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Sample records for akt protein kinase

  1. Synthetic sulfoglycolipids targeting the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Dangate, Milind; Vetro, Maria; Donvito, Giulia; Gabrielli, Luca; Amigoni, Loredana; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Ceriani, Michela; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Cipolla, Laura; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Perego, Paola; Colombo, Diego

    2016-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a key component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR axis. Deregulated activation of this pathway is frequent in human tumors and Akt-dependent signaling appears to be critical in cell survival. PI3K activation generates 3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols that bind Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The blockage of Akt PH domain/phosphoinositides interaction represents a promising approach to interfere with the oncogenic potential of over-activated Akt. In the present study, phosphatidyl inositol mimics based on a β-glucoside scaffold have been synthesized as Akt inhibitors. The compounds possessed one or two lipophilic moieties of different length at the anomeric position of glucose, and an acidic or basic group at C-6. Docking studies, ELISA Akt inhibition assays, and cellular assays on different cell models highlighted 1-O-octadecanoyl-2-O-β-d-sulfoquinovopyranosyl-sn-glycerol as the best Akt inhibitor among the synthesized compounds, which could be considered as a lead for further optimization in the design of Akt inhibitors. PMID:27316541

  2. Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Aoki, Masahiro; Zheng, Jenny Z.; Li, Jian; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:10051597

  3. Protein kinase B/Akt1 inhibits autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonseok; Ju, Ji-hyun; Lee, Kyung-min; Nam, KeeSoo; Oh, Sunhwa; Shin, Incheol

    2013-02-01

    Autophagy, or autophagocytosis, is a selective intracellular degradative process involving the cell's own lysosomal apparatus. An essential component in cell development, homeostasis, repair and resistance to stress, autophagy may result in either cell death or survival. The targeted region of the cell is sequestered within a membrane structure, the autophagosome, for regulation of the catabolic process. A key factor in both autophagosome formation and autophagosome maturation is a protein encoded by the ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG). Conversely, the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), which regulates survival in various cancers, inhibits autophagy through mTOR activation. We found that Akt1 may also directly inhibit autophagy by down-regulating UVRAG both in a 293T transient transfection system and breast cancer cells stably expressing Akt1. The UVRAG with mutations at putative Akt1-phosphorylation sites were still inhibited by Akt1, and dominant-negative Akt1 also inhibited UVRAG expression, suggesting that Akt1 down-regulates UVRAG by a kinase activity-independent mechanism. We showed that Akt1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells down-regulated UVRAG transcription. Cells over-expressing Akt1 were more resistant than control cells to ultraviolet light-induced autophagy and exhibited the associated reduction in cell viability. Levels of the autophagosome indicator protein LC3B-II and mRFP-GFP-LC3 were reduced in cells that over-expressing Akt1. Inhibiting Akt1 by siRNA or reintroducing UVRAG gene rescued the level of LC3B-II in UV-irradiation. Altogether, these data suggest that Akt1 may inhibit autophagy by decreasing UVRAG expression, which also sensitizes cancer cells to UV irradiation.

  4. Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation by Distinct Subcellular Pools of Protein Kinase B (PKB/Akt)*

    PubMed Central

    Maiuri, Tamara; Ho, Jason; Stambolic, Vuk

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-PTEN signal transduction pathway orchestrates a variety of fundamental cell processes and its deregulation is implicated in many human diseases. Although the importance of this pathway to many cellular functions is well established, the mechanisms by which it achieves context-specific physiological outcomes in response to a variety of stimuli, using a relatively limited pool of effectors, remain largely unknown. Spatial restriction of signaling events is one means by which cells coordinate specific responses using common molecules. To investigate the subcellular location-specific roles of the major PI3K effector PKB/Akt in various cell processes, we have developed a novel experimental system employing cellular compartment-directed PKB/Akt pseudosubstrate inhibitors. Subcellular location-restricted PKB/Akt inhibition in the 3T3L1 adipocyte differentiation model revealed that nuclear and plasma membrane, but not cytoplasmic, PKB/Akt activity is required for terminal adipocyte differentiation. Nuclear and plasma membrane pools of PKB/Akt were found to contribute to distinct stages of adipocyte differentiation, revealing that PKB/Akt activity impacts multiple points of this program. Our work establishes the use of localized pseudosubstrate PKB/Akt inhibitors as an effective method for the dissection of PKB/Akt signaling. PMID:20223817

  5. Seasonal, tissue-specific regulation of Akt/protein kinase B and glycogen synthase in hibernators.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Kyle L; Hudachek, Susan F; Summers, Scott A; Florant, Gregory L

    2004-03-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) exhibit a circannual cycle of hyperphagia and nutrient storage in the summer followed by hibernation in the winter. This annual cycle of body mass gain and loss is primarily due to large-scale accumulation of lipid in the summer, which is then mobilized and oxidized for energy during winter. The rapid and predictable change in body mass makes these animals ideal for studies investigating the molecular basis for body weight regulation. In the study described herein, we monitored seasonal changes in the protein levels and activity of a central regulator of anabolic metabolism, the serine-threonine kinase Akt-protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), during the months accompanying maximal weight gain and entry into hibernation (June-November). Interestingly, under fasting conditions, Akt/PKB demonstrated a tissue-specific seasonal activation. Specifically, although Akt/PKB levels did not change, the activity of Akt/PKB (isoforms 1/alpha and 2/beta) in white adipose tissue (WAT) increased significantly in July. Moreover, glycogen synthase, which lies downstream of Akt/PKB on a linear pathway linking the enzyme to the stimulation of glycogen synthesis, demonstrated a similar pattern of seasonal activation. By contrast, Akt/PKB activity in skeletal muscle peaked much later (i.e., September). These data suggest the existence of a novel, tissue-specific mechanism regulating Akt/PKB activation during periods of marked anabolism. PMID:14656767

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for integrin-stimulated AKT and Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed Central

    King, W G; Mattaliano, M D; Chan, T O; Tsichlis, P N; Brugge, J S

    1997-01-01

    Cell attachment to fibronectin stimulates the integrin-dependent interaction of p85-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with integrin-dependent focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. However, it is not known if this PI 3-kinase-FAK interaction increases the synthesis of the 3-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3-PPIs) or what role, if any, is played by activated PI 3-kinase in integrin signaling. We demonstrate here the integrin-dependent accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products, PI 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, as well as activation of AKT kinase, a serine/threonine kinase that can be stimulated by binding of PI(3,4)P2. The PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased the integrin-induced accumulation of the 3-PPIs and activation of AKT kinase, without having significant effects on the levels of PI(4,5)P2 or tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin. These inhibitors also reduced cell adhesion/spreading onto fibronectin but had no effect on attachment to polylysine. Interestingly, integrin-mediated Erk-2, Mek-1, and Raf-1 activation, but not Ras-GTP loading, was inhibited at least 80% by wortmannin and LY294002. In support of the pharmacologic results, fibronectin activation of Erk-2 and AKT kinases was completely inhibited by overexpression of a dominant interfering p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. We conclude that integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin results in the accumulation of the PI 3-kinase products PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as the PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of the kinases Raf-1, Mek-1, Erk-2, and AKT and that PI 3-kinase may function upstream of Raf-1 but downstream of Ras in integrin activation of Erk-2 MAP and AKT kinases. PMID:9234699

  7. Akt1/protein kinase B enhances transcriptional reprogramming of fibroblasts to functional cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huanyu; Dickson, Matthew E.; Kim, Min Soo; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of fibroblasts to functional cardiomyocytes represents a potential approach for restoring cardiac function after myocardial injury, but the technique thus far has been slow and inefficient. To improve the efficiency of reprogramming fibroblasts to cardiac-like myocytes (iCMs) by cardiac transcription factors [Gata4, Hand2, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GHMT)], we screened 192 protein kinases and discovered that Akt/protein kinase B dramatically accelerates and amplifies this process in three different types of fibroblasts (mouse embryo, adult cardiac, and tail tip). Approximately 50% of reprogrammed mouse embryo fibroblasts displayed spontaneous beating after 3 wk of induction by Akt plus GHMT. Furthermore, addition of Akt1 to GHMT evoked a more mature cardiac phenotype for iCMs, as seen by enhanced polynucleation, cellular hypertrophy, gene expression, and metabolic reprogramming. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) acted upstream of Akt whereas the mitochondrial target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and forkhead box o3 (Foxo3a) acted downstream of Akt to influence fibroblast-to-cardiomyocyte reprogramming. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of cardiac reprogramming and represent an important step toward further application of this technique. PMID:26354121

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Analogues of AKT (Protein Kinase B) Inhibitor-IV

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Wu, Runzhi; Cai, Sutang; Lin, Yuan; Sellers, Llewlyn; Sakamoto, Kaori; He, Biao; Peterson, Blake R.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitors of the PI3-kinase/AKT (protein kinase B) pathway are under investigation as anticancer and antiviral agents. The benzimidazole derivative AKT inhibitor-IV (ChemBridge 5233705) affects this pathway and exhibits potent anticancer and antiviral activity. To probe its biological activity, we synthesized AKT inhibitor-IV and 21 analogues using a novel six-step route based on ZrCl4-catalyzed cyclization of 1,2-arylenediamines with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. We examined effects on viability of HeLa carcinoma cells, viability of normal human cells (NHBE), replication of recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) in HeLa cells, and replication of the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium fortuitum in HeLa cells. Replacement of the benzimidazole N-ethyl substitutent of AKT inhibitor-IV with N-hexyl and N-dodecyl groups enhanced antiviral activity and cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line, but these compounds showed substantially lower toxicity (from 6-fold to >20-fold) against NHBE cells, and no effect on M. fortuitum, suggesting inhibition of one or more host protein(s) required for proliferation of cancer cells and PIV5. The key structural elements identified here may facilitate identification of targets of this highly biologically active scaffold. PMID:21319800

  9. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  10. Isoform-specific regulation of adipocyte differentiation by Akt/protein kinase B{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Sung-Ji; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Tucker, David F.; Kim, Chi Dae; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Bae, Sun Sik

    2008-06-20

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway tightly regulates adipose cell differentiation. Here we show that loss of Akt1/PKB{alpha} in primary mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells results in a defect of adipocyte differentiation. Adipocyte differentiation in vitro and ex vivo was restored in cells lacking both Akt1/PKB{alpha} and Akt2/PKB{beta} by ectopic expression of Akt1/PKB{alpha} but not Akt2/PKB{beta}. Akt1/PKB{alpha} was found to be the major regulator of phosphorylation and nuclear export of FoxO1, whose presence in the nucleus strongly attenuates adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation-induced cell division was significantly abrogated in Akt1/PKB{alpha}-deficient cells, but was restored after forced expression of Akt1/PKB{alpha}. Moreover, expression of p27{sup Kip1}, an inhibitor of the cell cycle, was down regulated in an Akt1/PKB{alpha}-specific manner during adipocyte differentiation. Based on these data, we suggest that the Akt1/PKB{alpha} isoform plays a major role in adipocyte differentiation by regulating FoxO1 and p27{sup Kip1}.

  11. Avian reovirus σA and σNS proteins activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Zeng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to identify avian reovirus (ARV) proteins that can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Akt pathway. Based on ARV protein amino acid sequence analysis, σA, σNS, μA, μB and μNS were identified as putative proteins capable of mediating PI3K/Akt pathway activation. The recombinant plasmids σA-pcAGEN, σNS-pcAGEN, μA-pcAGEN, μB-pcAGEN and μNS-pcAGEN were constructed and used to transfect Vero cells, and the expression levels of the corresponding genes were quantified by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) levels in the transfected cells were measured by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The results showed that the σA, σNS, μA, μB and μNS genes were expressed in Vero cells. σA-expressing and σNS-expressing cells had higher P-Akt levels than negative control cells, pcAGEN-expressing cells and cells designed to express other proteins (i.e., μA, μB and μNS). Pre-treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited Akt phosphorylation in σA- and σNS-expressing cells. These results indicate that the σA and σNS proteins can activate the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:27233800

  12. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  13. Acid sphingomyelinase regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes through AKT activation and AMP-activated protein kinase suppression

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yosuke; Seki, Ekihiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi; Adachi, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Shiratori, Yoshimune; Banno, Yoshiko; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Nagaki, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Brenner, David A.; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) regulates the homeostasis of sphingolipids, including ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Because sphingolipids regulate AKT activation, we investigated the role of ASM in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Initially, we overexpressed ASM in the livers of wild-type and diabetic db/db mice by adenovirus vector (Ad5ASM). In these mice, glucose tolerance was improved, and glycogen and lipid accumulation in the liver were increased. Using primary cultured hepatocytes, we confirmed that ASM increased glucose uptake, glycogen deposition, and lipid accumulation through activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. In addition, ASM induced up-regulation of glucose transporter 2 accompanied by suppression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Loss of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) diminished ASM-mediated AKT phosphorylation, but exogenous S1P induced AKT activation in hepatocytes. In contrast, SphK1 deficiency did not affect AMPK activation. These results suggest that the SphK/S1P pathway is required for ASM-mediated AKT activation but not for AMPK inactivation. Finally, we found that treatment with high-dose glucose increased glycogen deposition and lipid accumulation in wild-type hepatocytes but not in ASM−/− cells. This result is consistent with glucose intolerance in ASM−/− mice. In conclusion, ASM modulates AKT activation and AMPK inactivation, thus regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver.—Osawa, Y., Seki, E., Kodama, Y., Suetsugu, A., Miura, K., Adachi, M., Ito, H., Shiratori, Y., Banno, Y., Olefsky, J. M., Nagaki, M., Moriwaki, H., Brenner, D. A., Seishima, M. Acid sphingomyelinase regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in hepatocytes through AKT activation and AMP-activated protein kinase suppression. PMID:21163859

  14. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  15. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee; Chung, Jin Woong

    2012-10-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  16. Cross regulation between cGMP-dependent protein kinase and Akt in vasodilatation of porcine pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Huixia; Li, Yanjing; Xu, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhengju; Liu, Limei; Yu, Xiaoxing; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2014-11-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) plays a crucial role in vasodilatation induced by cGMP-elevating agents. Akt has been demonstrated to be involved in modulating vasoreactivity. The present study was to determine the interaction between PKG and Akt and their influences on nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasodilatation. Isolated fourth-generation porcine pulmonary arteries were dissected from the lung and cut into rings in ice-cold modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. The relaxant responses of vessels were determined by organ chamber technique, cGMP was assayed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt were examined by Western blotting, and the activity of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) was assayed by measuring the rate of cGMP degradation. Incubation with DETA NONOate (a stable NO donor) and 8-Br-cGMP (a cell membrane permeable analog of cGMP) attenuated Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473, which was prevented by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (a specific inhibitor of PKG) and calyculin A (an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A) but not by okadaic acid (a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A). Inhibition of Akt enhanced the relaxation and cGMP elevation of porcine pulmonary arteries induced by DETA NONOate or sodium nitroprusside, which was prevented by zaprinast, a specific inhibitor of PDE5. Incubation with LY294002 or Akt inhibitor reduced PDE5 activity in porcine pulmonary arteries. The present study indicates that PKG may attenuate Akt phosphorylation through protein phosphatase 1, which leads to an augmented cGMP elevation by inhibition of PDE5. The increased cGMP in turn activates PKG. Such a positive feedback may play an important role in NO-induced pulmonary vasodilatation. PMID:24977346

  17. Protein kinase B/Akt: a nexus of growth factor and cytokine signaling in determining muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Frost, Robert A; Lang, Charles H

    2007-07-01

    Although the boundaries of skeletal muscle size are fundamentally determined by genetics, this dynamic tissue also demonstrates great plasticity in response to environmental and hormonal factors. Recent work indicates that contractile activity, nutrients, growth factors, and cytokines all contribute to determining muscle mass. Muscle responds not only to endocrine hormones but also to the autocrine production of growth factors and cytokines. Skeletal muscle synthesizes anabolic growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and potentially inhibitory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and myostatin. These self-regulating inputs in turn influence muscle metabolism, including the use of nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. These changes are principally achieved by altering the activity of the protein kinase known as protein kinase B or Akt. Akt plays a central role in integrating anabolic and catabolic responses by transducing growth factor and cytokine signals via changes in the phosphorylation of its numerous substrates. Activation of Akt stimulates muscle hypertrophy and antagonizes the loss of muscle protein. Here we review the many signals that funnel through Akt to alter muscle mass. PMID:17332274

  18. Targeting cytosolic phospholipase A2 α in colorectal cancer cells inhibits constitutively activated protein kinase B (AKT) and cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chanlu; Hua, Sheng; Li, Jianfang; Wang, Tingfeng; Yao, Mu; Vignarajan, Soma; Teng, Ying; Hejazi, Leila; Liu, Bingya; Dong, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive activation of protein kinase B (AKT) in a hyper-phosphorylated status at Ser473 is one of the hallmarks of anti-EGFR therapy-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to examine the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) on AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with mutation in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was resistant to EGF stimulation in CRC cell lines of DLD-1 (PIK3CAE545K mutation) and HT-29 (PIK3CAP499T mutation). Over-expression of cPLA2α by stable transfection increased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in DLD-1 cells. In contrast, silencing of cPLA2α with siRNA or inhibition with Efipladib decreased basal and EGF-stimulated AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in HT-29. Treating animals transplanted with DLD-1 with Efipladib (10 mg/kg, i.p. daily) over 14 days reduced xenograft growth by >90% with a concomitant decrease in AKT phosphorylation. In human CRC tissue, cPLA2α expression and phosphorylation were increased in 63% (77/120) compared with adjacent normal mucosa determined by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that cPLA2α is required for sustaining AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and cell proliferation in CRC cells with PI3K mutation, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of CRC resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. PMID:25365190

  19. Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates SYK activity and shuttling through 14-3-3 and importin 7.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Nore, Beston F; Gustafsson, Manuela O; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-09-01

    The Protein kinase B (AKT) regulates a plethora of intracellular signaling proteins to fine-tune signaling of multiple pathways. Here, we found that following B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase SYK and the adaptor BLNK, the AKT/PKB enzyme strongly induced BLNK (>100-fold) and SYK (>100-fold) serine/threonine phosphorylation (pS/pT). Increased phosphorylation promoted 14-3-3 binding to BLNK (37-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold) in a pS/pT-concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrated that the AKT inhibitor MK2206 reduced pS/pT of both BLNK (3-fold) and SYK (2.5-fold). Notably, the AKT phosphatase, PHLPP2 maintained the activating phosphorylation of BLNK at Y84 and increased protein stability (8.5-fold). In addition, 14-3-3 was required for the regulation SYK's interaction with BLNK and attenuated SYK binding to Importin 7 (5-fold), thereby perturbing shuttling to the nucleus. Moreover, 14-3-3 proteins also sustained tyrosine phosphorylation of SYK and BLNK. Furthermore, substitution of S295 or S297 for alanine abrogated SYK's binding to Importin 7. SYK with S295A or S297A replacements showed intense pY525/526 phosphorylation, and BLNK pY84 phosphorylation correlated with the SYK pY525/526 phosphorylation level. Conversely, the corresponding mutations to aspartic acid in SYK reduced pY525/526 phosphorylation. Collectively, these and previous results suggest that AKT and 14-3-3 proteins down-regulate the activity of several BCR-associated components, including BTK, BLNK and SYK and also inhibit SYK's interaction with Importin 7. PMID:27381982

  20. Akt kinase-interacting protein1, a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer with EGFR-activating and gatekeeper mutations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Takeuchi, S; Fujita, N; Nakamura, A; Wang, W; Li, Q; Oda, M; Mitsudomi, T; Yatabe, Y; Sekido, Y; Yoshida, J; Higashiyama, M; Noguchi, M; Uehara, H; Nishioka, Y; Sone, S; Yano, S

    2013-09-12

    Despite initial dramatic response, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancer patients always acquire resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent genetic alteration underlying acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, and EGFR mutant lung cancer cells are reported to be addictive to EGFR/Akt signaling even after acquired T790M mutation. Here, we focused on Akt kinase-interacting protein1 (Aki1), a scaffold protein of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/PDK1 (3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase)/Akt that determines receptor signal selectivity for non-mutated EGFR, and assessed its role in EGFR mutant lung cancer with or without gatekeeper T790M mutation. Cell line-based assays showed that Aki1 constitutively associates with mutant EGFR in lung cancer cells with (H1975) or without (PC-9 and HCC827) T790M gatekeeper mutation. Silencing of Aki1 induced apoptosis of EGFR mutant lung cancer cells. Treatment with Aki1 siRNA dramatically inhibited growth of H1975 cells in a xenograft model. Moreover, silencing of Aki1 further potentiated growth inhibitory effect of new generation EGFR-TKIs against H1975 cells in vitro. Aki1 was frequently expressed in tumor cells of EGFR mutant lung cancer patients (53/56 cases), including those with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment (7/7 cases). Our data suggest that Aki1 may be a critical mediator of survival signaling from mutant EGFR to Akt, and may therefore be an ideal target for EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, especially those with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance due to EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation. PMID:23045273

  1. Protein kinase Cδ regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression via Akt activation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Neetu; Wedgwood, Stephen; Black, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explore the roles of the delta isoform of PKC (PKCδ) in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells isolated from fetal lambs (FPAECs). Pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ with either rottlerin or with the peptide, δV1-1, acutely attenuated NO production, and this was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 (S1177). The chronic effects of PKCδ inhibition using either rottlerin or the overexpression of a dominant negative PKCδ mutant included the downregulation of eNOS gene expression that was manifested by a decrease in both eNOS promoter activity and protein expression after 24 h of treatment. We also found that PKCδ inhibition blunted Akt activation as observed by a reduction in phosphorylated Akt at position Ser473. Thus, we conclude that PKCδ is actively involved in the activation of Akt. To determine the effect of Akt on eNOS signaling, we overexpressed a dominant negative mutant of Akt and determined its effect of NO generation, eNOS expression, and phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177. Our results demonstrated that Akt inhibition was associated with decreased NO production that correlated with reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at S1177, and decreased eNOS promoter activity. We next evaluated the effect of endogenously produced NO on eNOS expression by incubating FPAECs with the eNOS inhibitor 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETU). ETU significantly inhibited NO production, eNOS promoter activity, and eNOS protein levels. Together, our data indicate involvement of PKCδ-mediated Akt activation and NO generation in maintaining eNOS expression. PMID:18192589

  2. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  3. Protein Kinase B (AKT) Mediates Phospholipase D Activation via ERK1/2 and Promotes Respiratory Burst Parameters in Formylpeptide-stimulated Neutrophil-like HL-60 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Satyananda; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Raoul-Des-Essarts, Yannick; Dang, Pham My-Chan; El-Benna, Jamel; Périanin, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), a major source of lipid second messengers (phosphatidic acid, diglycerides) in many cell types, is tightly regulated by protein kinases, but only a few of them have been identified. We show here that protein kinase B (AKT) is a novel major signaling effector of PLD activity induced by the formylpeptide f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells (dHL-60 cells). AKT inhibition with the selective antagonist AKTib1/2 almost completely prevented fMLP-mediated activity of PLD, its upstream effector ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK. Immunoprecipitation studies show that phosphorylated AKT, ERK, and PLD2 form a complex induced by fMLP, which can be prevented by AKTib1/2. In cell-free systems, AKT1 stimulated PLD activity via activation of ERK. AKT1 actually phosphorylated ERK2 as a substrate (Km 1 μm). Blocking AKT activation with AKTib1/2 also prevented fMLP- but not phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-mediated NADPH oxidase activation (respiratory burst, RB) of dHL-60 cells. Impaired RB was associated with defective membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase components p67phox and p47phox, ERK, AKT1, AKT2, but not AKT3. Depletion of AKT1 or AKT2 with antisense oligonucleotides further indicates a partial contribution of both isoforms in fMLP-induced activation of ERK, PLD, and RB, with a predominant role of AKT1. Thus, formylpeptides induce sequential activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and PLD, which represents a novel signaling pathway. A major primarily role of this AKT signaling pathway also emerges in membrane recruitment of NOX2 components p47phox, p67phox, and ERK, which may contribute to assembly and activation of the RB motor system, NADPH oxidase. PMID:20693286

  4. Antioxidant administration attenuates mechanical ventilation-induced rat diaphragm muscle atrophy independent of protein kinase B (PKB Akt) signalling.

    PubMed

    McClung, J M; Kavazis, A N; Whidden, M A; DeRuisseau, K C; Falk, D J; Criswell, D S; Powers, S K

    2007-11-15

    Oxidative stress promotes controlled mechanical ventilation (MV)-induced diaphragmatic atrophy. Nonetheless, the signalling pathways responsible for oxidative stress-induced muscle atrophy remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress down-regulates insulin-like growth factor-1-phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B serine threonine kinase (IGF-1-PI3K-Akt) signalling and activates the forkhead box O (FoxO) class of transcription factors in diaphragm fibres during MV-induced diaphragm inactivity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of five experimental groups: (1) control (Con), (2) 6 h of MV, (3) 6 h of MV with infusion of the antioxidant Trolox, (4) 18 h of MV, (5) 18 h of MV with Trolox. Following 6 h and 18 h of MV, diaphragmatic Akt activation decreased in parallel with increased nuclear localization and transcriptional activation of FoxO1 and decreased nuclear localization of FoxO3 and FoxO4, culminating in increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, muscle atrophy factor (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1). Interestingly, following 18 h of MV, antioxidant administration was associated with attenuation of MV-induced atrophy in type I, type IIa and type IIb/IIx myofibres. Collectively, these data reveal that the antioxidant Trolox attenuates MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy independent of alterations in Akt regulation of FoxO transcription factors and expression of MAFbx or MuRF-1. Further, these results also indicate that differential regulation of diaphragmatic IGF-1-PI3K-Akt signalling exists during the early and late stages of MV. PMID:17916612

  5. AKT serine/threonine protein kinase modulates baicalin-triggered autophagy in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Michael T; Peng, Shu-Fen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lee, Miau-Rong; Amagaya, Sakae; Huang, Wen-Wen; Wu, Tian-Shung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-03-01

    Baicalin is one of the major compounds in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell autophagy induced by baicalin in human bladder cancer T24 cells. Baicalin inhibited cell survival as shown by MTT assay and increased cell death by trypan blue exclusion assay in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalin did not induce apoptotic cell death in T24 cells by TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay. Baicalin induced the acidic vesicular organelle cell autophagy marker, manifested by acridine orange (AO) and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). The protein expression levels of the Atg 5, Atg 7, Atg 12, Beclin-1 and LC3-II were upregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyl-adenine (an inhibitor of class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; 3-MA) reduced the cleavage of LC3 in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. Furthermore, protein expression levels of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and enzyme activity of AKT were downregulated in T24 cells after baicalin treatment. In conclusion, baicalin triggered cell autophagy through the AKT signaling pathway in T24 cells. PMID:23354080

  6. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase at Ser1179 by Akt-independent mechanisms: role of protein kinase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George; Boyd, Nolan; Shiojima, Ichiro; Walsh, Kenneth; Du, Jie; Jo, Hanjoong

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that shear stress stimulates NO(*) production by the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt)-dependent mechanisms in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) (Go, Y. M., Boo, Y. C., Park, H., Maland, M. C., Patel, R., Pritchard, K. A., Jr., Fujio, Y., Walsh, K., Darley-Usmar, V., and Jo, H. (2001) J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 1574-1581). Akt has been believed to regulate shear-dependent production of NO(*) by directly phosphorylating endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) at the Ser(1179) residue (eNOS-S(1179)), but a critical evaluation using specific inhibitors or dominant negative mutants (Akt(AA) or Akt(AAA)) has not been reported. In addition, other kinases, including protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP kinase have also shown to phosphorylate eNOS-S(1179). Here, we show that shear-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) is mediated by an Akt-independent, but a PKA-dependent, mechanism. Expression of Akt(AA) or Akt(AAA) in BAEC by using recombinant adenoviral constructs inhibited phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) if cells were stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not by shear stress. As shown before, expression of Akt(AA) inhibited shear-dependent NO(*) production, suggesting that Akt is still an important regulator in NO production. Further studies showed that a selective inhibitor of PKA, H89, inhibited shear-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) and NO(*) production. In contrast, H89 did not inhibit phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) induced by expressing a constitutively active Akt mutant (Akt(Myr)) in BAEC, showing that the inhibitor did not affect the Akt pathway. 8-Bromo-cAMP alone phosphorylated eNOS-S(1179) within 5 min without activating Akt, in an H89-sensitive manner. Collectively, these results demonstrate that shear stimulates phosphorylation of eNOS-S(1179) in a PKA-dependent, but Aktindependent manner, whereas the NO(*) production is regulated by the mechanisms dependent on both PKA and Akt. A coordinated interaction

  7. Activation of AKT negatively regulates the pro-apoptotic function of death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Trinath P; Suman, Suman; Papu John, A M Sashi; Pal, Deeksha; Edwards, Angelena; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2016-07-28

    The activation of AKT governs many signaling pathways and promotes cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in human malignancies including prostate cancer (CaP). Here, we investigated the molecular association between AKT activation and the function of death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) in CaP. An inverse correlation of pAKT and DAPK3 expression was seen in a panel of CaP cell lines. Inhibition of AKT by wortmannin/LY294002 or overexpression of DAPK3 reverts the proliferative function of AKT in CaP cells. On the other hand, ectopic expression of AKT inhibited DAPK3 function and induced proliferation of CaP cells. In addition, AKT over-expressed tumors exhibit aggressive growth when compared to control vector in xenograft models. The immunohistochemistry results revealed a down-regulation of DAPK3 expression in AKT over-expressed tumors as compared to control tumors. Finally, we examined the expression pattern of AKT and DAPK3 in human CaP specimens - the expected gradual increase and nuclear localization of pAKT was seen in higher Gleason score samples versus benign hyperplasia (BPH). On the contrary, reduced expression of DAPK3 was seen in higher Gleason stages versus BPH. This suggests that inhibition of DAPK3 may be a contributing factor to the carcinogenesis of the prostate. Understanding the mechanism by which AKT negatively regulates DAPK3 function may suggest whether DAPK3 can be a therapeutic target for CaP. PMID:27126362

