and other tumors.

  6. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. PARP-inhibitor treatment prevents hypertension induced cardiac remodeling by favorable modulation of heat shock proteins, Akt-1/GSK-3β and several PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Deres, Laszlo; Bartha, Eva; Palfi, Anita; Eros, Krisztian; Riba, Adam; Lantos, Janos; Kalai, Tamas; Hideg, Kalman; Sumegi, Balazs; Gallyas, Ferenc; Toth, Kalman; Halmosi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1(Ser473), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β(Ser9), forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)(Ser256), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2(Thr183-Tyr185), Akt-1(Ser473), GSK-3β(Ser9), FKHR(Ser256), and PKC ε(Ser729) and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC α/βII(Thr638/641), ζ/λ(410/403) were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling. PMID

  8. The AKT inhibitor AZD5363 is selectively active in PI3KCA mutant gastric cancer, and sensitizes a patient-derived gastric cancer xenograft model with PTEN loss to Taxotere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is a common phenomenon in cancer due to multiple mechanisms, including mutation of PI3KCA, loss or mutation of PTEN, or over-expression of receptor tyrosine kinases. We recently developed a novel AKT kinase inhibitor, AZD5363, and demonstrated that HGC27, a cell line harboring both PI3KCA mutation and PTEN loss, displayed the greatest sensitivity to this AKT inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Case preparation To further elucidate the correlation between AZD5363 response and genetic alterations in gastric cancer (GC) and identify GC patients with both PI3KCA mutations and PTEN loss, we investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition of AKT on a panel of 20 GC cell lines and genetic aberrations in tumor samples from a cohort of Chinese GC patients. We demonstrated that GC cells with PI3KCA mutations were selectively sensitive to AZD5363. Disease linkage studies showed that PI3KCA activating mutations or PTEN loss were found in 2.7% (4/150) and 23% (14/61) of Chinese GC patients respectively. To further dissect the role of PI3KCA mutation and PTEN loss in response to AKT inhibition, we tested the antitumor activity of AZD5363 in two patient-derived GC xenograft (PDGCX) models harboring either PI3KCA mutation or PTEN loss. Our data indicated that AZD5363 monotherapy treatment led to a moderate response in the PI3KCA mutant PDGCX model. Whilst monotherapy AZD5363 or Taxotere were ineffective in the PTEN negative PDGCX model, significant anti-tumor activity was observed when AZD5363 was combined with Taxotere. Conclusion Our results indicated that PI3KCA mutation is an important determinant of response to AKT inhibition in GC and combination with AZD5363 can overcome innate resistance to Taxotere in a PTEN loss PDGCX model. It is suggested that AKT inhibitor is an attractive option for treatment of a new segment of GC patients with aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling. PMID:24088382

  9. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mediates the senescence of mesenchymal stem cells through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xue-Yao; Yu, Xiao-Xia; Zhai, Ying-Xian; He, Xu; Wu, Shan; Shi, Ying-Ai

    2015-09-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used as seed cells in studies of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; however, their clinical application is limited due to replicative senescence. It has been demonstrated that telomerase expression extends the lifespan and maintains the bone-forming ability of MSCs; however, the detailed role and the underlying molecular mechanisms in MSCs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that senescence was associated with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, and telomere length and telomerase activity. We established a short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hTERT and a gene expression vector carrying hTERT and transfected these into the MSCs to investigate the detailed role and the underlying molecular mechanisms of action of hTERT in MSCs. We found that the downregulation of hTERT by siRNA markedly decreased telomere length and telomerase activity in the MSCs, whereas the overexpression of hTERT increased telomere length and telomerase activity in the MSCs. The downregulation of hTERT inhibited cell proliferation and promoted the senescence and apoptosis of MSCs, whereas the upregulation of hTERT increased cell proliferation and decreased the senescence and apoptosis of MSCs. Of note, we also found that the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was mediated by hTERT and that blocking this pathway using LY294002 inhibited hTERT expression, induced senescence and decreased the proliferation of MSCs. These findings reveal a previously unknown regulatory mechanism of hTERT, indicating that hTERT mediates the senescence of MSCs through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26178664

  10. Mu-opioid receptor activation prevents apoptosis following serum withdrawal in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M; Segura, M F; Comella, J X; Olmos, G

    2003-03-01

    Opioid peptides and alkaloids exert their effects via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It has been shown that, in addition to trophic factors, some GPCRs are able to activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI 3-K/Akt) signal transduction pathway, thus leading to cell survival. The aim of this study was to test whether activation of mu-opioid receptors has protective effects on serum withdrawal-induced cell death and to study the possible implication of PI 3-K in this process. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells fully differentiated by exposure to retinoic acid for five days, the enkephalin derivative selective mu-agonist DAMGO (0.1-2 microM) and the alkaloid morphine (0.1-10 microM) promoted cell survival after serum deprivation (MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays), without inducing cell proliferation. These effects were fully reversed by naloxone, by the selective mu-antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and also by the specific PI 3-K inhibitor LY294002. The two agonists stimulated Akt phosphorylation and the effect was also abolished by beta-FNA and by LY294002. In mouse primary cortical neurons, DAMGO reduced the percentage of apoptosis after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of serum withdrawal; as determined by Hoechst staining. This effect was blocked by beta-FNA, by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin and by LY294002. DAMGO also stimulated Akt phosphorylation via PI 3-K in this primary neuronal culture. Together, these results indicate that stimulation of the mu-opioid receptor promotes neuronal survival in a G(i/o)-linked, PI 3-K-dependent signaling cascade and suggest that Akt may be a key downstream kinase involved in this anti-apoptotic effect. PMID:12646285

  11. Involvement of IGF-1 receptor signaling pathway in the neuroprotective effects of Icaritin against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Xiao-Han; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xue-Jie; Chen, Wen-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Icaritin, a natural derivative of Icariin, is the major bioactive component of Epimedium Genus. The present study tested the hypothesis that the neuroprotective effects of Icaritin against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced toxicity involved activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in MES23.5 cells. Our results revealed that Icaritin pretreatment attenuated the MPP(+)-induced decrease of cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion. Co-pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor LY294002, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB-1 could completely block the protective effects of Icaritin. Moreover, Icaritin pretreatment down-regulated MPP(+)-induced increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Further study revealed that Icaritin pretreatment could restore the decreased protein expression of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) induced by MPP(+) and these effects could be completely abolished by LY294002, PD98059 or JB-1. Additionally, Icaritin treatment alone time-dependently enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in MES23.5 cells. The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 by Icaritin could be completely blocked by JB-1, LY294002 or PD98059. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IGF-1 receptor mediated activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in the protective effects of Icaritin against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells.

  12. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  13. Crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and the tumor suppressors p53 and p27 determines cisplatin sensitivity and limits the effectiveness of an IGF-1R pathway inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Davaadelger, Batzaya; Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E.; Gitelis, Steven; Maki, Carl G.

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in multiple cancers and can promote proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Multiple IGF-1R inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutics. However, these inhibitors have failed to increase patient survival when given alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents. The reason(s) for the disappointing clinical effect of these inhibitors is not fully understood. Cisplatin (CP) activated the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and stabilized p53 in osteosarcoma (OS) cells. p53 knockdown reduced IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 activation by CP, and IGF-1R inhibition reduced the accumulation of p53. These data demonstrate positive crosstalk between p53 and the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway in response to CP. Further studies showed the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on CP response is dependent on p53 status. In p53 wild-type cells treated with CP, IGF-1R inhibition increased p53s apoptotic function but reduced p53-dependent senescence, and had no effect on long term survival. In contrast, in p53-null/knockdown cells, IGF-1R inhibition reduced apoptosis in response to CP and increased long term survival. These effects were due to p27 since IGF-1R inhibition stabilized p27 in CP-treated cells, and p27 depletion restored apoptosis and reduced long term survival. Together, the results demonstrate 1) p53 expression determines the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on cancer cell CP response, and 2) crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and p53 and p27 can reduce cancer cell responsiveness to chemotherapy and may ultimately limit the effectiveness of IGF-1R pathway inhibitors in the clinic. PMID:27050276

  14. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS.

  15. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin is associated with constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a favorable prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-López, Juana; Serrano, Josefina; Figueroa, Vianihuini; Torres-Gomez, Antonio; Tabares, Salvador; Casaño, Javier; Fernandez-Escalada, Noemi; Sánchez-Garcia, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is over-expressed in most hematologic malignancies but the prognostic significance of the subcompartmental distribution of wild-type or splicing variants in acute myeloid leukemia has not been addressed yet. Using western blotting, we assessed the expression of wild-type survivin and survivin splice variants 2B and Delta-Ex3 in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extracts in samples taken from 105 patients at the time of their diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Given that survivin is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, survivin expression was also correlated with pSer473-Akt. Wild-type survivin and the 2B splice variant were positive in 76.3% and 78.0% of samples in the nucleus, cytoplasm or both, whereas the Delta-Ex3 isoform was only positive in the nucleus in 37.7% of samples. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin was significantly associated with the presence of high levels of pSer473-Akt (P<0.001). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway with wortmannin and Ly294002 caused a significant reduction in the expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin. The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt was associated with a lower fraction of quiescent leukemia stem cells (P=0.02). The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt were favorable independent prognostic factors. Moreover, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway with expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin identified a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with an excellent outcome (overall survival rate of 60.0±21.9% and relapse-free survival of 63.0±13.5%). Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic wild-type survivin is a critical downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to more chemosensitive cells and a more favorable outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23812937

  16. Acute anorexigenic action of leptin in rainbow trout is mediated by the hypothalamic Pi3k pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ningping; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2016-04-01

