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Sample records for akt pathway activation

  1. Activated AKT pathway promotes establishment of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Yu, Yanni; Luo, Lily; Lydon, John P; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Kim, J Julie

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice

  2. Genomically amplified Akt3 activates DNA repair pathway and promotes glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kristen M; Sun, Youting; Ji, Ping; Granberg, Kirsi J; Bernard, Brady; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David E; Zhou, Xinhui; Yli-Harja, Olli; Nykter, Matti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Yung, W K Alfred; Fuller, Gregory N; Zhang, Wei

    2015-03-17

    Akt is a robust oncogene that plays key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, including glioma. We evaluated the differential propensities of the Akt isoforms toward progression in the well-characterized RCAS/Ntv-a mouse model of PDGFB-driven low grade glioma. A constitutively active myristoylated form of Akt1 did not induce high-grade glioma (HGG). In stark contrast, Akt2 and Akt3 showed strong progression potential with 78% and 97% of tumors diagnosed as HGG, respectively. We further revealed that significant variations in polarity and hydropathy values among the Akt isoforms in both the pleckstrin homology domain (P domain) and regulatory domain (R domain) were critical in mediating glioma progression. Gene expression profiles from representative Akt-derived tumors indicated dominant and distinct roles for Akt3, consisting primarily of DNA repair pathways. TCGA data from human GBM closely reflected the DNA repair function, as Akt3 was significantly correlated with a 76-gene signature DNA repair panel. Consistently, compared with Akt1 and Akt2 overexpression models, Akt3-expressing human GBM cells had enhanced activation of DNA repair proteins, leading to increased DNA repair and subsequent resistance to radiation and temozolomide. Given the wide range of Akt3-amplified cancers, Akt3 may represent a key resistance factor.

  3. Genomically amplified Akt3 activates DNA repair pathway and promotes glioma progression

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kristen M.; Sun, Youting; Ji, Ping; Granberg, Kirsi J.; Bernard, Brady; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David E.; Zhou, Xinhui; Yli-Harja, Olli; Nykter, Matti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Fuller, Gregory N.; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Akt is a robust oncogene that plays key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, including glioma. We evaluated the differential propensities of the Akt isoforms toward progression in the well-characterized RCAS/Ntv-a mouse model of PDGFB-driven low grade glioma. A constitutively active myristoylated form of Akt1 did not induce high-grade glioma (HGG). In stark contrast, Akt2 and Akt3 showed strong progression potential with 78% and 97% of tumors diagnosed as HGG, respectively. We further revealed that significant variations in polarity and hydropathy values among the Akt isoforms in both the pleckstrin homology domain (P domain) and regulatory domain (R domain) were critical in mediating glioma progression. Gene expression profiles from representative Akt-derived tumors indicated dominant and distinct roles for Akt3, consisting primarily of DNA repair pathways. TCGA data from human GBM closely reflected the DNA repair function, as Akt3 was significantly correlated with a 76-gene signature DNA repair panel. Consistently, compared with Akt1 and Akt2 overexpression models, Akt3-expressing human GBM cells had enhanced activation of DNA repair proteins, leading to increased DNA repair and subsequent resistance to radiation and temozolomide. Given the wide range of Akt3-amplified cancers, Akt3 may represent a key resistance factor. PMID:25737557

  4. Heat stress activates AKT via focal adhesion kinase-mediated pathway in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongguang; Vander Heide, Richard S

    2008-08-01

    Heat stress (HS)-induced cardioprotection is associated with increased paxillin localization to the membrane fraction of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the subcellular signaling pathways activated by HS; 2) to determine whether myocardial stress organizes and activates an integrated survival pathway; and 3) to investigate potential downstream cytoprotective proteins activated by HS. After HS, NRVM were subjected to chemical inhibitors (CI) designed to simulate ischemia by inhibiting both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Protein kinase B (AKT) expression (wild type) was increased selectively with an adenoviral vector. Cell signaling was analyzed with Western blot analysis, while oncosis/apoptosis was assayed by measuring Trypan blue exclusion and/or terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. HS increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at tyrosine 397 but did not adversely affect the viability of NRVM before CI. HS increased association between FAK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase as well as causing a significant increase in AKT activity. Increased expression of wild-type AKT protected myocytes from both oncotic and apoptotic cell death. Increased expression of a FAK inhibitor, FRNK, reduced AKT phosphorylation in response to HS both at time 0 and after 10 min of CI compared with myocytes expressing empty virus. We conclude that myocardial stress activates cytoskeleton-based signaling pathways that are associated with protection from lethal cell injury.

  5. Insulin inhibits inflammation and promotes atherosclerotic plaque stability via PI3K-Akt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Ma, Ying; Li, Yan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Lv, Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Jia; Ma, Meijuan; Zhang, Le; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 induced inflammation was reported to play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque stability. Recent studies indicated that insulin could inhibit inflammation by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-dependent (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway. In the current study, we hypothesized that insulin would inhibit TLR4 induced inflammation via promoting PI3K-Akt activation, thus enhancing the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. In order to mimic the process of plaque formation, monocyte-macrophage lineage RAW264.7 were cultured and induced to form foam cells by oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Oil red O staining results showed that insulin significantly restrained ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Analysis of inflammatory reaction during foam cell formation indicated that insulin significantly down-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 levels, inhibited TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD) 88 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Further mechanism analysis showed that pretreating with the PI3K blocker, wortmannin dramatically dampened the insulin-induced up-regulation of pAkt expression. Additionally, blockade of PI3K-Akt signaling also dampened the immunosuppression effect brought by insulin. Following the construction of a rodent atherosclerosis model, pretreatment of insulin resulted in an evident decrease in lipid deposition of the blood vessel wall, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and numbers of infiltrated macrophages and foam cells. Taken together, these results suggested that insulin might inhibit inflammation and promote atherosclerotic plaque stability via the PI3K-Akt pathway by targeting TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling. Our findings may provide a potential target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26681144

  6. Ribonuclease 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2016-01-01

    To maintain corneal transparency, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exert a pump function against aqueous inflow. However, human CECs are arrested in the G1-phase and non-proliferative in vivo. Thus, treatment of corneal endothelial decompensation is limited to corneal transplantation, and grafts are vulnerable to immune rejection. Here, we show that ribonuclease (RNase) 5 is more highly expressed in normal human CECs compared to decompensated tissues. Furthermore, RNase 5 up-regulated survival of CECs and accelerated corneal endothelial wound healing in an in vitro wound of human CECs and an in vivo cryo-damaged rabbit model. RNase 5 treatment rapidly induced accumulation of cytoplasmic RNase 5 into the nucleus, and activated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in human CECs. Moreover, inhibition of nuclear translocation of RNase 5 using neomycin reversed RNase 5-induced Akt activation. As a potential strategy for proliferation enhancement, RNase 5 increased the population of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated proliferating CECs with concomitant PI3-kinase/Akt activation, especially in CECs deprived of contact-inhibition. Specifically, RNase 5 suppressed p27 and up-regulated cyclin D1, D3, and E by activating PI3-kinase/Akt in CECs to initiate cell cycle progression. Together, our data indicate that RNase 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing, and identify RNase 5 as a novel target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:27526633

  7. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-01

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  8. Copper ions strongly activate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway independent of the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, Elena A; Lordnejad, Mohammad Reza; Schliess, Freimut; Sies, Helmut; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2002-01-15

    Copper is implicated in metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of signaling pathways regulating cellular survival and function in response to a copper stress is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of such diseases. Exposure of human skin fibroblasts or HeLa cells to Cu(2+) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent activation of the antiapoptotic kinase Akt/protein kinase B, starting at concentrations as low as 3 microM. Only Cu(II), but not Cu(I), had this effect. Activation of Akt was accompanied by phosphorylation of a downstream target of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) completely blocked activation of Akt by Cu(2+), indicating a requirement of PI3K for Cu(2+)-induced activation of Akt. Indeed, cellular PI3K activity was strongly enhanced after exposure to Cu(2+). Copper ions may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide. Activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide or growth factors is known to proceed via the activation growth factor receptors. In line with this, pretreatment with inhibitors of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases blocked activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide and growth factors, as did a src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor or the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Activation of Akt by Cu(2+), however, remained unimpaired, implying (i) that tyrosine kinase activation is not involved in Cu(2+) activation of Akt and (ii) that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by Cu(2+) is initiated independently of that induced by reactive oxygen species. Comparison of the time course of the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein in copper-treated cells with that of Akt activation led to the conclusion that production of hydroperoxides cannot be an upstream event in copper-induced Akt activation. Rather, both activation of Akt and generation of ROS are proposed to occur in parallel, regulating cell survival after a

  9. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  10. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide induce cognitive dysfunction and activate the ERK and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Bagnall, Ciara; Frias, Leslie; Abdali, Syed A; Ahles, Tim A; Hubbard, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy is associated with long-term cognitive deficits in breast cancer survivors. Studies suggest that these impairments result in the loss of cognitive reserve and/or induce a premature aging of the brain. This study has been aimed to determine the potential underlying mechanisms that induce cognitive impairments by chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in breast cancer. Intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were treated intravenously with either saline or a combination of cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg) and doxorubicin (4 mg/kg). All subjects were tested for anxiety, locomotor activity, working, visual and spatial memory consecutively. Although anxiety and visual memory were not affected, chemotherapy significantly decreased locomotor activity and impaired working and spatial memory in female rats, independent of their hormonal status. The cognitive deficits observed are hippocampal dependent. Therefore, as a first step to identity the potential signaling pathways involved in this cognitive dysfunction, the protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), Akt (neuroprotectant) BDNF and (structural protein) PSD95 in hippocampal lysates were measured. Erk1/2 and Akt pathways are known to modulate synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival, aging and cancer. We found an increased activation of Erk1/2 and Akt as well as an increase in the protein levels of PSD95 in OVX female rodents. However, OVX females had a higher overall BDNF level, independent of chemotherapy. These studies provide additional evidence that commonly used chemotherapeutic agents affect cognitive function and impact synaptic plasticity/aging molecules which may be part of the underlying biology explaining cognitive change and can be potential therapeutic targets.

  11. Withaferin A inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hyung; Lim, In-Hye; Sung, Eon-Gi; Kim, Joo-Young; Song, In-Hwan; Park, Yoon Ki; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Withaferin A (Wit A), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, exhibits anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic properties and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wit A on protease-mediated invasiveness of the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in marked inhibition of the TGF‑β‑induced increase in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 in Caski cell line. These effects of Wit A were dose-dependent and showed a correlation with suppression of MMP‑9 mRNA expression levels. Treatment with Wit A resulted in an ~1.6-fold induction of MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in inhibition of TGF‑β‑induced phosphorylation of Akt, which was involved in the downregulation of expression of MMP-9 at the protein level. Introduction with constitutively active (CA)‑Akt resulted in a partial increase in the secretion of TGF-β-induced MMP-9 blocked by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. According to these results, Wit A may inhibit the invasive and migratory abilities of Caski cells through a reduction in MMP-9 expression through suppression of the pAkt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that use of Wit A may be an effective strategy for control of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors.

  12. Pemetrexed Induces S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis via a Deregulated Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wu, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Hung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed is approved for first-line and maintenance treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The protein kinase Akt/protein kinase B is a well-known regulator of cell survival which is activated by pemetrexed, but its role in pemetrexed-mediated cell death and its molecular mechanisms are unclear. This study showed that stimulation with pemetrexed induced S-phase arrest and cell apoptosis and a parallel increase in sustained Akt phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation in the NSCLC A549 cell line. Inhibition of Akt expression by Akt specific siRNA blocked S-phase arrest and protected cells from apoptosis, indicating an unexpected proapoptotic role of Akt in the pemetrexed-mediated toxicity. Treatment of A549 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin and Ly294002, similarly inhibited pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis and Akt phosphorylation, indicating that PI3K is an upstream mediator of Akt and is involved in pemetrexed-mediated cell death. Previously, we identified cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) as the principal kinase that was required for pemetrexed-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis. The current study showed that inhibition of Akt function and expression by pharmacological inhibitors as well as Akt siRNA drastically inhibited cyclin A/Cdk2 activation. These pemetrexed-mediated biological and molecular events were also observed in a H1299 cell line. Overall, our results indicate that, in contrast to its normal prosurvival role, the activated Akt plays a proapoptotic role in pemetrexed-mediated S-phase arrest and cell death through a mechanism that involves Cdk2/cyclin A activation. PMID:24847863

  13. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jia-Shiuan; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins. PMID:26751215

  14. CHIP promotes thyroid cancer proliferation via activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Lianyong; He, Xiaohua; Shen, Yunling; Liu, Xuerong; Wei, Jing; Yu, Fang; Tian, Jianqing

    2016-08-26

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U box-type ubiquitin ligase that plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including tumor progression. To date, the functional mechanism of CHIP in thyroid cancer remains unknown. Here, we obtained evidence of upregulation of CHIP in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. CHIP overexpression markedly enhanced thyroid cancer cell viability and colony formation in vitro and accelerated tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, CHIP knockdown impaired cell proliferation and tumor growth. Notably, CHIP promoted cell growth through activation of MAPK and AKT pathways, subsequently decreasing p27 and increasing cyclin D1 and p-FOXO3a expression. Our findings collectively indicate that CHIP functions as an oncogene in thyroid cancer, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for this disease.

  15. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  16. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  17. Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, You-Ling; Li, Heng-Chang; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Hui-Hua; Huang, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Hang; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition by triciribine on cell injury following bupivacaine and curcumin treatment. Our findings showed that the bupivacaine treatment could induce neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of the SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin significantly attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, the curcumin treatment increased the levels of Akt phosphorylation. More significantly, the pharmacological inhibition of Akt abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against bupivacaine-induced cell injury. Our data suggest that pretreating SH-SY5Y cells with curcumin provides a protective effect on bupivacaine-induced neuronal injury via activation of the Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Co-activation of AKT and c-Met triggers rapid hepatocellular carcinoma development via the mTORC1/FASN pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junjie; Che, Li; Li, Lei; Pilo, Maria G.; Cigliano, Antonio; Ribback, Silvia; Li, Xiaolei; Latte, Gavinella; Mela, Marta; Evert, Matthias; Dombrowski, Frank; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Xin; Calvisi, Diego F.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the AKT/mTOR cascade and overexpression of c-Met have been implicated in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To elucidate the functional crosstalk between the two pathways, we generated a model characterized by the combined expression of activated AKT and c-Met in the mouse liver. Co-expression of AKT and c-Met triggered rapid liver tumor development and mice required to be euthanized within 8 weeks after hydrodynamic injection. At the molecular level, liver tumors induced by AKT/c-Met display activation of AKT/mTOR and Ras/MAPK cascades as well as increased lipogenesis and glycolysis. Since a remarkable lipogenic phenotype characterizes liver lesions from AKT/c-Met mice, we determined the requirement of lipogenesis in AKT/c-Met driven hepatocarcinogenesis using conditional Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) knockout mice. Of note, hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AKT/c-Met was fully inhibited by FASN ablation. In human HCC samples, coordinated expression of FASN, activated AKT, and c-Met proteins was detected in a subgroup of biologically aggressive tumors. Altogether, our study demonstrates that co-activation of AKT and c-Met induces HCC development that depends on the mTORC1/FASN pathway. Suppression of mTORC1 and/or FASN might be highly detrimental for the growth of human HCC subsets characterized by concomitant induction of the AKT and c-Met cascades. PMID:26857837

  19. Intestinal trefoil factor activates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to protect gastric mucosal epithelium from damage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Yang, Zhizhou; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Yi; Sun, Baodi; Lin, Jinfeng; Xu, Min; Nie, Shinan

    2014-09-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF, also named as trefoil factor 3, TFF3) is a member of the TFF-domain peptide family, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival, cell migration and maintains mucosal epithelial integrity in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the underlying mechanisms and associated molecules remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ITF on gastric mucosal epithelium injury and its possible molecular mechanisms of action. In the present study, we show that ITF was able to promote the proliferation and migration of GES-1 cells via a mechanism that involves the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Western blot results indicated that ITF induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in the Akt signaling pathway. ITF also plays an essential role in the restitution of GES-1 cell damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced the apoptosis of GES-1 cells, decreased cell viability significantly (P<0.01) and led to epithelial tight junction damage, which is attenuated via ITF treatment. The protective effect of ITF on the integrity of GES-1 was abrogated by inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ITF promotes the proliferation and migration of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and preserves gastric mucosal epithelial integrity after damage is mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway could act as a key intracellular pathway in the gastric mucosal epithelium that may serve as a therapeutic target to preserve epithelial integrity during injury.

  20. Comparative analysis of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation and inhibition in human and canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fowles, J S; Denton, C L; Gustafson, D L

    2015-09-01

    The lack of advanced animal models of human cancers is considered a barrier to developing effective therapeutics. Canine and human melanomas are histologically disparate but show similar disease progression and response to therapies. The purpose of these studies was to compare human and canine melanoma tumours and cell lines regarding MAPK and PI3K/AKT signalling dysregulation, and response to select molecularly targeted agents. Pathway activation was investigated via microarray and mutational analysis. Growth inhibition and cell cycle effects were assessed for pathway inhibitors AZD6244 (MAPK) and rapamycin (PI3K/AKT) in human and canine melanoma cells. Human and canine melanoma share similar differential gene expression patterns within the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Constitutive pathway activation and similar sensitivity to AZD6244 and rapamycin was observed in human and canine cells. These results show that human and canine melanoma share activation and sensitivity to inhibition of cancer-related signalling pathways despite differences in activating mutations. PMID:23745794

  1. Juglanthraquinone C Induces Intracellular ROS Increase and Apoptosis by Activating the Akt/Foxo Signal Pathway in HCC Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone extracted from Juglans mandshurica, could induce apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the detailed cytotoxicity mechanism of JC in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. The Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were first used to analyze the mRNA expression exposed to JC or DMSO in HepG2 cells. Consistent with the previous results, the data indicated that JC could induce apoptosis and hyperactivated Akt. The Western blot analysis further revealed that Akt, a well-known survival protein, was strongly activated in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, an obvious inhibitory effect on JC-induced apoptosis was observed when the Akt levels were decreased, while the overexpression of constitutively active mutant Akt greatly accelerated JC-induced apoptosis. The subsequent results suggested that JC treatment suppressed nuclear localization and increased phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a, and the overexpression of Foxo3a abrogated JC-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, the inactivation of Foxo3a induced by JC further led to an increase of intracellular ROS levels by suppressing ROS scavenging enzymes, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase successfully decreased JC-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that JC induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating Akt/Foxo signaling pathway and increasing intracellular ROS levels. PMID:26682007

  2. AG and UAG induce β-casein expression via activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sunan; Liu, Juxiong; Lv, Qingkang; Zhang, Chuan; Xu, Shiyao; Yang, Dongxue; Huang, Bingxu; Zeng, Yalong; Gao, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ghrelin peptides were found to circulate in two major forms: acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Previous studies showed that AG regulates β-casein (CSN2) expression in mammary epithelial cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which AG regulates CSN2 gene and protein expression. Evidence suggests that UAG has biological activity through GHSR1a-independent mechanisms. Here, we investigated the possible GHSR1a-mediated effect of UAG on the expression of CSN2 in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMECs) isolated from lactating cow. We found that both AG and UAG increase the expression of CSN2 in a dose-dependent manner in pbMECs in comparison with the control group. Increased expression of CSN2 was blocked by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (an antagonist of the GHSR1a) and NF449 (a Gs-α subunit inhibitor) in pbMECs. In addition, both AG and UAG activated AKT/protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, whereas [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and NF449 inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in pbMECs respectively. Blockade of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways prevented the expression of CSN2 induced by AG or UAG. Finally, we found that both AG and UAG cause cell proliferation through identical signaling pathways. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both AG and UAG act on ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways to facilitate the expression of CSN2 in a GHSR1a-dependent manner. PMID:26873999

  3. Treadmill exercise reduces spinal cord injury-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Dae-Young; Yune, Tae Young; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2014-03-01

    Apoptosis occurring secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) causes further neural damage and functional loss. In this study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on SCI-induced apoptosis and expression of neurotrophic factors. To produce SCI, a contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) was applied subsequent to laminectomy at the T9-T10 level. Following SCI, treadmill exercise was performed for six weeks. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated with a grid-walking test. The expression of neurotrophic factors and the level of apoptosis at the site of SCI were determined by western blotting. SCI reduced hindlimb motor function and suppressed expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to Akt (pAkt/Akt) and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bax (Bcl-2/Bax) were decreased, and cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased by SCI. Treadmill exercise enhanced hindlimb motor function and increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise increased PI3K expression, the pAkt/Akt and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression in the injured spinal cord. This study demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes the recovery of motor function by suppressing apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. The beneficial effect of exercise may be attributed to the increase in expression of neurotrophic factors via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  4. Computational Model of Gab1/2-Dependent VEGFR2 Pathway to Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan Hua; Popel, Aleksander S.; Mac Gabhann, Feilim

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal transduction is central to angiogenesis in development and in pathological conditions such as cancer, retinopathy and ischemic diseases. However, no detailed mass-action models of VEGF receptor signaling have been developed. We constructed and validated the first computational model of VEGFR2 trafficking and signaling, to study the opposing roles of Gab1 and Gab2 in regulation of Akt phosphorylation in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. Trafficking parameters were optimized against 5 previously published in vitro experiments, and the model was validated against six independent published datasets. The model showed agreement at several key nodes, involving scaffolding proteins Gab1, Gab2 and their complexes with Shp2. VEGFR2 recruitment of Gab1 is greater in magnitude, slower, and more sustained than that of Gab2. As Gab2 binds VEGFR2 complexes more transiently than Gab1, VEGFR2 complexes can recycle and continue to participate in other signaling pathways. Correspondingly, the simulation results show a log-linear relationship between a decrease in Akt phosphorylation and Gab1 knockdown while a linear relationship was observed between an increase in Akt phosphorylation and Gab2 knockdown. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated the importance of initial-concentration ratios of antagonistic molecular species (Gab1/Gab2 and PI3K/Shp2) in determining Akt phosphorylation profiles. It also showed that kinetic parameters responsible for transient Gab2 binding affect the system at specific nodes. This model can be expanded to study multiple signaling contexts and receptor crosstalk and can form a basis for investigation of therapeutic approaches, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), overexpression of key signaling proteins or knockdown experiments. PMID:23805312

  5. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway correlates with prognosis in stage II colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malinowsky, K; Nitsche, U; Janssen, K-P; Bader, F G; Späth, C; Drecoll, E; Keller, G; Höfler, H; Slotta-Huspenina, J; Becker, K-F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with UICC/AJCC stage II colon cancer have a high 5-year overall survival rate after surgery. Nevertheless, a significant subgroup of patients develops tumour recurrence. Currently, there are no clinically established biomarkers available to identify this patient group. We applied reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) for phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase pathway activation mapping to stratify patients according to their risk of tumour recurrence after surgery. Methods: Full-length proteins were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 118 patients who underwent curative resection. RPPA technology was used to analyse expression and/or phosphorylation levels of six major factors of the phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase pathway. Oncogenic mutations of KRAS and BRAF, and DNA microsatellite status, currently discussed as prognostic markers, were analysed in parallel. Results: Expression of phospho-AKT (HR=3.52; P=0.032), S6RP (HR=6.3; P=0.044), and phospho-4E-BP1 (HR=4.12; P=0.011) were prognostic factors for disease-free survival. None of the molecular genetic alterations were significantly associated with prognosis. Conclusions: Our data indicate that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway evidenced on the protein level might be a valuable prognostic marker to stratify patients for their risk of tumour recurrence. Beside adjuvant chemotherapy targeting of upregulated PI3K/AKT signalling may be an attractive strategy for treatment of high-risk patients. PMID:24619078

  6. TIMP-2 Interaction with MT1-MMP Activates the AKT Pathway and Protects Tumor Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Valacca, Cristina; Tassone, Evelyne; Mignatti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a transmembrane proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain and a short cytoplasmic tail, degrades a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In addition, MT1-MMP activates intracellular signaling through proteolysis-dependent and independent mechanisms. We have previously shown that binding of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) to MT1-MMP controls cell proliferation and migration, as well as tumor growth in vivo by activating the Ras—extracellular signal regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) pathway through a mechanism that requires the cytoplasmic but not the proteolytic domain of MT1-MMP. Here we show that in MT1-MMP expressing cells TIMP-2 also induces rapid and sustained activation of AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner and by a mechanism independent of the proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 mediates TIMP-2 induction of ERK1/2 but not of AKT activation; however, Ras activation is necessary to transduce the TIMP-2-activated signal to both the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. ERK1/2 and AKT activation by TIMP-2 binding to MT1-MMP protects tumor cells from apoptosis induced by serum starvation. Conversely, TIMP-2 upregulates apoptosis induced by three-dimensional type I collagen in epithelial cancer cells. Thus, TIMP-2 interaction with MT1-MMP provides tumor cells with either pro- or anti-apoptotic signaling depending on the extracellular environment and apoptotic stimulus. PMID:26331622

  7. Activation of Akt by lithium: pro-survival pathways in aging.

    PubMed

    Tajes, Marta; Yeste-Velasco, Marc; Zhu, Xiongwei; Chou, Steven P; Smith, Mark A; Pallàs, Mercè; Camins, Antoni; Casadesús, Gemma

    2009-04-01

    The effects of lithium on senescence were investigated using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and cultures of aging cerebellar granule cells. Our in vitro findings, using cerebellar granule neurons, demonstrate that lithium (1-10mM) exerts neuroprotective effects in young cultures (7-8 days) against LY294002-induced Akt inhibition. Furthermore, lithium (10mM) inhibits GSK-3beta activity by upregulating p-GSK-3beta (ser-9) and increases p-FOXO1 (Ser256) suggesting an effective anti-apoptotic effect. Our data also showed that lithium in aged cultures exerts anti-apoptotic effects via Akt activation and consequent inhibition of downstream targets regulated by this enzyme. Finally, the administration of lithium to senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) and senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR1) at 3 months of age also caused increased Akt activity and p-FoxO-1. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of lithium in preventing age-related neural loss and the potential therapeutic applications of lithium in treatment/prevention of neurological disease.

  8. PI3K/Akt is involved in brown adipogenesis mediated by growth differentiation factor-5 in association with activation of the Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takumi; Odaka, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Akt is preferentially phosphorylated in BAT and sWAT of aP2-GDF5 mice. • PI3K/Akt signaling is involved in GDF5-induced brown adipogenesis. • PI3K/Akt signaling regulates GDF5-induced Smad5 phosphorylation. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated promotion by growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) of brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure through a mechanism relevant to activating the bone morphological protein (BMP) receptor/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Here, we show the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in brown adipogenesis mediated by GDF5. Overexpression of GDF5 in cells expressing adipocyte protein-2 markedly accelerated the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt in white and brown adipose tissues. In brown adipose tissue from heterozygous GDF5{sup Rgsc451} mutant mice expressing a dominant-negative (DN) GDF5 under obesogenic conditions, the basal phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Akt was significantly attenuated. Exposure to GDF5 not only promoted the phosphorylation of both Smad1/5/8 and Akt in cultured brown pre-adipocytes, but also up-regulated Pgc1a and uncoupling protein-1 expression in a manner sensitive to the PI3K/Akt inhibitor Ly294002 as well as retroviral infection with DN-Akt. GDF5 drastically promoted BMP-responsive luciferase reporter activity in a Ly294002-sensitive fashion. Both Ly294002 and DN-Akt markedly inhibited phosphorylation of Smad5 in the nuclei of brown pre-adipocytes. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt signals play a role in the GDF5-mediated brown adipogenesis through a mechanism related to activation of the Smad pathway.

  9. Vorinostat Enhances Cytotoxicity of SN-38 and Temozolomide in Ewing Sarcoma Cells and Activates STAT3/AKT/MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Valerie B.; Vetter, Nancy S.; Kamara, Davida F.; Collier, Anderson B.; Gresh, Renee C.; Kolb, E. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) but demonstrated limited activity. To better understand the potential for HDACi in EWS, we evaluated the combination of the HDACi vorinostat, with DNA damaging agents SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan and topoisomerase 1 inhibitor) plus the alkylating agent temozolomide (ST). Drugs were evaluated in sequential and simultaneous combinations in two EWS cell lines. Results demonstrate that cell viability, DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are dependent on the sequence of drug administration. Enhanced cytotoxicity is exhibited in vitro in EWS cell lines treated with ST administered before vorinostat, which was modestly higher than concomitant treatment and superior to vorinostat administered before ST. Drug combinations downregulate cyclin D1 to induce G0/G1 arrest and promote apoptosis by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. When ST is administered before or concomitantly with vorinostat there is activation of STAT3, MAPK and the p53 pathway. In contrast, when vorinostat is administered before ST, there is DNA repair, increased AKT phosphorylation and reduced H2B acetylation. Inhibition of AKT using the small molecule inhibitor MK-2206 did not restore H2B acetylation. Combining ST with the dual ALK and IGF-1R inhibitor, AZD3463 simultaneously inhibited STAT3 and AKT to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ST and further reduce cell growth suggesting that STAT3 and AKT activation were in part mediated by ALK and IGF-1R signaling. In summary, potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity were demonstrated for ST induced DNA damage before or simultaneous with HDAC inhibition and cell death was mediated through the p53 pathway. These observations may aid in designing new protocols for treating pediatric patients with high-risk EWS. PMID:26571493

  10. Anthocyanins protected hearts against ischemic injury by reducing MMP-2 activity via Akt/P38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jie; Du, Hong; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Fan; Lu, Jingchao; Yang, Xiuchun; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidences suggest that there are close associations between anthocyanins and cardiac protection. However, little is known about the detailed roles of anthocyanins in regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Incubation of primary cultured fibroblasts with anthocyanins reduced both intracellular collagen expression and extracellular collagen secretion. Down-regulation of collagen production was also shown in infarcted cardiac tissues after permanent coronary artery ligation in mice treated with anthocyanins. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and/or P-38 were significantly increased by anthocyanins supplementation in primary cultured fibroblasts. Gelatin zymography analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity in conditioned medium collected from fibroblasts demonstrated that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced MMP-2 activity. These results demonstrated that anthocyanins play a role in mediating myocardial ECM remodeling and that the Akt/P-38 pathways mediate these protective effects on hearts. PMID:27158396

  11. Krüppel-like factor 14 increases insulin sensitivity through activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ren, Yan; Lin, Zhimin; Tang, Chenchen; Jia, Yanjun; Lai, Yerui; Zhou, Tingting; Wu, Shaobo; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that Krüppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no report has demonstrated a relationship between KLF14 and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLF14 is associated with glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in vitro. The mRNA and protein expressions of KLF14 were determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting. Glucose uptake was assessed by 2-[(3)H]-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. Western blotting was used to identify the activation of insulin signaling proteins. KLF14 mRNA and protein in fat and muscle were significantly decreased in HFD-fed mice, db/db mice and T2DM patients. Overexpression of KLF14 enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the activation of Akt kinase in Hepa1-6 cells. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor (InsR), insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Akt also elevated significantly by up-regulation of KLF14. KLF14 overexpression in Hepa1-6 cells prevented the inhibition of glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation induced by high glucose and/or high insulin, or T2DM serum. However, KLF14's ability to increase glucose uptake and Akt activation was significantly attenuated by LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor. These data suggested that KLF14 could increase insulin sensitivity probably through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:26226221

  12. Novel pathway in Bcr-Abl signal transduction involves Akt-independent, PLC-gamma1-driven activation of mTOR/p70S6-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Markova, B; Albers, C; Breitenbuecher, F; Melo, J V; Brümmendorf, T H; Heidel, F; Lipka, D; Duyster, J; Huber, C; Fischer, T

    2010-02-01

    In chronic myeloid leukemia, activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is crucial for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells. Essential downstream molecules involve mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6-kinase. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the molecular events involved in activation of these key signaling pathways. We provide evidence for a previously unrecognized phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1)-controlled mechanism of mTOR/p70S6-kinase activation, which operates in parallel to the classical Akt-dependent machinery. Short-term imatinib treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive cells caused dephosphorylation of p70S6-K and S6-protein without inactivation of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity alone did not affect phosphorylation of p70-S6K and S6. These results suggested the existence of an alternative mechanism for mTOR/p70S6-K activation. In Bcr-Abl-expressing cells, we detected strong PLC-gamma1 activation, which was suppressed by imatinib. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown of PLC-gamma1 blocked p70S6-K and S6 phosphorylation. By inhibiting the Ca-signaling, CaMK and PKCs we demonstrated participation of these molecules in the pathway. Suppression of PLC-gamma1 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. The novel pathway proved to be essential for survival and proliferation of leukemic cells and almost complete cell death was observed upon combined PLC-gamma1 and Bcr-Abl inhibition. The pivotal role of PLC-gamma1 was further confirmed in a mouse leukemogenesis model.

  13. Foxc2 enhances proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through activating Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway in mouse preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Jin, Wei; Zhou, Zhongjie; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box C2 (Foxc2) protein is a transcription factor in regulation of development, metabolism, and immunology. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Foxc2 on proliferation and apoptosis of preadipocytes are unclear. In this study, we found that high-fat-diet-induced obesity elevated the expression of Foxc2 and cyclin E after 6 weeks. Additionally, Foxc2 suppressed preadipocyte differentiation, increased cell counts and augmented G1-S transition of preadipocytes, along with the elevation of cyclin E expression and the reduction levels of p27 and p53. Furthermore, Foxc2 knockdown reduced early apoptotic cells with accompanying reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased fragmentation of genomic DNA. We show that Foxc2 reduces the expression of Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 in both serum-starved and palmitic acid-induced cell apoptotic models, which confirms the anti-apoptotic role of Foxc2. Moreover, the protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1 signaling pathway and the ERK/mTORC1 signaling pathway were activated along with preadipocyte proliferation in response to Foxc2 overexpression, whereas apoptosis marker genes were downregulated during this process. Those effects were blocked by the interference of Foxc2 or signal pathways specific inhibitors. These data collectively reveal that Foxc2 enhances proliferation of preadipocytes and inhibits apoptosis of preadipocytes by activating the Akt/mTORC1 and ERK/mTORC1 signaling pathways. PMID:26113535

  14. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  15. Xenon-delayed postconditioning attenuates spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation AKT and ERK signaling pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyao; Yang, Yanwei; Jin, Mu; Hou, Siyu; Dong, Xiuhua; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-09-15

    Previous studies have shown that xenon-delayed postconditioning for up to 2h after reperfusion provides protection against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. This study was designed to determine the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in this neuroprotection. The rats were randomly assigned to the following nine groups (n=16∗9): 1) I/R+N2 group, 2) I/R+Xe group, 3) I/R+PD98059+N2 group (ERK blocking agent), 4) I/R+wortmannin+N2 group (PI3K-Akt blocking agent), 5) I/R+PD98059+Xe group, 6) I/R+wortmannin+Xe group, 7) I/R+DMSO+Xe group (dimethyl sulfoxide, vehicle control), 8) I/R+DMSO+N2 group, and 9) sham group (no spinal cord ischemia and no xenon). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 25min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open-field locomotor scale at 6, 12, 24 and 48h after reperfusion. Histological examination of the lumbar spinal cord was performed using Nissl staining and TUNEL staining at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8)h after reperfusion. Western blotting was performed to evaluate p-Akt and p-ERK expression in the spinal cord at 4 (n=8) and 48 (n=8) h after reperfusion. Compared with the sham group, all rats in the I/R groups had lower BBB scores, fewer normal motor neurons, more apoptotic neurons and lower p-Akt and p-ERK levels at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R group, rats in the I/R+Xe group had higher neurological scores, more normal motor neurons, fewer apoptotic neurons and significantly higher levels of p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+Xe group, the I/R+PD98059+Xe and I/R+wortmannin+Xe groups showed worse neurological outcomes and less p-Akt and p-ERK at each time point (P<0.05). These results suggest that xenon-delayed postconditioning improves neurological outcomes to spinal cord I/R injury in rats through the activation of the AKT and ERK signaling

  16. Short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from damage via corticosterone-mediated activation of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Forkwa, Tembei K; Neumann, Inga D; Tamm, Ernst R; Ohlmann, Andreas; Reber, Stefan O

    2014-02-01

    Apoptotic death of photoreceptors in hereditary retinal degenerations can be prevented by neuroprotective molecules. Here, we report that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) released during psychosocial stress protect photoreceptors from apoptosis after light damage. Psychosocial stress is known to be the main type of stressor humans are exposed to and was induced here in mice by 10h of chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC). Photoreceptor damage was generated by subsequent exposure to white light. Short-term psychosocial stress prior to illumination significantly reduced the number of apoptotic photoreceptors, an effect that was absent in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. The neuroprotective effect was completely restored in ADX mice substituted with GC. Moreover, phosphorylation of retinal AKT increased following CSC or exogenous GC treatment, an effect that was again absent in ADX mice exposed to CSC. Finally, inhibition of AKT signaling with triciribine blocked the stress- and GC-mediated neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors. In summary, we provide evidence that 1) short-term psychosocial stress protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage and 2) the protective effect is most likely mediated by GC-induced activation of the AKT signaling pathway.

  17. Renal cortical hexokinase and pentose phosphate pathway activation through the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway in endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua A; Stallons, L Jay; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2014-08-15

    While disruption of energy production is an important contributor to renal injury, metabolic alterations in sepsis-induced AKI remain understudied. We assessed changes in renal cortical glycolytic metabolism in a mouse model of sepsis-induced AKI. A specific and rapid increase in hexokinase (HK) activity (∼2-fold) was observed 3 h after LPS exposure and maintained up to 18 h, in association with a decline in renal function as measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN). LPS-induced HK activation occurred independently of HK isoform expression or mitochondrial localization. No other changes in glycolytic enzymes were observed. LPS-mediated HK activation was not sufficient to increase glycolytic flux as indicated by reduced or unchanged pyruvate and lactate levels in the renal cortex. LPS-induced HK activation was associated with increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity but not glycogen production. Mechanistically, LPS-induced HK activation was attenuated by pharmacological inhibitors of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and Akt, indicating that EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling is responsible. Our findings reveal LPS rapidly increases renal cortical HK activity in an EGFR- and Akt-dependent manner and that HK activation is linked to increased pentose phosphate pathway activity.

  18. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2-associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms.

  19. Cell Type-Specific Activation of AKT and ERK Signaling Pathways by Small Negatively-Charged Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Jens; Kolch, Walter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with living organisms has become a focus of public and scientific debate due to their potential wide applications in biomedicine, but also because of unwanted side effects. Here, we show that superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with different surface coatings can differentially affect signal transduction pathways. Using isogenic pairs of breast and colon derived cell lines we found that the stimulation of ERK and AKT signaling pathways by SPIONs is selectively dependent on the cell type and SPION type. In general, cells with Ras mutations respond better than their non-mutant counterparts. Small negatively charged SPIONs (snSPIONs) activated ERK to a similar extent as epidermal growth factor (EGF), and used the same upstream signaling components including activation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, snSPIONs stimulated the proliferation of Ras transformed breast epithelial cells as efficiently as EGF suggesting that NPs can mimic physiological growth factors.

  20. Gardenamide A Protects RGC-5 Cells from H₂O₂-Induced Oxidative Stress Insults by Activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rikang; Peng, Lizhi; Zhao, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Laitao; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Wenhua; Chen, Heru

    2015-01-01

    Gardenamide A (GA) protects the rat retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells against cell apoptosis induced by H₂O₂. The protective effect of GA was completely abrogated by the specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, and the specific protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor Akt VIII respectively, indicating that the protective mechanism of GA is mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 could not block the neuroprotection of GA. GA attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by H₂O₂. Western blotting showed that GA promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), respectively, and effectively reversed the H₂O₂-inhibited phosphorylation of these three proteins. LY294002 completely inhibited the GA-activated phosphorylation of Akt, while only partially inhibiting eNOS. This evidence implies that eNOS may be activated directly by GA. PD98059 attenuated only partially the GA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 with/without the presence of H₂O₂, indicating that GA may activate ERK1/2 directly. All these results put together confirm that GA protects RGC-5 cells from H₂O₂ insults via the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Whether the ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved requires further investigations.

  1. Myrcia bella Leaf Extract Presents Hypoglycemic Activity via PI3k/Akt Insulin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vareda, Priscilla Maria Ponce; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Camaforte, Nathalia Aparecida de Paula; Violato, Natalia Moretti; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Bosqueiro, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Species of Myrcia are used by indigenous people and in traditional communities in Brazil for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. We investigated the hypoglycemic effect of the extract of leaves of Myrcia bella in diabetic mice. The chemical fingerprinting of the 70% EtOH extract characterized as main constituents flavonoid aglycones, flavonoid-O-glycosides, and acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. Mice were treated with saline or extract of M. bella (300 or 600 mg/Kg b.w.) for 14 days. Body weight and water and food intake were measured every day. Fasting blood glucose was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment, blood insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and protein were measured. Glycogen content and expression of proteins of the insulin signaling pathway were measured in liver. The treatment with 600 mg/Kg reduced the fasting blood glucose in diabetic mice of the 7th day as water and food intake and increased hepatic glycogen. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced in diabetic treated mice. The treatment increased the expression of IRS-1, PI3-K, and AKT in the livers of diabetic treated mice. The results indicate that the extract of the leaves of Myrcia bella has hypoglycemic properties and possibly acts to regulate glucose uptake by the liver. PMID:24872834

  2. Urocortin 3 activates AMPK and AKT pathways and enhances glucose disposal in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, Manon M; Vaughan, Joan M; Jamieson, Pauline M; Cleasby, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle is an important component of both type 2 diabetes and the syndrome of sarcopaenic obesity, for which there are no effective therapies. Urocortins (UCNs) are not only well established as neuropeptides but also have their roles in metabolism in peripheral tissues. We have shown recently that global overexpression of UCN3 resulted in muscular hypertrophy and resistance to the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. Herein, we aimed to establish whether short-term local UCN3 expression could enhance glucose disposal and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. UCN3 was found to be expressed in right tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus muscles of rats by in vivo electrotransfer and the effects studied vs the contralateral muscles after 1 week. No increase in muscle mass was detected, but test muscles showed 19% larger muscle fibre diameter (P=0.030), associated with increased IGF1 and IGF1 receptor mRNA and increased SER256 phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor. Glucose clearance into the test muscles after an intraperitoneal glucose load was increased by 23% (P=0.018) per unit mass, associated with increased GLUT1 (34% increase; P=0.026) and GLUT4 (48% increase; P=0.0009) proteins, and significantly increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, AKT, AKT substrate of 160 kDa, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, AMP-activated protein kinase and its substrate acetyl coA carboxylase. Thus, UCN3 expression enhances glucose disposal and signalling in muscle by an autocrine/paracrine mechanism that is separate from its pro-hypertrophic effects, implying that such a manipulation may have promised for the treatment of IR syndromes including sarcopaenic obesity. PMID:25122003

  3. Niacin activates the PI3K/Akt cascade via PKC- and EGFR-transactivation-dependent pathways through hydroxyl-carboxylic acid receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huawang; Li, Guo; Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Qi; Yu, Yena; Shi, Ying; Offermanns, Stefan; Lu, Jianxin; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-01-01

    Niacin has been demonstrated to activate a PI3K/Akt signaling cascade to prevent brain damage after stroke and UV-induced skin damage; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms for HCA2-induced Akt activation remain to be elucidated. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HCA2 and A431 cells, a human epidermoid cell line with high levels of endogenous expression of functional HCA2 receptors, we first demonstrated that niacin induced a robust Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 in a time-dependent fashion, with a maximal activation at 5 min and a subsequent reduction to baseline by 30 min through HCA2, and that the activation was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. The HCA2-mediated activation of Akt was also significantly inhibited by the PKC inhibitors GF109203x and Go6983 in both cell lines, by the PDGFR-selective inhibitor tyrphostin A9 in CHO-HCA2 cells and by the MMP inhibitor GM6001 and EGFR-specific inhibitor AG1478 in A431 cells. These results suggest that the PKC pathway and PDGFR/EGFR transactivation pathway play important roles in HCA2-mediated Akt activation. Further investigation indicated that PI3K and the Gβγ subunit were likely to play an essential role in HCA2-induced Akt activation. Moreover, Immunobloting analyses using an antibody that recognizes p70S6K1 phosphorylated at Thr389 showed that niacin evoked p70S6K1 activation via the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of our study provide new insight into the signaling pathways involved in HCA2 activation.

  4. Imp2 regulates GBM progression by activating IGF2/PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Fengbo; Gao, Haijun; Lei, Ting; Li, Peiwen; Liu, Pengfei; Zheng, Xu; Hu, Xitong; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Zhenfeng; Sayari, Arash J; Shen, Jia; Huang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) are the most frequently occurring malignant brain cancers. Treatment for GBM consists of surgical resection and subsequent adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite this, GBM patient survival is limited to 12–15 months, and researchers are continually trying to develop improved therapy options. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (Imp2) is known to be upregulated in many cancers and is known to regulate the signaling activity of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). However, relatively little is known about its role in malignant development of GBM. In this study, we first found Imp2 is upregulated in GBM tissues by using clinical samples and public database search. Studies with loss and gain of Imp2 expression in in vitro GBM cell culture system demonstrated the role of Imp2 in promoting GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additionally, our results show that Imp2 regulates the activity of IGF2, which further activates PI3K/Akt signaling, thereby to promote GBM malignancy. Inhibition of Imp2 was also found to sensitize GBM to temozolomide treatment. These observations add to the current knowledge of GBM biology, and may prove useful in development of more effective GBM therapy. PMID:25719943

  5. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjiang; Yang, Jixin; Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao; Yang, Kedi

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  6. GGAP2/PIKE-A directly activates both the Akt and NF-κB pathways and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yi; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Rile; Ayala, Gustavo; Ittmann, Michael; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-01-01

    GGAP2/PIKE-A is a GTP-binding protein which can enhance Akt activity. Increased activation of the AKT and NF-κB pathways have been identified as critical steps in cancer initiation and progression in a variety of human cancers. We have found significantly increased expression GGAP2 in the majority of human prostate cancers and GGAP2 expression increases Akt activation in prostate cancer cells. Thus increased GGAP2 expression is a common mechanism for enhancing the activity of the Akt pathway in prostate cancers. In addition, we have found that activated Akt can bind and phosphorylate GGAP2 at serine 629, which enhances GTP binding by GGAP2. Phosphorylated GGAP2 can bind the p50 subunit of NF-κB and enhances NF-κB transcriptional activity. When expressed in prostate cancer cells, GGAP2 enhances proliferation, foci formation and tumor progression in vivo. Thus increased GGAP2 expression, which is present in three quarters of human prostate cancers, can activate two critical pathways that have been linked to prostate cancer initiation and progression. PMID:19176382

  7. Apelin-36, a potent peptide, protects against ischemic brain injury by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhai, Lijing; Feng, Xing; Chen, Jing; Miao, Zhigang; Ren, Liyan; Qian, Xuanchen; Yu, Jian; Li, Yan; Xu, Xingshun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor-apelin and angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ). The biological effects of apelin-APJ system are reported in multiple systems including cardiovascular, endocrinal, and gastrointestinal system. Previous studies had shown that apelin-13 is a potential protective agent on cardiac ischemia; however, the role of apelin in the central nervous system remained unknown. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of apelin-36, a long form of apelin, in ischemic brain injury models. We found that apelin-36 reduced cerebral infarct volume in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and the neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) injury model. Apelin-36 improved neurological deficits in the MCAO model and promoted long-term functional recovery after H/I brain injury. We further explored the protective mechanisms of apelin-36 on H/I brain injury. We clearly demonstrated that apelin-36 significantly reduced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, two well-established apoptotic markers after H/I injury, indicating the anti-apoptotic activity of apelin-36 in ischemic injury. Since apelin-36 increased the level of phosphorylated Akt after H/I injury, we treated neonates with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002. We found that LY294002 decreased the phosphorylated Akt level and attenuated protective effects of apelin-36 on apoptosis. These suggested that the PI3K/Akt pathway was at least in part involved in the anti-apoptotic mechanisms of apelin-36. Our findings demonstrated that apelin-36 was a promising therapeutic agent on the treatment of ischemic brain injury.

  8. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A.; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  9. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Céu; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  10. Abnormal Protein Glycosylation and Activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway: Role in Bladder Cancer Prognosis and Targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Céu; Pereira, Sofia; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Diogo; Neves, Manuel; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Tavares, Ana; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Cruz, Ricardo; Amaro, Teresina; Oliveira, Paula A; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Santos, Lúcio L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stage ≥T2) is generally associated with poor prognosis, constituting the second most common cause of death among genitourinary tumours. Due to high molecular heterogeneity significant variations in the natural history and disease outcome have been observed. This has also delayed the introduction of personalized therapeutics, making advanced stage bladder cancer almost an orphan disease in terms of treatment. Altered protein glycosylation translated by the expression of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) and its precursor Tn as well as the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are cancer-associated events that may hold potential for patient stratification and guided therapy. Therefore, a retrospective design, 96 bladder tumours of different stages (Ta, T1-T4) was screened for STn and phosphorylated forms of Akt (pAkt), mTOR (pmTOR), S6 (pS6) and PTEN, related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In our series the expression of Tn was residual and was not linked to stage or outcome, while STn was statically higher in MIBC when compared to non-muscle invasive tumours (p = 0.001) and associated decreased cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.024). Conversely, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway intermediates showed an equal distribution between non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and MIBC and did not associate with cancer-specif survival (CSS) in any of these groups. However, the overexpression of pAKT, pmTOR and/or pS6 allowed discriminating STn-positive advanced stage bladder tumours facing worst CSS (p = 0.027). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that overexpression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins in STn+ MIBC was independently associated with approximately 6-fold risk of death by cancer (p = 0.039). Mice bearing advanced stage chemically-induced bladder tumours mimicking the histological and molecular nature of human tumours were then administrated with mTOR-pathway inhibitor sirolimus (rapamycin

  11. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  12. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  13. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  14. AKT Pathway Genes Define 5 Prognostic Subgroups in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Ivan; Reiser, Mark; Misra, Anjan; Shapiro, William R.; Mills, Gordon B.; Kim, Seungchan; Feuerstein, Burt G.

    2014-01-01

    Activity of GFR/PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors in glioblastoma clinical trials has not been robust. We hypothesized variations in the pathway between tumors contribute to poor response. We clustered GBM based on AKT pathway genes and discovered new subtypes then characterized their clinical and molecular features. There are at least 5 GBM AKT subtypes having distinct DNA copy number alterations, enrichment in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and patterns of expression for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling components. Gene Ontology terms indicate a different cell of origin or dominant phenotype for each subgroup. Evidence suggests one subtype is very sensitive to BCNU or CCNU (median survival 5.8 vs. 1.5 years; BCNU/CCNU vs other treatments; respectively). AKT subtyping advances previous approaches by revealing additional subgroups with unique clinical and molecular features. Evidence indicates it is a predictive marker for response to BCNU or CCNU and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors. We anticipate Akt subtyping may help stratify patients for clinical trials and augment discovery of class-specific therapeutic targets. PMID:24984002

  15. Loss of Mel-18 induces tumor angiogenesis through enhancing the activity and expression of HIF-1α mediated by the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Lee, J Y; Shin, D H; Jang, K S; Kim, H J; Kong, Gu

    2011-11-10

    Mel-18 has been implicated in several processes in tumor progression, in which the Akt pathway is involved as an important key molecular event. However, the function of Mel-18 in human cancers has not been fully established yet. Here, we examined the effect of Mel-18 on tumor angiogenesis in human breast cancer, and found that Mel-18 was a novel regulator of HIF-1α. Mel-18 negatively regulated the HIF-1α expression and its target gene VEGF transcription during both normoxia and hypoxia. We demonstrated that Mel-18 regulated the HIF-1α expression and activity via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Loss of Mel-18 downregulated Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression, consequently activating the PI3K/Akt/MDM2 pathway, and leading to an increase of HIF-1α protein level. Mel-18 modulated the HIF-1α transcriptional activity via regulating the cytoplasmic retention of FOXO3a, a downstream effector of Akt, and recruitment of HIF-1α/CBP complex to the VEGF promoter. Furthermore, our data shows that Mel-18 blocked tumor angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Mel-18 overexpression inhibited in vitro tube formation in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Xenografts in NOD/SCID mice derived from stably Mel-18 knocked down MCF7 human breast cancer cells showed increased tumor volume, microvessel density, and phospho-Akt and HIF-1α expression levels. In conclusion, our findings provide that Mel-18 is a novel regulator of tumor angiogenesis through regulating HIF-1α and its target VEGF expressions mediated by the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting a new tumor-suppressive role of Mel-18 in human breast cancer.