  8. A computational model on the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in heregulin-induced ErbB signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kimura, Shuhei; Naka, Takashi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Yumoto, Noriko; Ichikawa, Mio; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Saito, Kazuki; Saeki, Mihoro; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Konagaya, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors mediate mitogenic signal cascade by binding a variety of ligands and recruiting the different cassettes of adaptor proteins. In the present study, we examined heregulin (HRG)-induced signal transduction of ErbB4 receptor and found that the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway negatively regulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade by phosphorylating Raf-1 on Ser(259). As the time-course kinetics of Akt and ERK activities seemed to be transient and complex, we constructed a mathematical simulation model for HRG-induced ErbB4 receptor signalling to explain the dynamics of the regulation mechanism in this signal transduction cascade. The model reflected well the experimental results observed in HRG-induced ErbB4 cells and in other modes of growth hormone-induced cell signalling that involve Raf-Akt cross-talk. The model suggested that HRG signalling is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A as well as Raf-Akt cross-talk, and protein phosphatase 2A modulates the kinase activity in both the PI3K-Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways. PMID:12691603

  9. Akt/Protein kinase B is required for lymphatic network formation, remodeling, and valve development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Chang, Zai; Zhang, Luqing; Hong, Young-Kwon; Shen, Bin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Lu, Guangming; Tvorogov, Denis; Alitalo, Kari; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou; He, Yulong

    2010-10-01

    Akt-mediated signaling plays an important role in blood vascular development. In this study, we investigated the role of Akt in lymphatic growth using Akt-deficient mice. First, we found that lymphangiogenesis occurred in Akt1(-/-), Akt2(-/-), and Akt3(-/-) mice. However, both the diameter and endothelial cell number of lymphatic capillaries were significantly less in Akt1(-/-) mice than in wild-type control mice, whereas there was only a slight change in Akt2(-/-) and Akt3(-/-) mice. Second, valves present in the small collecting lymphatics in the superficial dermal layer of the ear skin were rarely observed in Akt1(-/-) mice, although these valves could be detected in the large collecting lymphatics in the deep layer of the skin tissues. A fluorescence microlymphangiography assay showed that the skin lymphatic network in Akt1(-/-) mice was functional but abnormal as shown by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran draining. There was an uncharacteristic enlargement of collecting lymphatic vessels, and further analysis showed that smooth muscle cell coverage of collecting lymphatic vessels became much more sparse in Akt1-deficient mice than in wild-type control animals. Finally, we showed that lymphatic vessels were detected in compound Akt-null mice and that lymphangiogenesis could be induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-C delivered via adenoviral vectors in adult mice lacking Akt1. These results indicate that despite the compensatory roles of other Akt isoforms, Akt1 is more critically required during lymphatic development. PMID:20724596

  10. SRPK1 and Akt Protein Kinases Phosphorylate the RS Domain of Lamin B Receptor with Distinct Specificity: A Combined Biochemical and In Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakaki, Eleni; Vlassi, Metaxia; Giannakouros, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Activated Akt has been previously implicated in acting on RS domain-containing proteins. However, it has been questioned whether its action is direct or it is mediated by co-existing SR kinase activity. To address this issue we studied in detail the phosphorylation of Lamin B Receptor (LBR) by Akt. Using synthetic peptides and a set of recombinant proteins expressing mutants of the LBR RS domain we now demonstrate that while all serines of the RS domain represent more or less equal phosphoacceptor sites for SRPK1, Ser80 and Ser82 are mainly targeted by Akt. 3D-modeling combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that amongst short, overlapping LBR RS-containing peptides complying with the minimum Akt recognition consensus sequence, only those bearing phosphosites either at Ser80 or Ser82 are able to fit into the active site of Akt, at least as effectively as its known substrate, GSK3-β. Combined our results provide evidence that Akt kinases directly phosphorylate an RS domain-containing protein and that both the residues N-terminal the phosphosite and at position +1 are essential for Akt specificity, with the latter substrate position being compatible with the arginine residue of RS-repeats. PMID:27105349

  11. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  12. E6 variants of human papillomavirus 18 differentially modulate the protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (akt/PI3K) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2009-01-05

    Intra-type genome variations of high risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) have been associated with a differential threat for cervical cancer development. In this work, the effect of HPV18 E6 isolates in Akt/PKB and Mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways and its implication in cell proliferation were analyzed. E6 from HPV types 16 and 18 are able to bind and promote degradation of Human disc large (hDlg). Our results show that E6 variants differentially modulate hDlg degradation, rebounding in levels of activated PTEN and PKB. HPV18 E6 variants are also able to upregulate phospho-PI3K protein, strongly correlating with activated MAPKs and cell proliferation. Data was supported by the effect of E6 silencing in HPV18-containing HeLa cells, as well as hDlg silencing in the tested cells. Results suggest that HPV18 intra-type variations may derive in differential abilities to activate cell-signaling pathways such as Akt/PKB and MAPKs, directly involved in cell survival and proliferation.

  13. Gender differences in cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in adult rat hearts: focus on Akt and protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soochan; Zhang, Lubo

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the sex differences in heart susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the mechanisms are not understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that Akt and protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon play an important role in the sexual dimorphism of heart susceptibility to I/R injury. Isolated hearts from 2-month-old male and female rats were subjected to I/R in the Langendorff preparation. The postischemic recovery of left ventricular function was significantly better, and infarct size was significantly smaller in female (37.1 +/- 1.9%) than in male (48.3 +/- 2.3%) hearts after 25-min ischemia followed by 2-h reperfusion. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway by wortmannin or PKC by chelerythrine chloride before ischemia significantly reduced postischemic recovery and increased infarct size in female but not male hearts. There were no differences in myocardial protein levels of heat shock protein 70, Akt, and PKCepsilon, respectively, between male and female rats. However, the ratio of phosphorylated (p)-Akt/Akt (0.58 +/- 0.05 versus 0.22 +/- 0.04; P < 0.05) and p-PKCepsilon/PKCepsilon (0.35 +/- 0.03 versus 0.22 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05) was significantly higher in female than in male hearts. In addition, there were significant increases in p-Akt and p-PKCepsilon levels during reperfusion in female but not in male hearts. The results suggest that increased p-Akt and p-PKCepsilon levels in female hearts contribute to the gender-related differences in heart susceptibility to I/R and play an important role in cardioprotection against I/R injury in females. PMID:16099927

  14. Distinct Time Course of the Decrease in Hepatic AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Akt Phosphorylation in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Okubo, Hirofumi; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Monzen, Yuko; Kishimoto, Rui; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Asano, Tomoichiro; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in insulin resistance, which is characterized by the impairment of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway. However, the time course of the decrease in AMPK and Akt phosphorylation in the liver during the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by feeding a high fat diet (HFD) remains controversial. Moreover, it is unclear whether the impairment of AMPK and Akt signaling pathways is reversible when changing from a HFD to a standard diet (SD). Male ddY mice were fed the SD or HFD for 3 to 28 days, or fed the HFD for 14 days, followed by the SD for 14 days. We examined the time course of the expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPK and Akt in the liver by immunoblotting. After 3 days of feeding on the HFD, mice gained body weight, resulting in an increased oil red O staining, indicative of hepatic lipid accumulation, and significantly decreased AMPK phosphorylation, in comparison with mice fed the SD. After 14 days on the HFD, systemic insulin resistance occurred and Akt phosphorylation significantly decreased. Subsequently, a change from the HFD to SD for 3 days, after 14 days on the HFD, ameliorated the impairment of AMPK and Akt phosphorylation and systemic insulin resistance. Our findings indicate that AMPK phosphorylation decreases early upon feeding a HFD and emphasizes the importance of prompt lifestyle modification for decreasing the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:26266809

  15. Rho GTPase/Rho Kinase Negatively Regulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation through the Inhibition of Protein Kinase B/Akt in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xiu-Fen; Viswambharan, Hema; Barandier, Christine; Ruffieux, Jean; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Rusconi, Sandro; Yang, Zhihong

    2002-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis by production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelial cells. It can be activated by protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt via phosphorylation at Ser-1177. We are interested in the role of Rho GTPase/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in regulation of eNOS expression and activation. Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we show here that both active RhoA and ROCK not only downregulate eNOS gene expression as reported previously but also inhibit eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and cellular NO production with concomitant suppression of PKB activation. Moreover, coexpression of a constitutive active form of PKB restores the phosphorylation but not gene expression of eNOS in the presence of active RhoA. Furthermore, we show that thrombin inhibits eNOS phosphorylation, as well as expression via Rho/ROCK pathway. Expression of the active PKB reverses eNOS phosphorylation but has no effect on downregulation of eNOS expression induced by thrombin. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Rho/ROCK pathway negatively regulates eNOS phosphorylation through inhibition of PKB, whereas it downregulates eNOS expression independent of PKB. PMID:12446767

  16. Akt1 binds focal adhesion kinase via the Akt1 kinase domain independently of the pleckstrin homology domain.

    PubMed

    Basson, M D; Zeng, B; Wang, S

    2015-10-01

    Akt1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are protein kinases that play key roles in normal cell signaling. Individually, aberrant expression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Together, Akt1/FAK interactions facilitate cancer metastasis by increasing cell adhesion under conditions of increased extracellular pressure. Pathological and iatrogenic sources of pressure arise from tumor growth against constraining stroma or direct perioperative manipulation. We previously reported that 15 mmHg increased extracellular pressure causes Akt1 to both directly interact with FAK and to phosphorylate and activate it. We investigated the nature of the Akt1/FAK binding by creating truncations of recombinant FAK, conjugated to glutathione S-transferase (GST), to pull down full-length Akt1. Western blots probing for Akt1 showed that FAK/Akt1 binding persisted in FAK truncations consisting of only amino acids 1-126, FAK(NT1), which contains the F1 subdomain of its band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin (FERM) domain. Using FAK(NT1) as bait, we then pulled down truncated versions of recombinant Akt1 conjugated to HA (human influenza hemagglutinin). Probes for GST-FAK(NT1) showed Akt1-FAK binding to occur in the absence of the both the Akt1 (N)-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and its adjacent hinge region. The Akt1 (C)-terminal regulatory domain was equally unnecessary for Akt1/FAK co-immunoprecipitation. Truncations involving the Akt1 catalytic domain showed that the domain by itself was enough to pull down FAK. Additionally, a fragment spanning from the PH domain to half way through the catalytic domain demonstrated increased FAK binding compared to full length Akt1. These results begin to delineate the Akt1/FAK interaction and can be used to manipulate their force-activated signal interactions. Furthermore, the finding that the N-terminal half of the Akt1 catalytic domain binds so strongly to FAK when cleaved from the rest of the protein may suggest a means

  17. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) protects cells against cold-shock-induced apoptosis by maintaining phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dale; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Osorio, Nelson; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2015-10-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) blocks apoptosis and inhibits caspase-3 activation. We previously showed that serum starvation (removal of serum from tissue culture media), which takes several days to induce apoptosis, results in decreased levels of both AKT (protein kinase B) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cells not expressing LAT. In contrast in mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing LAT, AKT, and pAKT levels remained high. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase that promotes cell survival. To examine the effect of LAT on AKT-pAKT using a different and more rapid method of inducing apoptosis, a stable cell line expressing LAT was compared to non-LAT expressing cells as soon as 15 min following recovery from cold-shock-induced apoptosis. Expression of LAT appeared to inhibit dephosphorylation of pAKT. This protection correlated with blocking numerous pro-apoptotic events that are inhibited by pAKT. These results support the hypothesis that inhibiting dephosphorylation of pAKT may be one of the pathways by which LAT protects cells against apoptosis. PMID:26071090

  18. Na/H Exchange Regulatory Factor 1, a Novel AKT-associating Protein, Regulates Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Signaling through a B-Raf–Mediated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Na/H exchange regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein that regulates signaling and trafficking of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R). GPCRs activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 through different mechanisms. Here, we characterized NHERF1 regulation of PTH1R-stimulated ERK1/2. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation by a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent, but protein kinase C-, cyclic adenosine 5′-monophosphate-, and Rap1-independent pathway in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the PTH1R and engineered to express NHERF1 under the control of tetracycline. NHERF1 blocked PTH-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation downstream of PKA. This suggested that NHERF1 inhibitory effects on ERK1/2 occur at a postreceptor locus. Forskolin activated ERK1/2, and this effect was blocked by NHERF1. NHERF1 interacted with AKT and inhibited ERK1/2 activation by decreasing the stimulatory effect of 14-3-3 binding to B-Raf, while increasing the inhibitory influence of AKT negative regulation on ERK1/2 activation. This novel regulatory mechanism provides a new model by which cytoplasmic adapter proteins modulate ERK1/2 activation through a receptor-independent mechanism involving B-Raf. PMID:18272783

  19. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  20. Estrogen receptor alpha transcriptionally activates casein kinase 2 alpha: A pivotal regulator of promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML) and AKT in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Datta, Neerajana; Chatterjee, Uttara; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-06-01

    Protein kinase CK2α is frequently upregulated in different cancers. Alteration of CK2α expression and its activity is sufficient to induce dramatic changes in cell fate. It has been established that CK2α induces oncogenesis through modulation of both AKT and PML. CK2α has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. In contrary, statistical reports have shown low level of PML. However, the regulation of CK2α gene expression is not fully understood. In the current study, we found that CK2α and activated AKT positively correlate with ERα, whereas PML follows an inverse correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Modulation of ERα signalling leads to recruitment of activated ERα on the ERE sites of CK2α promoter, resulting in CK2α transactivation. Furthermore, the DMBA induced tumours in rat showed elevated level of active CK2α. Consequently it mediates enhancement of AKT activity and PML degradation, resulting in increased cellular proliferation, migration and metastasis. Syngeneic ERα overexpressing stable mouse 4T1 cells produce larger primary tumours and metastatic lung nodules in mice, corroborating our in vitro findings. Hence, our study provides a novel route of ERα dependent CK2α mediated oncogenesis that causes upregulation and consequent AKT activation along with degradation of tumour suppressor PML. PMID:27012497

  1. Advanced glycation end products impair function of late endothelial progenitor cells through effects on protein kinase Akt and cyclooxygenase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qin; Dong Li; Wang Lian; Kang Lina; Xu Biao

    2009-04-03

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) exhibit impaired function in the context of diabetes, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in diabetes, may contribute to this. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which AGEs impair late EPC function. EPCs from human umbilical cord blood were isolated, and incubated with AGE-modified albumin (AGE-albumin) at different concentrations found physiologically in plasma. Apoptosis, migration, and tube formation assays were used to evaluate EPC function including capacity for vasculogenesis, and expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined. Anti-RAGE antibody was used to block RAGE function. AGE-albumin concentration-dependently enhanced apoptosis and depressed migration and tube formation, but did not affect proliferation, of late EPCs. High AGE-albumin increased RAGE mRNA and protein expression, and decreased Akt and COX-2 protein expression, whilst having no effect on eNOS mRNA or protein in these cells. These effects were inhibited by co-incubation with anti-RAGE antibody. These results suggest that RAGE mediates the AGE-induced impairment of late EPC function, through down-regulation of Akt and COX-2 in these cells.

  2. Akt kinase C-terminal modifications control activation loop dephosphorylation and enhance insulin response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tung O.; Zhang, Jin; Tiegs, Brian C.; Blumhof, Brian; Yan, Linda; Keny, Nikhil; Penny, Morgan; Li, Xue; Pascal, John M.; Armen, Roger S.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Penn, Raymond B.

    2015-01-01

    The Akt protein kinase, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in insulin receptor signalling and regulates cell growth, survival and metabolism. Recently, we described a mechanism to enhance Akt phosphorylation that restricts access of cellular phosphatases to the Akt activation loop (Thr308 in Akt1 or protein kinase B isoform alpha) in an ATP-dependent manner. In the present paper, we describe a distinct mechanism to control Thr308 dephosphorylation and thus Akt deactivation that depends on intramolecular interactions of Akt C-terminal sequences with its kinase domain. Modifications of amino acids surrounding the Akt1 C-terminal mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) phosphorylation site (Ser473) increased phosphatase resistance of the phosphorylated activation loop (pThr308) and amplified Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the phosphatase-resistant Akt was refractory to ceramide-dependent dephosphorylation and amplified insulin-dependent Thr308 phosphorylation in a regulated fashion. Collectively, these results suggest that the Akt C-terminal hydrophobic groove is a target for the development of agents that enhance Akt phosphorylation by insulin. PMID:26201515

  3. Akt/Protein Kinase B-Dependent Phosphorylation and Inactivation of WEE1Hu Promote Cell Cycle Progression at G2/M Transition

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Naoya; Tsuruo, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt is known to promote cell growth by regulating the cell cycle in G1 phase through activation of cyclin/Cdk kinases and inactivation of Cdk inhibitors. However, how the G2/M phase is regulated by Akt remains unclear. Here, we show that Akt counteracts the function of WEE1Hu. Inactivation of Akt by chemotherapeutic drugs or the phosphatidylinositide-3-OH kinase inhibitor LY294002 induced G2/M arrest together with the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Because the increased Cdc2 phosphorylation was completely suppressed by wee1hu gene silencing, WEE1Hu was associated with G2/M arrest induced by Akt inactivation. Further analyses revealed that Akt directly bound to and phosphorylated WEE1Hu during the S to G2 phase. Serine-642 was identified as an Akt-dependent phosphorylation site. WEE1Hu kinase activity was not affected by serine-642 phosphorylation. We revealed that serine-642 phosphorylation promoted cytoplasmic localization of WEE1Hu. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation was mediated by phosphorylation-dependent WEE1Hu binding to 14-3-3θ but not 14-3-3β or -σ. These results indicate that Akt promotes G2/M cell cycle progression by inducing phosphorylation-dependent 14-3-3θ binding and cytoplasmic localization of WEE1Hu. PMID:15964826

  4. Acute physical exercise reverses S-nitrosation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B/Akt in diet-induced obese Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, José R; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Cintra, Dennys E; Carvalho-Filho, Marco A; Moraes, Juliana C; De Souza, Cláudio T; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Saad, Mario J A

    2008-01-01

    Early evidence demonstrates that exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and the NO produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can induce insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether this insulin resistance, mediated by S-nitrosation of proteins involved in early steps of the insulin signal transduction pathway, could be reversed by acute physical exercise. Rats on a high-fat diet were subjected to swimming for two 3 h-long bouts, separated by a 45 min rest period. Two or 16 h after the exercise protocol the rats were killed and proteins from the insulin signalling pathway were analysed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. We demonstrated that a high-fat diet led to an increase in the iNOS protein level and S-nitrosation of insulin receptor β (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt. Interestingly, an acute bout of exercise reduced iNOS expression and S-nitrosation of proteins involved in the early steps of insulin action, and improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity rats. Furthermore, administration of GSNO (NO donor) prevents this improvement in insulin action and the use of an inhibitor of iNOS (l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine; l-NIL) simulates the effects of exercise on insulin action, insulin signalling and S-nitrosation of IRβ, IRS1 and Akt. In summary, a single bout of exercise reverses insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese rats by improving the insulin signalling pathway, in parallel with a decrease in iNOS expression and in the S-nitrosation of IR/IRS1/Akt. The decrease in iNOS protein expression in the muscle of diet-induced obese rats after an acute bout of exercise was accompanied by an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. These results provide new insights into the mechanism by which exercise restores insulin sensitivity. PMID:17974582

  5. Long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein, p48, mediates protein kinase B/Akt-dependent HDM2 stabilization and nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, Jihoe; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2012-01-15

    p48 is a long isoform of the ErbB3 binding protein that has oncogenic functions including promotion of carcinogenesis and induction of malignant transformation through negative regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that high level of p48 protein expression leads to enhance HDM2 phosphorylation by Akt and inhibits the self-ubiquitination of HDM2 by up-regulation of Akt activity, thereby promoting its protein stability. Moreover, p48 expression leads to accumulated nuclear localization of HDM2, whereas p48 depletion disturbs its nuclear localization. Hence, higher expression of p48 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels through modulation of HDM2 nuclear localization and protein stability via regulation of its Akt-mediated phosphorylation.

  6. Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Delta Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation through Suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 Alpha/VEGF Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang chang; Yan, Guang Hai

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is supposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. VEGF expression is regulated by a variety of stimuli such as nitric oxide, growth factors, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Recently, inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to alleviate cardinal asthmatic features, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased vascular permeability in asthma models. Based on these observations, we have investigated whether mTOR is associated with HIF-1α-mediated VEGF expression in allergic asthma. In studies with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we have elucidated the stimulatory role of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF axis in allergic response. Next, the mechanisms by which mTOR is activated to modulate this response have been evaluated. mTOR is known to be regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt or protein kinase C-delta (PKC δ) in various cell types. Consistent with these, our results have revealed that suppression of PKC δ by rottlerin leads to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activity and the subsequent blockade of a mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF module, thereby attenuating typical asthmatic attack in a murine model. Thus, the present data indicate that PKC δ is necessary for the modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, resulting in a tight regulation of HIF-1α activity and VEGF expression. In conclusion, PKC δ may represent a valuable target for innovative therapeutic treatment of allergic airway disease. PMID:24312355

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling as a key mediator of tumor cell responsiveness to radiation.

    PubMed

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Rodemann, H Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is a key cascade downstream of several protein kinases, especially membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members. Hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is correlated with tumor development, progression, poor prognosis, and resistance to cancer therapies, such as radiotherapy, in human solid tumors. Akt/PKB (Protein Kinase B) members are the major kinases that act downstream of PI3K, and these are involved in a variety of cellular functions, including growth, proliferation, glucose metabolism, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and survival. Accumulating evidence indicates that activated Akt is one of the major predictive markers for solid tumor responsiveness to chemo/radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSB), are the prime cause of cell death induced by ionizing radiation. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that constitutive activation of Akt and stress-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway accelerate the repair of DNA-DSB and, consequently, lead to therapy resistance. Analyzing dysregulations of Akt, such as point mutations, gene amplification or overexpression, which results in the constitutive activation of Akt, might be of special importance in the context of radiotherapy outcomes. Such studies, as well as studies of the mechanism(s) by which activated Akt1 regulates repair of DNA-DSB, might help to identify combinations using the appropriate molecular targeting strategies with conventional radiotherapy to overcome radioresistance in solid tumors. In this review, we discuss the dysregulation of the components of upstream regulators of Akt as well as specific modifications of Akt isoforms that enhance Akt activity. Likewise, the mechanisms by which Akt interferes with repair of DNA after exposure to ionizing radiation, will be reviewed. Finally, the current status of Akt targeting in combination with radiotherapy will

  8. WNK1, the kinase mutated in an inherited high-blood-pressure syndrome, is a novel PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Vitari, Alberto C; Deak, Maria; Collins, Barry J; Morrice, Nick; Prescott, Alan R; Phelan, Anne; Humphreys, Sian; Alessi, Dario R

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that mutations in the gene encoding the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] results in an inherited hypertension syndrome called pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. The mechanisms by which WNK1 is regulated or the substrates it phosphorylates are currently unknown. We noticed that Thr-60 of WNK1, which lies N-terminal to the catalytic domain, is located within a PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation consensus sequence. We found that PKB phosphorylated WNK1 efficiently compared with known substrates, and both peptide map and mutational analysis revealed that the major PKB site of phosphorylation was Thr-60. Employing a phosphospecific Thr-60 WNK1 antibody, we demonstrated that IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor) stimulation of HEK-293 cells induced phosphorylation of endogenously expressed WNK1 at Thr-60. Consistent with PKB mediating this phosphorylation, inhibitors of PI 3-kinase (phosphoinositide 3-kinase; wortmannin and LY294002) but not inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (rapamycin) or MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1) activation (PD184352), inhibited IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 at Thr-60. Moreover, IGF1-induced phosphorylation of endogenous WNK1 did not occur in PDK1-/- ES (embryonic stem) cells, in which PKB is not activated. In contrast, IGF1 still induced normal phosphorylation of WNK1 in PDK1(L155E/L155E) knock-in ES cells in which PKB, but not S6K (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase) or SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1), is activated. Our study provides strong pharmacological and genetic evidence that PKB mediates the phosphorylation of WNK1 at Thr-60 in vivo. We also performed experiments which suggest that the phosphorylation of WNK1 by PKB is not regulating its kinase activity or cellular localization directly. These results provide the first connection between the PI 3-kinase/PKB pathway and WNK1, suggesting a mechanism by which this pathway may influence blood

  9. Rapid accumulation of Akt in mitochondria following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Bijur, Gautam N; Jope, Richard S

    2003-12-01

    We describe here a new component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that directly impacts mitochondria. Akt (protein kinase B) was shown for the first time to be localized in mitochondria, where it was found to reside in the matrix and the inner and outer membranes, and the level of mitochondrial Akt was very dynamically regulated. Stimulation of a variety of cell types with insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, or stress (induced by heat shock), induced translocation of Akt to the mitochondria within only several minutes of stimulation, causing increases of nearly eight- to 12-fold, and the mitochondrial Akt was in its phosphorylated, active state. Two mitochondrial proteins were identified to be phosphorylated following stimulation of mitochondrial Akt, the beta-subunit of ATP synthase and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. The finding that mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3beta was rapidly and substantially modified by Ser9 phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity, following translocation of Akt to the mitochondria is the first evidence for a regulatory mechanism affecting mitochondrial glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. These results demonstrate that signals emanating from plasma membrane receptors or generated by stress rapidly modulate Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in mitochondria. PMID:14713298

  10. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  11. Diosgenin induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation and angiogenesis through estrogen receptor-related phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Yen, Men Luh; Su, Jen Liang; Chien, Chung Liang; Tseng, Kuang Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Chen, Wei Fang; Chang, Chiao Chia; Kuo, Min Liang

    2005-10-01

    Diosgenin, extracted from the root of wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), has been reported to demonstrate an opportunity for medical application. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays an important role in bone-related angiogenesis, a critical process occurring during bone formation and fracture healing. In this study, we examine whether diosgenin is able to induce VEGF-A expression and to promote angiogenesis in osteoblasts. For murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast-like cells, VEGF-A mRNA and protein expression seemed to be significantly elevated in response to diosgenin in a concentration-dependent fashion. Conditioned media prepared from cells treated with diosgenin induced strong angiogenic activity in either in vitro or ex vivo angiogenesis assay. Furthermore, diosgenin treatment increased the stability and activity of HIF-1alpha protein. Inhibition of HIF-1alpha activity by transfection with DN-HIF-1alpha significantly diminished diosgenin-mediated VEGF-A up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors or genetic inhibition revealed that both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p38 signaling pathways were potentially required for diosgenin-induced HIF-1 activation and subsequent VEGF-A up-regulation. It is noteworthy that an estrogen receptor binding assay revealed that diosgenin has the strong ability to replace [(3)H]estradiol bound to estrogen receptor (IC(50), 10 nM). In addition, the specific estrogen receptor antagonists ICI 182,780 (faslodex) and tamoxifen were noted to be able to strongly inhibit diosgenin-induced, src kinase-dependent Akt and p38 MAPK activation. Taken together, such results provide evidence that diosgenin up-regulates VEGF-A and promotes angiogenesis in preosteoblast-like cells by a hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-dependent mechanism involving the activation of src kinase, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways via estrogen receptor. PMID:15998873

  12. Kaempferol acts through mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/AKT to elicit protection in a model of neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, SE; Sapkota, K; Kim, S; Kim, H; Kim, SJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid and phyto-oestrogen, is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. Microglial activation has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol and the underlying mechanisms were investigated by using LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cell viability was measured using MTT and neutral red assays. elisa, Western blot, immunocytochemistry and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay were used to analyse NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β production, inducible NOS (iNOS), COX-2 expression and the involvement of signalling pathways such as toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), MAPK cascades, PKB (AKT) and NF-κB. Accumulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) was measured by nitroblue tetrazolium and 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was investigated by zymography and immunoblot assay. Phagocytotic activity was assessed by use of latex beads. KEY RESULTS Kaempferol significantly attenuated LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β and ROS production and phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol suppressed the expression of iNOS, COX-2, MMP-3 and blocked the TLR4 activation. Moreover, kaempferol inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK, JNK and AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Kaempferol was able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory mediators through the down-regulation of TLR4, NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and AKT suggesting that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:21449918

  13. Bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex ([Zn(hkt)2]) activates Akt/protein kinase B independent of insulin signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Masuda, Kazufumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Since many Zn complexes have been developed to enhance the insulin-like activity and increase the exposure and residence of Zn in the animal body, these complexes are recognized as one of the new candidates with action mechanism different from existing anti-diabetic drugs. However, the molecular mechanism by which Zn complexes exert an anti-DM effect is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of Zn complexes, especially related to the phosphorylation of insulin signaling pathway components. We focused on the insulin-like effects of the bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex, [Zn(hkt)2], using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [Zn(hkt)2] was taken up by cells and induced Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, it showed inhibitory activity against PTP1B and PTEN, which are major negative regulators of insulin signaling. It did not promote the phosphorylation of IR (insulin receptor)-β or IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1 by itself, but in combination with insulin, it enhanced the phosphorylation of IRβ. We conclude that [Zn(hkt)2] has effects on the proteins of insulin signaling pathway without insulin receptor mediation, and [Zn(hkt)2] promotes insulin function and shows the anti-DM effects. Thus, [Zn(hkt)2] may be the basis for improved DM treatments. PMID:27251140

  14. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  15. CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB in the differentiation of pancreatic ductal cells into islet {beta}-cells mediated by hepatocyte growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Yu; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiao-Chen

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB in pancreatic duct cells. {yields} Activation of the PI3K/AKT/CREB pathway plays a critical role in the HGF-mediated differentiation of pancreatic duct cells in vivo. {yields} CREB was causally linked to the expression of transcription factors during PDEC differentiation induced by HGF. -- Abstract: We have previously reported that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced differentiation of adult rat pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) into islet {beta}-cells in vitro. The transcription factor CREB is one of the downstream key effectors of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Recent studies showing that CREB is required for the survival of certain cell types prompted us to examine whether CREB is a nuclear target for activation via the HGF-dependent Ser/Thr kinase Akt/PKB in the differentiation of pancreatic duct cell into islet {beta}-cells. In this study, we first attempted to examine whether HGF modulates the Akt-dependent activation of target gene CREB and then investigated whether CREB activity affects the differentiation of HGF-induced PDECs. Finally, we studied the role of CREB in modulating the expression of transcription factors in PDECs during the differentiation of HGF-induced PDECs. Our results demonstrated that CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB in the differentiation of pancreatic ductal cells into islet {beta}-cells mediated by HGF.