    Leptin (Lep) is an anorexigenic hormone and regulates appetite-related neuropeptides in mammals. A number of neuropeptides have also been linked to appetite regulation in teleost fish, but Lep signaling activation and effects on appetite-regulating neurons are poorly elucidated in early vertebrates. This study uses cellular, tissue and organismal approaches to elucidate the acute, central Lep action in rainbow trout. The results demonstrate that Lep activates phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in rainbow trout hypothalamus-derived cells, and that the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (Pi3k) inhibitor LY294002 can suppress the Lep-induced Akt phosphorylation. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) Lep administration strongly suppresses food intake at the doses of 0.05 and 0.5 µg Lep fish(-1) At low dose, Lep stimulates hypothalamic transcription of anorexigenic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (Cart) and orexigenic neuropeptide Y. At high dose, Lep stimulates hypothalamic transcription of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) A1, A2, and B, while coinjection with LY294002 reverses this upregulation. The data suggest that the anorexigenic action of Lep in rainbow trout is mediated through stimulation of the anorexigenic neuropeptides Pomc and Cart. Furthermore, ICV Lep treatment increases phosphor-Akt-immunoreactive cells in the nucleus lateralis tuberis, periventricular zone along infundibulum, and lateral recess surrounded by nucleus anterior tuberis, while LY294002 inhibits this effect. Lep receptor-immunoreactive cells are also predominant in these regions. These results demonstrate that Lep activates the Pi3k-Akt pathway in the lateral tuberal hypothalamus of rainbow trout for acute appetite regulation, indicating the conservation of anorexigenic Lep action in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

  17. M2698 is a potent dual-inhibitor of p70S6K and Akt that affects tumor growth in mouse models of cancer and crosses the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Machl, Andreas; Wilker, Erik W; Tian, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Schroeder, Patricia; Clark, Anderson; Huck, Bayard R

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR (PAM) pathway signaling occurs in ~30% of human cancers, making it a rational target for new therapies; however, the effectiveness of some PAM pathway inhibitors, such as mTORC rapalogs, may be compromised by a compensatory feedback loop leading to Akt activation. In this study, the p70S6K/Akt dual inhibitor, M2698 (previously MSC2363318A), was characterized as a potential anti-cancer agent through examination of its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and metabolic properties, and anti-tumor activity. M2698 was highly potent in vitro (IC50 1 nM for p70S6K, Akt1 and Akt3 inhibition; IC50 17 nM for pGSK3β indirect inhibition) and in vivo (IC50 15 nM for pS6 indirect inhibition), and relatively selective (only 6/264 kinases had an IC50 within 10-fold of p70S6K). Orally administered M2698 crossed the blood-brain barrier in rats and mice, with brain tumor exposure 4-fold higher than non-disease brain. Dose-dependent inhibition of target substrate phosphorylation was observed in vitro and in vivo, indicating that M2698 blocked p70S6K to provide potent PAM pathway inhibition while simultaneously targeting Akt to overcome the compensatory feedback loop. M2698 demonstrated dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in mouse xenograft models derived from PAM pathway-dysregulated human triple-negative (MDA-MB-468) and Her2-expressing breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-453 and JIMT-1), and reduced brain tumor burden and prolonged survival in mice with orthotopically implanted U251 glioblastoma. These findings highlight M2698 as a promising PAM pathway inhibitor whose unique mechanism of action and capacity to pass the blood-brain barrier warrant clinical investigation in cancers with PAM pathway dysregulation, and those with central nervous system involvement. PMID:27186432

  18. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 suppresses apoptosis of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1.

    PubMed

    Guo, L-J; Luo, X-H; Xie, H; Zhou, H-D; Yuan, L-Q; Wang, M; Liao, E-Y

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the action of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) on apoptosis and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cell line MBA-1. TIMP-1 did not affect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, suggesting that it is not involved in osteoblastic differentiation in MBA-1 cells. However, TIMP-1 inhibited MBA-1 apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased Bax protein expression with TIMP-1 treatment. TIMP-1 decreased cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in MBA-1 cells. TIMP-1 activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished its antiapoptotic activity. To investigate whether antiapoptotic action of TIMP-1 was mediated through its inhibition on MMP activities, we constructed mutant TIMP-1 by side-directed mutagenesis, which abolished the inhibitory activity of MMPs by deletion of Cys1 to Ala4. Wild-type TIMP-1 and mutant TIMP-1 expression plasmids were transfected in MBA-1 cells, and results showed that mutant TIMP-1 still protected the induced MBA-1 cell against apoptosis. These data suggest that TIMP-1 antiapoptotic actions are mediated via the PI3-kinase and JNK signaling pathways and independent of TIMP-1 inhibition of MMP activities.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor 1 rescues R28 retinal neurons from apoptotic death through ERK-mediated BimEL phosphorylation independent of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dejuan; Gong, Lijie; Arnold, Edith; Shanmugam, Sumathi; Fort, Patrice E; Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F

    2016-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can provide long-term neurotrophic support by activation of Akt, inhibition of FoxO nuclear localization and suppression of Bim gene transcription in multiple neuronal systems. However, MEK/ERK activation can also promote neuron survival through phosphorylation of BimEL. We explored the contribution of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO and MEK/ERK/BimEL pathways in IGF-1 stimulated survival after serum deprivation (SD) of R28 cells differentiated to model retinal neurons. IGF-1 caused rapid activation of Akt leading to FoxO1/3-T32/T24 phosphorylation, and prevented FoxO1/3 nuclear translocation and Bim mRNA upregulation in response to SD. IGF-1 also caused MAPK/MEK pathway activation as indicated by ERK1/2-T202/Y204 and Bim-S65 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FoxO1 increased Bim mRNA expression and amplified the apoptotic response to SD without shifting the serum response curve. Inhibition of Akt activation with LY294002 or by Rictor knockdown did not block the protective effect of IGF-1, while inhibition of MEK activity with PD98059 prevented Bim phosphorylation and blocked IGF-1 protection. In addition, knockdown of Bim expression was protective during SD, while co-silencing of FoxO1 and Fox03 expression had little effect. Thus, the PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathway was not essential for protection from SD-induced apoptosis by IGF-1 in R28 cells. Instead, IGF-1 protection was dependent on activation of the MEK/ERK pathway leading to BimEL phosphorylation, which is known to prevent Bax/Bak oligomerization and activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. These studies demonstrate the requirement of the MEK/ERK pathway in a model of retinal neuron cell survival and highlight the cell specificity for IGF-1 signaling in this response. PMID:27511131

  20. Identification of 4-(2-(4-Amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1-ethyl-7-{[(3S)-3-piperidinylmethyl]oxy}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-yl)-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (GSK690693), a Novel Inhibitor of AKT Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Heerding, Dirk A.; Rhodes, Nelson; Leber, Jack D.; Clark, Tammy J.; Keenan, Richard M.; Lafrance, Louis V.; Li, Mei; Safonov, Igor G.; Takata, Dennis T.; Venslavsky, Joseph W.; Yamashita, Dennis S.; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Copeland, Robert A.; Lai, Zhihong; Schaber, Michael D.; Tummino, Peter J.; Strum, Susan L.; Wood, Edgar R.; Duckett, Derek R.; Eberwein, Derek; Knick, Victoria B.; Lansing, Timothy J.; McConnell, Randy T.; Zhang, ShuYun; Minthorn, Elisabeth A.; Concha, Nestor O.; Warren, Gregory L.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2009-07-22

    Overexpression of AKT has an antiapoptotic effect in many cell types, and expression of dominant negative AKT blocks the ability of a variety of growth factors to promote survival. Therefore, inhibitors of AKT kinase activity might be useful as monotherapy for the treatment of tumors with activated AKT. Herein, we describe our lead optimization studies culminating in the discovery of compound 3g (GSK690693). Compound 3g is a novel ATP competitive, pan-AKT kinase inhibitor with IC{sub 50} values of 2, 13, and 9 nM against AKT1, 2, and 3, respectively. An X-ray cocrystal structure was solved with 3g and the kinase domain of AKT2, confirming that 3g bound in the ATP binding pocket. Compound 3g potently inhibits intracellular AKT activity as measured by the inhibition of the phosphorylation levels of GSK3{beta}. Intraperitoneal administration of 3g in immunocompromised mice results in the inhibition of GSK3{beta} phosphorylation and tumor growth in human breast carcinoma (BT474) xenografts.

  1. A novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activates phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1 dependent on the liver cancer cell type

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNCHENG; ZHENG, YUANWEN; FAHEEM, ALI; SUN, TIANTONG; LI, CHUNYOU; LI, ZHE; ZHAO, DIANTANG; WU, CHAO; LIU, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation, AKT is typically accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. mTOR, in particular, represents a suitable therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma, whilst suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia family member-1 (SMG-1) is believed to serve a potential tumor suppressor role in human cancer. Despite SMG-1 and mTOR belonging to the same PI3K-related kinase family, the interactions between them are not yet fully understood. In the present study, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, AZD5363, was observed to suppress proliferation in liver cancer Hep-G2 and Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AZD5363 activated the phosphorylation of mTOR, dependent on the liver cancer cell type, as it may have differing effects in various liver cancer cell lines. Additionally, AZD5363 also activated SMG-1 within the same liver cancer cells types, which subsequently activated the phosphorylation of mTOR. In conclusion, the present study indicates that AZD5363 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activated phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1, dependent on the liver cancer type. PMID:26998062

  2. Decreased expression of B7-H3 reduces the glycolytic capacity and sensitizes breast cancer cells to AKT/mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Xavier, Caroline E.; Karlsen, Karine Flem; Tekle, Christina; Pedersen, Cathrine; Øyjord, Tove; Hongisto, Vesa; Nesland, Jahn M.; Tan, Ming; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi; Fodstad, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    B7 family proteins are important immune response regulators, and can mediate oncogenic signaling and cancer development. We have used human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines with different expression levels of B7-H3 to evaluate its effects on the sensitivity to 22 different anticancer compounds in a drug screen. API-2 (triciribidine) and everolimus (RAD-001), two inhibitors that target the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability and proliferation in B7-H3 knockdown tumor cells compared to their B7-H3 expressing counterparts. Similar inhibition was seen in control cells treated with an anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody. In B7-H3 overexpressing cells, the effects of the two drugs were reduced, supported also by in vivo experiments in which B7-H3 overexpressing xenografts were less sensitive to everolimus than control tumors. In API-2 and everolimus-treated B7-H3 overexpressing cells, phospho-mTOR levels were decreased. However, phosphorylation of p70S6K was differentially regulated in B7-H3 cells treated with API-2 or everolimus, suggesting a different B7-H3-mediated mechanism downstream of mTOR. Both API-2 and everolimus decreased the glycolysis of the cells, whereas knockdown of B7-H3 decreased and B7-H3 overexpression increased the glycolytic capacity. In conclusion, we have unveiled a previously unknown relationship between B7-H3 expression and glycolytic capacity in tumor cells, and found that B7-H3 confers resistance to API-2 and everolimus. The results provide novel insights into the function of B7-H3 in cancer, and suggest that targeting of B7-H3 may be a novel alternative to improve current anticancer therapies. PMID:26771843