  16. Opisthorchis viverrini infection activates the PI3K/ AKT/PTEN and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in a Cholangiocarcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Yothaisong, Supak; Thanee, Malinee; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Puapairoj, Anucha; Loilome, Watcharin

    2014-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) infection is the major etiological factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), especially in northeast Thailand. We have previously reported significant involvement of PI3K/AKT/PTEN and Wnt/β- catenin in human CCA tissues. The present study, therefore, examined the expression and activation of PI3K/ AKT/PTEN and Wnt/β-catenin signaling components during Ov-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis in a hamster animal model. Hamsters were divided into two groups; non-treated and Ov plus NDMA treated. The results of immunohistochemical staining showed an upregulation of PI3K/AKT signaling as determined by elevated expression of the p85α-regulatory and p110α-catalytic subunits of PI3K as well as increased expression and activation of AKT during cholangiocarcinogenesis. Interestingly, the staining intensity of activated AKT (p-AKT) increased in the apical regions of the bile ducts and strong staining was detected where the liver fluke resides. Moreover, PTEN, a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT, was suppressed by decreased expression and increased phosphorylation during cholangiocarcinogenesis. We also detected upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as determined by increased positive staining of Wnt3, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt7b and β-catenin, corresponded with the period of cholangiocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, nuclear staining of β-catenin was observed in CCA tissues. Our results suggest the liver fluke infection causes chronic inflammatory conditions which lead to upregulation of the PI3K/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways which may drive CCA carcinogenesis. These results provide useful information for drug development, prevention and treatment of CCA. PMID:25556493

  17. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT Pathway and Survival in Solid Tumors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Alberto; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Al-Mubarak, Mustafa; Templeton, Arnoud J.; Corrales-Sanchez, Verónica; Diez-Gonzalez, Laura; Cuenca-Lopez, María D.; Seruga, Bostjan; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/AKT pathway are common in solid tumors. Numerous drugs have been developed to target different components of this pathway. However the prognostic value of these aberrations is unclear. Methods PubMed was searched for studies evaluating the association between activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway (defined as PI3K mutation [PIK3CA], lack of phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN] expression by immunohistochemistry or western-blot or increased expression/activation of downstream components of the pathway by immunohistochemistry) with overall survival (OS) in solid tumors. Published data were extracted and computed into odds ratios (OR) for death at 5 years. Data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effect model. Results Analysis included 17 studies. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway was associated with significantly worse 5-year survival (OR:2.12, 95% confidence intervals 1.42–3.16, p<0.001). Loss of PTEN expression and increased expression/activation of downstream components were associated with worse survival. No association between PIK3CA mutations and survival was observed. Differences between methods for assessing activation of the PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway were statistically significant (p = 0.04). There was no difference in the effect of up-regulation of the pathway on survival between different cancer sites (p = 0.13). Conclusion Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, especially if measured by loss of PTEN expression or increased expression/activation of downstream components is associated with poor survival. PIK3CA mutational status is not associated with adverse outcome, challenging its value as a biomarker of patient outcome or as a stratification factor for patients treated with agents acting on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. PMID:24777052

  18. Dentin phosphophoryn in the matrix activates AKT and mTOR signaling pathway to promote preodontoblast survival and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Asha; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphophoryn (DPP) is an extracellular matrix protein synthesized by odontoblasts. It is highly acidic and the phosphorylated protein possesses a strong affinity for calcium ions. Therefore, DPP in the extracellular matrix can promote hydroxyapatite nucleation and can regulate the size of the growing crystal. Besides its calcium binding property, DPP can initiate signaling functions from the ECM (Extracellular matrix). The signals that promote the cytodifferentiation of preodontoblasts to fully functional odontoblasts are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that preodontoblasts on a DPP matrix, generates mechanical and biochemical signals. This is initiated by the ligation of the integrins with the RGD containing DPP. The downstream biochemical response observed is the activation of the AKT(protein kinase B) and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathways leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB (Nuclear factor κB). Terminal differentiation of the preodontoblasts was assessed by identifying phosphate and calcium deposits in the matrix using von Kossa and Alizarin red staining respectively. Identifying the signaling pathways initiated by DPP in the dentin matrix would help in devising strategies for dentin tissue engineering. PMID:26300786

  19. Expansion and long-term culture of human spermatogonial stem cells via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Linhong; Sun, Min; Hai, Yanan; Li, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can differentiate into spermatids, reflecting that they could be used in reproductive medicine for treating male infertility. SSCs are able to become embryonic stem-like cells with the potentials of differentiating into numerous cell types of the three germ layers and they can transdifferentiate to mature and functional cells of other lineages, highlighting significant applications of human SSCs for treating human diseases. However, human SSCs are very rare and a long-term culture system of human SSCs has not yet established. This aim of study was to isolate, identify and culture human SSCs for a long period. We isolated GPR125-positive spermatogonia with high purity and viability from adult human testicular tissues utilizing the two-step enzymatic digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting with antibody against GPR125. These freshly isolated cells expressed a number of markers for SSCs, including GPR125, PLZF, GFRA1, RET, THY1, UCHL1 and MAGEA4, but not the hallmarks for spermatocytes and spermatozoa, e.g. SYCP1, SYCP3, PRM1, and TNP1. The isolated human SSCs could be cultured for two months with a significant increase of cell number with the defined medium containing growth factors and hydrogel. Notably, the expression of numerous SSC markers was maintained during the cultivation of human SSCs. Furthermore, SMAD3 and AKT phosphorylation was enhanced during the culture of human SSCs. Collectively, these results suggest that human SSCs can be cultivated for a long period and expanded whilst retaining an undifferentiated status via the activation of SMAD3 and AKT pathways. This study could provide sufficient cells of SSCs for their basic research and clinic applications in reproductive and regenerative medicine. PMID:26088866

  20. Endothelium-independent hypoxic contraction of porcine coronary arteries may be mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huixia; Chen, Zhengju; Liu, Juan; Liu, Limei; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular tone. The present study aimed to determine its role in hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction. Isometric tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries was measured with organ chamber technique; the protein levels of phosphorylated and total MLC were examined by Western blotting; the activities of PI3K and Rho kinase were determined by the phosphorylation of their respective target protein Akt and MTPT1. Acute hypoxia induced a rapid contraction followed by a short-term relaxation and then a sustained contraction in porcine coronary arteries. The rapid but not the sustained contraction was abolished by endothelium removal. The sustained contraction was attenuated by inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002) and Akt (Akt-I). The attenuation effect caused by LY294002 was not affected by nifedipine, but was abolished by Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase. The sustained hypoxic contraction was associated with altered phosphorylation of MLC and Akt, which was inhibited by LY294002. The sustained hypoxic contraction was also accompanied with increased phosphorylation of MYPT1, which was inhibited by LY294002 and Y27632. This study demonstrates that sustained hypoxia causes porcine coronary artery to contract in an endothelium-independent manner. An increased PI3K/Akt/Rho kinase signaling may be involved. PMID:24685819

  1. Ochratoxin A activates opposing c-MET/PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK 1-2 pathways in human proximal tubule HK-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Zeynep; Gül, Gizem; Yaman, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced as a secondary metabolite by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. Because OTA is a common contaminant of food and feeds, humans and animals are frequently exposed to OTA in daily life. It has been classified as a carcinogen in rodents and a possible carcinogen in humans. OTA has been shown to deregulate a variety of different signal transduction pathways in a cell type- and dosage-depending manner resulting in contrasting physiological effects, such as survival or cell death. While the ERK1-2 and JNK/SAPK MAPK pathways are major targets, knowledge about their role in OTA-mediated cell survival and death is fragmented. Similarly, the contribution of the PI3K/Akt pathway to the carcinogenic effect of OTA in proximal tubule cells has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we demonstrated that OTA induced sustained activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1-2 signaling pathways in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HK-2 cells. Chemical inhibition of ERK1-2 activation or overexpression of dominant-negative and kinase-dead MEK1 leads to increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis in OTA-treated cells. Blockage of PI3K/Akt with Wortmannin aggravated the negative effect of OTA on cell viability and increased the levels of apoptosis. Moreover, we identified the c-MET proto-oncogene as an upstream receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for OTA-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in HK-2 cells. Our data suggest that OTA may potentiate carcinogenesis by sustained activation of c-MET/PI3K/Akt signaling through suppression of apoptosis induced by MEK/ERK1-2 activation in damaged renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. PMID:25002221

  2. Triptolide has anticancer and chemosensitization effects by down-regulating Akt activation through the MDM2/REST pathway in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Su, Tiefen; Qu, Zhiling; Yang, Qin; Wang, Yu; Li, Jiansha; Zhou, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Triptolide has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity. However, its mechanism of action is not clearly defined. Herein we report a novel signaling pathway, MDM2/Akt, is involved in the anticancer mechanism of triptolide. We observed that triptolide inhibits MDM2 expression in human breast cancer cells with either wild-type or mutant p53. This MDM2 inhibition resulted in decreased Akt activation. More specifically, triptolide interfered with the interaction between MDM2 and the transcription factor REST to increase expression of the regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase p85 and consequently inhibit Akt activation. We further showed that, regardless of p53 status, triptolide inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Triptolide also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin. MDM2 inhibition plays a causative role in these effects. The inhibitory effect of triptolide on MDM2-mediated Akt activation was eliminated with MDM2 overexpression. MDM2-overexpressing tumor cells, in turn, were less susceptible to the anticancer and chemosensitization effects of triptolide than control cells. Triptolide also exhibited anticancer and chemosensitization effects in nude mouse xenograft model. When it was administered to tumor-bearing nude mice, triptolide inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the antitumor effects of doxorubicin. In summary, triptolide has anticancer and chemosensitization effects by down-regulating Akt activation through the MDM2/REST pathway in human breast cancer. Our study helps to elucidate the p53-independent regulatory function of MDM2 in Akt signaling, offering a novel view of the mechanism by which triptolide functions as an anticancer agent. PMID:27004407

  3. Antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin in differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells require activation of both the STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-01

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) prevents neuronal death during ischemic events in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases, presumably through its antiapoptotic effects. To explore the role of different signaling pathways in Epo-mediated antiapoptotic effects in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we employed a prolactin receptor (PrlR)/erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) chimera system, in which binding of prolactin (Prl) to the extracellular domain activates EpoR signaling in the cytosol. On induction of apoptosis by staurosporine, Prl supports survival of the SH-SY5Y cells expressing the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera. In these cells Prl treatment strongly activates the STAT5, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induces weak activation of the p65 NF-kappaB factor. Selective mutation of the eight tyrosine residues of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain results in impaired or absent activation of either STAT5 (mutation of Tyr(343)) or AKT (mutation of Tyr(479)) or both (mutation of all eight tyrosine residues). Most interestingly, Prl treatment does not prevent apoptosis in cells expressing mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras in which either the STAT5 or the AKT signaling pathways are not activated. In contrast, ERK 1/2 is fully activated by all mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras, comparable with the level seen with the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera, implying that activation of the MAPK signaling pathway per se is not sufficient for antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, the antiapoptotic effects of Epo in neuronal cells require the combinatorial activation of multiple signaling pathways, including STAT5, AKT, and potentially MAPK as well, in a manner similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells.

  4. Astragaloside IV inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Daiying; Li, Zengqiang; Liu, Hanmo; Dai, Zhengning; Cai, Jiayi; Pang, Lili; Wu, Yingliang

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used antitumor drug whose application is seriously limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of astragaloside IV (3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, AS-IV), a pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Immunocytochemistry and Microculture Tetrazolium (MTT) assays showed that AS-IV significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiomyocyte loss. Additionally, AS-IV markedly ameliorated DOX-caused cardiomyocyte dysfunction via restoring the beating cell ratio and beating rate in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, AS-IV substantially reduced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and cytochrome c (CytC) release, and restored the reduced ATP level, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase activities induced by DOX, suggesting that AS-IV significantly attenuated DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. It was further observed that DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, as qualitatively evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining and accurately quantified by flow cytometry, was markedly inhibited by AS-IV. Western blot analysis manifested that AS-IV significantly inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (MAP) via inducing the phosphorylation of Akt and Bad. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) remarkably inhibited the anti-apoptotic effect of AS-IV. Moreover, AS-IV didn't compromise the antitumor activity of DOX. Taken together, our findings indicate that AS-IV ameliorates DIC, and this beneficial effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the PI3K/Akt

  5. AKT and N-Ras co-activation in the mouse liver promotes rapid carcinogenesis via mTORC1, FOXM1/SKP2, and c-Myc pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Coral; Wang, Chunmei; Mattu, Sandra; Destefanis, Giulia; Ladu, Sara; Delogu, Salvatore; Armbruster, Julia; Fan, Lingling; Lee, Susie A.; Jiang, Lijie; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Calvisi, Diego F.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and Ras pathways is often implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the oncogenic cooperation between these two cascades in relationship to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains undetermined. To investigate this issue, we generated a mouse model characterized by combined overexpression of activated forms of AKT and neuroblastoma Ras viral oncogene homolog (N-Ras) protooncogenes in the liver via hydrodynamic gene transfer. The molecular mechanisms underlying crosstalk between AKT and N-Ras were assessed in the mouse model and further evaluated in human and murine HCC cell lines. We found that co-expression of AKT and N-Ras resulted in a dramatic acceleration of liver tumor development when compared with mice overexpressing AKT alone, whereas N-Ras alone did not lead to tumor formation. At the cellular level, concomitant upregulation of AKT and N-Ras resulted in increased proliferation and microvascularization when compared with AKT injected mice. Mechanistic studies suggested that accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis driven by AKT and N-Ras resulted from a strong activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, elevated expression of FOXM1/SKP2 and c-Myc also contributed to rapid tumor growth in AKT/Ras mice, yet via mTORC1-independent mechanisms. The biological effects of co-activation of AKT and N-Ras were then recapitulated in vitro using HCC cell lines, which supports the functional significance of mTORC1, FOXM1/SKP2 and c-Myc signaling cascades in mediating AKT and N-Ras induced liver tumor development. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the in vivo crosstalk between the AKT and Ras pathways in promoting liver tumor development, and the pivotal role of mTORC1-dependent and independent pathways in mediating AKT and Ras induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21993994

  6. Cisplatin triggers atrophy of skeletal C2C12 myotubes via impairment of Akt signalling pathway and subsequent increment activity of proteasome and autophagy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fanzani, Alessandro Zanola, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Rossi, Stefania; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2011-02-01

    Cisplatin (cisPt) is an antineoplastic drug which causes an array of adverse effects on different organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In this work we show that cisPt behaves as a potent trigger to activate protein hypercatabolism in skeletal C2C12 myotubes. Within 24 h of 50 {mu}M cisPt administration, C2C12 myotubes displayed unchanged cell viability but showed a subset of hallmark signs typically recognized during atrophy, including severe reduction in body size, repression of Akt phosphorylation, transcriptional up-regulation of atrophy-related genes, such as atrogin-1, gabarap, beclin-1 and bnip-3, and loss of myogenic markers. As a consequence, proteasomal activity and formation of autophagosomes were remarkably increased in cisPt-treated myotubes, but forced stimulation of Akt pathway, as obtained through insulin administration or delivery of a constitutively activated Akt form, was sufficient to counter the cisPt-induced protein breakdown, leading to rescue of atrophic size. Overall, these results indicate that cisPt induces atrophy of C2C12 myotubes via activation of proteasome and autophagy systems, suggesting that the Akt pathway represents one sensitive target of cisPt molecular action in skeletal muscle.

  7. A natural diarylheptanoid promotes neuronal differentiation via activating ERK and PI3K-Akt dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, G; Dong, X; Huang, X; Huang, X-J; Liu, H; Wang, Y; Ye, W-C; Shi, L

    2015-09-10

    Neuronal differentiation is a critical developmental process that determines accurate synaptic connection and circuit wiring. A wide variety of naturally occurring compounds have been shown as promising drug leads for the generation and differentiation of neurons. Here we report that a diarylheptanoid from the plant Alpinia officinarum, 7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-hepten-3-one (Cpd 1), exhibited potent activities in neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. Cpd 1 induced differentiation of neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells into a neuron-like morphology, and accelerated the establishment of axon-dendrite polarization of cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, Cpd 1 promoted neurite extension in both Neuro-2a cells and neurons. We showed that the effects of Cpd 1 on neuronal differentiation and neurite growth were specifically dependent on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathways. Importantly, intraperitoneal administration of Cpd 1 promoted the differentiation of new-born progenitor cells into mature neurons in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. Collectively, this study identifies a naturally occurring diarylheptanoid with beneficial effects on neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Heterogeneity between triple negative breast cancer cells due to differential activation of Wnt and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Revollar, Gabriela; Garay, Erika; Martin-Tapia, Dolores; Nava, Porfirio; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Segovia, José; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2015-11-15

    The lack of a successful treatment for triple-negative breast cancer demands the study of the heterogeneity of cells that constitute these tumors. With this aim, two clones from triple negative breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were isolated: One with fibroblast-like appearance (F) and another with semi-epithelial (SE) morphology. Cells of the F clone have a higher migration and tumorigenesis capacity than SE cells, suggesting that these cells are in a more advanced stage of epithelial to mesenchymal transformation. In agreement, F cells have a diminished expression of the tight junction proteins claudins 1 and 4, and an increased content of β-catenin. The latter is due to an augmented activity of the canonical Wnt route and of the EGFR/PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway favoring the cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin and its transcriptional activity. In addition, F cells display increased phosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr654 by Src. These changes favor in F cells, the over-expression of Snail that promotes EMT. Finally, we observe that both F and SE cells display markers of cancer stem cells, which are more abundant in the F clone.

  9. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  10. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  11. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. Methods: The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Results: Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Conclusion: Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:27398330

  12. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Lin; Ding, Yi; Li, Qi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan; Yang, Hua; Peng, Shunli; Wang, Wei; Chen, Longhua

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC.

  13. Targeting AKT1-E17K and the PI3K/AKT Pathway with an Allosteric AKT Inhibitor, ARQ 092

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Savage, Ronald E.; Eathiraj, Sudharshan; Meade, Justin; Wick, Michael J.; Hall, Terence; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    As a critical component in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, AKT has become an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. ARQ 092 and a next generation AKT inhibitor, ARQ 751 are selective, allosteric, pan-AKT and AKT1-E17K mutant inhibitors that potently inhibit phosphorylation of AKT. Biochemical and cellular analysis showed that ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 inhibited AKT activation not only by dephosphorylating the membrane-associated active form, but also by preventing the inactive form from localizing into plasma membrane. In endometrial PDX models harboring mutant AKT1-E17K and other tumor models with an activated AKT pathway, both compounds exhibited strong anti-tumor activity. Combination studies conducted in in vivo breast tumor models demonstrated that ARQ 092 enhanced tumor inhibition of a common chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel). In a large panel of diverse cancer cell lines, ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 inhibited proliferation across multiple tumor types but were most potent in leukemia, breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, inhibition by ARQ 092 and ARQ 751 was more prevalent in cancer cell lines containing PIK3CA/PIK3R1 mutations compared to those with wt-PIK3CA/PIK3R1 or PTEN mutations. For both ARQ 092 and ARQ 751, PIK3CA/PIK3R1 and AKT1-E17K mutations can potentially be used as predictive biomarkers for patient selection in clinical studies. PMID:26469692

  14. Campylobacter jejuni induces an anti-inflammatory response in human intestinal epithelial cells through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ping; Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Madsen, Mogens; Ingmer, Hanne; Bang, Dang Duong

    2011-02-24

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Poultry is a major reservoir of C. jejuni and considered an important source of human infections, thus, it is important to understand the host response to C. jejuni from chicken origin. In this study, we demonstrated firstly that a chicken isolate SC11 colonized chicks faster than clinical isolate NCTC11168. Using the SC11, we further studied the host responds to C. jejuni in terms of inflammatory response and involvement of cellular signaling pathways. Infection of C. jejuni SC11 was able to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and induce pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in human intestinal epithelial cell line Colo 205. The signalling pathways PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK and p38 were involved in C. jejuni-induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression. Inhibition of PI3K resulted in augmentation of C. jejuni-induced IL-8 production, concomitant with down-regulation of IL-10 mRNA, indicating an anti-inflammatory response was activated and associated with the activation of P13K/Akt. Similar effect was observed for cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) deficient mutants. Moreover, we demonstrated that heat-killed bacteria were able to induce IL-8 and IL-10 expression to a lower level than live bacteria. We therefore conclude that C. jejuni activate a PI3K/Akt-dependent anti-inflammatory pathway in human intestinal epithelial cells which may benefit the intracellular survival of C. jejuni during infection.

  15. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Jayant S.; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies. PMID:27121513

  16. Targeting the AKT pathway: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors as radiosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goda, Jayant S; Pachpor, Tejaswini; Basu, Trinanjan; Chopra, Supriya; Gota, Vikram

    2016-02-01

    Cellular resistance in tumour cells to different therapeutic approaches has been a limiting factor in the curative treatment of cancer. Resistance to therapeutic radiation is a common phenomenon which significantly reduces treatment options and impacts survival. One of the mechanisms of acquiring resistance to ionizing radiation is the overexpression or activation of various oncogenes like the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), RAS (rat sarcoma) oncogene or loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) which in turn activates the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K)/AKT pathway responsible for radiation resistance in various tumours. Blocking the pathway enhances the radiation response both in vitro and in vivo. Due to the differential activation of this pathway (constitutively activated in tumour cells and not in the normal host cells), it is an excellent candidate target for molecular targeted therapy to enhance radiation sensitivity. In this regard, HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) known to interfere with PI3-K/AKT signaling in tumour cells, have been shown to sensitize various tumour cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. As a result, HPIs are now being investigated as possible radiosensitizers along with various chemotherapeutic drugs. This review describes the mechanisms by which PI3-K/AKT pathway causes radioresistance and the role of HIV protease inhibitors especially nelfinavir as a potential candidate drug to target the AKT pathway for overcoming radioresistance and its use in various clinical trials for different malignancies.

  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes melanocyte migration via activating PI3K/Akt-Rac1-FAK-JNK and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongxue; Lin, Beibei; Huang, Yan; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Cai; Wang, Zhouguang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhao, Yingzhen; Fu, Xiaobing; Lou, Zhencai; Li, Xiaokun; Xiao, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder characterized by loss of functional melanocytes of the skin epidermis. The pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on melanocyte migration, including its biochemical mechanism using transwell assay in vitro. We found that melanocyte treated with bFGF showed a significant increase in migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement. These changes were associated with increased activation of PI3K/Akt, Rac1, FAK, JNK, and ERK. Likewise, reduction of PI3K/Akt, Rac1, FAK, JNK, and ERK activity using selective inhibitors or siRNA was associated with impediment of bFGF-induced melanocyte migration. In addition, activity of Rac1, FAK, and JNK was reduced in cells in which PI3K/Akt was inhibited, activity of FAK and JNK was reduced in cells in which the Rac1 was inhibited, and activity of JNK was reduced in cells in which the FAK was inhibited. Collectively, these data demonstrate that bFGF facilitated melanocyte migration via PI3K/Akt-Rac1-FAK-JNK and ERK signaling pathways. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):735-747, 2016. PMID:27350596

  18. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency in T-ALL through activation of both the PI3K–AKT and JAK–STAT3 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Thorpe, Lauren M; Walker, Sarah R; Roberts, Thomas M; Frank, David A; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in this disease. Indeed, hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is associated with the disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to current therapies. To identify a molecular pathway capable of cooperating with PTEN deficiency to drive oncogenic transformation of leukocytes, we performed an unbiased transformation screen with a library of tyrosine kinases. We found that activation of NTRK2 is able to confer a full growth phenotype of Ba/F3 cells in an IL3-independent manner in the PTEN-null setting. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency through engaging both phosphoinositide3-kinase/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathway activation in leukocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition demonstrated that p110α and p110δ are the major isoforms mediating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling driven by NTRK2 activation in PTEN-deficient leukemia cells. Furthermore, combined inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 significantly suppressed proliferation of PTEN-mutant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia both in culture and in mouse xenografts. Together, our data suggest that a unique conjunction of PTEN deficiency and NTRK2 activation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and combined pharmacologic inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 signaling may serve as an effective and durable therapeutic strategy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27672444

  19. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency in T-ALL through activation of both the PI3K-AKT and JAK-STAT3 pathways.

    PubMed

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Thorpe, Lauren M; Walker, Sarah R; Roberts, Thomas M; Frank, David A; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in this disease. Indeed, hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is associated with the disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to current therapies. To identify a molecular pathway capable of cooperating with PTEN deficiency to drive oncogenic transformation of leukocytes, we performed an unbiased transformation screen with a library of tyrosine kinases. We found that activation of NTRK2 is able to confer a full growth phenotype of Ba/F3 cells in an IL3-independent manner in the PTEN-null setting. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency through engaging both phosphoinositide3-kinase/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathway activation in leukocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition demonstrated that p110α and p110δ are the major isoforms mediating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling driven by NTRK2 activation in PTEN-deficient leukemia cells. Furthermore, combined inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 significantly suppressed proliferation of PTEN-mutant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia both in culture and in mouse xenografts. Together, our data suggest that a unique conjunction of PTEN deficiency and NTRK2 activation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and combined pharmacologic inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 signaling may serve as an effective and durable therapeutic strategy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27672444

  20. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency in T-ALL through activation of both the PI3K–AKT and JAK–STAT3 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Thorpe, Lauren M; Walker, Sarah R; Roberts, Thomas M; Frank, David A; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in this disease. Indeed, hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is associated with the disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to current therapies. To identify a molecular pathway capable of cooperating with PTEN deficiency to drive oncogenic transformation of leukocytes, we performed an unbiased transformation screen with a library of tyrosine kinases. We found that activation of NTRK2 is able to confer a full growth phenotype of Ba/F3 cells in an IL3-independent manner in the PTEN-null setting. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency through engaging both phosphoinositide3-kinase/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathway activation in leukocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition demonstrated that p110α and p110δ are the major isoforms mediating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling driven by NTRK2 activation in PTEN-deficient leukemia cells. Furthermore, combined inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 significantly suppressed proliferation of PTEN-mutant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia both in culture and in mouse xenografts. Together, our data suggest that a unique conjunction of PTEN deficiency and NTRK2 activation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and combined pharmacologic inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 signaling may serve as an effective and durable therapeutic strategy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  1. Tetramethylpyrazine induces SH-SY5Y cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype through activation of the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoIIβ pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia; Han, Shuo; Zhou, Na-Jing; Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Cao, Cui-Li; Wang, Yan-Ling; Xu, Yan-Nan; Zhao, Juan; Yan, Yun-Li; Cui, Hui-Xian

    2015-12-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is an active compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Chuanxiong. Previously, we have shown that TMP induces human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell differentiation toward the neuronal phenotype by targeting topoisomeraseIIβ (TopoIIβ), a protein implicated in neural development. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate whether the transcriptional factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), in addition to the upstream signaling pathways ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, are involved in modulating TopoIIβ expression in the neuronal differentiation process. We demonstrated that SH-SY5Y cells treated with TMP (80μM) terminally differentiated into neurons, characterized by increased neuronal markers, tubulin βIII and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), and increased neurite outgrowth, with no negative effect on cell survival. TMP also increased the expression of TopoIIβ, which was accompanied by increased expression of Sp1 in the differentiated neuron-like cells, whereas NF-Y protein levels remained unchanged following the differentiation progression. We also found that the phosphorylation level of Akt, but not ERK1/2, was significantly increased as a result of TMP stimulation. Furthermore, as established by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway increased Sp1 binding to the promoter of the TopoIIβ gene. Blockage of PI3K/Akt was shown to lead to subsequent inhibition of TopoIIβ expression and neuronal differentiation. Collectively, the results indicate that the PI3K/Akt/Sp1/TopoIIβ signaling pathway is necessary for TMP-induced neuronal differentiation. Our findings offer mechanistic insights into understanding the upstream regulation of TopoIIβ in neuronal differentiation, and suggest potential applications of TMP both in neuroscience research and clinical practice to treat relevant diseases of the nervous system. PMID:26518113

  2. Similar PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway activation in balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons of type II focal cortical dysplasia with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-xiang; Lin, Kun; Kang, De-zhi; Liu, Xin-xiu; Wang, Xing-fu; Zheng, Shu-fa; Yu, Liang-hong; Lin, Zhang-ya

    2015-05-01

    Dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells constitute the neuropathological hallmarks of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) with refractory epilepsy. The genesis of these cells may be critical to the histological findings in type II FCD. Recent work has shown enhanced activation of the mTOR cascade in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons, suggesting a common pathogenesis for these two neuropathological hallmarks. A direct comparative analysis of balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons might identify a molecular link between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. Here, we addressed whether PDK1-AKT-mTOR activation differentiates balloon cells from dysmorphic neurons. We used immunohistochemistry with antibodies against phosphorylated (p)-PDK1 (Ser241), p-AKT (Thr308), p-AKT (Ser473), p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-P70S6K (Thr229), and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) in balloon cells compared with dysmorphic neurons. Strong or moderate staining for components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway was observed in both balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons. However, only a few pyramidal neurons displayed weak staining in control group (perilesional neocortex and histologically normal neocortex). Additionally, p-PDK1 (Ser241) and p-AKT (Thr308) staining in balloon cells were stronger than in dysmorphic neurons, whereas p-P70S6K (Thr229) and p-p70S6 kinase (Thr389) staining in balloon cells was weaker than in dysmorphic neurons. In balloon cells, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-mTOR (Ser2448) staining was comparable with the staining in dysmorphic neurons. Our data support the previously suggested pathogenic relationship between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons concerning activation of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of type II FCD. Differential expression of some components of the PDK1-AKT-mTOR pathway between balloon cells and dysmorphic neurons may result from cell-specific gene expression.

  3. Mechanical Stimulation and IGF-1 Enhance mRNA Translation Rate in Osteoblasts Via Activation of the AKT-mTOR Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Astrid D; Gakes, Tom; Hogervorst, Jolanda M A; de Wit, Gerard M J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2016-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is anabolic for muscle by enhancing the rate of mRNA translation via activation of AKT and subsequent activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTOR), thereby increasing cellular protein production. IGF-1 is also anabolic for bone, but whether the mTOR pathway plays a role in the rate of bone matrix protein production by osteoblasts is unknown. We hypothesized that anabolic stimuli such as mechanical loading and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in osteoblasts via activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were either or not subjected for 1 h to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) or treated with or without human recombinant IGF-1 (1-100 ng/ml) for 0.5-6 h, to determine phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K (downstream of mTOR) by Western blot. After 4 days of culture with or without the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, total protein, DNA, and gene expression were quantified. IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) reduced IGF-1 gene expression, although PFF enhanced IGF-1 expression. IGF-1 did not affect collagen-I gene expression. IGF-1 dose-dependently enhanced AKT and p70S6K phosphorylation at 2 and 6 h. PFF enhanced phosphorylation of AKT and p70S6K already within 1 h. Both IGF-1 and PFF enhanced total protein per cell by ∼30%, but not in the presence of rapamycin. Our results show that IGF-1 and PFF activate mTOR, thereby stimulating the rate of mRNA translation in osteoblasts. The known anabolic effect of mechanical loading and IGF-1 on bone may thus be partly explained by mTOR-mediated enhanced protein synthesis in osteoblasts.

  4. Propofol protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in ischemic brain injury by increasing GLT-1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hong-Yan; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xi-Yan; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yue, Xiu-Qin

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic brain injury (IBI) can cause nerve injury and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The neuroprotective effects of propofol against IBI have been previously demonstrated. However, the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons are not yet entirely clear. In the present study, models of IBI were established in hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells. Cell viability assay and apoptosis assay were performed to examine the neuroprotective effects of propofol on hippocampal neurons in IBI. A significant decrease in cell viability and a significant increase in cell apoptosis were observed in the IBI group compared with the control group, accompanied by a decrease in glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT‑1) expression as determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. The effects of IBI were reversed by propofol treatment. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of GLT‑1 in the hypoxia-exposed hippocampal neuronal cells led to an increase in cell apoptosis, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NR1 and NR2B) activation, as well as to a decrease in cell viability and a decrease in Akt activation. The effects of RNA interference-mediated GLT‑1 gene silencing on cell viability, JNK activation, NMDAR activation, cell apoptosis and Akt activation in the hippocampal neuronal cells were slightly reversed by propofol treatment. The JNK agonist, anisomycin, and the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, both significantly blocked the effects of propofol on hippocampal neuronal cell viability and apoptosis in IBI. The decrease in JNK activation and the increase in Akt activation caused by GLT‑1 overexpression were reversed by NMDA. Collectively, our findings suggest that propofol treatment protects hippocampal neurons against IBI by enhancing GLT‑1 expression and inhibiting the activation of NMDAR via the JNK/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27430327

  5. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Ding, Xiuyan; Zhu, Xiaofang; Meng, Songshu; Wang, Jianye; Zhou, Hong; Duan, Qiangde; Tao, Jie; Schifferli, Dieter M; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2011-04-14

    Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2) signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2), respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of allicin against traumatic brain injury via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Jun; Feng, Feng; Wang, Mao-de; Bao, Gang; Wang, Tuo; Xiang, Mu; Xie, Wan-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro and in vivo studies. Here, we sought to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of allicin against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. We found that allicin treatment (10 and 50mg/kg, not 1mg/kg) significantly reduced brain edema and motor functional deficits, as well as apoptotic neuronal cell death in injured cortex. These protective effects could be observed even if the administration was delayed to 4h after injury. Moreover, allicin treatment decreased the expression levels of MDA and protein carbonyl, preserved the endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, and suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The results of Western blot analysis showed that allicin increased the phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Blocking Akt/eNOS pathway activation by specific inhibitor LY294002 (10μL, 10mmol/L) or L-NIO (0.5mg/kg) partly reversed the protective effects of allicin and its anti-inflammatory activities. The allicin induced anti-oxidative activity was partly prevented by LY294002, but not L-NIO. In summary, our data strongly suggested that allicin treatment at an appropriate dose can exert protective effect against TBI through Akt/eNOS pathway-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities.

  7. Activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3{beta} pathway mediates hepatocyte growth factor inhibition of RANTES expression in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Rujun . E-mail: rgong@Brown.edu; Rifai, Abdalla; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2005-04-29

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was recently reported to ameliorate renal inflammation in a rat model of chronic renal failure. HGF exerted its action through suppression of RANTES expression in renal tubules. In the present study, we utilized an in vitro model of human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (HKC) to elucidate the mechanisms of RANTES suppression by HGF. HGF significantly suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced mRNA and protein expression of RANTES in a time and dose dependent fashion. HGF elicited PI3K-Akt activation and inhibited GSK3, a downstream transducer of PI3K-Akt, by inhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-9. When the PI3K-Akt pathway was blocked by wortmannin, HGF inhibition of RANTES was abrogated, demonstrating that the PI3K-Akt pathway is necessary for HGF action. In addition, specific inhibition of GSK3 activity by lithium ion suppressed basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced RANTES expression, reminiscent of the action of HGF. To further investigate the role of GSK3 in modulating RANTES expression, we examined the effect of forced expression of wild type GSK3{beta} or an uninhibitable mutant GSK3{beta}, in which the regulatory Ser-9 residue is changed to alanine (S9A-GSK3{beta}) in HKC. Overexpression of wild type GSK3{beta} did not alter the inhibitory action of HGF on RANTES. In contrast, expression of S9A-GSK3{beta} abolished HGF inhibition of basal and TNF-{alpha} stimulated RANTES expression. These findings suggest that PI3K-Akt activation and subsequent inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} are required for HGF-induced suppression of RANTES in HKC.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is an upstream regulator of the phosphodiesterase 3B pathway of leptin signalling that may not involve activation of Akt in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, A; Koshinaka, K; Sahu, M

    2013-02-01

    Leptin, the product of the obese gene, regulates energy homeostasis by acting primarily at the level of the hypothalamus. Leptin action through its receptor involves various pathways, including the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B)-cAMP signalling in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. In the hypothalamus, leptin stimulates STAT3 activation, and induces PI3K and PDE3B activities, among others. We have previously demonstrated that PDE3B activation in the hypothalamus is critical for transducing the anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin. Similarly, PI3K has been implicated to play a critical role in leptin signalling in the hypothalamus. Although, in the insulin signalling pathway, PI3K is known to be an upstream regulator of PDE3B in non-neuronal tissues, it is still unknown whether this is also the case for leptin signalling in the hypothalamus. To address this possibility, the effect of wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, was examined on leptin-induced PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus of male rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of leptin (4 μg) significantly increased PDE3B activity by two-fold in the hypothalamus as expected. However, previous administration of wortmannin completely reversed the stimulatory effect of leptin on PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus. To investigate whether leptin stimulates phospho (p)-Akt levels and that there might be a possible upstream regulator of PDE3B, we examined the effects of i.c.v. leptin on p-Akt levels in the hypothalamus and compared them with the known stimulatory effect of insulin on p-Akt. We observed that insulin increased p-Akt levels but leptin failed to do so, although it increased p-STAT3 levels, in the rat hypothalamus. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the biochemical findings in that leptin failed but insulin increased the number of p-Akt positive cells in various hypothalamic

  9. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation, anti-apoptosis, migration effects and accelerates cell cycle progression in multiple myeloma cells via activating the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Chen, Ziang; Chen, Jingfu; Zhuang, Xiaomin; Feng, Jianqiang; Li, Juan

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), regarded as the third gaseous transmitter, mediates and induces various biological effects. The present study investigated the effects of H2S on multiple myeloma cell progression via amplifying the activation of Akt pathway in multiple myeloma cells. The level of H2S produced in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and healthy subjects was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MM cells were treated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8). The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the concentration of H2S was higher in MM patients and that it increased in parallel with disease progression. Treating MM cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS for 24 h markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2 and the activation of p-Akt, however, the expression level of caspase-3 was decreased, cell viability was increased, and cell cycle progression was accelerated in MM cells. NaHS also induced migration in MM cells in transwell migration assay. Furthermore, co-treatment of MM cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 50 µmol/l LY294002 for 24 h significantly overset these effects. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the Akt pathway contributes to NaHS-induced cell proliferation, migration and acceleration of cell cycle progression in MM cells. PMID:27513630

  10. Osseointegration of chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway under diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Feng, Ya-Fei; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Ma, Tian-Cheng; Qi, Wei; Lei, Wei; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan coated porous titanium alloy implant (CTI) is demonstrated a promising approach to improve osseointegration capacity of pure porous titanium alloy implant (TI). Since chitosan has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant activity, we propose CTI may ameliorate the ROS overproduction, thus reverse the poor osseointegration under diabetic conditions, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Primary rat osteoblasts incubated on the TI and the CTI were subjected to normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS + NAC (a potent ROS inhibitor) and DS + LY294002 (a PI3K/AKT-specific inhibitor). In vivo study was performed on diabetic sheep implanted with TI or CTI into the bone defects on crista iliaca. Results showed that diabetes-induced ROS overproduction led to osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, concomitant with the inhibition of AKT in osteoblasts on the TI substrate. While CTI stimulated AKT phosphorylation through ROS attenuation, thus reversed osteoblast dysfunction evidenced by improved osteoblast adhesion, increased proliferation and ALP activity, and decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic rate, which exerted same effect to NAC treatment on the TI. These effects were further confirmed by the improved osseointegration within the CTI in vivo evidenced by Micro-CT and histological examinations. In addition, the aforementioned promotive effects afforded by CTI were abolished by blocking PI3K/AKT pathway with addition of LY294002. These results demonstrate that the chitosan coating markedly ameliorates diabetes-induced impaired bio-performance of TI via ROS-mediated reactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway, which elicits a new surface functionalization strategy for better clinical performance of titanium implant in diabetic patients.

  11. γ-Enolase C-terminal peptide promotes cell survival and neurite outgrowth by activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Anja; Obermajer, Nataša; Kos, Janko

    2012-04-15

    γ-Enolase, a glycolytic enzyme, is expressed specifically in neurons. It exerts neurotrophic activity and has been suggested to regulate growth, differentiation, survival and regeneration of neurons. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of γ-enolase in PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signalling, the two pathways triggered predominantly by neurotrophic factors. Whereas the PI3K/Akt pathway, rather than the MAPK/ERK pathway, is involved in γ-enolase-enhanced cell survival, γ-enolase-stimulated neurite outgrowth requires both pathways, i.e. the activation of both PI3K and ERK1/2, leading to subsequent expression of the growth-cone-specific protein GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa). MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) and PI3K inhibition blocked or attenuated the neurite outgrowth associated with dynamic remodelling of the actin-based cytoskeleton. We show that γ-enolase-mediated PI3K activation regulates RhoA kinase, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton organization. Moreover, the inhibition of RhoA downstream effector ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) results in enhanced γ-enolase-induced neurite outgrowth, accompanied by actin polymerization and its redistribution to growth cones. Our results show that γ-enolase controls neuronal survival, differentiation and neurite regeneration by activating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways, resulting in downstream regulation of the molecular and cellular processes of cytoskeleton reorganization and cell remodelling, activation of transcriptional factors and regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-04-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: >PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. >PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx and caspase-3 activity. >PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. >PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. >PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  13. Melatonin prevents cisplatin-induced primordial follicle loss via suppression of PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway activation in the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hoon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Youngeun; Yoon, Hyemin; Chang, Eun Mi; Park, Miseon; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Hong, Kwonho; Kim, Jung Oh; Kim, Nam Keun; Ko, Jung Jae; Lee, Dong Ryul; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-04-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a major side effect of chemotherapy in young cancer patients. To develop pharmaceutical agents for preserving fertility, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced follicle loss. Here, we show that treatment with cisplatin, a widely used anticancer drug, depleted the dormant follicle pool in mouse ovaries by excessive activation of the primordial follicles, without inducing follicular apoptosis. Moreover, we show that co-treatment with the antioxidant melatonin prevented cisplatin-induced disruption of the follicle reserve. We quantified the various stages of growing follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and antral, to demonstrate that cisplatin treatment alone significantly decreased, whereas melatonin co-treatment preserved, the number of primordial follicles in the ovary. Importantly, analysis of the PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased the cisplatin-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of PTEN, a key negative regulator of dormant follicle activation. Moreover, melatonin prevented the cisplatin-induced activating phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3β, and FOXO3a, all of which trigger follicle activation. Additionally, we show that melatonin inhibited the cisplatin-induced inhibitory phosphorylation and nuclear export of FOXO3a, which is required in the nucleus to maintain dormancy of the primordial follicles. These findings demonstrate that melatonin attenuates cisplatin-induced follicle loss by preventing the phosphorylation of PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a pathway members; thus, melatonin is a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian protection and fertility preservation during chemotherapy in female cancer patients.

  14. Impact of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway on ITAM and hemITAM receptors: haemostasis, platelet activation and antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Alyssa J; Watson, Steve P

    2015-04-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that are activated in response to various stimulants, and they regulate many processes including inflammation; the stress response; gene transcription; and cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Increasing reports have shown that the PI3Ks and their downstream effector Akt are activated by several platelet receptors that regulate platelet activation and haemostasis. Platelets express two immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) receptors, collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and Fcγ receptor IIA (FcγRIIA), which are characterized by two YxxL sequences separated by 6-12 amino acids. Activation of an ITAM receptor initiates a reaction cascade via its YxxL sequence in which signaling molecules such as spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and phospholipase C γ2 (PLCγ2) become activated, leading to platelet activation. Platelets also express another receptor, C-type lectin 2 (CLEC-2), which has a single YxxL sequence, so it is appropriately called a hemITAM receptor. ITAM receptors and the hemITAM receptor share many signaling features. Here we will summarize our current knowledge about how the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates (hem)ITAM receptor-mediated platelet activation and haemostasis and discuss the possible benefits of targeting PI3K/Akt as an antithrombotic therapy.

  15. Anastrozole and everolimus in advanced gynecologic and breast malignancies: activity and molecular alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wheler, Jennifer J.; Moulder, Stacy L.; Naing, Aung; Janku, Filip; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Zinner, Ralph; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Fu, Siqing; Hong, David S.; Atkins, Johnique T.; Yelensky, Roman; Stephens, Philip J.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation diminishes the effects of hormone therapy, combining aromatase inhibitors (anatrozole) with mTOR inhibitors (everolimus) was investigated. Patients and Methods: We evaluated anastrozole and everolimus in 55 patients with metastatic estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast and gynecologic tumors. Endpoints were safety, antitumor activity and molecular correlates. Results: Full doses of anastrozole (1 mg PO daily) and everolimus (10 mg PO daily) were well tolerated. Twelve of 50 evaluable patients (24%) (median = 3 prior therapies) achieved stable disease (SD) ≥ 6 months/partial response (PR)/complete response (CR) (n = 5 (10%) with PR/CR): 9 of 32 (28%) with breast cancer (n=5 (16%) with PR/CR); 2 of 10 (20%), ovarian cancer; and 1 of 6 (17%), endometrial cancer. Six of 22 patients (27%) with molecular alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway achieved SD ≥ 6 months/PR/CR. Six of 8 patients (75%) with SD ≥ 6 months/PR/CR with molecular testing demonstrated at least one alteration in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway: mutations in PIK3CA (n=3) and AKT1 (n=1) or PTEN loss (n=3). All three responders (CR (n = 1); PR (n=2)) who had next generation sequencing demonstrated additional alterations: amplifications in CCNE1, IRS2, MCL1, CCND1, FGFR1 and MYC and a rearrangement in PRKDC. Conclusions: Combination anastrozole and everolimus is well tolerated at full approved doses, and is active in heavily-pretreated patients with ER and/or PR-positive breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Responses were observed in patients with multiple molecular aberrations. Clinical Trails Included: NCT01197170 PMID:24912489

  16. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli.

  17. Downregulation of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway and activation of mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis by Diclofenac and Curcumin in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Rana, Chandan; Piplani, Honit; Vaish, Vivek; Nehru, Bimla; Sanyal, S N

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/PTEN/Akt signaling is over activated in various tumors including colon cancer. Activation of this pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth that underlie the biology of a cancer cell. In the present study, the chemopreventive effects have been observed of Diclofenac, a preferential COX-2 inhibitory non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Curcumin, a natural anti-inflammatory agent, in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride in rats. The tumor-promoting role of PI3-K/Akt/PTEN signal transduction pathway and its association with anti-apoptotic family of proteins are also observed. Both Diclofenac and Curcumin downregulated the PI3-K and Akt expression while promoting the apoptotic mechanism. Diclofenac and Curcumin administration significantly increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (Bad and Bax) while decreasing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. An up-regulation of cysteine protease family apoptosis executioner, such as caspase-3 and -9, is seen. Diclofenac and Curcumin inhibited the Bcl-2 protein by directly interacting at the active site by multiple hydrogen bonding, as also evident by negative glide score of Bcl-2. These drugs stimulated apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and simultaneously decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ M). Diclofenac and Curcumin showed anti-neoplastic effects by downregulating PI3-K/Akt/PTEN pathway, inducing apoptosis, increasing ROS generation, and decreasing ΔΨ M. The anti-neoplastic and apoptotic effects were found enhanced when both Diclofenac and Curcumin were administered together, rather than individually.

  18. IL-7 splicing variant IL-7{delta}5 induces human breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Deshun; Liu, Bing; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhu, Jiayong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study confirms the role of IL-7{delta}5 in breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-7{delta}5 promotes cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. -- Abstract: Various tumor cells express interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-7 variants. IL-7 has been confirmed to stimulate solid tumor cell proliferation. However, the effect of IL-7 variants on tumor cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-7{delta}5 (an IL-7 variant lacking exon 5) on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results showed that IL-7{delta}5 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression from G1 phase to G2/M phase, associated with upregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the downregulation of p27{sup kip1} expression. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7{delta}5 induced the activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 reversed the proliferation and cell cycle progression of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced by IL-7{delta}5. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IL-7{delta}5 variant induces human breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, IL-7{delta}5 may be a potential target for human breast cancer therapeutics intervention.

  19. EGF‑stimulated AKT activation is mediated by EGFR recycling via an early endocytic pathway in a gefitinib‑resistant human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukio; Takiguchi, Soichi; Ito, Shigeru; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligand epidermal growth factor (EGF) are known to play important roles in malignant tumor cells, and the EGFR signaling pathway is one of the most important targets in various tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reported recently that an aberration in certain steps of EGF-stimulated phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) endocytic trafficking from the early endosomes to the late endosomes occurs in the gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells, in which large amounts of sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) are colocalized with EGFR in the aggregated early endosomes where the internalized pEGFR is also accumulated of these cells. To further investigate the role of SNX1 in EGF‑stimulated pEGFR endocytosis, followed by downstream signaling leading to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)--the serine/threonine kinase AKT pathway, we examined the effect of depletion of SNX1 knock-down expression by siRNA and an inhibition of targeting membrane recycling using monensin. Using immunofluorescence, we observed an efficient endocytic transport of pEGFR from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes after EGF-stimulation in the cells transfected with siRNA‑SNX1, whereas the delayed endocytic delivery of pEGFR was evident in the siRNA-control-transfected cells. Furthermore, a large amount of endocytosed pEGFR was accumulated in the presence of monensin in the early endosomes of the SNX1 knock-down cells. In western blot analysis, EGF stimulation of both control and cells transfected with siRNA-SNX1 resulted in rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and enhanced AKT phosphorylation. Monensin-dependent inhibition of AKT phosphorylation was stronger in SNX1 knock-down cells than in controls. In contrast, however, monensin had no effect on AKT phosphorylation triggered by activation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively, we suggest that EGF-stimulated recycling of

  20. SKF-96365 activates cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of the calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing; Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Jiang, Liming; Zhou, Yubin; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-28

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) inhibitors are emerging as an attractive new generation of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report that SKF-96365, an SOCE inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In the meantime, SKF-96365 also induces cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, SKF-96365 treatment inhibited the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIγ (CaMKIIγ)/AKT signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CaMKIIγ or AKT abolished the effects of SKF-96365 on cancer cells, suggesting a critical role of the CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling pathway in SFK-96365-induced biological effects. Moreover, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-cancer effect of SFK-96365 in a mouse xenograft model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling can regulate apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously in cancer cells, and the combination of the SOCE inhibitor SKF-96365 with autophagy inhibitors represents a promising strategy for treating patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26803057

  1. SKF-96365 activates cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of the calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Sui, Xinbing; Yao, Junlin; Xie, Jiansheng; Jiang, Liming; Zhou, Yubin; Pan, Hongming; Han, Weidong

    2016-03-28

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) inhibitors are emerging as an attractive new generation of anti-cancer drugs. Here, we report that SKF-96365, an SOCE inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. In the meantime, SKF-96365 also induces cytoprotective autophagy to delay apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, SKF-96365 treatment inhibited the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIγ (CaMKIIγ)/AKT signaling cascade in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CaMKIIγ or AKT abolished the effects of SKF-96365 on cancer cells, suggesting a critical role of the CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling pathway in SFK-96365-induced biological effects. Moreover, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved drug used to inhibit autophagy, could significantly augment the anti-cancer effect of SFK-96365 in a mouse xenograft model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that calcium/CaMKIIγ/AKT signaling can regulate apoptosis and autophagy simultaneously in cancer cells, and the combination of the SOCE inhibitor SKF-96365 with autophagy inhibitors represents a promising strategy for treating patients with colorectal cancer.