  16. Drosophila tribbles antagonizes insulin signaling-mediated growth and metabolism via interactions with Akt kinase.

    PubMed

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  17. Drosophila Tribbles Antagonizes Insulin Signaling-Mediated Growth and Metabolism via Interactions with Akt Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  18. Degradation of Akt Using Protein Catalyzed Capture Agents

    PubMed Central

    Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Tang, Grace; Tang, Kevin; Sutherland, Alexander M.; Heath, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal signaling of the protein kinase Akt has been shown to contribute to human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but Akt has proven to be a challenging target for drugging. Using iterative in situ click chemistry we recently developed multiple protein catalyzed capture (PCC) agents that allosterically modulate Akt enzymatic activity in a protein based assay. Here we utilize similar PCCs to exploit endogenous protein degradation pathways. We use the modularity of the anti-Akt PCCs to prepare Proteolysis Targeting Chimeric molecules (PROTACs) that are shown to promote the rapid degradation of Akt in live cancer cells. These novel PROTACs demonstrate that the epitope targeting selectivity of PCCs can be coupled with non-traditional drugging moieties to inhibit challenging targets. PMID:26880702

  19. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy. PMID:26739493

  20. Cell-cycle-regulated activation of Akt kinase by phosphorylation at its carboxyl terminus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengda; Begley, Michael; Michowski, Wojciech; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Ginzberg, Miriam; Gao, Daming; Tsou, Peiling; Gan, Wenjian; Papa, Antonella; Kim, Byeong Mo; Wan, Lixin; Singh, Amrik; Zhai, Bo; Yuan, Min; Wang, Zhiwei; Gygi, Steven P.; Lee, Tae Ho; Lu, Kun-Ping; Toker, Alex; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Asara, John M.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Sicinski, Piotr; Cantley, Lewis; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Akt, also known as protein kinase B, plays key roles in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism. Akt hyperactivation contributes to many pathophysiological conditions, including human cancers1–3, and is closely associated with poor prognosis and chemo- or radio-therapeutic resistance4. Phosphorylation of Akt at S473 (ref. 5) and T308 (ref. 6) activates Akt. However, it remains unclear whether further mechanisms account for full Akt activation, and whether Akt hyperactivation is linked to misregulated cell cycle progression, another cancer hallmark7. Here we report that Akt activity fluctuates across the cell cycle, mirroring cyclin A expression. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of S477 and T479 at the Akt extreme carboxy terminus by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)/cyclin A or mTORC2, under distinct physiological conditions, promotes Akt activation through facilitating, or functionally compensating for, S473 phosphorylation. Furthermore, deletion of the cyclin A2 allele in the mouse olfactory bulb leads to reduced S477/T479 phosphorylation and elevated cellular apoptosis. Notably, cyclin A2-deletion-induced cellular apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells is partly rescued by S477D/T479E-Akt1, supporting a physiological role for cyclin A2 in governing Akt activation. Together, the results of our study show Akt S477/T479 phosphorylation to be an essential layer of the Akt activation mechanism to regulate its physiological functions, thereby providing a new mechanistic link between aberrant cell cycle progression and Akt hyperactivation in cancer. PMID:24670654

  1. Essential role of PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 in Nrf2 suppression via modulation of Akt/GSK3β/Fyn kinase axis during oxidative hepatocellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, F; Shukla, S; Kakkar, P

    2014-01-01

    Instances of sustained oxidative activity have been shown to involve dysregulation of Nrf2-mediated transcriptional induction; however, mechanisms warranting Nrf2-repression remain unclear. In this study, using primary rat hepatocytes, we have attempted to identify factors that may negatively influence Nrf2 survival pathway. Though studies indicate a conspicuous association between Akt and Nrf2, a confirmatory link between the two is unaddressed. On inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway, we observed compromised activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes culminating in oxidative cytotoxicity. This was accompanied by reduced nuclear retention of Nrf2 and its ARE binding affinity, increased Nrf2 ubiquitination and concurrent decline in its downstream targets. Moreover, Akt inhibition enhanced nuclear translocation as well as phosphorylation of Fyn kinase, an enzyme linked to Nrf2 degradation, by relieving GSK3β from phosphorylation-mediated repression. The involvement of Akt and Fyn kinase in influencing Nrf2 signaling was further confirmed in oxidatively stressed hepatocytes by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). tBHP-induced decrease in Nrf2 levels was associated with enhanced Fyn kinase phosphorylation, Fyn kinase nuclear translocation and decreased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β(Ser9) in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, tBHP induced site-specific deactivation of Akt as only Akt(Ser473) phosphorylation was observed to be affected. Further, protein expression as well as nuclear localization of PHLPP2, a phosphatase specific for Akt(Ser473), was found to be significantly enhanced in tBHP-stressed hepatocytes. Silencing of PHLPP2 not only resulted in considerable restoration of Nrf2 signaling, enhanced Nrf2-ARE binding and reduced Nrf2 ubiquitination but also significantly suppressed tBHP-induced ROS generation and alterations in mitochondrial permeability. We infer that cellular PHLPP2 levels may aggravate oxidative toxicity by suppressing Nrf2/ARE

  2. Allosteric Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the AKT Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalafave, D. S.

    This research addresses computational design of small druglike molecules for possible anticancer applications. AKT and SGK are kinases that control important cellular functions. They are highly homologous, having similar activators and targets. Cancers with increased SGK activity may develop resistance to AKT-specific inhibitors. Our goal was to design new molecules that would bind both AKT and SGK, thus preventing the development of drug resistance. Most kinase inhibitors target the kinase ATP-binding site. However, the high similarity in this site among kinases makes it difficult to target specifically. Furthermore, mutations in this site can cause resistance to ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. We used existing AKT inhibitors as initial templates to design molecules that could potentially bind the allosteric sites of both AKT and SGK. Molecules with no implicit toxicities and optimal drug-like properties were used for docking studies. Binding energies of the stable complexes that the designed molecules formed with AKT and SGK were calculated. Possible applications of the designed putative inhibitors against cancers with overexpressed AKT/SGK is discussed.

  3. Hyaluronan Activates Cell Motility of v-Src-transformed Cells via Ras-Mitogen–activated Protein Kinase and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt in a Tumor-specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sohara, Yasuyoshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Machida, Kazuya; Kurata, Hisashi; Thant, Aye Aye; Senga, Takeshi; Matsuda, Satoru; Kimata, Koji; Iwata, Hisashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the production of hyaluronan (HA) and its effect on cell motility in cells expressing the v-src mutants. Transformation of 3Y1 by v-src virtually activated HA secretion, whereas G2A v-src, a nonmyristoylated form of v-src defective in cell transformation, had no effect. In cells expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, HA secretion was temperature dependent. In addition, HA as small as 1 nM, on the other side, activated cell motility in a tumor-specific manner. HA treatment strongly activated the motility of v-Src–transformed 3Y1, whereas it showed no effect on 3Y1- and 3Y1-expressing G2A v-src. HA-dependent cell locomotion was strongly blocked by either expression of dominant-negative Ras or treatment with a Ras farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Similarly, both the MEK1 inhibitor and the kinase inhibitor clearly inhibited HA-dependent cell locomotion. In contrast, cells transformed with an active MEK1 did not respond to the HA. Finally, an anti-CD44–neutralizing antibody could block the activation of cell motility by HA as well as the HA-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that simultaneous activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway by the HA-CD44 interaction is required for the activation of HA-dependent cell locomotion in v-Src–transformed cells. PMID:11408591

  4. Berberine Induced Apoptosis of Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Inhibiting Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt) Signal Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component in several Chinese herbs including Huanglian, has been shown to induce growth inhibition and the apoptosis of certain cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and its potential mechanism. Methods: The proliferation effect of U20S was exanimed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and the percentage of apoptotic cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of PI3K, p-Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, cleavage-PARP and Caspase3 were detected by Western blott. Results: Berberine treatment caused dose-dependent inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of U20S cell. Mechanistically, berberine inhibits PI3K/AKT activation that, in turn, results in up-regulating the expression of Bax, and PARP and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase3. In all, berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. Conclusion: Berberine can suppress the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of U2OS cell through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation. PMID:27398330

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) in the brain: is it simply a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt enhancer?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang

    2013-01-01

    Since its discovery in 2000, phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) has been recognized as a class of GTPase that controls the enzymatic activities of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in the central nervous system (CNS). However, recent studies suggest that PIKEs are not only enhancers to PI3K/Akt but also modulators to other kinases including insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinases. Moreover, they regulate transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription and nuclear factor κB. Indeed, PIKE proteins participate in multiple cellular processes including control of cell survival, brain development, memory formation, gene transcription, and metabolism. In this review, we have summarized the functions of PIKE proteins in CNS and discussed their potential implications in various neurological disorders. PMID:22499674

  6. Aminofurazans as potent inhibitors of AKT kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, Meagan B.; Seefeld, Mark A.; Leber, Jack D.; McNulty, Kenneth C.; Sun, Lihui; Miller, William H.; Zhang, ShuYun; Minthorn, Elisabeth A.; Concha, Nestor O.; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Schaber, Michael D.; Heerding, Dirk A.

    2009-06-24

    AKT inhibitors containing an imidazopyridine aminofurazan scaffold have been optimized. We have previously disclosed identification of the AKT inhibitor GSK690693, which has been evaluated in clinical trials in cancer patients. Herein we describe recent efforts focusing on investigating a distinct region of this scaffold that have afforded compounds (30 and 32) with comparable activity profiles to that of GSK690693.

  7. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  8. Reciprocal Regulation of AKT and MAP Kinase Dictates Virus-Host Cell Fusion ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nishi R.; Mani, Prashant; Nandwani, Neha; Mishra, Rajakishore; Rana, Ajay; Sarkar, Debi P.

    2010-01-01

    Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family bind to their host cells by using hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), which enhances fusion protein (F)-mediated membrane fusion. Although respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 5 of this family are suggested to trigger host cell signaling during infection, the virus-induced intracellular signals dictating virus-cell fusion await elucidation. Using an F- or HN-F-containing reconstituted envelope of Sendai virus, another paramyxovirus, we revealed the role and regulation of AKT1 and Raf/MEK/ERK cascades during viral fusion with liver cells. Our observation that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation promotes viral fusion via ezrin-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements, whereas AKT1 attenuates fusion by promoting phosphorylation of F protein, indicates a counteractive regulation of viral fusion by reciprocal activation of AKT1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, establishing a novel conceptual framework for a therapeutic strategy. PMID:20164223

  9. PI3 kinase directly phosphorylates Akt1/2 at Ser473/474 in the insulin signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, A; Kanno, T; Nishizaki, T

    2014-01-01

    Insulin stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in a concentration (1 nM–1 μM)-dependent manner and increased glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface was prevented by the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor BX912 or the Akt1/2 inhibitor MK2206, and by knocking-down PI3K, PDK1 or Akt1/2. Insulin increased phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Thr308/309 and Ser473/474, to activate Akt1/2, in the adipocytes. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt1/2 was suppressed by wortmannin and knocking-down PI3K, while no significant inhibition of the phosphorylation was obtained with BX912 or knocking-down PDK1. In the cell-free Akt assay, PI3K phosphorylated Akt1 both at Thr308 and Ser473 and Akt2 at Ser474 alone. In contrast, PDK1 phosphorylates Akt1 at Thr308 and Akt2 at Thr309. The results of this study indicate that PI3K activates Akt1, independently of PDK1, and Akt2 by cooperating with PDK1 in the insulin signal transduction pathway linked to GLUT4 translocation. PMID:24169049

  10. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li2CO3 significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li2CO3 did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P3 production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li2CO3 on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li2CO3 significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li2CO3 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity. PMID:24950409

  11. Infectious bursal disease virus activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway by interaction of VP5 protein with the p85{alpha} subunit of PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Hou Lei; Zhu Shanshan; Wang Jing; Zhou Jiao; Liu Jue

    2011-08-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling is commonly activated upon virus infection and has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular functions such as proliferation and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in chickens, can induce Akt phosphorylation in cultured cells, by a mechanism that is dependent on PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K activation greatly enhanced virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptotic cell death as evidenced by cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase and activation of caspase-3. Investigations into the mechanism of PI3K/Akt activation revealed that IBDV activates PI3K/Akt signaling through binding of the non-structural protein VP5 to regulatory subunit p85{alpha} of PI3K resulting in the suppression of premature apoptosis and improved virus growth after infection. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of IBDV infection.

  12. MicroRNA-141 and MicroRNA-146b-5p Inhibit the Prometastatic Mesenchymal Characteristics through the RNA-binding Protein AUF1 Targeting the Transcription Factor ZEB1 and the Protein Kinase AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H.; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    miR-141 and miR-146b-5p are two important tumor suppressor microRNAs, which control several cancer-related genes and processes. In the present report, we have shown that these microRNAs bind specific sites at the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA-binding protein AUF1, leading to its down-regulation. This inverse correlation between the levels of these microRNAs and AUF1 has been identified in various osteosarcoma cell lines. Additionally, we present clear evidence that AUF1 promotes mesenchymal features in osteosarcoma cells and that miR-141 and miR-146b-5p suppress this prometastatic process through AUF1 repression. Indeed, both microRNAs suppressed the invasion/migration and proliferation abilities of osteosarcoma cells through inhibiting the AKT protein kinase in an AUF1-dependent manner. We have also shown that AUF1 binds to and stabilizes the mRNA of the AKT activator phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Furthermore, miR-141 and miR-146b-5p positively regulate the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Epcam) and repress the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, Twist2, and ZEB1). These effects were mediated via the repression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal inducer ZEB1 through targeting AUF1, which binds the 3′-UTR of the ZEB1 mRNA and reduces its turnover. These results indicate that at least some tumor suppressor functions of miR-141 and miR-146b-5p are mediated through the repression of the oncogenic potentials of AUF1. Therefore, these 3′-UTR-directed post-transcriptional gene expression regulators constitute promising new targets for diagnostic and/or therapeutic interventions. PMID:25261470

  13. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2012-02-15

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ► Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ► Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ► Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ► Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ► Cooking with biomass

  14. Lithium potentiates GSK-3β activity by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mediated Akt phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Nie; Kanno, Takeshi; Jin, Yu; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Lithium suppresses Akt activity by reducing PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation. • Lithium enhances GSK-3β activity by reducing Akt-mediated GSK-3β phosphorylation. • Lithium suppresses GSK-3β activity through its direct inhibition. - Abstract: Accumulating evidence has pointed to the direct inhibitory action of lithium, an anti-depressant, on GSK-3β. The present study investigated further insight into lithium signaling pathways. In the cell-free assay Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473, but Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not affect PI3K-mediated PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3} production and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308. This indicates that lithium could enhance GSK-3β activity by suppressing Akt-mediated Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β in association with inhibition of PI3K-mediated Akt activation. There was no direct effect of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on Akt1-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, but otherwise Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly reduced GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. This indicates that lithium directly inhibits GSK-3β in an Akt-independent manner. In rat hippocampal slices Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Akt1/2 at Ser473/474, GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41. Taken together, these results indicate that lithium exerts its potentiating and inhibiting bidirectional actions on GSK-3β activity.

  15. Novel Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Akt2 Protein Interaction Partners in L6 Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Michael; Zhang, Xiangmin; Ma, Danjun; Yang, Zhao; Qi, Yue; Yi, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are marked by an aberrant response in the insulin signaling network. The phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinase, Akt2, plays a key role in insulin signaling and glucose uptake, most notably within skeletal muscle. Protein-protein interaction regulates the functional consequence of Akt2 and in turn, Akt2’s role in glucose uptake. However, only few insulin-responsive Akt2 interaction partners have been identified in skeletal muscle cells. In the present work, rat L6 myoblasts, a widely used insulin sensitive skeletal muscle cell line, were used to examine endogenous, insulin-stimulated Akt2 protein interaction partners. Akt2 co-immunoprecipitation was coupled with 1D-SDS-PAGE and fractions were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to reveal Akt2 protein-protein interactions. The pull-down assay displayed specificity for the Akt2 isoform; Akt1 and Akt3 unique peptides were not detected. A total of 49 were detected with a significantly increased (47) or decreased (2) association with Akt2 following insulin administration (n = 4; p<0.05). Multiple pathways were identified for the novel Akt2 interaction partners, such as the EIF2 and ubiquitination pathways. These data suggest that multiple new endogenous proteins may associate with Akt2 under basal as well as insulin-stimulated conditions, providing further insight into the insulin signaling network. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002557. PMID:26465754

  16. Illuminating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qiang; Fosbrink, Matthew; Zhang, Jin

    2008-02-01

    Genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are being developed for analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics of various signaling events in living cells, as these events are often dynamically regulated and spatially compartmentalized within specific signaling context. In particular, to investigate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the cellular context, we have developed a series of such biosensors that enable dynamic visualization of several key signaling events in this pathway, namely InPAkt for lipid second messenger dynamics, BAKR for Akt activity, and ReAktion for the action of Akt during its multi-step activation process. Discussed here are several studies that have been carried out with these novel biosensors. First, we examined nuclear phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3) in living cells using nucleus-targeted InPAkt. Second, we analyzed signal propagation from the plasma membrane to the nucleus by using plasma membrane-targeted InPAkt and nucleus-targeted BKAR to simultaneously monitor PIP 3 dynamics and Akt activity in the same cell. Of note, results from these co-imaging experiments suggest that active Akt can dissociate from the plasma membrane and translocate into the nucleus in the presence of high levels of PIP 3 at the plasma membrane. This finding has led to a further study of the action of Akt during its activation process, particularly focusing on how Akt dissociates from the membrane. In this regard, a live-cell molecular analysis using ReAktion reveals a conformational change in Akt that is critically dependent on the existence of a phosphorylatable T308 in the activation loop. Subsequently this has led to the discovery of new regulatory roles of this critical phosphorylation event of Akt for ensuring its proper activation and function.

  17. A KSHV microRNA Directly Targets G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 to Promote the Migration and Invasion of Endothelial Cells by Inducing CXCR2 and Activating AKT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhiqiang; Qin, Di; Yan, Qin; Zhu, Jianzhong; Krueger, Brian J.; Renne, Rolf; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV encodes more than two dozens of miRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and metastasis remain unknown. Here, we found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-3 (miR-K3) promoted endothelial cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses showed that miR-K3 directly targeted G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2, official gene symbol ADRBK1). Importantly, overexpression of GRK2 reversed miR-K3 induction of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the chemokine receptor CXCR2, which was negatively regulated by GRK2, was upregulated in miR-K3-transduced endothelial cells. Knock down of CXCR2 abolished miR-K3-induced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-K3 downregulation of GRK2 relieved its direct inhibitory effect on AKT. Both CXCR2 induction and the release of AKT from GRK2 were required for miR-K3 maximum activation of AKT and induction of cell migration and invasion. Finally, deletion of miR-K3 from the KSHV genome abrogated its effect on the GRK2/CXCR2/AKT pathway and KSHV-induced migration and invasion. Our data provide the first-line evidence that, by repressing GRK2, miR-K3 facilitates cell migration and invasion via activation of CXCR2/AKT signaling, which likely contribute to the dissemination of KSHV-induced tumors. PMID:26402907

  18. Shift from extracellular signal-regulated kinase to AKT/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway increases survival-motor-neuron expression in spinal-muscular-atrophy-like mice and patient cells.

    PubMed

    Branchu, Julien; Biondi, Olivier; Chali, Farah; Collin, Thibault; Leroy, Felix; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Makoukji, Joelle; Pariset, Claude; Lopes, Philippe; Massaad, Charbel; Chanoine, Christophe; Charbonnier, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a recessive neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons. No available therapy exists for SMA, which represents one of the leading genetic causes of death in childhood. SMA is caused by a mutation of the survival-of-motor-neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a quantitative defect in the survival-motor-neuron (SMN) protein expression. All patients retain one or more copies of the SMN2 gene, which modulates the disease severity by producing a small amount of stable SMN protein. We reported recently that NMDA receptor activation, directly in the spinal cord, significantly enhanced the transcription rate of the SMN2 genes in a mouse model of very severe SMA (referred as type 1) by a mechanism that involved AKT/CREB pathway activation. Here, we provide the first compelling evidence for a competition between the MEK/ERK/Elk-1 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/CREB signaling pathways for SMN2 gene regulation in the spinal cord of type 1 SMA-like mice. The inhibition of the MEK/ERK/Elk-1 pathway promotes the AKT/CREB pathway activation, leading to (1) an enhanced SMN expression in the spinal cord of SMA-like mice and in human SMA myotubes and (2) a 2.8-fold lifespan extension in SMA-like mice. Furthermore, we identified a crosstalk between ERK and AKT signaling pathways that involves the calcium-dependent modulation of CaMKII activity. Together, all these data open new perspectives to the therapeutic strategy for SMA patients. PMID:23467345

  19. Role of Extracellular Matrix Renal Tubulo-interstitial Nephritis Antigen (TINag) in Cell Survival Utilizing Integrin αvβ3/Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK)/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B-Serine/Threonine Kinase (AKT) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Kondeti, Vinay K.; Lin, Sun; Haruna, Yoshisuke; Raparia, Kirtee; Kanwar, Yashpal S.

    2011-01-01

    Tubulo-interstitial nephritis antigen (TINag) is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in tubular basement membranes. Combined mutations in TINag and nephrocystin-1 genes lead to nephronophthisis with reduced cell survival. Because certain extracellular matrix proteins are known to modulate cell survival, studies were initiated in Lewis rats lacking TINag to assess if they are more susceptible to cisplatin-induced injury. Cisplatin induced a higher degree of tubular cell damage and apoptosis in regions where TINag is expressed in a parental Wistar strain. This was accompanied by an accentuated increase in serum creatinine and Kim-1 RNA and renal expression of Bax, p53, and its nuclear accumulation, mtDNA fragmentation, and a decrease of Bcl-2. Cisplatin induced fulminant apoptosis of HK-2 cells with increased caspase3/7 activity, mtDNA fragmentation, and a reduced cell survival. These effects were partially reversed in cells maintained on TINag substratum. Far Western/solid phase assays established TINag binding with integrin αvβ3 comparable with vitronectin. Transfection of cells with αv-siRNA accentuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis, aberrant translocation of cytochrome c and Bax, and reduced cell survival. The αv-siRNA decreased expression of integrin-recruited focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p-FAK, while increasing the expression of p53 and p-p53. Similarly, p-AKT was reduced although ILK was unaffected. Inhibition of PI3K had similar adverse cellular effects. These effects were ameliorated in cells on TINag substratum. In vivo, a higher degree of decrease in the expression of p-FAK and pAKT was observed in Lewis rats following cisplatin treatment. These in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate an essential role of TINag in cellular survival to maintain proper tubular homeostasis utilizing integrin αvβ3 and downstream effectors. PMID:21795690

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Couples Localised Calcium Influx to Activation of Akt in Central Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Cousin, Michael A; Smillie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    The efficient retrieval of synaptic vesicle membrane and cargo in central nerve terminals is dependent on the efficient recruitment of a series of endocytosis modes by different patterns of neuronal activity. During intense neuronal activity the dominant endocytosis mode is activity-dependent endocytosis (ADBE). Triggering of ADBE is linked to calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation since the same stimulation intensities trigger both. Dynamin I dephosphorylation is maximised by a simultaneous inhibition of its kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) by the protein kinase Akt, however it is unknown how increased neuronal activity is transduced into Akt activation. To address this question we determined how the activity-dependent increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control activation of Akt. This was achieved using either trains of high frequency action potentials to evoke localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at active zones, or a calcium ionophore to raise [Ca(2+)]i uniformly across the nerve terminal. Through the use of either non-specific calcium channel antagonists or intracellular calcium chelators we found that Akt phosphorylation (and subsequent GSK3 phosphorylation) was dependent on localised [Ca(2+)]i increases at the active zone. In an attempt to determine mechanism, we antagonised either phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or calmodulin. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK3 was arrested on inhibition of PI3K, but not calmodulin. Thus localised calcium influx in central nerve terminals activates PI3K via an unknown calcium sensor to trigger the activity-dependent phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3. PMID:26198194

  1. v-Crk activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway in transformation

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Shishido, Tomoyuki; Murata, Kazutaka; Hanafusa, Hidesaburo

    2000-01-01

    v-Crk induces cellular tyrosine phosphorylation and transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). We studied the molecular mechanism of the v-Crk-induced transformation. Experiments with Src homology (SH)2 and SH3 domain mutants revealed that the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins requires only the SH2 domain, but both the SH2 and SH3 domains are required for complete transformation. Analysis of three well defined signaling pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, demonstrated that only the PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively activated in v-Crk-transformed CEF. Both the SH2 and SH3 domains are required for this activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in CEF. We also found that the colony formation of CEF is strongly induced by a constitutively active PI3K mutant, and that a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, suppresses the v-Crk-induced transformation. These results strongly suggest that constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway plays an essential role in v-Crk-induced transformation of CEF. PMID:10852971

  2. Copper ions strongly activate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway independent of the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, Elena A; Lordnejad, Mohammad Reza; Schliess, Freimut; Sies, Helmut; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2002-01-15

    Copper is implicated in metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of signaling pathways regulating cellular survival and function in response to a copper stress is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of such diseases. Exposure of human skin fibroblasts or HeLa cells to Cu(2+) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent activation of the antiapoptotic kinase Akt/protein kinase B, starting at concentrations as low as 3 microM. Only Cu(II), but not Cu(I), had this effect. Activation of Akt was accompanied by phosphorylation of a downstream target of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3. Inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) completely blocked activation of Akt by Cu(2+), indicating a requirement of PI3K for Cu(2+)-induced activation of Akt. Indeed, cellular PI3K activity was strongly enhanced after exposure to Cu(2+). Copper ions may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide. Activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide or growth factors is known to proceed via the activation growth factor receptors. In line with this, pretreatment with inhibitors of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases blocked activation of Akt by hydrogen peroxide and growth factors, as did a src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor or the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. Activation of Akt by Cu(2+), however, remained unimpaired, implying (i) that tyrosine kinase activation is not involved in Cu(2+) activation of Akt and (ii) that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway by Cu(2+) is initiated independently of that induced by reactive oxygen species. Comparison of the time course of the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein in copper-treated cells with that of Akt activation led to the conclusion that production of hydroperoxides cannot be an upstream event in copper-induced Akt activation. Rather, both activation of Akt and generation of ROS are proposed to occur in parallel, regulating cell survival after a

  3. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  4. Casein kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of neprilysin regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Akt.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Martin; Kumar, Sathish; Mayer, Günter; Walter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is a type II membrane metalloproteinase that cleaves physiologically active peptides at the cell surface thus regulating the local concentration of these peptides available for receptor binding and signal transduction. In addition, the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NEP interacts with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) thereby regulating intracellular signaling via Akt. Thus, NEP serves dual functions in extracellular and intracellular signal transduction. Here, we show that NEP undergoes phosphorylation at serine residue 6 within the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In vitro and cell culture experiments demonstrate that Ser 6 is efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2. The phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of NEP inhibits its interaction with PTEN. Interestingly, expression of a pseudophosphorylated NEP variant (Ser6Asp) abrogates the inhibitory effect of NEP on insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) stimulated activation of Akt. Thus, our data demonstrate a regulatory role of CK2 in the interaction of NEP with PTEN and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. PMID:20957047

  5. Decreased Phosphorylated Protein Kinase B (Akt) in Individuals with Autism Associated with High Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Low Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, phosphorylated Akt concentration was measured in 37 autistic children and 12, gender and age similar neurotypical, controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Akt levels were compared to biomarkers known to be associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor) pathways and severity levels of 19 autism-related symptoms. We found phosphorylated Akt levels significantly lower in autistic children and low Akt levels correlated with high EGFR and HGF and low gamma-aminobutyric acid, but not other biomarkers. Low Akt levels also correlated significantly with increased severity of receptive language, conversational language, hypotonia, rocking and pacing, and stimming, These results suggest a relationship between decreased phosphorylated Akt and selected symptom severity in autistic children and support the suggestion that the AKT pathways may be associated with the etiology of autism. PMID:26508828

  6. Enhanced Cardiac Akt/Protein Kinase B Signaling Contributes to Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Part by Impairing Mitochondrial Function via Transcriptional Repression of Mitochondrion-Targeted Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Adam R.; O'Neill, Brian T.; Bugger, Heiko; Riehle, Christian; Tuinei, Joseph; Buchanan, Jonathan; Tsushima, Kensuke; Wang, Li; Caro, Pilar; Guo, Aili; Sloan, Crystal; Kim, Bum Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Pereira, Renata O.; McCrory, Mark A.; Nye, Brenna G.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Shioi, Tetsuo; Weimer, Bart C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained Akt activation induces cardiac hypertrophy (LVH), which may lead to heart failure. This study tested the hypothesis that Akt activation contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in pathological LVH. Akt activation induced LVH and progressive repression of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways. Preventing LVH by inhibiting mTOR failed to prevent the decline in mitochondrial function, but glucose utilization was maintained. Akt activation represses expression of mitochondrial regulatory, FAO, and oxidative phosphorylation genes in vivo that correlate with the duration of Akt activation in part by reducing FOXO-mediated transcriptional activation of mitochondrion-targeted nuclear genes in concert with reduced signaling via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/PGC-1α and other transcriptional regulators. In cultured myocytes, Akt activation disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics, which could be partially reversed by maintaining nuclear FOXO but not by increasing PGC-1α. Thus, although short-term Akt activation may be cardioprotective during ischemia by reducing mitochondrial metabolism and increasing glycolysis, long-term Akt activation in the adult heart contributes to pathological LVH in part by reducing mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PMID:25535334

  7. Constitutively active Akt1 expression in mouse pancreas requires S6 kinase 1 for insulinoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Alliouachene, Samira; Tuttle, Robyn L.; Boumard, Stephanie; Lapointe, Thomas; Berissi, Sophie; Germain, Stephane; Jaubert, Francis; Tosh, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pende, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Factors that promote pancreatic β cell growth and function are potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus. In mice, genetic experiments suggest that signaling cascades initiated by insulin and IGFs positively regulate β cell mass and insulin secretion. Akt and S6 kinase (S6K) family members are activated as part of these signaling cascades, but how the interplay between these proteins controls β cell growth and function has not been determined. Here, we found that although transgenic mice overexpressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 under the rat insulin promoter (RIP-MyrAkt1 mice) had enlarged β cells and high plasma insulin levels, leading to improved glucose tolerance, a substantial proportion of the mice developed insulinomas later in life, which caused decreased viability. This oncogenic transformation tightly correlated with nuclear exclusion of the tumor suppressor PTEN. To address the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate S6K1 in the MyrAkt1-mediated phenotype, we crossed RIP-MyrAkt1 and S6K1-deficient mice. The resulting mice displayed reduced insulinemia and glycemia compared with RIP-MyrAkt1 mice due to a combined effect of improved insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, although the increase in β cell size in RIP-MyrAkt1 mice was not affected by S6K1 deficiency, the hyperplastic transformation required S6K1. Our results therefore identify S6K1 as a critical element for MyrAkt1-induced tumor formation and suggest that it may represent a useful target for anticancer therapy downstream of mTOR. PMID:18846252

  8. A role of the kinase mTOR in cellular transformation induced by the oncoproteins P3k and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Masahiro; Blazek, Erik; Vogt, Peter K.