  3. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2481 and Thr2446 was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

  4. FOXO3a is involved in the apoptosis of naked oocytes and oocytes of primordial follicles from neonatal rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Luo, Li-Li; Qian, Yuan-Shu; Fu, Yu-Cai; Sui, Xu-Xia; Geng, Yi-Jie; Huang, Da-Na; Gao, Shi-Tong; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2009-04-17

    Inhibition of the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO3a, can promote the transition from primordial to primary follicle and subsequent follicle development in mammalian ovaries. Stem cell factor (SCF) initiates anti-apoptotic signaling from its membrane receptor, c-kit, to Bcl-2 family members through PI3K/AKT in oocytes of primordial follicles. However, whether FOXO3a mediates the apoptosis of naked oocytes and oocytes of primordial follicles remains unknown. In the present study, oocytes from nests and primordial follicles from neonatal rat ovaries were cultured, and oocyte apoptosis was examined using the TUNEL technique. The pro-apoptotic action of FOXO3a and the potential signal transduction pathways were investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. Culturing oocytes in the presence of SCF did not affect the level of total FOXO3a protein, but rapidly elevated the level of phosphorylated FOXO3a (indicating functional suppression). As phosphorylated FOXO3a increased, oocyte apoptosis was inhibited. The specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY 294002, abolished the phosphorylation of FOXO3a and the anti-apoptotic action of SCF. SCF down-regulated the expression of p27KIP1 and pro-apoptotic factors such as Bim, Bad, and Bax, and this activity was reversed by LY 294002. SCF up-regulated the expression of MnSOD, which was also inhibited by LY 294002. However, SCF had no effect on Bcl-2 protein. These results suggest that FOXO3a is involved in oocyte apoptosis in the neonatal rat ovary, and the SCF-PI3K/Akt-FOXO3a signaling pathway mediates oocyte apoptosis and primordial follicle formation. PMID:19258007

  5. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Miao-Qian; Su, Fei-Fei; Xu, Xuan; Liu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue; Lian, Cheng; Zheng, Qiang-Sun; Feng, Zhi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)‑induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase‑3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII‑induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced p‑Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase‑3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII‑induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII‑induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  6. Cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIAO-QIAN; SU, FEI-FEI; XU, XUAN; LIU, XIONG-TAO; WANG, HONG-TAO; ZHANG, WEI; LI, XUE; LIAN, CHENG; ZHENG, QIANG-SUN; FENG, ZHI-CHUN

    2016-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension undergo endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the conduit arteries. Cilostazol, a type III phosphodiesterase inhibitor, serves a role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation and it is widely used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial dysfunction; however, it remains unknown whether cilostazol protects the endothelial function in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, and how, cilostazol suppresses angiotensin II (angII)-induced endothelial dysfunction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to angII and treated with cilostazol. Endothelial cell apoptosis and function, nitric oxide and superoxide production, phosphorylation (p) of Akt, and caspase-3 protein expression levels were investigated. AngII exposure resulted in the apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, cilostazol significantly suppressed the angII-induced apoptosis of HUVECs; however, this effect was reduced in the presence of LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Furthermore, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced p-Akt downregulation and cleaved caspase-3 upregulation. These effects were also alleviated by LY294002. In vivo, cilostazol suppressed the angII-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Cilostazol was also demonstrated to partially reduced the angII-induced increase in superoxide production. The results of the present study suggested that cilostazol suppresses endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction by modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26862035

  7. Not only insulin stimulates mitochondriogenesis in muscle cells, but mitochondria are also essential for insulin-mediated myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska, Patrycja; Gajkowska, Barbara; Hocquette, Jean-François; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2006-04-01

    Viability and myogenesis from C2C12 muscle cells and L6 rat myoblasts were dose-dependently stimulated by insulin. The metabolic inhibitors of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI-3K, LY294002) and of MAPKK/ERK kinase (MEK, PD98059) differently affected insulin-stimulated myogenesis of the cells. After LY294002 and PD98059 treatment, viability deteriorated and apparently an additive effect of both metabolic inhibitors was observed, irrespective of the method of measurement (neutral red or MTT assay). These inhibitors were antagonistic in myogenesis. Our results confirm that insulin regulates cell viability by at least two distinct pathways, namely by PI-3K- and MEK-dependent signalling cascades. Both pathways are agonistic in cell viability, whereas PI-3K rather than MEK supports insulin-mediated myogenicity. Accordingly, inhibition of insulin action by LY294002, but not PD98059, was accompanied with a reduced level of Ser473-phosphorylated Akt with additional loss of myogenin protein. Besides, repression of insulin signalling by either PI-3K or MEK inhibitor diminished expression of selected subunits of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enzymes (OXPHOS). In turn, insulin raised and accelerated protein expression of subunits I and IV of mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase (COX). In addition, the level of myogenin, the molecular marker of terminal and general muscle differentiation indices decreased if selected OXPHOS enzymes were individually blocked by rotenone, myxothiazol or oligomycin. Summing up, our results pointed to mitochondria as an essential organelle for insulin-dependent myogenesis. Insulin positively affects mitochondrial function by induction of OXPHOS enzymes, which provide energy indispensable for the anabolic effect of insulin.

  8. Antitumor effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, may be attributed to angiogenesis inhibition through modulating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt/HIF-1 pathway in an H₂₂ murine hepatocarcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Sui, Wenwen; Zhang, Yueying; Wang, Zhaopeng; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jia, Qing; Wu, Licun; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, has recently been shown to affect the development of different types of cancer. The present study utilized a murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in celecoxib-induced inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups: i) control; ii) low-dose celecoxib (50 mg/kg); iii) high-dose celecoxib (200 mg/kg); iv) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (20 mg/kg) and v) combination of 5-FU and celecoxib (50 mg/kg). The antitumor effect of celecoxib was determined by measuring tumor volume. Tumor angiogenesis was evaluated by microvessel density (MVD). Tumor histology and immunostaining for CD34 in endothelial cells were performed to detect MVD. The expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho‑Akt (P-Akt), COX-2, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively. We discovered substantial growth delay in murine H22 hepatoma as a result of celecoxib treatment. The inhibition rate of tumor growth induced by high-dose and low-dose celecoxib was 49.3 and 37.0%, respectively (P<0.05). The expression of PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α, VEGF-A and PTEN in tumor tissues treated with celecoxib was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and the MVD was decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Reduced PI3K and P-Akt was particularly apparent in the high-dose celecoxib group (P<0.05). ELISA and western blotting data showed that the expression of PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α and VEGF-A were reduced and PTEN was increased after treatment with celecoxib. In conclusion, the impact of celecoxib-induced tumor growth delay of murine H22 hepatocarcinoma may correlate with the inhibition of angiogenesis by reducing PI3K, P-Akt, COX-2, HIF-1α and VEGF

  9. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 overcomes resistance signals derived from microenvironment by regulating the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim axis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosich, Laia; Saborit-Villarroya, Ifigènia; López-Guerra, Mónica; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; Montraveta, Arnau; Aymerich, Marta; Villamor, Neus; Campo, Elias; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway is constitutively activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia mainly due to microenvironment signals, including stromal cell interaction and CXCR4 and B-cell receptor activation. Because of the importance of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, we investigated the activity of the NVP-BKM120, an orally available pan class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor. Sensitivity to NVP-BKM120 was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary samples in the context of B-cell receptor and microenvironment stimulation. NVP-BKM120 promoted mitochondrial apoptosis in most primary cells independently of common prognostic markers. NVP-BKM120 activity induced the blockage of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, decreased Akt and FoxO3a phosphorylation leading to concomitant Mcl-1 downregulation and Bim induction. Accordingly, selective knockdown of BIM rescued cells from NVP-BKM120-induced apoptosis, while the kinase inhibitor synergistically enhanced the apoptosis induced by the BH3-mimetic ABT-263. We also found NVP-BKM120 to inhibit B-cell receptor- and stroma-dependent Akt pathway activation, thus sensitizing chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bendamustine and fludarabine. Furthermore, NVP-BKM120 down-regulated secretion of chemokines after B-cell receptor stimulation and inhibited cell chemotaxis and actin polymerization upon CXCR4 triggering by CXCL12. Our findings establish that NVP-BKM120 effectively inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway and disturbs the protective effect of the tumor microenvironment with the subsequent apoptosis induction through the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim axis. We provide here a strong rationale for undertaking clinical trials of NVP-BKM120 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients alone or in combination therapies. PMID:23850807

  10. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide-induced cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Titilope A; Kang, JungHee; Qiao, Jingbo; Evers, B Mark; Chung, Dai H

    2007-06-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the mammalian equivalent of bombesin (BBS), is an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma; its receptor is up-regulated in undifferentiated neuroblastomas. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a critical cell survival pathway; it is negatively regulated by the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. We have recently found that poorly differentiated neuroblastomas express decreased PTEN protein levels. Moreover, overexpression of the GRP receptor, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, down-regulates PTEN expression, resulting in increased neuroblastoma cell growth. Therefore, we sought to determine whether GRP or BBS activates PI3K in neuroblastoma cells (BE(2)-C, LAN-1, SK-N-SH). GRP or BBS treatment rapidly increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta in neuroblastoma cells. Inhibition of GRP receptor, with antagonist GRP-H2756 or siRNA, attenuated BBS-induced phosphorylation of Akt. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, also abrogated BBS-stimulated phospho-Akt as well as its cell cycle targets. GRP increased G1/S phase progression in SK-N-SH cells. BBS-mediated BrdU incorporation was blocked by LY294002. Our findings identify PI3K as an important signaling pathway for GRP-mediated neuroblastoma cell growth. A novel therapy targeted at GRP/GRP receptor may prove to be an effective treatment option to inhibit PI3K in neuroblastomas.