  2. Clonal evolution enhances leukemia propagating cell frequency in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through Akt/mTORC1 pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S.; Liu, Sali; Wilder, Jayme L.; Dobrinski, Kimberly P.; Lobbardi, Riadh; Moore, Finola E.; Martinez, Sarah A.; Chen, Eleanor Y.; Lee, Charles; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Clonal evolution and intratumoral heterogeneity drive cancer progression through unknown molecular mechanisms. To address this issue, functional differences between single T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) clones were assessed using a zebrafish transgenic model. Functional variation was observed within individual clones, with a minority of clones enhancing growth rate and leukemia propagating potential with time. Akt pathway activation was acquired in a subset of these evolved clones, which increased the number of leukemia propagating cells through activating mTORC1, elevated growth rate likely by stabilizing the Myc protein, and rendered cells resistant to dexamethasone, which was reversed by combined treatment with an Akt inhibitor. Thus, T-ALL clones spontaneously and continuously evolve to drive leukemia progression even in the absence of therapy-induced selection. PMID:24613413

  3. Nobiletin protects against cerebral ischemia via activating the p-Akt, p-CREB, BDNF and Bcl-2 pathway and ameliorating BBB permeability in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Xiangjian; Chen, Linyu; Zhao, Xumeng; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    There is cumulative evidence that the serine-threonine kinase Akt and its downstream nuclear transcription factor CREB are involved in neuronal survival and protection. The Akt activates and phosphorylates CREB at Ser133, resulting in the up-regulation of pro-survival CREB target genes such as BDNF and Bcl-2. Thus, Akt/CREB signaling pathway may be one propitious target for treatment of ischemic cerebral injury. Nobiletin (NOB) exhibits a wide spectrum of beneficial biological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic actions and contributes to reverse learning impairment in Alzheimer's disease rat. However, little is currently known regarding the exact role of NOB in ischemic stroke. Here, we designed to evaluate its possible therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and randomly divided into five groups: Sham (sham-operated+0.05% Tween-80), MCAO (pMCAO+0.9% saline), Vehicle group (pMCAO+0.05% Tween-80), NOB-L (pMCAO+NOB 10 mg/kg) and NOB-H (pMCAO+NOB 25 mg/kg) groups. Rats were pre-administered intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days before surgery and then received once again immediately after surgery. Neurological deficit scores, brain water content and infarct volume were evaluated at 24 h after stroke. Additionally, the activities of Akt, CREB, BDNF, Bcl-2 and claudin-5 in ischemic brain cortex were analyzed by the methods of immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-qPCR. Compared with Vehicle group, neurological deficits and brain edema were relieved in NOB-H group (P<0.05), infarct volume was lessened in both NOB-L and NOB-H groups (P<0.05) at 24 h after stroke. Immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that NOB dramatically promoted the activities of Akt, CREB, BDNF and Bcl-2 (P<0.05). Meanwhile, claudin-5 expression was also enhanced. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that NOB protected the

  4. CD147 modulates androgen receptor activity through the Akt/Gsk-3β/β-catenin/AR pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Qin, Yingxin; Hao, Feng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shuang; Zhao, Liangzhong; Wang, Liguo; Cai, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The androgen signaling pathway serves an important role in the development of prostate cancer. β-Catenin is an androgen receptor (AR) cofactor and augments AR signaling. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a target of phosphorylated serine/threonine protein kinase B (p-Akt), regulates β-catenin stability. In addition, β-catenin, a coregulator of AR, physically interacts with AR and enhances AR-mediated target gene transcription. The multifunctional glycoprotein cluster of differentiation (CD) 147 is highly expressed on the cell surface of the majority of cancer cells, and it promotes tumor invasion, metastasis and growth. In the present study, the molecular effects of CD147 on the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin/AR signaling network were investigated in LNCaP cells. Using short hairpin-mediated RNA knockdown of CD147 in LNCaP cells, it was demonstrated that downregulation of CD147 resulted in inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β, and then promoted degeneration of β-catenin and reduced nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. In addition, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that CD147 downregulation decreased the formation of a complex between β-catenin and AR. It was shown that CD147 knockdown suppressed the expression of the AR target gene prostate-specific antigen and the growth of AR-positive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 augmented CD147-mediated function. The present study indicates that the PI3K/Akt pathway may facilitate CD147-mediated activation of the AR pathway. PMID:27446405

  5. Hedgehog signaling is a novel therapeutic target in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer aberrantly activated by PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Lu, Yuanzhi; Teng, Kun-yu; Nuovo, Gerard; Li, Xiaobai; Shapiro, Charles L; Majumder, Sarmila

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine resistance is a major challenge in the management of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. Although multiple mechanisms leading to endocrine resistance have been proposed, the poor outcome of patients developing resistance to endocrine therapy warrants additional studies. Here we show that noncanonical Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an alternative growth promoting mechanism that is activated in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. Importantly, phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway plays a key role in regulating Hh signaling by protecting key components of this pathway from proteasomal degradation. The levels of Hh-signaling molecules SMO and GLI1 and the targets were significantly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells and T47D cells. Serial passage of the resistant cells in mice resulted in aggressive tumors that metastasized to distant organs with concurrent increases in Hh marker expression and epithelial mesenchymal transition. RNAi-mediated depletion of SMO or GLI1 in the resistant cells resulted in reduced proliferation, clonogenic survival and delayed G(1)-S transition. Notably, treatment of resistant cells with PI3K inhibitors decreased SMO and GLI1 protein levels and activity that was rescued upon blocking GSK3β and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, treatment of tamoxifen-resistant xenografts with anti-Hh compound GDC-0449 blocked tumor growth in mice. Importantly, high GLI1 expression correlated inversely with disease-free and overall survival in a cohort of 315 patients with breast cancer. In summary, our results describe a signaling event linking PI3K/AKT pathway with Hh signaling that promotes tamoxifen resistance. Targeting Hh pathway alone or in combination with PI3K/AKT pathway could therefore be a novel therapeutic option in treating endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

  6. PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fresno Vara, Juan Angel; Casado, Enrique; de Castro, Javier; Cejas, Paloma; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; González-Barón, Manuel

    2004-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases, PI3Ks, constitute a lipid kinase family characterized by their ability to phosphorylate inositol ring 3'-OH group in inositol phospholipids to generate the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P(3)). RPTK activation results in PI(3,4,5)P(3) and PI(3,4)P(2) production by PI3K at the inner side of the plasma membrane. Akt interacts with these phospholipids, causing its translocation to the inner membrane, where it is phosphorylated and activated by PDK1 and PDK2. Activated Akt modulates the function of numerous substrates involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression and cellular growth. In recent years, it has been shown that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway components are frequently altered in human cancers. Cancer treatment by chemotherapy and gamma-irradiation kills target cells primarily by the induction of apoptosis. However, the development of resistance to therapy is an important clinical problem. Failure to activate the apoptotic programme represents an important mode of drug resistance in tumor cells. Survival signals induced by several receptors are mediated mainly by PI3K/Akt, hence this pathway may decisively contribute to the resistant phenotype. Many of the signalling pathways involved in cellular transformation have been elucidated and efforts are underway to develop treatment strategies that target these specific signalling molecules or their downstream effectors. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in many of the mechanisms targeted by these new drugs, thus a better understanding of this crossroad can help to fully exploit the potential benefits of these new agents. PMID:15023437

  7. Control of Muscle Mitochondria by Insulin Entails Activation of Akt2-mtNOS Pathway: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Finocchietto, Paola; Barreyro, Fernando; Holod, Silvia; Peralta, Jorge; Franco, María C.; Méndez, Carlos; Converso, Daniela P.; Estévez, Alvaro; Carreras, Maria C.; Poderoso, Juan J.

    2008-01-01

    Background In the metabolic syndrome with hyperinsulinemia, mitochondrial inhibition facilitates muscle fat and glycogen accumulation and accelerates its progression. In the last decade, nitric oxide (NO) emerged as a typical mitochondrial modulator by reversibly inhibiting citochrome oxidase and oxygen utilization. We wondered whether insulin-operated signaling pathways modulate mitochondrial respiration via NO, to alternatively release complete glucose oxidation to CO2 and H2O or to drive glucose storage to glycogen. Methodology/Principal Findings We illustrate here that NO produced by translocated nNOS (mtNOS) is the insulin-signaling molecule that controls mitochondrial oxygen utilization. We evoke a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic non-invasive clamp by subcutaneously injecting adult male rats with long-lasting human insulin glargine that remains stable in plasma by several hours. At a precise concentration, insulin increased phospho-Akt2 that translocates to mitochondria and determines in situ phosphorylation and substantial cooperative mtNOS activation (+4–8 fold, P<.05), high NO, and a lowering of mitochondrial oxygen uptake and resting metabolic rate (−25 to −60%, P<.05). Comparing in vivo insulin metabolic effects on gastrocnemius muscles by direct electroporation of siRNA nNOS or empty vector in the two legs of the same animal, confirmed that in the silenced muscles disrupted mtNOS allows higher oxygen uptake and complete (U-14C)-glucose utilization respect to normal mtNOS in the vector-treated ones (respectively 37±3 vs 10±1 µmolO2/h.g tissue and 13±1 vs 7.2±1 µmol 3H2O/h.g tissue, P<.05), which reciprocally restricted glycogen-synthesis by a half. Conclusions/Significance These evidences show that after energy replenishment, insulin depresses mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle via NO which permits substrates to be deposited as macromolecules; at discrete hyperinsulinemia, persistent mtNOS activation could contribute to mitochondrial

  8. Agmatine Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Oxidant Response via Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway and Up-Regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianshen; Luo, Li; Hou, Fengyan; Fan, Xia; Yu, Jing; Ma, Wei; Tang, Wangqi; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Junyu; Kang, Wenyuan; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key responders of inflammation and are closely related with oxidative stress. Activated macrophages can enhance oxygen depletion, which causes an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to further excessive inflammatory response and tissue damage. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects based on its antioxidant properties. However, the antioxidant effects of agmatine in peripheral tissues and cells, especially macrophages, remain unclear. In this study we explored the role of agmatine in mediating antioxidant effects in RAW 264.7 cells and studied its antioxidant mechanism. Our data demonstrate that agmatine is an activator of Nrf2 signaling that markedly enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increases nuclear Nrf2 protein level, up-regulates the expression of the Nrf2 downstream effector HO-1, and attenuates ROS generation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We further demonstrated that the agmatine-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely through the PI3K/Akt pathway. LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, abolished agmatine-induced HO-1 up-regulation and ROS suppression significantly. Inhibiting HO-1 pathway significantly attenuated the antioxidant effect of agmatine which the products of HO-1 enzymatic activity contributed to. Furthermore, the common membrane receptors of agmatine were evaluated, revealing that α2-adrenoceptor, I1-imidazoline receptor or I2-imidazoline receptor are not required by the antioxidant properties of agmatine. Taken together, our findings revealed that agmatine has antioxidant activity against LPS-induced ROS accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells involving HO-1 expression induced by Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:27685463

  9. Holo-APP and G-protein-mediated signaling are required for sAPPα-induced activation of the Akt survival pathway

    PubMed Central

    Milosch, N; Tanriöver, G; Kundu, A; Rami, A; François, J-C; Baumkötter, F; Weyer, S W; Samanta, A; Jäschke, A; Brod, F; Buchholz, C J; Kins, S; Behl, C; Müller, U C; Kögel, D

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that loss of physiologic amyloid precursor protein (APP) function leads to reduced neuronal plasticity, diminished synaptic signaling and enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress during brain aging. Here we investigated the neuroprotective function of the soluble APP ectodomain sAPPα (soluble APPα), which is generated by cleavage of APP by α-secretase along the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Recombinant sAPPα protected primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from cell death induced by trophic factor deprivation. We show that this protective effect is abrogated in neurons from APP-knockout animals and APP-depleted SH-SY5Y cells, but not in APP-like protein 1- and 2- (APLP1 and APLP2) depleted cells, indicating that expression of membrane-bound holo-APP is required for sAPPα-dependent neuroprotection. Trophic factor deprivation diminished the activity of the Akt survival pathway. Strikingly, both recombinant sAPPα and the APP-E1 domain were able to stimulate Akt activity in wild-type (wt) fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y cells and neurons, but failed to rescue in APP-deficient neurons or fibroblasts. The ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) inhibitor GI254023X exacerbated neuron death in organotypic (hippocampal) slice cultures of wt mice subjected to trophic factor and glucose deprivation. This cell death-enhancing effect of GI254023X could be completely rescued by applying exogenous sAPPα. Interestingly, sAPPα-dependent Akt induction was unaffected in neurons of APP-ΔCT15 mice that lack the C-terminal YENPTY motif of the APP intracellular region. In contrast, sAPPα-dependent rescue of Akt activation was completely abolished in APP mutant cells lacking the G-protein interaction motif located in the APP C-terminus and by blocking G-protein-dependent signaling with pertussis toxin. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights into the physiologic role of APP in

  10. Holo-APP and G-protein-mediated signaling are required for sAPPα-induced activation of the Akt survival pathway.

    PubMed

    Milosch, N; Tanriöver, G; Kundu, A; Rami, A; François, J-C; Baumkötter, F; Weyer, S W; Samanta, A; Jäschke, A; Brod, F; Buchholz, C J; Kins, S; Behl, C; Müller, U C; Kögel, D

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that loss of physiologic amyloid precursor protein (APP) function leads to reduced neuronal plasticity, diminished synaptic signaling and enhanced susceptibility of neurons to cellular stress during brain aging. Here we investigated the neuroprotective function of the soluble APP ectodomain sAPPα (soluble APPα), which is generated by cleavage of APP by α-secretase along the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Recombinant sAPPα protected primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from cell death induced by trophic factor deprivation. We show that this protective effect is abrogated in neurons from APP-knockout animals and APP-depleted SH-SY5Y cells, but not in APP-like protein 1- and 2- (APLP1 and APLP2) depleted cells, indicating that expression of membrane-bound holo-APP is required for sAPPα-dependent neuroprotection. Trophic factor deprivation diminished the activity of the Akt survival pathway. Strikingly, both recombinant sAPPα and the APP-E1 domain were able to stimulate Akt activity in wild-type (wt) fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y cells and neurons, but failed to rescue in APP-deficient neurons or fibroblasts. The ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) inhibitor GI254023X exacerbated neuron death in organotypic (hippocampal) slice cultures of wt mice subjected to trophic factor and glucose deprivation. This cell death-enhancing effect of GI254023X could be completely rescued by applying exogenous sAPPα. Interestingly, sAPPα-dependent Akt induction was unaffected in neurons of APP-ΔCT15 mice that lack the C-terminal YENPTY motif of the APP intracellular region. In contrast, sAPPα-dependent rescue of Akt activation was completely abolished in APP mutant cells lacking the G-protein interaction motif located in the APP C-terminus and by blocking G-protein-dependent signaling with pertussis toxin. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights into the physiologic role of APP in

  11. Accelerated Tumor Growth Mediated by Sub-lytic Levels of Antibody-Induced Complement Activation is Associated with Activation of the PI3K/AKT Survival Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ragupathi, Govind; Panageas, Katherine; Hong, Feng; Livingston, Philip O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We addressed the possibility that low levels of tumor cell bound antibodies targeting gangliosides might accelerate tumor growth. Experimental Design To test this hypothesis, we treated mice with a range of mAb doses against GM2, GD2, GD3 and CD20 after challenge with tumors expressing these antigens and tested the activity of the same mAbs in-vitro. We also explored the mechanisms behind the complement-mediated tumor growth acceleration that we observed and an approach to overcome it. Results Serologically detectable levels of IgM-mAb against GM2 are able to delay or prevent tumor growth of high GM2-expressing cell lines both in-vitro and in a SCID mouse model, while very low levels of this mAb resulted in slight but consistent acceleration of tumor growth in both settings. Surprisingly, this is not restricted to IgM antibodies targeting GM2 but consistent against IgG-mAb targeting GD3 as well. These findings were mirrored by in-vitro studies with antibodies against these antigens as well as GD2 and CD20 (with Rituxan), and shown to be complement-dependent in all cases. Complement-mediated accelerated growth of cultured tumor cell lines initiated by low mAb levels was associated with activation of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway and significantly elevated levels of both p-AKT and p-PRAS40. This complement-mediated PI3K-activation and accelerated tumor growth in-vitro and in-vivo are eliminated by PI3K-inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and Wortmannin. These PI3K-inhibitors also significantly increased efficacy of high doses of these 4 mAbs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that manipulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and its signaling network can significantly increase the potency of passively administered mAbs and vaccine-induced-antibodies targeting a variety of tumor-cell-surface-antigens. PMID:23833306

  12. N-acetyl-L-cysteine protects against cadmium-induced neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sujuan; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Jinfei; Ye, Yangjing; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Yijiao; Guo, Min; Ji, Haiyan; Xu, Chong; Gu, Chenjian; Gao, Wei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) in mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). Methods NAC (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice exposed to Cd (10-50 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks. The changes of cell damage and death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, as well as Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in brain neurons were assessed. To verify the role of mTOR activation in Cd-induced neurotoxicity, mice also received a subacute regimen of intraperitoneally administered Cd (1 mg/kg) with/without rapamycin (7.5 mg/kg) for 11 days. Results Chronic exposure of mice to Cd induced brain damage or neuronal cell death, due to ROS induction. Co-administration of NAC significantly reduced Cd levels in the plasma and brain of the animals. NAC prevented Cd-induced ROS and significantly attenuated Cd-induced brain damage or neuronal cell death. The protective effect of NAC was mediated, at least partially, by elevating the activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of glutathione in the brain. Furthermore, Cd-induced activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in the brain was also inhibited by NAC. Rapamycin in vitro and in vivo protected against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions NAC protects against Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis in mouse brain partially by inhibiting ROS-dependent activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. The findings highlight that NAC may be exploited for prevention and treatment of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24299490

  13. The PI3K/Akt pathway: recent progress in the development of ATP-competitive and allosteric Akt kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Craig W; Barnett, Stanley F; Layton, Mark E; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2008-02-01

    This article describes recent advances in the development and biological evaluation of allosteric and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors for the serine/threonine kinase Akt (protein kinase B, PKB). Unregulated activation of the PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers and Akt is over-expressed or activated in all major cancers making Akt an exciting new target for cancer therapy. The development of Akt inhibitors has been complicated and hampered by the presence of three Akt isozymes, (Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3) which differ in function and tissue distribution, as well as a lack of Akt specific inhibitors. In the past 18 months, a large number of reports have appeared describing the discovery and development of allosteric Akt kinase inhibitors and classical ATP-competitive Akt kinase inhibitors. This review will discuss the PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway, allosteric and ATP-competitive Akt kinase inhibitors, their biological evaluation and progress towards target validation.

  14. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  15. Calcium Signaling Involvement in Cadmium-Induced Astrocyte Cytotoxicity and Cell Death Through Activation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiao Hua; Ge, Guo; Gao, Kai; Pang, Ying; Chai, Rui Chao; Jia, Xi Hua; Kong, Jin Ge; Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous toxic heavy metal, can contaminate the environment, including agricultural soil, water and air, via industrial runoff and other sources of pollution. Cd accumulated in the body via direct exposure or through the food chain results in neurodegeneration and many other diseases. Previous studies on its toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) focused mainly on neurons. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of Cd toxicity for the CNS, we investigated how astrocytes respond to acute and chronic Cd exposure and its toxic molecular mechanisms. When primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes incubated with 1-300 μM CdCl2, morphological changes, LDH release and cell death were observed in a time and dose-dependent manner. Further studies demonstrated that acute and chronic Cd treatment phosphorylated JNK, p38 and Akt to different degrees, while ERK1/2 was only phosphorylated under low doses of Cd (10 μM) exposure. Inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not of p38, could partially protect astrocyte from cytotoxicity in chronic and acute Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd also induced a strong calcium signal, while BAPTA, a specific intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) chelator, prevented Cd-induced intracellular increase of calcium levels in astrocytes; inhibited the Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and Akt; and also significantly reduced astrocyte cell death. All of these results suggested that the Cd-Ca(2+)-MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in Cd-induced toxicity in astrocytes. This toxicity involvement indicates that these pathways may be exploited as a target for the prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26248512

  16. Desmocollin 3 mediates follicle stimulating hormone-induced ovarian epithelial cancer cell proliferation by activating the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Wen-Ping; Jin, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is associated with the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We sought to explore whether desmocollin 3 (Dsc3) mediates FSH-induced ovarian epithelial cancer cell proliferation and whether the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway may be involved in this process. Dsc3 positivity in ovarian tissue specimens from 72 patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The positive expression rates of Dsc3 were similar in ovarian cancer tissues (24/31:77.4%) and borderline ovarian tumor tissues (18/22:81.8%) (P>0.05), but were significantly higher in these cancerous tissues than in benign ovarian cyst tissues (3/19:15.8%) (P<0.05). Consistently, the expression of Dsc3 in four out of five ovarian cancer cells (HO8910, Skov3ip, Skov and Hey cells, but not ES-2 and in borderline ovarian MCV152 tumor cells was higher than in the immortalized ovarian epithelial cell line, Moody. FSH up-regulated the expression of Dsc3 and EGFR in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, a converse relationship between the expression of Dsc3, EFGR and PI3K/Akt signaling was elucidated using RNA interference and PI3K/Akt inhibitor in the absence and presence of FSH. A role for these proteins in FSH-induced cell proliferation was verified, highlighting their interdependence in mediating ovarian cancer cell function. These results suggest that Dsc3 can mediate FSH-induced ovarian cancer cell proliferation by activating the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. WNT16B is a new marker of cellular senescence that regulates p53 activity and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Binet, Romuald; Ythier, Damien; Robles, Ana I; Collado, Manuel; Larrieu, Delphine; Fonti, Claire; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Serrano, Manuel; Harris, Curtis C; Pedeux, Rémy

    2009-12-15

    Senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism that is induced by several stimuli, including oncogenic signaling and telomere shortening, and controlled by the p53/p21(WAF1) signaling pathway. Recently, a critical role for secreted factors has emerged, suggesting that extracellular signals are necessary for the onset and maintenance of senescence. Conversely, factors secreted by senescent cells may promote tumor growth. By using expression profiling techniques, we searched for secreted factors that were overexpressed in fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence. We identified WNT16B, a member of the WNT family of secreted proteins. We found that WNT16B is overexpressed in cells undergoing stress-induced premature senescence and oncogene-induced senescence in both MRC5 cell line and the in vivo murine model of K-Ras(V12)-induced senescence. By small interfering RNA experiments, we observed that both p53 and WNT16B are necessary for the onset of replicative senescence. WNT16B expression is required for the full transcriptional activation of p21(WAF1). Moreover, WNT16B regulates activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Overall, we identified WNT16B as a new marker of senescence that regulates p53 activity and the PI3K/AKT pathway and is necessary for the onset of replicative senescence.

  18. The Effects of Xiangqing Anodyne Spray on Treating Acute Soft-Tissue Injury Mainly Depend on Suppressing Activations of AKT and p38 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shudong; Li, Tao; Qu, Wei; Li, Xin; Ma, Shaoxin; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Wenya; Hou, Shanshan; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. In the present study we try to elucidate the mechanism of Xiangqing anodyne spray (XQAS) effects on acute soft-tissue injury (STI). Methods. Acute STI model was established by hammer blow in the rat hind leg muscle. Within 8 hours, instantly after modeling and per 2-hour interval repeated topical applications with or without XQAS, CP or IH ethanol extracts spray (CPS and IHS) were performed, respectively; muscle swelling rate and inflammation-related biochemical parameters, muscle histological observation, and mRNA and protein expression were then examined. Results. XQAS dose-dependently suppressed STI-caused muscle swelling, proinflammatory mediator productions, and oxidative stress as well as severe pathological changes in the injured muscle tissue. Moreover, CPS mainly by blocking p38 activation while IHS majorly by blocking AKT activation led to cytoplastic IκBα degradation with NF-κB p65 translocated into the nucleus. There are synergistic effects between CP and IH components in the XQAS on preventing from acute STI with suppressing IκBα degradation, NF-κB p65 translocation, and subsequent inflammation and oxidative stress-related abnormality. Conclusion. Marked effects of XQAS on treating acute STI are ascribed to strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions with a reasonable combination of CP active components, blocking p38-NF-κB pathway activated, and IH active components, blocking AKT-NF-κB pathway activated. PMID:27190541

  19. Septin4_i1 Regulates Apoptosis in Hepatic Stellate Cells through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ/Akt/B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jinling; Pan, Jing; Xu, Tianhua; Qin, Yongwei; He, Xingxin; Huang, Caiqun

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been verified as a potential mechanism to aid in hepatic fibrosis remission. Earlier research suggests that Septin4_i1 may sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of Septin4_i1 on HSC apoptosis and explore the associated signaling pathways. We found that Septin4_i1 can induce apoptosis in LX-2 cells and that this is accompanied by an up-regulation in cleaved-caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression and a down-regulation in α-SMA expression. Over-expression of Septin4_i1 reduced phosphorylated Akt and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression but had no effect on the expression of p53 and death receptor (DR)-5. The decreased expression of Bcl-2 and the increased expression of cleaved-caspase-3 induced by Sept4_i1 could be reversed by GW501516, a PPAR-β/δ agonist that has been reported by others to enhance Akt signaling. In addition, GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR-γ, could also inhibit apoptosis in LX-2 cells induced by Sept4_i1. In conclusion, our data suggest that Sept4_i1 induces HSC apoptosis by inhibiting Akt and Bcl-2 expression and up-regulating PPAR-γ expression. PMID:25527525

  20. Septin4_i1 regulates apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/Akt/B-cell lymphoma 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dandan; Wang, Jianxin; Sun, Xiaolei; Chen, Jinling; Duan, Yinong; Pan, Jing; Xu, Tianhua; Qin, Yongwei; He, Xingxin; Huang, Caiqun

    2015-03-01

    Apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been verified as a potential mechanism to aid in hepatic fibrosis remission. Earlier research suggests that Septin4_i1 may sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of Septin4_i1 on HSC apoptosis and explore the associated signaling pathways. We found that Septin4_i1 can induce apoptosis in LX-2 cells and that this is accompanied by an up-regulation in cleaved-caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression and a down-regulation in α-SMA expression. Over-expression of Septin4_i1 reduced phosphorylated Akt and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression but had no effect on the expression of p53 and death receptor (DR)-5. The decreased expression of Bcl-2 and the increased expression of cleaved-caspase-3 induced by Sept4_i1 could be reversed by GW501516, a PPAR-β/δ agonist that has been reported by others to enhance Akt signaling. In addition, GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR-γ, could also inhibit apoptosis in LX-2 cells induced by Sept4_i1. In conclusion, our data suggest that Sept4_i1 induces HSC apoptosis by inhibiting Akt and Bcl-2 expression and up-regulating PPAR-γ expression. PMID:25527525

  1. Fisetin inhibits UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce inflammation, DNA damage, p53 mutations and alterations in signaling pathways eventually leading to skin cancer. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Mice were exposed to 180 mJ cm(-2) of UVB radiation on alternate days for a total of seven exposures, and fisetin (250 and 500 nmol) was applied topically after 15 min of each UVB exposure. Fisetin treatment to UVB-exposed mice resulted in decreased hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Fisetin treatment also reduced inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, PGE2 as well as its receptors (EP1-EP4) and MPO activity. Furthermore, fisetin reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in UVB-exposed skin. Fisetin treatment also reduced cell proliferation markers as well as DNA damage as evidenced by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. Further studies revealed that fisetin inhibited UVB-induced expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT and activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in mouse skin. Overall, these data suggest that fisetin may be useful against UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and DNA damage.

  2. MALAT1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongqiang; Liang, Guojun; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Chaoqun; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Xuhui

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), one of the first found cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), involves in the development and progression of many types of tumors. An aberrant expression of MALAT1 was observed in hepatocellular carcinoma, cervical cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, the exact effects and molecular mechanisms of MALAT1 in osteosarcoma progression are still unknown up to now. Here, we investigated the role of MALAT1 in human osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical tumor samples in order to determine the function of this molecule. In our research, the MALAT1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was highly expressed in human osteosarcoma tissues, and its expression level was closely correlated with pulmonary metastasis. Then, we employed lentivirus-mediated knockdown of MALAT1 in U-2 OS and SaO2 to determine the role of MALAT1 in osteosarcoma cell lines. Lentivirus-mediated MALAT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) could efficiently downregulated the expression level of MALAT1 in osteosarcoma cell lines. Knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of human osteosarcoma cell and suppressed its metastasis in vitro and vivo. At the same time, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), phosphorylated PI3Kp85α, and Akt expressions were significantly inhibited in MALAT1-deleted cells. These findings indicated that MALAT1 might suppress the tumor growth and metastasis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that MALAT1 might be an oncogenic lncRNA that promoted proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma and could be regarded as a therapeutic target in human osteosarcoma.

  3. Anti-Fibrotic Actions of Interleukin-10 against Hypertrophic Scarring by Activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Scar-Forming Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Fang, Xiaobing; Hu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Hongtao; Zheng, Zhao; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai; Zhu, Xiongxiang

    2014-01-01

    fibrosis by activating AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of the IL-10 receptor, and by facilitating crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signal transduction pathways. PMID:24878845

  4. Jujuboside A Protects H9C2 Cells from Isoproterenol-Induced Injury via Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dandan; Wan, Changrong; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Linshu; Xu, Jianqin

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside A is a kind of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba, which possesses multiple biological effects, such as antianxiety, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its mediatory effect on isoproterenol-stimulated cardiomyocytes has not been investigated yet. In this study, we tried to detect the protective effect and potential mechanism of JUA on ISO-induced cardiomyocytes injury. H9C2 cells were treated with ISO to induce cell damage. Cells were pretreated with JUA to investigate the effects on the cell viability, morphological changes, light chain 3 conversion, and the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Results showed that ISO significantly inhibited the cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. JUA pretreatment could reverse the reduction of cell viability and better the injury of H9C2 cells induced by ISO. Western blot analysis showed that JUA could accelerate the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Results also indicated that JUA could significantly decrease the ratio of microtubule-associated protein LC3-II/I in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our research showed that JUA could notably reduce the damage cause by ISO via promoting the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR and inhibiting LC3 conversion, which may be a potential choice for the treatment of heart diseases. PMID:27293469

  5. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Promotes the Angiogenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from iPSCs via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jieyuan; Guan, Junjie; Qi, Xin; Ding, Hao; Yuan, Hong; Xie, Zongping; Chen, Chunyuan; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Changqing; Huang, Yigang

    2016-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue-engineered bone is a prerequisite step for the successful repair of bone defects. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an essential role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration and can activate the expression of angiogenic factors in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) is an angiogenic small molecule that can inhibit prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes and thus regulate the stability of HIF-1α in cells at normal oxygen tension. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (hiPSC-MSCs) are promising alternatives for stem cell therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DMOG on promoting hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis in tissue-engineered bone and simultaneously explored the underlying mechanisms in vitro. The effectiveness of DMOG in improving the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream angiogenic genes in hiPSC-MSCs demonstrated that DMOG significantly enhanced the gene and protein expression profiles of angiogenic-related factors in hiPSC-MSCs by sustaining the expression of HIF-1α. Further analysis showed that DMOG-stimulated hiPSC-MSCs angiogenesis was associated with the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and with an increase in VEGF production. The effects could be blocked by the addition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. In a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats, DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs showed markedly improved angiogenic capacity in the tissue-engineered bone, leading to bone regeneration. Collectively, the results indicate that DMOG, via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, promotes the angiogenesis of hiPSC-MSCs in tissue-engineered bone for bone defect repair and that DMOG-treated hiPSC-MSCs can be exploited as a potential therapeutic tool in bone regeneration. PMID:27194942

  6. RhoC promotes human melanoma invasion in a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Mariah C; Xu, Yisheng; Maxwell, Ian H; Ahn, Natalie G; Norris, David A; Shellman, Yiqun G

    2006-04-01

    Overexpression of the small GTPase, RhoC, in various human cancers has been correlated with high metastatic ability and poor prognosis. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is an important effector of Rho GTPases. The oncogenic serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as PKB) is a downstream effector of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). Akt activation contributes to the neoplastic phenotype by promoting cell cycle progression, increasing antiapoptotic functions, and enhancing tumor cell invasion. Rho signaling via ROCK has been previously shown either to activate or to downregulate PI3K/Akt. Using a human radial growth phase melanoma cell line, WM35, we have established stable transfectants that overexpress RhoC (called WM35RhoC). We found that overexpression of RhoC increased phosphorylated-Akt (Ser473/474/472, pAkt) expression and promoted cell invasion. Inhibition of RhoC with C3 transferase downregulated pAkt expression and decreased cell invasion in these cells. In addition, inhibition of PI3K, Akt, or ROCK partially decreased invasion. Further, inhibition of PI3K but not ROCK decreased the pAkt level. These results suggest that RhoC promotes invasion in part via activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway, in a manner independent of ROCK signaling. We propose that RhoC promotes melanoma progression via separate mechanisms that regulate the PI3K/Akt pathway and the ROCK signaling pathway.

  7. Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    REN, MIN; WANG, XUDONG; DU, GUOQING; TIAN, JIAWEI; LIU, YUJIE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. Hemodynamic parameters, including ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were monitored using an ultrasound system, and infarct size was measured using Evans blue/tetrazolium chloride double staining. The activities of serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to assess the degree of myocardial injury and oxidative stress-induced damage. The protein expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, phosphorylated (p)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85, PI3K p85, p-Akt and Akt were determined using western blotting. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with high dose (H)-CG markedly improved cardiac function, as evidenced by upregulated EF, FS and LVESP, and downregulated LVEDP. In addition, administration of CG resulted in significant decreases in infarct size in the I/R+low dose-CG and I/R+H-CG groups, compared with the I/R group. The activities of CK and LDH, and the levels of MDA in the I/R+H-CG group were reduced, compared with those in the I/R group, whereas SOD activity was elevated. Treatment with CG inhibited the cleavage and activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K p85 and Akt. Notably, administration of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, markedly lowered the levels of p-PI3K p85/p-Akt, and eradicated the inhibitory effects of H-CG on infarct size, myocardial injury and oxidative stress-induced damage. Taken together, the results suggested that CG may alleviate I/R injury by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26648122

  8. Non-tumor tissue derived interleukin-17B activates IL-17RB/AKT/β-catenin pathway to enhance the stemness of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Qingli; Sun, Caixia; Gong, Aihua; Li, Chunye; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Ji, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Qi; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a critical component involved in tumor progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has been associated with the progression of cancers. However, the role of IL-17B/IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) signaling to stemness of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that the expression of IL-17RB in gastric cancer tissues was significantly increased, that overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and that overexpression was positively correlated with some stemness markers. Interestingly, the expression of IL-17B was upregulated in patient serum rather than gastric tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-17B significantly promoted the stemness of gastric cancer cells depending on IL-17RB and induced the expression of IL-17RB. Simultaneously, the expression of phosphorylated AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin as well as the nuclear translocation of β-catenin were significantly increased in the MGC-803 cell in a dose-dependent manner, when treated with rIL-17B. The AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the knockdown of AKT expression reversed the rIL-17B-induced upregulation of β-catenin and some stemness markers. Together, our results indicate that the IL-17B/IL-17RB signal can promote the growth and migration of tumor cells, and upregulate cell stemness through activating the AKT/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer, suggesting that IL-17RB may be a novel target in human gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27146881

  9. Non-tumor tissue derived interleukin-17B activates IL-17RB/AKT/β-catenin pathway to enhance the stemness of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bie, Qingli; Sun, Caixia; Gong, Aihua; Li, Chunye; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Ji, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Qi; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-05-05

    Inflammation is a critical component involved in tumor progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belongs to a relatively new family of cytokines that has been associated with the progression of cancers. However, the role of IL-17B/IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) signaling to stemness of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here, we confirmed that the expression of IL-17RB in gastric cancer tissues was significantly increased, that overexpression was associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients, and that overexpression was positively correlated with some stemness markers. Interestingly, the expression of IL-17B was upregulated in patient serum rather than gastric tumor tissues. Furthermore, exogenous rIL-17B significantly promoted the stemness of gastric cancer cells depending on IL-17RB and induced the expression of IL-17RB. Simultaneously, the expression of phosphorylated AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin as well as the nuclear translocation of β-catenin were significantly increased in the MGC-803 cell in a dose-dependent manner, when treated with rIL-17B. The AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the knockdown of AKT expression reversed the rIL-17B-induced upregulation of β-catenin and some stemness markers. Together, our results indicate that the IL-17B/IL-17RB signal can promote the growth and migration of tumor cells, and upregulate cell stemness through activating the AKT/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer, suggesting that IL-17RB may be a novel target in human gastric cancer therapy.

  10. 5-epi-Torrubiellutin C shows antiproliferative activity on DU145 prostate cancer cells through inactivation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashita; Mahipal, Bodugam; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Ummanni, Ramesh

    2014-04-01

    Cell-based assays for evaluation of the anticancer potential of a focused small molecule library have identified a few potential hit molecules. Among the hits identified, Torrubiellutins (3a) showed good anticancer potential across the cells used in screening assays. Torrubiellutins are isolated from fungal insects Torrubiella luteorostrata and diverse pharmacological effects for these have been reported. However, it is not known as to how Torrubiellutins act through signaling pathways inhibiting the growth of eukaryotic cells. The current study aimed to determine the anticancer potential of Torrubiellutins by defining the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity using DU145 cells. The results showed that the inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by 3a was associated with inhibition of anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and, to a small extent, apoptosis-mediated cell death by caspase activation. The growth-inhibitory effects of 3a are supported by inactivation of prosurvival pathways. Immunoblot analysis showed that the treatment of DU145 cells with 3a resulted in specific downregulation of AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effector proteins p70S6K, GSK3β, and STAT3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the changes observed in the AKT/mTOR signaling axis are new targets of 3a that are involved in its inhibitory activity on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potential for further investigation as a promising anticancer agent. PMID:24445589

  11. Subtoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury through TrkB receptor- and calmodulin-mediated PI-3K/Akt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Quan-Guang; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subtoxic NMDA moderated the neuronal survival in vitro and vivo. We performed this experiment to clarify the precise mechanism underlie subtoxic NMDA delayed neuronal death in ischemic brain injury. We found that pretreatment of NMDA (100 mg/kg) increased the number of the surviving CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampus at 5 days of reperfusion. This dose of NMDA could also enhance Akt activation after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Here, we examined the possible mechanism that NMDA induced Akt activation. On the one hand, we found NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was associated with increased expression of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and activation of its high-affinity receptor TrkB after I/R in the hippocampus CA1 region, which could be held down by TrkB receptor antagonist K252a. On the other hand, we found that NMDA enhanced the binding of Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) to p85 (the regulation subunit of PI-3K), which led to the activation of Akt. W-13, an active CaM inhibitor, prevented the combination of CaM and p85 and subsequent Akt activation. Furthermore, NMDA receptor-mediated Akt activation was reversed by combined treatment with LY294002, the specific blockade of PI-3K. Taken together, our results suggested that subtoxic NMDA exerts the neuroprotective effect via activation of prosurvival PI-3K/Akt pathway against ischemic brain injury, and BDNF-TrkB signaling and Ca2+-dependent CaM cascade might contribute to NMDA induced activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway.

  12. Orexin/hypocretin activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) via an Erk/Akt-independent and calcium-stimulated lysosome v-ATPase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shimeng; Kakizaki, Miyo; Hirose, Yuuki; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Funato, Hiromasa; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Yu, Yonghao; Liu, Qinghua

    2014-11-14

    The lack of the neuropeptide orexin, also known as hypocretin, results in narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by frequent sleep/cataplexy attacks and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities. However, the downstream pathways of orexin signaling are not clearly understood. Here, we show that orexin activates the mTOR pathway, a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism, in the mouse brain and multiple recombinant cell lines that express the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) or orexin 2 receptor (OX2R). This orexin/GPCR-stimulated mTOR activation is sensitive to rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) but is independent of two well known mTORC1 activators, Erk and Akt. Rather, our studies indicate that orexin activates mTORC1 via extracellular calcium influx and the lysosome pathway involving v-ATPase and Rag GTPases. Moreover, a cytoplasmic calcium transient is sufficient to mimic orexin/GPCR signaling to mTORC1 activation in a v-ATPase-dependent manner. Together, our studies suggest that the mTORC1 pathway functions downstream of orexin/GPCR signaling, which plays a crucial role in many physiological and metabolic processes.

  13. The Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway is activated in IgA nephropathy and rapamycin may represent a viable treatment option.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Guo, Haixiu; Li, Rongshan

    2015-12-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most frequent forms of glomerulonephritis, and 20 to 40% of patients progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 20 years of disease onset. However, little is known about the molecular pathways involved in the altered physiology of mesangial cells during IgAN progression. This study was designed to explore the role of mTOR signaling and the potential of targeted rapamycin therapy in a rat model of IgAN. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control+rapamycin, IgAN and IgA+rapamycin. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine phospho-Akt, p70S6K and S6 protein levels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was utilized to measure 24-h urinary protein levels. The biochemical parameters of the rats were analyzed with an autoanalyzer. To evaluate IgA deposition in the glomeruli, FITC-conjugated goat anti-rat IgA antibody was used for direct immunofluorescence. Cellular proliferation and the mesangial matrix in glomeruli were assayed via histological and morphometric procedures. Our results showed that p70S6K, S6 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly upregulated in IgAN rats, and rapamycin effectively inhibited p70S6K and S6 phosphorylation. A low dose of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced proteinuria, inhibited IgA deposition, and protected kidney function in an IgAN rat model. Low-dose rapamycin treatment corresponded to significantly lower cellular proliferation rates and a decreased mesangial matrix in the glomeruli. In conclusion, the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated in IgAN, and our findings suggested that rapamycin may represent a viable option for the treatment of IgAN.

  14. Notoginsenoside R1 ameliorates podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guodong; Lv, Jianzhen; Li, Tongyu; Huai, Guoli; Li, Xiang; Xiang, Shaowei; Wang, Longlong; Qin, Zhenlin; Pang, Jianli; Zou, Bingyu; Wang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) on podocytes in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic nephropathy (DN), and to explore the mechanism responsible for NR1-induced renal protection. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ, and NR1 was administered daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg (low dose), 10 mg/kg (medium) and 20 mg/kg (high) for 16 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood glucose levels, body weight and proteinuria were measured every 4 weeks, starting on the day that the rats received NR1. Furthermore, on the day of sacrifice, blood, urine and kidneys were collected in order to assess renal function according to general parameters. Pathological staining was performed to evaluate the renal protective effect of NR1, and the expression of the key slit diaphragm proteins, namely neprhin, podocin and desmin, were evaluated. In addition, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6] as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were assessed, and the apoptosis of podocytes was quantified. Finally, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inactivation was further analyzed. In this study, NR1 improved renal function by ameliorating histological alterations, increasing the expression of nephrin and podocin, decreasing the expression of desmin, and inhibiting both the inflammatory response as well as the apoptosis of podocytes. Furthermore, NR1 treatment increased the phosphorylation of both PI3K (p85) and Akt, indicating that activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved. Moreover, NR1 treatment decreased the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), suggesting the downregulation of NF-κB. This is the first study to the best of our knowledge, to clearly demonstrate that NR1 treatment ameliorates podocyte injury

  15. Notoginsenoside R1 ameliorates podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guodong; Lv, Jianzhen; Li, Tongyu; Huai, Guoli; Li, Xiang; Xiang, Shaowei; Wang, Longlong; Qin, Zhenlin; Pang, Jianli; Zou, Bingyu; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) on podocytes in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN), and to explore the mechanism responsible for NR1-induced renal protection. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ, and NR1 was administered daily at a dose of 5 mg/kg (low dose), 10 mg/kg (medium) and 20 mg/kg (high) for 16 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood glucose levels, body weight and proteinuria were measured every 4 weeks, starting on the day that the rats received NR1. Furthermore, on the day of sacrifice, blood, urine and kidneys were collected in order to assess renal function according to general parameters. Pathological staining was performed to evaluate the renal protective effect of NR1, and the expression of the key slit diaphragm proteins, namely neprhin, podocin and desmin, were evaluated. In addition, the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6] as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were assessed, and the apoptosis of podocytes was quantified. Finally, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inactivation was further analyzed. In this study, NR1 improved renal function by ameliorating histological alterations, increasing the expression of nephrin and podocin, decreasing the expression of desmin, and inhibiting both the inflammatory response as well as the apoptosis of podocytes. Furthermore, NR1 treatment increased the phosphorylation of both PI3K (p85) and Akt, indicating that activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was involved. Moreover, NR1 treatment decreased the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), suggesting the downregulation of NF-κB. This is the first study to the best of our knowledge, to clearly demonstrate that NR1 treatment ameliorates podocyte injury by inhibiting both

  16. Mild caloric restriction reduces blood pressure and activates endothelial AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, C F; Pulido-Olmo, H; Ruiz-Hurtado, G; Gil-Ortega, M; Aranguez, I; Rubio, M A; Ruiz-Gayo, M; Somoza, B; Fernández-Alfonso, M S

    2015-01-01

    Genetic obesity models exhibit endothelial dysfunction associated to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dysregulation. This study aims to assess if mild short-term caloric restriction (CR) restores endothelial AMPK activity leading to an improvement in endothelial function. Twelve-week old Zucker lean and obese (fa/fa) male rats had access to standard chow either ad libitum (AL, n=8) or 80% of AL (CR, n=8) for two weeks. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in fa/fa AL rats versus lean AL animals, but was normalized by CR. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) was reduced in fa/fa AL compared to control lean AL rats (p<0.001), and restored by CR. The AMPK activator AICAR (10(-5) to 8·10(-3) M) elicited a lower relaxation in fa/fa AL rings that was normalized by CR (p<0.001). Inhibition of PI3K (wortmannin, 10(-7) M), Akt (triciribine, 10(-5) M), or eNOS (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) markedly reduced AICAR-induced relaxation in lean AL, but not in fa/fa AL rats. These inhibitions were restored by CR in Zucker fa/fa rings. These data show that mild short-term CR improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure in obesity due to the activation of the AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. PMID:25530153

  17. Suppressive effect of exogenous carbon monoxide on endotoxin-stimulated platelet over-activation via the glycoprotein-mediated PI3K-Akt-GSK3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dadong; Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Chen, Jingjia; Wang, Yawei; Zhuang, Mingfeng; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation is an important event involved in the pathophysiological processes of the coagulation system. Clinical evidence has shown that platelets undergo distinctive pathological processes during sepsis. Unfortunately, how platelets physiologically respond to inflammation or sepsis is not well understood. In this study, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated platelet model to systemically investigate alterations in membrane glycoprotein expression, molecular signaling, morphology and critical functions of platelets. We found that platelet adhesion, aggregation, secretion, and spreading on immobilized fibrinogen and the expression of platelet membrane glycoproteins were significantly increased by LPS stimulation, and these changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in cGMP levels and an abnormal distribution of platelet α-granules. Exogenous CO reversed these alterations. Profound morphological changes in LPS-stimulated platelets were observed using atomic force microscopy and phase microscopy. Furthermore, the elevated activities of PI3Ks, AKt and GSK-3β were effectively suppressed by exogenous CO, leading to the improvement of platelet function. Together, these results provide evidence that platelet over-activation persists under LPS-stimulation and that exogenous CO plays an important role in suppressing platelet activation via the glycoprotein-mediated PI3K-Akt-GSK3β pathway. PMID:27020460

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates H2O2-induced Leydig cells oxidation damage and apoptosis through inhibition of ROS production and activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement, and administration of DHEA produces a number of beneficial effects in the elderly. Many researchers have suggested that DHEA exerts it function after conversion into more biologically active hormones in peripheral target cells. The actions of DHEA in Leydig cells, a major target cell of DHEA biotransformation in males, are not clear. The present study found that DHEA increased cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. DHEA significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the DNA damage in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. Apoptosis was significant decreased in H2O2-induced Leydig cells after DHEA treatment. DHEA inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the upregulation of the caspase-3 protein level induced by H2O2 in Leydig cells. DHEA also reversed the decrease in PI3K and p-Akt protein levels induced by H2O2. These data showed that DHEA could ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activities, which resulted in reduced ROS content, and decreased apoptosis, mainly by preventing the loss of ΔΨm and inhibiting caspase-3 protein levels via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the anti-ageing effect of DHEA.

  19. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  20. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-08-27

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  1. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced – turnover of LC3-II and – accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors – chloroquine and – bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that

  2. Paeoniflorin ameliorates ANIT-induced cholestasis by activating Nrf2 through an PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Ma, Xiao; Zhu, Yun; Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Jiabo; Li, Ruisheng; Chen, Chang; Wei, Shizhang; Jiao, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yaming; Li, Jianyu; Wang, Lifu; Wang, Ruilin; Liu, Honghong; Shen, Honghui; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2015-11-01

    Cholestasis causes hepatic accumulation of bile acids leading to liver injury, fibrosis and liver failure. Paeoniflorin, the major active compound isolated from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora pall and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, is extensively used for liver diseases treatment in China. However, the mechanism of paeoniflorin's hepatoprotective effect on cholestasis has not been investigated yet. In this study, we administered paeoniflorin to rats for 3 days prior to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) administration for once, then went on administering paeoniflorin to rats for 3 days. The data demonstrated that paeoniflorin significantly prevented ANIT-induced change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP), serum total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total bile acid (TBA) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). Histology examination revealed that paeoniflorin treatment rats relieved more liver injury and bile duct proliferation than ANIT-administered rats. Moreover, our data indicated that paeoniflorin could restore glutathione (GSH) and its related synthase glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) in ANIT-treated group. In addition, the RNA and protein expression of Akt and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) were also activated by paeoniflorin in ANIT-induced rats. These findings indicated that paeoniflorin protected ANIT-induced cholestasis and increased GSH synthesis by activating Nrf2 through PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. Therefore, paeoniflorin might be a potential therapeutic agent for cholestasis. PMID:26269092

  3. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. PMID:25233217

  4. Soyasaponins Can Blunt Inflammation by Inhibiting the Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway. PMID:25233217

  5. Soyasaponins can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zha, Longying; Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Mao, Limei; Chu, Xinwei; Deng, Hong; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    We and others have recently shown that soyasaponins abundant in soybeans can decrease inflammation by suppressing the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated inflammation. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which soyasaponins inhibit the NF-kB pathway have not been established. In this study in macrophages, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of inflammatory marker prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a similar extent as the NF-kB inhibitor (BAY117082). Soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) also suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), another inflammatory marker, in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting NF-kB activation. In defining the associated mechanisms, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) blunted the LPS-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation, IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and NF-kB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In studying the upstream targets of soyasaponins on the NF-kB pathway, we found that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) suppressed the LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt similarly as the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which alone blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kB. Additionally, soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) reduced the LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the same extent as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which alone inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt, IKKα/β, IkBα, and p65, transactivity of NF-kB, PGE2 production, and malondialdehyde production. Finally, our results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) elevated SOD activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Together, these results show that soyasaponins (A1, A2 and I) can blunt inflammation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-kB pathway.

  6. Lithium protection of phencyclidine-induced neurotoxicity in developing brain: the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Cheng Z; Liu, Jie; Anastasio, Noelle C; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2008-09-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been shown to be neurotoxic to developing brains and to result in schizophrenia-like behaviors later in development. Prevention of both effects by antischizophrenic drugs suggests the validity of PCP neurodevelopmental toxicity as a heuristic model of schizophrenia. Lithium is used for the treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective disorders and has recently been shown to have neuroprotective properties. The present study used organotypic corticostriatal slices taken from postnatal day 2 rat pups to investigate the protective effect of lithium and the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) pathways in PCP-induced cell death. Lithium pretreatment dose-dependently reduced PCP-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in layers II to IV of the cortex. PCP elicited time-dependent inhibition of the MEK/ERK and PI-3K/Akt pathways, as indicated by dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. The proapoptotic factor glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta was also dephosphorylated at serine 9 and thus activated. Lithium prevented PCP-induced inhibition of the two pathways and activation of GSK-3beta. Furthermore, blocking either PI-3K/Akt or MEK/ERK pathway abolished the protective effect of lithium, whereas inhibiting GSK-3beta activity mimicked the protective effect of lithium. However, no cross-talk between the two pathways was found. Finally, specific GSK-3beta inhibition did not prevent PCP-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and ERK. These data strongly suggest that the protective effect of lithium against PCP-induced neuroapoptosis is mediated through independent stimulation of the PI-3K/Akt and ERK pathways and suppression of GSK-3beta activity.