    2001-01-01

    The oncoproteins P3k (homolog of the catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and Akt (protein kinase B) induce oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts. The transformed cells show constitutive phosphorylation of the positive regulator of translation p70S6 kinase (S6K) and of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-BP1 binding protein (4E-BP1), a negative regulator of translation. Phosphorylation activates S6K and inactivates 4E-BP1. A mutant of Akt that retains kinase activity but does not induce phosphorylation of S6K or of 4E-BP1 fails to transform chicken embryo fibroblasts, suggesting a correlation between the oncogenicity of Akt and phosphorylation of S6K and 4E-BP1. The macrolide antibiotic rapamycin effectively blocks oncogenic transformation induced by either P3k or Akt but does not reduce the transforming activity of 11 other oncoproteins. Rapamycin inhibits the kinase mTOR, an important regulator of translation, and this inhibition requires binding of the antibiotic to the immunophilin FKBP12. Displacement of rapamycin from FKBP12 relieves the inhibition of mTOR and also restores P3k-induced transformation. These data are in accord with the hypothesis that transformation by P3k or Akt involves intervention in translational controls. PMID:11134523

  9. Zipper-interacting protein kinase promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis through AKT and NF-kB signaling and is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Deng, Zhijuan; Wang, Zhu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Longjuan; Su, Qiao; Lai, Yingrong; Li, Bin; Luo, Zexing; Chen, Xu; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiaohui; Ma, Jieyi; Wang, Wenjian; Bi, Jiong; Guan, Xinyuan

    2015-04-10

    Zipper-interacting Protein Kinase (ZIPK) belongs to the death-associated protein kinase family. ZIPK has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in various tumors, including gastric cancer. On the other hand, ZIPK also promotes cell survival. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that ZIPK promoted cell growth, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice. ZIPK induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with increasing expression of β-catenin, mesenchymal markers, Snail and Slug, and with decreasing expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, ZIPK activated the AKT/IκB/NF-κB pathway, which can promote EMT and metastasis. Additionally, ZIPK expression was detected in human primary gastric cancer and their matched metastatic lymph node samples by immunohistochemistry. Increased expression of ZIPK in lymph node metastases was significantly associated with stage VI and abdominal organ invasion. Survival analysis revealed that patients with increased ZIPK expression in metastatic lymph nodes had poor disease-specific survival. Taken together, our study reveals that ZIPK is a pro-oncogenic factor, which promotes cancer metastasis. PMID:25831050

  10. Computational Modeling of the Metabolic States Regulated by the Kinase Akt

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Ettore; Alfieri, Roberta; Maj, Carlo; Bevilacqua, Annamaria; Canti, Gianfranco; Milanesi, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction and gene regulation determine a major reorganization of metabolic activities in order to support cell proliferation. Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis and cellular biosynthesis, two activities shown by both normal and cancer proliferating cells. Not surprisingly considering its relevance for cellular metabolism, Akt/PKB is often found hyperactive in cancer cells. In the last decade, many efforts have been made to improve the understanding of the control of glucose metabolism and the identification of a therapeutic window between proliferating cancer cells and proliferating normal cells. In this context, we have modeled the link between the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, glycolysis, lactic acid production, and nucleotide biosynthesis. We used a computational model to compare two metabolic states generated by two different levels of signaling through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: one of the two states represents the metabolism of a growing cancer cell characterized by aerobic glycolysis and cellular biosynthesis, while the other state represents the same metabolic network with a reduced glycolytic rate and a higher mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism. Biochemical reactions that link glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway revealed their importance for controlling the dynamics of cancer glucose metabolism. PMID:23181020

  11. Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Interacts with the Akt/PKB Kinase and Induces Its Subcellular Relocalization.

    PubMed

    Valero, María Llanos; Sabariegos, Rosario; Cimas, Francisco J; Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Mas, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) interacts with cellular components and modulates their activities for its own benefit. These interactions have been postulated as a target for antiviral treatment, and some candidate molecules are currently in clinical trials. The multifunctional cellular kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) must be activated to increase the efficacy of HCV entry but is rapidly inactivated as the viral replication cycle progresses. Viral components have been postulated to be responsible for Akt/PKB inactivation, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. In this study, we show that HCV polymerase NS5B interacts with Akt/PKB. In the presence of transiently expressed NS5B or in replicon- or virus-infected cells, NS5B changes the cellular localization of Akt/PKB from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region. Sequestration of Akt/PKB by NS5B could explain its exclusion from its participation in early Akt/PKB inactivation. The NS5B-Akt/PKB interaction represents a new regulatory step in the HCV infection cycle, opening possibilities for new therapeutic options. PMID:27021315

  12. Modulation in Activation and Expression of PTEN, Akt1, and PDK1: Further Evidence Demonstrating Altered Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. Method mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls. Results No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide. PMID:20163786

  13. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  14. G-protein coupled receptor 34 activates Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways and functions as alternative pathway to mediate p185Bcr-Abl-induced transformation and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Bo; Li, Mei; Liu, Yulan; Li, Kun; Ma, Shuyun; Cui, Meihua; Qin, Yazhen; Zhu, Honghu; Pan, Xiuying; Guo, Jingzhu; Dai, Zonghan; Yu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Tyrosine 177 and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain play important roles in linking p185Bcr-Abl to downstream pathways critical for cell growth and survival. However, a mutant p185(Y177FR552L) (p185(YR)), in which tyrosine 177 and arginine 552 in the SH2 domain are mutated, is still capable of transforming hematopoietic cells in vitro. Transplant of these cells into syngeneic mice also leads to leukemogenesis, albeit with a phenotype distinct from that produced by wild-type p185Bcr-Abl (p185(wt))-transformed cells. Here we show that G-protein coupled receptor 34 (Gpr34) expression is markedly up-regulated in p185(YR)-transformed cells compared to those transformed by p185(wt). Knockdown of Gpr34 in p185(YR) cells is sufficient to suppress growth factor-independent proliferation and survival in vitro and attenuate leukemogenesis in vivo. The Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways are activated in p185(YR) cells and the activation is dependent on Gpr34 expression. These studies identify Gpr34 as an alternative pathway that may mediate p185Bcr-Abl-induced transformation and leukemogenesis. PMID:25363403

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazol-furan carboxamide analogues as novel Akt kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Wenhu; Xu, Lei; Dong, Xiaowu; Dong, Jun; Yi, Xiao; Ma, Xiaodong; Qiu, Ni; Li, Jia; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yubo; Hu, Yongzhou

    2016-07-19

    A series of novel pyrazol-furan carboxamide analogues were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for their Akt1 inhibitory activities, as well as anti-proliferative efficacies against HCT116 and OVCAR-8 cell lines. Most compounds exhibited moderate to excellent Akt1 inhibitory activities, together with favorable cytotoxicities. Further kinase selectivity assay of the most promising compound 25e illustrated that it was also potent against the structurally related AGC kinases, including Akt2, Akt3, ROCK1 and PKA, but was specific over kinases from other subfamilies. In addition, the Western blot analysis indicated that 25e could significantly suppress the phosphorylation level of Akt substrate GSK3β in PC-3 cell. Moreover, 25e demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of PRAS40 in LNCaP cell, with IC50 value of 30.4 nM. PMID:27089211

  16. Aerosol delivery of kinase-deficient Akt1 attenuates Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene in the lungs of dual luciferase mice.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Park, Young-Chan; Hwang, Soon-Kyung; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kang, Bitna; Hong, Seong-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2011-12-01

    Conventional lung cancer therapies are associated with poor survival rates; therefore, new approaches such as gene therapy are required for treating cancer. Gene therapies for treating lung cancer patients can involve several approaches. Among these, aerosol gene delivery is a potentially more effective approach. In this study, Akt1 kinase-deficient (KD) and wild-type (WT) Akt1 were delivered to the lungs of CMV-LucR-cMyc-IRES-LucF dual reporter mice through a nose only inhalation system using glucosylated polyethylenimine and naphthalene was administrated to the mice via intraperitoneal injection. Aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment increased protein levels of downstream substrates of Akt signaling pathway while aerosol delivery of Akt1 KD did not. Our results showed that naphthalene affected extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein levels, ERK-related signaling, and induced Clara cell injury. However, Clara cell injury induced by naphthalene was considerably attenuated in mice exposed to Akt1 KD. Furthermore, a dual luciferase activity assay showed that aerosol delivery of Akt1 WT and naphthalene treatment enhanced cap-dependent protein translation, while reduced cap-dependent protein translation was observed after delivering Akt1 KD. These studies demonstrated that our aerosol delivery is compatible for in vivo gene delivery. PMID:22122896

  17. A Ral GAP complex links PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling to RalA activation in insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Leto, Dara; Xiong, Tingting; Yu, Genggeng; Cheng, Alan; Decker, Stuart; Saltiel, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in muscle  and adipose tissue by translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. We previously reported that activation of the small GTPase RalA downstream of PI 3-kinase plays a critical role in this process by mobilizing the exocyst complex for GLUT4 vesicle targeting in adipocytes. Here we report the identification and characterization of a Ral GAP complex (RGC) that mediates the activation of RalA downstream of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The complex is composed of an RGC1 regulatory subunit and an RGC2 catalytic subunit (previously identified as AS250) that directly stimulates the guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis of RalA. Knockdown of RGC proteins leads to increased RalA activity and glucose uptake in adipocytes. Insulin inhibits the GAP complex through Akt2-catalyzed phosphorylation of RGC2 in vitro and in vivo, while activated Akt relieves the inhibitory effect of RGC proteins on RalA activity. The RGC complex thus connects PI 3-kinase/Akt activity to the transport machineries responsible for GLUT4 translocation. PMID:21148297

  18. The selectivity of protein kinase inhibitors: a further update

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jenny; Plater, Lorna; Elliott, Matt; Shpiro, Natalia; Hastie, C. James; Mclauchlan, Hilary; Klevernic, Iva; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Alessi, Dario R.; Cohen, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70–80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)–raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes. PMID:17850214

  19. 14-3-3 Proteins regulate Akt Thr308 phosphorylation in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Suárez, M; Gutiérrez-Martínez, I Z; Hernández-Trejo, J A; Hernández-Ruiz, M; Suárez-Pérez, D; Candelario, A; Kamekura, R; Medina-Contreras, O; Schnoor, M; Ortiz-Navarrete, V; Villegas-Sepúlveda, N; Parkos, C; Nusrat, A; Nava, P

    2016-06-01

    Akt activation has been associated with proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of epithelial cells. Phosphorylation of Thr308 of Akt by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is critical for optimal stimulation of its kinase activity. However, the mechanism(s) regulating this process remain elusive. Here, we report that 14-3-3 proteins control Akt Thr308 phosphorylation during intestinal inflammation. Mechanistically, we found that IFNγ and TNFα treatment induce degradation of the PDK1 inhibitor, 14-3-3η, in intestinal epithelial cells. This mechanism requires association of 14-3-3ζ with raptor in a process that triggers autophagy and leads to 14-3-3η degradation. Notably, inhibition of 14-3-3 function by the chemical inhibitor BV02 induces uncontrolled Akt activation, nuclear Akt accumulation and ultimately intestinal epithelial cell death. Our results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins control Akt activation and regulate its biological functions, thereby providing a new mechanistic link between cell survival and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells during inflammation. PMID:26846144

  20. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  1. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-α, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type IIβ regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1α interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. PMID:14982927

  2. Endothelium-Independent Hypoxic Contraction Is Prevented Specifically by Nitroglycerin via Inhibition of Akt Kinase in Porcine Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huixia; Li, Yanjing; An, Yuanming; He, Peixin; Wu, Liling; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Hypoxia-induced sustained contraction of porcine coronary artery is endothelium-independent and mediated by PI3K/Akt/Rho kinase. Nitroglycerin (NTG) is a vasodilator used to treat angina pectoris and acute heart failure. The present study was to determine the role of NTG in hypoxia-induced endothelium-independent contraction and the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. Organ chamber technique was used to measure the isometric vessel tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries. Protein levels of phosphorylated and total Akt were determined by western blot. A sustained contraction of porcine coronary arteries induced by hypoxia was significantly reduced by NTG but not by isoproterenol. This contraction was also inhibited by DETA NONOate, 8-Br-cGMP, which can be reversed by ODQ, and Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS. The restored contraction was blocked by LY294002. The reduction of Akt-p at Ser-473 by NTG, DETA NONOate, and 8-Br-cGMP was significantly inhibited by ODQ, PKG-I. The decrease in Akt-p level by NTG and 8-Br-cGMP was prevented by calyculin A but not by okadaic acid. Conclusions. These results demonstrated that the endothelium-independent sustained hypoxic vasoconstriction can be prevented by NTG and that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be involved. PMID:26839558

  3. Tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 Is the Major Site of Association of p85 and Is Required for Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Christopher D.; Stauffer, Thomas P.; Yang, Wen-Pin; York, John D.; Huang, Liwen; Blanar, Michael A.; Meyer, Tobias; Peters, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    Tie2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for both normal embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis and is thought to play a role in vascular maintenance. However, the signaling pathways responsible for the function of Tie2 remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) associates with Tie2 and that this association confers functional lipid kinase activity. Mutation of tyrosine 1101 of Tie2 abrogated p85 association both in vitro and in vivo in yeast. Tie2 was found to activate PI3-kinase in vivo as demonstrated by direct measurement of increases in cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, by plasma membrane translocation of a green fluorescent protein-Akt pleckstrin homology domain fusion protein, and by downstream activation of the Akt kinase. Activation of PI3-kinase was abrogated in these assays by mutation of Y1101 to phenylalanine, consistent with a requirement for this residue for p85 association with Tie2. These results suggest that activation of PI3-kinase and Akt may in part account for Tie2’s role in both embryonic vascular development and pathologic angiogenesis, and they are consistent with a role for Tie2 in endothelial cell survival. PMID:9632797

  4. Korean Red Ginseng inhibits apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells via estrogen receptor β-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Gyu-Lee; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginseng has been shown to exert antistress effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of ginseng on stress in brain cells are not well understood. This study investigated how Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) controls hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis via regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and estrogen receptor (ER)-β signaling. Methods Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were pretreated with KRG and subsequently exposed to H2O2. The ability of KRG to inhibit oxidative stress-induced apoptosis was assessed in MTT cytotoxicity assays. Apoptotic protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. The roles of ER-β, PI3K, and p-Akt signaling in KRG regulation of apoptosis were studied using small interfering RNAs and/or target antagonists. Results Pretreating SK-N-SH cells with KRG decreased expression of the proapoptotic proteins p-p53 and caspase-3, but increased expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2. KRG pretreatment was also associated with increased ER-β, PI3K, and p-Akt expression. Conversely, ER-β inhibition with small interfering RNA or inhibitor treatment increased p-p53 and caspase-3 levels, but decreased BCL2, PI3K, and p-Akt expression. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling diminished p-p53 and caspase-3 levels, but increased BCL2 expression. Conclusion Collectively, the data indicate that KRG represses oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling via upregulation of ER-β expression. PMID:25535479

  5. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  6. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces phosphorylation of Mdm2 mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt kinase: Role of this pathway in decidual cell survival.

    PubMed

    Costa, Adriana Fraga; Gomes, Sara Zago; Lorenzon-Ojea, Aline R; Martucci, Mariane; Faria, Miriam Rubio; Pinto, Décio Dos Santos; Oliveira, Sergio F; Ietta, Francesca; Paulesu, Luana; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2016-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway has an anti-apoptotic effect through several downstream targets, which includes activation of the transformed mouse 3T3 cell double-minute 2 (Mdm2) protein, its translocation to the nucleus and degradation of the tumor suppressor p53. We show that Mif, the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, an important cytokine at the maternal fetal interface in several species, triggers phosphorylation of Mdm2 protein in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, thereby preventing apoptosis in cultured mouse decidual cells. Inhibition of Akt and PI3K suppresses the pathway. Mif treatment also changes the nuclear translocation of p53 and interferes with the apoptotic fate of these cells when challenged with reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, an important mechanism has been found underlying decidual cell survival through Akt signaling pathway activated by Mif, suggesting a role for this cytokine in decidual homeostasis and in the integrity of the maternal-fetal barrier that is essential for successful gestation. PMID:27208405

  8. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  9. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  10. The basal level of intracellular calcium gates the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase - Akt signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Soellner, Deborah; Nunez, Joseph; Wang, Hongbing

    2008-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates survival and neuroplasticity through the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. Although previous studies suggested the roles of MAPK, PLC-γ-mediated intra-cellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) increase, and extra-cellular calcium influx in regulating Akt activation, the cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. We demonstrated that sub-nanomolar BDNF significantly induced Akt activation in developing cortical neurons. The TrkB-dependent Akt phosphorylation at S473 and T308 required only PI3K, but not PLC and MAPK activity. Blocking NMDA receptors, L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and chelating extra-cellular calcium by EGTA failed to block BDNF-induced Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, chelating [Ca2+]i by BAPTA-AM abolished Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, sub-nanomolar BDNF did not stimulate [Ca2+]i increase under our culture conditions. Together with that NMDA- and membrane depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i increase did not activate Akt, we conclude that the basal level of [Ca2+]i gates BDNF function. Furthermore, inhibiting calmodulin by W13 suppressed Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by okadaic acid and tautomycin rescued Akt phosphorylation in BAPTA- and W13-treated neurons. We further demonstrated that the phosphorylation of PDK1 did not correlate with Akt phosphorylation at T308. Our results suggested novel roles of basal [Ca2+]i, rather than activity-induced calcium elevation, in BDNF-Akt signaling. PMID:18485103

  11. Osthole relaxes pulmonary arteries through endothelial phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-eNOS-NO signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Lu, Ping; Li, Yumei; Yang, Lijing; Feng, Hongxuan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Dandan; Chen, Jianguo; Zhu, Daling

    2013-01-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-threatening disease lacking effective therapies. Osthole is a natural coumarin compound isolated from Angelica pubescens Maxim., which possesses hypotensive effect. Although its effects on isolated thoracic aorta (systemic circulating system) are clarified, it remains unclear whether Osthole relaxes isolated pulmonary arteries (PAs) (pulmonary circulating system). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Osthole on isolated PAs and the underlying mechanisms. We examined PA relaxation induced by Osthole in isolated human and rat PA rings with force-electricity transducers, the expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and protein kinase B (Akt) with western blot, and nitric oxide (NO) production using DAF-FM DA fluorescent indicator. The results showed that Osthole elicited a dose-dependent vasorelaxation activity with phenylephrine-precontracted human and rat PA rings, which can be diminished by endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS, while having no effect on rat mesenteric arteries. Osthole increased NO release as well as activation of Akt and eNOS, indicated with increased phosphorylations of Akt at Ser-473 and eNOS at Ser-1177 in endothelial cells. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 also blocked Osthole induced vasodilation. In summary, dilative effect of Osthole was dependent on endothelial integrity and NO production, and was mediated by endothelial PI3K/Akt-eNOS-NO pathway. These may provide a new pulmonary vasodilator for the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:23220709

  12. Akt kinase-mediated checkpoint of cGAS DNA sensing pathway

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gil Ju; Yang, Aerin; Tan, Brandon; Kim, Sungyoon; Liang, Qiming; Choi, Younho; Yuan, Weiming; Feng, Pinghui; Park, Hee-Sung; Jung, Jae U.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Upon DNA stimulation, cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase (cGAS) synthesizes the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) that binds to the STING, triggering antiviral interferon-β (IFN-β) production. However, it has remained undetermined how hosts regulate cGAS enzymatic activity after the resolution of DNA immunogen. Here, we show that Akt kinase plays a negative role in cGAS-mediated anti-viral immune response. Akt phosphorylated the S291 or S305 residue of the enzymatic domain of mouse or human cGAS, respectively, and this phosphorylation robustly suppressed its enzymatic activity. Consequently, expression of activated Akt led to the reduction of cGAMP and IFN-β production and the increase of herpes simplex virus 1 replication, whereas treatment with Akt inhibitor augmented cGAS-mediated IFN-β production. Furthermore, expression of the phosphorylation-resistant cGAS S291A mutant enhanced IFN-β production upon DNA stimulation, HSV-1 infection, and vaccinia virus infection. Our study identifies an Akt kinase-mediated checkpoint to fine-tune hosts’ immune responses to DNA stimulation. PMID:26440888

  13. Fangchinoline suppresses the growth and invasion of human glioblastoma cells by inhibiting the kinase activity of Akt and Akt-mediated signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingyu; Xie, Peng; Su, Jingyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most palindromic and malignant central nervous system neoplasms, and the current treatment is not effectual for GBM. Research of specific medicine for GBM is significant. Fangchinoline possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities and attracts more attentions due to its anti-tumor effects. In this study, two WHO grade IV human GBM cell lines (U87 MG and U118 MG) were exposed to fangchinoline, and we found that fangchinoline specifically inhibits the kinase activity of Akt and markedly suppresses the phosphorylation of Thr308 and Ser473 of Akt in human GBM cells. We also observed that fangchinoline inhibits tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness and induces apoptosis through suppressing the Akt-mediated signaling cascades, including Akt/p21, Akt/Bad, and Akt/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These data demonstrated that fangchinoline exerts its anti-tumor effects in human glioblastoma cells, at least partly by inhibiting the kinase activity of Akt and suppressing Akt-mediated signaling cascades. PMID:26408176

  14. Ribonuclease 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2016-01-01

    To maintain corneal transparency, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exert a pump function against aqueous inflow. However, human CECs are arrested in the G1-phase and non-proliferative in vivo. Thus, treatment of corneal endothelial decompensation is limited to corneal transplantation, and grafts are vulnerable to immune rejection. Here, we show that ribonuclease (RNase) 5 is more highly expressed in normal human CECs compared to decompensated tissues. Furthermore, RNase 5 up-regulated survival of CECs and accelerated corneal endothelial wound healing in an in vitro wound of human CECs and an in vivo cryo-damaged rabbit model. RNase 5 treatment rapidly induced accumulation of cytoplasmic RNase 5 into the nucleus, and activated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in human CECs. Moreover, inhibition of nuclear translocation of RNase 5 using neomycin reversed RNase 5-induced Akt activation. As a potential strategy for proliferation enhancement, RNase 5 increased the population of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated proliferating CECs with concomitant PI3-kinase/Akt activation, especially in CECs deprived of contact-inhibition. Specifically, RNase 5 suppressed p27 and up-regulated cyclin D1, D3, and E by activating PI3-kinase/Akt in CECs to initiate cell cycle progression. Together, our data indicate that RNase 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing, and identify RNase 5 as a novel target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:27526633

  15. Akt activation enhances ribosomal RNA synthesis through casein kinase II and TIF-IA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Mitchell, Beverly S.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription initiation factor I (TIF-IA) plays an essential role in regulating ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis by tethering RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the rDNA promoter. We have found that activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis through the phosphorylation of casein kinase IIα (CK2α) on a threonine residue near its N terminus. CK2 in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA, thereby increasing rDNA transcription. Activated Akt also stabilizes TIF-IA, induces its translocation to the nucleolus, and enhances its interaction with Pol I. Treatment with AZD8055, an inhibitor of both Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, but not with rapamycin, disrupts Akt-mediated TIF-IA stability, translocation, and activity. These data support a model in which activated Akt enhances rRNA synthesis both by preventing TIF-IA degradation and phosphorylating CK2α, which in turn phosphorylates TIF-IA. This model provides an explanation for the ability of activated Akt to promote cell proliferation and, potentially, transformation. PMID:24297901

  16. Berberine induces dedifferentiation by actin cytoskeleton reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Cho, Hongsik; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Chung, Ki-Wha; Seo, Sung-Yum; Kim, Song-Ja

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a nonrheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, the majority of which is extracted from Huang Lian (Coptis chinensis). Although numerous studies have revealed the anticancer activity of BBR, its effects on normal cells, such as chondrocytes, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions remain elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of BBR on rabbit articular chondrocytes, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. BBR induced dedifferentiation by inhibiting activation of phosphoinositide-3(PI3)-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 kinase and PI3-kinase/Akt with SB203580 and LY294002, respectively, accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation. BBR also caused actin cytoskeletal architecture reorganization and, therefore, we investigated if these effects were involved in the dedifferentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D reversed the BBR-induced dedifferentiation by activating PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase. In contrast, the induction of actin filament aggregation by jasplakinolide accelerated the BBR-induced dedifferentiation via PI3-kinase/Akt inhibition and p38 kinase activation. Taken together, these data suggest that BBR strongly induces dedifferentiation, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization is a crucial requirement for this effect. Furthermore, the dedifferentiation activity of BBR appears to be mediated via PI3-kinase/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in rabbit articular chondrocytes. PMID:26851252

  17. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  19. Role of Akt and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 in Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-4 Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Ana; Martínez-A, Carlos; Lanzarot, Diego; Fischer, Siegmund; Franke, Thomas F.; Rebollo, Angelita

    1998-01-01

    We have shown previously that interleukin-4 (IL-4) protects TS1αβ cells from apoptosis, but very little is known about the mechanism by which IL-4 exerts this effect. We found that Akt activity, which is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, is reduced in IL-4-deprived TS1αβ cells. Overexpression of wild-type Akt or a constitutively active Akt mutant protects cells from IL-4 deprivation-induced apoptosis. Readdition of IL-4 before the commitment point is able to restore Akt activity. We also show expression and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 activation after IL-4 deprivation. Overexpression of the constitutively activated Akt mutant in IL-4-deprived cells correlates with inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 activity. Finally, TS1αβ survival is independent of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, or Bax. PMID:9802900

  20. Regulation of Neuron Survival through an Intersectin-Phosphoinositide 3′-Kinase C2β-AKT Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Das, Margaret; Scappini, Erica; Martin, Negin P.; Wong, Katy A.; Dunn, Sara; Chen, Yun-Ju; Miller, Stephanie L. H.; Domin, Jan; O'Bryan, John P.