  11. Oxytocin Increases Invasive Properties of Endometrial Cancer Cells Through Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT-Dependent Up-Regulation of Cyclooxygenase-1, -2, and X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Déry, Marie-Claude; Chaudhry, Parvesh; Leblanc, Valérie; Parent, Sophie; Fortier, Anne-Marie; Asselin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, oxytocin (OT) is well known to play a crucial role in the regulation of cyclic changes in the uterus, implantation of the embryo, and parturition. Recently, an additional role for OT has been identified in several types of cancer cells in which OT acts as a growth regulator. In endometrial cancer cells, OT is known to efficiently inhibit cellular proliferation. In the present study, we show that OT increases invasiveness of human endometrial carcinoma (HEC) cells, which are otherwise resistant to the growth-inhibiting effects of OT. Using pharmacological inhibitors, invasion assay, RNA interference, and immunofluorescence, we found that OT enhances the invasive properties of HEC cells through up-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), matrix-metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and matrix-metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). In addition, we show that OT-mediated invasion is both cyclooxygenase 1 (PTGS1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) dependent via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PIK3/AKT) pathway. PTGS2 knockdown by shRNA resulted in XIAP down-regulation. We also show that OT receptor is overexpressed in grade I to III endometrial cancer. Taken together, our results describe for the first time a novel role for OT in endometrial cancer cell invasion. PMID:21816851

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  13. Molecular Features of Neural Stem Cells Enable their Enrichment Using Pharmacological Inhibitors of Survival-Promoting Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Brazel, Christine Y.; Alaythan, Abdulaziz A.; Felling, Ryan J.; Calderon, Frances; Levison, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolating a pure population of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been difficult since no exclusive surface markers have been identified for panning or FACS purification. Moreover, additional refinements for maintaining NSCs in culture are required, since NSCs generate a variety of neural precursors (NPs) as they proliferate. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal rat NPs express low levels of pro-apoptotic molecules and resist PI3K and ERK1/2 inhibition as compared to late oligodendrocyte progenitors. Furthermore, maintaining SVZ precursors in LY294002 and PD98059, inhibitors of PI3K and ERK1/2 signaling, eliminated lineage-restricted precursors as revealed by enrichment for Nestin+/SOX-2+ cells. The cells that survived formed neurospheres and 89% of these neurospheres were tripotential, generating neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Without this enrichment step, less than 50% of the NPs were Nestin+/SOX-2+ and 42% of the neurospheres were tripotential. Additionally, neurospheres enriched using this procedure produced 3-times more secondary neurospheres, supporting the conclusion that this procedure enriches for NSCs. A number of genes that enhance survival were more highly expressed in neurospheres compared to late oligodendrocyte progenitors. Altogether, these studies demonstrate that primitive neural precursors can be enriched using a relatively simple and inexpensive means that will facilitate cell replacement strategies using stem cells as well as other studies whose goal is to reveal the fundamental properties of primitive neural precursors. PMID:24032666

  14. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway overcomes the stimulating effect of dabrafenib on the invasive behavior of melanoma cells with acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Simona; Alvino, Ester; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Levati, Lauretta; Giurato, Giorgio; Memoli, Domenico; Caprini, Elisabetta; Antonini Cappellini, Gian Carlo; D'Atri, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have proven clinical benefits in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. However, acquired resistance eventually arises. The effects of BRAFi on melanoma cell proliferation and survival have been extensively studied, and several mechanisms involved in acquired resistance to the growth suppressive activity of these drugs have been identified. Much less is known about the impact of BRAFi, and in particular of dabrafenib, on the invasive potential of melanoma cells. In the present study, the BRAF-mutant human melanoma cell line A375 and its dabrafenib-resistant subline A375R were analyzed for invasive capacity, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, and secretion of VEGF-A and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, under basal conditions or in response to dabrafenib. The consequences of inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway on A375R cell responses to dabrafenib were also evaluated. We found that A375R cells were more invasive and secreted higher levels of VEGF-A and MMP-9 as compared with A375 cells. Dabrafenib reduced invasiveness, VEGFR-2 expression and VEGF-A secretion in A375 cells, whereas it increased invasiveness, VEGF-A and MMP-9 release in A375R cells. In these latter cells, the stimulating effects of dabrafenib on the invasive capacity were markedly impaired by the anti-VEGF‑A antibody bevacizumab, or by AKT1 silencing. A375R cells were not cross-resistant to the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GSK2126458A. Moreover, this inhibitor given in combination with dabrafenib efficiently counteracted the stimulating effects of the BRAFi on invasiveness and VEGF-A and MMP-9 secretion. Our data demonstrate that melanoma cells with acquired resistance to dabrafenib possess a more invasive phenotype which is further stimulated by exposure to the drug. Substantial evidence indicates that continuing BRAFi therapy beyond progression produces a clinical benefit. Our results suggest that after the development of resistance, a regimen

  15. The collagen derived dipeptide hydroxyprolyl-glycine promotes C2C12 myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kitakaze, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Tomotaka; Kitano, Takehiro; Inoue, Naoki; Sugihara, Fumihito; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-09-23

    The majority of studies on possible roles for collagen hydrolysates in human health have focused on their effects on bone and skin. Hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) was recently identified as a novel collagen hydrolysate-derived dipeptide in human blood. However, any possible health benefits of Hyp-Gly remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of Hyp-Gly on differentiation and hypertrophy of murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Hyp-Gly increased the fusion index, the myotube size, and the expression of the myotube-specific myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and tropomyosin structural proteins. Hyp-Gly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and p70S6K in myoblasts, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 inhibited their phosphorylation by Hyp-Gly. LY294002 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin repressed the enhancing effects of Hyp-Gly on MyHC and tropomyosin expression. The peptide/histidine transporter 1 (PHT1) was highly expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, and co-administration of histidine inhibited Hyp-Gly-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K in myoblasts and myotubes. These results indicate that Hyp-Gly can induce myogenic differentiation and myotube hypertrophy and suggest that Hyp-Gly promotes myogenic differentiation by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, perhaps depending on PHT1 for entry into cells.

  16. The collagen derived dipeptide hydroxyprolyl-glycine promotes C2C12 myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kitakaze, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Tomotaka; Kitano, Takehiro; Inoue, Naoki; Sugihara, Fumihito; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-09-23

    The majority of studies on possible roles for collagen hydrolysates in human health have focused on their effects on bone and skin. Hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) was recently identified as a novel collagen hydrolysate-derived dipeptide in human blood. However, any possible health benefits of Hyp-Gly remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of Hyp-Gly on differentiation and hypertrophy of murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Hyp-Gly increased the fusion index, the myotube size, and the expression of the myotube-specific myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and tropomyosin structural proteins. Hyp-Gly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and p70S6K in myoblasts, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 inhibited their phosphorylation by Hyp-Gly. LY294002 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin repressed the enhancing effects of Hyp-Gly on MyHC and tropomyosin expression. The peptide/histidine transporter 1 (PHT1) was highly expressed in both myoblasts and myotubes, and co-administration of histidine inhibited Hyp-Gly-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K in myoblasts and myotubes. These results indicate that Hyp-Gly can induce myogenic differentiation and myotube hypertrophy and suggest that Hyp-Gly promotes myogenic differentiation by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, perhaps depending on PHT1 for entry into cells. PMID:27553280

  17. MG-2477, a new tubulin inhibitor, induces autophagy through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway and delayed apoptosis in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Giampietro; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Hamel, Ernest; Moro, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that MG-2477 (3-cyclopropylmethyl-7-phenyl-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-9(6H)-one) inhibits the growth of several cancer cell lines in vitro. Here we show that MG-2477 inhibited tubulin polymerization and caused cells to arrest in metaphase. The detailed mechanism of action of MG-2477 was investigated in a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (A549). Treatment of A549 cells with MG-2477 caused the cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, with a concomitant accumulation of cyclin B. Moreover, the compound induced autophagy, which was followed at later times by apoptotic cell death. Autophagy was detected as early as 12 h by the conversion of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II, following cleavage and lipid addition to LC3-I. After 48 h of MG-2477 exposure, phosphatidylserine externalization on the cell membrane, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage occurred, revealing that apoptotic cell death had begun. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 increased apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the autophagy caused by MG-2477 played a protective role and delayed apoptotic cell death. Additional studies revealed that MG-2477 inhibited survival signaling by blocking activation of Akt and its downstream targets, including mTOR, and FHKR. Treatment with MG-2477 also reduced phosphorylation of mTOR downstream targets p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and 4E-BP1. Overexpression of Akt by transfection with a Myr-Akt vector decreased MG-2477 induced autophagy, indicating that Akt is involved. Taken together, these results indicated that the autophagy induced by MG-2477 delayed apoptosis by exerting an adaptive response following microtubule damage. PMID:21964343

  18. Trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1 activates PI3K by forming a complex with MAGuK-family proteins MPP3 and Dlg.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigefumi; Sakurai-Yageta, Mika; Maruyama, Tomoko; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule 1), a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in cell-cell interaction and the formation and maintenance of epithelial structure. Expression of CADM1 is frequently down-regulated in various tumors derived from epithelial cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways activated by CADM1-mediated cell adhesion remain unknown. Here, we established a cell-based spreading assay to analyze the signaling pathway specifically activated by the trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1. In the assay, MDCK cells expressing exogenous CADM1 were incubated on the glass coated with a recombinant extracellular fragment of CADM1, and the degree of cell spreading was quantified by measuring their surface area. Assay screening of 104 chemical inhibitors with known functions revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), efficiently suppressed cell spreading in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of Akt and Rac1, downstream effectors of PI3K, also partially suppressed cell spreading, while the addition of both inhibitors blocked cell spreading to the same extent as did LY294002. Furthermore, MPP3 and Dlg, membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGuK) proteins, connect CADM1 with p85 of PI3K by forming a multi-protein complex at the periphery of cells. These results suggest that trans-homophilic interaction mediated by CADM1 activates the PI3K pathway to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and form epithelial cell structure.