  7. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway and increased levels of insulin receptor in protein repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christine; Houser, Carolyn R; Clarke, Steven

    2005-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyses the repair of isoaspartyl damage in proteins. Mice lacking this enzyme (Pcmt1-/- mice) have a progressive increase in brain size compared with wild-type mice (Pcmt1+/+ mice), a phenotype that can be associated with alterations in the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway. Here we show that components of this pathway, including Akt, GSK3beta and PDK-1, are more highly phosphorylated in the brains of Pcmt1-/- mice, particularly in cells of the hippocampus, in comparison with Pcmt1+/+ mice. Examination of upstream elements of this pathway in the hippocampus revealed that Pcmt1-/- mice have increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor and/or insulin receptor. Western blot analysis revealed an approximate 200% increase in insulin receptor protein levels and an approximate 50% increase in IGF-I receptor protein levels in the hippocampus of Pcmt1-/- mice. Higher levels of the insulin receptor protein were also found in other regions of the adult brain and in whole tissue extracts of brain, liver, heart and testes of both juvenile and adult Pcmt1-/- mice. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin levels for adult Pcmt1-/- mice during glucose tolerance tests. However, they did show higher peak levels of blood glucose, suggesting a mild impairment in glucose tolerance. We propose that Pcmt1-/- mice have altered regulation of the insulin pathway, possibly as a compensatory response to altered glucose uptake or metabolism or as an adaptive response to a general accumulation of isoaspartyl protein damage in the brain and other tissues.

  8. The Neuroprotection of Liraglutide Against Ischaemia-induced Apoptosis through the Activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huili; Zhang, Yusheng; Shi, Zhongshan; Lu, Dan; Li, Tingting; Ding, Yan; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Anding

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion to reduce the glucose level. Liraglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, has been found to have neuroprotective action in various experimental models. However, the protective mechanisms of liraglutide in ischaemic stroke remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that liraglutide significantly decreased the infarct volume, improved neurologic deficits, and lowered stress-related hyperglycaemia without causing hypoglycaemia in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Liraglutide inhibited cell apoptosis by reducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving the function of mitochondria in neurons under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and MCAO in vivo. Liraglutide up-regulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Moreover, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and/or the ERK inhibitor U0126 counteracted the protective effect of liraglutide. Taken together, these results suggest that liraglutide exerts neuroprotective action against ischaemia-induced apoptosis through the reduction of ROS and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Therefore, liraglutide has therapeutic potential for patients with ischaemic stroke, especially those with Type 2 diabetes mellitus or stress hyperglycaemia. PMID:27240461

  9. Bimatoprost protects retinal neuronal damage via Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Takano, Norihito; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Yuta; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-02-28

    Worldwide, prostaglandin analogs, such as bimatoprost, have become the major therapeutic class for medical treatment of glaucoma because of their efficacy and generally well tolerated systemic safety profile. However, the detailed mechanism of the direct action of bimatoprost on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) has rarely been understood. Thus, in this study, we elucidated the mechanism of the protective effects of bimatoprost on RGC against oxidative stress. To examine the protective effects of bimatoprost, cultured RGC with various concentrations of bimatoprost (in both free acid and amide form) were exposed to l-buthionin-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) plus glutamate or serum depletion in vitro and intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was used to induce retinal damage in vivo. To elucidate the protective mechanism of bimatoprost, we used western blot analysis to investigate the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Bimatoprost significantly reduced BSO plus glutamate- and serum deprivation-induced death in concentration-dependent manners. Bimatoprost induced activation of Akt and ERK, and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the protective effect of bimatoprost. On the other hand, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, U0126, exhibited protective effect unexpectedly. Moreover, ERK was more phosphorylated by attenuation of Akt activity in cultured RGC. In an in vivo study, bimatoprost reduced NMDA-induced RGC death. Taken together, these findings indicate that bimatoprost has protective effects on in vitro and in vivo retinal damage, suggesting that the mechanism underlying may be via the Akt pathway, which may modulate the ERK pathway.

  10. Methylglyoxal induces platelet hyperaggregation and reduces thrombus stability by activating PKC and inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Karin; Randriamboavonjy, Voahanginirina; Elgheznawy, Amro; Mann, Alexander; Fleming, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by a dysregulation of glucose homeostasis and platelets from patients with diabetes are known to be hyper-reactive and contribute to the accelerated development of vascular diseases. Since many of the deleterious effects of glucose have been attributed to its metabolite methylgyloxal (MG) rather than to hyperglycemia itself, the aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of MG on platelet function. Washed human platelets were pre-incubated for 15 min with MG and platelet aggregation, adhesion on matrix-coated slides and signaling (Western blot) were assessed ex vivo. In vivo, the effect of MG on thrombus formation was determined using the FeCl3-induced carotid artery injury model. MG potentiated thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and dense granule release, but inhibited platelet spreading on fibronectin and collagen. In vivo, MG accelerated thrombus formation but decreased thrombus stability. At the molecular level, MG increased intracellular Ca(2+) and activated classical PKCs at the same time as inhibiting PI3K/Akt and the β3-integrin outside-in signaling. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the enhanced MG concentration measured in diabetic patients can directly contribute to the platelet dysfunction associated with diabetes characterized by hyperaggregability and reduced thrombus stability.

  11. PI3K-Akt pathway: its functions and alterations in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Osaki, M; Oshimura, M; Ito, H

    2004-11-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase and generates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3, 4, 5)P3). PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is a second messenger essential for the translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane where it is phosphorylated and activated by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK) 1 and PDK2. Activation of Akt plays a pivotal role in fundamental cellular functions such as cell proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a variety of substrates. In recent years, it has been reported that alterations to the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway are frequent in human cancer. Constitutive activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway occurs due to amplification of the PIK3C gene encoding PI3K or the Akt gene, or as a result of mutations in components of the pathway, for example PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10), which inhibit the activation of Akt. Several small molecules designed to specifically target PI3K-Akt have been developed, and induced cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . Moreover, the combination of an inhibitor with various cytotoxic agents enhances the anti-tumor efficacy. Therefore, specific inhibition of the activation of Akt may be a valid approach to treating human malignancies and overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to radiation or chemotherapy. PMID:15505410

  12. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 induces apoptosis in hippocampus through downregulating PI3K/Akt and upregulating p38 MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jie, P; Hong, Z; Tian, Y; Li, Y; Lin, L; Zhou, L; Du, Y; Chen, L; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable cation channel that is sensitive to cell swelling, arachidonic acid and its metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are associated with cerebral ischemia. The activation of TRPV4 induces cytotoxicity in many types of cells, accompanied by an increase in the intracellular free calcium concentration. TRPV4 activation modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways that regulate cell death and survival. Herein, we examined TRPV4-induced neuronal apoptosis by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of a TRPV4 agonist (GSK1016790A) and assessed its involvement in cerebral ischemic injury. ICV injection of GSK1016790A dose-dependently induced apoptosis in the mouse hippocampi (GSK-injected mice). The protein level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) was markedly increased and that of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (p-JNK) was virtually unchanged. TRPV4 activation also decreased Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio and increased the cleaved caspase-3 protein level, and these effects were blocked by a PI3K agonist and a p38 MAPK antagonist, but were unaffected by a JNK antagonist. ICV injection of the TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 reduced brain infarction after reperfusion for 48 h in mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In addition, HC-067047 treatment attenuated the decrease in the phosphorylated Akt protein level and the increase in p-p38 MAPK protein level at 48 h after MCAO, while the increase in p-JNK protein level remained unchanged. Finally, the decreased Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio and the increased cleaved caspase-3 protein level at 48 h after MCAO were markedly attenuated by HC-067047. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 induces apoptosis by downregulating PI3K/Akt and upregulating p38 MAPK signaling pathways, which is involved in cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:26043075

  13. Matrix adhesion and Ras transformation both activate a phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase and protein kinase B/Akt cellular survival pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, A; Rodriguez-Viciana, P; Wennström, S; Warne, P H; Downward, J

    1997-01-01

    Upon detachment from the extracellular matrix, epithelial cells enter into programmed cell death, a phenomenon known as anoikis, ensuring that they are unable to survive in an inappropriate location. Activated ras oncogenes protect cells from this form of apoptosis. The nature of the survival signals activated by integrin engagement and usurped by oncogenic Ras are unknown: here we show that in both cases phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase), but not Raf, mediates this protection, acting through protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt). Constitutively activated PI 3-kinase or PKB/Akt block anoikis, while inhibition of PI 3-kinase abrogates protection by Ras, but not PKB/Akt. Inhibition of either PI 3-kinase or PKB/Akt induces apoptosis in adherent epithelial cells. Attachment of cells to matrix leads to rapid elevation of the levels of PI 3-kinase lipid products and PKB/Akt activity, both of which remain high in Ras-transformed cells even in suspension. PI 3-kinase acting through PKB/Akt is therefore implicated as a key mediator of the aberrant survival of Ras-transformed epithelial cells in the absence of attachment, and mediates matrix-induced survival of normal epithelial cells. PMID:9184223

  14. Methylophiopogonanone A suppresses ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial apoptosis in mice via activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Xu, Bang-long; Chen, Cai; Jia, Hong-jing; Wu, Ji-xiong; Wang, Xiao-chen; Sheng, Jian-long; Huang, Li; Cheng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The dried tuber root of Ophiopogon japonicus has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of myocardial ischemia and thrombosis. In this study we investigated the effects of methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a major homoisoflavonoid in Ophiopogon japonicus, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: Mice were pretreated with MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1, po) for 2 weeks and then subjected to transient occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cardiac function was evaluated, and the infarct size and apoptosis index were assessed. The mechanisms underlying the cardio-protection of MO-A were analyzed in H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated; apoptotic and relevant signaling proteins were analyzed. NO levels in the culture medium were assessed. Results: In I/R mice, pretreatment with MO-A significantly reduced the infarct size (by 60.7%) and myocardial apoptosis (by 56.8%), and improved cardiac function. In H9C2 cells subjected to H/R, pretreatment with MO-A (10 μmol/L) significantly decreased apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 expression, elevated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and restored NO production. Furthermore, pretreatment with MO-A markedly increased the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in H9C2 cells subjected to H/R, and the protective effects of MO-A were abolished in the presence of the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (100 nmol/L). Conclusion: MO-A attenuates I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis in mice via activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:27063216

  15. The activation of PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in the acute effects of simvastatin against ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetised dogs.

    PubMed

    Kisvári, Gábor; Kovács, Mária; Seprényi, György; Végh, Ágnes

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine whether the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and in the subsequent increase of nitric oxide (NO) production that has been proved to play a role in the antiarrhythmic effect of acute simvastatin treatment in anaesthetised dogs, subjected to a 25min occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Using the same model, 12 dogs out of the 26 controls (given the solvent of simvastatin) and 11 dogs out of the 23 animals treated with intracoronary administered simvastatin (0.1mg/kg), were now received wortmannin (1.5mg/kg, ic.), a selective inhibitor of PI3-kinase. In another 13 dogs the effects of DMSO (0.1%), the vehicle of wortmannin, were examined. Compared to the controls, simvastatin markedly reduced the severity of ischaemia (epicardial ST-segment, inhomogeneity) and ventricular arrhythmias that were reversed (except the occlusion-induced ventricular fibrillation [VF; 50%, 0%, 0%]) by the administration of wortmannin. Thus in these groups there were 310±45, 62±14, 307±59 ectopic beats, 7.1±1.4, 0.3± 0.2, 4.3±1.3 tachycardiac episodes that occurred 93%, 17% and 73% of the dogs during occlusion, whereas survival following reperfusion was 0%, 67% and 0%, respectively. Simvastatin also increased the phosphorylation of eNOS and the plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, but reduced myocardial superoxide production on reperfusion. These effects of simvastatin were also abolished in the presence of wortmannin. We conclude that the NO-dependent antiarrhythmic effect of simvastatin involves the rapid activation of eNOS through the stimulation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  16. Impaired translocation and activation of mitochondrial Akt1 mitigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Deng, Wu; Chen, Yumay; Fan, Weiwei; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Jope, Richard S; Wallace, Douglas C; Wang, Ping H

    2013-06-01

    Insulin can translocate Akt to mitochondria in cardiac muscle. The goals of this study were to define sub-mitochondrial localization of the translocated Akt, to dissect the effects of insulin on Akt isoform translocation, and to determine the direct effect of mitochondrial Akt activation on Complex V activity in normal and diabetic myocardium. The translocated Akt sequentially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix. To confirm Akt translocation, in vitro import assay showed rapid entry of Akt into mitochondria. Akt isoforms were differentially regulated by insulin stimulation, only Akt1 translocated into mitochondria. In the insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes model, Akt1 translocation was blunted. Mitochondrial activation of Akt1 increased Complex V activity by 24% in normal myocardium in vivo and restored Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium. Basal mitochondrial Complex V activity was lower by 22% in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium. Insulin-stimulated Complex V activity was not impaired in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium, due to compensatory translocation of Akt2 to mitochondria. Akt1 is the primary isoform that relayed insulin signaling to mitochondria and modulated mitochondrial Complex V activity. Activation of mitochondrial Akt1 enhanced ATP production and increased phosphocreatine in cardiac muscle cells. Dysregulation of this signal pathway might impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic myocardium.

  17. Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David; Ampurdanés, Coral; Medina, Manel G; Serratosa, Joan; Tusell, Josep Maria; Saura, Josep; Planas, Anna M; Navarro, Pilar

    2012-04-01

    Inflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for Aβ-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-α release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role.

  18. Redox-Sensitive Induction of Src/PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs Pathways Activate eNOS in Response to EPA:DHA 6:1

    PubMed Central

    Zgheel, Faraj; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Rashid, Sherzad; Burban, Mélanie; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Omega-3 fatty acid products containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have vasoprotective effects, in part, by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). This study determined the role of the EPA:DHA ratio and amount, and characterized the mechanism leading to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation. Methods and Results EPA:DHA 6∶1 and 9∶1 caused significantly greater endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings than EPA:DHA 3∶1, 1∶1, 1∶3, 1∶6, 1∶9, EPA and DHA alone, and EPA:DHA 6∶1 with a reduced EPA + DHA amount, which were inhibited by an eNOS inhibitor. Relaxations to EPA:DHA 6∶1 were insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibition, and reduced by inhibitors of either oxidative stress, Src kinase, PI3-kinase, p38 MAPK, MEK, or JNK. EPA:DHA 6∶1 induced phosphorylation of Src, Akt, p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK and eNOS; these effects were inhibited by MnTMPyP. EPA:DHA 6∶1 induced the endothelial formation of ROS in coronary artery sections as assessed by dihydroethidium, and of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide in cultured endothelial cells as assessed by electron spin resonance with the spin probe CMH, and the Amplex Red based assay, respectively. Conclusion Omega-3 fatty acids cause endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxations in coronary artery rings, which are dependent on the EPA:DHA ratio and amount, and involve an intracellular activation of the redox-sensitive PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs pathways to activate eNOS. PMID:25133540

  19. Fraxetin Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Activation of Akt/Nrf2 or AMP-activated Protein Kinase α/Nrf2 Pathway in HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin), a coumarin derivative, has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. A number of recent observations suggest that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits inflammation and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we determined the effect of fraxetin on HO-1 expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes and investigated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Cell viability was measured by the MTS test. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fraxetin was evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Results Fraxetin upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HO-1. Incubation with fraxetin induced the localization of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the nucleus and increased the antioxidant response element-reporter gene activity. Fraxetin also induced the phosphorylation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and diminished the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog, a negative regulator of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt and AMPKα abrogated fraxetin-induced expression of HO-1 and nuclear localization of Nrf2. Furthermore, fraxetin generated ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Fraxetin induces HO-1 expression through activation of Akt/Nrf2 or AMPKα/Nrf2 pathway in HaCaT cells. PMID:27722139

  20. The Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor, OSU-T315, Suppresses Vestibular Schwannoma and Meningioma Growth by Inhibiting PDK2 Function in the AKT Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pimentel, ME; Igarashi, S; Dunn, AM; Behbahani, M; Miller, C; Read, CM; Jacob, A

    2016-01-01

    Activation of PKB/AKT signaling, which requires PDK1 and PDK2 function, drives Vestibular Schwannoma (VS) and meningioma growth. PDK2 function is defined as a molecule that phosphorylates AKT-Ser473. Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) functions as PDK2 in PKB/AKT activation in many cancers; therefore, we hypothesized that OSU-T315, a small molecule ILK inhibitor, will inhibit the ILK-PDK2 function in PKB/AKT signaling activation in VS and meningioma cell growth. OSU-T315 decreased cell viability at IC50 < 2μM in VS (HEI193) and meningioma (Ben-Men-1) cell lines, in primary cells at < 3.5μM, while in normal primary Schwann cells at 7.1μM. OSU-T315 inhibits AKT signaling by decreasing phosphorylation at AKT-Ser473, AKT-Thr308, ILK-Ser246 and ILK-Thr173. In addition, OSU-T315 affected the phosphorylation or expression levels of AKT downstream proliferation effectors as well as autophagy markers. Flow cytometry shows that OSU-T315 increased the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M for both, HEI193 (39.99%) and Ben-Men-1 (26.96%) cells, compared to controls (21.54%, 8.47%). Two hours of OSU-T315 treatment increased cell death in both cell lines (34.3%, 9.1%) versus untreated (12.1%, 8.1%). Though longer exposure increased cell death in Ben-Men-1, TUNEL assays showed that OSU-T315 does not induce apoptosis. OSU-T315 was primarily cytotoxic for HEI193 and Ben-Men-1 inducing a dysregulated autophagy. Our studies suggest that OSU-T315 has translational potential as a chemotherapeutic agent against VS and meningioma.

  1. AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway is critically involved in human pluripotent stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Romorini, Leonardo; Garate, Ximena; Neiman, Gabriel; Luzzani, Carlos; Furmento, Verónica Alejandra; Guberman, Alejandra Sonia; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio; Scassa, María Elida; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent stem cells (PSC) that can differentiate into a wide range of specialized cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor is essential for PSC survival, stemness and self-renewal. PI3K/AKT pathway regulates cell viability and apoptosis in many cell types. Although it has been demonstrated that PI3K/AKT activation by bFGF is relevant for PSC stemness maintenance its role on PSC survival remains elusive. In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PSC survival by AKT. We found that inhibition of AKT with three non-structurally related inhibitors (GSK690693, AKT inhibitor VIII and AKT inhibitor IV) decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. We observed a rapid increase in phosphatidylserine translocation and in the extent of DNA fragmentation after inhibitors addition. Moreover, abrogation of AKT activity led to Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated by pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown that GSK3β signaling is responsible, at least in part, of the apoptosis triggered by AKT inhibition. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition decreases basal apoptosis rate and promotes PSC proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AKT activation prevents apoptosis, partly through inhibition of GSK3β, and thus results relevant for PSC survival. PMID:27762303

  2. Lentiviral shRNA against KCa3.1 inhibits allergic response in allergic rhinitis and suppresses mast cell activity via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hai; Zheng, Chunquan; Li, Jing; Yang, Chen; Hu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium ion channel-3.1 (KCa3.1) plays a pivotal role in the potassium-calcium exchange involved in atopy. This study aimed to explore the impact of lentiviral-mediated shRNA silencing KCa3.1 on allergic response in a murine allergic rhinitis (AR) model. The BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: untreated AR group, negative control AR group, lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA treated AR group and normal control group. Concentrations of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE, histamine and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) in serum, and IL-4, IL-9 and IL-17 in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were analyzed. Goblet cells and mast cells were counted. KCa3.1 positive cells were counted after immunolabelling by immunofluorescence method. KCa3.1, Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), and tryptase mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, P815 cell line was used to explore the role and mechanism of lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA on mast cells. The results showed that LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated allergic responses in LV-KCa3.1-shRNA treated mice. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively suppressed KCa3.1 levels and phosphorylation of AKT in P815 cells, leading to the downregulation of tryptase, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated the allergic responses in AR and suppressed mast cell activity by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26272420

  3. Samsoeum, a traditional herbal medicine, elicits apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and activating the JNK pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Samsoeum (SSE), a traditional herbal formula, has been widely used to treat cough, fever, congestion, and emesis for centuries. Recent studies have demonstrated that SSE retains potent pharmacological efficiency in anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory reactions. However, the anti-cancer activity of SSE and its underlying mechanisms have not been studied. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SSE on cell death and elucidate its detailed mechanism. Methods Following SSE treatment, cell growth and cell death were measured using an MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. Cell cycle arrest and YO-PRO-1 uptake were assayed using flow cytometry, and LC3 redistribution was observed using confocal microscope. The mechanisms of anti-cancer effect of SSE were investigated through western blot analysis. Results We initially found that SSE caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells but not in normal primary hepatocytes. In addition, during early SSE treatment (6–12 h), cells were arrested in G2/M phase concomitant with up-regulation of p21 and p27 and down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1, followed by an increase in apoptotic YO-PRO-1 (+) cells. SSE also induced autophagy via up-regulation of Beclin-1 expression, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I to LC3-II, and re-distribution of LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. Moreover, the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), which is critical for cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy, was significantly reduced in SSE-treated cells. Phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was increased, followed by suppression of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) pathway, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to SSE treatment. In particular, among MAPKs inhibitors, only the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-specific inhibitor SP600125 nearly

  4. scAAV9-VEGF prolongs the survival of transgenic ALS mice by promoting activation of M2 microglia and the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Weisong; Wang, Wan; Di Wen; Liu, Yaling; Liu, Yakun; Li, Zhongyao; Hu, Haojie; Lin, Huiqian; Cui, Can; Li, Dongxiao; Dong, Hui; Li, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that leads to paralysis and death three to five years after diagnosis in most patients. The disease is incurable, and the mechanism of motoneuron degeneration remains unknown, although research has demonstrated that activated microglia are involved in motor neuron death. Here, we used a simple method to deliver AAV9 virus by direct intrathecal injection and found that scAAV9-VEGF-165 improved the motor performance and prolonged the life span of SOD1-G93A mice. Furthermore, scAAV9-VEGF-165 activated the PI3K/Akt survival pathway and increased the level of Bcl-2, which contributed to the protection of motor neurons. Additionally, scAAV9-VEGF-165 attenuated the expression of classically activated (M1) microglial markers and enhanced the expression of alternatively activated (M2) microglial markers. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that simple, direct intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF-165 may have a curative effect for ALS. PMID:27392886

  5. α-Lipoic acid interaction with dopamine D2 receptor-dependent activation of the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway induced by antipsychotics: potential relevance for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Jessica; Desmarais, Christian; Sarret, Philippe; Grignon, Sylvain

    2013-05-01

    Chronic administration of antipsychotics has been associated with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) upregulation and tardive dyskinesia. We have previously shown that haloperidol, a first-generation antipsychotic (FGA), exerted an increase in D2R expression and oxidative stress and that (±)-α-lipoic acid reversed its effect. Previous studies have implicated the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway in antipsychotic action. These findings led us to examine whether the Akt/GSK-3β pathway was involved in D2R upregulation and oxidative stress elicited by antipsychotics and, in (±)-α-lipoic acid-induced reversal of these phenomena, in SH-SY5Y cells. Antipsychotics increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, and additive effects were observed with (±)-α-lipoic acid. GSK-3β inhibitors reversed haloperidol-induced overexpression of D2R mRNA levels but did not affect haloperidol-induced oxidative stress. Sustained antipsychotic treatment increased β-arrestin-2 and D2R receptor interaction. Regarding Akt/GSK-3β downstream targets, antipsychotics increased β-catenin levels, whereas (±)-α-lipoic acid induced an elevation of mTOR activation. These results suggest (1) that the effect of antipsychotics on the Akt/GSK-3β pathway in SH-SY5Y cells is reminiscent of their in vivo action, (2) that (±)-α-lipoic acid partially synergizes with antipsychotic drugs (APDs) on the same pathway, and (3) that the Akt/GSK-3β signaling cascade is not involved in the preventive effect of (±)-α-lipoic acid on antipsychotics-induced D2R upregulation.

  6. Regulation of endothelial cell cycle by laminar versus oscillatory flow: distinct modes of interactions of AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Deliang; Chien, Shu; Shyy, John Y-J

    2007-03-01

    Steady laminar flow in the straight parts of the arterial tree is atheroprotective, whereas disturbed flow with oscillation in branch points and the aortic root are athero-prone, in part, because of the distinct roles of the flow patterns in regulating the cell cycle of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). To elucidate the molecular basis underlying the endothelial cell cycle regulated by distinct flow patterns, we conducted flow-channel experiments to investigate the effects of laminar versus oscillatory flows on activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt in ECs. Laminar flow caused a transient activation of both AMPK and Akt, but oscillatory flow activated only Akt, with AMPK being maintained at its basal level. Constitutively active and dominant-negative mutants of AMPK and Akt were used to elucidate further the positive effect of Akt and negative role of AMPK in mediating mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its target p70S6 kinase (S6K) in response to laminar and oscillatory flows. Measurements of phosphorylation of mTOR Ser2448 and S6K Thr389 showed that AMPK, by counteracting Akt under laminar flow, resulted in a transient activation of S6K. Under oscillatory flow, because of the lack of AMPK activation to effect negative regulation, S6K was activated in a sustained manner. As a functional consequence, AMPK activation attenuated cell cycle progression in response to both laminar and oscillatory flows. In contrast, AMPK inhibition promoted EC cycle progression by decreasing the cell population in the G(0)/G(1) phase and increasing it in the S+G(2)/M phase. In vivo, phosphorylation of the promitotic S6K in mouse thoracic aorta was much less than that in mouse aortic root. In contrast, AMPK phosphorylation was higher in the thoracic aorta. These results provide a molecular mechanism by which laminar versus oscillatory flow regulates the endothelial cell cycle.

  7. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC.

  8. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC. PMID:26486080

  9. Beneficial effect of Sparassis crispa on stroke through activation of Akt/eNOS pathway in brain of SHRSP

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitomi, Hisae; Iwaoka, Emiko; Kubo, Masahide; Shibata, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Sparassis crispa (S. crispa) is a mushroom used as a natural medicine that recently became cultivatable in Japan. In this study, we investigated not only the preventive effects of S. crispa against stroke and hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) but also the mechanism involved by using studies of the cerebral cortex at a young age. Six-week-old male SHRSP were divided into 2 groups, a control group and an S. crispa group administered 1.5% S. crispa in feed, and we then observed their survival. In addition, rats of the same age were treated with 1.5% S. crispa for 4 weeks and we measured body weight, blood pressure, blood flow from the tail, NOx production, and the levels of expression of several proteins in the cerebral cortex by western blot analysis. Our results showed that the S. crispa group had a delayed incidence of stroke and death and significantly decreased blood pressure and increased blood flow after the administration. Moreover, the quantity of urinary excretion and the nitrate/nitrite concentration in cerebral tissue were higher than those of control SHRSP rats. In the cerebral cortex, phosphor-eNOS (Ser1177) and phosphor-Akt (Ser473) in S. crispa-treated SHRSP were increased compared with those of control SHRSP rats. In conclusion, S. crispa could ameliorate cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction by promoting recovery of Akt-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and increasing NO production in the cerebral cortex. S. crispa may be useful for preventing stroke and hypertension. PMID:21076883

  10. Regulation of the PI3-K/Akt survival pathway in the rat endometrium.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Annabelle; Grenier, Kathy; Brasseur, Kevin; Fréchette-Frigon, Guylaine; Leblanc, Valérie; Parent, Sophie; Asselin, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of apoptosis and cell survival in the receptive uterus is intimately involved in the embryo implantation process in order to facilitate embryo attachment to the maternal endometrium. The initial stimulus leading to successful implantation might be triggered by the conceptus itself. By the end of rat embryo implantation, decidualization begins, followed by the regression of the decidua basalis on Day 14. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) survival pathway and TGF-beta have been thought to play a role in this process. The objective of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PI3-K/PTEN/Akt pathway in rat endometrium during pregnancy. Rats were killed on different days of pregnancy (Day 1-22 and postpartum) or pseudopregnancy (Day 1-9), and uteri were removed to collect endometrial tissues. The active form of Akt (pAkt) was increased at Day 5 of pregnancy and at Day 3 of pseudopregnancy as well as at Day 12 of pregnancy and at Day 1 postpartum. Of the three Akt isoforms (Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3), Akt3 was the only isoform phosphorylated at Day 5 during the implantation process and at postpartum as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation studies. PI3-K inhibition in vivo blocked Akt phosphorylation, reduced Smad2 phosphorylation, and reduced both TGF-beta2 and XIAP expression. PI3-K inhibition in cultured decidual cells led to inhibition of pAkt and decrease XIAP expression. These results suggest that Akt and XIAP may be important surviving signaling molecules by which apoptosis is regulated in the rat endometrium during pregnancy and that TGF-beta could be linked to this process.

  11. The HIF-1-inducible lysyl oxidase activates HIF-1 via the Akt pathway in a positive regulation loop and synergizes with HIF-1 in promoting tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pez, Floriane; Dayan, Frédéric; Durivault, Jérome; Kaniewski, Bastien; Aimond, Géraldine; Le Provost, Gabrielle S; Deux, Blandine; Clézardin, Philippe; Sommer, Pascal; Pouysségur, Jacques; Reynaud, Caroline

    2011-03-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia is a driving force for tumor progression that leads to therapy resistance and poor clinical outcome. Hypoxic responses are mainly mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1). One critical HIF-1 target mediating tumor progression is lysyl oxidase (LOX), which catalyzes cross-linking of collagens and elastin in the extracellular matrix, thereby regulating tissue tensile strength. Paradoxically, LOX has been reported to be both upregulated and downregulated in cancer cells, especially in colorectal cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that LOX might regulate expression of HIF-1 to create a self-timing regulatory circuit. Using human colorectal carcinoma cell lines in which HIF-1 and LOX expression could be modulated, we showed that LOX induction enhanced HIF-1 expression, whereas LOX silencing reduced it. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LOX activated the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby upregulating HIF-1α protein synthesis in a manner requiring LOX-mediated hydrogen peroxide production. Consistent with these results, cancer cell proliferation was stimulated by secreted and active LOX in an HIF-1α-dependent fashion. Furthermore, nude mice xenograft assays established that HIF-1 potentiated LOX action on tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, these findings provide compelling evidence that LOX and HIF-1 act in synergy to foster tumor formation, and they suggest that HIF-1/LOX mutual regulation is a pivotal mechanism in the adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. PMID:21239473

  12. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin is associated with constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and represents a favorable prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-López, Juana; Serrano, Josefina; Figueroa, Vianihuini; Torres-Gomez, Antonio; Tabares, Salvador; Casaño, Javier; Fernandez-Escalada, Noemi; Sánchez-Garcia, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Survivin is over-expressed in most hematologic malignancies but the prognostic significance of the subcompartmental distribution of wild-type or splicing variants in acute myeloid leukemia has not been addressed yet. Using western blotting, we assessed the expression of wild-type survivin and survivin splice variants 2B and Delta-Ex3 in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extracts in samples taken from 105 patients at the time of their diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Given that survivin is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, survivin expression was also correlated with pSer473-Akt. Wild-type survivin and the 2B splice variant were positive in 76.3% and 78.0% of samples in the nucleus, cytoplasm or both, whereas the Delta-Ex3 isoform was only positive in the nucleus in 37.7% of samples. Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type survivin was significantly associated with the presence of high levels of pSer473-Akt (P<0.001). Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway with wortmannin and Ly294002 caused a significant reduction in the expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin. The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt was associated with a lower fraction of quiescent leukemia stem cells (P=0.02). The presence of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin and pSer473-Akt were favorable independent prognostic factors. Moreover, the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway with expression of cytoplasmic wild-type survivin identified a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with an excellent outcome (overall survival rate of 60.0±21.9% and relapse-free survival of 63.0±13.5%). Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic wild-type survivin is a critical downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to more chemosensitive cells and a more favorable outcome in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23812937

  13. Activation of Robo1 signaling of breast cancer cells by Slit2 from stromal fibroblast restrains tumorigenesis via blocking PI3K/Akt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hao; Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chin; Hsiao, Michael; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Lee, Eva Y-H P; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2012-09-15

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating tumor progression by secreting factors that mediate cancer cell growth. Stromal fibroblasts can promote tumor growth through paracrine factors; however, restraint of malignant carcinoma progression by the microenvironment also has been observed. The mechanisms that underlie this paradox remain unknown. Here, we report that the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells is determined by an interaction between the Robo1 receptor and its ligand Slit2, which is secreted by stromal fibroblasts. The presence of an active Slit2/Robo1 signal blocks the translocation of β-catenin into nucleus, leading to downregulation of c-myc and cyclin D1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Clinically, high Robo1 expression in the breast cancer cells correlates with increased survival in patients with breast cancer, and low Slit2 expression in the stromal fibroblasts is associated with lymph node metastasis. Together, our findings explain how a specific tumor microenvironment can restrain a given type of cancer cell from progression and show that both stromal fibroblasts and tumor cell heterogeneity affect breast cancer outcomes.

  14. Ghrelin promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt pathway and EGFR trans-activation both converging to ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Talat; Duxbury, Mark; Ashley, Stanley W; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about ghrelin's effects on intestinal epithelial cells even though it is known to be a mitogen for a variety of other cell types. Because ghrelin is released in close proximity to the proliferative compartment of the intestinal tract, we hypothesized that ghrelin may have potent pro-proliferative effect on intestinal epithelial cells as well. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the effects of ghrelin on FHs74Int and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell lines in vitro. We found that ghrelin has potent dose dependent proliferative effects in both cell lines through a yet to be characterized G protein coupled growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) subtype. Consistent with above findings, cell cycle flowcytometric analyses demonstrated that ghrelin shifts cells from the G1 to S phase and thereby promotes cell cycle progression. Further characterization of subcellular events, suggested that ghrelin mediates its pro-proliferative effect through Adenylate cyclase (AC)-independent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation and PI3K-Akt phosphorylation. Both these pathways converge to stimulate MAPK, ERK 1/2 downstream. The role of ghrelin in states where intestinal mucosal injury and rapid mucosal repair occur warrants further investigation.

  15. Activation of Akt/FoxO and inactivation of MEK/ERK pathways contribute to induction of neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia by delayed hypoxic postconditioning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lixuan; Li, Danfang; Liang, Donghai; Wu, Baoxing; Zhu, Pingping; Wang, Yanmei; Sun, Weiwen; Xu, En

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic postconditioning, a series of mechanical interruptions of blood flow immediately after reperfusion, has been described in brain studies. However, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) has never been reported in transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) adult rat model. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of neuroprotection by delayed HPC against tGCI in adult rats and investigate underlying mechanisms involving the Akt/Forkhead transcription factor, class O (FoxO) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Postconditioning with 60-120 min hypoxia significantly reduced cell death in hippocampal CA1 subregion after 10 min of tGCI. Postconditioning was effective only when applied 1-2 days after tGCI. Nevertheless, the combination of hypoxic preconditioning and postconditioning provided no additive protection. Additionally, postconditioning increased phosphorylation of Akt and FoxOs after tGCI. Inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and FoxOs with LY294002 suppressed the postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. In addition, postconditioning blocked the increase of MEK and ERK phosphorylation after tGCI. Inhibiting phosphorylation of MEK and ERK with U0126 attenuated neuronal damage after tGCI. These results suggest that delayed HPC exerts neuroprotection against tGCI-induced injury in adult rats. The activation of Akt/FoxO and inactivation of MEK/ERK pathways by postconditioning contributed to the induction of neuroprotection against tGCI.

  16. Protracted upregulation of leptin and IGF1 is associated with activation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 pathway in mouse intestine after ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies including cancer. Hormones and related signaling crosstalk, which could contribute to radiation-induced persistent pathophysiologic changes in the small intestine and colon, remain to be explored. The current study assessed perturbation of GI homeostasis-related hormones and signaling pathways at the systemic as well as at the tissue level in small intestine and colon. Mice (6-8 week old C57BL/6J) were exposed to 2 Gy γ radiation, serum and tissue samples were collected, and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin signaling were assessed two or twelve months after radiation exposure. Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), leptin, and adiponectin were altered at these times after irradiation. Radiation was associated with increased IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) and obesity (leptin) receptor (Ob-R), decreased adiponectin receptor 1 (Adipo-R1) and 2 (Adipo-R2), and increased Ki-67 levels in small intestine and colon at both time points. Immunoblot analysis further showed increased IGF1R and Ob-R, and decreased Adipo-R2. Additionally, upregulation of PI3K/Akt and JAK2 signaling, which are downstream of IGF1 and leptin, was also observed in irradiated samples at both time points. These results when considered along with increased cell proliferation in the small intestine and colon demonstrate for the first time that ionizing radiation can persistently increase IGF1 and leptin and activate downstream proliferative pathways, which may contribute to GI functional alterations and carcinogenesis.

  17. Slug inhibits the proliferation and tumor formation of human cervical cancer cells by up-regulating the p21/p27 proteins and down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via the trans-suppression Akt1/p-Akt1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Nan; Yang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Slug (Snai2) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in different human cancers, but the function of Slug in cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Slug could suppress the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Further experiments found that Slug could trans-suppress the expression of Akt1/p-Akt1 by binding to E-box motifs in the promoter of the Akt1 gene and then inhibit the cell proliferation and tumor formation of cervical cancer cells by up-regulating p21/p27 and/or down-regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, Slug acts as a tumor suppressor during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27036045

  18. Regulation of mRNA export by the PI3 kinase/AKT signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, Alexandre Jose Christino; Sievert, Rachel; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    UAP56, ALY/REF, and NXF1 are mRNA export factors that sequentially bind at the 5′ end of a nuclear mRNA but are also reported to associate with the exon junction complex (EJC). To screen for signal transduction pathways regulating mRNA export complex assembly, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to measure the binding of mRNA export and EJC core proteins in nuclear complexes. The fraction of UAP56, ALY/REF, and NXF1 tightly bound in complexes was reduced by drug inhibition of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3 kinase)/AKT pathway, as was the tightly bound fraction of the core EJC proteins eIF4A3, MAGOH, and Y14. Inhibition of the mTOR mTORC1 pathway decreased the tight binding of MAGOH. Inhibition of the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway increased the export of poly(A) RNA and of a subset of candidate mRNAs. A similar effect of PI3 kinase/AKT inhibition was observed for mRNAs from both intron-containing and intronless histone genes. However, the nuclear export of mRNAs coding for proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum or to mitochondria was not affected by the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. These results show that the active PI3 kinase/AKT pathway can regulate mRNA export and promote the nuclear retention of some mRNAs. PMID:23427269

  19. The PI3K/Akt Pathway in Tumors of Endocrine Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Helen Louise; Hague, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is a key driver in carcinogenesis. Defects in this pathway in human cancer syndromes such as Cowden’s disease and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia result in tumors of endocrine tissues, highlighting its importance in these cancer types. This review explores the growing evidence from multiple animal and in vitro models and from analysis of human tumors for the involvement of this pathway in the following: thyroid carcinoma subtypes, parathyroid carcinoma, pituitary tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. While data are not always consistent, immunohistochemistry performed on human tumor tissue has been used alongside other techniques to demonstrate Akt overactivation. We review active Akt as a potential prognostic marker and the PI3K pathway as a therapeutic target in endocrine neoplasia. PMID:26793165

  20. 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) stimulates cell proliferation through the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, Davide; Leoni, Silvia; Incerpi, Sandra; Bruscalupi, Giovannella

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) have a wide variety of essential roles in vertebrates, ranging from the regulation of key metabolic processes to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The classical mechanism of action of THs is genomic; 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) binds to specific nuclear receptors (TRs) and modifies the expression of specific genes. Recently, a new category of mechanisms, termed nongenomic, has been discovered for T3. These mechanisms include, among others, the rapid activation of signal transduction pathways, such as PI3K/Akt and MAPK, which eventually lead to cell proliferation. These effects are mediated in some cell types by a plasma membrane receptor, identified as integrin αvβ3, and in other cell types by cytoplasmic TRβ1. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of T3 on the cell growth of chick embryo hepatocytes at two different stages of development, 14 and 19 days, and to determine the activation of the signal transduction pathways, focusing on the potential involvement of a plasma membrane receptor and the possible participation of PI3K/Akt and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results clearly show that T3 stimulates cell proliferation at both stages of development through the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and the production of small amounts of ROS, which operate as effective second messengers. Moreover, we prove that these effects are not initiated at the plasma membrane receptor for T3.

  1. Blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway enhances mammalian reovirus replication by repressing IFN-stimulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jin; Zhang, Xiaozhan; Wu, Hongxia; Liu, Chunguo; Li, Zhijie; Hu, Xiaoliang; Su, Shuo; Wang, Lin-Fa; Qu, Liandong

    2015-01-01

    Many host cellular signaling pathways were activated and exploited by virus infection for more efficient replication. The PI3K/Akt pathway has recently attracted considerable interest due to its role in regulating virus replication. This study demonstrated for the first time that the mammalian reovirus strains Masked Palm Civet/China/2004 (MPC/04) and Bat/China/2003 (B/03) can induce transient activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway early in infection in vitro. When UV-treated, both viruses activated PI3K/Akt signaling, indicating that the virus/receptor interaction was sufficient to activate PI3K/Akt. Reovirus virions can use both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but only chlorpromazine, a specific inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, or siRNA targeting clathrin suppressed Akt phosphorylation. We also identified the upstream molecules of the PI3K pathway. Virus infection induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) but not Gab1, and blockage of FAK phosphorylation suppressed Akt phosphorylation. Blockage of PI3K/Akt activation increased virus RNA synthesis and viral yield. We also found that reovirus infection activated the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) in an interferon-independent manner and up-regulated IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) via the PI3K/Akt/EMSY pathway. Suppression of PI3K/Akt activation impaired the induction of ISRE and down-regulated the expression of ISGs. Overexpression of ISG15 and Viperin inhibited virus replication, and knockdown of either enhanced virus replication. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PI3K/Akt activated by mammalian reovirus serves as a pathway for sensing and then inhibiting virus replication/infection. PMID:26388843

  2. Impact of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation on the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Santamaría, Iñigo; Allonca, Eva; Suárez-Fernández, Laura; Gonzalez, Maria Victoria; Balbín, Milagros; Astudillo, Aurora; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Su, Gloria H.; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has emerged as one of the most frequently deregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Numerous alterations of various upstream and downstream components have been described; however, their prognostic significance and impact on HNSCC patient survival remains to be established. This was addressed using an unbiased cohort of 93 consecutive and homogeneous surgically treated HNSCC patients and results confirmed in 432 HNSCC patients. Our findings reveal the high prevalence of S6 phosphorylation, a surrogate marker of mTORC1 activation, in HNSCC specimens (>70%) and, more importantly, demonstrate its relevance on clinical outcome. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on either Ser235/236 or Ser240/244 was consistently and significantly correlated with favorable prognosis, although with differences depending on the tumor site. Thus, p-S6 expression was significantly correlated with better disease-specific survival specifically in the subgroup of laryngeal carcinoma patients (P< 0.001). In addition, multivariate regression models revealed p-S6 to be an inverse and independent predictor of lymph-node metastasis (P= 0.004) and distant metastasis (P= 0.006). Taken together, this study unveils an unprecedented correlation of mTOR activation with improved clinical outcome in patients with laryngeal carcinomas and uncovers the potential of p-S6 expression as a good prognostic biomarker and an inverse predictor of lymph node and distant metastases. These results should be of broad interest as immunohistochemical detection of p-S6 may help to stratify patients and guide treatment decisions. PMID:27119232

  3. G-protein coupled receptor 34 activates Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways and functions as alternative pathway to mediate p185Bcr-Abl-induced transformation and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Bo; Li, Mei; Liu, Yulan; Li, Kun; Ma, Shuyun; Cui, Meihua; Qin, Yazhen; Zhu, Honghu; Pan, Xiuying; Guo, Jingzhu; Dai, Zonghan; Yu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Tyrosine 177 and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain play important roles in linking p185Bcr-Abl to downstream pathways critical for cell growth and survival. However, a mutant p185(Y177FR552L) (p185(YR)), in which tyrosine 177 and arginine 552 in the SH2 domain are mutated, is still capable of transforming hematopoietic cells in vitro. Transplant of these cells into syngeneic mice also leads to leukemogenesis, albeit with a phenotype distinct from that produced by wild-type p185Bcr-Abl (p185(wt))-transformed cells. Here we show that G-protein coupled receptor 34 (Gpr34) expression is markedly up-regulated in p185(YR)-transformed cells compared to those transformed by p185(wt). Knockdown of Gpr34 in p185(YR) cells is sufficient to suppress growth factor-independent proliferation and survival in vitro and attenuate leukemogenesis in vivo. The Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways are activated in p185(YR) cells and the activation is dependent on Gpr34 expression. These studies identify Gpr34 as an alternative pathway that may mediate p185Bcr-Abl-induced transformation and leukemogenesis. PMID:25363403

  4. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cancer stem cells: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess unique self-renewal activity and mediate tumor initiation and propagation. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can be considered as a master regulator for cancer. More and more recent studies have shown the links between PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and CSC biology. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of signaling components upstream and downstream of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in CSC. In addition, we also summarize various classes of small molecule inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and their clinical potential in CSC. Overall, the current available data suggest that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway could be a promising target for development of CSC-target drugs. PMID:26175931

  5. Porcine circovirus type 2 activates PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways to promote interleukin-10 production in macrophages via Cap interaction of gC1qR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongtong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Yu; Cui, Beibei; Li, Delong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-κB pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-κB1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:26883107

  6. Porcine circovirus type 2 activates PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways to promote interleukin-10 production in macrophages via Cap interaction of gC1qR.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Wang, Tongtong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Yu; Cui, Beibei; Li, Delong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2016-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-κB pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-κB1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:26883107

  7. The protective effects of Chinese herb-Taikong Yangxin Prescription on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading through activating Akt/GSK-3beta signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yuan; Min, Yuan; Jianfeng, Zhang; Zhili, Li; Huijuan, Wang; Desheng, Wang; Yinghui, Li; Yongzhi, Li; Shizhong, Jiang

    Objective To test the hypothesis that traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescrip-tion can activate the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway and alleviate the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading. Methods The physiological effects of simulated microgravity was induced by 7d hindlimb unloading in rats. TaiKong Yangxin Pre-scription was given daily by gastric irrigation as countermeasure against effects of simulated microgravity. The frozen sections of left ventricular cardiac muscles were stained by FITC la-beled lectin and visualized by laser scanning confocal microscopy, the cross section areas(CSA) of cardiomyocytes were calculated by IPP6.0 Image software. The protein expression of TnI, phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK-3β were measured by Western blot. Results Simulated microgravity decreased the CSA of cardiomyocytes and protein expression of TnI in left ven-tricular cardiac muscles, inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9. The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription alleviated the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscles, reversed the declined protein expression of TnI and phosphoryla-tion levels of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9 in hindlimb-unloading rats. Conclusion The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription has significant countermeasure effects on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle induced by hindlimb unloading in rats, in which activating Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway plays an important role.(Funded by Advanced space medico-engineering research project of China, grant NO. 2005SY5206005 and SJ200801)

  8. Astragaloside IV facilitates glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes through the IRS1/AKT pathway and suppresses the palmitate-induced activation of the IKK/IκBα pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rongfeng; Zheng, Jianjun; Chen, Lizhen; Gu, Bin; Huang, Shengli

    2016-06-01

    Astragaloside IV is a monomer isolated from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, which is one of the most widely used plant-derived drugs in traditional Chinese medicine for diabetes therapy. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of astragaloside IV on glucose in C2C12 myotubes and the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. Four-day differentiated C2C12 myotubes were exposed to palmitate for 16 h in order to establish a model of insulin resistance and 3H glucose uptake, using 2-Deoxy‑D‑[1,2-3H(N)]-glucose (radiolabeled 2-DG), was detected. Astragaloside IV was added 2 h prior to palmitate exposure. The translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was evaluated by subcellular fractionation, and the expression of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor β (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1/protein kinase B (AKT) and inhibitory κB kinase (IKK)/inhibitor-κBα (IκBα), which are associated with insulin signal transduction, were assessed in the basal or the insulin‑stimulated state using western blot analysis or RT-PCR. We also examined the mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4). Taken together, these findings demonstrated that astragaloside IV facilitates glucose transport in C2C12 myotubes through a mechanism involving the IRS1/AKT pathway, and suppresses the palmitate-induced activation of the IKK/IκBα pathway.

  9. The promotion of angiogenesis induced by three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with different interconnection sizes via activation of PI3K/Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Haoqiang; Gao, Peng; Geng, Lei; Yuan, Yulin; Lu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The porous architectural characteristics of biomaterials play an important role in scaffold revascularization. However, no consensus exists regarding optimal interconnection sizes for vascularization and its scaffold bioperformance with different interconnection sizes. Therefore, a series of disk-type beta-tricalcium phosphates with the same pore sizes and variable interconnections were produced to evaluate how the interconnection size influenced biomaterial vascularization in vitro and in vivo. We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells on scaffolds with interconnections of various sizes. Results showed that scaffolds with a 150 μm interconnection size ameliorated endothelial cell function evidenced by promoting cell adhesion and migration, increasing cell proliferation and enhancing expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo study was performed on rabbit implanted with scaffolds into the bone defect on femoral condyles. Implantation with scaffolds with 150 μm interconnection size significantly improved neovascularization as shown by micro-CT as compared to scaffolds with 100 and 120 μm interconnection sizes. Moreover, the aforementioned positive effects were abolished by blocking PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway with LY-294002. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the scaffold with 150 μm interconnection size improves neovascularization via the PI3K/Akt pathway and provides a target for biomaterial inner structure modification to attain improved clinical performance in implant vascularization. PMID:25797242

  10. The promotion of angiogenesis induced by three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold with different interconnection sizes via activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Haoqiang; Gao, Peng; Geng, Lei; Yuan, Yulin; Lu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The porous architectural characteristics of biomaterials play an important role in scaffold revascularization. However, no consensus exists regarding optimal interconnection sizes for vascularization and its scaffold bioperformance with different interconnection sizes. Therefore, a series of disk-type beta-tricalcium phosphates with the same pore sizes and variable interconnections were produced to evaluate how the interconnection size influenced biomaterial vascularization in vitro and in vivo. We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells on scaffolds with interconnections of various sizes. Results showed that scaffolds with a 150 μm interconnection size ameliorated endothelial cell function evidenced by promoting cell adhesion and migration, increasing cell proliferation and enhancing expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo study was performed on rabbit implanted with scaffolds into the bone defect on femoral condyles. Implantation with scaffolds with 150 μm interconnection size significantly improved neovascularization as shown by micro-CT as compared to scaffolds with 100 and 120 μm interconnection sizes. Moreover, the aforementioned positive effects were abolished by blocking PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway with LY-294002. Our study explicitly demonstrates that the scaffold with 150 μm interconnection size improves neovascularization via the PI3K/Akt pathway and provides a target for biomaterial inner structure modification to attain improved clinical performance in implant vascularization.

  11. Interleukin-8 upregulates integrin β3 expression and promotes estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell invasion by activating the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Shao, Nan; Lu, Zhenhai; Zhang, Yunjian; Wang, Mian; Li, Wen; Hu, Ziye; Wang, Shenming; Lin, Ying

    2015-08-10

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) possesses tumorigenic and proangiogenic properties and is overexpressed in many human cancers. The integrin family regulates a diverse array of cellular functions crucial to the initiation, progression and metastasis of solid tumors. However, the mechanisms of action of IL-8 and integrin in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer are largely unknown. In this study, IL-8 and integrin β3 expression in human breast cancer cells and tissues was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunochemistry analysis. Integrin β3 expression, invasive ability and the activation of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in IL-8 knockdown breast cancer cells were evaluated. In addition, reporter assay and ChIP were performed to assess integrin β3 promoter activity in IL-8 knockdown cells. We observed a positive correlation between integrin β3 and IL-8 expression, which was inversely correlated with ER status in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. IL-8 siRNA decreased the invasion and integrin β3 expression in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, IL-8 siRNA attenuated the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt and inhibited NF-κB activity and binding on integrin β3 promoter. IL-8 siRNA diminished NF-κB nuclear translocation via blocking IκB phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, IL-8 activates the PI3K/Akt pathway, which in turn activates NF-κB, resulting in the upregulation of integrin β3 expression and increased invasion of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells. IL-8/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB/integrin β3 axis may be exploited for therapeutic intervention to breast cancer metastasis.