    2007-01-01

    While endocytosis attenuates signals from plasma membrane receptors, recent studies suggest that endocytosis also serves as a platform for the compartmentalized activation of cellular signaling pathways. Intersectin (ITSN) is a multidomain scaffolding protein that regulates endocytosis and has the potential to regulate various biochemical pathways through its multiple, modular domains. To address the biological importance of ITSN in regulating cellular signaling pathways versus in endocytosis, we have stably silenced ITSN expression in neuronal cells by using short hairpin RNAs. Decreasing ITSN expression dramatically increased apoptosis in both neuroblastoma cells and primary cortical neurons. Surprisingly, the loss of ITSN did not lead to major defects in the endocytic pathway. Yeast two-hybrid analysis identified class II phosphoinositide 3′-kinase C2β (PI3K-C2β) as an ITSN binding protein, suggesting that ITSN may regulate a PI3K-C2β-AKT survival pathway. ITSN associated with PI3K-C2β on a subset of endomembrane vesicles and enhanced both basal and growth factor-stimulated PI3K-C2β activity, resulting in AKT activation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors, dominant negatives, and rescue experiments revealed that PI3K-C2β and AKT were epistatic to ITSN. This study represents the first demonstration that ITSN, independent of its role in endocytosis, regulates a critical cellular signaling pathway necessary for cell survival. PMID:17875942

  1. Compound library screening identified Akt/PKB kinase pathway inhibitors as potential key molecules for the development of new chemotherapeutics against schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Lescuyer, Arlette; Lancelot, Julien; Dissous, Colette

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) are one of the largest protein families in most eukaryotic organisms. These enzymes are involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism and a large number of the anticancer drugs currently used are directed against PKs. The structure and function of PKs are well conserved throughout evolution. In schistosome parasites, PKs were shown to be involved in essential functions at every stage of the parasite life cycle, making these enzymes promising anti-parasite drug targets. In this study, we tested a panel of commercial inhibitors for various PKs and analyzed their effects on pairing and egg production by schistosomes as well as their toxicity towards schistosomula larvae. Results obtained confirmed the deleterious effect of PK targeting on Schistosoma mansoni physiology and the important function of different tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases in the biology and reproduction of this parasite. They also indicated for the first time that the Protein kinase B (also called Akt) which is a major downstream target of many receptor tyrosine kinases and a central player at the crossroads of signal transduction pathways activated in response to growth factors and insulin, can constitute a novel target for anti-schistosome chemotherapy. Structural and functional studies have shown that SmAkt is a conserved kinase and that its activity can be inhibited by commercially available Akt inhibitors. In treated adult worms, Akt/PKB kinase pathway inhibitors induced profound alterations in pairing and egg laying and they also greatly affected the viability of schistosomula larvae. PMID:25516836

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  9. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Novel Kinase Inhibitors Targeting the PH Domain of AKT for Preventing and Treating Cancer | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Medical Oncology Branch is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing and co-development collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel kinase inhibitors targeting the PH domain of AKT.

  13. Clk/STY (cdc2-like kinase 1) and Akt regulate alternative splicing and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Carter, Gay; Romero, Jacqueline; Gower, Kathryn M; Watson, James; Patel, Niketa A; Cooper, Denise R

    2013-01-01

    The development of adipocytes from their progenitor cells requires the action of growth factors signaling to transcription factors to induce the expression of adipogenic proteins leading to the accumulation of lipid droplets, induction of glucose transport, and secretion of adipokines signaling metabolic events throughout the body. Murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes sequentially express all the proteins necessary to become mature adipocytes throughout an 8-10 day process initiated by a cocktail of hormones. We examined the role of Clk/STY or Clk1, a cdc2-like kinase, in adipogenesis since it is known to be regulated by Akt, a pivotal kinase in development. Inhibition of Clk1 by a specific inhibitor, TG003, blocked alternative splicing of PKCβII and expression of PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. SiRNA depletion of Clk1 resulted in early expression of PKCβII and sustained PKCβI expression. Since Clk1 is a preferred Akt substrate, required for phosphorylation of splicing factors, mutation of Clk1 Akt phosphorylation sites was undertaken. Akt sites on Clk1 are in the serine/arginine-rich domain and not the kinase domain. Mutation of single and multiple sites resulted in dysregulation of PKCβII, PKCβI, and PPARγ1&2 expression. Additionally, adipogenesis was blocked as assessed by Oil Red O staining, adiponectin, and Glut1 and 4 expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Clk1 triple mutant cDNA, transfected into pre-adipocytes, resulted in excluding SRp40 (SFSR6) from co-localizing to the nucleus with PFS, a perispeckle specific protein. This study demonstrates the role of Akt and Clk1 kinases in the early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to adipocytes. PMID:23308182

  14. Rapid evolution of 6-phenylpurine inhibitors of protein kinase B through structure-based design.

    PubMed

    Donald, Alastair; McHardy, Tatiana; Rowlands, Martin G; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Davies, Thomas G; Berdini, Valerio; Boyle, Robert G; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Collins, Ian

    2007-05-17

    6-phenylpurines were identified as novel, ATP-competitive inhibitors of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) from a fragment-based screen and were rapidly progressed to potent compounds using iterative protein-ligand crystallography with a PKA-PKB chimeric protein. An elaborated lead compound showed cell growth inhibition and effects on cellular signaling pathways characteristic of PKB inhibition. PMID:17451235

  15. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  16. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Activates mTORC1 by Phosphorylating AKT1S1

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang-Liang; Bian, Yang-Yang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zhou, Kai-Qiang; Yao, Cui-Fang; Lin, Yan; Zou, Han-Fa; Luo, Fang-Xiu; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Ye, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Shi-Min; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In cancer cells, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that requires hormonal and nutrient signals for its activation, is constitutively activated. We found that overexpression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activates mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylating mTORC1 inhibitor AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1). An unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic survey identified 974 PKM2 substrates, including serine202 and serine203 (S202/203) of AKT1S1, in the proteome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Phosphorylation of S202/203 of AKT1S1 by PKM2 released AKT1S1 from raptor and facilitated its binding to 14-3-3, resulted in hormonal- and nutrient-signals independent activation of mTORC1 signaling and led accelerated oncogenic growth and autophagy inhibition in cancer cells. Decreasing S202/203 phosphorylation by TEPP-46 treatment reversed these effects. In RCCs and breast cancers, PKM2 overexpression was correlated with elevated S202/203 phosphorylation, activated mTORC1 and inhibited autophagy. Our results provided the first phosphorylome of PKM2 and revealed a constitutive mTORC1 activating mechanism in cancer cells. PMID:26876154

  17. G-Protein-Coupled Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors and Their Regulation of AKT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Anjum; Huang, Ying; Johansson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is their ability to recognize and respond to chemically diverse ligands. Lysophospholipids constitute a relatively recent addition to these ligands and carry out their biological functions by activating G-proteins coupled to a large family of cell-surface receptors. This review aims to highlight salient features of cell signaling by one class of these receptors, known as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors, in the context of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT pathway activation. LPA moieties efficiently activate AKT phosphorylation and activation in a multitude of cell types. The interplay between LPA, its receptors, the associated Gαi/o subunits, PI3K and AKT contributes to the regulation of cell survival, migration, proliferation and confers chemotherapy-resistance in certain cancers. However, detailed information on the regulation of PI3K–AKT signals induced by LPA receptors is missing from the literature. Here, some urgent issues for investigation are highlighted. PMID:26861299

  18. G-Protein-Coupled Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors and Their Regulation of AKT Signaling.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Anjum; Huang, Ying; Johansson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is their ability to recognize and respond to chemically diverse ligands. Lysophospholipids constitute a relatively recent addition to these ligands and carry out their biological functions by activating G-proteins coupled to a large family of cell-surface receptors. This review aims to highlight salient features of cell signaling by one class of these receptors, known as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors, in the context of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway activation. LPA moieties efficiently activate AKT phosphorylation and activation in a multitude of cell types. The interplay between LPA, its receptors, the associated Gαi/o subunits, PI3K and AKT contributes to the regulation of cell survival, migration, proliferation and confers chemotherapy-resistance in certain cancers. However, detailed information on the regulation of PI3K-AKT signals induced by LPA receptors is missing from the literature. Here, some urgent issues for investigation are highlighted. PMID:26861299

  19. Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) promotes the progression of OSCC via the AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Na; Ma, Danhua; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Xin; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-08-01

    Our previous study suggested that receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) contribute to the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which RACK1 regulates cell growth in OSCC using in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of RACK1 knockdown with lentivirus based shRNA in stable cell lines were evaluated by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. RACK1 silencing effects on the cell cycle in OSCC cells were detected by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The effect of RACK1 silencing on inhibiting the progression of OSCC was illustrated using a xenografted mouse model. RACK1 and relevant signaling pathways were investigated in tissues and cells using immunohistochemistry and/or western blot analysis. Stable silencing of the RACK1 gene resulted in a distinct G1 and G2 phase arrest by downregulating Cyclin B1 and Cyclin D1. Depleted RACK1 led to markedly decreased tumor volume and the expression of Ki67, CD34, and VEGF in vivo. The expression of RACK1 and p-AKT has a parallel pattern in different stages of oral carcinogenesis tissues. In addition, the protein level of RACK1 was positively correlated with p-AKT in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines. We found specific transient knockdown of RACK1 could downregulate the protein levels of p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-S6 in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that RACK1-dependent OSCC growth and survival may be related to the increased activation of the AKT/mTOR/S6 pathway. PMID:27279145

  20. Regulation of cell apoptosis and proliferation in pancreatic cancer through PI3K/Akt pathway via Polo-like kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    MAO, YONGHUAN; XI, LING; LI, QUAN; CAI, ZELING; LAI, YIMEI; ZHANG, XINHUA; YU, CHUNZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis. It is reported that the PI3K/Akt pathway is activated in many cancers, and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway can induce cell apoptosis in most cancers. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is also overexpressed in most malignancies, and it controls multiple aspects of mitosis and apoptosis. Previous studies identified that PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of Plk1-Ser99 is required for metaphase-anaphase transition. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PI3K/Akt pathway regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess Akt levels in human pancreatic tissues and pancreatic cancer tissues. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation. The mRNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein levels of p-Akt, Akt, Plk1, BAX, Bcl-2, XIAP, cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3. Recombinant adenovirus vector containing Plk1-shRNA was constructed to inhibit Plk1 expression. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the apoptosis of tumor xenograft was assessed by TUNEL assay. The study showed that inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway can induce cell apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation by downregulating Plk1 in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, Plk1 inhibition can lead to cancer cell apoptosis through inactivating XIAP, activating caspase-3, upregulating BAX and downregulating Bcl-2. Therefore, this study provided the molecular mechanism of PI3K/Akt pathway and Plk1 in the pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, which may benefit for the therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27220401

  1. Cocaine regulates protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in selective regions of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    SA, Perrine; JS, Miller; EM, Unterwald

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt) signaling regulates dopamine-mediated locomotor behaviors. Here the ability of cocaine to regulate Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) was studied. Rats were injected with cocaine or saline in a binge-pattern, which consisted of 3 daily injections of 15 mg/kg cocaine or 1 ml/kg saline spaced one hour apart for 1, 3 or 14 days. Amygdala, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen and hippocampus tissues were dissected 30 minutes following the last injection and analyzed for phosphorylated and total Akt and GSK3(α & β) protein levels using Western blot analysis. Phosphorylation of Akt on the threonine-308 residue was significantly reduced in the nucleus accumbens and increased in the amygdala after 1 day of cocaine treatment; however, these effects were not accompanied by a significant decrease in GSK3 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3 were significantly reduced after 14 days of cocaine administration, an effect that was only observed in the amygdala. Cocaine did not alter Akt or GSK3 phosphorylation in the caudate putamen or hippocampus. The findings in nucleus accumbens may reflect dopaminergic motor-stimulant activity caused by acute cocaine, whereas the effects in amygdala may be associated with changes in emotional state that occur after acute and chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:18717814

  2. Concurrent targeting Akt and sphingosine kinase 1 by A-674563 in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Gao, Meng; Wang, Guangping; Fu, Yunfeng

    2016-04-15

    Akt signaling plays a pivotal role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development and progression. In the present study, we evaluated the potential anti-AML activity by a novel Akt kinase inhibitor A-674563. Our results showed that A-674563 dose-dependently inhibited survival and proliferation of U937 AML cells and six lines of human AML progenitor cells, yet sparing human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs). A-674563 activated caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in the AML cells. Reversely, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-CHO dramatically alleviated A-674563-induced AML cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. For the molecular study, we showed that A-674563 blocked Akt activation in U937 cells and human AML progenitor cells. Further, A-674563 decreased sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity in above AML cells to deplete pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and boost pro-apoptotic ceramide production. Such an effect on SphK1 signaling by A-674563 appeared independent of Akt blockage. Significantly, K6PC-5, a novel SphK1 activator, or supplement with S1P attenuated A-674563-induced ceramide production, and subsequent U937 cell death and apoptosis. Importantly, intraperitoneal injection of A-674563 at well-tolerated doses suppressed U937 leukemic xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, whiling significantly improving the animal survival. The results of the current study demonstrate that A-674563 exerts potent anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo, possibly via concurrent targeting Akt and SphK1 signalings. PMID:26920060

  3. Extrapancreatic roles of glimepiride on osteoblasts from rat manibular bone in vitro: Regulation of cytodifferentiation through PI3-kinases/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Hongchen; Ma, Junli; Gu, Bin; Wu, Xia

    2011-04-01

    Glimepiride, a third-generation sulfonylurea, has also been reported to have extrapancreatic functions including activation of PI3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in rat adipocytes, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells. It is tempting to speculate that glimepiride would improve bone-implant contact in diabetic patients by mediating the activity of GLUT1 and 3 via the PI3K/Akt pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of glimepiride on rat mandible osteoblasts cultured under two different levels of glucose. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. The supernatant was used to measure alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Glucose uptake was determined by measuring the rate of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) uptake. Western blotting was performed used to determine collagen I and PI3K/Akt expression. RT-PCR was performed used to determine osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression. We found that hyperglycemia down-regulated proliferation, ALP activity, OCN mRNA and GLUT3 protein expression in rat osteoblasts, and upregulated collagen I and GLUT1 protein expressions. Glimepiride enhanced the proliferation, ALP activity and OCN mRNA levels, and upregulated collagen I and GLUT1 and 3 protein expressions of rat osteoblasts at two different glucose concentrations. This study also provides the first evidence that glimepiride stimulates the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt in osteoblasts and ameliorated the damage caused by high concentrations of glucose through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:21055727

  4. Survey of activated kinase proteins reveals potential targets for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Dokduang, Hasaya; Juntana, Sirinun; Techasen, Anchalee; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Khuntikeo, Narong; Riggins, Gregory J; Loilome, Watcharin

    2013-12-01

    Improving therapy for patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) presents a significant challenge. This is made more difficult by a lack of a clear understanding of potential molecular targets, such as deregulated kinases. In this work, we profiled the activated kinases in CCA in order to apply them as the targets for CCA therapy. Human phospho-receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and phospho-kinase array analyses revealed that multiple kinases are activated in both CCA cell lines and human CCA tissues that included cell growth, apoptosis, cell to cell interaction, movement, and angiogenesis RTKs. Predominately, the kinases activated downstream were those in the PI3K/Akt, Ras/MAPK, JAK/STAT, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirms that Erk1/2 and Akt activation were increased in CCA tissues when compared with their normal adjacent tissue. The inhibition of kinase activation using multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, sorafenib and sunitinib led to significant cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction via suppression of Erk1/2 and Akt activation, whereas drugs with specificity to a single kinase showed less potency. In conclusion, our study reveals the involvement of multiple kinase proteins in CCA growth that might serve as therapeutic targets for combined kinase inhibition. PMID:23812726

  5. Nitric oxide activates intradomain disulfide bond formation in the kinase loop of Akt1/PKBα after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, X-M; Tompkins, R G; Fischman, A J

    2013-03-01

    Severe burn injury is an acute inflammatory state with massive alterations in gene expression and levels of growth factors, cytokines and free radicals. During the catabolic processes, changes in insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle wasting (unintended loss of 5-15% of lean body mass) are observed clinically. Here, we reveal a novel molecular mechanism of Akt1/protein kinase Bα (Akt1/PKBα) regulated via cross-talking between dephosphorylation of Thr308 and S-nitrosylation of Cys296 post severe burn injury, which were characterized using nano-LC interfaced with tandem quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF)micro tandem mass spectrometry in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For the in vitro studies, Akt1/PKBα was S-nitrosylated with S-nitrosoglutathione and derivatized by three methods. The derivatives were isolated by SDS-PAGE, trypsinized and analyzed by the tandem MS. For the in vivo studies, Akt1/PKBα in muscle lysates from burned rats was immunoprecipitated, derivatized with HPDP-Biotin and analyzed as above. The studies demonstrated that the NO free radical reacts with the free thiol of Cys296 to produce a Cys296-SNO intermediate which accelerates interaction with Cys310 to form Cys296-Cys310 in the kinase loop. MS/MS sequence analysis indicated that the dipeptide, linked via Cys296-Cys310, underwent dephosphorylation at Thr308. These effects were not observed in lysates from sham animals. As a result of this dual effect of burn injury, the loose conformation that is slightly stabilized by the Lys297-Thr308 salt bridge may be replaced by a more rigid structure which may block substrate access. Together with the findings of our previous report concerning mild IRS-1 integrity changes post burn, it is reasonable to conclude that the impaired Akt1/PKBα has a major impact on FOXO3 subcellular distribution and activities. PMID:23314241

  6. Endoglin regulates PI3-kinase/Akt trafficking and signaling to alter endothelial capillary stability during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Golzio, Christelle; Gatza, Catherine E.; Sharma, Arun; Katsanis, Nicholas; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2012-01-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) coreceptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Although endoglin dysfunction contributes to numerous vascular conditions, the mechanism of endoglin action remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism in which endoglin and Gα-interacting protein C-terminus–interacting protein (GIPC)–mediated trafficking of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates endothelial signaling and function. We demonstrate that endoglin interacts with the PI3K subunits p110α and p85 via GIPC to recruit and activate PI3K and Akt at the cell membrane. Opposing ligand-induced effects are observed in which TGF-β1 attenuates, whereas bone morphogenetic protein-9 enhances, endoglin/GIPC-mediated membrane scaffolding of PI3K and Akt to alter endothelial capillary tube stability in vitro. Moreover, we employ the first transgenic zebrafish model for endoglin to demonstrate that GIPC is a critical component of endoglin function during developmental angiogenesis in vivo. These studies define a novel non-Smad function for endoglin and GIPC in regulating endothelial cell function during angiogenesis. PMID:22593212

  7. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; LI, Jie; LIU, Jin; GUO, Baosheng; LEUNG, Albert; ZHANG, Ge; ZHANG, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment could significantly attenuate the decreases in the phosphorylation level of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit and its downstream markers related to protein synthesis, and inhibit the increases in protein degradation markers at mRNA and protein levels in rat soleus muscle following 28-day hindlimb unloading. In addition, the decreases in soleus muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, twitch force, specific force, contraction time and half relaxation time could be significantly attenuated by the high dose ICT treatment. The low dose ICT treatment could moderately attenuate the above changes induced by unloading. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit, could abolish the above effects of ICT in vitro and in vivo, indicating that PI3K/Akt signaling could be required by ICT to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading. PMID:26831566

  8. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase contribute to the chondroprotective effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Zeng, Guoqing; Liu, Zejun; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Honghai; Zheng, Xinpeng; Song, Gang; Kang, Jian; Xia, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on the multifaceted roles of morroniside, the main active constituent of iridoid glycoside from Corni Fructus, the effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the influence of morroniside on cultured human OA chondrocytes and a rat experimental model of OA. The results showed that morroniside enhanced the cell viability and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (PCNA), type II collagen and aggrecan in human OA chondrocytes, indicating that morroniside promoted chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, different doses of morroniside activated protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in human OA chondrocytes, and in turn, triggered AKT/S6 and ERK/P70S6K/S6 pathway, respectively. The PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the effect of morroniside on human OA chondrocytes, indicating that the activation of AKT and ERK contributed to the regulation of morroniside in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the intra-articular injection of morroniside elevated the level of proteoglycans in cartilage matrix and the thickness of articular cartilage in a rat experimental model of OA, with the increase of AKT and ERK activation. As a consequence, morroniside has chondroprotective effect on OA chondrocytes, and may have the therapeutic potential for OA treatment. PMID:25754021

  9. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase contribute to the chondroprotective effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Zeng, Guoqing; Liu, Zejun; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Honghai; Zheng, Xinpeng; Song, Gang; Kang, Jian; Xia, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Despite extensive studies on the multifaceted roles of morroniside, the main active constituent of iridoid glycoside from Corni Fructus, the effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the influence of morroniside on cultured human OA chondrocytes and a rat experimental model of OA. The results showed that morroniside enhanced the cell viability and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (PCNA), type II collagen and aggrecan in human OA chondrocytes, indicating that morroniside promoted chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, different doses of morroniside activated protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in human OA chondrocytes, and in turn, triggered AKT/S6 and ERK/P70S6K/S6 pathway, respectively. The PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the effect of morroniside on human OA chondrocytes, indicating that the activation of AKT and ERK contributed to the regulation of morroniside in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the intra-articular injection of morroniside elevated the level of proteoglycans in cartilage matrix and the thickness of articular cartilage in a rat experimental model of OA, with the increase of AKT and ERK activation. As a consequence, morroniside has chondroprotective effect on OA chondrocytes, and may have the therapeutic potential for OA treatment. PMID:25754021

  10. DNA-hypomethylating agent, 5'-azacytidine, induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The cytosine analogue 5'-azacytidine (5'-aza) induces DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase. In clinical trials, 5'-aza is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Accumulated evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various cancers, indicating that it may play a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, few studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the increased COX-2 expression. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 5'-aza regulates COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, was treated with various concentrations of 5'-aza for different time periods. Protein expressions of COX-2, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), pAkt, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined using western blot analysis, and COX-2 mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. PGE2 production was evaluated using the PGE2 assay kit. The localization and expression of COX-2 were determined using immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with 5'-aza induces protein and mRNA expression of COX-2. We also observed that 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were inhibited by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor. Treatment with 5'-aza phosphorylates PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2; inhibition of these pathways by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase/Akt, or PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, respectively, prevents 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Overall, these observations indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5'-aza modulates COX-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. PMID:26238650

  11. Identification of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene product tuberin as a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Manning, Brendan D; Tee, Andrew R; Logsdon, M Nicole; Blenis, John; Cantley, Lewis C

    2002-07-01

    The S/T-protein kinases activated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Here, we show that an approach using a combination of biochemistry and bioinformatics can identify substrates of these kinases. This approach identifies the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 gene product, tuberin, as a potential target of Akt/PKB. We demonstrate that, upon activation of PI3K, tuberin is phosphorylated on consensus recognition sites for PI3K-dependent S/T kinases. Moreover, Akt/PKB can phosphorylate tuberin in vitro and in vivo. We also show that S939 and T1462 of tuberin are PI3K-regulated phosphorylation sites and that T1462 is constitutively phosphorylated in PTEN(-/-) tumor-derived cell lines. Finally, we find that a tuberin mutant lacking the major PI3K-dependent phosphorylation sites can block the activation of S6K1, suggesting a means by which the PI3K-Akt pathway regulates S6K1 activity. PMID:12150915

  12. Akt2 and Akt3 play a pivotal role in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Mure, Hideo; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    Akt, one of the major downstream effectors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is hyper-expressed and activated in a variety of cancers including glioblastoma. However, the expression profiles of the Akt isoforms Akt1/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ and their functional roles in malignant glioma are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the protein and mRNA expression patterns of Akt isoforms in tissues from human astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and non-neoplastic regions. We also explored the biological role of each Akt isoform in malignant glioma cells using RNA interference-mediated knock-down and the over-expression of plasmid DNA of each isoform. The expression of Akt1 protein and mRNA was similar in glioma and normal control tissues. Although the protein and mRNA level of Akt2 increased with the pathological grade of malignancy, the expression of Akt3 mRNA and protein decreased as the malignancy grade increased. In U87MG, T98G, and TGB cells, the down-regulation of Akt2 or Akt3 by RNA interference reduced the expression of the phosphorylated form of Bad, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Akt1 knock-down did not affect cell growth or survival. We first demonstrate that the over-expression of Akt2 or Akt3 down-regulated the expression of the other protein and that endogenous Akt3 protein showed high kinase activity in U87MG cells. Our data suggest that Akt2 and Akt3 play an important role in the viability of human malignant glioma cells. Targeting Akt2 and Akt3 may hold promise for the treatment of patients with gliomas. PMID:20167810

  13. Inactivation of the tuberous sclerosis complex-1 and -2 gene products occurs by phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent and -independent phosphorylation of tuberin.

    PubMed

    Tee, Andrew R; Anjum, Rana; Blenis, John

    2003-09-26

    The tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that is caused through mutations in either one of the two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2, that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively. Interaction of hamartin with tuberin forms a heterodimer that inhibits signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin to its downstream targets: eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). During mitogenic sufficiency, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway phosphorylates tuberin on Ser-939 and Thr-1462 that inhibits the tumor suppressor function of the TSC complex. Here we show that tuberin-hamartin heterodimers block protein kinase C (PKC)/MAPK- and phosphatidic acid-mediated signaling toward mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent targets. We also show that two TSC2 mutants derived from TSC patients are defective in repressing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. PKC/MAPK signaling leads to phosphorylation of tuberin at sites that overlap with and are distinct from Akt phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of tuberin by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was reduced by treatment of cells with either bisindolylmaleimide I or UO126, inhibitors of PKC and MAPK/MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase), respectively, but not by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3K). This work reveals that both PI3K-independent and -dependent mechanisms modulate tuberin phosphorylation in vivo. PMID:12867426

  14. Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Ogura, Yasunori; Matsuda, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    A brain-enriched multi-domain scaffolding protein, neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) are also associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder of uncertain molecular origin. Potential roles of neurobeachin and CADM1 have been suggested to a function of vesicle transport in endosomal trafficking. It seems that protein kinase B (AKT) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) have key roles in the neuron membrane trafficking involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is documented to dopaminergic insufficiencies, which is attributed to synaptic dysfunction of dopamine transporter (DAT). AKT is also essential for the DAT cell-surface redistribution. In the present paper, we summarize and discuss the importance of several protein kinases that regulate the membrane trafficking involved in autism and ADHD, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25647412

  15. The chemopreventive agent myoinositol inhibits Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in bronchial lesions from heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Gills, Joell J; Memmott, Regan M; Lam, Stephen; Dennis, Phillip A

    2009-04-01

    Myoinositol is an isomer of glucose that has chemopreventive activity in animal models of cancer. In a recent phase I clinical trial, myoinositol administration correlated with a statistically significant regression of preexisting bronchial dysplastic lesions in heavy smokers. To shed light on the potential mechanisms involved, activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), two kinases that control cellular proliferation and survival, was assessed in 206 paired bronchial biopsies from 21 patients who participated in this clinical trial. Before myoinositol treatment, strongly positive staining for activation of Akt was detected in 27% of hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions and 58% of dysplastic lesions (P = 0.05, chi(2) test). There was also a trend toward increased activation of ERK (28% in regions of hyperplasia/metaplasia to 42% of dysplastic lesions). Following myoinositol treatment, significant decreases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation were observed in dysplastic (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively) but not hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions (P > 0.05). In vitro, myoinositol decreased endogenous and tobacco carcinogen-induced activation of Akt and ERK in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, which decreased cell proliferation and induced a G(1)-S cell cycle arrest. These results show that the phenotypic progression of premalignant bronchial lesions from smokers correlates with increased activation of Akt and ERK and that these kinases are targets of myoinositol. Moreover, they suggest that myoinositol might cause regression of bronchial dysplastic lesions through inhibition of active Akt and ERK. PMID:19336734

  16. Propranolol Improves Impaired Hepatic Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling after Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Natasha C; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Kraft, Robert; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Severe burn injury is associated with induction of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress leads to activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suppression of insulin receptor signaling via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and subsequent insulin resistance. Marked and sustained increases in catecholamines are prominent after a burn. Here, we show that administration of propranolol, a nonselective β1/2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, attenuates ER stress and JNK activation. Attenuation of ER stress by propranolol results in increased insulin sensitivity, as determined by activation of hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt. We conclude that catecholamine release is responsible for the ER stress response and impaired insulin receptor signaling after burn injury. PMID:22396018

  17. Targeting protein kinase C in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rauert-Wunderlich, Hilka; Rudelius, Martina; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Although targeting the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) with ibrutinib has changed lymphoma treatment, patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain incurable. In this study, we characterized a broad range of MCL cell lines and primary MCL cells with respect to the response to the BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib, and compared it with the response to the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, sotrastaurin. At clinically relevant concentrations, each drug induced potent cell death only in the REC-1 cell line, which was accompanied by robust inhibition of AKT and ERK1/ERK2 (ERK1/2, also termed MAPK3/MAPK1) phosphorylation. In sensitive REC-1 cells, the drug-mediated impaired phosphorylation was obvious on the levels of B-cell receptor-induced and basal phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained in primary MCL cells with ibrutinib and in a subset with sotrastaurin. The various drug-resistant MCL cell lines showed very distinct responses in terms of basal AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Interestingly, targeting PKC and BTK at the same time led to ibrutinib-mediated rescue of a weak sotrastaurin-induced apoptosis in MINO cells. Additional targeting of AKT sensitized MINO cells to inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity. In summary, MCL cells are heterogeneous in their response to BTK or PKC inhibition, indicating the need for even more individualized targeted treatment approaches in subsets of MCL patients. PMID:26914495

  18. MEF2 Is a Converging Hub for Histone Deacetylase 4 and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt-Induced Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Eros; Clocchiatti, Andrea; Piccinin, Sara; Sgorbissa, Andrea; Viviani, Giulia; Peruzzo, Paolo; Romeo, Salvatore; Rossi, Sabrina; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Maestro, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The MEF2-class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) axis operates in several differentiation pathways and in numerous adaptive responses. We show here that nuclear active HDAC4 and HDAC7 display transforming capability. HDAC4 oncogenic potential depends on the repression of a limited set of genes, most of which are MEF2 targets. Genes verified as targets of the MEF2-HDAC axis are also under the influence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway that affects MEF2 protein stability. A signature of MEF2 target genes identified by this study is recurrently repressed in soft tissue sarcomas. Correlation studies depicted two distinct groups of soft tissue sarcomas: one in which MEF2 repression correlates with PTEN downregulation and a second group in which MEF2 repression correlates with HDAC4 levels. Finally, simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and of MEF2-HDAC interaction shows additive effects on the transcription of MEF2 target genes and on sarcoma cells proliferation. Overall, our work pinpoints an important role of the MEF2-HDAC class IIa axis in tumorigenesis. PMID:24043307