  19. Trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1 activates PI3K by forming a complex with MAGuK-family proteins MPP3 and Dlg.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigefumi; Sakurai-Yageta, Mika; Maruyama, Tomoko; Murakami, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule 1), a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in cell-cell interaction and the formation and maintenance of epithelial structure. Expression of CADM1 is frequently downregulated in various tumors derived from epithelial cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways activated by CADM1-mediated cell adhesion remain unknown. Here, we established a cell-based spreading assay to analyze the signaling pathway specifically activated by the trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1. In the assay, MDCK cells expressing exogenous CADM1 were incubated on the glass coated with a recombinant extracellular fragment of CADM1, and the degree of cell spreading was quantified by measuring their surface area. Assay screening of 104 chemical inhibitors with known functions revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), efficiently suppressed cell spreading in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of Akt and Rac1, downstream effectors of PI3K, also partially suppressed cell spreading, while the addition of both inhibitors blocked cell spreading to the same extent as did LY294002. Furthermore, MPP3 and Dlg, membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGuK) proteins, connect CADM1 with p85 of PI3K by forming a multi-protein complex at the periphery of cells. These results suggest that trans-homophilic interaction mediated by CADM1 activates the PI3K pathway to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and form epithelial cell structure.

  20. A protein-targeting strategy used to develop a selective inhibitor of the E17K point mutation in the PH domain of Akt1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyle, Kaycie M.; Farrow, Blake; Qiao Hee, Ying; Work, Jeremy; Wong, Michelle; Lai, Bert; Umeda, Aiko; Millward, Steven W.; Nag, Arundhati; Das, Samir; Heath, James R.

    2015-05-01

    Ligands that can bind selectively to proteins with single amino-acid point mutations offer the potential to detect or treat an abnormal protein in the presence of the wild type (WT). However, it is difficult to develop a selective ligand if the point mutation is not associated with an addressable location, such as a binding pocket. Here we report an all-chemical synthetic epitope-targeting strategy that we used to discover a 5-mer peptide with selectivity for the E17K-transforming point mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of the Akt1 oncoprotein. A fragment of Akt1 that contained the E17K mutation and an I19[propargylglycine] substitution was synthesized to form an addressable synthetic epitope. Azide-presenting peptides that clicked covalently onto this alkyne-presenting epitope were selected from a library using in situ screening. One peptide exhibits a 10:1 in vitro selectivity for the oncoprotein relative to the WT, with a similar selectivity in cells. This 5-mer peptide was expanded into a larger ligand that selectively blocks the E17K Akt1 interaction with its PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate) substrate.

  1. Synthetic sulfoglycolipids targeting the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Dangate, Milind; Vetro, Maria; Donvito, Giulia; Gabrielli, Luca; Amigoni, Loredana; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Ceriani, Michela; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Cipolla, Laura; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Perego, Paola; Colombo, Diego

    2016-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a key component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR axis. Deregulated activation of this pathway is frequent in human tumors and Akt-dependent signaling appears to be critical in cell survival. PI3K activation generates 3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols that bind Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The blockage of Akt PH domain/phosphoinositides interaction represents a promising approach to interfere with the oncogenic potential of over-activated Akt. In the present study, phosphatidyl inositol mimics based on a β-glucoside scaffold have been synthesized as Akt inhibitors. The compounds possessed one or two lipophilic moieties of different length at the anomeric position of glucose, and an acidic or basic group at C-6. Docking studies, ELISA Akt inhibition assays, and cellular assays on different cell models highlighted 1-O-octadecanoyl-2-O-β-d-sulfoquinovopyranosyl-sn-glycerol as the best Akt inhibitor among the synthesized compounds, which could be considered as a lead for further optimization in the design of Akt inhibitors.

  2. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Enhances Neuronal Base Excision Repair via PI3K-AKT-Induced Expression of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yin-Ping; Kuo, Chao-Ying; Chen, Shang-Der

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal-secreted incretin that increases cellular glucose up-take to decrease blood sugar. Recent studies, however, suggest that the function of GLP-1 is not only to decrease blood sugar, but also acts as a neurotrophic factor that plays a role in neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and protects synaptic plasticity and memory formation from effects of β-amyloid. Oxidative DNA damage occurs during normal neuron-activity and in many neurological diseases. Our study describes how GLP-1 affected the ability of neurons to ameliorate oxidative DNA damage. We show that activation of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) protect cortical neurons from menadione induced oxidative DNA damage via a signaling pathway involving enhanced DNA repair. GLP-1 stimulates DNA repair by activating the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) which, consequently, induces the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a key enzyme in the base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway. In this study, APE1 expression was down-regulated as a consequence phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) suppression by the inhibitor LY294002, but not by the suppression of MEK activity. Ischemic stroke is typically caused by overwhelming oxidative-stress in brain cells. Administration of exentin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, efficiently enhanced DNA repair in brain cells of ischemic stroke rats. Our study suggests that a new function of GLP-1 is to elevate DNA repair by inducing the expression of the DNA repair protein APE1. PMID:27698937

  3. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Enhances Neuronal Base Excision Repair via PI3K-AKT-Induced Expression of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yin-Ping; Kuo, Chao-Ying; Chen, Shang-Der

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal-secreted incretin that increases cellular glucose up-take to decrease blood sugar. Recent studies, however, suggest that the function of GLP-1 is not only to decrease blood sugar, but also acts as a neurotrophic factor that plays a role in neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth, and protects synaptic plasticity and memory formation from effects of β-amyloid. Oxidative DNA damage occurs during normal neuron-activity and in many neurological diseases. Our study describes how GLP-1 affected the ability of neurons to ameliorate oxidative DNA damage. We show that activation of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) protect cortical neurons from menadione induced oxidative DNA damage via a signaling pathway involving enhanced DNA repair. GLP-1 stimulates DNA repair by activating the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) which, consequently, induces the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a key enzyme in the base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway. In this study, APE1 expression was down-regulated as a consequence phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) suppression by the inhibitor LY294002, but not by the suppression of MEK activity. Ischemic stroke is typically caused by overwhelming oxidative-stress in brain cells. Administration of exentin-4, an analogue of GLP-1, efficiently enhanced DNA repair in brain cells of ischemic stroke rats. Our study suggests that a new function of GLP-1 is to elevate DNA repair by inducing the expression of the DNA repair protein APE1.

  4. Molecular dissection of AKT activation in lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Du, Jinyan; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2013-01-01

    AKT is a critical signaling node downstream of PI3K, which is often activated in cancer. We analyzed the state of activation of AKT in 80 human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines under serum starvation conditions. We identified 13 lines which showed persistent AKT activation in the absence of serum. In 12 of the 13 lines, AKT activation could be attributed to loss of PTEN, activating mutation in EGFR or PIK3CA, or amplification of ERBB2. HCC2429 was the only cell line that had no alterations in those genes, but had high phospho-AKT(Ser473) levels under serum starvation conditions. However, the activation of AKT in HCC2429 was PI3K- and mTORC2-dependent based upon use of specific inhibitors. Kinome tyrosine phosphorylation profiling showed that both Notch and SRC were highly activated in this cell line. Despite the activation of Notch, AKT activation and cell survival were not affected by Notch inhibitors DAPT or Compound E. In contrast, SRC inhibitors PP2 and dasatinib both significantly decreased pAKT(Ser473) levels and reduced cell survival by inducing apoptosis. Further, a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibition synergistically blocked activation of AKT and induced apoptosis. Over-expression of SRC has been identified previously in human lung cancers, and these results suggest that a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibitors may have unique therapeutic benefit for a subset of lung cancers with these molecular features. PMID:23319332

  5. Cardioprotective effects of the novel Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibitor KR-32560 in a perfused rat heart model of global ischemia and reperfusion: Involvement of the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway and antioxidant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Sang; Lee, Sung-Hun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Kwon, Suk-Hyung; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Wahn-Soo; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective effects and mechanism of action of KR-32560 {[5-(2-methoxy-5-fluorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl]guanidine}, a newly synthesized NHE-1 inhibitor, we evaluated the effects of KR-32560 on cardiac function in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced heart injury as well as the role antioxidant enzymes and pro-survival proteins play these observed effects. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 25 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, KR-32560 (3 and 10 microM) significantly reversed the I/Rinduced decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and increase in left ventricular enddiastolic pressure. In rat hearts reperfused for 30 min, KR-32560 (10 microM) significantly decreased the malondialdehyde content while increasing the activities of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase, two important antioxidant enzymes. Western blotting analysis of left ventricles subjected to I/R showed that KR-32560 significantly increased phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK-3beta in a dose-dependent manner, with no effect on the phosphorylation of eNOS. These results suggest that KR-32560 exerts potent cardioprotective effects against I/Rinduced rat heart injury and that its mechanism involves antioxidant enzymes and the Akt-GSK-3beta cell survival pathway.