  12. Computational Modeling of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Francesco; Russo, Giulia; Candido, Saverio; Pennisi, Marzio; Cavalieri, Salvatore; Motta, Santo; McCubrey, James A.; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor of the skin and seems to be resistant to current therapeutic approaches. Melanocytic transformation is thought to occur by sequential accumulation of genetic and molecular alterations able to activate the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and/or the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways. Specifically, mutations of B-RAF activate MAPK pathway resulting in cell cycle progression and apoptosis prevention. According to these findings, MAPK and AKT pathways may represent promising therapeutic targets for an otherwise devastating disease. Result Here we show a computational model able to simulate the main biochemical and metabolic interactions in the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways potentially involved in melanoma development. Overall, this computational approach may accelerate the drug discovery process and encourages the identification of novel pathway activators with consequent development of novel antioncogenic compounds to overcome tumor cell resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. The source code of the various versions of the model are available as S1 Archive. PMID:27015094

  13. Activation of RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in pituitary adenomas and their effects on downstream effectors.

    PubMed

    Dworakowska, D; Wlodek, E; Leontiou, C A; Igreja, S; Cakir, M; Teng, M; Prodromou, N; Góth, M I; Grozinsky-Glasberg, S; Gueorguiev, M; Kola, B; Korbonits, M; Grossman, A B

    2009-12-01

    Raf/MEK/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascades are key signalling pathways interacting with each other to regulate cell growth and tumourigenesis. We have previously shown B-Raf and Akt overexpression and/or overactivation in pituitary adenomas. The aim of this study is to assess the expression of their downstream components (MEK1/2, ERK1/2, mTOR, TSC2, p70S6K) and effectors (c-MYC and CYCLIN D1). We studied tissue from 16 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), six GH-omas, six prolactinomas and six ACTH-omas, all collected at transsphenoidal surgery; 16 normal autopsy pituitaries were used as controls. The expression of phospho and total protein was assessed with western immunoblotting, and the mRNA expression with quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of pSer217/221 MEK1/2 and pThr183 ERK1/2 (but not total MEK1/2 or ERK1/2) was significantly higher in all tumour subtypes in comparison to normal pituitaries. There was no difference in the expression of phosphorylated/total mTOR, TSC2 or p70S6K between pituitary adenomas and controls. Neither c-MYC phosphorylation at Ser 62 nor total c-MYC was changed in the tumours. However, c-MYC phosphorylation at Thr58/Ser62 (a response target for Akt) was decreased in all tumour types. CYCLIN D1 expression was higher only in NFPAs. The mRNA expression of MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, ERK2, c-MYC and CCND1 was similar in all groups. Our data indicate that in pituitary adenomas both the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are upregulated in their initial cascade, implicating a pro-proliferative signal derangement upstream to their point of convergence. However, we speculate that other processes, such as senescence, attenuate the changes downstream in these benign tumours. PMID:19620247

  14. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liangru; Xiang, Yanqun; Guo, Xiang; Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-05-10

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  15. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  16. Morphoproteomics identifies constitutive activation of the mTORC2/Akt and NF-κB pathways and expressions of IGF-1R, Sirt1, COX-2, and FASN in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: pathogenetic implications and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Andrés E; Nguyen, Nghia D; Rios, Adan; Brown, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gaining a better understanding of the molecular circuitries and pathways implicated in the malignant growth and biological behavior of T cell lymphomas may identify potential cellular targets with clinical therapeutic potential. The immunohistochemical characterization of key cellular proteins participating in these pathways can provide surrogate markers of biological activity. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) signaling pathway has been implicated in T-cell lymphopoiesis. The mTORC2 pathway involves downstream activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p-Akt (Ser 473). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are expressed upstream of the mTORC and NF-κB signaling pathways. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 products influence these pathways. Our goal was to use morphoproteomics to characterize the expression patterns of the proteins in various peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Design: Ten cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) were examined for expression of proteins along the mTORC, Akt and NF-κB pathways and affiliated tumorigenic molecules. These included two angioimmunoblastic PTCL, one natural killer/PTCL, one anaplastic large PTCL, and six PTCL not otherwise specified. Immunostaining for phosphorylated (p) mTOR (Ser 2448), p-Akt (Ser 473), p-NF-κBp65 (Ser 536), IGF-1R (Tyr1165/1166), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), COX-2 and FASN was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue for each case. Percent expression was scored using bright-field microscopy with high expression designated as more than 50% of the cells with positive stain in the appropriate subcellular compartment. Results: All ten cases demonstrated nuclear staining for p-mTOR (Ser 2448) corresponding to mTORC 2, and all cases showed strong, diffuse nuclear staining for p-NF-κBp65 (Ser 536). All ten also showed nuclear and cytoplasmic staining for p-Akt (Ser 473) and cytoplasmic staining for IGF-1R. High expressions

  17. PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a role in enhancement of eNOS activity by recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Han, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yong-Qin; Xue, Jia-Hong; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wu, Xiao-San; Wang, Cong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the activity of recombinant human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2) promoted the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured in vitro. Then treated with Ang II (1×10-6 mol/L) for 24 h. The rhACE2 (100 μmol/L) was added and incubated for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min respectively which was based on Ang II intervention. The effect of rhACE2 on phosphorylation eNOS level was also observed in the presence of LY294002 (10 μmol/L) (PI3K/AKT inhibitors). Griess reagent method was applied to measure NO contents in cell culture supernatant, RT-PCR to detect the expression of eNOSmRNA in HUVEC, and Western blot to detect the expression of eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS. In Ang II intervention group, NO contents were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). Through rhACE2 treatment, the NO contents in cell culture medium and the expression level of phosphorylated eNOS were significantly higher than in Ang II intervention group (P < 0.05), but eNOSmRNA and non-phosphorylated eNOS protein expression level showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). After HUVEC was intervened by PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, the expression level of phosphorylated eNOS was significantly lower than that in the rhACE2 30 min treatment group (P < 0.05). rhACE2 may reduce the activity of Ang II inhibited endothelial cell eNOS, which can be blocked by PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, suggesting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays an important role in rhACE2’s promotion of the activity of endothelial cell eNOS. PMID:25550859

  18. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suman, Shubhankar; Johnson, Michael D.; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  19. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway plays a key role in statin-induced myotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Sanvee, Gerda M; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    Statins are drugs that lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. They are generally well-tolerated, but myopathy is a potentially severe adverse reaction of these compounds. The mechanisms by which statins induce myotoxicity are not completely understood, but may be related to inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway. The current studies were performed to explore the down-stream effects of the statin-associated inhibition of AKT within the AKT signaling pathway and on myocyte biology and morphology in C2C12 myotubes and in mice in vivo. We exposed C2C12 myotubes to 10 μM or 50 μM simvastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin for 24 h. Simvastatin and atorvastatin inhibited AKT phosphorylation and were cytotoxic starting at 10 μM, whereas similar effects were observed for rosuvastatin at 50 μM. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation was associated with impaired phosphorylation of S6 kinase, ribosomal protein S6, 4E-binding protein 1 and FoxO3a, resulting in reduced protein synthesis, accelerated myofibrillar degradation and atrophy of C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, impaired AKT phosphorylation was associated with activation of caspases and PARP, reflecting induction of apoptosis. Similar findings were detected in skeletal muscle of mice treated orally with 5 mg/kg/day simvastatin for 3 weeks. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in statin-induced myotoxicity and reveals potential drug targets for treatment of patients with statin-associated myopathies.

  20. Resveratrol Regulates Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells by Modulating NF-κB and the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Quan; Sun, Peng; Jin, Quan; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing; Lian, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether resveratrol could suppress the hepatic fibrogenesis in activated hepatic stellate cells. The immortalized rat hepatic stellate cells, t-HSC/Cl-6, were treated with resveratrol 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL). Resveratrol decreased t-HSC/Cl-6 cell viability at much lower concentrations within 24 h. Resveratrol pretreatment also decreased the LPS-induced protein expression of α-SMA and collagen I. In addition, resveratrol significantly reduced the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and the expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase B (Akt). Moreover, resveratrol markedly blocked the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in LPS-activated HSCs. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited HSCs activation through stimulating LXRβ, but did not influence LXRα. Overall, we conclude that the antifibrotic effect of resveratrol is the result of blocking NF-κB activation and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, which inhibits HSC activation to obstruct liver fibrosis. Thus, resveratrol may be a natural agent for preventing hepatic fibrosis.

  1. Depolarization and neurotrophins converge on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway to synergistically regulate neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, A R; Mazzoni, I; Tudan, C; Boudreau, M; Kaplan, D R; Miller, F D

    1999-09-01

    In this report, we have examined the mechanisms whereby neurotrophins and neural activity coordinately regulate neuronal survival, focussing on sympathetic neurons, which require target-derived NGF and neural activity for survival during development. When sympathetic neurons were maintained in suboptimal concentrations of NGF, coincident depolarization with concentrations of KCl that on their own had no survival effect, synergistically enhanced survival. Biochemical analysis revealed that depolarization was sufficient to activate a Ras-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway (Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt), and function-blocking experiments using recombinant adenovirus indicated that this pathway was essential for approximately 50% of depolarization-mediated neuronal survival. At concentrations of NGF and KCl that promoted synergistic survival, these two stimuli converged to promote increased PI3-kinase-dependent Akt phosphorylation. This convergent PI3-kinase-Akt pathway was essential for synergistic survival. In contrast, inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II revealed that, while this molecule was essential for depolarization-induced survival, it had no role in KCl- induced Akt phosphorylation, nor was it important for synergistic survival by NGF and KCl. Thus, NGF and depolarization together mediate survival of sympathetic neurons via intracellular convergence on a Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt pathway. This convergent regulation of Akt may provide a general mechanism for coordinating the effects of growth factors and neural activity on neuronal survival throughout the nervous system.

  2. Combined AKT and MEK Pathway Blockade in Pre-Clinical Models of Enzalutamide-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toren, Paul; Kim, Soojin; Johnson, Fraser; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in patient outcomes using newer androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, treatment resistance in castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to remain a clinical problem. Co-targeting alternate resistance pathways are of significant interest to treat CRPC and delay the onset of resistance. Both the AKT and MEK signaling pathways become activated as prostate cancer develops resistance to AR-targeted therapies. This pre-clinical study explores co-targeting these pathways in AR-positive prostate cancer models. Using various in vitro models of prostate cancer disease states including androgen dependent (LNCaP), CRPC (V16D and 22RV1) and ENZ-resistant prostate cancer (MR49C and MR49F), we evaluate the relevance of targeting both AKT and MEK pathways. Our data reveal that AKT inhibition induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth in PTEN null cell lines independently of their sensitivity to hormone therapy; however, AKT inhibition had no effect on the PTEN positive 22RV1 cell line. Interestingly, we found that MEK inhibition had greater effect on 22RV1 cells compared to LNCaP, V16D or ENZ-resistant cells MR49C and MR49F cells. In vitro, combination AKT and MEK blockade had evidence of synergy observed in some cell lines and assays, but this was not consistent across all results. In vivo, the combination of AKT and MEK inhibition resulted in more consistent tumor growth inhibition of MR49F xenografts and longer disease specific survival compared to AKT inhibitor monotherapy. As in our in vitro study, 22RV1 xenografts were more resistant to AKT inhibition while they were more sensitive to MEK inhibition. Our results suggest that targeting AKT and MEK in combination may be a valuable strategy in prostate cancer when both pathways are activated and further support the importance of characterizing the dominant oncogenic pathway in each patient’s tumor in order to select optimal therapy. PMID:27046225

  3. Combined AKT and MEK Pathway Blockade in Pre-Clinical Models of Enzalutamide-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Toren, Paul; Kim, Soojin; Johnson, Fraser; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in patient outcomes using newer androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, treatment resistance in castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to remain a clinical problem. Co-targeting alternate resistance pathways are of significant interest to treat CRPC and delay the onset of resistance. Both the AKT and MEK signaling pathways become activated as prostate cancer develops resistance to AR-targeted therapies. This pre-clinical study explores co-targeting these pathways in AR-positive prostate cancer models. Using various in vitro models of prostate cancer disease states including androgen dependent (LNCaP), CRPC (V16D and 22RV1) and ENZ-resistant prostate cancer (MR49C and MR49F), we evaluate the relevance of targeting both AKT and MEK pathways. Our data reveal that AKT inhibition induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth in PTEN null cell lines independently of their sensitivity to hormone therapy; however, AKT inhibition had no effect on the PTEN positive 22RV1 cell line. Interestingly, we found that MEK inhibition had greater effect on 22RV1 cells compared to LNCaP, V16D or ENZ-resistant cells MR49C and MR49F cells. In vitro, combination AKT and MEK blockade had evidence of synergy observed in some cell lines and assays, but this was not consistent across all results. In vivo, the combination of AKT and MEK inhibition resulted in more consistent tumor growth inhibition of MR49F xenografts and longer disease specific survival compared to AKT inhibitor monotherapy. As in our in vitro study, 22RV1 xenografts were more resistant to AKT inhibition while they were more sensitive to MEK inhibition. Our results suggest that targeting AKT and MEK in combination may be a valuable strategy in prostate cancer when both pathways are activated and further support the importance of characterizing the dominant oncogenic pathway in each patient's tumor in order to select optimal therapy.

  4. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps.

  5. The fibrotic role of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    PubMed

    Li, H-Y; Zhang, Q-G; Chen, J-W; Chen, S-Q; Chen, S-Y

    2013-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine with fibrogenic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/ mammalian target of Ramycin (mTOR), a non-Smad TGF-β pathway, plays an important role in the fibrotic pathogenesis of different organs such as the lung, kidney, skin and liver. However, the role of PI3k-Akt pathway in fibrosis in injured skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, we determined the fibrotic role of PI3K-Akt pathway in injured skeletal muscle. We established a mouse model for acute muscle contusion. Western blotting analysis showed that TGF-β, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated mTOR were increased in muscles after acute contusion, which indicated that the PI3K-Akt- mTOR pathway was activated in skeletal muscle after acute contusion. The pathway was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, the expression of fibrosis markers vimentin, α SMA and collagen I and the area of scar decreased in injured skeletal muscle after PI3K pathway was blocked. The muscle function improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength after PI3K/Akt pathway was inhibited in injured skeletal muscle. In conclusion, activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway might promote collagen production and scar formation in the acute contused skeletal muscle. Blocking of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway could improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:23444088

  6. Rutin, A Natural Flavonoid Protects PC12 Cells Against Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Neurotoxicity Through Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rikang; Sun, Yongbing; Huang, Hesong; Wang, Lan; Chen, Jinlong; Shen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Free radicals induced neural damage is implicated in CNS diseases and rutin isolated form Lonicera japonica are reported to have neuroprotective activity. Previously, we confirmed that rutin exerted neuroprotective effect against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of rutin is still not fully uncovered. Here, we found that rutin significantly decreased SNP-induced reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells. Rutin reversed the declined GSH/GSSG ratio and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by SNP. Moreover, rutin activated both the protein Akt/mTOR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways and the neuroprotective effects of rutin were blocked by either the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or the MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059. In summary, these results demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of rutin might be through activating both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings support that rutin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS diseases related to NO neurotoxicity. PMID:26255195

  7. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Breast Cancer: Role of TIMP-1 in NO-mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ridnour, Lisa A.; Barasch, Kimberly M.; Windhausen, Alisha N.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Yfantis, Harris G.; Lee, Dong H.; Switzer, Christopher H.; Cheng, Robert Y. S.; Heinecke, Julie L.; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hines, Harry B.; Khanna, Chand; Glynn, Sharon A.; Ambs, Stefan; Wink, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of therapeutic response and cancer patient survival can be improved by the identification of molecular markers including tumor Akt status. A direct correlation between NOS2 expression and elevated Akt phosphorylation status has been observed in breast tumors. Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) has been proposed to exert oncogenic properties through CD63 cell surface receptor pathway initiation of pro-survival PI3k/Akt signaling. We employed immunohistochemistry to examine the influence of TIMP-1 on the functional relationship between NOS2 and phosphorylated Akt in breast tumors and found that NOS2-associated Akt phosphorylation was significantly increased in tumors expressing high TIMP-1, indicating that TIMP-1 may further enhance NO-induced Akt pathway activation. Moreover, TIMP-1 silencing by antisense technology blocked NO-induced PI3k/Akt/BAD phosphorylation in cultured MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. TIMP-1 protein nitration and TIMP-1/CD63 co-immunoprecipitation was observed at NO concentrations that induced PI3k/Akt/BAD pro-survival signaling. In the survival analysis, elevated tumor TIMP-1 predicted poor patient survival. This association appears to be mainly restricted to tumors with high NOS2 protein. In contrast, TIMP-1 did not predict poor survival in patient tumors with low NOS2 expression. In summary, our findings suggest that tumors with high TIMP-1 and NOS2 behave more aggressively by mechanisms that favor Akt pathway activation. PMID:22957045

  9. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses U-2 OS cell invasion and migration via downregulating the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tao Fang; Wang, Heng; Peng, Ai Fen; Luo, Qing Feng; Liu, Zhi Li; Zhou, Rong Ping; Gao, Song; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Wen Zhao

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We investigate the relationship between FASN and HER2 or p-HER2 by IHC in OS tissues. •We construct FASN-specific RNAi plasmid. •Inhibiting FASN down-regulates HER2/PI3K/AKT cell signaling in U-2 OS. •Inhibiting FASN blocks U-2 OS cell invasion and migration. -- Abstract: FASN plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of various tumors. Our previous studies show that inhibition FASN could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell in vivo and vitro. The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition FASN on the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT axis and invasion and migration of OS cell. The expression of FASN, HER2 and p-HER2(Y1248) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between FASN and p-HER2 as well as HER2 was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between FASN and HER2 as well as p-HER2 protein expression. The U-2 OS cells were transfected with either the FASN specific RNAi plasmid or the negative control RNAi plasmid. FASN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot assays was performed to examine the protein expression of FASN, HER2, p-HER2(Y1248), PI3K, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by inhibiting FASN. Meanwhile, the U-2OS cells migration and invasion were also impaired by inhibiting the activity of FASN/HER2/PI3K/AKT. Our results indicated that inhibition of FASN suppresses OS cell invasion and migration via down-regulation of the “HER2/PI3K/AKT” axis in vitro. FASN blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.

  10. JAK-STAT and AKT pathway-coupled genes in erythroid progenitor cells through ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway regulates erythropoietin (EPO)-induced survival, proliferation, and maturation of early erythroid progenitors. Erythroid cell proliferation and survival have also been related to activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. The goal of this study was to observe the function of EPO activation of JAK-STAT and PI3K/AKT pathways in the development of erythroid progenitors from hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells, as well as to distinguish early EPO target genes in human erythroid progenitors during ontogeny. Methods Hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells, isolated from fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues, were differentiated into erythroid progenitor cells. We have used microarray analysis to examine JAK-STAT and PI3K/AKT related genes, as well as broad gene expression modulation in these human erythroid progenitor cells. Results In microarray studies, a total of 1755 genes were expressed in fetal liver, 3844 in cord blood, 1770 in adult bone marrow, and 1325 genes in peripheral blood-derived erythroid progenitor cells. The erythroid progenitor cells shared 1011 common genes. Using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software, we evaluated the network pathways of genes linked to hematological system development, cellular growth and proliferation. The KITLG, EPO, GATA1, PIM1 and STAT3 genes represent the major connection points in the hematological system development linked genes. Some JAK-STAT signaling pathway-linked genes were steadily upregulated throughout ontogeny (PIM1, SOCS2, MYC, PTPN11), while others were downregulated (PTPN6, PIAS, SPRED2). In addition, some JAK-STAT pathway related genes are differentially expressed only in some stages of ontogeny (STATs, GRB2, CREBB). Beside the continuously upregulated (AKT1, PPP2CA, CHUK, NFKB1) and downregulated (FOXO1, PDPK1, PIK3CG) genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, we also observed intermittently regulated gene expression

  11. Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in neurons via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man-Su; Shutov, Leonid P; Gnanasekaran, Aswini; Lin, Zhihong; Rysted, Jacob E; Ulrich, Jason D; Usachev, Yuriy M

    2014-11-01

    The Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays an important role in regulating many neuronal functions, including excitability, axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. NFAT can be activated by action potential firing or depolarization that leads to Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT and its translocation to the nucleus. Recent data suggest that NFAT and NFAT-dependent functions in neurons can also be potently regulated by NGF and other neurotrophins. However, the mechanisms of NFAT regulation by neurotrophins are not well understood. Here, we show that in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, NGF markedly facilitates NFAT-mediated gene expression induced by mild depolarization. The effects of NGF were not associated with changes in [Ca(2+)]i and were independent of phospholipase C activity. Instead, the facilitatory effect of NGF depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway downstream of the TrkA receptor and on inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a protein kinase known to phosphorylate NFAT and promote its nuclear export. Knockdown or knockout of NFATc3 eliminated this facilitatory effect. Simultaneous monitoring of EGFP-NFATc3 nuclear translocation and [Ca(2+)]i changes in dorsal root ganglion neurons indicated that NGF slowed the rate of NFATc3 nuclear export but did not affect its nuclear import rate. Collectively, our data suggest that NGF facilitates depolarization-induced NFAT activation by stimulating PI3K/Akt signaling, inactivating GSK3β, and thereby slowing NFATc3 export from the nucleus. We propose that NFAT serves as an integrator of neurotrophin action and depolarization-driven calcium signaling to regulate neuronal gene expression.

  12. Oxidized LDL at low concentration promotes in-vitro angiogenesis and activates nitric oxide synthase through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shan; Wong, Siu Ling; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-concentration oxidized LDL enhances angiogenesis through nitric oxide (NO). {yields} Oxidized LDL increases intracellular NO levels via eNOS phosphorylation. {yields} Akt/PI3K signaling mediates oxidized LDL-induced eNOS phosphorylation. -- Abstract: It has long been considered that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes endothelial dysfunction and is remarkably related to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of oxLDL at very low concentration (<10 {mu}g/ml) on the endothelial cells remains speculative. Nitric oxide (NO) has a crucial role in the endothelial cell function. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxLDL at low concentration on NO production and proliferation, migration, tube formation of the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Results showed that oxLDL at 5 {mu}g/ml enhanced HCAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. These phenomena were accompanied by an increased intracellular NO production. L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor), LY294002 and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors) could abolish oxLDL-induced angiogenic effects and prevent NO production in the HCAEC. The phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K and eNOS were up-regulated by oxLDL, which was attenuated by LY294002. Our results suggested that oxLDL at low concentration could promote in-vitro angiogenesis and activate nitric oxide synthesis through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in HCAEC.

  13. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway is Involved in S100A4-induced Viability and Migration in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Liang; Zou, Zhengyu; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yunyuan; Li, Xueru; Sun, Hui; Zha, He; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The S100 protein family member S100A4 regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies have shown that elevated expression of S100A4 is associated with progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about whether and how S100A4 contributes to CRC development. In our present study, the elevated expression of S100A4 in CRC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Adenovirus-mediated S100A4 overexpression obviously enhanced viability and migration of CRC cells, which was detected by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Additionally, S100A4 overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K. These effects of S100A4 were abolished by treatment with either the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002, or the specific mTOR/p70S6K inhibitor rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of S100A4 resulted in upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin, which were strongly reversed by either LY294002 or rapamycin. Altogether, our results demonstrate that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is involved in S100A4-induced viability, migration, upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of E-cadherin in CRC cells. PMID:24936148

  14. Loss of miR-200b promotes invasion via activating the Kindlin-2/integrin β1/AKT pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: An E-cadherin-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Wu, Chengsheng; Li, Shang; Jiao, Ji-Wei; Cao, Hui-Hui; Lai, Raymond; Xu, Li-Yan; Li, En-Min

    2015-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that loss of miR-200b enhances the invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. However, whether the miR-200-ZEB1/2-E-cadherin regulatory cascade, a master regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is involved in the regulation of ESCC invasion remains elusive. Here, we show that miR-200b represses ESCC cell invasion in vivo without altering the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin, two surrogate markers of EMT. However, an inverse correlation was observed between the expression levels of miR-200b and ZEB1/2 in both ESCC cell lines (n = 7, P < 0.05) and ESCC tumor samples (n = 88, P < 0.05). Methylation of E-cadherin gene was found to block the regulation of E-cadherin by the miR-200b-ZEB1/2 axis, indicating that an E-cadherin-independent mechanism can mediate the biological function of miR-200b in ESCC. We revealed that miR-200b suppresses the integrin β1-AKT pathway via targeting Kindlin-2 to mitigate ESCC cell invasiveness. In two independent cohorts of ESCC samples (n = 20 and n = 53, respectively), Kindlin-2 expression positively correlated with the activation status of both the integrin signaling pathway and the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway (both P < 0.01). These data highlight that suppression of the Kindlin-2-integrin β1-AKT regulatory axis is an alternative mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of miR-200b in ESCC.

  15. Wogonoside prevents colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis and colon cancer progression in inflammation-related microenvironment via inhibiting NF-κB activation through PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Li; Li, Wenjun; Ding, Youxiang; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment has been reported to be correlated with tumor initiation and malignant development. In the previous studies we have found that wogonoside exerts anti-neoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the chemopreventive effects of wogonoside on colitis-associated cancer and delineated the potential mechanisms. In the azoxymethane initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) promoted colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, wogonoside significantly reduced the disease severity, lowered tumor incidence and inhibited the development of colorectal adenomas. Moreover, wogonoside inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and cancer cell proliferation at tumor site. Furthermore, wogonoside dramatically decreased the secretion and expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as the nuclear expression of NF-κB in adenomas and surrounding tissues. In vitro results showed that wogonoside suppressed the proliferation of human colon cancer cells in the inflammatory microenvironment. Mechanistically, we found that wogonoside inhibited NF-κB activation via PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that wogonoside attenuated colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice and inhibited the progression of human colon cancer in inflammation-related microenvironment via suppressing NF-κB activation by PI3K/Akt pathway, indicating that wogonoside could be a promising therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:27102438

  16. Deuterohemin-AlaHisLys mitigates the symptoms of rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus by scavenging reactive oxygen species and activating the PI3-K/AKT signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Lei, Liyan; Zhang, Guangji; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Youming; Zhang, Wenqi; Zhang, Wenbo; Hu, Bing; Wang, Liping

    2014-09-01

    Damage to pancreatic β-cells plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes, and oxidative stress is a likely contributor. In the present study, we investigated the effect of deuterohemin-AlaHisLys (DhHP-3), a microperoxidase-11 mimic, on rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and examined the action mechanisms of DhHP-3. The induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in diabetic rats were associated with increased oxidative stress and damage to pancreatic islets. DhHP-3 (3 mg/kg) ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, protected pancreas islet, decreased the content of malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and pancreatic tissue by reducing ROS levels. Furthermore, DhHP-3 stimulated the proliferation of INS-1 cells and inhibited apoptosis by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3-K/AKT) signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated for the first time that DhHP-3 decreased blood glucose level in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, scavenged reactive oxygen species, activated the PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway, and protected pancreatic β-cells against apoptosis.

  17. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide improves aortic relaxation in diabetic rats via PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chuan; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-03-15

    A newly identified polysaccharide (PSG-1) has been purified from Ganoderma atrum. The study was to investigate the protective effect of PSG-1 on diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks and then injected with a low dose of streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. The diabetic rats were orally treated with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. It was found that administration of PSG-1 significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose, improved endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, increased levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide in the aorta from diabetic rats, compared to un-treated diabetics. These results suggested that the protective effects of PSG-1 against endothelial dysfunction may be related to activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

  18. The Curcumin Analog C-150, Influencing NF-κB, UPR and Akt/Notch Pathways Has Potent Anticancer Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hackler, László; Ózsvári, Béla; Gyuris, Márió; Sipos, Péter; Fábián, Gabriella; Molnár, Eszter; Marton, Annamária; Faragó, Nóra; Mihály, József; Nagy, Lajos István; Szénási, Tibor; Diron, Andrea; Párducz, Árpád; Kanizsai, Iván; Puskás, László G.

    2016-01-01

    C-150 a Mannich-type curcumin derivative, exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects against eight glioma cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Inhibition of cell proliferation by C-150 was mediated by affecting multiple targets as confirmed at transcription and protein level. C-150 effectively reduced the transcription activation of NFkB, inhibited PKC-alpha which are constitutively over-expressed in glioblastoma. The effects of C-150 on the Akt/ Notch signaling were also demonstrated in a Drosophila tumorigenesis model. C-150 reduced the number of tumors in Drosophila with similar efficacy to mitoxantrone. In an in vivo orthotopic glioma model, C-150 significantly increased the median survival of treated nude rats compared to control animals. The multi-target action of C-150, and its preliminary in vivo efficacy would render this curcumin analogue as a potent clinical candidate against glioblastoma. PMID:26943907

  19. The Curcumin Analog C-150, Influencing NF-κB, UPR and Akt/Notch Pathways Has Potent Anticancer Activity In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Hackler, László; Ózsvári, Béla; Gyuris, Márió; Sipos, Péter; Fábián, Gabriella; Molnár, Eszter; Marton, Annamária; Faragó, Nóra; Mihály, József; Nagy, Lajos István; Szénási, Tibor; Diron, Andrea; Párducz, Árpád; Kanizsai, Iván; Puskás, László G

    2016-01-01

    C-150 a Mannich-type curcumin derivative, exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects against eight glioma cell lines at micromolar concentrations. Inhibition of cell proliferation by C-150 was mediated by affecting multiple targets as confirmed at transcription and protein level. C-150 effectively reduced the transcription activation of NFkB, inhibited PKC-alpha which are constitutively over-expressed in glioblastoma. The effects of C-150 on the Akt/ Notch signaling were also demonstrated in a Drosophila tumorigenesis model. C-150 reduced the number of tumors in Drosophila with similar efficacy to mitoxantrone. In an in vivo orthotopic glioma model, C-150 significantly increased the median survival of treated nude rats compared to control animals. The multi-target action of C-150, and its preliminary in vivo efficacy would render this curcumin analogue as a potent clinical candidate against glioblastoma. PMID:26943907

  20. Pyrroloquinoline quinone inhibits oxygen/glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Yu, Haixia; Liu, Jinyao; Cheng, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the protective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury to H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes and to investigate the mechanism. Using H9C2 cells cultured in vitro, we examined changes in cell viability with an MTT assay at 12, 24, and 48 h after injury induced by OGD. Various concentrations of PQQ (1, 10, and 100 μM) were added, and the effect of PQQ on cell viability after OGD was assessed using the MTT assay. Thus, the optimal concentration of PQQ for the protection of cardiomyocytes against oxygen and glucose deprivation injury was determined. We also used flow cytometry analysis to examine the effect of PQQ on H9C2 cells with OGD-induced injury. The molecular probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate was used to label the H9C2 cells, and flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of PQQ on reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. After labeling the H9C2 cells using a mitochondrial green fluorescent probe (Mito-Tracker Green), we measured the change in the mitochondrial content of PQQ-treated H9C2 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the effect of PQQ on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the H9C2 cells. The results of the MTT assay showed that 48 h of OGD significantly injured the H9C2 cells (p < 0.01) and that treatment with 100 μM PQQ effectively decreased the level of OGD-induced injury (p < 0.01). The results of the flow cytometry analysis showed that PQQ significantly reduced apoptosis in H9C2 cells subjected to OGD (p < 0.05). In addition, OGD significantly increased the ROS level in H9C2 cells (p < 0.01), and PQQ significantly inhibited this increase (p < 0.05). The results of the Mito-Tracker Green staining suggested that PQQ effectively inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial content caused by OGD (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that PQQ partially reversed the decrease in Akt phosphorylation that was caused by OGD (p

  1. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein induces release of histamine and interleukin-6 through G protein-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways in HMC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Che; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Hong, Zhi-Wei; Yeh, Ying-Chieh; Shih, Kuo-Shun; Du, Shin-Yi; Fu, Hua-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) activates several innate leukocytes including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells. It has been reported that HP-NAP induces degranulation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion of rat peritoneal mast cells. However, the molecular mechanism is not very clear. Here, we show that HP-NAP activates human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells to secrete histamine and IL-6. The secretion depends on pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive heterotrimeric G proteins but not on Toll-like receptor 2. Moreover, HP-NAP induces PTX-sensitive G protein-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and Akt in HMC-1 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppresses HP-NAP-induced release of histamine and IL-6 from HMC-1 cells. Thus, the activation of HMC-1 cells by HP-NAP is through Gi-linked G protein-coupled receptor-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  2. COMP-angiopoietin 1 increases proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem-like cells through Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Cho, Eui-Sic; Lee, Young-Hoon; Han, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Kwon, Jungkee; Hwang, Jae-Won; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Seo, Young-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COMP-Ang1 induces Tie-2 activation in BMMSCs, but not in primary osteoblasts. • Tie-2 knockdown inhibits COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation and osteoblastogenesis. • Tie-2 knockdown prevents COMP-Ang1-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK. • COMP-Ang1 induces migration of cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and CXCR4 pathways. • COMP-Ang1 stimulates in vivo migration of PDLSCs into a calvarial defect site of rats. - Abstract: Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), is under consideration as a therapeutic agent capable of inducing the homing of cells with increased angiogenesis. However, the potentials of COMP-Ang1 to stimulate migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the associated mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the potential of COMP-Ang1 on bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and calvarial osteoblasts. COMP-Ang1 augmented Tie-2 induction at protein and mRNA levels and increased proliferation and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix, and CXCR4 in BMMSCs, but not in osteoblasts. The COMP-Ang1-mediated increases were inhibited by Tie-2 knockdown and by treating inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB203580. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt was prevented by siRNA-mediated silencing of Tie-2. COMP-Ang1 also induced in vitro migration of BMMSCs and PDLSCs. The induced migration was suppressed by Tie-2 knockdown and by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist or LY294002, but not by SB203580. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of PDLSCs into calvarial defect site of rats. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration of progenitor cells may involve the Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  3. Gelsolin-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell scattering in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baohua; Deng, Shuo; Loo, Ser Yue; Datta, Arpita; Yap, Yan Lin; Yan, Benedict; Ooi, Chia Huey; Dinh, Thuy Duong; Zhuo, Jingli; Tochhawng, Lalchhandami; Gopinadhan, Suma; Jegadeesan, Tamilarasi; Tan, Patrick; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Yong, Wei Peng; Soong, Richie; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Goh, Yaw Chong; Lobie, Peter E.; Yang, Henry; Kumar, Alan Prem; Maciver, Sutherland K.; So, Jimmy B.Y.; Yap, Celestial T.

    2016-01-01

    In gastric cancer (GC), the main subtypes (diffuse and intestinal types) differ in pathological characteristics, with diffuse GC exhibiting early disseminative and invasive behaviour. A distinctive feature of diffuse GC is loss of intercellular adhesion. Although widely attributed to mutations in the CDH1 gene encoding E-cadherin, a significant percentage of diffuse GC do not harbor CDH1 mutations. We found that the expression of the actin-modulating cytoskeletal protein, gelsolin, is significantly higher in diffuse-type compared to intestinal-type GCs, using immunohistochemical and microarray analysis. Furthermore, in GCs with wild-type CDH1, gelsolin expression correlated inversely with CDH1 gene expression. Downregulating gelsolin using siRNA in GC cells enhanced intercellular adhesion and E-cadherin expression, and reduced invasive capacity. Interestingly, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced increased gelsolin expression, and gelsolin was essential for HGF-medicated cell scattering and E-cadherin transcriptional repression through Snail, Twist and Zeb2. The HGF-dependent effect on E-cadherin was found to be mediated by interactions between gelsolin and PI3K-Akt signaling. This study reveals for the first time a function of gelsolin in the HGF/cMet oncogenic pathway, which leads to E-cadherin repression and cell scattering in gastric cancer. Our study highlights gelsolin as an important pro-disseminative factor contributing to the aggressive phenotype of diffuse GC. PMID:27058427

  4. Gelsolin-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell scattering in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baohua; Deng, Shuo; Loo, Ser Yue; Datta, Arpita; Yap, Yan Lin; Yan, Benedict; Ooi, Chia Huey; Dinh, Thuy Duong; Zhuo, Jingli; Tochhawng, Lalchhandami; Gopinadhan, Suma; Jegadeesan, Tamilarasi; Tan, Patrick; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Yong, Wei Peng; Soong, Richie; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Goh, Yaw Chong; Lobie, Peter E; Yang, Henry; Kumar, Alan Prem; Maciver, Sutherland K; So, Jimmy B Y; Yap, Celestial T

    2016-05-01

    In gastric cancer (GC), the main subtypes (diffuse and intestinal types) differ in pathological characteristics, with diffuse GC exhibiting early disseminative and invasive behaviour. A distinctive feature of diffuse GC is loss of intercellular adhesion. Although widely attributed to mutations in the CDH1 gene encoding E-cadherin, a significant percentage of diffuse GC do not harbor CDH1 mutations. We found that the expression of the actin-modulating cytoskeletal protein, gelsolin, is significantly higher in diffuse-type compared to intestinal-type GCs, using immunohistochemical and microarray analysis. Furthermore, in GCs with wild-type CDH1, gelsolin expression correlated inversely with CDH1 gene expression. Downregulating gelsolin using siRNA in GC cells enhanced intercellular adhesion and E-cadherin expression, and reduced invasive capacity. Interestingly, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced increased gelsolin expression, and gelsolin was essential for HGF-medicated cell scattering and E-cadherin transcriptional repression through Snail, Twist and Zeb2. The HGF-dependent effect on E-cadherin was found to be mediated by interactions between gelsolin and PI3K-Akt signaling. This study reveals for the first time a function of gelsolin in the HGF/cMet oncogenic pathway, which leads to E-cadherin repression and cell scattering in gastric cancer. Our study highlights gelsolin as an important pro-disseminative factor contributing to the aggressive phenotype of diffuse GC.

  5. Lutein inhibits the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells via cytosolic and mitochondrial Akt pathways (lutein inhibits RPE cells migration).

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Chi-Ming; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Chia-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lan; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2014-08-08

    During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  6. Radiation persistently promoted oxidative stress, activated mTOR via PI3K/Akt, and downregulated autophagy pathway in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-12-01

    While acute effects of toxic radiation doses on intestine are well established, we are yet to acquire a complete spectrum of sub-lethal radiation-induced chronic intestinal perturbations at the molecular level. We investigated persistent effects of a radiation dose (2 Gy) commonly used as a daily fraction in radiotherapy on oxidants and anti-oxidants, and autophagy pathways, which are interlinked processes affecting intestinal homeostasis. Six to eight weeks old C57BL/6J mice (n=10) were exposed to 2 Gy γ-ray. Mice were euthanized two or twelve months after radiation, intestine surgically removed, and flushed using sterile PBS. Parts of the intestine from jejunal-ilial region were fixed, frozen, or used for intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) isolation. While oxidant levels and mitochondrial status were assessed in isolated IEC, autophagy and oxidative stress related signaling pathways were probed in frozen and fixed samples using PCR-based expression arrays and immunoprobing. Radiation exposure caused significant alterations in the expression level of 26 autophagy and 17 oxidative stress related genes. Immunoblot results showed decreased Beclin1 and LC3-II and increased p62, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR. Flow cytometry data showed increased oxidant production and compromised mitochondrial integrity in irradiated samples. Immunoprobing of intestinal sections showed increased 8-oxo-dG and nuclear PCNA, and decreased autophagosome marker LC3-II in IEC after irradiation. We show that sub-lethal radiation could persistently downregulate anti-oxidants and autophagy signaling, and upregulate oxidant production and proliferative signaling. Radiation-induced promotion of oxidative stress and downregulation of autophagy could work in tandem to alter intestinal functions and have implications for post-radiation chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. RICTOR involvement in the PI3K/AKT pathway regulation in melanocytes and melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Laugier, Florence; Finet-Benyair, Adeline; André, Jocelyne; Rachakonda, P. Sivaramakrishna; Kumar, Rajiv; Bensussan, Armand; Dumaz, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the importance of the PI3K pathway in melanocytes and its frequent over-activation in melanoma. However, little is known about regulation of the PI3K pathway in melanocytic cells. We showed that normal human melanocytes are less sensitive to selective PI3K or mTOR inhibitors than to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. The resistance to PI3K inhibitor was due to a rapid AKT reactivation limiting the inhibitor effect on proliferation. Reactivation of AKT was linked to a feedback mechanism involving the mTORC2 complex and in particular its scaffold protein RICTOR. RICTOR overexpression in melanocytes disrupted the negative feedback, activated the AKT pathway and stimulated clonogenicity highlighting the importance of this feedback to restrict melanocyte proliferation. We found that the RICTOR locus is frequently amplified and overexpressed in melanoma and that RICTOR over-expression in NRAS-transformed melanocytes stimulates their clonogenicity, demonstrating that RICTOR amplification can cooperate with NRAS mutation to stimulate melanoma proliferation. These results show that RICTOR plays a central role in PI3K pathway negative feedback in melanocytes and that its deregulation could be involved in melanoma development. PMID:26356562

  8. RICTOR involvement in the PI3K/AKT pathway regulation in melanocytes and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Laugier, Florence; Finet-Benyair, Adeline; André, Jocelyne; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Kumar, Rajiv; Bensussan, Armand; Dumaz, Nicolas

    2015-09-29

    Several studies have highlighted the importance of the PI3K pathway in melanocytes and its frequent over-activation in melanoma. However, little is known about regulation of the PI3K pathway in melanocytic cells. We showed that normal human melanocytes are less sensitive to selective PI3K or mTOR inhibitors than to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. The resistance to PI3K inhibitor was due to a rapid AKT reactivation limiting the inhibitor effect on proliferation. Reactivation of AKT was linked to a feedback mechanism involving the mTORC2 complex and in particular its scaffold protein RICTOR. RICTOR overexpression in melanocytes disrupted the negative feedback, activated the AKT pathway and stimulated clonogenicity highlighting the importance of this feedback to restrict melanocyte proliferation. We found that the RICTOR locus is frequently amplified and overexpressed in melanoma and that RICTOR over-expression in NRAS-transformed melanocytes stimulates their clonogenicity, demonstrating that RICTOR amplification can cooperate with NRAS mutation to stimulate melanoma proliferation. These results show that RICTOR plays a central role in PI3K pathway negative feedback in melanocytes and that its deregulation could be involved in melanoma development.

  9. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hag Dong; Jang, Chang-Young; Choe, Jeong Min; Sohn, Jeongwon; Kim, Joon

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  10. Bufalin reverses intrinsic and acquired drug resistance to cisplatin through the AKT signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Huilin; Li, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhuang, Liwei; Liu, Tiefu

    2016-08-01

    Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for gastric cancer (GC), however it activates AKT, which contributes to intrinsic and acquired resistance. Bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, shows significant anticancer activity by inhibiting the AKT pathway. It was therefore hypothesized that bufalin could counteract cisplatin resistance in GC cells. SGC7901, MKN‑45 and BGC823 human GC cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Effects of cisplatin and bufalin on GC cells were measured by a cell counting kit, apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, and immunoblotting was used to detect proteins associated with the AKT signaling pathway. It was demonstrated that bufalin synergized with cisplatin to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of GC cells by diminishing the activation of cisplatin-induced AKT under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Bufalin also inhibits cisplatin-activated molecules downstream of AKT that affect proliferation and apoptosis, including glycogen synthase kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6 Kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E-binding protein-1. To investigate acquired cisplatin resistance, a cisplatin‑resistant cell line SGC7901‑CR was used. It was demonstrated that bufalin reversed acquired cisplatin resistance and significantly induced apoptosis through the AKT pathway. These results imply that bufalin could extend the therapeutic effect of cisplatin on GC cells when administered in combination. PMID:27357249

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 signalling pathway in canine haemangiomas and haemangiosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Murai, A; Abou Asa, S; Kodama, A; Sakai, H; Hirata, A; Yanai, T

    2012-11-01

    The specific signalling pathways that are deregulated in canine endothelial tumours have not yet fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) signalling pathway in spontaneously arising canine haemangiomas (HAs) and haemangiosarcomas (HSAs) in order to identify novel molecular targets for treatment. Surgically-resected samples of HA (n = 27), HSA (n = 37), granulation tissue (n = 4) and normal skin (n = 4) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Approximately 80% of the HSA samples had moderate to intense expression of phosphorylated Akt at Ser473 (p-Akt Ser473), p-Akt Thr308, p-4E-BP1 Thr37/46 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, which was significantly higher than in the HAs and was similar to the expression in activated endothelial cells (ECs). Although p-mTOR complex1 (p-mTORC1) Ser2448 was expressed by most of the activated ECs, only 35% of the HSA samples had weak to moderate expression. Because mTORC2 and phosphorylates Akt Ser473 was activated in HSA samples, the present findings suggest that the mTORC2/Akt/4E-BP1 pathway, regulated independently of mTORC1, may be important for targeting therapy in canine HSAs. PMID:22789858

  12. 14-3-3ζ up-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in hepatocellular carcinoma via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yufu; Lv, Pengfei; Sun, Zhongyi; Han, Lei; Luo, Bichao; Zhou, Wenping

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3ζ protein, a member of 14-3-3 family, plays important roles in multiple cellular processes. Our previous study showed that 14-3-3ζ could bind to regulate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is induced by hypoxia and a crucial factor for induction of tumor metastasis. Moreover, we also have confirmed the response of 14-3-3ζ to hypoxia in our unpublished data as well. Thus, in the present study, we attempted to reveal that whether the regulation effect of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α functioned in a similar pattern as hypoxia. Stable regulation of 14-3-3ζ in human HCC cell line SMMC-772 and HCC-LM3 was achieved. The regulation of 14-3-3ζ on HIF-1α mRNA transcription was evaluated by luciferase activity assay and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The effect of 14-3-3ζ on the production of HIF-1α and pathways determining HIF-1α’s response to hypoxia was assessed using western blotting assay. Our results showed that regulation of 14-3-3ζ expression influenced the activity of HIF-1α, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB). Blocking of these pathways using indicated inhibitors revealed that 14-3-3ζ enhanced the production of HIF-1α via the activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-кB pathway, which was identical to hypoxia induced HIF-1α expression. For the first time, our study described the key role of 14-3-3ζ in the HIF-1α production in HCC cells. And the molecule exerted its function on HIF-1α both by directly binding to it and via PI3K/Akt/NF-кB signal transduction pathway. PMID:26884855

  13. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Yonghong

    2009-08-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) can modulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, LPLI has been applied to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The protective role of LPLI against the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a major constituent of AD plaques, has not been studied. PI3K/Akt pathway is extremely important in protecting cells from apoptosis caused by diverse stress stimuli. However, whether LPLI can inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis through Akt activation is still unclear. In current study, using FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique, we investigated the activity of Akt in response to LPLI treatment. B kinase activity reporter (BKAR), a recombinant FRET probe of Akt, was utilized to dynamically detect the activation of Akt after LPLI treatment. The results show that LPLI promoted the activation of Akt. Moreover, LPLI inhibits apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 and the apoptosis inhibition can be abolished by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that LPLI can inhibit Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation.

  14. Centipede grass exerts anti-adipogenic activity through inhibition of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ expression and the AKT signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Centipede grass (CG) originates from China and South America and is reported to contain several C-glycosyl flavones and phenolic constituents, including maysin and luteolin derivatives. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the antiobesity activity of CG and its potential molecular mechanism in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To study the effect of CG on adipogenesis, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells were treated every day with CG at various concentrations (0–100 μg/ml) for six days. Oil-red O staining and triglyceride content assay were performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of mRNAs or proteins associated with adipogenesis was measured using RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. We examined the effect of CG on level of phosphorylated Akt in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CG at various concentration s during adipocyte differentiation. Results Differentiation was investigated with an Oil-red O staining assay using CG-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that CG suppressed lipid droplet formation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes with CG resulted in an attenuation of the expression of adipogenesis-related factors and lipid metabolic genes. The expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ, the central transcriptional regulators of adipogenesis, was decreased by the treatment with CG. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, aP2 were significantly inhibited following the CG treatment. Moreover, the CG treatment down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β. Conclusions Taken collectively, these data indicated that CG exerts antiadipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:23181522

  15. PTEN Contributes to Profound PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Deregulation in Dystrophin-Deficient Dog Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Feron, Marie; Guevel, Laetitia; Rouger, Karl; Dubreil, Laurence; Arnaud, Marie-Claire; Ledevin, Mireille; Megeney, Lynn A.; Cherel, Yan; Sakanyan, Vehary

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy, and although the genetic basis of this disease is well defined, the overall mechanisms that define its pathogenesis remain obscure. Alterations in individual signaling pathways have been described, but little information is available regarding their putative implications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy pathogenesis. Here, we studied the status of various major signaling pathways in the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog that specifically reproduces the full spectrum of human pathology. Using antibody arrays, we found that Akt1, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and p38δ and p38γ kinases all exhibited decreased phosphorylation in muscle from a 4-month-old animal with Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy, revealing a deep alteration of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed the presence of muscle fibers exhibiting a cytosolic accumulation of Akt1, GSK3β, and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase (PTEN), an enzyme counteracting PI3K-mediated Akt activation. Enzymatic assays established that these alterations in phosphorylation and expression levels were associated with decreased Akt and increased GSK3β and PTEN activities. PTEN/GSK3β-positive fibers were also observed in muscle sections from 3- and 36-month-old animals, indicating long-term PI3K/Akt pathway alteration. Collectively, our data suggest that increased PTEN expression and activity play a central role in PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and p70S6K pathway modulation, which could exacerbate the consequences of dystrophin deficiency. PMID:19264909

  16. Insulin and IGFs enhance hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Magner, Nataly L; Jung, Yunjoon; Wu, Jian; Nolta, Jan A; Zern, Mark A; Zhou, Ping

    2013-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be progressively differentiated into definitive endoderm (DE), hepatic progenitors, and hepatocytes, and thus provide an excellent model system for the mechanistic study of hepatocyte differentiation, which is currently poorly understood. Here, we found that insulin enhanced hepatocyte differentiation from hESC-derived DE. Insulin activated the PI3K/AKT pathway, but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the DE cells, and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathways by inhibitors markedly inhibited hepatocyte differentiation. In addition, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF2 also activated the PI3K/AKT pathway in DE cells and their expression was robustly upregulated during hepatocyte differentiation from DE. Furthermore, inhibition of IGF receptor 1 (IGF1R) by a small molecule inhibitor PPP or knockdown of the IGF1R by shRNA attenuated hepatocyte differentiation. Moreover, simultaneous knockdown of the IGF1R and the insulin receptor with shRNAs markedly reduced the activation of AKT and substantially impaired hepatocyte differentiation. The PI3K pathway specifically enhanced the expression of HNF1 and HNF4 to regulate hepatocyte differentiation from DE. Although inhibition of the PI3K pathway was previously shown to be required for the induction of DE from hESCs, our study revealed a positive role of the PI3K pathway in hepatocyte differentiation after the DE stage, and has advanced our understanding of hepatocyte cell fate determination.