  19. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Gu, Tieguang; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Mediated Muscle Cell Survival: Central Roles for Akt and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Margaret A.; Rotwein, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Polypeptide growth factors activate specific transmembrane receptors, leading to the induction of multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways which control cell function and fate. Recent studies have shown that growth factors promote cell survival by stimulating the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, which appears to function primarily as an antiapoptotic agent by inactivating death-promoting molecules. We previously established C2 muscle cell lines lacking endogenous expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). These cells underwent apoptotic death in low-serum differentiation medium but could be maintained as viable myoblasts by IGF analogues that activated the IGF-I receptor or by unrelated growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). Here we show that IGF-I promotes muscle cell survival through Akt-mediated induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Treatment of myoblasts with IGF-I or transfection with an inducible Akt maintained muscle cell survival and enhanced production of p21, and ectopic expression of p21 was able to sustain viability in the absence of growth factors. Blocking of p21 protein accumulation through a specific p21 antisense cDNA prevented survival regulated by IGF-I or Akt but did not block muscle cell viability mediated by PDGF-BB. Our results define Akt as an intermediate and p21 as a critical effector of an IGF-controlled myoblast survival pathway that is active during early myogenic differentiation and show that growth factors are able to maintain cell viability by inducing expression of pro-survival molecules. PMID:11073997

  1. Transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 by Akt3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Quanri; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Min, Hye-Young; Smith, John Kendal; Hwang, Su Jung; Whang, Young Mi; Kim, Woo-Young; Kim, Yeul Hong; Lee, Ho-Young

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent and -independent antitumor activities of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have been proposed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. However, the mechanism underlying regulation of IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC cells is not well understood. In this study, we show that activation of Akt, especially Akt3, plays a major role in the mRNA expression and protein stability of IGFBP-3 and thus antitumor activities of IGFBP-3 in NSCLC cells. When Akt was activated by genomic or pharmacologic approaches, IGFBP-3 transcription and protein stability were decreased. Conversely, suppression of Akt increased IGFBP-3 mRNA levels and protein stability in NSCLC cell lines. Characterization of the effects of constitutively active form of each Akt subtype (HA-Akt-DD) on IGFBP-3 expression in NSCLC cells and a xenograft model indicated that Akt3 plays a major role in the Akt-mediated regulation of IGFBP-3 expression and thus suppression of Akt effectively enhances the antitumor activities of IGFBP-3 in NSCLC cells with Akt3 overactivation. Collectively, these data suggest a novel function of Akt3 as a negative regulator of IGFBP-3, indicating the possible benefit of a combined inhibition of IGFBP-3 and Akt3 for the treatment of patients with NSCLC. PMID:24942865

  2. MicroRNA-21 promotes phosphatase gene and protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Tu, Chuan-Tao; He, Juan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the regulatory mechanism of the target gene of microRNA-21 (miR-21), phosphatase gene (PTEN), and its downstream proteins, protein kinase B (AKT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN in HCT116, HT29, Colo32 and SW480 CRC cell lines. Also, the expression levels of PTEN mRNA and its downstream proteins AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulating miR-21 were investigated. RESULTS: Comparing the miR-21 expression in CRC cells, the expression levels of miR-21 were highest in HCT116 cells, and the expression levels of miR-21 were lowest in SW480 cells. In comparing miR-21 and PTEN expression in CRC cells, we found that the protein expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN were inversely correlated (P < 0.05); when miR-21 expression was reduced, mRNA expression levels of PTEN did not significantly change (P > 0.05), but the expression levels of its protein significantly increased (P < 0.05). In comparing the levels of PTEN protein and downstream AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulation of miR-21 expression, the levels of AKT and PI3K protein expression significantly decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PTEN is one of the direct target genes of miR-21. Thus, phosphatase gene and its downstream AKT and PI3K expression levels can be regulated by regulating the expression levels of miR-21, which in turn regulates the development of CRC. PMID:27350731

  3. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  4. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  5. Long Wavelength Monitoring of Protein Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Nathan P.; Nguyen, Luong T.; Jernigan, Finith E.; Priestman, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A family of long wavelength protein kinase fluorescent reporters is described in which the probing wavelength is pre-programmed using readily available fluorophores. These agents can assess protein kinase activity within the optical window of tissue, as exemplified by monitoring endogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (1) in erythrocyte lysates and (2) in intact erythrocytes using a light-activatable reporter. PMID:24604833

  6. Increased apoptotic efficacy of lonidamine plus arsenic trioxide combination in human leukemia cells. Reactive oxygen species generation and defensive protein kinase (MEK/ERK, Akt/mTOR) modulation.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Eva; Estañ, María Cristina; Simón, Gloria P; Sancho, Pilar; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Bréard, Jacqueline; Aller, Patricio

    2011-12-01

    Lonidamine is a safe, clinically useful anti-tumor drug, but its efficacy is generally low when used in monotherapy. We here demonstrate that lonidamine efficaciously cooperates with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox) to induce apoptosis in HL-60 and other human leukemia cell lines, with low toxicity in non-tumor peripheral blood lymphocytes. Apoptosis induction by lonidamine/ATO involves mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by early mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and late mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, as well as activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as indicated by Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bax translocation to mitochondria, cytochrome c and Omi/HtrA2 release to the cytosol, XIAP down-regulation, and caspase-9 and -3 cleavage/activation, with secondary (Bcl-2-inhibitable) activation of the caspase-8/Bid axis. Lonidamine stimulates reactive oxygen species production, and lonidamine/ATO toxicity is attenuated by antioxidants. Lonidamine/ATO stimulates JNK phosphorylation/activation, and apoptosis is attenuated by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In addition, lonidamine elicits ERK and Akt/mTOR pathway activation, as indicated by increased ERK, Akt, p70S6K and rpS6 phosphorylation, and these effects are reduced by co-treatment with ATO. Importantly, co-treatment with MEK/ERK inhibitor (U0126) and PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or mTOR (rapamycin) inhibitors, instead of ATO, also potentiates lonidamine-provoked apoptosis. These results indicate that: (i) lonidamine efficacy is restrained by drug-provoked activation of MEK/ERK and Akt/mTOR defensive pathways, which therefore represent potential therapeutic targets. (ii) Co-treatment with ATO efficaciously potentiates lonidamine toxicity via defensive pathway inhibition and JNK activation. And (iii) conversely, the pro-oxidant action of lonidamine potentiates the apoptotic efficacy of ATO as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID:21889928

  7. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Akt and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) phosphorylation in different tissues of C57BL6, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) male mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Tajima, Kazuki; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) suppresses the activity and mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 reportedly differ between the liver and muscle tissue and the effect of DHEA on insulin signaling has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined DHEA's effect on the liver and muscle tissue of IRS1(-/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD containing 0.2% DHEA for 4 weeks. In a separate experiment, 8-week-old male C57BL6 mice were fed an HFD or an HFD containing 0.2% androstenedione for 4 weeks. In an insulin tolerance test, DHEA administration decreased the initial plasma glucose levels in the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice but did not decrease the ratios to the basal blood glucose level. Although DHEA administration increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver of the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice, androstenedione administration did not increase Akt phosphorylation in the liver of C57BL6 mice. DHEA administration did not increase Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), or IRS2(-/-) mice. However, androstenedione administration increased Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6 mice. These findings suggest that the effect of DHEA on insulin action in the liver is self-mediated by DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in the presence of IRS1, IRS2, or both. PMID:26976654

  8. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26921637

  9. Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

  10. Pivotal Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 in Inflammatory Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Deng, Jing; Wang, Gang; Ye, Richard D.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase (MK2) is exclusively regulated by p38 MAPK in vivo. Upon activation of p38 MAPK, MK2 binds with p38 MAPK, leading to phosphorylation of TTP, Hsp27, Akt and Cdc25 that are involved in regulation of various essential cellular functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of MK2 in regulation of TNF-α production, NADPH oxidase activation, neutrophil migration, and DNA-damage-induced cell cycle arrest which are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Collectively current and emerging new information indicate that developing MK2 inhibitors and blocking MK2-mediated signal pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases and lung cancer. PMID:26119506

  11. Akt phosphorylates myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ), releases P-MAZ from the p53 promoter, and activates p53 transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ping; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-05-28

    The p53 protein is a cell cycle regulator. When the cell cycle progresses, p53 plays an important role in putting a brake on the G1 phase to prevent unwanted errors during cell division. Akt is a downstream kinase of receptor tyrosine kinase. Upon activation, Akt phorphorylates IKK that then phosphorylates IκB and releases NF-κB, leading to transcriptional activation of Dmp1. Dmp1 is a transcriptional activator of Arf. It has been known that oncogene activation stabilizes p53 through transcriptional activation of Arf, which then binds and inhibits Mdm2. In the current study, we show that myc-associated zinc finger protein (MAZ) is a transcriptional repressor of the p53 promoter. Akt phosphorylates MAZ at Thr385, and the phosphorylated MAZ is released from the p53 promoter, leading to transcriptional activation of p53, a new mechanism that contributes to increased p53 protein pool during oncogene activation. PMID:26902421

  12. Clionosterol and ethyl cholestan-22-enol isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Kim Van; Jeong, Jin Ju; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitors were isolated from the rhizome of Polygala tenuifolia WILLD (PT, Polygalaceae), which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for inflammation, dementia, amnesia, neurasthenia and cancer, by activity-guided fractionation. For the assay of PI3K/Akt pathway, cytoprotective Tat-transduced CHME5 cells, which are the cytoprotective phenotype against lypopolysaccharide (LPS)/cycloheximide (CHX), were used. We isolated 4 anti-cytoprotective compounds, clionasterol (1), ethyl cholestan-22-enol (2), 3-O-β-D-glucosyl ethyl cholestan-22-enol (3), and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl clionasterol (4) from EtOAc fraction of PT against Tat-transduced CHME5 cells. Of them, (1) and (2) most potently abolished cytoprotective effect of Tat-transduced CHME5 cells. These constituents (1) and (2) inhibited the activation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and its downstream molecules, Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, in PI3K/Akt cell survival signaling pathway, but did not suppress the activation of PI3K. Based on these finding, (1) and (2) may abolish the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-transduced CHME5 cells by inhibiting PDK1 phosphorylation in PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:22863942

  13. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  14. HspB8 mediates neuroprotection against OGD/R in N2A cells through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiping; Yang, Binbin; Mo, Xiaoye; Zhou, Fangfang

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, we found that Heat shock protein B8 (HspB8) overexpression could prevent the apoptosis and reduced cell viability induced by OGD/R and showed that the neuroprotective effect of HspB8 was mediated by inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In recent study, HspB8 has been shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. However, whether this protective effect applied to brain I/R injury remained unexplored. To further test the mechanism of HspB8's effects in brain, we used oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R), an in vitro model of ischemia to examine the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling by treating mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2A cells) (untransfected or transfected with an HspB8 expression vector) with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 before OGD/R. Our results revealed that the apoptosis-suppressing effect of HspB8 was mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore, HspB8 protected the N2A cells against OGD/R insult, possibly by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27178361

  15. Protein kinase Cζ exhibits constitutive phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-independent regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Irene S.; Kaulich, Manuel; Kim, Peter K.; Simon, Nitya; Jacinto, Estela; Dowdy, Steven F.; King, Charles C.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoenzymes are key modulators of insulin signalling, and their dysfunction correlates with insulin-resistant states in both mice and humans. Despite the engaged interest in the importance of aPKCs to type 2 diabetes, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern their cellular functions than for the conventional and novel PKC isoenzymes and the functionally-related protein kinase B (Akt) family of kinases. Here we show that aPKC is constitutively phosphorylated and, using a genetically-encoded reporter for PKC activity, basally active in cells. Specifically, we show that phosphorylation at two key regulatory sites, the activation loop and turn motif, of the aPKC PKCζ in multiple cultured cell types is constitutive and independently regulated by separate kinases: ribosome-associated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) mediates co-translational phosphorylation of the turn motif, followed by phosphorylation at the activation loop by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Live cell imaging reveals that global aPKC activity is constitutive and insulin unresponsive, in marked contrast to the insulin-dependent activation of Akt monitored by an Akt-specific reporter. Nor does forced recruitment to phosphoinositides by fusing the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt to the kinase domain of PKCζ alter either the phosphorylation or activity of PKCζ. Thus, insulin stimulation does not activate PKCζ through the canonical phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-mediated pathway that activates Akt, contrasting with previous literature on PKCζ activation. These studies support a model wherein an alternative mechanism regulates PKCζ-mediated insulin signalling that does not utilize conventional activation via agonist-evoked phosphorylation at the activation loop. Rather, we propose that scaffolding near substrates drives the function of PKCζ. PMID:26635352

  16. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru )

    1988-12-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32})ATP for 10 min at 37{degree}C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation.

  17. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  19. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  20. Dynamic architecture of a protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Christopher L.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Gilson, Michael K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are dynamically regulated signaling proteins that act as switches in the cell by phosphorylating target proteins. To establish a framework for analyzing linkages between structure, function, dynamics, and allostery in protein kinases, we carried out multiple microsecond-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of protein kinase A (PKA), an exemplar active kinase. We identified residue–residue correlated motions based on the concept of mutual information and used the Girvan–Newman method to partition PKA into structurally contiguous “communities.” Most of these communities included 40–60 residues and were associated with a particular protein kinase function or a regulatory mechanism, and well-known motifs based on sequence and secondary structure were often split into different communities. The observed community maps were sensitive to the presence of different ligands and provide a new framework for interpreting long-distance allosteric coupling. Communication between different communities was also in agreement with the previously defined architecture of the protein kinase core based on the “hydrophobic spine” network. This finding gives us confidence in suggesting that community analyses can be used for other protein kinases and will provide an efficient tool for structural biologists. The communities also allow us to think about allosteric consequences of mutations that are linked to disease. PMID:25319261

  1. [Relationship between PTEN mutations and protein kinase B phosphorylation caused by insulin or recombinant human epidermal growth factor stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hailan; Hu, Xianfu; Lin, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations on protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation of CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. Methods CNE-1 cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 100 mL/L fetal calf serum, and then transfected with wild-type PTEN (wtPTEN), mutant PTEN C124S and mutant PTEN G129E plasmid separately. After overnight serum starvation, the cells were stimulated with 0.15 IU/mL insulin or 0.3 μg/mL recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). At last, Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting. Results Insulin or rhEGF stimulation led to Akt activation in CNE-1 cells. The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN C124S mutant activated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, but not rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN G129E mutant inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusion The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, while PTEN C124S and G129E mutants failed to activate the phosphorylation of Akt consistently. This suggested PTEN mutations might not be correlated with activated Akt. PMID:27412938

  2. Pioglitazone inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase is associated with altered activity of p38 MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Bin; Xin, Tao; Hunter, Randy Lee; Bing, Guoying

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well established. In the present study we explored: (1) the effect of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO) generation by microglia; (2) the differential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) on LPS-induced NO generation; and (3) the regulation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K by pioglitazone. Methods Mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures, and microglia-enriched cultures were treated with pioglitazone and/or LPS. The protein levels of iNOS, p38 MAPK, JNK, PPAR-γ, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt) were measured by western blot. Different specific inhibitors of iNOS, p38MAPK, JNK, PI3K, and Akt were used in our experiment, and NO generation was measured using a nitrite oxide assay kit. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were counted in mesencephalic neuron-microglia mixed cultures. Results Our results showed that pioglitazone inhibits LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO generation, and inhibition of iNOS is sufficient to protect dopaminergic neurons against LPS insult. In addition, inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not JNK, prevented LPS-induced NO generation. Further, and of interest, pioglitazone inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, enhanced p38 MAPK phosphorylation upon LPS stimulation of microglia. Elevations of phosphorylated PPAR-γ, PI3K, and Akt levels were observed with pioglitazone treatment, and inhibition of PI3K activity enhanced LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, wortmannin prevented the inhibitory effect of pioglitazone on

  3. Targeting the glucose-regulated protein-78 abrogates Pten-null driven AKT activation and endometrioid tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y G; Shen, J; Yoo, E; Liu, R; Yen, H-Y; Mehta, A; Rajaei, A; Yang, W; Mhawech-Fauceglia, P; DeMayo, F J; Lydon, J; Gill, P; Lee, A S

    2015-10-01

    Rates of the most common gynecologic cancer, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), continue to rise, mirroring the global epidemic of obesity, a well-known EAC risk factor. Thus, identifying novel molecular targets to prevent and/or mitigate EAC is imperative. The prevalent Type 1 EAC commonly harbors loss of the tumor suppressor, Pten, leading to AKT activation. The major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, GRP78, is a potent pro-survival protein to maintain ER homeostasis, and as a cell surface protein, is known to regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To determine whether targeting GRP78 could suppress EAC development, we created a conditional knockout mouse model using progesterone receptor-Cre-recombinase to achieve Pten and Grp78 (cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f)) deletion in the endometrial epithelium. Mice with a single Pten (cPten(f/f)) deletion developed well-differentiated EAC by 4 weeks. In contrast, no cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice developed EAC, even after more than 8 months of observation. Histologic examination of uteri from cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice also revealed no complex atypical hyperplasia, a well-established EAC precursor. These histologic observations among the cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) murine uteri also corresponded to abrogation of AKT activation within the endometrium. We further observed that GRP78 co-localized with activated AKT on the surface of EAC, thus providing an opportunity for therapeutic targeting. Consistent with previous findings that cell surface GRP78 is an upstream regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling, we show here that in vivo short-term systemic treatment with a highly specific monoclonal antibody against GRP78 suppressed AKT activation and increased apoptosis in the cPten(f/f) tumors. Collectively, these findings present GRP78-targeting therapy as an efficacious therapeutic option for EAC. PMID:25684138

  4. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Aurora-B alters the metastatic behavior of A549 cells via modulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LONG DIAN; XIONG, XU; LONG, XIN HUA; LIU, ZHI LI; HUANG, SHAN HU; ZHANG, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that an elevated expression level of Aurora-B is associated with metastasis in various types of malignant tumor. However, it is currently unclear whether this molecule is involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis, and the molecular mechanisms associated with Aurora-B and metastasis remain unknown. In the present study, in order to investigate whether Aurora-B is involved in the development and metastasis of NSCLC, the Aurora-B protein expression in NSCLC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and its association with metastasis was analyzed. The results revealed that the expression levels of the Aurora-B protein in tissues obtained from NSCLC patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those without metastatic disease. Furthermore, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on A549 cell migration and invasion, as well as the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was evaluated. Aurora-B was inhibited in the A549 cells using short hairpin RNA, and the cell migration and invasion rates were investigated using wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. In addition, the expression of the main proteins in the PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 were measured by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were decreased as a result of silencing Aurora-B. Furthermore, the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and the expression of MMP-2 and -9 protein were suppressed by silencing Aurora-B. The results of the present study indicate that the knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses A549 cell invasion and migration via the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and thus, targeting Aurora-B may present a potential treatment strategy for NSCLC. PMID:25295091

  5. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P; Taub, Dennis D

    2014-12-20

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levels and impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  6. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  7. Regulation of neutrophil apoptosis by modulation of PKB/Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Rane, Madhavi J; Klein, Jon B

    2009-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase, Akt, also known as PKB (Protein Kinase B) is one important signal transduction pathway that mediates the delay of neutrophil apoptosis caused by inflammatory mediators. Proteins controlled by the PKB/Akt pathway have been reported to prevent or reverse apoptotic-signaling pathways and regulate cell survival. In this review we discuss the role of PKB/Akt activation in the regulation of neutrophil activation during inflammation, and the importance of resolving the inflammatory response by inhibiting PKB/Akt activation and neutrophil survival. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of a dynamic Akt signal complex that is altered when an extracellular signal is initiated such that changes in protein-protein interactions within the Akt signal complex regulates Akt activity and cell survival. Various substrates of PKB/Akt as well as positive and negative regulators of PKB/Akt activation are discussed which in turn inhibit or enhance cellular survival. PMID:19273208

  8. Stimulation of EphB2 attenuates tau phosphorylation through PI3K/Akt-mediated inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Qu, Min; Gao, Di; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Zhu, Ling-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation is an early pathological marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, the upstream factors that regulate tau phosphorylation are not illustrated and there is no efficient strategy to arrest tau hyperphosphorylation. Here, we find that activation of endogenous EphB2 receptor by ligand stimulation (ephrinB1/Fc) or by ectopic expression of EphB2 plus the ligand stimulation induces a remarkable tau dephosphorylation at multiple AD-associated sites in SK-N-SH cells and human embryonic kidney cells that stably express human tau (HEK293-tau). In cultured hippocampal neurons and the hippocampus of human tau transgenic mice, dephosphorylation of tau proteins was also detected by stimulation of EphB2 receptor. EphB2 activation inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a crucial tau kinase, and activates phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt both in vitro and in vivo, whereas simultaneous inhibition of PI3K or upregulation of GSK-3β abolishes the EphB2 stimulation-induced tau dephosphorylation. Finally, we confirm that ephrinB1/Fc treatment induces tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) of EphB2, while deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain (VM) of EphB2 eliminates the receptor stimulation-induced GSK-3β inhibition and tau dephosphorylation. We conclude that activation of EphB2 receptor kinase arrests tau hyperphosphorylation through PI3K-/Akt-mediated GSK-3β inhibition. Our data provide a novel membranous target to antagonize AD-like tau pathology. PMID:26119563

  9. Development of a new model system to dissect isoform specific Akt signalling in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajno, Esi; McGraw, Timothy E; Gonzalez, Eva

    2015-06-15

    Protein kinase B (Akt) kinases are critical signal transducers mediating insulin action. Genetic studies revealed that Akt1 and Akt2 signalling differentially contribute to sustain lipid and glucose homoeostasis; however Akt isoform-specific effectors remain elusive due to the lack of a suitable model system to mechanistically interrogate Akt isoform-specific signalling. To overcome those technical limitations we developed a novel model system that provides acute and specific control of signalling by Akt isoforms. We generated mutants of Akt1 and Akt2 resistant to the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. We then developed adipocyte cell lines, in which endogenous Akt1 or Akt2 has been replaced by their corresponding drug-resistant Akt mutant. Treatment of those cells with MK-2206 allowed for acute and specific control of either Akt1 or Akt2 function. Our data showed that Akt1(W80A) and Akt2(W80A) mutants are resistant to MK-2206, dynamically regulated by insulin and able to signal to Akt downstream effectors. Analyses of insulin action in this cellular system showed that Akt1 and Akt2 are both able to mediate insulin regulation of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), revealing a redundant role for these Akt kinases in the control of glucose transport into fat cells. In contrast, Akt1 signalling is uniquely required for adipogenesis, by controlling the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of pre-adipocytes that precedes white adipose cell differentiation. Our data provide new insights into the role of Akt kinases in glucose transport and adipogenesis and support our model system as a valuable tool for the biochemical characterization of signalling by specific Akt isoforms. PMID:25856301

  10. A Screen for Novel Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Effector Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Miles J.; Gray, Alexander; Boisvert, François-Michel; Agacan, Mark; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Gourlay, Robert; Leslie, Nicholas R.; Downes, C. Peter; Batty, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases exert important cellular effects through their two primary lipid products, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2). As few molecular targets for PtdIns(3,4)P2 have yet been identified, a screen for PI 3-kinase-responsive proteins that is selective for these is described. This features a tertiary approach incorporating a unique, primary recruitment of target proteins in intact cells to membranes selectively enriched in PtdIns(3,4)P2. A secondary purification of these proteins, optimized using tandem pleckstrin homology domain containing protein-1 (TAPP-1), an established PtdIns(3,4)P2 selective ligand, yields a fraction enriched in proteins of potentially similar lipid binding character that are identified by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Thirdly, this approach is coupled to stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture using differential isotope labeling of cells stimulated in the absence and presence of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. This provides a ratio-metric readout that distinguishes authentically responsive components from copurifying background proteins. Enriched fractions thus obtained from astrocytoma cells revealed a subset of proteins that exhibited ratios indicative of their initial, cellular responsiveness to PI 3-kinase activation. The inclusion among these of tandem pleckstrin homology domain containing protein-1, three isoforms of Akt, switch associated protein-70, early endosome antigen-1 and of additional proteins expressing recognized lipid binding domains demonstrates the utility of this strategy and lends credibility to the novel candidate proteins identified. The latter encompass a broad set of proteins that include the gene product of TBC1D2A, a putative Rab guanine nucleotide triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) and IQ motif containing GAP1, a potential tumor promoter. A sequence comparison of the former protein indicates

  11. Wnt5a promotes migration of human osteosarcoma cells by triggering a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is classified as a non-transforming Wnt family member and plays complicated roles in oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. However, Wnt5a signaling in osteosarcoma progression remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that Wnt5a stimulated the migration of human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), with the maximal effect at 100 ng/ml, via enhancing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt. PI3K and Akt showed visible signs of basal phosphorylation and elevated phosphorylation at 15 min after stimulation with Wnt5a. Pharmaceutical inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 significantly blocked the Wnt5a-induced activation of Akt (p-Ser473) and decreased Wnt5a-induced cell migration. Akt siRNA remarkably inhibited Wnt5a-induced cell migration. Additionally, Wnt5a does not alter the total expression and phosphorylation of β-catenin in MG-63 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time that Wnt5a promoted osteosarcoma cell migration via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapy targeting osteosarcoma metastasis. PMID:24524196

  12. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling mediates sorafenib-induced invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Litao; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Chi, Huiying; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Sorafenib, an antiangiogenic agent, can promote tumor invasion and metastasis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Yet, little is known concerning the role of the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway in sorafenib‑induced invasion and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma (HCC). A human HCC orthotopic xenograft model was established, and sorafenib (30 mg/kg/day) was administered orally. Tumor growth and intrahepatic metastasis were assessed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the activation of the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway. HCC cell lines were treated with sorafenib (1, 5 and 10 µM), and proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to examine the related gene expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and the PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth and promoted intrahepatic invasion and metastasis of the orthotopic tumors grown from SMMC7721-GFP cells in vivo. Additionally, sorafenib promoted EMT and invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro. Importantly, sorafenib enhanced PI3K and Akt activation and upregulation of the expression of transcription factor Snail, a critical EMT mediator. The upregulation of transcription factor Snail expression by sorafenib may be related to activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The PI3K/Akt/Snail-dependent pathway may mediate the pro-invasive and pro-metastatic effects of sorafenib on HCC by inducing EMT. PMID:25070581

  13. Activation of PI3-kinase stimulates endocytosis of ROMK via Akt1/SGK1-dependent phosphorylation of WNK1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Huang, Chou-Long

    2011-03-01

    WNK kinases stimulate endocytosis of ROMK channels to regulate renal K+ handling. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-activating hormones, such as insulin and IGF 1, phosphorylate WNK1, but how this affects the regulation of ROMK abundance is unknown. Here, serum starvation of ROMK-transfected HEK cells led to an increase of ROMK current density; subsequent addition of insulin or IGF1 inhibited ROMK currents in a PI3K-dependent manner. Serum and insulin also increased phosphorylation of the downstream kinases Akt1 and SGK1 as well as WNK1. A biotinylation assay suggested that insulin and IGF1 inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis, a process that WNK1 may mediate. Knockdown of WNK1 with siRNA or expression of a phospho-deficient WNK1 mutant (T58A) both prevented insulin-induced inhibition of ROMK currents, suggesting that phosphorylation at Threonine-58 of WNK1 is important to mediate the inhibition of ROMK by PI3K-activating hormones or growth factors. In vitro and in vivo kinase assays supported the notion that Akt1 and SGK1 can phosphorylate WNK1 at this site, and we established that Akt1 and SGK1 synergistically inhibit ROMK through WNK1. We used dominant-negative intersectin and dynamin constructs to show that SGK1-mediated phosphorylation of WNK1 inhibits ROMK by promoting its endocytosis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K-activating hormones inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of WNK1 by Akt1 and SGK1. PMID:21355052

  14. RUNX1 regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway: role in chemotherapy sensitivity in acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Holly; Xie, Chengzhi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Buck, Steven A.; Boerner, Julie L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    RUNX1 (AML1) encodes the core binding factor α subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor complex which plays critical roles in normal hematopoiesis. Translocations or down-regulation of RUNX1 have been linked to favorable clinical outcomes in acute leukemias, suggesting that RUNX1 may also play critical roles in chemotherapy responses in acute leukemias; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The median level of RUNX1b transcripts in Down syndrome (DS) children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) were 4.4-fold (P < .001) lower than that in non-DS AMkL cases. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of RUNX1 in a non-DS AMkL cell line, Meg-01, resulted in significantly increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of PIK3CD, which encodes the δ catalytic subunit of the survival kinase, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)–kinase. Transcriptional regulation of PIK3CD by RUNX1 was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. Further, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and cytosine arabinoside synergized in antileukemia effects on Meg-01 and primary pediatric AMkL cells. Our results suggest that RUNX1 may play a critical role in chemotherapy response in AMkL by regulating the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Thus, the treatment of AMkL may be improved by integrating PI3-kinase or Akt inhibitors into the chemotherapy of this disease. PMID:19638627

  15. Studies on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the alveolar macrophages of chronic bronchitis rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Guo-Lin; Yang, Ya-Ru; Liu, Juan; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent stimulator of inflammatory responses in alveolar macrophages (AMs), activates several intracellular signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In the present study, we investigated the MAPK pathway in AMs of chronic bronchitis (CB) rats. CB was induced by endotracheal instillation of LPS followed by Bacillus Calmette Guerin injection through the caudal vein 1 week later. Specific inhibitors were used and protein phosphorylations were detected by Western blot. We found that Genistein (PTK inhibitor) could inhibit protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt or PKB) MAPK signaling pathway with different degrees, LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) could not only inhibit phospho-PI3K/Akt expression, but also inhibit p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation. Calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) could inhibit phospho-PKC expression and exerted significant effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, however, it had no impact on p38 and JNK phosphorylation. These results demonstrated that the LPS mediated signaling pathway of MAPK in AMs of CB rats could be described as follows: PTK-PI3K-Akt-JNK/p38 or PTK-PI3K-PKC-ERK, and PI3K may have a negative regulation on the activation of downstream proteins. PMID:25467375

  16. Nitration of JAK-2 at the 1007Y-1008Y activation epitope impedes phosphorylation at this site: defining a GH, AKT/protein kinase B and nitric oxide synthase axis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generalized liver protein tyrosine nitration (3’-nitrotyrosine, 3’-NT) increases in vivo after GH injection with immunohistocellular patterns strikingly similar to those we observed for a specific nitration of JAK2 at its 1007Y-1008Y regulatory phosphorylation epitope following proinflammatory chall...