  6. Discovery of 4-Amino-1-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamides As Selective, Orally Active Inhibitors of Protein Kinase B (Akt)†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) is an important component of intracellular signaling pathways regulating growth and survival. Signaling through PKB is frequently deregulated in cancer, and inhibitors of PKB therefore have potential as antitumor agents. The optimization of lipophilic substitution within a series of 4-benzyl-1-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperidin-4-amines provided ATP-competitive, nanomolar inhibitors with up to 150-fold selectivity for inhibition of PKB over the closely related kinase PKA. Although active in cellular assays, compounds containing 4-amino-4-benzylpiperidines underwent metabolism in vivo, leading to rapid clearance and low oral bioavailability. Variation of the linker group between the piperidine and the lipophilic substituent identified 4-amino-1-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperidine-4-carboxamides as potent and orally bioavailable inhibitors of PKB. Representative compounds modulated biomarkers of signaling through PKB in vivo and strongly inhibited the growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice at well-tolerated doses. PMID:20151677

  7. Multifactorial resistance to aminopeptidase inhibitor prodrug CHR2863 in myeloid leukemia cells: down-regulation of carboxylesterase 1, drug sequestration in lipid droplets and pro-survival activation ERK/Akt/mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugge, Sue Ellen; Al, Marjon; Assaraf, Yehuda G.; Kammerer, Sarah; Chandrupatla, Durga M.S.H.; Honeywell, Richard; Musters, Rene P.J.; Giovannetti, Elisa; O'Toole, Tom; Scheffer, George L.; Krige, David; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Niessen, Hans W.M.; Lems, Willem F.; Kramer, Pieternella A.; Scheper, Rik J.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Peters, Godefridus J.; Jansen, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidase inhibitors are receiving attention as combination chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of refractory acute myeloid leukemia. However, the factors determining therapeutic efficacy remain elusive. Here we identified the molecular basis of acquired resistance to CHR2863, an orally available hydrophobic aminopeptidase inhibitor prodrug with an esterase-sensitive motif, in myeloid leukemia cells. CHR2863 enters cells by diffusion and is retained therein upon esterase activity-mediated conversion to its hydrophilic active metabolite drug CHR6768, thereby exerting amino acid depletion. Carboxylesterases (CES) serve as candidate prodrug activating enzymes given CES1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia specimens. We established two novel myeloid leukemia sublines U937/CHR2863(200) and U937/CHR2863(5uM), with low (14-fold) and high level (270-fold) CHR2863 resistance. The latter drug resistant cells displayed: (i) complete loss of CES1-mediated drug activation associated with down-regulation of CES1 mRNA and protein, (ii) marked retention/sequestration of the prodrug, (iii) a substantial increase in intracellular lipid droplets, and (iv) a dominant activation of the pro-survival Akt/mTOR pathway. Remarkably, the latter feature coincided with a gain of sensitivity to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. These finding delineate the molecular basis of CHR2863 resistance and offer a novel modality to overcome this drug resistance in myeloid leukemia cells. PMID:26496029

  8. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Src family kinase is required for respiratory burst in rat neutrophils stimulated with artocarpol A.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Ruey-Hseng; Lin, Hui-Yi; Huang, Li-Jiau; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Lin, Chun-Nan; Chang, Ling-Chu; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2006-06-14

    Artocarpol A (ART), a natural product isolated from Artocarpus rigida, stimulated superoxide anion (O2*-) generation, which was inhibited by 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY 294002), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, in rat neutrophils. ART stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) on both T308 and S473 residues, and LY 294002 inhibited these effects. Rat neutrophils expressed both class IA PI3K subunits (p85, p110alpha, p110beta, and p110delta) and a class IB PI3K subunit (p110gamma) as assessed by a combination of Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approaches. Stimulation of neutrophils with ART evoked phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) formation, which reached a maximal level at 2 min and was attenuated by LY 294002, as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry. Detectable membrane-association of class IA PI3Ks, class IB PI3K and Ras was seen as early as 1.5, 0.5 and 1.5 min, respectively, after stimulation with ART. The kinetics of ART-induced Ras activation paralleled the kinetics of class IA PI3Ks recruitment to membrane caused by ART, and the p85 and p110gamma immunoprecipitates contain Ras. ART stimulated Src family kinase activation, which was detectable within 1.5 min of incubation with ART. Both Src kinase activity and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 formation in ART-stimulated neutrophils were inhibited by 4-amino-1-tert-butyl-3-(1'-naphthyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1 analog). PP1 analog also attenuated the ART-stimulated O2*- generation in rat neutrophils. These results indicate that the stimulation of respiratory burst by ART in neutrophils implicates PI3K signaling.

  9. Ursolic acid induced anti-proliferation effects in rat primary vascular smooth muscle cells is associated with inhibition of microRNA-21 and subsequent PTEN/PI3K.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Yantao; Gao, Hui; Tian, Rong; Li, Ping; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-06-15

    This study focused on the anti-proliferation effects of ursolic acid (UA) in rat primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and investigated underlying molecular mechanism of action. Rat primary VSMCs were pretreated with UA (10, 20 or 30μM) or amino guanidine (AG, 50μM) for 12h or with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 for 30min or with Akt inhibitor MK2206 for 24h, then 10% fetal bovine serum was used to induce proliferation. CCK-8 was used to assess cell proliferation. To explore the mechanism, cells were treated with UA (10, 20 or 30μM), LY294002 or MK2206, or transient transfected to inhibit miRNA-21 (miRNA-21) or to overexpress PTEN, then quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the mRNA levels of miRNA-21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) for cells treated with UA or miRNA-21 inhibitor; western blotting was used to measure the protein levels of PTEN and PI3K. UA exerted significant anti-proliferation effects in rat primary VSMCs. Furthermore, UA inhibited the expression of miRNA-21 and subsequently enhanced the expression of PTEN. PTEN was found to inhibit the expression of PI3K. In conclusion, UA exerts anti-proliferation effects in rat primary VSMCs, which is associated with the inhibition of miRNA-21 expression and modulation of PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway.

  10. The predominant protective effect of tianeptine over other antidepressants in models of neuronal apoptosis: the effect blocked by inhibitors of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Krawczyk, S; Lason, W

    2014-02-01

    Tianeptine (Tian) possesses neuroprotective potential, however, little is known about the effect of this drug in models of neuronal apoptosis. In the present study, we aimed (1) to compare the neuroprotective capacities of some antidepressants (ADs) in the models of staurosporine (St)- and doxorubicin (Dox)-evoked cell death, activating the intracellular and the extracellular apoptotic pathway, respectively; (2) to identify the Tian-modulated steps underlying its neuroprotective action; (3) to test the effect of various ADs against Dox-evoked cell damage in glia cells. Primary neuronal and glia cell cultures and retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (RA-SH-SY5Y) cells were co-treated with imipramine, fluoxetine, citalopram, reboxetine, mirtazapine or Tian and St or Dox. The data showed the predominant neuroprotective effect of Tian over other tested ADs against St- and Dox-induced cell damage in primary neurons and in RA-SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was shown to be caspase-3-independent but connected with attenuation of DNA fragmentation. Moreover, neuroprotection elicited by Tian was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways as well by inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1. Interestingly, the protective effects of all tested ADs were demonstrated in primary glia cells against the Dox-evoked cell damage. The obtained data suggests the glial cells as a common target for protective action of various ADs whereas in relation to neuronal cells only Tian possesses such properties, at least against St- and Dox-induced cell damage. Moreover, this neuroprotective effect of Tian is caspase-3-independent and engages the regulation of survival pathways (MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt).

  11. The predominant protective effect of tianeptine over other antidepressants in models of neuronal apoptosis: the effect blocked by inhibitors of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Jantas, D; Krawczyk, S; Lason, W

    2014-02-01

    Tianeptine (Tian) possesses neuroprotective potential, however, little is known about the effect of this drug in models of neuronal apoptosis. In the present study, we aimed (1) to compare the neuroprotective capacities of some antidepressants (ADs) in the models of staurosporine (St)- and doxorubicin (Dox)-evoked cell death, activating the intracellular and the extracellular apoptotic pathway, respectively; (2) to identify the Tian-modulated steps underlying its neuroprotective action; (3) to test the effect of various ADs against Dox-evoked cell damage in glia cells. Primary neuronal and glia cell cultures and retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (RA-SH-SY5Y) cells were co-treated with imipramine, fluoxetine, citalopram, reboxetine, mirtazapine or Tian and St or Dox. The data showed the predominant neuroprotective effect of Tian over other tested ADs against St- and Dox-induced cell damage in primary neurons and in RA-SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was shown to be caspase-3-independent but connected with attenuation of DNA fragmentation. Moreover, neuroprotection elicited by Tian was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways as well by inhibitor of necroptosis, necrostatin-1. Interestingly, the protective effects of all tested ADs were demonstrated in primary glia cells against the Dox-evoked cell damage. The obtained data suggests the glial cells as a common target for protective action of various ADs whereas in relation to neuronal cells only Tian possesses such properties, at least against St- and Dox-induced cell damage. Moreover, this neuroprotective effect of Tian is caspase-3-independent and engages the regulation of survival pathways (MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt). PMID:24105645

  12. BGP-15, a PARP-inhibitor, prevents imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity by activating Akt and suppressing JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Sarszegi, Zsolt; Bognar, Eszter; Gaszner, Balazs; Kónyi, Attila; Gallyas, Ferenc; Sumegi, Balazs; Berente, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the cardiotoxic effects of the well-known cytostatic agent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), and presented evidence for the cardioprotective effect of BGP-15 which is a novel insulin sensitizer. The cardiotoxic effect of imatinib mesylate was assessed in Langendorff rat heart perfusion system. The cardiac high-energy phosphate levels (creatine phosphate (PCr) and ATP) were monitored in situ by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the activation of signaling pathways were determined from the freeze-clamped hearts. Prolonged treatment of the heart with imatinib mesylate (20 mg/kg) resulted in cardiotoxicity, which were characterized by the depletion of high-energy phosphates (PCr and ATP), and significantly increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Imatinib mesylate treatment-induced activation of MAP kinases (including ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. BGP-15 (200 μM) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, altered the signaling effect of imatinib mesylate by preventing p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. The suppressive effect of BGP-15 on p38 and JNK activation could be significant because these kinases contribute to the cell death and inflammation in the isolated perfused heart.