  17. KMUP-1 Attenuates Endothelin-1-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through Activation of Heme Oxygenase-1 and Suppression of the Akt/GSK-3β, Calcineurin/NFATc4 and RhoA/ROCK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Jong-Hau; Chen, You-Ting; Chen, Ing-Jun; Yeh, Jwu-Lai

    2015-01-01

    The signaling cascades of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, calcineurin/NFATc4, and PI3K/Akt/GSK3, are believed to participate in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether KMUP-1, a synthetic xanthine-based derivative, prevents cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by ET-1 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We found that in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, stimulation with ET-1 (100 nM) for 4 days induced cell hypertrophy and enhanced expressions of hypertrophic markers, including atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide, which were all inhibited by KMUP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, KMUP-1 prevented ET-1-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation determined by the DCFH-DA assay in cardiomyocytes. KMUP-1 also attenuated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK-3β, and activation of calcineurin/NFATc4 and RhoA/ROCK pathways induced by ET-1. Furthermore, we found that the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-response enzyme implicated in cardio-protection, was up-regulated by KMUP-1. Finally, KMUP-1 attenuated ET-1-stimulated activator protein-1 DNA binding activity. In conclusion, KMUP-1 attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by ET-1 through inhibiting ERK1/2, calcineurin/NFATc4 and RhoA/ROCK pathways, with associated cardioprotective effects via HO-1 activation. Therefore, KMUP-1 may have a role in pharmacological therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26056815

  18. Neurofilament heavy polypeptide regulates the Akt-beta-catenin pathway in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Sook; Chang, Xiaofei; LeBron, Cynthia; Nagpal, Jatin K; Lee, Juna; Huang, Yiping; Yamashita, Keishi; Trink, Barry; Ratovitski, Edward A; Sidransky, David

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of aggressive cancer growth. We observed promoter methylation and loss of expression in neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) in a significant proportion of primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) samples that were of a high tumor grade and advanced stage. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NEFH accelerated ESCC cell growth in culture and increased tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas forced expression of NEFH significantly inhibited cell growth and colony formation. Loss of NEFH caused up-regulation of pyruvate kinase-M2 type and down-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, via activation of the Akt/beta-catenin pathway, resulting in enhanced aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. The acceleration of glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction in NEFH-knockdown cells was suppressed in the absence of beta-catenin expression, and was decreased by the treatment of 2-Deoxyglucose, a glycolytic inhibitor, or API-2, an Akt inhibitor. Loss of NEFH activates the Akt/beta-catenin pathway and increases glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancer cells with methylated NEFH can be targeted for destruction with specific inhibitors of deregulated downstream pathways.

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of RCE-4 from Reineckia carnea on human cervical cancer HeLa cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caihong; Yang, Xiaojiao; Zou, Kun; He, Haibo; Wang, Junzhi; Qin, Huilin; Yu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chengxiong; Zheng, Juyan; Cheng, Fan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. In recent years, the studies find that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression, and the ideal therapeutic methods should be aimed at the inflammation reaction triggers. (1β,3β,5β,25S)-spirostan-1,3-diol1-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside] (RCE-4) was the main active composition of Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth. It significantly induced apoptosis in cervical cancer Caski cells through the mitochondrial pathway in our previous studies; however, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to further evaluate the effect of RCE-4 on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Based on this observation, we investigated the anti-cervical cancer effect of RCE-4 by modulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase-B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and inflammation-related key factors in HeLa cells. The results indicated that the HeLa cell was the most sensitive with an IC50 of 7.01 μM; RCE-4 significantly promoted the release of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); increased DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; reduced PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation levels; increased the Bax and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein levels; suppressed Bcl-2 protein expression; elevated the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio; and decreased the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions in HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that RCE-4 exerted beneficially anti-cervical cancer effect on HeLa cells, mainly inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, promoting HeLa cell apoptosis. Graphical abstract Anti-tumor effect of RCE-4 on HeLa cells.

  20. Crude Preparations of Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles Induce Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 via Activating Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IκB Kinase–NF-κB Pathways in Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori sheds outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain many surface elements of bacteria. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in directing the nature of adaptive immune responses against H. pylori, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in regulating function of DCs. In addition, HO-1 is important for adaptive immunity and the stress response. Although H. pylori-derived OMVs may contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, responses of DCs to OMVs have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of H. pylori-derived crude OMVs in modulating the expression of HO-1 in DCs. Exposure of DCs to crude H. pylori OMVs upregulated HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs obtained from a cagA-negative isogenic mutant strain induced less HO-1 expression than OMVs obtained from a wild-type strain. Crude H. pylori OMVs activated signals of transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2. Suppression of NF-κB or Nrf2 resulted in significant attenuation of crude OMV-induced HO-1 expression. Crude OMVs increased the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target molecules of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), such as S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Suppression of Akt resulted in inhibition of crude OMV-induced Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression. Furthermore, suppression of mTOR was associated with inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK), NF-κB, and HO-1 expression in crude OMV-exposed DCs. These results suggest that H. pylori-derived OMVs regulate HO-1 expression through two different pathways in DCs, Akt-Nrf2 and mTOR–IKK–NF-κB signaling. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression in DCs may modulate inflammatory responses in H. pylori infection. PMID:27185786

  1. P38 AND EGF RECEPTOR KINASE-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF THE PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ZN2+INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is induced by physiological and inflammatory stimuli. Regulation of COX-2 expression is stimulus- and cell type-specific. Exposure to Zn2+ has been associated with activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways as well as the induction...

  2. Activation of Akt protects alveoli from neonatal oxygen-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Coltan, Lavinia; Eaton, Farah; Barr, Amy J; Dyck, Jason R B; Thébaud, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the main complication of extreme prematurity, resulting in part from mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Currently, no specific treatment exists for BPD. BPD is characterized by an arrest in alveolar development and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Type 2 AECs are putative distal lung progenitor cells, capable of regenerating alveolar homeostasis after injury. We hypothesized that the protection of AEC2 death via the activation of the prosurvival Akt pathway prevents arrested alveolar development in experimental BPD. We show that the pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt pathway with wortmannin during the critical period of alveolar development impairs alveolar development in newborn rats, resulting in larger and fewer alveoli, reminiscent of BPD. Conversely, in an experimental model of BPD induced by oxygen exposure of newborn rats, alveolar simplification is associated with a decreased activation of lung Akt. In vitro studies with rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells cultured in hyperoxia (95% O(2)) showed decreased apoptosis and improved cell survival after the forced expression of active Akt by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In vivo, adenovirus-mediated Akt gene transfer preserves alveolar architecture in the newborn rat model of hyperoxia-induced BPD. We conclude that inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt disrupts normal lung development, whereas the expression of active Akt in experimental BPD preserves alveolar development. We speculate that the modulation of apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage. PMID:20348209

  3. PACAP and VIP increase the expression of myelin-related proteins in rat schwannoma cells: involvement of PAC1/VPAC2 receptor-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Castorina, Alessandro; Scuderi, Soraya; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Drago, Filippo; D'Agata, Velia

    2014-03-10

    PACAP and its cognate peptide VIP participate in various biological functions, including myelin maturation and synthesis. However, defining whether these peptides affect peripheral expression of myelin proteins still remains unanswered. To address this issue, we assessed whether PACAP or VIP contribute to regulate the expression of three myelin proteins (MAG, MBP and MPZ, respectively) using the rat schwannoma cell line (RT4-P6D2T), a well-established model to study myelin gene expression. In addition, we endeavored to partly unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. Expression of myelin-specific proteins was assessed in cells grown either in normal serum (10% FBS) or serum starved and treated with or without 100 nM PACAP or VIP. Furthermore, through pharmacological approach using the PACAP/VIP receptor antagonist (PACAP6-38) or specific pathway (MAPK or PI3K) inhibitors we defined the relative contribution of receptors and/or signaling pathways on the expression of myelin proteins. Our data show that serum starvation (24h) significantly increased both MAG, MBP and MPZ expression. Concurrently, we observed increased expression of endogenous PACAP and related receptors. Treatment with PACAP or VIP further exacerbated starvation-induced expression of myelin markers, suggesting that serum withdrawal might sensitize cells to peptide activity. Stimulation with either peptides increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 residue but had no effect on phosphorylated Erk-1/2. PACAP6-38 (10 μM) impeded starvation- or peptide-induced expression of myelin markers. Similar effects were obtained after pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin, 10 μM) but not the MAPKK inhibitor (PD98059, 50 μM). Together, the present finding corroborate the hypothesis that PACAP and VIP might contribute to the myelinating process preferentially via the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, providing the basis for future studies on the role of these peptides in demyelinating

  4. Molecular dissection of AKT activation in lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Du, Jinyan; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2013-01-01

    AKT is a critical signaling node downstream of PI3K, which is often activated in cancer. We analyzed the state of activation of AKT in 80 human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines under serum starvation conditions. We identified 13 lines which showed persistent AKT activation in the absence of serum. In 12 of the 13 lines, AKT activation could be attributed to loss of PTEN, activating mutation in EGFR or PIK3CA, or amplification of ERBB2. HCC2429 was the only cell line that had no alterations in those genes, but had high phospho-AKT(Ser473) levels under serum starvation conditions. However, the activation of AKT in HCC2429 was PI3K- and mTORC2-dependent based upon use of specific inhibitors. Kinome tyrosine phosphorylation profiling showed that both Notch and SRC were highly activated in this cell line. Despite the activation of Notch, AKT activation and cell survival were not affected by Notch inhibitors DAPT or Compound E. In contrast, SRC inhibitors PP2 and dasatinib both significantly decreased pAKT(Ser473) levels and reduced cell survival by inducing apoptosis. Further, a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibition synergistically blocked activation of AKT and induced apoptosis. Over-expression of SRC has been identified previously in human lung cancers, and these results suggest that a combination of SRC and mTOR inhibitors may have unique therapeutic benefit for a subset of lung cancers with these molecular features. PMID:23319332

  5. Activation of EGFR/ERBB2 via pathways involving ERK1/2, P38 MAPK, AKT and FOXO enhances recovery of diabetic hearts from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saghir; Yousif, Mariam H M; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Benter, Ibrahim F

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the effects of diabetes and/or ischemia on epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, and/or erbB2 signaling pathways on cardiac function. Isolated heart perfusion model of global ischemia was used to study the effect of chronic inhibition or acute activation of EGFR/erbB2 signaling on cardiac function in a rat model of type-1 diabetes. Induction of diabetes with streptozotocin impaired recovery of cardiac function (cardiac contractility and hemodynamics) following 40 minutes of global ischemia in isolated hearts. Chronic treatment with AG825 or AG1478, selective inhibitors of erbB2 and EGFR respectively, did not affect hyperglycemia but led to an exacerbation whereas acute administration of the EGFR ligand, epidermal growth factor (EGF), led to an improvement in cardiac recovery in diabetic hearts. Diabetes led to attenuated dimerization and phosphorylation of cardiac erbB2 and EGFR receptors that was associated with reduced signaling via extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and AKT (protein kinase B). Ischemia was also associated with reduced cardiac signaling via these molecules whereas EGF-treatment opposed diabetes and/or ischemia induced changes in ERK1/2, p38 MAP kinase, and AKT-FOXO signaling. Losartan treatment improved cardiac function in diabetes but also impaired EGFR phosphorylation in diabetic heart. Co-administration of EGF rescued Losartan-mediated reduction in EGFR phosphorylation and significantly improved cardiac recovery more than with either agent alone. EGFR/erbB2 signaling is an important cardiac survival pathway whose activation, particularly in diabetes, ischemia or following treatment with drugs that inhibit this cascade, significantly improves cardiac function. These findings may have clinical relevance particularly in the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  6. The PI3K/AKT Pathway as a Target for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Ingrid A; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2016-01-01

    Anticancer targeted therapies are designed to exploit a particular vulnerability in the tumor, which in most cases results from its dependence on an oncogene and/or loss of a tumor suppressor. Genes in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway are the most frequently altered in human cancers. Aberrant activation of this pathway, as a result of these somatic alterations, is associated with cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug resistance. Several drugs targeting PI3K/ATK are currently in clinical trials, alone or in combination, in both solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. These drugs are the focus of this review.

  7. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min) to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308), cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism. PMID:27494022

  8. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase—protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton’s lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min) to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308), cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism. PMID:27494022

  9. Dysregulation of AKT Pathway by SMYD2-Mediated Lysine Methylation on PTEN.

    PubMed

    Nakakido, Makoto; Deng, Zhenzhong; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the well-characterized tumor suppressor proteins, counteracts the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway through its unique lipid phosphatase activity. The functions of PTEN are regulated by a variety of posttranslational modifications such as acetylation, oxidation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation. However, methylation of PTEN has not been reported so far. In this study, we demonstrated that the oncogenic protein lysine methyltransferase SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) methylates PTEN at lysine 313 in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of SMYD2 suppressed the cell growth of breast cancer cells and attenuated phosphorylation levels of AKT, indicating that SMYD2-mediated methylation negatively regulates PTEN tumor suppressor activity and results in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. Furthermore, PTEN protein with lysine 313 substitution diminished phosphorylation of PTEN at serine 380, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor functions of PTEN. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of PTEN dysregulation regulated by lysine methylation in human cancer. PMID:25925379

  10. Leishmania promastigotes activate PI3K/Akt signalling to confer host cell resistance to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Aaron; Leal, Nicole; Kima, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that cells infected with promastigotes of some Leishmania species are resistant to the induction of apoptosis. This would suggest that either parasites elaborate factors that block signalling from apoptosis inducers or that parasites engage endogenous host signalling pathways that block apoptosis. To investigate the latter scenario, we determined whether Leishmania infection results in the activation of signalling pathways that have been shown to mediate resistance to apoptosis in other infection models. First, we showed that infection with the promastigote form of Leishmania major, Leishmania pifanoi and Leishmania amazonensis activates signalling through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NFkappaB and PI3K/Akt. Then we found that inhibition of signalling through the PI3K/Akt pathway with LY294002 and Akt IV inhibitor reversed resistance of infected bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages to potent inducers of apoptosis. Moreover, reduction of Akt levels with small interfering RNAs to Akt resulted in the inability of infected macrophages to resist apoptosis. Further evidence of the role of PI3K/Akt signalling in the promotion of cell survival by infected cells was obtained with the finding that Bad, which is a substrate of Akt, becomes phosphorylated during the course of infection. In contrast to the observations with PI3K/Akt signalling, inhibition of p38 MAPK signalling with SB202190 or NFkappaB signalling with wedelolactone had limited effect on parasite-induced resistance to apoptosis. We conclude that Leishmania promastigotes engage PI3K/Akt signalling, which confers to the infected cell, the capacity to resist death from activators of apoptosis.

  11. Crosstalk Between MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT Signal Pathways During Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Du, Ting; Li, Baoman; Rong, Yan; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is linked to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. During brain ischemia/reperfusion, EGFR could be transactivated, which stimulates these intracellular signaling cascades that either protect cells or potentiate cell injury. In the present study, we investigated the activation of EGFR, PI3K/AKT, and Raf/MAPK/ERK1/2 during ischemia or reperfusion of the brain using the middle cerebral artery occlusion model. We found that EGFR was phosphorylated and transactivated during both ischemia and reperfusion periods. During ischemia, the activity of PI3K/AKT pathway was significantly increased, as judged from the strong phosphorylation of AKT; this activation was suppressed by the inhibitors of EGFR and Zn-dependent metalloproteinase. Ischemia, however, did not induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was dependent on reperfusion. Coimmunoprecipitation of Son of sevenless 1 (SOS1) with EGFR showed increased association between the receptor and SOS1 in ischemia, indicating the inhibitory node downstream of SOS1. The inhibitory phosphorylation site of Raf-1 at Ser259, but not its stimulatory phosphorylation site at Ser338, was phosphorylated during ischemia. Furthermore, ischemia prompted the interaction between Raf-1 and AKT, while both the inhibitors of PI3K and AKT not only abolished AKT phosphorylation but also restored ERK1/2 phosphorylation. All these findings suggest that Raf/MAPK/ERK1/2 signal pathway is inhibited by AKT via direct phosphorylation and inhibition at Raf-1 node during ischemia. During reperfusion, we observed a significant increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation but no change in AKT phosphorylation. Inhibitors of reactive oxygen species and phosphatase and tensin homolog restored AKT phosphorylation but abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that the reactive oxygen species

  12. Erythropoietin protects cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through an Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tramontano, Anthony F; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Black, Aislinn D; Blendea, Mihaela C; Cohen, Inna; Deng, Lili; Sowers, James R; Cutaia, Michael V; El-Sherif, Nabil

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis is a contributing cause of myocyte loss in ischemic heart disease. Recent work has shown that erythropoietin (EPO) offers protection against apoptosis in a wide variety of tissues. We demonstrate that the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is expressed in the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte (NRVM). Exposure of NRVMs to hypoxia, with recombinant human EPO, significantly decreased apoptosis as measured by TUNEL, flow cytometry, and caspase 3/7 like activity when compared to hypoxia treatment alone. EPO administered at the initiation of coronary artery occlusion in the rat significantly decreased apoptosis in the myocardial ischemic region. In the NRVM, EPO increased the activity of Akt. The anti-apoptotic effect of EPO was abrogated by co-treatment with LY294002, a specific blocker of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). Our study demonstrates that EPO inhibits apoptosis in the NRVM exposed to hypoxia, through an Akt-dependent pathway. EPO also inhibits apoptosis in the in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia.

  13. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  14. EMP-1 promotes tumorigenesis of NSCLC through PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Lai, Senyan; Wang, Guihua; Cao, Xiaonian; Li, Zhaoming; Hu, Junbo; Wang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the role of EMP-1 in tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the possible mechanism. Specimens were collected from 28 patients with benign lung diseases and 28 with NSCLC, and immunohistochemically detected to evaluate the correlation of EMP-1 expression to the clinical features of NSCLC. Recombinant adenovirus was constructed to over-express EMP-1 and then infect PC9 cells. Cell proliferation was measured by Ki67 staining. Western blotting was performed to examine the effect of EMP-1 on the PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, tumor xenografts were established by subcutaneous injection of PC9 cell suspension (about 5×10(7)/mL in 100 μL of PBS) into the right hind limbs of athymic nude mice. The results showed EMP-1 was significantly up-regulated in NSCLC patients as compared with those with benign lung diseases. Over-expression of EMP-1 promoted proliferation of PC9 cells, which coincided with the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. EMP-1 promoted the growth of xenografts of PC9 cells in athymic nude mice. It was concluded that EMP-1 expression may contribute to the development and progress of NSCLC by activating PI3K/AKT pathway.

  15. Suppression of Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Proliferation by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ning; Wu, Yongguang; Meng, Qiong; Wang, Zhongze; Zuo, Yewen; Pan, Xi; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Shen; Yu, Hai; Zhou, En-Min; Shan, Tongling; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has recently caused high mortality in suckling piglets with subsequent large economic losses to the swine industry. Many intracellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, are activated by viral infection. The PI3K/Akt pathway is an important cellular pathway that has been shown to be required for virus replication. In the present study, we found that the PEDV JS-2013 strain activated Akt in Vero cells at early (5-15 min) and late stages (8-10 h) of infection. Inhibiting PI3K, an upstream activator of Akt, enhanced PEDV replication. Inhibiting GSK-3α/β, one of the downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt pathway and regulated by Akt during PEDV infected Vero cells, also enhanced PEDV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β signaling pathway is activated by PEDV and functions in inhibiting PEDV replication. PMID:27560518

  16. Suppression of Virulent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Proliferation by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ning; Wu, Yongguang; Meng, Qiong; Wang, Zhongze; Zuo, Yewen; Pan, Xi; Tong, Wu; Zheng, Hao; Li, Guoxin; Yang, Shen; Yu, Hai; Zhou, En-min; Shan, Tongling; Tong, Guangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has recently caused high mortality in suckling piglets with subsequent large economic losses to the swine industry. Many intracellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, are activated by viral infection. The PI3K/Akt pathway is an important cellular pathway that has been shown to be required for virus replication. In the present study, we found that the PEDV JS-2013 strain activated Akt in Vero cells at early (5–15 min) and late stages (8–10 h) of infection. Inhibiting PI3K, an upstream activator of Akt, enhanced PEDV replication. Inhibiting GSK-3α/β, one of the downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt pathway and regulated by Akt during PEDV infected Vero cells, also enhanced PEDV replication. Collectively, our data suggest that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3α/β signaling pathway is activated by PEDV and functions in inhibiting PEDV replication. PMID:27560518

  17. Gentamicin alters Akt-expression and its activation in the guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, U-R; Strieth, S; Schmidtmann, I; Li, H; Helling, K

    2015-12-17

    Gentamicin treatment induces hair cell death or survival in the inner ear. Besides the well-known toxic effects, the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway was found to be involved in cell protection. After gentamicin application, the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Akt and its activated form (p-Akt) were determined in male guinea pigs. A single dose of 0.1 mL gentamicin (4 mg/ear/animal) was intratympanically injected. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded prior to application and 1, 2 and 7 days afterward. At these three time points the cochleae (n=10 in each case) were removed, transferred to fixative and embedded in paraffin. Seven ears were used as untreated controls. Gentamicin, Akt and p-Akt were identified immunohistochemically in various regions of the cochlea and their staining intensities were quantified on sections using digital image analysis. The application of gentamicin resulted in hearing loss with a concomitant up-regulation of Akt-expression in the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion cells and an additional activation in spiral ganglion cells. At the level of individual ears, clear intracellular correlations were found between Akt- and p-Akt-expression in the stria vascularis and interdental cells and, to a minor extent, in the spiral ligament and the organ of Corti. Furthermore, statistical evidence for the connection between gentamicin up-take and hearing loss was detected. The increase in Akt- and p-Akt-expression in the organ of Corti and spiral ganglion cells indicates a selected response of the cochlea against gentamicin toxicity.

  18. Functional screen analysis reveals miR-26b and miR-128 as central regulators of pituitary somatomammotrophic tumor growth through activation of the PTEN-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, T; Faucz, F R; Azevedo, M; Xekouki, P; Iliopoulos, D; Stratakis, C A

    2013-03-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancer; however, their function in pituitary tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase-defective pituitaries occasionally form aggressive growth-hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors in the background of hyperplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of the protein kinase's main regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A. The molecular basis for this development remains unknown. We have identified a 17-miRNA signature of pituitary tumors formed in the background of hyperplasia (caused in half of the cases by PRKAR1A-mutations). We selected two miRNAs on the basis of their functional screen analysis: inhibition of miR-26b expression and upregulation of miR-128 suppressed the colony formation ability and invasiveness of pituitary tumor cells. Furthermore, we identified that miR-26b and miR-128 affected pituitary tumor cell behavior through regulation of their direct targets, PTEN and BMI1, respectively. In addition, we found that miR-128 through BMI1 direct binding on the PTEN promoter affected PTEN expression levels and AKT activity in the pituitary tumor cells. Our in vivo data revealed that inhibition of miR-26b and overexpression of miR-128 could suppress pituitary GH3 tumor growth in xenografts. Taken together, we have identified a miRNA signature for GH-producing pituitary tumors and found that miR-26b and miR-128 regulate the activity of the PTEN-AKT pathway in these tumors. This is the first suggestion of the possible involvement of miRNAs regulating the PTEN-AKT pathway in GH-producing pituitary tumor formation in the context of hyperplasia or due to germline PRKAR1A defects. MiR-26b suppression and miR-128 upregulation could have therapeutic potential in GH-producing pituitary tumor patients. PMID:22614013

  19. Rapid activation by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase and akt/protein kinase B signaling pathways: relation to changes in fuel metabolism and myosin heavy-chain protein content in rat gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2008-12-01

    T3 stimulates metabolic rate in many tissues and induces changes in fuel use. The pathways by which T3 induces metabolic/structural changes related to altered fuel use in skeletal muscle have not been fully clarified. Gastrocnemius muscle (isolated at different time points after a single injection of T3 into hypothyroid rats), displayed rapid inductions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (threonine 172; within 6 h) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation (serine 79; within 12 h). As a consequence, increases occurred in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity. Concomitantly, T3 stimulated signaling toward increased glycolysis through a rapid increase in Akt/protein kinase B (serine 473) phosphorylation (within 6 h) and a directly related increase in the activity of phosphofructokinase. The kinase specificity of the above effects was verified by treatment with inhibitors of AMPK and Akt activity (compound C and wortmannin, respectively). In contrast, glucose transporter 4 translocation to the membrane (activated by T3 within 6 h) was maintained when either AMPK or Akt activity was inhibited. The metabolic changes were accompanied by a decline in myosin heavy-chain Ib protein [causing a shift toward the fast-twitch (glycolytic) phenotype]. The increases in AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation were transient events, both levels declining from 12 h after the T3 injection, but Akt phosphorylation remained elevated until at least 48h after the injection. These data show that in skeletal muscle, T3 stimulates both fatty acid and glucose metabolism through rapid activations of the associated signaling pathways involving AMPK and Akt/protein kinase B.

  20. The Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase–Akt Signaling Pathway Is Important for Staphylococcus aureus Internalization by Endothelial Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Yu, Hong B.; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan J.; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Finlay, B. Brett; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2011-01-01

    Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine endothelial cells (BEC) is increased by tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation and NF-κB activation. Because the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt signaling pathway also modulates NF-κB activity, we considered whether the internalization of S. aureus by BEC is associated with the activity of PI3K and Akt. We found a time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 in BEC infected with S. aureus. This phosphorylation was inhibited by LY294002 (LY), indicating the participation of PI3K. Inhibition of either PI3K with LY or wortmannin, or Akt with SH-5, strongly reduced the internalization of S. aureus. Transfection of BEC with a dominant-negative form of the Akt gene significantly decreased S. aureus internalization, whereas transfection with the constitutively active mutant increased the number of internalized bacterium. Inhibition of PDK1 activity with OSU-03012 did not affect the level of S. aureus internalization, demonstrating that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 is not important for this process. Compared to the untreated control, the adherence of S. aureus to the surface of BEC was unaltered when cells were transfected or incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, Akt activation by internalized S. aureus triggered a time-dependent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) on Ser21 and GSK-3β on Ser9 that was partially inhibited with SH-5. Finally, treatment of BEC with LY prior to S. aureus infection inhibited the NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation on Ser536, indicating the involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that PI3K-Akt activity is important for the internalization of S. aureus and phosphorylation of GSK-3α, GSK-3β, and NF-κB. PMID:21844240

  1. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  2. 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide induces apoptosis on human gastric carcinoma cells through mitochondria-related apoptotic pathways: p38/JNK activation and PI3K/AKT suppression.

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-Chyuan; Chen, Jeff Yi-Fu; Din, Zhong-Hao; Su, Jui-Hsin; Yang, Zih-Yan; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Robert Y L; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-10-01

    13-acetoxysarcocrassolide (13-AC), an active compound isolated from cultured Formosa soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule, was found to possess anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma cells) gastric carcinoma cells. The anti-tumor effects of 13-AC were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assessment, cell wound-healing assay, TUNEL/4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 13-AC inhibited the growth and migration of gastric carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced both early and late apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometer analysis. 13-AC-induced apoptosis was confirmed through observation of a change in ΔΨm, up-regulated expression levels of Bax and Bad proteins, down-regulated expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 proteins, and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, p38 and JNK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 and JNK activity by pretreatment with SB03580 (a p38-specific inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK-specific inhibitor) led to rescue of the cell cytotoxicity of 13-AC-treated AGS cells, indicating that the p38 and the JNK pathways are also involved in the 13-AC-induced cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that 13-AC induces cell apoptosis against gastric cancer cells through triggering of the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway as well as activation of the p38 and JNK pathways. PMID:25342459

  3. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  4. AGE/RAGE/Akt pathway contributes to prostate cancer cell proliferation by promoting Rb phosphorylation and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ji-Ming; He, Min-Yi; Liu, Ya-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Hong, Ying-Qia; Luo, Hai-Hua; Ren, Zhong-Lu; Zhao, Shan-Chao; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomic research has revealed that metabolites play an important role in prostate cancer development and progression. Previous studies have suggested that prostate cancer cell proliferation is induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) exposure, but the mechanism of this induction remains unknown. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the proliferative response of prostate cancer cell to the interaction of AGEs and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). To investigate this mechanism, we used Western blotting to evaluate the responses of the retinoblastoma (Rb), p-Rb and PI3K/Akt pathway to AGEs stimulation. We also examined the effect of knocking down Rb and blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway on AGEs induced PC-3 cell proliferation. Our results indicated that AGE-RAGE interaction enhanced Rb phosphorylation and subsequently decreased total Rb levels. Bioinformatics analysis further indicated a negative correlation between RAGE and RB1 expression in prostate cancer tissue. Furthermore, we observed that AGEs stimulation activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and that blocking PI3K/Akt signaling abrogated AGEs-induced cell proliferation. We report, for the first time, that AGE-RAGE interaction enhances prostate cancer cell proliferation by phosphorylation of Rb via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26175942

  5. The Timing of Raf/ERK and AKT Activation in Protecting PC12 Cells against Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Duan, Liting; Zhang, Kai; Collier, Eleanor Ann; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury often cause massive neural death and irreversible brain damage with grave consequences. Previous studies have established that a key participant in the events leading to neural death is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Protecting neuronal cells by activating their endogenous defense mechanisms is an attractive treatment strategy for acute brain injuries. In this work, we investigate how the precise timing of the Raf/ERK and the AKT pathway activation affects their protective effects against oxidative stress. For this purpose, we employed optogenetic systems that use light to precisely and reversibly activate either the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway. We find that preconditioning activation of the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway immediately before oxidant exposure provides significant protection to cells. Notably, a 15-minute transient activation of the Raf/ERK pathway is able to protect PC12 cells against oxidant strike that is applied 12 hours later, while the transient activation of the AKT pathway fails to protect PC12 cells in such a scenario. On the other hand, if the pathways are activated after the oxidative insult, i.e. postconditioning, the AKT pathway conveys greater protective effect than the Raf/ERK pathway. We find that postconditioning AKT activation has an optimal delay period of 2 hours. When the AKT pathway is activated 30min after the oxidative insult, it exhibits very little protective effect. Therefore, the precise timing of the pathway activation is crucial in determining its protective effect against oxidative injury. The optogenetic platform, with its precise temporal control and its ability to activate specific pathways, is ideal for the mechanistic dissection of intracellular pathways in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:27082641

  6. The Timing of Raf/ERK and AKT Activation in Protecting PC12 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Duan, Liting; Zhang, Kai; Collier, Eleanor Ann; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury often cause massive neural death and irreversible brain damage with grave consequences. Previous studies have established that a key participant in the events leading to neural death is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Protecting neuronal cells by activating their endogenous defense mechanisms is an attractive treatment strategy for acute brain injuries. In this work, we investigate how the precise timing of the Raf/ERK and the AKT pathway activation affects their protective effects against oxidative stress. For this purpose, we employed optogenetic systems that use light to precisely and reversibly activate either the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway. We find that preconditioning activation of the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway immediately before oxidant exposure provides significant protection to cells. Notably, a 15-minute transient activation of the Raf/ERK pathway is able to protect PC12 cells against oxidant strike that is applied 12 hours later, while the transient activation of the AKT pathway fails to protect PC12 cells in such a scenario. On the other hand, if the pathways are activated after the oxidative insult, i.e. postconditioning, the AKT pathway conveys greater protective effect than the Raf/ERK pathway. We find that postconditioning AKT activation has an optimal delay period of 2 hours. When the AKT pathway is activated 30min after the oxidative insult, it exhibits very little protective effect. Therefore, the precise timing of the pathway activation is crucial in determining its protective effect against oxidative injury. The optogenetic platform, with its precise temporal control and its ability to activate specific pathways, is ideal for the mechanistic dissection of intracellular pathways in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:27082641

  7. PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossini, Amir M.; Quast, Annika S.; Plötz, Michael; Grauel, Katharina; Exner, Tarik; Küchler, Judit; Stachelscheid, Harald; Eberle, Jürgen; Rabien, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly conserved biochemical mechanism which is tightly controlled in cells. It contributes to maintenance of tissue homeostasis and normally eliminates highly proliferative cells with malignant properties. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have recently been described with significant functional and morphological similarities to embryonic stem cells. Human iPSCs are of great hope for regenerative medicine due to their broad potential to differentiate into specialized cell types in culture. They may be useful for exploring disease mechanisms and may provide the basis for future cell-based replacement therapies. However, there is only poor insight into iPSCs cell signaling as the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we focused our attention on the apoptotic response of Alzheimer fibroblast-derived iPSCs and two other Alzheimer free iPSCs to five biologically relevant kinase inhibitors as well as to the death ligand TRAIL. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that the relatively high basal apoptotic rate of iPSCs is strongly suppressed by the pancaspase inhibitor QVD-Oph, thus underlining the dependency on proapoptotic caspase cascades. Furthermore, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositid-3 kinase / Akt signaling (PI3K-AKT), dramatically and rapidly induced apoptosis in iPSCs. In contrast, parental fibroblasts as well as iPSC-derived neuronal cells were not responsive. The resulting condensation and fragmentation of DNA and decrease of the membrane potential are typical features of apoptosis. Comparable effects were observed with an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206). Wortmannin resulted in disappearance of phosphorylated AKT and activation of the main effector caspase-3 in iPSCs. These results clearly demonstrate for the first time that PI3K-AKT represents a highly essential survival signaling pathway in iPSCs. The findings provide improved understanding on the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis regulation in iPSCs. PMID:27138223

  8. TEIF associated centrosome activity is regulated by EGF/PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zou, Yongxin; Liu, Haijing; Wang, Huali; Zhang, Hong; Hou, Wei; Li, Xin; Jia, Xinying; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Centrosome amplification, which is a characteristic of cancer cells, has been understood as a driving force of genetic instability in the development of cancer. In previous work, we demonstrated that TEIF (transcriptional element-interacting factor) distributes in the centrosomes and regulates centrosome status under both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Here we identify TEIF as a downstream effector in EGF/PI3K/Akt signaling. The addition of EGF or transfection of active Akt stimulates centrosome TEIF distribution, resulting in an increase of centrosome splitting and amplification, while inhibitors of either PI3K or Akt attenuate these changes in TEIF and the associated centrosome status. A consensus motif for Akt phosphorylation (RHRVLT) proved to be involved in centrosomal TEIF localization, and the 469-threonine of this motif may be phosphorylated by Akt both in vitro and in vivo. Elimination of this phosphorylated site on TEIF caused reduced centrosome distribution and centrosome splitting or amplification. Moreover, TEIF closely co-localized with C-NAP1 at the proximal ends of centrioles, and centriolar loading of TEIF stimulated by EGF/Akt could displace C-NAP1, resulting in centrosome splitting. These findings reveal linkage of the EGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to regulation of centrosome status which may act as an oncogenic pathway and induce genetic instability in carcinogenesis. PMID:24769208

  9. Safflower polysaccharide induces NSCLC cell apoptosis by inhibition of the Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ying; Yu, Jun; Du, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Hui-Min; Wang, Bo; Guo, Hua; Bai, Jie; Wang, Juan-Hong; Liu, An; Wang, Yi-Li

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) has been used for the improvement of immunomodulatory activities and treatment of cancers. However, studies on the effect of SPS on the progression of lung cancer have rarely been reported. To study the antitumor effect of SPS on human lung cancer and its potential mechanism, non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (NSCLC), A549 and YTMLC-90 were treated with SPS at various concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 2.56 mg/ml and BALB/c nude tumor-bearing mice were injected intraperitoneally with SPS at concentrations ranging from 15 to 135 mg/kg. Results showed that SPS suppressed the proliferation of A549 and YTMLC-90 cells and induced apoptosis by increasing mRNA levels of bax and caspase-3, and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. SPS induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase by decreasing the expression of cdc25B and cyclin B1. Moreover, SPS decreased the expression of Akt, p-Akt and PI3K. In mice, SPS injection enhanced immunomodulatory activities by increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in tumor-bearing mice. Our findings suggest that SPS suppresses tumor growth by enhancing immunomodulatory activities and blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway. This study provides new insight into the anticancer mechanism of SPS. PMID:27177149

  10. The Role of EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 Signaling Pathway in Acquired Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Ren, Hongmiao; Ren, Jihao; Yin, Tuanfang; Hu, Bing; Xie, Shumin; Dai, Yinghuan; Wu, Weijing; Xiao, Zian; Yang, Xinming; Xie, Dinghua

    2013-01-01

    Cholesteatoma is a benign keratinizing and hyper proliferative squamous epithelial lesion of the temporal bone. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the most important cytokines which has been shown to play a critical role in cholesteatoma. In this investigation, we studied the effects of EGF on the proliferation of keratinocytes and EGF-mediated signaling pathways underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. We examined the expressions of phosphorylated EGF receptor (p-EGFR), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), cyclinD1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in 40 cholesteatoma samples and 20 samples of normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium by immunohistochemical method. Furthermore, in vitro studies were performed to investigate EGF-induced downstream signaling pathways in primary external auditory canal keratinocytes (EACKs). The expressions of p-EGFR, p-Akt, cyclinD1, and PCNA in cholesteatoma epithelium were significantly increased when compared with those of control subjects. We also demonstrated that EGF led to the activation of the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway, which played a critical role in EGF-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of EACKs. Both EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and PI3K inhibitor wortmannin inhibited the EGF-induced EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway concomitantly with inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of EACKs. Taken together, our data suggest that the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/cyclinD1 signaling pathway is active in cholesteatoma and may play a crucial role in cholesteatoma epithelial hyper-proliferation. This study will facilitate the development of potential therapeutic targets for intratympanic drug therapy for cholesteatoma. PMID:24311896

  11. Osteopontin induces {beta}-catenin signaling through activation of Akt in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brian W.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A.

    2010-01-01

    Secretion of osteopontin (OPN) by cancer cells is a known mediator of tumorigenesis and cancer progression in both experimental and clinical studies. Our work demonstrates that OPN can activate Akt, an important step in cancer progression. Both ILK and PI3K are integral proteins in the OPN/Akt pathway, as inhibition of either kinase leads to a loss of OPN-mediated Akt activation. Subsequent to OPN-induced Akt activation, we observe inactivation of GSK-3{beta}, a regulator of {beta}-catenin. Osteopontin stimulation leads to an overall increase in {beta}-catenin protein levels with a resultant transfer of {beta}-catenin to the nucleus. Through the nuclear import of {beta}-catenin, OPN increases both the transcription and protein levels of MMP-7 and CD44, which are known TCF/LEF transcription targets. This work describes an important aspect of cancer progression induced by OPN.

  12. Avian Reovirus Protein p17 Functions as a Nucleoporin Tpr Suppressor Leading to Activation of p53, p21 and PTEN and Inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chuang, Kuo-Pin; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) protein p17 has been shown to regulate cell cycle and autophagy by activation of p53/PTEN pathway; nevertheless, it is still unclear how p53 and PTEN are activated by p17. Here, we report for the first time that p17 functions as a nucleoporin Tpr suppressor that leads to p53 nuclear accumulation and consequently activates p53, p21, and PTEN. The nuclear localization signal (119IAAKRGRQLD128) of p17 has been identified for Tpr binding. This study has shown that Tpr suppression occurs by p17 interacting with Tpr and by reducing the transcription level of Tpr, which together inhibit Tpr function. In addition to upregulation of PTEN by activation of p53 pathway, this study also suggests that ARV protein p17 acts as a positive regulator of PTEN. ARV p17 stabilizes PTEN by stimulating phosphorylation of cytoplasmic PTEN and by elevating Rak-PTEN association to prevent it from E3 ligase NEDD4-1 targeting. To activate PTEN, p17 is able to promote β-arrestin-mediated PTEN translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane via a Rock-1-dependent manner. The accumulation of p53 in the nucleus induces the PTEN- and p21-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, Tpr and CDK4 knockdown increased virus production in contrast to depletion of p53, PTEN, and LC3 reducing virus yield. Taken together, our data suggest that p17-mediated Tpr suppression positively regulates p53, PTEN, and p21 and negatively regulates PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, both of which are beneficial for virus replication. PMID:26244501

  13. Avian Reovirus Protein p17 Functions as a Nucleoporin Tpr Suppressor Leading to Activation of p53, p21 and PTEN and Inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chuang, Kuo-Pin; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) protein p17 has been shown to regulate cell cycle and autophagy by activation of p53/PTEN pathway; nevertheless, it is still unclear how p53 and PTEN are activated by p17. Here, we report for the first time that p17 functions as a nucleoporin Tpr suppressor that leads to p53 nuclear accumulation and consequently activates p53, p21, and PTEN. The nuclear localization signal (119IAAKRGRQLD128) of p17 has been identified for Tpr binding. This study has shown that Tpr suppression occurs by p17 interacting with Tpr and by reducing the transcription level of Tpr, which together inhibit Tpr function. In addition to upregulation of PTEN by activation of p53 pathway, this study also suggests that ARV protein p17 acts as a positive regulator of PTEN. ARV p17 stabilizes PTEN by stimulating phosphorylation of cytoplasmic PTEN and by elevating Rak-PTEN association to prevent it from E3 ligase NEDD4-1 targeting. To activate PTEN, p17 is able to promote β-arrestin-mediated PTEN translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane via a Rock-1-dependent manner. The accumulation of p53 in the nucleus induces the PTEN- and p21-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, Tpr and CDK4 knockdown increased virus production in contrast to depletion of p53, PTEN, and LC3 reducing virus yield. Taken together, our data suggest that p17-mediated Tpr suppression positively regulates p53, PTEN, and p21 and negatively regulates PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, both of which are beneficial for virus replication.

  14. Palmitoylethanolamide Modulates Inflammation-Associated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling via the Akt/mTOR Pathway in a Selective Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPAR-α)-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sarnelli, Giovanni; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Iuvone, Teresa; Capoccia, Elena; Gigli, Stefano; Pesce, Marcella; Seguella, Luisa; Nobile, Nicola; Aprea, Giovanni; Maione, Francesco; de Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Cuomo, Rosario; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Angiogenesis is emerging as a pivotal process in chronic inflammatory pathologies, promoting immune infiltration and prompting carcinogenesis. Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s Disease (CD) represent paradigmatic examples of intestinal chronic inflammatory conditions in which the process of neovascularization correlates with the severity and progression of the diseases. Molecules able to target the angiogenesis have thus the potential to synergistically affect the disease course. Beyond its anti-inflammatory effect, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is able to reduce angiogenesis in several chronic inflammatory conditions, but no data about its anti-angiogenic activity in colitis have been produced, yet. Methods The effects of PEA on inflammation-associated angiogenesis in mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and in patients with UC were assessed. The release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the hemoglobin tissue content, the expression of CD31 and of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis were all evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of PEA and concomitant administration of PPAR-α and -γ antagonists. Results Our results demonstrated that PEA, in a selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α dependent mechanism, inhibits colitis-associated angiogenesis, decreasing VEGF release and new vessels formation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mTOR/Akt axis regulates, at least partly, the angiogenic process in IBD and that PEA directly affects this pathway. Conclusions Our results suggest that PEA may improve inflammation-driven angiogenesis in colonic mucosa, thus reducing the mucosal damage and potentially affecting disease progression and the shift towards the carcinogenesis. PMID:27219328

  15. Recurrent BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene leads to a constitutively activated AKT2 fusion kinase in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Kalpana; Coarfa, Cristian; Chao, Pei-Wen; Luo, Liming; Wang, Yan; Brinegar, Amy E.; Hawkins, Shannon M.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Matzuk, Martin M.; Yen, Laising

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is among the most lethal forms of cancer in women. Excessive genomic rearrangements, which are expected to create fusion oncogenes, are the hallmark of this cancer. Here we report a cancer-specific gene fusion between BCAM, a membrane adhesion molecule, and AKT2, a key kinase in the PI3K signaling pathway. This fusion is present in 7% of the 60 patient cancers tested, a significant frequency considering the highly heterogeneous nature of this malignancy. Further, we provide direct evidence that BCAM-AKT2 is translated into an in-frame fusion protein in the patient’s tumor. The resulting AKT2 fusion kinase is membrane-associated, constitutively phosphorylated, and activated as a functional kinase in cells. Unlike endogenous AKT2, whose activity is tightly regulated by external stimuli, BCAM-AKT2 escapes the regulation from external stimuli. Moreover, a BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene generated via chromosomal translocation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system leads to focus formation in both OVCAR8 and HEK-293T cell lines, suggesting that BCAM-AKT2 is oncogenic. Together, the results indicate that BCAM-AKT2 expression is a new mechanism of AKT2 kinase activation in HGSC. BCAM-AKT2 is the only fusion gene in HGSC that is proven to translate an aberrant yet functional kinase fusion protein with oncogenic properties. This recurrent genomic alteration is a potential therapeutic target and marker of a clinically relevant subtype for tailored therapy of HGSC. PMID:25733895

  16. PKR is a novel functional direct player that coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation via p38MAPK/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Alisi, A; Spaziani, A; Anticoli, S; Ghidinelli, M; Balsano, C

    2008-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a highly orchestrated multistep process controlled by extracellular growth factors that modulate largely unknown signals into the cell affecting the muscle-transcription program. P38MAPK-dependent signalling, as well as PI3K/Akt pathway, has a key role in the control of muscle gene expression at different stages during the myogenic process. P38MAPK affects the activities of transcription factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, and contributes, together with PI3K/Akt pathway, to control the early and late steps of myogenic differentiation. The aim of our work was to better define the role of PKR, a dsRNA-activated protein kinase, as potential component in the differentiation program of C2C12 murine myogenic cells and to correlate its activity with p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt myogenic regulatory pathways. Here, we demonstrate that PKR is an essential component of the muscle development machinery and forms a functional complex with p38MAPK and/or Akt, contributing to muscle differentiation of committed myogenic cells in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous PKR activity by a specific (si)RNA and a PKR dominant-negative interferes with the myogenic program of C2C12 cells, causing a delay in activation of myogenic specific genes and inducing the formation of thinner myofibers. In addition, the construction of three PKR mutants allowed us to demonstrate that both N and C-terminal regions of PKR are critical for the interaction with p38MAPK and Akt. The novel discovered complex permits PKR to timely regulate the inhibition/activation of p38MAPK and Akt, controlling in this way the different steps characterizing skeletal muscle differentiation.

  17. The Role of the Dysfunctional Akt-Related Pathway in Cancer: Establishment and Maintenance of a Malignant Cell Phenotype, Resistance to Therapy, and Future Strategies for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Akt serine/threonine kinases, or PKB, are key players in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular activities, such as growth, proliferation, protection from apoptotic injuries, control of DNA damage responses and genome stability, metabolism, migration, and angiogenesis. The Akt-related pathway responds to the stimulation mediated by growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and several nutrients. Akt is present in three isoforms: Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3, which may be alternatively named PKBα, PKBβ, and PKBγ, respectively. The Akt isoforms are encoded on three diverse chromosomes and their biological functions are predominantly distinct. Deregulations in the Akt-related pathway were observed in many human maladies, including cancer, cardiopathies, neurological diseases, and type-2 diabetes. This review discusses the significance of the abnormal activities of the Akt axis in promoting and sustaining malignancies, along with the development of tumor cell populations that exhibit enhanced resistance to chemo- and/or radiotherapy. This occurrence may be responsible for the relapse of the disease, which is unfortunately very often related to fatal consequences in patients. PMID:24381788

  18. Tetrandrine suppresses metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells by regulating Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kou, Bo; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Jianjie; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Yongjian; Xu, Suochun; Wang, Haichen

    2016-05-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in traditional Chinese medicines, exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. However, its potential role in the prostate cancer metastatic process has not yet been elucidated. Thus, we investigated the inhibition effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer migration and invasion and the corresponding molecular basis underlying its anticancer activity. Cell migration and invasion were determined using the Transwell chamber model. The protein expression of Akt, phosphorylated Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR and matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) was detected by western blot in the presence or absence of tetrandrine or in the group tetrandrine combination with LY294002 (inhibitor of Akt) and rapamycin (inhibitor of mTOR). Our studies showed that excluding the effect of tetrandrine on cell proliferation, tetrandrine significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. Furthermore, tetrandrine decreased the protein levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and MMP-9. While the inhibition of Akt or mTOR by the respective inhibitors could potentiate this effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer cells, the studies indicate that tetrandrine inhibits the metastasis process by negatively regulating the Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway. These results suggest that tetrandrine might serve as a potential metastasis suppressor to treat cancer cells that have escaped surgical removal or that have disseminated widely. PMID:26935264

  19. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-Byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Cuk-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function. PMID:27610041

  20. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function. PMID:27610041

  1. Nafamostat mesilate promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sujeong; Kwon, Hyon-Jo; Song, Hee-Jung; Choi, Si Wan; Nagar, Harsha; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Saet-byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. The intracellular mediator and external anti-inflammatory external signal in the vascular wall have been reported to protect endothelial cells, in part due to nitric oxide (NO) production. This study was designed to examine whether NM exhibit endothelium dependent vascular relaxation through Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and generation of NO. NM enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aorta tissues obtained from rats treated with various concentrations of NM. NM concomitantly decreased arginase activity, which could increase the available arginine substrate for NO production. Moreover, we investigated whether NM increased NO bioavailability and decreased aortic relaxation response to an eNOS inhibitor in the aorta. These results suggest that NM increases NO generation via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, leading to endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Therefore, the vasorelaxing action of NM may contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular function.

  2. Interleukin-6 upregulates paraoxonase 1 gene expression via an AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Chih; Hsueh, Chi-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •IL-6 could induce PON1 gene expression. •IL-6 increased NF-κB protein expression and NF-κB-p50 and -p65 subunits nuclear translocation. •IL-6-induced PON1 up-regulation was through an AKT/NF-κB pathway. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and atherosclerosis-related inflammation. In this study, human hepatoma HepG2 cell line was used as a hepatocyte model to examine the effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on PON1 expression. The results showed that IL-6, but not TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly increased both the function and protein level of PON1; data from real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the IL-6-induced PON1 expression occurred at the transcriptional level. Increase of IκB kinase activity and IκB phosphorylation, and reduction of IκB protein level were also observed in IL-6-treated HepG2 cells compared with untreated culture. This event was accompanied by increase of NF-κB-p50 and -p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, treatment with IL-6 augmented the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activation by PDTC and BAY 11-7082, markedly suppressed the IL-6-mediated PON1 expression. In addition, IL-6 increased the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB, AKT). An AKT inhibitor LY294002 effectively suppressed IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling and PON1 gene expression induced by IL-6. Our findings demonstrate that IL-6 upregulates PON1 gene expression through an AKT/NF-κB signaling axis in human hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cell line.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, M V; Abraha, T W; Schwartz, R J; Fiorotto, M L; Booth, F W

    2000-11-17

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  5. Probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt activates compensatory IGF‑IR/PI3K/Akt survival pathways and attenuates cardiac apoptosis in the hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is recognized as a predictor of adverse outcomes in subjects with cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt (PSPY) with high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content on cardiac apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) hearts. The rats were orally adminsitered with 2 different concentrations of PSPY (10 and 100%) or captopril, 15.6 mg/kg, body weight (BW)/day. The control group was administered distilled water. DAPI and TUNEL staining were used to detect the numbers of apoptotic cells. A decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive cardiac myocytes was observed in the SHR-PSPY (10 and 100%) groups. In addition, the levels of key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways were determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that the levels of the key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway were significantly decreased in the SHR-captopril, and 10 and 100% PSPY groups. Additionally, the levels of phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor‑I receptor (p-IGF‑IR) were increased in SHR hearts from the SHR-control group; however, no recovery in the levels of downstream signaling components was observed. In addition, the levels of components of the compensatory IGF-IR-dependent survival pathway (p-PI3K and p-Akt) were all highly enhanced in the left ventricles in the hearts form the SHR-10 and 100% PSPY groups. Therefore, the oral administration of PSPY may attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in SHR hearts by activating IGF‑IR-dependent survival signaling pathways.

  6. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Ping; Li, Chen-Long; Du, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N‑terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and MMP‑9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP‑2- and MMP‑9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH‑induced upregulation of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP‑2 and ‑9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26299938

  7. Sensitization of TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells by concurrent suppression of the NF-{kappa}B and Akt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xia; Chen Wenshu; Lin Yong . E-mail: ylin@lrri.org

    2007-04-13

    Blockage of either nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or Akt sensitizes cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the undetermined effect of concurrent blockage of these two survival pathways on TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. The results show that Akt contributes to TNF-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in lung cancer cells through regulating phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-{kappa}B. Although individually blocking IKK or Akt partially suppressed TNF-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, concurrent suppression of these pathways completely inhibited TNF-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and downstream anti-apoptotic gene expression, and synergistically potentiated TNF-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, suppression of Akt inhibited the Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway through dephosphorylation of BAD. These results indicate that concurrent suppression of NF-{kappa}B and Akt synergistically sensitizes TNF-induced cytotoxicity through blockage of distinct survival pathways downstream of NF-{kappa}B and Akt, which may be applied in lung cancer therapy.