  17. Differential Modulation of Brainstem Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling Underlies WIN55,212-2 Centrally Mediated Pressor Response in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Badr Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that central cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) activation caused dose-related pressor response in conscious rats, and reported studies implicated the brainstem phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in blood pressure control. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that the modulation of brainstem PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2 signaling plays a critical role in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response. In conscious freely moving rats, the pressor response elicited by intracisternal (i.c.) (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt (WIN55,212-2) (15 μg) was associated with significant increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced in the same neuronal pools. Pretreatment with the selective CB1R antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) (30 μg i.c.) attenuated the neurochemical responses elicited by central CB1R activation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor 2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone (PD98059) (5 μg i.c.) abrogated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in blood pressure and neuronal ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not the reduction in Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, prior PI3K inhibition with wortmannin (0.4 μg i.c.) exacerbated the WIN55,212-2 (7.5 and 15 μg i.c.) dose-related increases in blood pressure and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the RVLM. The present neurochemical and integrative studies yield new insight into the critical role of two brainstem kinases, PI3K and ERK1/2, in the pressor response elicited by central CB1R activation in conscious rats. PMID:21946192

  18. Regulation of Axonal Transport by Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine L; Greensmith, Linda; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, lipids, and RNA along the axon is essential for neuronal function and survival. This process, called axonal transport, is mediated by two classes of ATP-dependent motors, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, which carry their cargoes along microtubule tracks. Protein kinases regulate axonal transport through direct phosphorylation of motors, adapter proteins, and cargoes, and indirectly through modification of the microtubule network. The misregulation of axonal transport by protein kinases has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nervous system disorders. Here, we review the role of protein kinases acting directly on axonal transport and discuss how their deregulation affects neuronal function, paving the way for the exploitation of these enzymes as novel drug targets. PMID:26410600

  19. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2004-10-12

    The present invention relates to 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such 2-N-substituted 6-(4-methoxybenzylamino)-9-isopropylpurines to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  20. Protein kinase domain of twitchin has protein kinase activity and an autoinhibitory region.

    PubMed

    Lei, J; Tang, X; Chambers, T C; Pohl, J; Benian, G M

    1994-08-19

    Twitchin is a 753-kDa polypeptide located in the muscle A-bands of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. It consists of multiple copies of both fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains and, near the C terminus, a protein kinase domain with greatest homology to the catalytic domains of myosin light chain kinases. We have expressed and purified from Escherichia coli twitchin's protein kinase catalytic core and flanking sequences that do not include fibronectin III and immunoglobulin C2 domains. The protein was shown to phosphorylate a model substrate and to undergo autophosphorylation. The autophosphorylation occurs at a slow rate, attaining a maximum at 3 h with a stoichiometry of about 1.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein, probably through an intramolecular mechanism. Sequence analysis of proteolytically derived phosphopeptides revealed that autophosphorylation occurred N-terminal to the catalytic core, predominantly at Thr-5910, with possible minor sites at Ser5912 and/or Ser-5913. This portion of twitchin (residues 5890-6268) was also phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C in the absence of calcium and phosphotidylserine, but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. By comparing the activities of three twitchin segments, the enzyme appears to be inhibited by the 60-amino acid residues lying just C-terminal to the kinase catalytic core. Thus, like a number of other protein kinases including myosin light chain kinases, the twitchin kinase appears to be autoregulated. PMID:8063727

  1. Effective Identification of Akt Interacting Proteins by Two-Step Chemical Crosslinking, Co-Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Akt is a critical protein for cell survival and known to interact with various proteins. However, Akt binding partners that modulate or regulate Akt activation have not been fully elucidated. Identification of Akt-interacting proteins has been customarily achieved by co-immunoprecipitation combined with western blot and/or MS analysis. An intrinsic problem of the method is loss of interacting proteins during procedures to remove non-specific proteins. Moreover, antibody contamination often interferes with the detection of less abundant proteins. Here, we developed a novel two-step chemical crosslinking strategy to overcome these problems which resulted in a dramatic improvement in identifying Akt interacting partners. Akt antibody was first immobilized on protein A/G beads using disuccinimidyl suberate and allowed to bind to cellular Akt along with its interacting proteins. Subsequently, dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate], a cleavable crosslinker, was introduced to produce stable complexes between Akt and binding partners prior to the SDS-PAGE and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. This approach enabled identification of ten Akt partners from cell lysates containing as low as 1.5 mg proteins, including two new potential Akt interacting partners. None of these but one protein was detectable without crosslinking procedures. The present method provides a sensitive and effective tool to probe Akt-interacting proteins. This strategy should also prove useful for other protein interactions, particularly those involving less abundant or weakly associating partners. PMID:23613850

  2. Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR Activation by Semliki Forest and Chikungunya Viruses Is Dependent on nsP3 and Connected to Replication Complex Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Biasiotto, Roberta; Eng, Kai; Neuvonen, Maarit; Götte, Benjamin; Rheinemann, Lara; Mutso, Margit; Utt, Age; Varghese, Finny; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Merits, Andres; Ahola, Tero; McInerney, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-Δ50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed and reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-Δ50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane and subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt and SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-Δ50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV and CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation and replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. IMPORTANCE SFV and CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular and cell biology, e.g., regarding replication and molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human

  3. Model of Protein Kinase B for Cell Survival/Death and its Equivalent Bio Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shruti; Naik, Pradeep K.; Bhooshan, Sunil V.

    2011-12-01

    Signaling pathways have traditionally focused on delineating immediate upstream and down stream interactions, and then organizing these interactions into linear cascades that relay and regulate information from cell surface receptors to cellular effectors such as metabolic enzymes, channels or transcription factors. However, recent analyses of signaling pathways have revealed that cellular signals do not necessarily propagate in a linear fashion. Because of their size and complexity, these networks are often too complicated for the human mind to organize and analyze. AkT (protein kinase B) is a central signaling molecule in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway that is frequently activated in human cancer. Here we provide an overview of recent findings, how AkT promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating several targets, including forkhead transcription factors, and caspase-9. The ability of AkT to promote survival was dependent on and proportional to its kinase activity. We have made computational model for AkT, on the basis of that model we have made the truth tables, Boolean equations and than implement the equations using logic circuits and Bio-circuits showing cell survival and death.

  4. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  5. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  6. Serine-threonine protein kinase activation may be an effective target for reducing neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mu; Yang, Yan-wei; Cheng, Wei-ping; Lu, Jia-kai; Hou, Si-yu; Dong, Xiu-hua; Liu, Shi-yao

    2015-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms underlying ischemia-induced nerve cell apoptosis are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of apoptosis-related signal transduction pathways following ischemic spinal cord injury, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury by inserting a catheter balloon in the left subclavian artery for 25 minutes. Rat models exhibited notable hindlimb dysfunction. Apoptotic cells were abundant in the anterior horn and central canal of the spinal cord. The number of apoptotic neurons was highest 48 hours post injury. The expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) increased immediately after reperfusion, peaked at 4 hours (p-Akt) or 2 hours (p-ERK), decreased at 12 hours, and then increased at 24 hours. Phosphorylated JNK expression reduced after reperfusion, increased at 12 hours to near normal levels, and then showed a downward trend at 24 hours. Pearson linear correlation analysis also demonstrated that the number of apoptotic cells negatively correlated with p-Akt expression. These findings suggest that activation of Akt may be a key contributing factor in the delay of neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia, particularly at the stage of reperfusion, and thus may be a target for neuronal protection and reduction of neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord injury. PMID:26807120

  7. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 can modulate the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/FoxO1 pathway in SZ95 sebocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mirdamadi, Yasaman; Thielitz, Anja; Wiede, Antje; Goihl, Alexander; Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Hartig, Roland; Zouboulis, Christos C; Reinhold, Dirk; Simeoni, Luca; Bommhardt, Ursula; Quist, Sven; Gollnick, Harald

    2015-11-01

    A recent hypothesis suggests that a high glycaemic load diet-associated increase of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin may promote acne by reducing nuclear localization of the forkhead box-O1 (FoxO1) transcription factor via activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Using SZ95 sebocytes as a model, we investigated the effect of the most important insulinotropic western dietary factors, IGF-1 and insulin on acne. SZ95 sebocytes were stimulated with different concentrations of IGF-1 and insulin (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μM) for 15 to 120 min ± PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (50 μM). Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of p-Akt and p-FoxO1 as well as FoxO transcriptional activity was analysed. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and their TLR2/4 expression were determined. We found that high concentrations of IGF-1 and insulin differentially stimulate the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway by an early up-regulation of cytoplasmic p-Akt and delayed up-regulation of p-FoxO1 resulting in FoxO1 shift to the cytoplasm and the reduction of FoxO transcriptional activity, physiological serum concentration had no effect. IGF-1 at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM significantly reduced proliferation but increased differentiation of sebocytes to a greater extent than insulin (0.1 and 1 μM), but up-regulated TLR2/4 expression to comparable extent. These data provide the first in vitro evidence that FoxO1 principally might be involved in the regulation of growth-factor-stimulatory effects on sebaceous lipogenesis and inflammation in the pathological condition of acne. However, the in vivo significance under physiological conditions remains to be elucidated. PMID:26257240

  8. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  9. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  10. Membrane-tethered AKT kinase regulates basal synaptic transmission and early phase LTP expression by modulation of post-synaptic AMPA receptor level.

    PubMed

    Pen, Y; Borovok, N; Reichenstein, M; Sheinin, A; Michaelevski, I

    2016-09-01

    The serine/threonine kinase AKT/PKB plays a fundamental role in a wide variety of neuronal functions, including neuronal cell development, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Multiple evidence link AKT signaling pathways to regulation of late phase long-term synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and spinogenesis, as well as long-term memory formation. Nevertheless, the downstream effectors mediating the effects of AKT on early phase long-term potentiation (eLTP) are currently unknown. Here we report that using different regimes of pharmacological activation and inhibition of AKT activity in acute hippocampal slices, we found that AKT regulates the post-synaptic expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA) receptors affecting solely the expression of eLTP, with no effect on its induction and maintenance. We further show that both maintenance of basal synaptic activity and expression of eLTP require plasma membrane tethering by activated AKT and that basal synaptic activity may be regulated via the direct effects of AKT1 on the expression level of post-synaptic AMPA receptors bypassing the canonical AKT signaling. Finally, we establish that eLTP expression requires the involvement of both the canonical AKT signaling pathways and the direct effect of AKT1 on AMPA receptor activity/expression in the post-synaptic membrane. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27068236

  11. Zebrafish WNK Lysine Deficient Protein Kinase 1 (wnk1) Affects Angiogenesis Associated with VEGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chuan; Kou, Fong-Ji; Lu, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Huang, Chou-Long; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The WNK1 (WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1) protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase with emerging roles in cancer. WNK1 causes hypertension and hyperkalemia when overexpressed and cardiovascular defects when ablated in mice. In this study, the role of Wnk1 in angiogenesis was explored using the zebrafish model. There are two zebrafish wnk1 isoforms, wnk1a and wnk1b, and both contain all the functional domains found in the human WNK1 protein. Both isoforms are expressed in the embryo at the initiation of angiogenesis and in the posterior cardinal vein (PCV), similar to fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (flt4). Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides against wnk1a and wnk1b, we observed that wnk1 morphants have defects in angiogenesis in the head and trunk, similar to flk1/vegfr2 morphants. Furthermore, both wnk1a and wnk1b mRNA can partially rescue the defects in vascular formation caused by flk1/vegfr2 knockdown. Mutation of the kinase domain or the Akt/PI3K phosphorylation site within wnk1 destroys this rescue capability. The rescue experiments provide evidence that wnk1 is a downstream target for Vegfr2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) and Akt/PI3K signaling and thereby affects angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (flk1/vegfr2) or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (flt4/vegfr3) results in a decrease in wnk1a expression, as assessed by in situ hybridization and q-RT-PCR analysis. Thus, the Vegf/Vegfr signaling pathway controls angiogenesis in zebrafish via Akt kinase-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Wnk1 as well as transcriptional regulation of wnk1 expression. PMID:25171174

  12. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-03-14

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways.

  13. Macrophage Akt1 Kinase-Mediated Mitophagy Modulates Apoptosis Resistance and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Deshane, Jessy S; Ryan, Alan J; Thannickal, Victor J; Carter, A Brent

    2016-03-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating lung disorder with increasing incidence. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages is directly linked to pulmonary fibrosis. Mitophagy, the selective engulfment of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagasomes, is important for cellular homeostasis and can be induced by mitochondrial oxidative stress. Here, we show Akt1 induced macrophage mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitophagy. Mice harboring a conditional deletion of Akt1 in macrophages (Akt1(-/-)Lyz2-cre) and Park2(-/-) mice had impaired mitophagy and reduced active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Although Akt1 increased TGF-β1 expression, mitophagy inhibition in Akt1-overexpressing macrophages abrogated TGF-β1 expression and fibroblast differentiation. Importantly, conditional Akt1(-/-)Lyz2-cre mice and Park2(-/-) mice had increased macrophage apoptosis and were protected from pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, IPF alveolar macrophages had evidence of increased mitophagy and displayed apoptosis resistance. These observations suggest that Akt1-mediated mitophagy contributes to alveolar macrophage apoptosis resistance and is required for pulmonary fibrosis development. PMID:26921108

  14. The Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 interferes with the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, O Jameel; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2002-01-01

    Considerable biochemical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6Ks) by activated receptor tyrosine kinases involves multiple co-ordinated input signals. However, the identities of many of these inputs remain poorly described, and their precise involvement in S6K activation has been the subject of great investigative effort. In the present study, we have shown that 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1), a selective inhibitor of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, interferes with the activation of 70 and 85 kDa S6K gene products (p70S6K1 and p85S6K1) by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, sodium orthovanadate and activated alleles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and H-Ras. PP1 also impedes the activation of AKT/protein kinase B and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 by these various stimuli. Insulin-like growth factor 1 was observed to induce a sustained increase in c-Src autophosphorylation as revealed using anti-phospho-Y416 antisera, but this effect was absent from the cells treated with PP1. To conclude, an activated allele of p70S6K1 is compared with the wild-type allele, resistant to inhibition by PP1 when co-expressed with phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), suggesting that PP1 affects p70S6K1 via a PDK1-independent pathway. Thus activation of Src may supply a necessary signal for the activation of p70S6K1 and possibly other S6Ks. PMID:12014987

  15. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  16. Silymarin prevents palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in HepG2 cells: involvement of maintenance of Akt kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenyuan; Song, Ming; Lee, David Y W; Liu, Yanze; Deaciuc, Ion V; McClain, Craig J

    2007-10-01

    Whereas adipocytes have a unique capacity to store excess free fatty acids in the form of triglyceride in lipid droplets, non-adipose tissues, such as liver, have a limited capacity for storage of lipids. Saturated long-chain fatty acids, such as palmitate, are the major contributors to lipotoxicity. Silymarin is a mixture of flavonolignans, extracted from the milk thistle (Silibum marianum). Its hepatoprotective properties have been studied both in vitro and in vivo; however, its effect on palmitate-induced lipotoxicity has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate (i) whether silymarin could protect HepG2 cells from palmitate-induced cell death in an in vitro model, and (ii) possible mechanisms involved in this hepatoprotective role of silymarin. HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate in the absence or presence of silymarin and supernatants or cell lysates were collected at varying time-points. Cell death was assayed by measuring DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Akt kinase activity was also measured. Incubation with palmitate caused significant death in HepG2 cells. Palmitate incubation did not cause significant changes in reactive oxygen species production or intracellular glutathione content, but markedly inhibited Akt kinase activity. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with silymarin prevented palmitate-induced inhibition of Akt kinase activity and attenuated cell death. Our results suggest that silymarin may be an effective agent in protecting hepatocytes from saturated fatty acids-induced cell death. These data also provide a further rationale for exploration of the use of silymarin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:17845508

  17. The protein interaction landscape of the human CMGC kinase group.

    PubMed

    Varjosalo, Markku; Keskitalo, Salla; Van Drogen, Audrey; Nurkkala, Helka; Vichalkovski, Anton; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias

    2013-04-25

    Cellular information processing via reversible protein phosphorylation requires tight control of the localization, activity, and substrate specificity of protein kinases, which to a large extent is accomplished by complex formation with other proteins. Despite their critical role in cellular regulation and pathogenesis, protein interaction information is available for only a subset of the 518 human protein kinases. Here we present a global proteomic analysis of complexes of the human CMGC kinase group. In addition to subgroup-specific functional enrichment and modularity, the identified 652 high-confidence kinase-protein interactions provide a specific biochemical context for many poorly studied CMGC kinases. Furthermore, the analysis revealed a kinase-kinase subnetwork and candidate substrates for CMGC kinases. Finally, the presented interaction proteome uncovered a large set of interactions with proteins genetically linked to a range of human diseases, including cancer, suggesting additional routes for analyzing the role of CMGC kinases in controlling human disease pathways. PMID:23602568

  18. Crosstalk and Signaling Switches in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Dirk; Croucher, David R.; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength, and dynamics. This implies that signaling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonizes different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38, and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signaling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure of certain drugs to

  19. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced insulin resistance is mediated by protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tianming; Chen, Min; Sun, Xiance; Cao, Jun; Feng, Chang; Li, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Liping; Yao, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a persistent organic pollutant, is blamed to be associated with the incidence of insulin resistance in the general human population. In this study, we found that PFOS inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase B (AKT), a key mediator of cellular insulin sensitivity, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The mRNA level of the gluconeogenic gene PEPCK, a downstream target gene of AKT, was increased in PFOS-treated cells. Due to stimulated gluconeogenesis, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was decreased in HepG2 cells. In our previous study, we found that PFOS disturbed autophagy in HepG2 cells. We proposed that PFOS could inhibit the activation of AKT through inhibiting mTORC2, a key regulator of autophagy. In this study, we found that the levels of triglyceride were increased in HepG2 cells. PFOS-induced accumulation of hepatic lipids also contributed to the inhibition of AKT. Eventually, the inhibition of AKT led to insulin resistance in PFOS-treated cells. Our data would provide new mechanistic insights into PFOS-induced hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:27363333

  20. Akt signaling in platelets and thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Woulfe, Donna S

    2010-01-01

    Akt is a Ser–Thr kinase with pleiotropic effects on cell survival, growth and metabolism. Recent evidence from gene-deletion studies in mice, and analysis of human platelets treated with Akt inhibitors, suggest that Akt regulates platelet activation, with potential consequences for thrombosis. Akt activation is regulated by the level of phosphoinositide 3-phosphates, and proteins that regulate concentrations of this lipid also regulate Akt activation and platelet function. Although the effectors through which Akt contributes to platelet activation are not definitively known, several candidates are discussed, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, phosphodiesterase 3A and the integrin β3 tail. Selective inhibitors of Akt isoforms or of proteins that contribute to its activation, such as individual PI3K isoforms, may make attractive targets for antithrombotic therapy. This review summarizes the current literature describing Akt activity and its regulation in platelets, including speculation regarding the future of Akt or its regulatory pathways as targets for the development of antithrombotic therapies. PMID:20352060

  1. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  3. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J.; Johnston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK’s homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  4. Protein kinases as drug targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Kutuk, Ozgur; Basaga, Huveyda

    2006-11-01

    Identification of the key roles of protein kinases in signaling pathways leading to development of cancer has caused pharmacological interest to concentrate extensively on targeted therapies as a more specific and effective way for blockade of cancer progression. This review will mainly focus on inhibitors targeting these key components of cellular signaling by employing a technology-based point of view with respect to ATP- and non-ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies of selected protein kinases, particularly, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), BCR-ABL, MEK, p38 MAPK, EGFR PDGFR, VEGFR, HER2 and Raf. Inhibitors of the heat shock protein Hsp90 are also included in a separate section, as this protein plays an essential role for the maturation/proper activation of cancer-related protein kinases. In the following review, the molecular details of the mode of action of these inhibitors as well as the emergence of drug resistance encountered in several cases are discussed in light of the structural, molecular and clinical studies conducted so far. PMID:17100568

  5. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

    2014-02-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1μM) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

  6. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  7. Glucose Activates TORC2-Gad8 Protein via Positive Regulation of the cAMP/cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) Pathway and Negative Regulation of the Pmk1 Protein-Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adiel; Kupiec, Martin; Weisman, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase belongs to the highly conserved eukaryotic family of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases. TOR proteins are found at the core of two evolutionary conserved complexes, known as TORC1 and TORC2. In fission yeast, TORC2 is dispensable for proliferation under optimal growth conditions but is required for starvation and stress responses. TORC2 has been implicated in a wide variety of functions; however, the signals that regulate TORC2 activity have so far remained obscure. TORC2 has one known direct substrate, the AGC kinase Gad8, which is related to AKT in human cells. Gad8 is phosphorylated by TORC2 at Ser-546 (equivalent to AKT Ser-473), leading to its activation. Here, we show that glucose is necessary and sufficient to induce Gad8 Ser-546 phosphorylation in vivo and Gad8 kinase activity in vitro. The glucose signal that activates TORC2-Gad8 is mediated via the cAMP/PKA pathway, a major glucose-sensing pathway. By contrast, Pmk1, similar to human extracellular signal-regulated kinases and a major stress-induced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in fission yeast, inhibits TORC2-dependent Gad8 phosphorylation and activation. Inhibition of TORC2-Gad8 also occurs in response to ionic or osmotic stress, in a manner dependent on the cAMP/PKA and Pmk1-MAPK signaling pathways. Our findings highlight the significance of glucose availability in regulation of TORC2-Gad8 and indicate a novel link between the cAMP/PKA, Pmk1/MAPK, and TORC2-Gad8 signaling. PMID:24928510

  8. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-2A induces ITAM/Syk- and Akt-dependent epithelial migration through αv-integrin membrane translocation.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, Julie A; Coalson, Nicole E; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent herpesvirus associated with epithelial cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The EBV protein latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) is expressed in NPC tumor tissue and has been shown to induce transformation, inhibit differentiation, and promote migration of epithelial cells. In this study, the effect of LMP2A on migration of human epithelial cells was further analyzed. LMP2A expression induced migration in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) and HaCaT keratinocytes measured by wound healing scratch assay and chemoattractant-induced Transwell migration assay. The induction of migration by LMP2A required the ITAM signaling domain of LMP2A and activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. LMP2A-induced Transwell migration required the Akt signaling pathway, and activation of Akt by LMP2A required the ITAM signaling domain of LMP2A. LMP2A also induced phosphorylation of the Akt target GSK3β, a Wnt signaling mediator that has been shown to regulate the activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase activated by clustering and ligand interaction of integrins. Inhibition of either FAK or its signaling mediator Src kinase inhibited LMP2A-induced migration. Interestingly, αV-integrin was greatly increased in membrane-enriched fractions by LMP2A, and a neutralizing antibody to αV-integrin blocked migration, suggesting that the effects of LMP2A on membrane-localized αV-integrin promoted migration. The results of this study indicate that LMP2A expression in human epithelial cells induces αV-integrin-dependent migration through a mechanism requiring ITAM-mediated Syk and Akt activation and inducing membrane translocation or stabilization of αV-integrin and FAK activation. The specific effects of LMP2A on an integrin with a diverse repertoire of ligand specificities could promote migration of different cell types and be initiated by multiple chemoattractants. PMID:22837212

  9. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  10. Identification of four plastid-localized protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Gartmann, Hans; Fechler, Mona; Rödiger, Anja; Baginsky, Sacha; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In chloroplasts, protein phosphorylation regulates important processes, including metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, and signaling. Because the hitherto known plastid protein kinases represent only a fraction of existing kinases, we aimed at the identification of novel plastid-localized protein kinases that potentially phosphorylate enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. We screened publicly available databases for proteins annotated as putative protein kinase family proteins with predicted chloroplast localization. Additionally, we analyzed chloroplast fractions which were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by mass spectrometry. We identified four new candidates for protein kinases, which were confirmed to be plastid localized by expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco leaves. A phosphorylation assay with the purified kinases confirmed the protein kinase activity for two of them. PMID:27214872

  11. The serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases (SGK) stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 and herpes simplex virus 1 productive infection.

    PubMed

    Kook, Insun; Jones, Clinton

    2016-08-15

    Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases (SGK) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain a catalytic domain resembling other protein kinases: AKT/protein kinase B, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C-Zeta for example. Unlike these constitutively expressed protein kinases, SGK1 RNA and protein levels are increased by growth factors and corticosteroids. Stress can directly stimulate SGK1 levels as well as stimulate bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) productive infection and reactivation from latency suggesting SGK1 can stimulate productive infection. For the first time, we provide evidence that a specific SGK inhibitor (GSK650394) significantly reduced BoHV-1 and HSV-1 replication in cultured cells. Proteins encoded by the three BoHV-1 immediate early genes (bICP0, bICP4, and bICP22) and two late proteins (VP16 and gE) were consistently reduced by GSK650394 during early stages of productive infection. In summary, these studies suggest SGK may stimulate viral replication following stressful stimuli. PMID:27297663

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway Inhibition by Doxazosin Promotes Glioblastoma Cells Death, Upregulation of p53 and Triggers Low Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Coelho, Bárbara Paranhos; de Quadros, Alice Hoffmann; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Terra, Silvia Resende; Guerra, Maria Cristina Barea; Usach, Vanina; Guma, Fátima Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva; Setton-Avruj, Patrícia; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Treatment includes chemotherapy with temozolomide concomitant with surgical resection and/or irradiation. However, a number of cases are resistant to temozolomide, as well as the human glioblastoma cell line U138-MG. We investigated doxazosin’s (an antihypertensive drug) activity against glioblastoma cells (C6 and U138-MG) and its neurotoxicity on primary astrocytes and organoptypic hippocampal cultures. For this study, the following methods were used: citotoxicity assays, flow cytometry, western-blotting and confocal microscopy. We showed that doxazosin induces cell death on C6 and U138-MG cells. We observed that doxazosin’s effects on the PI3K/Akt pathway were similar as LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor). In glioblastoma cells treated with doxasozin, Akt levels were greatly reduced. Upon examination of activities of proteins downstream of Akt we observed upregulation of GSK-3β and p53. This led to cell proliferation inhibition, cell death induction via caspase-3 activation and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in glioblastoma cells. We used in this study Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a comparison with doxazosin because they present similar chemical structure. We also tested the neurocitotoxicity of doxazosin in primary astrocytes and organotypic cultures and observed that doxazosin induced cell death on a small percentage of non-tumor cells. Aggressiveness of glioblastoma tumors and dismal prognosis require development of new treatment agents. This includes less toxic drugs, more selective towards tumor cells, causing less damage to the patient. Therefore, our results confirm the potential of doxazosin as an attractive therapeutic antiglioma agent. PMID:27123999

  13. Non-CDK-bound p27 (p27{sup NCDK}) is a marker for cell stress and is regulated through the Akt/PKB and AMPK-kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Mia A.; Vaahtomeri, Kari; Peltonen, Karita; Viollet, Benoit; Maekelae, Tomi P.; Band, Arja M.; Laiho, Marikki

    2010-03-10

    p27Kip1 (p27) tumour suppressor protein is regulated by multiple mechanisms including its turnover, localization and complex formation with its key targets, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and cyclins. We have earlier shown that p27 exists in cells in a form that lacks cyclin/CDK interactions (hence non-CDK, p27{sup NCDK}) but the nature of p27{sup NCDK} has remained unresolved. Here we demonstrate that the epitope recognized by the p27{sup NCDK}-specific antibody resides in the p27 CDK-interaction domain and that p27{sup NCDK} is regulated by the balance of CDK inhibitors and cyclin-CDK complexes. We find that signalling by cellular growth promoting pathways, like phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and specifically Akt/PKB kinase, inversely correlates with p27{sup NCDK} levels whereas total p27 levels are unaffected. p27{sup NCDK}, but not total p27, is increased by cellular perturbations such as hyperosmotic and metabolic stress and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). By using AMPK catalytic subunit proficient and deficient cells we further demonstrate that the AMPK pathway governs p27{sup NCDK} responses to metabolic stress and PI3K inhibition. These results indicate that p27{sup NCDK} is a sensitive marker for both cell stress and proliferation over and above p27 and is regulated by Akt/PKB and AMPK pathways.