  13. Gq-mediated Akt translocation to the membrane: a novel PIP3-independent mechanism in platelets.

    PubMed

    Badolia, Rachit; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Dangelmaier, Carol; Chernoff, Jonathan; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2015-01-01

    Akt is an important signaling molecule regulating platelet aggregation. Akt is phosphorylated after translocation to the membrane through Gi signaling pathways by a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent mechanism. However, Akt is more robustly phosphorylated by thrombin compared with adenosine 5'-diphosphate in platelets. This study investigated the mechanisms of Akt translocation as a possible explanation for this difference. Stimulation of washed human platelets with protease-activated receptor agonists caused translocation of Akt to the membrane rapidly, whereas phosphorylation occurred later. The translocation of Akt was abolished in the presence of a Gq-selective inhibitor or in Gq-deficient murine platelets, indicating that Akt translocation is regulated downstream of Gq pathways. Interestingly, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors or P2Y12 antagonist abolished Akt phosphorylation without affecting Akt translocation to the membrane, suggesting that Akt translocation occurs through a PI3K/PIP3/Gi-independent mechanism. An Akt scaffolding protein, p21-activated kinase (PAK), translocates to the membrane after stimulation with protease-activated receptor agonists in a Gq-dependent manner, with the kinetics of translocation similar to that of Akt. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed constitutive association of PAK and Akt, suggesting a possible role of PAK in Akt translocation. These results show, for the first time, an important role of the Gq pathway in mediating Akt translocation to the membrane in a novel Gi/PI3K/PIP3-independent mechanism.

  14. Gq-mediated Akt translocation to the membrane: a novel PIP3-independent mechanism in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Badolia, Rachit; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Dangelmaier, Carol; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Akt is an important signaling molecule regulating platelet aggregation. Akt is phosphorylated after translocation to the membrane through Gi signaling pathways by a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent mechanism. However, Akt is more robustly phosphorylated by thrombin compared with adenosine 5′-diphosphate in platelets. This study investigated the mechanisms of Akt translocation as a possible explanation for this difference. Stimulation of washed human platelets with protease-activated receptor agonists caused translocation of Akt to the membrane rapidly, whereas phosphorylation occurred later. The translocation of Akt was abolished in the presence of a Gq-selective inhibitor or in Gq-deficient murine platelets, indicating that Akt translocation is regulated downstream of Gq pathways. Interestingly, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors or P2Y12 antagonist abolished Akt phosphorylation without affecting Akt translocation to the membrane, suggesting that Akt translocation occurs through a PI3K/PIP3/Gi-independent mechanism. An Akt scaffolding protein, p21-activated kinase (PAK), translocates to the membrane after stimulation with protease-activated receptor agonists in a Gq-dependent manner, with the kinetics of translocation similar to that of Akt. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed constitutive association of PAK and Akt, suggesting a possible role of PAK in Akt translocation. These results show, for the first time, an important role of the Gq pathway in mediating Akt translocation to the membrane in a novel Gi/PI3K/PIP3-independent mechanism. PMID:25331114

  15. Akt phosphorylation is essential for nuclear translocation and retention in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Truong Le Xuan Nguyen; Choi, Joung Woo; Lee, Sang Bae; Ye, Keqiang; Woo, Soo-Dong; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ahn, Jee-Yin . E-mail: jyahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2006-10-20

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits Akt translocation into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Here, we describe that Akt phosphorylation can promote the nuclear translocation of Akt and is necessary for its nuclear retention. Overexpression of Akt-K179A, T308A, S473A-mutant failed to show either nuclear translocation or nuclear Akt phosphorylation, whereas expression of wild-type counterpart elicited profound Akt phosphorylation and induced nuclear translocation under NGF stimulation. Employing the PI3K inhibitor and a variety of mutants PI3K, we showed that nuclear translocation of Akt was mediated by activation of PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation status in the nucleus required PI3K activity. Thus the activity of PI3K might contribute to the nuclear translocation of Akt, and that Akt phosphorylation is essential for its nuclear retention under NGF stimulation conditions.

  16. Repression of AKT signaling by ARQ 092 in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Yourick, Miranda R.; Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    A somatic activating mutation in AKT1, c.49G>A, pGlu17Lys, that results in elevated AKT signaling in mutation-positive cells, is responsible for the mosaic overgrowth condition, Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 is an allosteric pan-AKT inhibitor under development for treatment in cancer. We tested the efficacy of this drug for suppressing AKT signaling in cells and tissues from patients with Proteus syndrome. ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in a concentration-dependent manner in as little as two hours. While AKT signaling was suppressed with ARQ 092 treatment, cells retained their ability to respond to growth factor stimulation by increasing pAKT levels proportionally to untreated cells. At concentrations sufficient to decrease AKT signaling, little reduction in cell viability was seen. These results indicate that ARQ 092 can suppress AKT signaling and warrants further development as a therapeutic option for patients with Proteus syndrome. PMID:26657992

  17. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  18. Akting up in the GABA hypothesis of schizophrenia: Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic functions and hippocampus-dependent functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells. Inhibiting Akt resulted in a reduction in parvalbumin-positive neuron-like cells. In Akt1(-/-) and wild-type mice, seizures induced using pentylenetetrazol (a GABAAR antagonist) were measured, and GABAAR expression and GABAergic interneuron abundance in the brain were examined. Female Akt1(-/-) mice, but not male Akt1(-/-) mice, exhibited less pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive activity than their corresponding wild-type controls. Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneuron abundance and GABAAR subunit expression, especially in the hippocampus, were also observed in female Akt1(-/-) mice compared to female wild-type mice. Neuromorphometric analyses revealed significantly reduced neurite complexity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Additionally, female Akt1(-/-) mice displayed increased hippocampal oscillation power and impaired spatial memory compared to female wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic interneurons and GABAAR expression, contributing to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functional impairment.

  19. Akting up in the GABA hypothesis of schizophrenia: Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic functions and hippocampus-dependent functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells. Inhibiting Akt resulted in a reduction in parvalbumin-positive neuron-like cells. In Akt1(-/-) and wild-type mice, seizures induced using pentylenetetrazol (a GABAAR antagonist) were measured, and GABAAR expression and GABAergic interneuron abundance in the brain were examined. Female Akt1(-/-) mice, but not male Akt1(-/-) mice, exhibited less pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive activity than their corresponding wild-type controls. Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneuron abundance and GABAAR subunit expression, especially in the hippocampus, were also observed in female Akt1(-/-) mice compared to female wild-type mice. Neuromorphometric analyses revealed significantly reduced neurite complexity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Additionally, female Akt1(-/-) mice displayed increased hippocampal oscillation power and impaired spatial memory compared to female wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic interneurons and GABAAR expression, contributing to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functional impairment. PMID:27615800

  20. Akting up in the GABA hypothesis of schizophrenia: Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic functions and hippocampus-dependent functions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells. Inhibiting Akt resulted in a reduction in parvalbumin-positive neuron-like cells. In Akt1−/− and wild-type mice, seizures induced using pentylenetetrazol (a GABAAR antagonist) were measured, and GABAAR expression and GABAergic interneuron abundance in the brain were examined. Female Akt1−/− mice, but not male Akt1−/− mice, exhibited less pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive activity than their corresponding wild-type controls. Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneuron abundance and GABAAR subunit expression, especially in the hippocampus, were also observed in female Akt1−/− mice compared to female wild-type mice. Neuromorphometric analyses revealed significantly reduced neurite complexity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Additionally, female Akt1−/− mice displayed increased hippocampal oscillation power and impaired spatial memory compared to female wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic interneurons and GABAAR expression, contributing to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functional impairment. PMID:27615800

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor prevents cell growth in Burkitt's lymphoma by regulating PI3K/Akt pathways and leads to upregulation of miR-143, miR-145, and miR-101.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Carolina dos Santos; Robaina, Marcela Cristina; Rezende, Lídia Maria Magalhães de; Severino, Patricia; Klumb, Claudete Esteves

    2014-06-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma more common in children comprising one third of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The recent discovery in BL pathogenesis highlighted the activation of PI3K pathway in cooperation with Myc in the development of BL. In this study, we demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway is a target to histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) in BL cells. The combination of HDACi (sodium butyrate, NaB) and chemotherapy (VP-16) inhibited 51 % of the proliferation and enhanced the blockage of the cell cycle progression at G2/M with a concurrent decrease in the S phase. Microarray profiling showed a synergistic action of NaB/VP-16 combination through the differential regulation of 1,413 genes. Comparing VP-16 treatment with the NaB/VP-16 combination, 318 genes were deregulated: 250 genes were downregulated, and 68 were upregulated when compared with untreated cells. Among these genes, six (CDKN1A, CCND1, FAS, CHEK2, MDM4, and SESN2) belong to the p53-signaling pathway. The activation of this signaling pathway is usually induced by stress signals and ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest. Besides, the inhibition of the cell growth was related to reduced Akt phosphorylation, and decrease of c-Myc protein expression by about 60 % (p ≤ 0.005). Moreover, HDACi enhanced miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 levels in BL cell line, which were inversely associated with the levels of miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 found to be extremely downregulated in the sample of BL patients. We highlight the fact that effective combinations of HDACis with other target drugs could improve BL therapy in the future. PMID:24577510

  2. Akt2 Phosphorylates Ezrin to Trigger NHE3 Translocation and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Shiue, Harn; Musch, Mark W.; Wang, Yingmin; Chang, Eugene B.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2005-01-01

    Initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport in intestinal absorptive epithelia causes NHE3 to be translocated to the apical plasma membrane, leading to cytoplasmic alkalinization. We reported recently that this NHE3 translocation requires ezrin phosphorylation. However, the kinase that phosphorylates ezrin in this process has not been identified. Because Akt has also been implicated in NHE3 translocation, we investigated the hypothesis that Akt phosphorylates ezrin. After initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport, Akt is activated with kinetics that parallel those of ezrin phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, which blocks ezrin phosphorylation, also prevents Akt activation. Purified Akt directly phosphorylates recombinant ezrin at threonine 567 in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner. This in vitro phosphorylation can be prevented by Akt inhibitors. In intact cells, inhibition of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt, or inhibition of Akt itself using inhibitors validated in vitro prevents ezrin phosphorylation after initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport. Specific small interfering RNA knockdown of Akt2 prevented ezrin phosphorylation in intact cells. Pharmacological Akt inhibition or Akt2 knockdown also prevented NHE3 translocation and activation after initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport, confirming the functional role of Akt2. These studies therefore identify Akt2 as a critical kinase that regulates ezrin phosphorylation and activation. This Akt2-dependent ezrin phosphorylation leads to NHE3 translocation and activation. PMID:15531580

  3. Akt2 phosphorylates ezrin to trigger NHE3 translocation and activation.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Harn; Musch, Mark W; Wang, Yingmin; Chang, Eugene B; Turner, Jerrold R

    2005-01-14

    Initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport in intestinal absorptive epithelia causes NHE3 to be translocated to the apical plasma membrane, leading to cytoplasmic alkalinization. We reported recently that this NHE3 translocation requires ezrin phosphorylation. However, the kinase that phosphorylates ezrin in this process has not been identified. Because Akt has also been implicated in NHE3 translocation, we investigated the hypothesis that Akt phosphorylates ezrin. After initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport, Akt is activated with kinetics that parallel those of ezrin phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, which blocks ezrin phosphorylation, also prevents Akt activation. Purified Akt directly phosphorylates recombinant ezrin at threonine 567 in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner. This in vitro phosphorylation can be prevented by Akt inhibitors. In intact cells, inhibition of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt, or inhibition of Akt itself using inhibitors validated in vitro prevents ezrin phosphorylation after initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport. Specific small interfering RNA knockdown of Akt2 prevented ezrin phosphorylation in intact cells. Pharmacological Akt inhibition or Akt2 knockdown also prevented NHE3 translocation and activation after initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport, confirming the functional role of Akt2. These studies therefore identify Akt2 as a critical kinase that regulates ezrin phosphorylation and activation. This Akt2-dependent ezrin phosphorylation leads to NHE3 translocation and activation.

  4. The investigational Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) induces cell cycle G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy via p38 MAPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Alisertib (ALS) is an investigational potent Aurora A kinase inhibitor currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and non-hematological malignancies. However, its antitumor activity has not been tested in human breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ALS on the growth, apoptosis, and autophagy, and the underlying mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In the current study, we identified that ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, and pro-autophagic effects in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. ALS arrested the cells in G2/M phase in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells which was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1/cell division cycle (CDC) 2, CDK2, and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53, suggesting that ALS induces G2/M arrest through modulation of p53/p21/CDC2/cyclin B1 pathways. ALS induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells; ALS significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and increased the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 9. ALS significantly increased the expression level of membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and beclin 1 and induced inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the pro-autophagic activities of ALS. Furthermore, treatment with wortmannin markedly downregulated ALS-induced p38 MAPK activation and LC3 conversion. In addition, knockdown of the p38 MAPK gene by ribonucleic acid interference upregulated Akt activation and resulted in LC3-II accumulation. These findings indicate that ALS promotes cellular

  5. Molecular rationale for the use of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in combination with crizotinib in ALK-mutated neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nathan F; Azarova, Anna M; Bhatnagar, Namrata; Ross, Kenneth N; Drake, Lauren E; Frumm, Stacey; Liu, Qinsong S; Christie, Amanda L; Sanda, Takaomi; Chesler, Louis; Kung, Andrew L; Gray, Nathanael S; Stegmaier, Kimberly; George, Rani E

    2014-09-30

    Mutations in the ALK tyrosine kinase receptor gene represent important therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma, yet their clinical translation has been challenging. The ALK(F1174L) mutation is sensitive to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib only at high doses and mediates acquired resistance to crizotinib in ALK-translocated cancers. We have shown that the combination of crizotinib and an inhibitor of downstream signaling induces a favorable response in transgenic mice bearing ALK(F1174L)/MYCN-positive neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of this effect and assessed whether a similar strategy would be effective in ALK-mutated tumors lacking MYCN overexpression. We show that in ALK-mutated, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells, crizotinib alone does not affect mTORC1 activity as indicated by persistent RPS6 phosphorylation. Combined treatment with crizotinib and an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor abrogated RPS6 phosphorylation, leading to reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in ALK(F1174L)/MYCN-positive models compared to single agent treatment. By contrast, this combination, while inducing mTORC1 downregulation, caused reciprocal upregulation of PI3K activity in ALK-mutated cells expressing wild-type MYCN. Here, an inhibitor with potency against both mTOR and PI3K was more effective in promoting cytotoxicity when combined with crizotinib. Our findings should enable a more precise selection of molecularly targeted agents for patients with ALK-mutated tumors.

  6. AKT3 promotes prostate cancer proliferation cells through regulation of Akt, B-Raf & TSC1/TSC2

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jen-Chih; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kuo, Ying-Yu; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Wang, Chih-Ting; Chan, Tzu-Min; Liou, Jun-Yang; Wang, John; Chang, Wun-Shaing Wayne; Chang, Chung-Ho; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-01-01

    The qRT-PCR analysis of 139 clinical samples and analysis of 150 on-line database clinical samples indicated that AKT3 mRNA expression level was elevated in primary prostate tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of 65 clinical samples revealed that AKT3 protein expression was higher in prostate tumors of stage I, II, III as compared to nearby normal tissues. Plasmid overexpression of AKT3 promoted cell proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145, and CA-HPV-10 human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, while knockdown of AKT3 by siRNA reduced cell proliferation. Overexpression of AKT3 increased the protein expression of total AKT, phospho-AKT S473, phospho-AKT T308, B-Raf, c-Myc, Skp2, cyclin E, GSK3β, phospho-GSK3β S9, phospho-mTOR S2448, and phospho-p70S6K T421/S424, but decreased TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis 1) and TSC2 (tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2) proteins in PC-3 PCa cells. Overexpression of AKT3 also increased protein abundance of phospho-AKT S473, phospho-AKT T308, and B-Raf but decreased expression of TSC1 and TSC2 proteins in LNCaP, DU-145, and CA-HPV-10 PCa cells. Oncomine datasets analysis suggested that AKT3 mRNA level was positively correlated to BRAF. Knockdown of AKT3 in DU-145 cells with siRNA increased the sensitivity of DU-145 cells to B-Raf inhibitor treatment. Knockdown of TSC1 or TSC2 promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. Our observations implied that AKT3 may be a potential therapeutic target for PCa treatment. PMID:26318033

  7. Emerging therapeutics for targeting Akt in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gdowski, Andrew; Panchoo, Marlyn; Treuren, Timothy Van; Basu, Alakananda

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal of cancer therapeutic research is to develop effective, targeted therapeutics that exploit the vulnerabilities of cancer cells. The three isoforms of Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), are important mediators of various pathways that transmit mitogenic signals from the cell's exterior to the effector proteins of the cell's interior. Due to Akt\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s importance in cell functions such as growth, proliferation and cell survival, many cancer cells rely on this pathway to aid in their survival. This dependence can lead to chemoresistance and selection of more adapted populations of cancer cells. Thus, it is important to understand the functional significance of isoform specificity and its relation to chemoresistance. In this review, we have summarized recent studies on Akt isoform specific regulation as well as each isoform's role in chemoresistance, emphasizing their potential as targets for cancer therapy. We have also condensed ongoing clinical studies involving various types of Akt inhibitors while highlighting the type of study, rationale and co-therapies involved in identifying Akt isoforms as promising therapeutic targets.

  8. Chlorogenic acid protects MSCs against oxidative stress by altering FOXO family genes and activating intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Bian, Hetao; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Ye; Dai, Jianghua; He, Wenfeng; Liao, Xingen; Liu, Rongrong; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant exists widely in edible and medicinal plants, and can protect cell against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Chlorogenic acid suppressed reactive oxygen species increase by activation of Akt phosphorylation,and increased FOXO family genes and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in MSCs culturing under oxidative stress. In addition, PI-3Kinase Inhibitor (2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002) could suppress the Chlorogenic acid-induced: (1) the cellular protective role, (2) the increase of the FOXO family genes expression, (3) increased expression of Bcl-2. These results suggested that Chlorogenic acid protected MSCs against apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signal and FOXO family genes.

  9. Targeting cancer stem cells in glioblastoma multiforme using mTOR inhibitors and the differentiating agent all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Marissa D; Jeevan, Dhruve S; Tobias, Michael; Murali, Raj; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor, portends a poor prognosis despite current treatment modalities. Recurrence of tumor growth is attributed to the presence of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). The targeting of these CSCs is therefore essential in the treatment of this disease. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate proliferation and migration, respectively. Aberrant function of mTOR has been shown to be present in GBM CSCs. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a derivative of retinol, causes differentiation of CSCs as well as normal neural progenitor cells. The purpose of this investigation was to delineate the role of mTOR in CSC maintenance, and to establish the mechanism of targeting GBM CSCs using differentiating agents along with inhibitors of the mTOR pathways. The results demonstrated that ATRA caused differentiation of CSCs, as demonstrated by the loss of the stem cell marker Nestin. These observations were confirmed by western blotting, which demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in Nestin expression following ATRA treatment. This effect occurred despite combination with mTOR (rapamycin), PI3K (LY294002) and MEK1/2 (U0126) inhibitors. Expression of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) was enhanced following treatment with ATRA, independent of mTOR pathway inhibitors. Proliferation of CSCs, determined by neurosphere diameter, was decreased following treatment with ATRA alone and in combination with rapamycin. The motility of GBM cells was mitigated by treatment with ATRA, rapamycin and LY29002 alone. However, combination treatment augmented the inhibitory effect on migration suggesting synergism. These findings indicate that ATRA-induced differentiation is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway, and underscores the significance of including differentiating agents along with inhibitors of mTOR pathways in the treatment of GBM.