  8. Aristolochia Manshuriensis Kom Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation by Regulation of ERK1/2 and Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Taesoo; Ahn, Hyo Sun; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ha, Hyunil; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is a traditional medicinal herb used for the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, hepatitis, and anti-obesity. Because of nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity of AMK, there are no pharmacological reports on anti-obesity potential of AMK. Here, we showed AMK has an inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with significantly decrease in the lipid accumulation by downregulating several adipocyte-specific transcription factors including peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP-α) and C/EBP-β, which are critical for adipogenesis in vitro. AMK also markedly activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway including Ras, Raf1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), and significantly suppressed Akt pathway by inhibition of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Aristolochic acid (AA) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of AMK with AA were significantly inhibited TG accumulation, and regulated two pathway (ERK1/2 and Akt) during adipocyte differentiation, and was not due to its cytotoxicity. These two pathways were upstream of PPAR-γ and C/EBPα in the adipogenesis. In addition, gene expressions of secreting factors such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adiponectin, lipopreotein lipase (LPL), and aP2 were significantly inhibited by treatment of AMK during adipogenesis. We used the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to determine the inhibitory effects of AMK on obesity. Oral administration of AMK (62.5 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased the fat tissue weight, total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in the blood. The results of this study suggested that AMK inhibited lipid accumulation by the down-regulation of the major transcription factors of the adipogensis pathway including PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α through regulation of Akt pathway and ERK 1

  9. Critical role for Fat/Hippo and IIS/Akt pathways downstream of Ultrabithorax during haltere specification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, Savita; Sánchez-Herrero, Ernesto; Shashidhara, L S

    2015-11-01

    In Drosophila, differential development of wing and haltere, which differ in cell size, number and morphology, is dependent on the function of Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we report our studies on Ubx-mediated regulation of the Fat/Hippo and IIS/dAkt pathways, which control cell number and cell size during development. Over-expression of Yki or down regulation of negative components of the Fat/Hippo pathway, such as expanded, caused considerable increase in haltere size, mainly due to increase in cell number. These phenotypes were also associated with the activation of Akt pathways in developing haltere. Although activation of Akt alone did not affect the cell size or the organ size, we observed dramatic increase in haltere size when Akt was activated in the background where expanded is down regulated. This was associated with the increase in both cell size and cell number. The organ appeared flatter than wildtype haltere and the trichome morphology and spacing resembled that of wing suggesting homeotic transformations. Thus, our results suggest a link between cellular growth and pattern formation and the final differentiated state of the organ.

  10. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  11. Shikonin induces apoptosis of HaCaT cells via the mitochondrial, Erk and Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    JING, HUILING; SUN, WENYAN; FAN, JINGHUA; ZHANG, YANMIN; YANG, JIAO; JIA, JINJING; LI, JICHANG; GUO, JIAQI; LUO, SUJU; ZHENG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin, which is a major ingredient of the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, possesses various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of shikonin on HaCaT cell apoptosis. Treatment with shikonin significantly inhibited the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. In addition, shikonin treatment reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced reactive oxygen species generation. The results of a western blot analysis demonstrated that shikonin significantly activated caspase 3 expression, downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer expression in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, shikonin decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Akt phosphorylation. These results indicated that shikonin may exert its anti-proliferative effects by inducing apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial signaling pathway and inactivation of the Akt and Erk pathways in HaCaT cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that shikonin may have potential as a component of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26935874

  12. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt by menadione.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Tsukamoto, Mariko; Tamura, Namiko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Hazeki, Osamu

    2007-04-01

    Menadione (vitamin K(3)) has been shown to activate Erk in several cell lines. This effect has been shown to be due to the activation of EGF receptors (EGFR) as a result of inhibition of some protein tyrosine phosphatases. In the present study, we examined the effects of menadione on Akt in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The phosphorylation of Akt by menadione was not inhibited by AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR. Menadione inhibited the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN in a cell-free system. In an intact cell system, menadione inhibited the effect of transfected PTEN on Akt. Thus, one mechanism of its action was considered the accelerated activation of Akt through inhibition of PTEN. This was not the sole mechanism responsible for the EGFR-independent activation of Akt, because menadione attenuated the rate of Akt dephosphorylation even in PTEN-null PC3 cells. The decelerated inactivation of Akt, probably through inhibition of some tyrosine phosphatases, was considered another mechanism of its action.

  13. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP. PMID:26823696

  14. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP.

  15. Molecular mechanism underlying Akt activation in zinc-induced cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SungRyul; Chanoit, Guillaume; McIntosh, Rachel; Zvara, David A.; Xu, Zhelong

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that zinc prevents cardiac reperfusion injury by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) via Akt and glycogen synthetase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). We aimed to address the mechanism by which zinc activates Akt. Treatment of H9c2 cells with ZnCl2 (10 μM) in the presence of the zinc ionophore pyrithione (4 μM) for 20 min enhanced Akt phosphorylation (Ser473), indicating that zinc can rapidly activate Akt. Zinc did not alter either phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) phosphorylation and total PTEN protein levels or PTEN oxidation, implying that PTEN may not play a role in the action of zinc. However, zinc-induced Akt phosphorylation was blocked by both the nonselective receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor genistein and the selective insulin-like growth factor-1 RTK (IGF-1RTK) inhibitor AG1024, indicating that zinc activates Akt via IGF-1RTK. Zinc-induced phosphorylation of protein tyrosine and Ser/Thr was also abolished by AG1024. In addition, zinc markedly enhanced phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), which was again reversed by genistein and AG1024. A confocal imaging study revealed that AG1024 abolished the preventive effect of zinc on oxidant-induced mPTP opening, confirming that IGF-1RTK plays a role in zinc-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, zinc decreased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein Ser/Thr phosphatase, implying that protein Ser/Thr phosphatases may also play a role in the action of zinc on Akt activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that exogenous zinc activates Akt via IGF-1RTK and prevents the mPTP opening in cardiac cells. Inactivation of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases may also contribute to zinc-induced Akt activation. PMID:19525380

  16. Matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colon cancer LoVo cells by inactivating Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Cheng, Binglin; Li, Hali; Xu, Wei; Zhai, Bo; Pan, Shangha; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Sun, Xueying

    2014-01-01

    The present study has investigated the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanisms of matrine on human colon cancer LoVo cells. Matrine inhibited the proliferation of the cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The concentration required for 50 % inhibition (IC50) was 1.15, 0.738, and 0.414 mg/ml, when cell were incubated with matrine for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Matrine induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase by downregulating cyclin D1 and upregulating p27 and p21. Matrine induced cell apoptosis by reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increasing the activation of caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine displayed its anti-tumor activity by inactivating Akt, the upstream factor of the above proteins. Matrine significantly reduced the protein levels of pAkt, and increased the protein levels of other downstream factors, pBad and pGSK-3β. Specific inhibition of pAkt induced cell apoptosis, and synergized with matrine to inhibit the proliferation of LoVo cells; whereas activation of Akt neutralized the inhibitory effect of matrine on cell proliferation. The present study has demonstrated that matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colon cancer LoVo cells by inactivating Akt pathway, indicating matrine may be a potential anti-cancer agent for colon cancer.

  17. Expression, activation, and role of AKT isoforms in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Fabi, François; Asselin, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The three isoforms of AKT: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, are crucial regulators of both normal and pathological cellular processes. Each of these isoforms exhibits a high level of homology and functional redundancy with each other. However, while being highly similar and structurally homologous, a rising amount of evidence is showing that each isoform possesses specific targets as well as preferential subcellular localization. The role of AKT has been studied extensively in reproductive processes, but isoform-specific roles are yet to be fully understood. This review will focus on the role of AKT in the uterus and its function in processes related to cell death and proliferation such as embryo implantation, decidualization, endometriosis, and endometrial cancer in an isoform-centric manner. In this review, we will cover the activation of AKT in various settings, localization of isoforms in subcellular compartments, and the effect of isoform expression on cellular processes. To fully understand the dynamic molecular processes taking place in the uterus, it is crucial that we better understand the physiological role of AKT isoforms as well as their function in the emergence of diseases.

  18. The preventative effect of Akt knockout on liver cancer through modulating NF-κB-regulated inflammation and Bad-related apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Sun, Ming; Liu, Jiajun; Hong, Guolin; Lin, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Primary liver cancer is globally the sixth most frequent cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death and its incidence is increasing in many countries, thus, becoming serious threat to human health. Substantial research has focused on the treatment and prevention of liver cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of liver cancer are still not fully understood, and therefore development of treatments are delayed. Akt has been suggested to play an essential role in the progression of inflammation response and apoptosis. Hence, in the present study, Akt knockout mice and cell lines were used as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism of Akt-associated inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathway with NF-κB and Bad in the progression of liver cancer. Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, ELISA and flow cytometric analysis were used to determine the key signaling pathway in the development of liver cancer. The results indicated that, compared to the normal liver cells, the expression of Akt was significantly higher in liver cancer cell lines. In addition, Akt-knockout liver cancer cells showed lower Akt expression. we also, found that Akt-knockout cancer cell lines modulated inflammation response and apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB expression and suppressing apoptotic activation. Our results indicated that the downstream signals, including cytokines regulated by NF-κB signaling pathway and caspase-3-activated apoptosis affected by Bad were downregulated for knockout of Akt. These findings demonstrated that Akt is related to NF-κB and Bad signaling pathway possibly playing a direct role in the progression of liver cancer. Thus, Akt might be an important and potential treatment choice for the clinical diagnosis and treatment in the future.

  19. 11-epi-Sinulariolide Acetate Reduces Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Reducing the Activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jen-Jie; Su, Jui-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chen, Yi-Jen; Liao, Ming-Hui; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is one of the major causes of death in cancer. An active compound, 11-epi-sinulariolide acetate (11-epi-SA), isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been examined for potential anti-cell migration and invasion effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of anti-migration and invasion by 11-epi-SA on HCC, along with their corresponding effects, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated anti-migration and invasion effects and the underlying mechanism of 11-epi-SA in HA22T cells, and discovered by trans-well migration and invasion assays that 11-epi-SA provided a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration of human HCC HA22T cells. After treatment with 11-epi-SA for 24 h, there were suppressed protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in HA22T cells. Meanwhile, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that 11-epi-SA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. The 11-epi-SA also suppressed the expression of the phosphorylation of FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. PMID:25222667

  20. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B extracellular fragment shows neuroprotective effects and activates the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways via the Na+/K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Takata, Masafumi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) plays important roles in various types of cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The details of GPNMB function and its interacting protein have not been clarified. Therefore, to identify GPNMB binding partners on the cell membrane, we used membrane protein library/BLOTCHIP-MS technology, which enables us to analyze all cell membrane proteins as binding partners of the GPNMB extracellular fragment. As a result of a comprehensive search, we identified the alpha subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) as a possible binding partner. We confirmed the interaction between the GPNMB extracellular fragment and NKA by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining in NSC-34 cells. Indeed, endogenous GPNMB extracellular fragment bound to and colocalized with NKA alpha subunits. Furthermore, exogenous GPNMB extracellular fragment, i.e., human recombinant GPNMB, also bound to and colocalized with NKA alpha subunits. Additionally, we found that the GPNMB extracellular fragment had neuroprotective effects and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK pathways via NKA. These findings indicated that NKA may act as a novel “receptor” for the GPNMB extracellular fragment, offering additional molecular targets for the treatment of GPNMB-related diseases, including various types of cancer and ALS. PMID:26988030

  1. PI3K/AKT pathway mutations cause a spectrum of brain malformations from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Laura A; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Ishak, Gisele E; O'Roak, Brian J; Hiatt, Joseph B; Roden, William H; Gunter, Sonya A; Christian, Susan L; Collins, Sarah; Adams, Carissa; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; St-Onge, Judith; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Shendure, Jay; Hevner, Robert F; Dobyns, William B

    2015-06-01

    Malformations of cortical development containing dysplastic neuronal and glial elements, including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of intractable paediatric epilepsy. In this study we performed multiplex targeted sequencing of 10 genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway on brain tissue from 33 children who underwent surgical resection of dysplastic cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Sequencing results were correlated with clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistological phenotypes. We identified mosaic activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT3 in this cohort, including cancer-associated hotspot PIK3CA mutations in dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia type IIa. In addition, a germline PTEN mutation was identified in a male with hemimegalencephaly but no peripheral manifestations of the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. A spectrum of clinical, imaging and pathological abnormalities was found in this cohort. While patients with more severe brain imaging abnormalities and systemic manifestations were more likely to have detected mutations, routine histopathological studies did not predict mutation status. In addition, elevated levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein were identified in both neurons and astrocytes of all hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia type II specimens, regardless of the presence or absence of detected PI3K/AKT pathway mutations. In contrast, expression patterns of the T308 and S473 phosphorylated forms of AKT and in vitro AKT kinase activities discriminated between mutation-positive dysplasia cortex, mutation-negative dysplasia cortex, and non-dysplasia epilepsy cortex. Our findings identify PI3K/AKT pathway mutations as an important cause of epileptogenic brain malformations and establish megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia as part of a single pathogenic spectrum.

  2. Hypoxia activates Akt and induces phosphorylation of GSK-3 in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Rust, R T; Hsieh, T C; Millhorn, D E

    2001-01-01

    Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that has been shown to play a central role in promoting cell survival and opposing apoptosis. We evaluated the effect of hypoxia on Akt in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells were exposed to varying levels of hypoxia, including 21%, 15%, 10%, 5%, and 1% O(2). Hypoxia dramatically increased phosphorylation of Akt (Ser(473)). This effect peaked after 6 h exposure to hypoxia, but persisted strongly for up to 24 h. Phosphorylation of Akt was paralleled with a progressive increase in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), one of its downstream substrates. The effect of hypoxia on phosphorylation of Akt was completely blocked by pretreatment of the cells with wortmannin (100 nM), indicating that this effect is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (P13K). In contrast, whereas hypoxia also strongly induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors CREB and EPAS1, these effects persisted in the presence of wortmannin. Thus, hypoxia regulates both P13K-dependent and P13K-independent signaling pathways. Furthermore, activation of the P13K and Akt signaling pathways may be one mechanism by which cells adapt and survive under conditions of hypoxia. PMID:11257444

  3. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  4. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  5. DAB2IP coordinates both PI3K-Akt and ASK1 pathways for cell survival and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Daxing; Gore, Crystal; Zhou, Jian; Pong, Rey-Chen; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Luyang; Vessella, Robert L.; Min, Wang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2009-01-01

    In metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cells, imbalance between cell survival and death signals such as constitutive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and inactivation of apoptosis-stimulated kinase (ASK1)-JNK pathways is often detected. Here, we show that DAB2IP protein, often down-regulated in PCa, is a potent growth inhibitor by inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and is proapoptotic in response to stress. Gain of function study showed that DAB2IP can suppress the PI3K-Akt pathway and enhance ASK1 activation leading to cell apoptosis, whereas loss of DAB2IP expression resulted in PI3K-Akt activation and ASK1-JNK inactivation leading to accelerated PCa growth in vivo. Moreover, glandular epithelia from DAB2IP−/− animal exhibited hyperplasia and apoptotic defect. Structural functional analyses of DAB2IP protein indicate that both proline-rich (PR) and PERIOD-like (PER) domains, in addition to the critical role of C2 domain in ASK1 activity, are important for modulating PI3K-Akt activity. Thus, DAB2IP is a scaffold protein capable of bridging both survival and death signal molecules, which implies its role in maintaining cell homeostasis. PMID:19903888

  6. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  7. Molecular characterization of anastrozole resistance in breast cancer: pivotal role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in the emergence of de novo or acquired resistance and importance of combining the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 with an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vilquin, Paul; Villedieu, Marie; Grisard, Evelyne; Ben Larbi, Sabrina; Ghayad, Sandra E; Heudel, Pierre-Etienne; Bachelot, Thomas; Corbo, Laura; Treilleux, Isabelle; Vendrell, Julie A; Cohen, Pascale A

    2013-10-01

    Acquisition of resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) remains a major drawback in the treatment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers. The Res-Ana cells, a new model of acquired resistance to anastrozole, were established by long-term exposure of aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells to this drug. These resistant cells developed ER-independent mechanisms of resistance and decreased sensitivity to the AI letrozole or to ERα antagonists. They also displayed a constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and a deregulated expression of several ErbB receptors. An observed increase in the phospho-Akt/Akt ratio between primary and matched recurrent breast tumors of patients who relapsed under anastrozole adjuvant therapy also argued for a pivotal role of the Akt pathway in acquired resistance to anastrozole. Ectopic overexpression of constitutively active Akt1 in control cells was sufficient to induce de novo resistance to anastrozole. Strikingly, combining anastrozole with the highly selective and allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 or with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased sensitivity to this AI in the control cells and was sufficient to overcome resistance and restore sensitivity to endocrine therapy in the resistant cells. Our findings lead to us proposing a model of anastrozole-acquired resistance based on the selection of cancer-initiating-like cells possessing self-renewing properties, intrinsic resistance to anastrozole and sensitivity to MK-2206. Altogether, our work demonstrated that the Akt/mTOR pathway plays a key role in resistance to anastrozole and that combining anastrozole with Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors represents a promising strategy in the clinical management of hormone-dependent breast cancer patients.

  8. Infectious bursal disease virus activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by interaction of VP5 protein with the p85{alpha} subunit of PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Hou Lei; Zhu Shanshan; Wang Jing; Zhou Jiao; Liu Jue

    2011-08-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is commonly activated upon virus infection and has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in chickens, can induce Akt phosphorylation in cultured cells, by a mechanism that is dependent on PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K activation greatly enhanced virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase and activation of caspase-3. Investigations into the mechanism of PI3K/Akt activation revealed that IBDV activates PI3K/Akt signaling through binding of the non-structural protein VP5 to regulatory subunit p85{alpha} of PI3K resulting in the suppression of premature apoptosis and improved virus growth after infection. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of IBDV infection.

  9. Targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway in murine MDS/MPN driven by hyperactive Ras

    PubMed Central

    Akutagawa, Jon; Huang, Tannie Q.; Epstein, Inbal; Chang, Tiffany; Quirindongo-Crespo, Maricel; Cottonham, Charisa L.; Dail, Monique; Slusher, Barbara S.; Friedman, Lori S.; Sampath, Deepak; Braun, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML and JMML) are myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasia (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Aberrant Ras activation due to NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11, CBL, and NF1 mutations is common in CMML and JMML. However, no mechanism-based treatments currently exist for cancers with any of these mutations. An alternative therapeutic strategy involves targeting Ras-regulated effector pathways that are aberrantly activated in CMML and JMML, which include the Raf/MEK/ERK and phosphoinositide-3´-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascades. Mx1-Cre, KrasD12 and Mx1-Cre, Nf1flox/− mice accurately model many aspects of CMML and JMML. Treating Mx1-Cre, KrasD12 mice with GDC-0941 (also referred to as pictilisib), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of class I PI3K isoforms, reduced leukocytosis, anemia, and splenomegaly while extending survival. However, GDC-0941 treatment attenuated activation of both PI3K/Akt and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in primary hematopoietic cells, suggesting it could be acting through suppression of Raf/MEK/ERK signals. To interrogate the importance of the PI3K/Akt pathway specifically, we treated mice with the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. This compound had no effect on Raf/MEK/ERK signaling, yet it also induced robust hematologic responses in Kras and Nf1 mice with MPN. These data support investigating PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in JMML and CMML patients. PMID:26965285

  10. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  11. Targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in gastric carcinoma: A reality for personalized medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha Satendra; Yap, Wei Ney; Arfuso, Frank; Kar, Shreya; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wanpei; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan Prem

    2015-01-01

    Frequent activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) is gaining immense popularity with identification of mutations and/or amplifications of PIK3CA gene or loss of function of PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein, to name a few; both playing a crucial role in regulating this pathway. These aberrations result in dysregulation of this pathway eventually leading to gastric oncogenesis, hence, there is a need for targeted therapy for more effective anticancer treatment. Several inhibitors are currently in either preclinical or clinical stages for treatment of solid tumors like GC. With so many inhibitors under development, further studies on predictive biomarkers are needed to measure the specificity of any therapeutic intervention. Herein, we review the common dysregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in GC and the various types of single or dual pathway inhibitors under development that might have a superior role in GC treatment. We also summarize the recent developments in identification of predictive biomarkers and propose use of predictive biomarkers to facilitate more personalized cancer therapy with effective PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibition. PMID:26604635

  12. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26786697

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine improves the recovery of spinal cord injury via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Wen; Li, Weixin

    2016-02-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most severe traumatic conditions, resulting in postoperative complications. Our results and other reports have shown that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is able to exhibit neuro-protective effects after SCI. In the current study, we aimed to examine the possible mechanism underlying the neuro-protective effect of TMP in rat model of SCI. TMP improved locomotor functions and decreased permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier in rats with SCI, as evidenced by increase of Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores and decrease of Evans blue leakage. In addition, TMP decreased the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα and IL-18, reduced TUNEL-positive cells and caspase 3 and 9 activities, decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content and increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in rats. All these effects were inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, and LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt. Moreover, TMP inhibited the decrease of mRNA expression of HO-1 which was suppressed by ZnPP and LY294002. TMP inhibited the decrease of Akt phosphorylation in rats after SCI, which was suppressed by LY294002, but not ZnPP. Furthermore, LY294002, but not ZnPP, significantly inhibited TMP-induced increase of mRNA expression of Nrf2 and DNA binding activity of Nrf2 in HO-1 promoters in rat model of SCI. The data suggested that TMP induced neuro-protective effects against injury of spinal cord through the activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results have appointed a new path toward the understanding of pathogenesis and TMP-related therapy of SCI and associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Eupatilin induces human renal cancer cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Pan, Bin; Li, Feng; Kuang, Lu; Su, Ze-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have significant roles in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells. Eupatilin, one of the major compounds present in Artemisia species, has been demonstrated to have antitumor properties. However, the effect of eupatilin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the biological effects and mechanisms of eupatilin in RCC cell apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that eupatilin significantly induced cell apoptosis and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 786-O cells. In addition, eupatilin induced phosphorylation of p38α (Thr180/Tyr182), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (Thr183/Tyr185), and decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in 786-O cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine was able to rescue the MAPK activation and PI3K/AKT inhibition induced by eupatilin. Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence that inhibition of eupatilin induces apoptosis in human RCC via ROS-mediated activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Thus, eupatilin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human RCC. PMID:27698876

  15. Eupatilin induces human renal cancer cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Pan, Bin; Li, Feng; Kuang, Lu; Su, Ze-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades have significant roles in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells. Eupatilin, one of the major compounds present in Artemisia species, has been demonstrated to have antitumor properties. However, the effect of eupatilin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the biological effects and mechanisms of eupatilin in RCC cell apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that eupatilin significantly induced cell apoptosis and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 786-O cells. In addition, eupatilin induced phosphorylation of p38α (Thr180/Tyr182), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (Thr183/Tyr185), and decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in 786-O cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine was able to rescue the MAPK activation and PI3K/AKT inhibition induced by eupatilin. Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence that inhibition of eupatilin induces apoptosis in human RCC via ROS-mediated activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Thus, eupatilin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of human RCC.

  16. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Walton, Mike I.; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K.; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D.; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P.; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J.; Thompson, Neil T.; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G1 arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective and potent AKT inhibitor, which blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being employed in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  17. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity, and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Walton, Mike I; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J; Thompson, Neil T; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment- and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G(1) arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective, and potent AKT inhibitor that blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being used in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  18. Tuning of AKT-pathway by Nef and its blockade by protease inhibitors results in limited recovery in latently HIV infected T-cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Colin, Laurence; Khan, Kashif Aziz; Bouchat, Sophie; Varin, Audrey; Larbi, Anis; Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Kabeya, Kabamba; Vanhulle, Caroline; Delacourt, Nadège; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Coquard, Laurie; Borch, Alexandra; König, Renate; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stephane; Rohr, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Fulop, Tamas; Van Lint, Carine; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes, which are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. We found that Akt interacts with HIV-1 Nef protein. In primary T cells treated with exogenous Nef or acutely infected with Nef-expressing HIV-1 in vitro, Akt became phosphorylated on serine473 and threonine308. In vitro, Akt activation mediated by Nef in T-cells was blocked by HIV protease inhibitors (PI), but not by reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). Ex vivo, we found that the Akt pathway is hyperactivated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from cART naïve HIV-1-infected patients. PBLs isolated from PI-treated patients, but not from RTI-treated patients, exhibited decreased Akt activation, T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. We found that PI but not RTI can block HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected J-Lat lymphoid cells stimulated with various stimuli. Using luciferase measurement, we further confirmed that Nef-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latency in 1G5 cells was blocked by PI parallel to decreased Akt activation. Our results indicate that PI-mediated blockade of Akt activation could impact the HIV-1 reservoir and support the need to further assess the therapeutic use of HIV-1 PI in order to curtail latently infected cells in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27076174

  19. Propofol mediates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation and crosstalk with phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT

    PubMed Central

    Shravah, Jayant; Wang, Baohua; Pavlovic, Marijana; Kumar, Ujendra; Chen, David DY; Luo, Honglin; Ansley, David M

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that propofol, an intravenous anesthetic with anti-oxidative properties, activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway to increase the expression of B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and, therefore the anti-apoptotic potential on cardiomyocytes. Here, we wanted to determine if propofol can also activate the Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 pathway, another branch of cardioprotective signaling. The cellular response of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and STAT3 was also evaluated. Cardiac H9c2 cells were treated by propofol alone or in combination with pretreatment by inhibitors for JAK2/STAT3 or PI3K/AKT pathway. STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation, and STAT3 translocation were measured by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Propofol treatment significantly increased STAT3 phosphorylation at both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues. Sustained early phosphorylation of STAT3 was observed with 25~75 μM propofol at 10 and 30 min. Nuclear translocation of STAT3 was seen at 4 h after treatment with 50 μM propofol. In cultured H9c2 cells, we further demonstrated that propofol-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was reduced by pretreatment with PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors wortmannin or API-2. Conversely, pretreatment with JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor AG490 or stattic inhibited propofol-induced AKT phosphorylation. In addition, propofol induced NFκB p65 subunit perinuclear translocation. Inhibition or knockdown of STAT3 was associated with increased levels of the NFκB p65 subunit. Our results suggest that propofol induces an adaptive response by dual activation and crosstalk of cytoprotective PI3K/AKT and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. Rationale to apply propofol clinically as a preemptive cardioprotectant during cardiac surgery is supported by our findings. PMID:25105067

  20. Molecular Genetics of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Pathway in Genodermatoses: Diagnostic Implications and Treatment Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Yousse An, Leila; Uitto, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    A number of critical signaling pathways are required for homeostatic regulation of cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation during organogenesis. One of them is the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway consisting of a cascade of inhibitor/activator molecules. Recently, a number of heritable diseases with skin involvement, manifesting particularly with tissue overgrowth, have been shown to result from mutations in the genes in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and interacting intracellular pathways. Many of these conditions represent an overlapping spectrum of phenotypic manifestations forming a basis for novel, unifying classifications. Identification of the mutant genes and specific mutations in these patients has implications for diagnostics and genetic counseling and provides a rational basis for the development of novel treatment modalities for this currently intractable group of disorders.

  1. Equol inhibits proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cells via modulating Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan; Huang, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yao, Ya-Hong; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Nan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of equol in gastric cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: MGC-803 cells were employed for in vitro experiments in this study. Cells were treated with control (vehicle, 0.1% DMSO) or equol under specified dose titration or time courses. Cell viability was examined by MTS assay, and the levels of Ki67 were determined by qPCR and immunofluorescent assay. Changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of cyclin E1 and P21WAF1 was determined by qPCR. The protein levels of cell cycle regulators, PARP and Caspase-3 cleavage, and the phosphorylation of Akt were examined by Western blot. In addition, to characterize the role of elevated Akt activation in the anti-tumor effect exerted by equol, Ly294002, a PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor, was used to pretreat MGC-803 cells. RESULTS: Equol (5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μmol/L) inhibited viability of MGC-803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment for 24, 36, or 48 h (P < 0.05 for all). Equol also decreased the mRNA (P < 0.05 for 12 and 24 h treatment) and protein levels of Ki67. Equol treatment significantly induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (P < 0.05), with the percentages of G0/G1 cells of 32.23% ± 3.62%, 36.31% ± 0.24%, 45.58% ± 2.29%, and 65.10% ± 2.04% for equol (0, 10, 20, or 30 μmol/L) treatment, respectively, accompanied by a significant decrease of CDK2/4 (P < 0.05 for 24 and 48 h treatment) and Cyclin D1/Cyclin E1 (P < 0.05), and an increased level of P21WAF1 (P < 0.05). A marked increase of apoptosis was observed, with the percentages of apoptotic cells of 5.01% ± 0.91%, 14.57% ± 0.99%, 37.40% ± 0.58%, and 38.46% ± 2.01% for equol (0, 5, 10, or 20 μmol/L) treatment, respectively, accompanied by increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3. In addition, we found that equol treatment increased P-Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) at 12 and 24 h compared to vehicle-treated control

  2. Selenium suppresses oxidative-stress-enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Li, Xiaoming; Qin, Fei; Huang, Kaixun

    2014-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, and it has emerged as a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A number of studies have examined the association between selenium and risk of cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the role of selenium in vascular calcification. To determine the role of selenium in regulating vascular calcification, we assessed the effect of sodium selenite on oxidative-stress-enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and the underlying mechanism. Oxidative stress induced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase increased apoptosis, as determined by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and it enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs, on the basis of alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of Runx2 and type I collagen, and calcium deposition. These effects of oxidative stress were significantly inhibited by selenite. The following processes may explain the inhibitory effects of selenite: (1) selenite significantly suppressed oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decrease of the oxidative status of the cell and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as by the increase of the total protein thiol content and the activity of the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase; (2) selenite significantly attenuated oxidative-stress-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, resulting in decreased osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs; (3) selenite significantly inhibited oxidative-stress-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby leading to decreased apoptosis. Our results suggest a potential role of selenium in the prevention of vascular calcification, which may provide more mechanistic insights into the relationship between selenium and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids protect retinal neurons from AMPA excitotoxicity in vivo, via activation of CB1 receptors: Involvement of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kokona, Despina; Thermos, Kyriaki

    2015-07-01

    Cannabinoids have been suggested to protect retinal ganglion cells in different models of toxicity, but their effects on other retinal neurons are poorly known. We investigated the neuroprotective actions of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide/AEA) and the synthetic cannabinoids R1-Methanandamide (MethAEA) and HU-210, in an in vivo retinal model of AMPA excitotoxicity, and the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotection. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with PBS or AMPA in the absence or presence of the cannabinoid agonists. Brain nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity (IR), as well as TUNEL staining, assessed the AMPA-induced retinal amacrine cell loss and the dose-dependent neuroprotection afforded by cannabinoids. The CB1 receptor selective antagonist AM251 and the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin reversed the cannabinoid-induced neuroprotection, suggesting the involvement of CB1 receptors and the PI3K/Akt pathway in cannabinoids' actions. Experiments with the CB2 agonist JWH015 and [(3)H]CP55940 radioligand binding suggested that the CB2 receptor is not involved in the neuroprotection. AEA and HU-210 induced phosphorylation of Akt but only AEA induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases, as revealed by western blot analysis. To investigate the role of caspase-3 in the AMPA-induced cell death, the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK was co-injected with AMPA. Z-DEVD-FMK had no effect on AMPA excitotoxicity. Moreover, no difference was observed in the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK kinases between PBS- and AMPA-treated retinas. These results suggest that endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids protect retinal amacrine neurons from AMPA excitotoxicity in vivo via a mechanism involving the CB1 receptors, and the PI3K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  4. Stimulatory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Proliferation and Migration of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells and Their Regulation by the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-AKT and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cell Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator for angiogenesis, is likely to regulate implantation by stimulating endometrial angiogenesis and vascular permeability. In addition to known angiogenetic effects, VEGF has been suggested to participate in development of the early embryo as a mediator of fetal-maternal dialogue. Current studies have determined VEGF in terms of its role in endometrial vascular events, but VEGF-induced effects on the peri-implantation conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) remains unknown. In the present study, endometrial VEGF, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNAs increased significantly during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as compared to the estrous cycle. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNAs was abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, endothelial blood vessels, and scattered cells in the stroma and conceptus trophectoderm. In addition, porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with VEGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2, p-p70RSK, p-RPS6, and p-4EBP1 in a time-dependent manner. The addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, inhibited VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected. The addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1. Furthermore, VEGF significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells, but these effects were blocked by SB203580, U0126, rapamycin, and LY294002, which inhibit p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, mTOR, and PI3K, respectively. These results suggest that VEGF is critical to successful growth and development of pTr during early pregnancy and that VEGF-induced stimulatory effect is coordinately regulated by multiple cell signaling pathways, including PI3K-AKT1 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24451985

  5. Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Wang, Weu; Chang, Ya-An; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    autophagy of neuroblastoma cells and consequent apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERS/ROS/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration. Thus, honokiol has potential for treating neuroblastomas. PMID:26454217

  6. Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Wang, Weu; Chang, Ya-An; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    autophagy of neuroblastoma cells and consequent apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERS/ROS/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration. Thus, honokiol has potential for treating neuroblastomas.

  7. Pioglitazone Protected against Cardiac Hypertrophy via Inhibiting AKT/GSK3β and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Ying; Ma, Zhen-Guo; Xu, Si-Chi; Zhang, Ning; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been closely involved in the process of cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate whether pioglitazone (PIO), a PPARγ agonist, could protect against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were orally given PIO (2.5 mg/kg) from 1 week after aortic banding and continuing for 7 weeks. The morphological examination and biochemical analysis were used to evaluate the effects of PIO. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were also used to verify the protection of PIO against hypertrophy in vitro. The results in our study demonstrated that PIO remarkably inhibited hypertrophic response induced by aortic banding in vivo. Besides, PIO also suppressed cardiac fibrosis in vivo. PIO treatment also inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the heart. In addition, PIO alleviated angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic response in vitro. In conclusion, PIO could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy via attenuation of AKT/GSK3β and MAPK pathways. PMID:27110236

  8. Feedbacks and adaptive capabilities of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis in acute myeloid leukemia revealed by pathway selective inhibition and phosphoproteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bertacchini, J; Guida, M; Accordi, B; Mediani, L; Martelli, A M; Barozzi, P; Petricoin, E; Liotta, L; Milani, G; Giordan, M; Luppi, M; Forghieri, F; De Pol, A; Cocco, L; Basso, G; Marmiroli, S

    2014-11-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primary cells express high levels of phosphorylated Akt, a master regulator of cellular functions regarded as a promising drug target. By means of reverse phase protein arrays, we examined the response of 80 samples of primary cells from AML patients to selective inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis. We confirm that >60% of the samples analyzed are characterized by high pathway phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, however, we show here that targeting Akt and mTOR with the specific inhibitors Akti 1/2 and Torin1, alone or in combination, result in paradoxical Akt phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling in 70% of the samples. Indeed, we demonstrate that cropping Akt or mTOR activity can stabilize the Akt/mTOR downstream effectors Forkhead box O and insulin receptor substrate-1, which in turn potentiate signaling through upregulation of the expression/phosphorylation of selected growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Activation of RTKs in turn reactivates PI3K and downstream signaling, thus overruling the action of the drugs. We finally demonstrate that dual inhibition of Akt and RTKs displays strong synergistic cytotoxic effects in AML cells and downmodulates Akt signaling to a much greater extent than either drug alone, and should therefore be explored in AML clinical setting.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Synovial Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Evidence of Akt Activation1

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Fabio; Ferrari, Andrea; Negri, Tiziana; Conca, Elena; Luca, Da Riva; Losa, Marco; Casieri, Paola; Orsenigo, Marta; Lampis, Andrea; Meazza, Cristina; Casanova, Michela; Pierotti, Marco A; Tamborini, Elena; Pilotti, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the most frequent nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma encountered in adolescents and young adults, and despite advances in the treatment of local disease, metastases remain the main cause of death. The aim of this study was to characterize a single-center series of pediatric SS molecularly to seek any biomarkers or pathways that might make suitable targets for new agents. Seventeen cases of pediatric SS showing the SYT-SSX fusion transcript were screened immunohistochemically, biochemically, molecularly, and cytogenetically (depending on the available material) to investigate any expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), PDGFRβ, Akt, and deregulated Wnt pathway. The most relevant outcome was the finding of activated epidermal growth factor receptor, PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ, which activated Akt in both the monophasic and biphasic histologic subtypes. Consistently, Akt activation was completely abolished in an SS cell line assay when stimulated by PDGF-AA and treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Our results also showed the nuclear localization of β-catenin and cyclin D1 gene products in monophasic SS and the movement of β-catenin into the cytoplasm in the glandular component of the biphasic subtype. Although they need to be confirmed in larger series, these preliminary data suggest that therapeutic strategies including specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway might be exploited in SS. PMID:18633459

  10. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect against Trimethyltin Chloride-Induced Apoptosis via Sonic Hedgehog and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in Mouse Neuro-2a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wanyun; Pan, Xiaoqi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Changchun; Shi, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a classic neurotoxicant that can cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. Some signaling pathways involving cell death play pivotal roles in the central nervous system. In this study, the role of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and PI3K/Akt pathways in TMT-induced apoptosis and protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells were investigated. Results showed that TMT treatment significantly enhanced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic Bax, downregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner in N2a cells. TMT induced oxidative stress in cells, performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) excessive generation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduction. TMT significantly decreased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibited Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways. However, the addition of LBP upregulated GSK-3β phosphorylation, activated Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways, and eventually reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress caused by TMT. The interaction between Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways was clarified by specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Shh inhibitor GDC-0449. Moreover, LY294002 and GDC-0449 pretreatment both induced phosphorylated GSK-3β downregulation and significantly promoted apoptosis induced by TMT. These results suggest that LBP could reduce TMT-induced N2a cells apoptosis by regulating GSK-3β phosphorylation, Shh, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27143997

  11. Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a protective effect of osteocalcin (OCN) on glucose homeostasis and metabolic syndrome. However, its role in vascular function remains unknown. This study investigated the contribution of OCN to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in the thoracic aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Methods Eight-week-old ApoE–KO mice were given chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks with or without daily intraperitoneal injection of OCN. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT),measurement of serum lipid profiles and blood pressure were carried out. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was measured by wire myography. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the role of OCN on eNOS levels in vitro. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and Akt inhibitor V were used ex-vivo to determine whether PI3K/Akt/eNOS contributes to the beneficial effect of OCN for the vascular or not. Results Daily injections of OCN can significantly improve lipid metabolism, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in ApoE-KO mice. In ApoE-KO mice fed with HFD, the OCN-treated mice displayed an improved acetylcholine-stimulated EDR compared to the vehicle-treated group. In addition, compared to vehicle-treated HUVECs, OCN-treated HUVECs displayed increased activation of the Akt-eNOS signaling pathway, as evidenced by significantly higher levels of phosphorylated Akt and eNOS. Furthermore, a similar beneficial effect of OCN on thoracic aorta was observed using ex vivo organ culture of isolated mouse aortic segment. However, this effect was attenuated upon co-incubation with PI3K inhibitor or Akt inhibitor V. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:24708830

  12. AKT mediated glycolytic shift regulates autophagy in classically activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Matta, Sumit Kumar; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy is considered as an innate defense mechanism primarily due to its role in the targeting of intracellular pathogens for lysosomal degradation. Here we report inhibition of autophagy as an adaptive response in classically activated macrophages that helps achieve high cellular ROS production and cell death-another hallmark of innate mechanisms. We show prolonged classical activation of Raw 264.7 macrophages by treating them with IFN-γ and LPS inhibited autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy was dependent on nitric oxide (NO) production which activated the AKT-mTOR signaling, the known negative regulators of autophagy. Autophagy inhibition in these cells was accompanied with a shift to aerobic glycolysis along with a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MOMP). The decline in MOMP coupled with autophagy inhibition led to increased mitochondrial content and considerably elevated cellular ROS, eventually causing cell death. Next, using specific siRNA mediated knockdowns we show AKT was responsible for the glycolytic shift and autophagy inhibition in activated macrophages. Surprisingly, AKT knockdown in activated macrophages also rescued them from cell death. Finally we show that AKT mediated autophagy inhibition in the activated macrophages correlated with the depletion of glucose from the extracellular medium, and glucose supplementation not only rescued autophagy levels and reversed other phenotypes of activated macrophages, but also inhibited cell death. Thus we report here a novel link between AKT mediated glycolytic metabolism and autophagy in the activated macrophages, and provide a possible mechanism for sustained macrophage activation in vivo.

  13. Dual targeting of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as an antitumor strategy in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Roccaro, Aldo M.; Sacco, Antonio; Husu, Emanuel N.; Pitsillides, Costas; Vesole, Steven; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Azab, Feda; Melhem, Molly; Ngo, Hai T.; Quang, Phong; Maiso, Patricia; Runnels, Judith; Liang, Mei-Chih; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Lin, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown clinical activity of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 inhibitor in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM). However, 50% of patients did not respond to therapy. We therefore examined mechanisms of activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR in WM, and mechanisms of overcoming resistance to therapy. We first demonstrated that primary WM cells show constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, supported by decreased expression of phosphate and tensin homolog tumor suppressor gene (PTEN) at the gene and protein levels, together with constitutive activation of Akt and mTOR. We illustrated that dual targeting of the PI3K/mTOR pathway by the novel inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 showed higher cytotoxicity on WM cells compared with inhibition of the PI3K or mTOR pathways alone. In addition, NVP-BEZ235 inhibited both rictor and raptor, thus abrogating the rictor-induced Akt phosphorylation. NVP-BEZ235 also induced significant cytotoxicity in WM cells in a caspase-dependent and -independent manner, through targeting the Forkhead box transcription factors. In addition, NVP-BEZ235 targeted WM cells in the context of bone marrow microenvironment, leading to significant inhibition of migration, adhesion in vitro, and homing in vivo. These studies therefore show that dual targeting of the PI3K/mTOR pathway is a better modality of targeted therapy for tumors that harbor activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling cascade, such as WM. PMID:19965685

  14. Hypoactivity Affects IGF-1 Level and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Cerebral Structures Implied in Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Mysoet, Julien; Canu, Marie-Hélène; Cieniewski-Bernard, Caroline; Bastide, Bruno; Dupont, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    A chronic reduction in neuromuscular activity through prolonged body immobilization in human alters motor task performance through a combination of peripheral and central factors. Studies performed in a rat model of sensorimotor restriction have shown functional and biochemical changes in sensorimotor cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Interest was turned towards a possible implication of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), a growth factor known to mediate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity by inducing phosphorylation cascades which include the PI3K–AKT pathway. In order to better understand the influence of IGF-1 in cortical plasticity in rats submitted to a sensorimotor restriction, we analyzed the effect of hindlimb unloading on IGF-1 and its main molecular pathway in structures implied in motor control (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, cerebellum). IGF-1 level was determined by ELISA, and phosphorylation of its receptor and proteins of the PI3K–AKT pathway by immunoblot. In the sensorimotor cortex, our results indicate that HU induces a decrease in IGF-1 level; this alteration is associated to a decrease in activation of PI3K-AKT pathway. The same effect was observed in the striatum, although to a lower extent. No variation was noticed in the cerebellum. These results suggest that IGF-1 might contribute to cortical and striatal plasticity induced by a chronic sensorimotor restriction. PMID:25226394

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  16. Control of fibroblast fibronectin expression and alternative splicing via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    White, Eric S.; Sagana, Rommel L.; Booth, Adam J.; Yan, Mei; Cornett, Ashley M.; Bloomheart, Christopher A.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B.; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Jesse; Muro, Andres F.

    2010-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a ubiquitous glycoprotein that plays critical roles in physiologic and pathologic conditions, undergoes alternative splicing which distinguishes plasma FN (pFN) from cellular FN (cFN). Although both pFN and cFN can be incorporated into the extracellular matrix, a distinguishing feature of cFN is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon termed EDA (for extra type III domain A). The molecular steps involved in EDA splicing are well-characterized, but pathways influencing EDA splicing are less clear. We have previously found an obligate role for inhibition of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the primary regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in fibroblast activation. Here we show TGF-{beta}, a potent inducer of both EDA splicing and fibroblast activation, inhibits PTEN expression and activity in mesenchymal cells, corresponding with enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling. In pten{sup -/-} fibroblasts, which resemble activated fibroblasts, inhibition of Akt attenuated FN production and decreased EDA alternative splicing. Moreover, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pten{sup -/-} cells also blocked FN production and EDA splicing. This effect was due to inhibition of Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the primary EDA splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Importantly, FN silencing in pten{sup -/-} cells resulted in attenuated proliferation and migration. Thus, our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis is instrumental in FN transcription and alternative splicing, which regulates cell behavior.

  17. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury involved to inhibit the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Changjiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhenzhen; Ling, Hongwei; Cheng, Xingbo; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Blood glucose fluctuation is associated with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which blood glucose fluctuation accelerates renal injury is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of blood glucose fluctuation on diabetic nephropathy in rats and investigate its underlying mechanism. Diabetes in the rats was induced by a high sugar, high-fat diet, and a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)-injected intraperitoneally. Unstable blood sugar models were induced by subcutaneous insulin injection and intravenous glucose injection alternately. Body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), and Creatinine clearance (Ccr) were assessed. T-SOD activity and MDA level were measured by assay kit. Change in renal tissue ultrastructure was observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Phosphorylated ser/thr protein kinase (p-AKT) (phosphor-Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) (phosphor-Ser9), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (BCL-2), and cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. We observed that BUN and Scr were increased in diabetic rats, and Ccr was decreased. Furthermore, blood glucose fluctuations could exacerbate the Ccr changes. Renal tissue ultrastructure was also seriously injured by glucose variability in diabetic rats. In addition, glucose fluctuation increased the oxidative stress of renal tissue. Moreover, fluctuating blood glucose decreased p-AKT level and BCL-2, and increased p-GSK-3β, BAX, cleaved-caspase-3 levels, and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that blood glucose fluctuation accelerated renal injury is due, at least in part to its oxidative stress promoting and inhibiting the AKT signaling pathway in diabetic rats. PMID:26860515

  19. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  20. In vitro and In vivo Activity of Novel Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Pleckstrin Homology Domain of Protein Kinase B/AKT

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sylvestor A.; Ali, M. Ahad; Zuohe, Song; Du-Cuny, Lei; Zhou, Li Li; Lemos, Robert; Ihle, Nathan; Skillman, A. Geoffrey; Zhang, Shuxing; Mash, Eugene A.; Powis, Garth; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in activating survival and antiapoptotic pathways within cancer cells. Several studies have shown that this pathway is constitutively activated in many different cancer types. The goal of this study was to discover novel compounds that bind to the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of AKT, thereby inhibiting AKT activation. Using proprietary docking software, 22 potential PH domain inhibitors were identified. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the binding of the compounds to the expressed PH domain of AKT followed by an in vitro activity screen in Panc-1 and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We identified a novel chemical scaffold in several of the compounds that binds selectively to the PH domain of AKT, inducing a decrease in AKT activation and causing apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. Structural modifications of the scaffold led to compounds with enhanced inhibitory activity in cells. One compound, 4-dodecyl-N-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) benzenesulfonamide, inhibited AKT and its downstream targets in cells as well as in pancreatic cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice; it also exhibited good antitumor activity. In summary, a pharmacophore for PH domain inhibitors targeting AKT function was developed. Computer-aided modeling, synthesis, and testing produced novel AKT PH domain inhibitors that exhibit promising preclinical properties. PMID:19491272

  1. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  2. The Regulation of Lipid Deposition by Insulin in Goose Liver Cells Is Mediated by the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chunchun; Wei, Shouhai; He, Fang; Liu, Dandan; Wan, Huofu; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hongyong; Du, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that the fatty liver formations observed in overfed geese are accompanied by the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and an increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism; therefore, we hypothesized that insulin affects goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Methods Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with serum-free media supplemented with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively) and 50 or 150 nmol/L insulin. Results Insulin induced strong effects on lipid accumulation as well as the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in primary goose hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis was significantly decreased by treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors. These inhibitors also rescued the insulin-induced down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that the stimulatory effect of insulin on lipid deposition is mediated by PI3K-Akt-mTOR regulation of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes. PMID:25945932

  3. Trpc1 ion channel modulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zanou, Nadège; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-04-27

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1(-/-) and Trpc1(+/+) murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1(-/-) muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1(-/-) mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1(-/-) muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1(-/-) primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca(2+) through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.

  4. Trpc1 Ion Channel Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway during Myoblast Differentiation and Muscle Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadège; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1−/− and Trpc1+/+ murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1−/− muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1−/− mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1−/− muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1−/− primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca2+ through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca2+-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration. PMID:22399301

  5. Both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways regulate activation of E-twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) in U138 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mut, Melike; Lule, Sevda; Demir, Ozlem; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan; Vural, Imran

    2012-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma. In our study, the EGFR was stimulated with EGF in human U138 glioblastoma cells. We show that the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 pathway phosphorylated the E twenty-six (ETS)-like transcription factor 1 (Elk-1) mainly at serine 383 residue. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, UO126 and ERK inhibitor II, FR180204 blocked the Elk-1 phosphorylation and activation. The phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was also involved in the Elk-1 activation. Activation of the Elk-1 led to an increased survival and a proliferative response with the EGF stimulation in the U138 glioblastoma cells. Knocking-down the Elk-1 using an RNA interference technique caused a decrease in survival of the unstimulated U138 glioblastoma cells and also decreased the proliferative response to the EGF stimulation. The Elk-1 transcription factor was important for the survival and proliferation of U138 glioblastoma cells upon the stimulation of EGFR with EGF. The MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways regulated this response via activation of the Elk-1 transcription factor. The Elk-1 may be one of the convergence points for pathways located downstream of EGFR in glioblastoma cells. Utilization of the Elk-1 as a therapeutic target may lead to a novel strategy in treatment of glioblastoma.

  6. Novel alkylphospholipid-DTC hybrids as promising agents against endocrine related cancers acting via modulation of Akt-pathway.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Santosh; Bala, Veenu; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Sarswat, Amit; Kumar, Amit; Hamidullah; Saini, Karan S; Sharma, Vikas; Verma, Vikas; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Konwar, Rituraj; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2014-10-01

    A new series of 2-(alkoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryloxy)ethyl dialkylcarbodithioate derivatives was synthesized and evaluated against endocrine related cancers, acting via modulation of Akt-pathway. Eighteen compounds were active at 7.24-100 μM against MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cell lines of breast cancer. Three compounds (14, 18 and 22) were active against MCF-7 cells at IC50 significantly better than miltefosine and most of the compounds were less toxic towards non-cancer cell lines, HEK-293. On the other hand, twelve compounds exhibited cell growth inhibiting activity against prostate cancer cell lines, either PC-3 or DU-145 at 14.69-95.20 μM. While nine of these were active against both cell lines. The most promising compounds 14 and 18 were about two and five fold more active than miltefosine against DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines respectively and significantly down regulated phospho-Akt. Possibly anti-cancer and pro-apoptotic activity was mostly due to blockade of Akt-pathway.

  7. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer. PMID:25995820

  8. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-05-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  9. Ketamine affects the neurogenesis of rat fetal neural stem progenitor cells via the PI3K/Akt-p27 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chaoxuan; Rovnaghi, Cynthia R.; Anand, KJS

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic, analgesic, or sedative in pediatric patients. We reported that ketamine alters the normal neurogenesis of rat fetal neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the developing brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The PI3K-PKB/Akt (Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B) signaling pathway plays many important roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and proliferation. We hypothesized that PI3K-PKB/Akt signaling may be involved in ketamine-altered neurogenesis of cultured NSPCs in vitro. NSPCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses on gestational day 17. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation, Ki67 staining, and differentiation tests were utilized to identify primary cultured NSPCs. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect Akt expression, whereas, Western blots measured phosphorylated Akt and p27 expression in NSPCs exposed to different treatments. We report that cultured NSPCs had properties of neurogenesis: proliferation and neural differentiation. PKB/Akt was expressed in cultured rat fetal cortical NSPCs. Ketamine inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and further enhanced p27 expression in cultured NSPCs. All ketamine-induced PI3K/Akt signaling changes could be recovered by NMDA (N-Methyl-D-aspartate) receptor agonist, NMDA. These data suggest that inhibition of PI3K/Akt-p27 signaling may be involved in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain, whereas excitatory NMDA receptor activation may reverse these effects. PMID:25231110

  10. IL-10 Protects Neurites in Oxygen-Glucose-Deprived Cortical Neurons through the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixian; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yong; Li, Tin; Zeng, Yongping; Chen, Jianhao; Du, Houwei; Chen, Ronghua; Tan, Yi; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    IL-10, as a cytokine, has an anti-inflammatory cascade following various injuries, but it remains blurred whether IL-10 protects neurites of cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation injury. Here, we reported that IL-10, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced neuronal apoptosis and increased neuronal survival in oxygen-glucose-deprived primary cortical neurons, producing an optimal protective effect at 20ng/ml. After staining NF-H and GAP-43, we found that IL-10 significantly protected neurites in terms of axon length and dendrite number by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, it induced the phosphorylation of AKT, suppressed the activation of caspase-3, and up-regulated the protein expression of GAP-43. In contrast, LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/AKT, reduced the level of AKT phosphorylation and GAP-43 expression, increased active caspase-3 expression and thus significantly weakened IL-10-mediated protective effect in the OGD-induced injury model. IL-10NA, the IL-10 neutralizing antibody, reduced the level of p-PI3K phosphorylation and increased the expression of active caspase-3. These findings suggest that IL-10 provides neuroprotective effects by protecting neurites through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in oxygen-glucose-deprived primary cortical neurons. PMID:26366999

  11. Sorafenib downregulates ERK/Akt and STAT3 survival pathways and induces apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hong; Luo, Annie Z; Weerasinghe, Priya; Brown, Robert E

    2010-04-23

    Neuroblastoma is a common solid tumor in children and its tumorigenicity is enhanced by the expression of survival pathways such as Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that also inhibits STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis. In this study, we will examine the efficacy of sorafenib on a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-AS) and also investigate its possible mechanisms. After cells reached 50-60% confluence, they were treated with various concentrations of sorafenib (0, 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM) for different periods of time. The cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTS colorimetric assay and TUNEL, respectively. Phosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 (p-Akt1/2/3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), STAT3 (p-STAT3), and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha subunit (p-AMPKalpha) were determined with Western blot. The results indicate that as early as 2 hours post-treatment, cell viability was significantly decreased at 10 microM concentration. In 24 hours or longer treatment groups, sorafenib at 5 microM and above significantly decreased cell viability. TUNEL assay showed a significant increased of apoptosis in 5 and 20 microM treatment groups 24 hours after treatment. Western blots showed a decrease of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt1/2/3, p-STAT3, and p-AMPKalpha expression levels in various sorafenib treatment groups. Our results indicate that sorafenib significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line in association with down-regulation of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p-STAT3 survival pathways. These data suggested potential clinical application of sorafenib in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  12. The role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in glial scar formation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hong; Sung, Chun-Sung; Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Yang, San-Nan; Chen, Nan-Fu; Tai, Ming-Hong; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu

    2016-04-01

    Several studies suggest that glial scars pose as physical and chemical barriers that limit neurite regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in glial scar formation. Therefore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway may beneficially attenuate glial scar formation after SCI. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) negatively regulates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that the overexpression of PTEN in the spinal cord will have beneficial effects after SCI. In the present study, we intrathecally injected a recombinant adenovirus carrying the pten gene (Ad-PTEN) to cause overexpression of PTEN in rats with contusion injured spinal cords. The results suggest overexpression of PTEN in spinal cord attenuated glial scar formation and led to improved locomotor function after SCI. Overexpression of PTEN following SCI attenuated gliosis, affected chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression, and improved axon regeneration into the lesion site. Furthermore, we suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in astrocytes at 3 days after SCI may be involved in glial scar formation. Because delayed treatment with Ad-PTEN enhanced motor function recovery more significantly than immediate treatment with Ad-PTEN after SCI, the results suggest that the best strategy to attenuate glial scar formation could be to introduce 3 days after SCI. This study's findings thus have positive implications for patients who are unable to receive immediate medical attention after SCI. PMID:26828688

  13. [Signaling pathways mTOR and AKT in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Romero-Leguizamon, C R; Ramirez-Latorre, J A; Mora-Munoz, L; Guerrero-Naranjo, A

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. La via de señalizacion AKT/mTOR es un eje central en la regulacion celular, especialmente en las enfermedades neurologicas. En la epilepsia, se ha evidenciado su alteracion dentro de su proceso fisiopatologico. Sin embargo, aun no se han descrito todos los mecanismos de estas rutas de señalizacion, las cuales podrian abrir la puerta hacia nuevas investigaciones y estrategias terapeuticas, que finalmente permitan desarrollar tratamientos efectivos en enfermedades neurologicas como la epilepsia. Objetivo. Revisar las asociaciones existentes entre las rutas de señalizacion intracelular de mTOR y AKT en la fisiopatologia de la epilepsia. Desarrollo. La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurologica con un alto impacto epidemiologico en el mundo, por lo cual es de sumo interes la investigacion de los componentes fisiopatologicos que puedan generar nuevos tratamientos farmacologicos. En esta busqueda se han involucrado diferentes rutas de señalizacion intracelular en neuronas, como determinantes epileptogenos. Los avances en esta materia han permitido incluso la implementacion de nuevas estrategias terapeuticas exitosas y que abren el camino hacia nuevas investigaciones. Conclusiones. Mejorar los conocimientos respecto al papel fisiopatologico de la via de señalizacion mTOR/AKT en la epilepsia permite plantear nuevas investigaciones que ofrezcan nuevas alternativas terapeuticas para el tratamiento de la enfermedad. El uso de inhibidores de mTOR ha surgido en los ultimos años como una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de epilepsias, pero es evidente la necesidad de seguir en la busqueda de nuevas terapias farmacologicas involucradas en estas vias de señalizacion.

  14. Molecular characterization of the Akt-TOR signaling pathway in rainbow trout: potential role in muscle growth/degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Akt-TOR signaling pathway plays a key role in cellular metabolism and muscle growth. Hormone, nutrition and stress factors affect the Akt-TOR pathway by regulating gene transcription, protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, we previously showed that energetic demands elevate during vit...

  15. Vitamin E succinate induces apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in EC109 esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Zhao, Jiaying; Hou, Liying; Yang, Lei; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth most common gastrointestinal cancer, it generally has a poor prognosis and novel strategies are required for prevention and treatment. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is a potential chemical agent for cancer prevention and therapy as it exerts anti‑tumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the role of VES in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of VES in regulating the survival and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cells. EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were used to investigate the anti‑proliferative effects of VES. The MTT and Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays demonstrated that VES inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, VES downregulated constitutively active basal levels of phosphorylated (p)‑serine‑threonine kinase AKT (AKT) and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT substrates Bcl‑2‑associated death receptor and caspase‑9, in addition to mTOR effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 and eIF4E‑binding protein 1. Phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 suppressed p‑AKT and p‑mTOR, indicating PI3K is a common upstream mediator. The apoptosis induced by VES was increased by inhibition of AKT or mTOR with their respective inhibitor in esophageal cancer cells. The results of the present study suggested that VES targeted the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, the current study suggests that VES may be useful in a combinational therapeutic strategy employing an mTOR inhibitor.

  16. Vitamin E succinate induces apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in EC109 esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Zhao, Jiaying; Hou, Liying; Yang, Lei; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fourth most common gastrointestinal cancer, it generally has a poor prognosis and novel strategies are required for prevention and treatment. Vitamin E succinate (VES) is a potential chemical agent for cancer prevention and therapy as it exerts anti-tumor effects in a variety of cancers. However, the role of VES in tumorigenesis and progression of cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of VES in regulating the survival and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cells. EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of VES. The MTT and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assays demonstrated that VES inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, VES downregulated constitutively active basal levels of phosphorylated (p)-serine-threonine kinase AKT (AKT) and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT substrates Bcl-2-associated death receptor and caspase-9, in addition to mTOR effectors, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β1 and eIF4E-binding protein 1. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 suppressed p-AKT and p-mTOR, indicating PI3K is a common upstream mediator. The apoptosis induced by VES was increased by inhibition of AKT or mTOR with their respective inhibitor in esophageal cancer cells. The results of the present study suggested that VES targeted the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, the current study suggests that VES may be useful in a combinational therapeutic strategy employing an mTOR inhibitor. PMID:27357907

  17. PTEN posttranslational inactivation and hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway sustain primary T cell leukemia viability

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana; Yunes, J. Andrés; Cardoso, Bruno A.; Martins, Leila R.; Jotta, Patrícia Y.; Abecasis, Miguel; Nowill, Alexandre E.; Leslie, Nick R.; Cardoso, Angelo A.; Barata, Joao T.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene leading to PTEN protein deletion and subsequent activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway are common in cancer. Here we show that PTEN inactivation in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells is not always synonymous with PTEN gene lesions and diminished protein expression. Samples taken from patients with T-ALL at the time of diagnosis very frequently showed constitutive hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In contrast to immortalized cell lines, most primary T-ALL cells did not harbor PTEN gene alterations, displayed normal PTEN mRNA levels, and expressed higher PTEN protein levels than normal T cell precursors. However, PTEN overexpression was associated with decreased PTEN lipid phosphatase activity, resulting from casein kinase 2 (CK2) overexpression and hyperactivation. In addition, T-ALL cells had constitutively high levels of ROS, which can also downmodulate PTEN activity. Accordingly, both CK2 inhibitors and ROS scavengers restored PTEN activity and impaired PI3K/Akt signaling in T-ALL cells. Strikingly, inhibition of PI3K and/or CK2 promoted T-ALL cell death without affecting normal T cell precursors. Overall, our data indicate that T-ALL cells inactivate PTEN mostly in a nondeletional, posttranslational manner. Pharmacological manipulation of these mechanisms may open new avenues for T-ALL treatment. PMID:18830414

  18. Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Grande, Maria T; Eleno, Nélida; Arévalo, Miguel; Guerrero, Carmen; Santos, Eugerio; López-Novoa, José M

    2008-07-01

    Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.

  19. Curcumin Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Survival of Human Renal Cancer Cells by Negative Modulation of the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Weili; Li, Baolin; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Yudong; Xu, Haidong; Wang, Junyong; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Rui; Wei, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin possesses anti-cancer effects. In the current study, we tested the effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cell cycle phases, and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line RCC-949. We observed that cell proliferation and viability were markedly inhibited by curcumin, while cell apoptosis was promoted. The latter effect was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and diminished expression of Bax (both: mRNA and protein). The cells treated with curcumin increasingly went into cell cycle arrest, which was likely mediated by diminished expression of cyclin B1, as seen in curcumin-treated cells. In addition, curcumin decreased activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts anti-cancer effects by negative modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and may represent a promising new drug to treat RCC. PMID:27259310

  20. Feedback loops blockade potentiates apoptosis induction and antitumor activity of a novel AKT inhibitor DC120 in human liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Deng, R; Qian, X-J; Chang, S-H; Wu, X-Q; Qin, J; Feng, G-K; Ding, K; Zhu, X-F

    2014-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT is generally accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. However, the relief of feedback inhibition and enhancement of other survival pathways often attenuate the anticancer effects of AKT inhibitors. These compensatory mechanisms are very complicated and remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found a novel 2-pyrimidyl-5-amidothiazole compound, DC120, as an ATP competitive AKT kinase inhibitor that suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. DC120 blocked the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway in dose- and time-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo. However, unexpectedly, DC120 activated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway that was suggested by increased phosphorylation of 70KD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The activated mTORC1 signal was because of increase of intracellular Ca(2+) via Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/ signaling to human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34) upon AKT inhibition. Meanwhile, DC120 attenuated the inhibitory effect of AKT on CRAF by decreasing phosphorylation of CRAF at Ser259 and thus activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The activation of the mTORC1 and MAPK pathways by DC120 was not mutually dependent, and the combination of DC120 with mTORC1 inhibitor and/or MEK inhibitor induced significant apoptosis and growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the combination of AKT, mTORC1 and/or MEK inhibitors would be a promising therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24625973

  1. Allosteric modulation of Ras and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway: emerging therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Paul A.; Moody, Colleen L.; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    GTPases and kinases are two predominant signaling modules that regulate cell fate. Dysregulation of Ras, a GTPase, and the three eponymous kinases that form key nodes of the associated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway have been implicated in many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, a disease noted for its current lack of effective therapeutics. The K-Ras isoform of Ras is mutated in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and there is growing evidence linking aberrant PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity to PDAC. Although these observations suggest that targeting one of these nodes might lead to more effective treatment options for patients with pancreatic and other cancers, the complex regulatory mechanisms and the number of sequence-conserved isoforms of these proteins have been viewed as significant barriers in drug development. Emerging insights into the allosteric regulatory mechanisms of these proteins suggest novel opportunities for development of selective allosteric inhibitors with fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) helping make significant inroads. The fact that allosteric inhibitors of Ras and AKT are currently in pre-clinical development lends support to this approach. In this article, we will focus on the recent advances and merits of developing allosteric drugs targeting these two inter-related signaling pathways. PMID:25566081

  2. Allosteric modulation of Ras and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway: emerging therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Paul A; Moody, Colleen L; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    GTPases and kinases are two predominant signaling modules that regulate cell fate. Dysregulation of Ras, a GTPase, and the three eponymous kinases that form key nodes of the associated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway have been implicated in many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, a disease noted for its current lack of effective therapeutics. The K-Ras isoform of Ras is mutated in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) and there is growing evidence linking aberrant PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity to PDAC. Although these observations suggest that targeting one of these nodes might lead to more effective treatment options for patients with pancreatic and other cancers, the complex regulatory mechanisms and the number of sequence-conserved isoforms of these proteins have been viewed as significant barriers in drug development. Emerging insights into the allosteric regulatory mechanisms of these proteins suggest novel opportunities for development of selective allosteric inhibitors with fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) helping make significant inroads. The fact that allosteric inhibitors of Ras and AKT are currently in pre-clinical development lends support to this approach. In this article, we will focus on the recent advances and merits of developing allosteric drugs targeting these two inter-related signaling pathways. PMID:25566081

  3. Herbacetin induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: Involvements of ROS and PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Xiang, Qisen; Yuan, Li; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Herbacetin (HER) is a natural flavonoid compound that can be extracted from Ramose Scouring Rush Herb, and its biological and pharmacological activities lack of corresponding attention. In this study, the apoptotic effect of HER against the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was investigated. The results showed that HepG2 cells apoptosis occurred in a dose-dependent manner within 48h incubated with HER, which was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, nuclear shrinkage, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. HER at 25-100μM induced a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway associated with Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) collapse, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. Increasing expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) was also observed in HER-treated cells. Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC) significantly attenuated the apoptosis induced by HER and also blocked the expression of PGC-1α protein. Additionally, HER effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 increased the inhibition effect of HER on Akt phosphorylation. These findings provide evidences that HER induces HepG2 apoptosis in a ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent manner that correlate with the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23063593

  4. MicroRNA-520a attenuates proliferation of Raji cells through inhibition of AKT1/NF-κB and PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinqian; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a fast growing cancer of the human lymphatic system, and an extremely invasive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We explored the mechanism of apoptosis in Raji cells associated with the post-transcriptional regulation factors. To confirm that the predicted microRNA-520a (miR-520a) is matched with AKT1, 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase activity of AKT1 was used in the assessment. In the presence of the mimics or inhibitors of miR-520a, cell function of Raji, such as proliferation, growth and apoptosis were analyzed. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑related proteins were examined. Luciferase reporter analysis showed that miR‑520a leads to decreased activity of luciferase gene fused with AKT1 3'UTR. Therefore, AKT1 is a direct target of miR‑520a. Our data indicated that the mimics of miR‑520a inhibited growth, proliferation of Raji cells and promoted its apoptosis, which was related to downregulation of AKT1, NF‑κB and ER stress response mediated by PERK/eIF2α pathway. On the contrary, the inhibitors of miR‑520a promoted growth, proliferation of Raji cells and inhibited its apoptosis, which was related to AKT1/NF‑κB and PERK/eIF2α pathway. We identified miR‑520a, which specifically binds to AKT1 mRNA 3'UTR. miR‑520a is a crucial mediator for proliferation and ER stress in Raji cells through regulating the AKT1/NF‑κB or PERK/eIF2α signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting miR‑520a is a promising therapeutic strategy in BL. PMID:27461820

  5. The PI3K/Akt Pathway Regulates Oxygen Metabolism via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1α Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cerniglia, George J.; Dey, Souvik; Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M.; Daurio, Natalie A; Tuttle, Stephen; Busch, Theresa M.; Lin, Alexander; Sun, Ramon; Esipova, Tatiana V.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Denko, Nicholas; Koumenis, Constantinos; Maity, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway decreases hypoxia within SQ20B human head and neck cancer xenografts. We set out to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this observation. We measured oxygen consumption using both a Clark electrode and an extracellular flux analyzer. We made these measurements after various pharmacologic and genetic manipulations. Pharmacologic inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway or genetic inhibition of Akt/PI3K decreased the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in vitro in SQ20B and other cell lines by 30–40%. Pharmacologic inhibition of this pathway increased phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex on Ser293, which inhibits activity of this critical gatekeeper of mitochondrial respiration. Expressing wild type PTEN in a doxycycline-inducible manner in a cell line with mutant PTEN led to an increase in PDH-E1α phosphorylation and a decrease in OCR. Pre-treatment of SQ20B cells with dichloroacetate (DCA), which inhibits PDH-E1α phosphorylation by inhibiting dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), reversed the decrease in OCR in response to PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibition. Likewise, introduction of exogenous PDH-E1α that contains serine to alanine mutations, which can no longer be regulated by phosphorylation, also blunted the decrease in OCR seen with PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Our findings highlight an association between the PI3K/mTOR pathway and tumor cell oxygen consumption that is regulated in part by PDH phosphorylation. These results have important implications for understanding the effects PI3K pathway activation in tumor metabolism and also in designing cancer therapy trials that use inhibitors of this pathway. PMID:25995437

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR42 regulates telomerase activity in human glioma cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Luen; Huang, Po-Hsien; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Chen, Huan-Da; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2013-05-24

    Epigenetic regulation via abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a mechanism that leads to cancer initiation and promotion. Activation of HDACs results in transcriptional upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and increases telomerase activity during cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. However, the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the transcription of hTERT vary in different cancer cells. Here, we studied the effects of a novel HDAC inhibitor, AR42, on telomerase activity in a PTEN-null U87MG glioma cell line. AR42 increased hTERT mRNA in U87MG glioma cells, but suppressed total telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Further analyses suggested that AR42 decreases the phosphorylation of hTERT via an Akt-dependent mechanism. Suppression of Akt phosphorylation and telomerase activity was also observed with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 further supporting the hypothesis that Akt signaling is involved in suppression of AR42-induced inhibition of telomerase activity. Finally, ectopic expression of a constitutive active form of Akt restored telomerase activity in AR42-treated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the novel HDAC inhibitor AR42 can suppress telomerase activity by inhibiting Akt-mediated hTERT phosphorylation, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the regulation of telomerase activity in response to this HDAC inhibitor.

  7. MicroRNA-150 negatively regulates the function of CD4(+) T cells through AKT3/Bim signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sang, Wei; Sun, Cai; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Dianzheng; Wang, Ying; Xu, Linyan; Zhang, Zhe; Wei, Xiangyu; Pan, Bin; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Zhiling; Cao, Jiang; Loughran, Thomas P; Xu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Donor-derived CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the major effector cells directly involved in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). As a negative regulator of immune cell differentiation and development, microRNA-150 (miR-150) induces immunological tolerance in CD4(+) T cells after transplantation. However, the specific mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-150 is capable of not only inhibiting proliferation and activation of CD4(+) T cells but also promoting apoptosis. Mechanistically, miR-150 targets v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (AKT3), and subsequently downregulates B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) interacting mediator of cell death (BIM). We have also demonstrated that re-expression of AKT3 reversed miR-150-mediated inhibition of CD4(+) T lymphocyte development. Therefore, we conclude that miR-150 negatively regulates CD4(+) T cell function by inhibiting the AKT3/BIM signaling pathway. These findings also suggest that manipulating the levels of miRNA-150 could be a valuable strategy in prevention and/or treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27329362

  8. Wogonin inhibits H2O2-induced angiogenesis via suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Song, Xiuming; Huang, Yujie; Wei, Libin; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-03-01

    Wogonin, a natural monoflavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, has been reported for its ability of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we assessed the effect of wogonin on angiogenesis induced by low level of H2O2 (10 μM) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Wogonin suppressed H2O2-induced migration and tube formation of HUVECs as well as microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings in vitro. Meanwhile, wogonin suppressed vessel growth in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that wogonin suppressed H2O2-activated PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) up-regulated by H2O2 in both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, wogonin also inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and decreased the binding ability of NF-κB with exogenous consensus DNA oligonucleotide. Then we further investigated the effect of wogonin on over-activated PI3K/Akt pathway by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and H2O2. We found that wogonin suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, up-regulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in vitro which was further induced by IGF-1 and H2O2. Moreover, in NF-κB overexpressed HUVECs, wogonin could also reduce the expression of VEGF and inhibited the migration and tube formation. Taken together, these results suggested that wogonin was potential in inhibiting H2O2-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo via suppressing PI3K/Akt pathway and NF-κB signaling.

  9. Functional interdependence at the chromatin level between the MKK6/p38 and IGF1/Pi3K/AKT pathways during muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carlo, Serra; Daniela, Palacios; Chiara, Mozzetta; Sonia, Forcales; Ianessa, Morantte; Meri, Ripani; Jones David, R.; Keyong, Du; Jhala Ulupi, S.; Cristiano, Simone; Lorenzo, Puri Pier

    2009-01-01

    During muscle regeneration, the mechanism integrating environmental cues at the chromatin of muscle progenitors is unknown. We show that inflammation-activated MKK6-p38 and IGF1-induced Pi3K/AKT pathways converge on the chromatin of muscle genes to target distinct components of the muscle transcriptosome. p38 α/β kinases recruit the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex; AKT 1 and 2 promote the association of MyoD with p300 and PCAF acetyltransferases, via direct phosphorylation of p300. Pharmacological or genetic interference with either pathway led to partial assembly of discrete chromatin-bound complexes, which reflected two reversible and distinct cellular phenotypes. Remarkably, Pi3K/AKT blockade was permissive for chromatin recruitment of MEF2-SWI/SNF complex, whose remodeling activity was compromised in the absence of MyoD and acetyltransferases. The functional interdependence between p38 and IGF1/Pi3K/AKT pathways was further established by the evidence that blockade of AKT chromatin targets was sufficient to prevent the activation of the myogenic program triggered by deliberate activation of p38 signaling PMID:17964260

  10. Flavonoid myricetin inhibits TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Chung Soo

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid myricetin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the effect of myricetin on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we examined the effect of myricetin on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in relation to the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulate the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. TNF-α stimulated production of the inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes, and activation of the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways in HaCaT cells and primary keratinocytes. Myricetin, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085 (an inhibitor of NF-κB activation), rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) and N-acetylcysteine attenuated TNF-α-induced activation of Akt, mTOR and NF-κB. Myricetin and N-acetylcysteine attenuated the TNF-α-stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The results show that myricetin may reduce TNF-α-stimulated inflammatory mediator production in keratinocytes by suppressing the activation of the Akt, mTOR and NF-κB pathways. The effect of myricetin appears to be associated with inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Further, myricetin appears to attenuate the proinflammatory mediator-induced inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27221774

  11. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate. PMID:23417763

  12. Akt2 Phosphorylates Ezrin to Trigger NHE3 Translocation and Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Shiue, Harn; Musch, Mark W.; Wang, Yingmin; Chang, Eugene B.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2005-01-01

    Initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport in intestinal absorptive epithelia causes NHE3 to be translocated to the apical plasma membrane, leading to cytoplasmic alkalinization. We reported recently that this NHE3 translocation requires ezrin phosphorylation. However, the kinase that phosphorylates ezrin in this process has not been identified. Because Akt has also been implicated in NHE3 translocation, we investigated the hypothesis that Akt phosphorylates ezrin. After initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport, Akt is activated with kinetics that parallel those of ezrin phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, which blocks ezrin phosphorylation, also prevents Akt activation. Purified Akt directly phosphorylates recombinant ezrin at threonine 567 in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner. This in vitro phosphorylation can be prevented by Akt inhibitors. In intact cells, inhibition of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt, or inhibition of Akt itself using inhibitors validated in vitro prevents ezrin phosphorylation after initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport. Specific small interfering RNA knockdown of Akt2 prevented ezrin phosphorylation in intact cells. Pharmacological Akt inhibition or Akt2 knockdown also prevented NHE3 translocation and activation after initiation of Na+-glucose cotransport, confirming the functional role of Akt2. These studies therefore identify Akt2 as a critical kinase that regulates ezrin phosphorylation and activation. This Akt2-dependent ezrin phosphorylation leads to NHE3 translocation and activation. PMID:15531580

  13. Akt2 phosphorylates ezrin to trigger NHE3 translocation and activation.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Harn; Musch, Mark W; Wang, Yingmin; Chang, Eugene B; Turner, Jerrold R

    2005-01-14

    Initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport in intestinal absorptive epithelia causes NHE3 to be translocated to the apical plasma membrane, leading to cytoplasmic alkalinization. We reported recently that this NHE3 translocation requires ezrin phosphorylation. However, the kinase that phosphorylates ezrin in this process has not been identified. Because Akt has also been implicated in NHE3 translocation, we investigated the hypothesis that Akt phosphorylates ezrin. After initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport, Akt is activated with kinetics that parallel those of ezrin phosphorylation. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, which blocks ezrin phosphorylation, also prevents Akt activation. Purified Akt directly phosphorylates recombinant ezrin at threonine 567 in vitro in an ATP-dependent manner. This in vitro phosphorylation can be prevented by Akt inhibitors. In intact cells, inhibition of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase, an upstream regulator of Akt, or inhibition of Akt itself using inhibitors validated in vitro prevents ezrin phosphorylation after initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport. Specific small interfering RNA knockdown of Akt2 prevented ezrin phosphorylation in intact cells. Pharmacological Akt inhibition or Akt2 knockdown also prevented NHE3 translocation and activation after initiation of Na(+)-glucose cotransport, confirming the functional role of Akt2. These studies therefore identify Akt2 as a critical kinase that regulates ezrin phosphorylation and activation. This Akt2-dependent ezrin phosphorylation leads to NHE3 translocation and activation.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Akt Phosphorylation Regulates Bax Activation

    PubMed Central

    Sadidi, Mahdieh; Lentz, Stephen I.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in many cellular processes that positively and negatively regulate cell fate. H2O2, acting as an intracellular messenger, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and its downstream target Akt, and promotes cell survival. The aim of the current study was to understand the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt signaling promotes survival in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt mediates phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax. This phosphorylation suppresses apoptosis and promotes cell survival. Increased survival in the presence of H2O2 was blocked by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K activation. LY294002 prevented Bax phosphorylation and resulted in Bax translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism by which H2O2-induced activation of PI3K/Akt influences posttranslational modification of Bax and inactivate a key component of the cell death machinery. PMID:19278624

  15. Cathepsin S Activity Controls Injury-Related Vascular Repair in Mice via the TLR2-Mediated p38MAPK and PI3K−Akt/p-HDAC6 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongxian; Hu, Lina; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Hu, Chen; Du, Qiuna; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Enbo; Huang, Zhe; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Zhao, Guangxian; Piao, Limei; Inoue, Aiko; Jiang, Haiying; Lei, Yanna; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liu, Shaowen; Dai, Qiuyan; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Shi, Guo-Ping; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Cathepsin S (CatS) participates in atherogenesis through several putative mechanisms. The ability of cathepsins to modify histone tail is likely to contribute to stem cell development. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is required in modulating the proliferation and migration of various types of cancer cells. Here, we investigated the cross talk between CatS and HADC6 in injury-related vascular repair in mice. Approach and Results— Ligation injury to the carotid artery in mice increased the CatS expression, and CatS-deficient mice showed reduced neointimal formation in injured arteries. CatS deficiency decreased the phosphorylation levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and HDAC6 and toll-like receptor 2 expression in ligated arteries. The genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CatS also alleviated the increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and HDAC6 induced by platelet-derived growth factor BB in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition and Akt inhibition decreased the phospho-HDAC6 levels. Moreover, CatS inhibition caused decrease in the levels of the HDAC6 activity in VSMCs in response to platelet-derived growth factor BB. The HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A downregulated platelet-derived growth factor–induced VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas HDAC6 overexpression exerted the opposite effect. Tubastatin A also decreased the intimal VSMC proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia in response to injury. Toll-like receptor 2 silencing decreased the phosphorylation levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and HDAC6 and VSMC migration and proliferation. Conclusions— This is the first report detailing cross-interaction between toll-like receptor 2–mediated CatS and HDAC6 during injury-related vascular repair. These data suggest that CatS/HDAC6 could be a potential therapeutic target for the control of vascular diseases that are

  16. Effective inhibition of melanoma by BI-69A11 is mediated by dual targeting of the AKT and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongmei; Barile, Elisa; De, Surya K; Stebbins, John L; Cortez, Apple; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Villanueva, Jessie; Heryln, Meenhard; Krajewski, Stan; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Ronai, Ze'ev A; Chiang, Gary G

    2011-08-01

    In melanoma, the activation of pro-survival signaling pathways, such as the AKT and NF-κB pathways, is critical for tumor growth. We have recently reported that the AKT inhibitor BI-69A11 causes efficient inhibition of melanoma growth. Here, we show that in addition to its AKT inhibitory activity, BI-69A11 also targets the NF-κB pathway. In melanoma cell lines, BI-69A11 inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKα/β and IκB phosphorylation as well as NF-κB reporter gene expression. Furthermore, the effective inhibition of melanoma growth by BI-69A11 was attenuated upon NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, reduced NF-κB signaling by BI-69-A11 is mediated by the inhibition of sphingosine kinase 1, identified in a screen of 315 kinases. Significantly, we demonstrate that BI-69A11 is well tolerated and orally active against UACC 903 and SW1 melanoma xenografts. Our results demonstrate that BI-69A11 inhibits both the AKT and the NF-κB pathways and that the dual targeting of these pathways may be efficacious as a therapeutic strategy in melanoma. PMID:21592316

  17. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt Pathway Impairs G2/M Transition of Cell Cycle in Late Developing Progenitors of the Avian Embryo Retina

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, Isis Moraes; Silva, Thayane Martins; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques

    2013-01-01

    PI3K/Akt is an important pathway implicated in the proliferation and survival of cells in the CNS. Here we investigated the participation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway in cell cycle of developing retinal progenitors. Immunofluorescence assays performed in cultures of chick embryo retinal cells and intact tissues revealed the presence of phosphorylated Akt and 4E-BP1 in cells with typical mitotic profiles. Blockade of PI3K activity with the chemical inhibitor LY 294002 (LY) in retinal explants blocked the progression of proliferating cells through G2/M transition, indicated by an expressive increase in the number of cells labeled for phosphorylated histone H3 in the ventricular margin of the retina. No significant level of cell death could be detected at this region. Retinal explants treated with LY for 24 h also showed a significant decrease in the expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3 and the hyperphosphorylated form of 4E-BP1. Although no change in the expression of cyclin B1 was detected, a significant decrease in CDK1 expression was noticed after 24 h of LY treatment both in retinal explants and monolayer cultures. Our results suggest that PI3K/Akt is an active pathway during proliferation of retinal progenitors and its activity appears to be required for proper CDK1 expression levels and mitosis progression of these cells. PMID:23301080

  18. Helicobacter pylori CagA induces tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation by upregulating DNMT1 via AKT-NFκB pathway in gastric cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He-xiao; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jian-fang; Su, Li-ping; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zheng-gang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of CpG islands in tumor suppressor gene prompter is one of the most characteristic abnormalities in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastric carcinoma (GC). Here, we investigated the pathogenic and molecular mechanisms underlying hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in HP induced GC development. We found that tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation, represented by MGMT, positively correlated with CagA in clinical specimens, gastric tissues from HP infected C57 mice and GC cell lines transfected by CagA or treated by HP infection. CagA enhanced PDK1 and AKT interaction and increased AKT phosphorylation. The P-AKT subsequent activated NFκB, which then bound to DNMT1 promoter and increased its expression. Finally, the upregulated DNMT1 promoted tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation with MGMT as a representative. In conclusion, CagA increased tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation via stimulating DNMT1 expression through the AKT-NFκB pathway. PMID:26848521

  19. PI3K/AKT pathway regulates E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 in aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Alison G; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M; Jia, Angela J; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Christiano, Angela M; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Reduced expression of both classical and desmosomal cadherins has been associated with different types of carcinomas, including prostate cancer. This study aims to provide a comprehensive view of the role and regulation of cell–cell adhesion in prostate cancer aggressiveness by examining the functional implications of both E-cadherin and Desmoglein 2 (DSG2). E-cadherin expression was first examined using immunofluorescence in 50 normal prostate tissues and in a cohort of 414 prostate cancer patients. Correlation and survival analyses were performed to assess its clinical significance. In primary prostate cancer patients, reduced expression of both E-cadherin and DSG2 is significantly associated with an earlier biochemical recurrence. Transgenic DU145 E-cadherin knockdown and constitutively active AKT overexpression lines were generated. Functional implications of such genetic alterations were analyzed in vitro and in vivo, the latter by using tumorigenesis as well as extravasation and metastatic tumor formation assays. We observed that loss of E-cadherin leads to impaired primary and metastatic tumor formation in vivo, suggesting a tumor promoter role for E-cadherin in addition to its known role as a tumor suppressor. Activation of AKT leads to a significant reduction in E-cadherin expression and nuclear localization of Snail, suggesting a role for the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the transient repression of E-cadherin. This reduced expression may be regulated by separate mechanisms as neither the loss of E-cadherin nor activation of AKT significantly affected DSG2 expression. In conclusion, these findings illustrate the critical role of cell–cell adhesion in the progression to aggressive prostate cancer, through regulation by the PI3K pathway. PMID:26033689

  20. Co-operating STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways in chronic myeloid leukemia and mastocytosis: possible new targets of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Siham; Arslanhan, Melis Dilara; Langenfeld, Florent; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Tchertanov, Luba; Moriggl, Richard; Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis are myeloid neoplasms sharing a number of pathogenetic and clinical features. In both conditions, an aberrantly activated oncoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity, namely BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia, and mutant KIT, mostly KIT D816V, in systemic mastocytosis, is key to disease evolution. The appreciation of the role of such tyrosine kinases in these diseases has led to the development of improved therapies with tyrosine kinase-targeted inhibitors. However, most drugs, including new KIT D816V-blocking agents, have failed to achieve long-lasting remissions in advanced systemic mastocytosis, and there is a similar problem in chronic myeloid leukemia, where imatinib-resistant patients sometimes fail to achieve remission, even with second- or third-line BCR-ABL1 specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. During disease progression, additional signaling pathways become activated in neoplastic cells, but most converge into major downstream networks. Among these, the AKT and STAT5 pathways appear most critical and may result in drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis. Inhibition of phosphorylation of these targets has proven their crucial role in disease-evolution in both malignancies. Together, these observations suggest that STAT5 and AKT are key drivers of oncogenesis in drug-resistant forms of the diseases, and that targeting STAT5 and AKT might be an interesting approach in these malignancies. The present article provides an overview of our current knowledge about the critical role of AKT and STAT5 in the pathophysiology of chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis and on their potential value as therapeutic targets in these neoplasms. PMID:24598853

  1. Regulation of Akt/PKB activity by P21-activated kinase in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kai; Kobayashi, Satoru; Jaffer, Zahara M; Huang, Yuan; Volden, Paul; Chernoff, Jonathan; Liang, Qiangrong

    2008-02-01

    Akt/PKB is a critical regulator of cardiac function and morphology, and its activity is governed by dual phosphorylation at active loop (Thr308) by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and at carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic motif (Ser473) by a putative PDK2. P21-activated kinase-1 (Pak1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and contractility and was shown previously to activate Akt through an undefined mechanism. Here we report Pak1 as a potential PDK2 that is essential for Akt activity in cardiomyocytes. Both Pak1 and Akt can be activated by multiple hypertrophic stimuli or growth factors in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Pak1 overexpression induces Akt phosphorylation at both Ser473 and Thr308 in cardiomyocytes. Conversely, silencing or inactivating Pak1 gene diminishes Akt phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Purified Pak1 can directly phosphorylate Akt only at Ser473, suggesting that Pak1 may be a relevant PDK2 responsible for AKT Ser473 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. In addition, Pak1 protects cardiomyocytes from cell death, which is blocked by Akt inhibition. Our results connect two important regulators of cellular physiological functions and provide a potential mechanism for Pak1 signaling in cardiomyocytes. PMID:18054038

  2. Sustained activation of Akt elicits mitochondrial dysfunction to block Plasmodium falciparum infection in the mosquito host.

    PubMed

    Luckhart, Shirley; Giulivi, Cecilia; Drexler, Anna L; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Price, Mark S; Eigenheer, Richard; Phinney, Brett S; Pakpour, Nazzy; Pietri, Jose E; Cheung, Kong; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d), energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3-5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial function in the

  3. Sustained Activation of Akt Elicits Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Block Plasmodium falciparum Infection in the Mosquito Host

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Anna L.; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Sakaguchi, Danielle; Napoli, Eleonora; Wong, Sarah; Price, Mark S.; Eigenheer, Richard; Phinney, Brett S.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Pietri, Jose E.; Cheung, Kong; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The overexpression of activated, myristoylated Akt in the midgut of female transgenic Anopheles stephensi results in resistance to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but also decreased lifespan. In the present study, the understanding of mitochondria-dependent midgut homeostasis has been expanded to explain this apparent paradox in an insect of major medical importance. Given that Akt signaling is essential for cell growth and survival, we hypothesized that sustained Akt activation in the mosquito midgut would alter the balance of critical pathways that control mitochondrial dynamics to enhance parasite killing at some cost to survivorship. Toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RNOS) rise to high levels in the midgut after blood feeding, due to a combination of high NO production and a decline in FOXO-dependent antioxidants. Despite an apparent increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in young females (3 d), energy deficiencies were apparent as decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased [AMP]/[ATP] ratios. In addition, mitochondrial mass was lower and accompanied by the presence of stalled autophagosomes in the posterior midgut, a critical site for blood digestion and stem cell-mediated epithelial maintenance and repair, and by functional degradation of the epithelial barrier. By 18 d, the age at which An. stephensi would transmit P. falciparum to human hosts, mitochondrial dysfunction coupled to Akt-mediated repression of autophagy/mitophagy was more evident and midgut epithelial structure was markedly compromised. Inhibition of RNOS by co-feeding of the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME at infection abrogated Akt-dependent killing of P. falciparum that begins within 18 h of infection in 3–5 d old mosquitoes. Hence, Akt-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics perturb midgut homeostasis to enhance parasite resistance and decrease mosquito infective lifespan. Further, quality control of mitochondrial function in the

  4. Restoration of Akt activity by the bisperoxovanadium compound bpV(pic) attenuates hippocampal apoptosis in experimental neonatal pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sury, Matthias D; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Agarinis, Claudia; Yousefi, Shida; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Christen, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis causes apoptosis of developing neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The death of these cells is accompanied with long-term learning and memory deficits in meningitis survivors. Here, we studied the role of the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) survival pathway in hippocampal apoptosis in a well-characterized infant rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Meningitis was accompanied by a significant decrease of the PI3K product phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) and of phosphorylated (i.e., activated) Akt in the hippocampus. At the cellular level, phosphorylated Akt was decreased in both the granular layer and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the region where the developing neurons undergo apoptosis. Protein levels and activity of PTEN, the major antagonist of PI3K, were unaltered by infection, suggesting that the observed decrease in PIP(3) and Akt phosphorylation is a result of decreased PI3K signaling. Treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV(pic) restored Akt activity and significantly attenuated hippocampal apoptosis. Co-treatment with the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the restoration of Akt activity and attenuation of hippocampal apoptosis, while it had no significant effect on these parameters on its own. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was mediated by PI3K-dependent activation of Akt, strongly suggesting that bpV(pic) acted on PTEN. Treatment with bpV(pic) also partially inhibited the concentration of bacteria and cytokines in the CSF, but this effect was not reversed by LY294002, indicating that the effect of bpV(pic) on apoptosis was independent of its effect on CSF bacterial burden and cytokine levels. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the death and survival of developing hippocampal neurons during the acute phase of pneumococcal meningitis.

  5. Cinobufagin inhibits tumor growth by inducing intrinsic apoptosis through AKT signaling pathway in human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangxin; Wang, Chao; Sun, Mei; Li, Jindong; Wang, Bin; Jin, Chengyan; Hua, Peiyan; Song, Ge; Zhang, Yifan; Nguyen, Lisa L.H.; Cui, Ranji; Liu, Runhua; Wang, Lizhong; Zhang, Xingyi

    2016-01-01

    The cinobufagin (CB) has a broad spectrum of cytotoxicity to inhibit cell proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Here we observed that CB inhibited the cell proliferation and tumor growth, but induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Treatment with CB significantly increased the reactive oxygen species but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in NSCLC cells. These effects were markedly blocked when the cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine, a specific reactive oxygen species inhibitor. Furthermore, treatment with CB induced the expression of BAX but reduced that of BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1, leading to an activation of caspase-3, chromatin condensation and DNA degradation in order to induce programmed cell death in NSCLC cells. In addition, treatment with CB reduced the expressions of p-AKTT308 and p-AKTS473 and inhibited the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in NSCLC cells in a time-dependent manner. Our results suggest that CB inhibits tumor growth by inducing intrinsic apoptosis through the AKT signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. PMID:26959116

  6. PDGF stimulation of Mueller cell proliferation: Contributions of c-JNK and the PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Sang Woong; Chung, Eun Jee; Jung, Sun-Ah; Lee, Joon H.

    2009-10-09

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has a critical role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) as a chemoattractant and mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and retinal glial cells. Here, we investigated the potential effects of PDGF on the proliferation of Mueller cells and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. PDGF induced Mueller cell proliferation and increased phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR), as shown by an MTT assay and immunoprecipitation analyses. Both effects were blocked by JNJ, a PDGFR-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of c-JNK and Akt. PDGF-induced Mueller cell proliferation was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with SP600125 and LY294002, inhibitors of c-JNK and Akt phosphorylation, respectively. Our findings collectively indicate that PDGF-stimulated Mueller cell proliferation occurs via activation of the c-JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These data provide useful information in establishing the role of Mueller cells in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  7. RES-529: a PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor that dissociates the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    RES-529 (previously named Palomid 529, P529) is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor that interferes with the pathway through both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) dissociation. This compound is currently being developed in oncology and ophthalmology. The oncology focus is for the treatment of glioblastoma, where it has received orphan designation by the US Food and Drug Administration, and prostate cancer. We present a review of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, its role in tumorigenesis, and the potential of RES-529 in cancer treatment. RES-529 inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2 activity in various cancer cell lines, as noted by decreased phosphorylation of substrates including ribosomal protein S6, 4E-BP1, and AKT, leading to cell growth inhibition and death, with activity generally in the range of 5–15 μmol/l. In animal tumor models where the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated (i.e. glioblastoma, prostate cancer, and breast cancer), RES-529 reduces tumor growth by as much as 78%. RES-529 treatment is synergistic with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy in reducing tumor growth, potentially by preventing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation associated with these treatments. Furthermore, this compound has shown antiangiogenic activity in several animal models. mTORC1 and mTORC2 have redundant and distinct activities that contribute toward oncogenesis. Current inhibitors of this pathway have primarily targeted mTORC1, but have shown limited clinical efficacy. Inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 such as RES-529 may therefore have the potential to overcome the deficiencies found in targeting only mTORC1. PMID:26918392

  8. α-2,8-Sialyltransferase Is Involved in the Development of Multidrug Resistance via PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Dong, Weijie; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Hongshuai; Wang, Ning; Miao, Xiaoyan; Jia, Li

    2015-02-01

    Cell surface sialylation is emerging as an important feature of cancer cell multidrug resistance (MDR). We have focused on the influence of 2,8-sialyltransferases in key steps of the development of MDR in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The expressional profiles of six α-2,8-sialyltransferases were generated in three pairs of CML cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of CML patients. Cellular MDR phenotype positively correlated with ST8SIA4 and ST8SIA6 levels. Furthermore, ST8SIA4 mediated the activity of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway by its specific inhibitor LY294002, or by Akt RNA interfering reversed the MDR phenotype of K562/ADR cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway also attenuated the effects caused by the overexpression of ST8SIA4 on MDR. Therefore this study indicated that α-2,8-sialyltransferases involved in the development of MDR of CML cells probably through ST8SIA4 regulating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp. PMID:25855199

  9. Endometrial stem cells repair injured endometrium and induce angiogenesis via AKT and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Lin, Xiaona; Dai, Yongdong; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Haiyan; Jiang, Yinshen; Zhang, Songying

    2016-11-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are common acquired endometrial syndromes secondary to endometrial injury, with limited effective therapies. Recently, several studies have reported that bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) could repair injured endometrium in animal experiments. However, the role of stem cells in endometrial injury repair and its therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we established mouse endometrial injury model and examined the benefit of human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells derived from menstrual blood (MenSCs) in restoration of injured endometrium. Injured endometrium exhibited significantly accelerated restoration at Day 7 after MenSCs transplantation, with increased endometrial thickness and microvessel density. Moreover, the fertility of mice with injured endometrium was improved, with higher conception rate (53.57% vs 14.29%, P = 0.014) and larger embryo number (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 0.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.030) in MenSCs group than control group, while no difference was found in undamaged horns between two groups. Conditioned medium from MenSCs (MenSCs-CM) could decrease H2O2-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and promote proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis effect of MenSCs-CM was also confirmed in Matrigel plug assay in mice. Furthermore, we discovered that MenSCs-CM could activate AKT and ERK pathways and induce the overexpression of eNOS, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and TIE2 in HUVECs, which are critical in MenSCs-CM-induced angiogenesis. Angiogenesis induced by MenSCs-CM could be reversed by inhibitors of AKT and/or ERK. Taken together, we concluded that MenSCs could restore injured endometrium and improve the fertility of the endometrial injury mice, which was partially attributed to angiogenesis induced by MenSCs. PMID:27486270

  10. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Bela; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Pant, Rima; Zhan, Lijun; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Secor, Eric R; Srivastava, Sapna; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Menon, Venugopal P; Otani, Hajime; Thrall, Roger S; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2008-03-01

    Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days. On day 16, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Br treatment showed higher left ventricular functional recovery throughout reperfusion compared with the controls [maximum rate of rise in intraventricular pressure (dP/dt max), 2,225 vs. 1,578 mmHg/s at 2 h reperfusion]. Aortic flow was also found to be increased in Br treatment when compared with that in untreated rats (11 vs. 1 ml). Furthermore, Br treatment reduced both the infarct size (34% vs. 43%) and the degree of apoptosis (28% vs. 37%) compared with the control animals. Western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of both Akt and FOXO3A in the treatment group compared with the control. These results demonstrated for the first time that Br triggers an Akt-dependent survival pathway in the heart, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotective action and a potential therapeutic target against I/R injury.

  11. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Bela; Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Pant, Rima; Zhan, Lijun; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Secor, Eric R.; Srivastava, Sapna; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Menon, Venugopal P.; Otani, Hajime; Thrall, Roger S.; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days. On day 16, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Br treatment showed higher left ventricular functional recovery throughout reperfusion compared with the controls [maximum rate of rise in intraventricular pressure (dP/dtmax), 2,225 vs. 1,578 mmHg/s at 2 h reperfusion]. Aortic flow was also found to be increased in Br treatment when compared with that in untreated rats (11 vs. 1 ml). Furthermore, Br treatment reduced both the infarct size (34% vs. 43%) and the degree of apoptosis (28% vs. 37%) compared with the control animals. Western blot analysis showed an increased phosphorylation of both Akt and FOXO3A in the treatment group compared with the control. These results demonstrated for the first time that Br triggers an Akt-dependent survival pathway in the heart, revealing a novel mechanism of cardioprotective action and a potential therapeutic target against I/R injury. PMID:18192224

  12. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  13. Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways.

  14. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK.

  15. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK. PMID:26614458

  16. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation.

  17. The inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells proliferation by arctigenin through G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest: persistent p27(Kip1) induction by interfering with PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Jun; Wu, Mingjun; Zhang, Xiaoxun; Zhang, Hongzhi

    2015-01-15

    Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is vital for the development of fibrosis during liver injury. In this study, we describe that arctigenin (ATG), a major bioactive component of Fructus Arctii, exhibited selective cytotoxic activity via inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-activated HSCs proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which could not be observed in normal human hepatocytes in vitro. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activities could be strongly inhibited by ATG through down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression in early G1 phase arrest. In the ATG-treated HSCs, the expression level of p27(Kip1) and the formation of CDK2-p27(Kip1) complex were also increased. p27(Kip1) silencing significantly attenuated the effect of ATG, including cell cycle arrest and suppression of proliferation in activated HSCs. We also found that ATG suppressed PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream transcription factor Forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a), decreased binding of FOXO3a to 14-3-3 protein, and stimulated nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in activated HSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of FOXO3a expression by FOXO3a siRNA attenuated ATG-induced up-regulation of p27(Kip1) in activated HSCs. All the above findings suggested that ATG could increase the levels of p27(Kip1) protein through inhibition of Akt and improvement of FOXO3a activity, in turn inhibited the CDK2 kinase activity, and eventually caused an overall inhibition of HSCs proliferation. PMID:25498792

  18. Ferulic acid inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis via blockage of PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Li, Hongzhong; Du, Weimin; Kuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a ubiquitous phenolic acid abundant in corn, wheat and flax, has potent anti-tumor effect in various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-tumor effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma remains unclear. Therefore, we conduct current study to examine the effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. In present study, ferulic acid inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells dose-dependently, indicated by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection. Additionally, ferulic acid induced G0/G1 phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related protein, CDK 2, CDK 4, CDK 6, confirmed by flow cytometry assay and western blotting. Moreover, ferulic acid upregulated Bax, downregulated Bcl-2, and subsequently enhanced caspase-3 activity. More importantly, ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited PI3K/Akt activation. Using adenoviruses expressing active Akt, the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis of ferulic acid were reverted. Our results demonstrated that ferulic acid might inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Ferulic acid is a novel therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma. PMID:27158383

  19. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKC{zeta} in neuronal survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Insil . E-mail: ijoung@hanseo.ac.kr; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim . E-mail: kimyh@khu.ac.kr

    2005-08-26

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but also to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKC{zeta} by association of p62 and PKC{zeta}, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation.

  20. Axl is essential for VEGF-A-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Guo-Xiang; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) engages the PI3K/Akt pathway by a previously unknown mechanism that involves three tyrosine kinases. Upon VEGF-A-dependent activation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and subsequent TSAd-mediated activation of Src family kinases (SFKs), SFKs engage the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl via its juxtamembrane domain to trigger ligand-independent autophosphorylation at a pair of YXXM motifs that promotes association with PI3K and activation of Akt. Other VEGF-A-mediated signalling pathways are independent of Axl. Interfering with Axl expression or function impairs VEGF-A- but not bFGF-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Similarly, Axl null mice respond poorly to VEGF-A-induced vascular permeability or angiogenesis, whereas other agonists induce a normal response. These results elucidate the mechanism by which VEGF-A activates PI3K/Akt, and identify previously unappreciated potential therapeutic targets of VEGF-A-driven processes. PMID:22327215