  14. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event

    PubMed Central

    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R.; Reed, Sam E.; Yarwood, Sophie E.; Just, Victoria J.; Stephens, David J.; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis. PMID:26515129

  15. Insulin promotes Rip11 accumulation at the plasma membrane by inhibiting a dynamin- and PI3-kinase-dependent, but Akt-independent, internalisation event.

    PubMed

    Boal, Frédéric; Hodgson, Lorna R; Reed, Sam E; Yarwood, Sophie E; Just, Victoria J; Stephens, David J; McCaffrey, Mary W; Tavaré, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Rip11 is a Rab11 effector protein that has been shown to be important in controlling the trafficking of several intracellular cargoes, including the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36, V-ATPase and the glucose transporter GLUT4. We have previously demonstrated that Rip11 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin and here we examine the basis of this regulated phenomenon in more detail. We show that Rip11 rapidly recycles between the cell interior and surface, and that the ability of insulin to increase the appearance of Rip11 at the cell surface involves an inhibition of Rip11 internalisation from the plasma membrane. By contrast the hormone has no effect on the rate of Rip11 translocation towards the plasma membrane. The ability of insulin to inhibit Rip11 internalisation requires dynamin and class I PI3-kinases, but is independent of the activation of the protein kinase Akt; characteristics which are very similar to the mechanism by which insulin inhibits GLUT4 endocytosis. PMID:26515129

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin β1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin β1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin β1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function. PMID:17428466

  18. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana T; Goos, Yvonne J; Pereboom, Tamara C; Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  19. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Result in Constitutive p53 Protein Degradation through Impairment of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hermkens, Dorien; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes can result in the loss of erythrocyte progenitor cells and cause severe anemia. This is seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a pure red cell aplasia and bone marrow failure syndrome that is almost exclusively linked to RP gene haploinsufficiency. While the mechanisms underlying the cytopenia phenotype of patients with these mutations are not completely understood, it is believed that stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor protein may induce apoptosis in the progenitor cells. In stark contrast, tumor cells from zebrafish with RP gene haploinsufficiency are unable to stabilize p53 even when exposed to acute DNA damage despite transcribing wild type p53 normally. In this work we demonstrate that p53 has a limited role in eliciting the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA. In fact, we find that RP-deficient embryos exhibit the same normal p53 transcription, absence of p53 protein, and impaired p53 response to DNA damage as RP haploinsufficient tumor cells. Recently we reported that RP mutations suppress activity of the AKT pathway, and we show here that this suppression results in proteasomal degradation of p53. By re-activating the AKT pathway or by inhibiting GSK-3, a downstream modifier that normally represses AKT signaling, we are able to restore the stabilization of p53. Our work indicates that the anemia phenotype of zebrafish models of DBA is dependent on factors other than p53, and may hold clinical significance for both DBA and the increasing number of cancers revealing spontaneous mutations in RP genes. PMID:26132763

  20. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα. PMID:27151216

  1. Roles of MKK1/2-ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathways in erlotinib-induced Rad51 suppression and cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Ciou, Shih-Ci; Jhan, Jhih-Yuan; Cheng, Chao-Min; Su, Ying-Jhen; Chuang, Show-Mei; Lin, Szu-Ting; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in regulating Rad51 expression and cytotoxic effects in different NSCLC cell lines treated with erlotinib. Erlotinib decreased cellular levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated AKT, Rad51 protein, and mRNA in erlotinib-sensitive H1650, A549, and H1869 cells, leading to cell death via apoptosis, but these results were not seen in erlotinib-resistant H520 and H1703 cells. Erlotinib decreased Rad51 protein levels by enhancing Rad51 mRNA and protein instability. Enforced expression of constitutively active MKK1 or AKT vectors could restore Rad51 protein levels, which were inhibited by erlotinib, and decrease erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity. Knocking down endogenous Rad51 expression by si-Rad51 RNA transfection significantly enhanced erlotinib-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, overexpression of Rad51 by transfection with Rad51 vector could protect the cells from cytotoxic effects induced by erlotinib. Blocking the activations of ERK1/2 and AKT by MKK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) suppressed the expression of Rad51 and enhanced the erlotinib-induced cell death in erlotinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, suppression of Rad51 may be a novel therapeutic modality in overcoming drug resistance of erlotinib in NSCLC. PMID:19671683

  2. PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITIDE 3-KINASE AND PROTEIN KINASE C ZETA MEDIATE RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF DARPP-32 IN MEDIUM SIZE SPINY NEURONS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Steve; Bogush, Alexey; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2016-01-01

    Mature striatal medium size spiny neurons express the dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa (DARPP-32), but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its levels, or the specification of fully differentiated neuronal subtypes. Cell extrinsic molecules that increase DARPP-32 mRNA and/or protein levels include retinoic acid (RA), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and estrogen (E2). We now demonstrate that RA regulates DARPP-32 mRNA and protein in primary striatal neuronal cultures. Furthermore, DARPP-32 induction by RA in vitro requires phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but is independent of tropomyosin-related kinase b (TrkB), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), and protein kinase B (Akt). Using pharmacologic inhibitors of various isoforms of protein kinase C, we also demonstrate that DARPP-32 induction by RA in vitro is dependent on protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Thus, the signal transduction pathways mediated by RA are very different than those mediating DARPP-32 induction by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These data support the presence of multiple signal transduction pathways mediating expression of DARPP-32 in vitro, including a novel, important pathway via which PI3K regulates the contribution of PKCζ. PMID:18485106

  3. Inactivation of the enzyme GSK3α by the kinase IKKi promotes AKT-mTOR signaling pathway that mediates Interleukin-1-induced Th17 cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Muhammet F; Bulek, Katarzyna; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Minjia; Gao, Ji; Sun, Lillian; Beurel, Eleonore; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Fox, Paul L; DiCorleto, Paul E; Wang, Jian-an; Qin, Jun; Wald, David N; Woodgett, James R; Jope, Richard S; Carman, Julie; Dongre, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced activation of the mTOR kinase pathway has major influences on Th17 cell survival, proliferation and effector function. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, the kinases IKKi and GSK3α were identified as the critical intermediate signaling components for IL-1-induced AKT activation, which in turn activated mTOR. Although insulin-induced AKT activation is known to phosphorylate and inactivate GSK3α and GSK3β, we found GSK3α, but not GSK3β formed a constitutive complex to phosphorylate and suppress AKT activation, showing that a reverse action from GSK to AKT can take place. Upon IL-1 stimulation, IKKi was activated to mediate GSK3α phosphorylation at S21, thereby inactivating GSK3α to promote IL-1-induced AKT-mTOR activation. Thus, IKKi has a critical role in Th17 cell maintenance and/or proliferation through the GSK-AKT-mTOR pathway, implicating the potential of IKKi as a therapeutic target. PMID:23142783

  4. Inactivation of the enzyme GSK3α by the kinase IKKi promotes AKT-mTOR signaling pathway that mediates interleukin-1-induced Th17 cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Muhammet F; Bulek, Katarzyna; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Minjia; Gao, Ji; Sun, Lillian; Beurel, Eleonore; Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Fox, Paul L; DiCorleto, Paul E; Wang, Jian-an; Qin, Jun; Wald, David N; Woodgett, James R; Jope, Richard S; Carman, Julie; Dongre, Ashok; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-11-16

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced activation of the mTOR kinase pathway has major influences on Th17 cell survival, proliferation, and effector function. Via biochemical and genetic approaches, the kinases IKKi and GSK3α were identified as the critical intermediate signaling components for IL-1-induced AKT activation, which in turn activated mTOR. Although insulin-induced AKT activation is known to phosphorylate and inactivate GSK3α and GSK3β, we found that GSK3α but not GSK3β formed a constitutive complex to phosphorylate and suppress AKT activation, showing that a reverse action from GSK to AKT can take place. Upon IL-1 stimulation, IKKi was activated to mediate GSK3α phosphorylation at S21, thereby inactivating GSK3α to promote IL-1-induced AKT-mTOR activation. Thus, IKKi has a critical role in Th17 cell maintenance and/or proliferation through the GSK-AKT-mTOR pathway, implicating the potential of IKKi as a therapeutic target. PMID:23142783

  5. Protein kinase CK2 and protein kinase D are associated with the COP9 signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Uhle, Stefan; Medalia, Ohad; Waldron, Richard; Dumdey, Renate; Henklein, Peter; Bech-Otschir, Dawadschargal; Huang, Xiaohua; Berse, Matthias; Sperling, Joseph; Schade, Rüdiger; Dubiel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) purified from human erythrocytes possesses kinase activity that phosphoryl ates proteins such as c-Jun and p53 with consequence for their ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent degradation. Here we show that protein kinase CK2 (CK2) and protein kinase D (PKD) co-purify with CSN. Immunoprecipi tation and far-western blots reveal that CK2 and PKD are in fact associated with CSN. As indicated by electron microscopy with gold-labeled ATP, at least 10% of CSN particles are associated with kinases. Kinase activity, most likely due to CK2 and PKD, co-immuno precipitates with CSN from HeLa cells. CK2 binds to ΔCSN3(111–403) and CSN7, whereas PKD interacts with full-length CSN3. CK2 phosphorylates CSN2 and CSN7, and PKD modifies CSN7. Both CK2 and PKD phosphorylate c-Jun as well as p53. CK2 phosphoryl ates Thr155, which targets p53 to degradation by the Ub system. Curcumin, emodin, DRB and resveratrol block CSN-associated kinases and induce degradation of c-Jun in HeLa cells. Curcumin treatment results in elevated amounts of c-Jun–Ub conjugates. We conclude that CK2 and PKD are recruited by CSN in order to regulate Ub conjugate formation. PMID:12628923

  6. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    SciTech Connect

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  7. EB-virus latent membrane protein 1 potentiates the stemness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via preferential activation of PI3K/AKT pathway by a positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-F; Yang, G-D; Huang, T-J; Li, R; Chu, Q-Q; Xu, L; Wang, M-S; Cai, M-D; Zhong, L; Wei, H-J; Huang, H-B; Huang, J-L; Qian, C-N; Huang, B-J

    2016-06-30

    Our previous study reported that Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) could induce development of CD44(+/High) stem-like cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie modulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in NPC remain unclear. Here, we show that LMP1 induced CSC-like properties through promotion of the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like cellular markers and through alterations in differentiation markers. Furthermore, LMP1 activated and triggered phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway, which subsequently stimulated expression of CSC markers, development of side population and tumor sphere formation. This suggests that PI3K/AKT pathway has an important role in the induction and maintenance of CSC properties in NPC. Similarly, PI3K/AKT pathway was also activated by phosphorylase in LMP1-induced CD44(+/High) cells. In addition, LMP1 greatly increased expression of miR-21 and downregulated expression of the miR-21 target, PTEN. Overexpression of miR-21 by transfection of miR-21 mimics into LMP1-transformed cells led to phosphorylase-mediated activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and induction of CSCs. On the contrary, phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and the expression of CSC were reversed by an miR-21 inhibitor. The specific inhibitor (Ly294002) of PI3K/AKT pathway significantly decreased expression of miR-21 and CSC markers and upregulated the expression of PTEN, which indicates that miR-21 and PTEN are the downstream effectors of PI3K/AKT and that expression of these two effectors are related to the development of NPC CSCs. Taken together, our novel findings indicate that LMP1, PI3K/AKT, miR-21 and PTEN constitute a positive feedback loop and have a key role in LMP1-induced CSCs in NPC. PMID:26568302

  8. Protective role of PI3-kinase-Akt-eNOS signalling pathway in intestinal injury associated with splanchnic artery occlusion shock

    PubMed Central

    Roviezzo, F; Cuzzocrea, S; Di Lorenzo, A; Brancaleone, V; Mazzon, E; Di Paola, R; Bucci, M; Cirino, G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a dynamic enzyme tightly controlled by co- and post-translational lipid modifications, phosphorylation and regulated by protein-protein interactions. Here we have pharmacologically modulated the activation of eNOS, at different post-translational levels, to assess the role of eNOS-derived NO and of these regulatory mechanisms in intestinal injury associated with splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock. Experimental approach: SAO shock was induced by clamping both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk for 45 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. During ischemia, 15 min prior to reperfusion, mice were given geldanamycin, an inhibitor of hsp90 recruitment to eNOS, or LY-294002 an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), an enzyme that initiates Akt–catalysed phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1179. After 30 min of reperfusion, samples of ileum were taken for histological examination or for biochemical studies. Key results: Either LY-294002 or geldanamycin reversed the increased activation of eNOS and Akt observed following SAO shock. These molecular effects were mirrored in vivo by an exacerbation of the intestinal damage. Histological damage also correlated with neutrophil infiltration, assessed as myeloperoxidase activity, and with an increased expression of the adhesion proteins: ICAM-I, VCAM, P-selectin and E-selectin. Conclusions and implications: Overall these results suggest that activation of the Akt pathway in ischemic regions of reperfused ileum is a protective event, triggered in order to protect the intestinal tissue from damage induced by ischaemia/reperfusion through a fine tuning of the endothelial NO pathway. PMID:17450173

  9. A novel PKB/Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, effectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and protein synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Chiang; Liu, Yang; Jacobs, Roxane; Rider, Mark H

    2012-10-01

    PKB (protein kinase B), also known as Akt, is a key component of insulin signalling. Defects in PKB activation lead to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, whereas PKB overactivation has been linked to tumour growth. Small-molecule PKB inhibitors have thus been developed for cancer treatment, but also represent useful tools to probe the roles of PKB in insulin action. In the present study, we examined the acute effects of two allosteric PKB inhibitors, MK-2206 and Akti 1/2 (Akti) on PKB signalling in incubated rat soleus muscles. We also assessed the effects of the compounds on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen and protein synthesis. MK-2206 dose-dependently inhibited insulin-stimulated PKB phosphorylation, PKBβ activity and phosphorylation of PKB downstream targets (including glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa and Akt substrate of 160 kDa). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity were also decreased by MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation with high doses of MK-2206 (10 μM) inhibited insulin-induced p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1) phosphorylation associated with increased eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) phosphorylation. In contrast, Akti only modestly inhibited insulin-induced PKB and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling, with little or no effect on glucose uptake and protein synthesis. MK-2206, rather than Akti, would thus be the tool of choice for studying the role of PKB in insulin action in skeletal muscle. The results point to a key role for PKB in mediating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. PMID:22793019

  10. Akt-mediated regulation of NFκB and the essentialness of NFκB for the oncogenicity of PI3K and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Dong; Ueno, Lynn; Vogt, Peter K.

    2009-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt (cellular homolog of murine thymoma virus akt8 oncogene), also known as PKB (protein kinase B), is activated by lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Akt phosphorylates numerous protein targets that control cell survival, proliferation and motility. Previous studies suggest that Akt regulates transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) by inducing phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB). We show here that NFκB-driven transcription increases in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by myristylated Akt (myrAkt). Accordingly, both a dominant negative mutant of Akt and Akt inhibitors repress NFκB-dependent transcription. The degradation of the IκB protein is strongly enhanced in Akt-transformed cells, and the loss of NFκB activity by introduction of a super-repressor of NFκB, IκBSR, interferes with PI3K- and Akt-induced oncogenic transformation of CEF. The phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB at serine 534 is also upregulated in Akt-transformed cells. Our data suggest that the stimulation of NFκB by Akt is dependent on the phosphorylation of p65 at S534, mediated by IKK (IκB kinase) α and β. Akt phosphorylates IKKα on T23, and this phosphorylation event is a prerequisite for the phosphorylation of p65 at S534 by IKKα and β. Our results demonstrate two separate functions of the IKK complex in NFκB activation in cells with constitutive Akt activity: the phosphorylation and consequent degradation of IκB and the phosphorylation of p65. The data further support the conclusion that NFκB activity is essential for PI3K- and Akt-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:19609947

  11. Cicletanine stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via Akt and MAP kinase/Erk signaling in sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songling; Rockey, Don C

    2013-07-15

    The function of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) is altered in a number of disease states. Pharmacological approaches to enhancing NO synthesis and thus perhaps endothelial function could have substantial benefits in patients. We analyzed the effect of cicletanine, a synthetic pyridine with potent vasodilatory characteristics, on eNOS function and NO production in normal (liver) and injured rat sinusoidal endothelial cells, and we studied the effect of cicletanine-induced NO on stellate cell contraction and portal pressure in an in vivo model of liver injury. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were isolated from normal and injured rat livers. After exposure to cicletanine, eNOS phosphorylation, NO synthesis, and the signaling pathway regulating eNOS activation were measured. Cicletanine led to an increase in eNOS (Ser¹¹⁷⁷) phosphorylation, cytochrome c reductase activity, L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline, as well as NO production. The mechanism of the effect of cicletanine appeared to be via the protein kinase B (Akt) and MAP kinase/Erk signaling pathways. Additionally, cicletanine improved NO synthesis in injured sinusoidal endothelial cells. NO production induced by cicletanine in sinusoidal endothelial cells increased protein kinase G (PKG) activity as well as relaxation of stellate cells. Finally, administration of cicletanine to mice with portal hypertension induced by bile duct ligation led to reduction of portal pressure. The data indicate that cicletanine might improve eNOS activity in injured sinusoidal endothelial cells and likely activates hepatic stellate cell NO/PKG signaling. It raises the possibility that cicletanine could improve intrahepatic vascular function in portal hypertensive patients. PMID:23639812

  12. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP)-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets in DM Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP) on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78) were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM)-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregates (9–25 µm) induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25–50 µm), large aggregates (50–70 µm) and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients. PMID:27187380

  13. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP)-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets in DM Patients.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP) on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78) were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM)-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregates (9-25 µm) induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25-50 µm), large aggregates (50-70 µm) and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients. PMID:27187380

  14. Osmotic stress signaling via protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Plants face various kinds of environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperature, which cause osmotic stress. An understanding of the plant signaling pathways that respond to osmotic stress is important for both basic biology and agriculture. In this review, we summarize recent investigations concerning the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 2 kinase family, which play central roles in osmotic stress responses. SnRK2s are activated by osmotic stress, and a mutant lacking SnRK2s is hypersensitive to osmotic stress. Many questions remain about the signaling pathway upstream and downstream of SnRK2s. Because some SnRK2s also functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, which has recently been well clarified, study of SnRK2s in ABA signaling can provide clues regarding their roles in osmotic stress signaling. PMID:22828864

  15. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein Functions as an A-kinase Anchoring Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hundsrucker, Christian; Skroblin, Philipp; Christian, Frank; Zenn, Hans-Michael; Popara, Viola; Joshi, Mangesh; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Reif, Bernd; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3β interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3β by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function 727. We show here that this domain of GSKIP and its vertebrate orthologues binds both PKA and GSK3β and thereby provides a mechanism for the integration of PKA and GSK3β signaling pathways. PMID:20007971

  16. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  17. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  18. Role of G(i/o)-Src kinase-PI3K/Akt pathway and caveolin-1 in β₂-adrenoceptor coupling to endothelial NO synthase in mouse pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Banquet, Sébastien; Delannoy, Estelle; Agouni, Abdelali; Dessy, Chantal; Lacomme, Sabrina; Hubert, Fabien; Richard, Vincent; Muller, Bernard; Leblais, Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Activation of the β₂-adrenoceptor (β₂-AR) elicits an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent relaxation in mouse pulmonary artery, which, contrary to the muscarinic receptor-dependent relaxation, is preserved in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We therefore characterized the signaling pathways underlying the β₂-AR-mediated eNOS activation, with special focus on G(i/o) proteins, protein kinases and caveolae. Functional studies (for evaluation of vasorelaxant response), Western blotting (for assessment of eNOS and caveolin-1 phosphorylation) and transmission electron microscopy (for visualization of caveolae) were conducted in pulmonary arteries from wild-type or caveolin-1 knockout mice. In wild-type isolated arteries, relaxation to the selective β₂-AR agonist procaterol was reduced by inhibitors of G(i/o) proteins (pertussis toxin, PTX), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin or LY 294002), Akt (Akt inhibitor X) and Src-kinase (PP2) and by cholesterol depletion (using methyl-β-cyclodextrin). Procaterol induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177), which was prevented by PTX, PP2 or Akt inhibitor. Procaterol also promoted caveolin-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(14), which was decreased by PTX or PP2. Caveolin-1 gene deletion resulted in endothelial caveolae disruption in mouse pulmonary artery and in potentiation of procaterol-induced relaxation. Unlike procaterol, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was unaffected by PTX, methyl-β-cyclodextrin or caveolin-1 gene deletion. To conclude, the mouse pulmonary endothelial β₂-AR is coupled to a G(i/o)-Src kinase-PI3K/Akt pathway to promote eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177) leading to a NO-dependent vasorelaxation. Caveolin-1 exerts a negative control on this response that is abrogated by its phosphorylation at Tyr(14), through a G(i/o)-Src kinase pathway. Since pulmonary β₂-AR- and muscarinic receptor-mediated relaxations differentiate in their respective signaling pathways leading to e

  19. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Stimulates Akt1 Phosphorylation via Heat Shock Protein 70-Facilitated Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Degradation in Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xutong; Kellner, Manuela; Desai, Ankit A; Wang, Ting; Lu, Qing; Kangath, Archana; Qu, Ning; Klinger, Christina; Fratz, Sohrab; Yuan, Jason X-J; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Garcia, Joe G N; Rafikov, Ruslan; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Black, Stephen M

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induces the mitochondrial translocation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the nitration-mediated activation of Akt1. However, it is recognized that the activation of Akt1 requires phosphorylation events at threonine (T) 308 and serine (S) 473. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the potential effect of ADMA on Akt1 phosphorylation and the mechanisms that are involved. Exposure of pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to ADMA enhanced Akt1 phosphorylation at both threonine 308 and Ser473 without altering Akt1 protein levels, phosphatase and tensin homolog activity, or membrane Akt1 levels. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 plays a pivotal role in maintaining Akt1 activity, and our results demonstrate that ADMA decreased Hsp90-Akt1 interactions, but, surprisingly, overexpression of a dominant-negative Hsp90 mutant increased Akt1 phosphorylation. ADMA exposure or overexpression of dominant-negative Hsp90 increased Hsp70 levels, and depletion of Hsp70 abolished ADMA-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. ADMA decreased the interaction of Akt1 with its endogenous inhibitor, carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP). This was mediated by the proteasomal-dependent degradation of CTMP. The overexpression of CTMP attenuated ADMA-induced Akt1 phosphorylation at Ser473, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser617, and eNOS mitochondrial translocation. Finally, we found that the mitochondrial translocation of eNOS in our lamb model of pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased Akt1 and eNOS phosphorylation and reduced Akt1-CTMP protein interactions. In conclusion, our data suggest that CTMP is directly involved in ADMA-induced Akt1 phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and that increasing CTMP levels may be an avenue to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26959555

  20. Apelin/APJ signaling promotes hypoxia-induced proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells via phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchang; Liu, Qiming; Hu, Xinqun; Fang, Zhenfei; Huang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Shenghua

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can adhere to the endothelium at sites of hypoxia/ischemia and participate in the formation of novel vessels through differentiating into endothelial cells (ECs). Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein‑coupled receptor APJ, and apelin/APJ signaling has a role in cardiovascular function. The present study aimed to investigate the role of apelin/APJ signaling in the regulation of EPC proliferation under hypoxia. The results showed that hypoxia was able to induce EPC proliferation, accompanied with an upregulation of hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF)‑1α as well as apelin/APJ signaling. Further investigation indicated that siRNA‑mediated knockdown of apelin or APJ expression attenuated the hypoxia‑induced proliferation of EPCs, suggesting that apelin/APJ signaling has an important role in hypoxia‑induced EPC proliferation. Moreover, the phosphoinositide‑3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was found to be involved in the apelin/APJ‑mediated EPC proliferation under hypoxia. Based on these findings, the present study suggested that hypoxia‑induced upregulation of HIF‑1α promotes the expression of apelin and APJ, which further activate the downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, a key promoter of EPC proliferation. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of apelin/APJ in the regulation of EPC proliferation, and apelin/APJ may therefore serve as a potential target for the prevention of hypoxic ischemic injury. PMID:26018184

  1. Berberine activates Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibits apoptosis induced by high glucose in renal tubular epithelial cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Dan; Lian, Xu; Jiang, Yan; He, Hui; Liang, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Chi, Zhi-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells is a major feature of diabetic kidney disease, and hyperglycemia triggers the generation of free radicals and oxidant stress in tubular cells. Berberine (BBR) is identified as a potential anti-diabetic herbal medicine due to its beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism and glycolysis. In this study, the underlying mechanisms involved in the protective effects of BBR on high glucose-induced apoptosis were explored using cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E cells) and human kidney proximal tubular cell line (HK-2 cells). We identified the pivotal role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt in BBR cellular defense mechanisms and revealed the novel effect of BBR on nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in NRK-52E and HK-2 cells. BBR attenuated reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant defense (GSH and SOD) and oxidant-sensitive proteins (Nrf2 and HO-1), which also were blocked by LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K) in HG-treated NRK-52E and HK-2 cells. Furthermore, BBR improved mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential. BBR-induced anti-apoptotic function was demonstrated by decreasing apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, Bax, caspase3 and caspase9). All these findings suggest that BBR exerts the anti-apoptosis effects through activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathways and leads to activation of Nrf2 and induction of Nrf2 target genes, and consequently protecting the renal tubular epithelial cells from HG-induced apoptosis. PMID:26979714

  2. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors influence ABCG2 expression in EGFR-positive MDCK BCRP cells via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pick, Anne; Wiese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Multidrug resistance observed in cancer chemotherapy is commonly attributed to overexpression of efflux transporter proteins. These proteins act as ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, actively extruding chemotherapeutic agents from cells and causing a decrease in intracellular drug accumulation. Besides the well-recognized role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is becoming increasingly accepted as playing an important role in multidrug resistance. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, only a few inhibitors of ABCG2 are known. According to the literature, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be considered to be broad-spectrum inhibitors, interacting with ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Here, we investigated seven different TKIs, gefitinib, erlotinib, AG1478, PD158780, PD153035, nilotinib and imatinib, for their potential to restore ABCG2 sensitivity to cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the alteration of ABCG2 expression caused by TKIs and demonstrated that EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and PD158780 reduced both total and surface expression of ABCG2 in EGRF-positive MDCK BCRP cells by interaction with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The reduced ABCG2 content led to an increased effect of XR9577, a well-known ABCG2 modulator, lowering the concentration required for half maximal inhibition. On the other hand, BCR-ABL inhibitors had no influence on ABCG2 expression and modulator activity. Interestingly, a combination of an EGFR inhibitor with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 led to a significant reduction of ABCG2 expression at low concentrations of the drugs. Based on our results, we assume that EGFR exerts a post-transcriptional enhancing effect on ABCG2 expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which can be attenuated by EGFR inhibitors. Blocking the key signaling pathway regulating ABCG2 expression with EGFR inhibitors, combined with the inhibition of ABCG2 with potent modulators might be a promising approach to circumvent MDR

  3. Active Site Inhibitors Protect Protein Kinase C from Dephosphorylation and Stabilize Its Mature Form*

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Christine M.; Antal, Corina E.; Reyes, Gloria; Kunkel, Maya T.; Adams, Ryan A.; Ziyar, Ahdad; Riveros, Tania; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2011-01-01

    Conformational changes acutely control protein kinase C (PKC). We have previously shown that the autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate must be removed from the active site in order for 1) PKC to be phosphorylated by its upstream kinase phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1), 2) the mature enzyme to bind and phosphorylate substrates, and 3) the mature enzyme to be dephosphorylated by phosphatases. Here we show an additional level of conformational control; binding of active site inhibitors locks PKC in a conformation in which the priming phosphorylation sites are resistant to dephosphorylation. Using homogeneously pure PKC, we show that the active site inhibitor Gö 6983 prevents the dephosphorylation by pure protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) or the hydrophobic motif phosphatase, pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP). Consistent with results using pure proteins, treatment of cells with the competitive inhibitors Gö 6983 or bisindolylmaleimide I, but not the uncompetitive inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV, prevents the dephosphorylation and down-regulation of PKC induced by phorbol esters. Pulse-chase analyses reveal that active site inhibitors do not affect the net rate of priming phosphorylations of PKC; rather, they inhibit the dephosphorylation triggered by phorbol esters. These data provide a molecular explanation for the recent studies showing that active site inhibitors stabilize the phosphorylation state of protein kinases B/Akt and C. PMID:21715334

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 Contributes to the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Rei; Edamura, Kazuya; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Narita, Takanori; Okabayashi, Ken; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered as candidates for regenerative therapy and a useful model for studying neuronal differentiation. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in neuronal differentiation has been previously studied; however, the signaling pathway involved in this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. bFGF induced the mRNA expression of the neuron marker, microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) and the neuron-like morphological change in canine BMSCs. In the presence of inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, i.e., SU5402, LY294002, and MK2206, respectively, bFGF failed to induce the MAP2 mRNA expression and the neuron-like morphological change. bFGF induced Akt phosphorylation, but it was attenuated by the FGFR inhibitor SU5402 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In canine BMSCs, expression of FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 was confirmed, but only FGFR-2 activation was detected by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGFR-2 in canine BMSCs resulted in the attenuation of bFGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that the FGFR-2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. PMID:26523832

  5. The Upregulation of PI3K/Akt and MAP Kinase Pathways is Associated with Resistance of Microtubule-Targeting Drugs in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Zhu, Guangjing; Getzenberg, Robert H; Veltri, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    Resistance is a significant limitation to the effectiveness of cancer therapies. The PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways play important roles in a variety of normal cellular processes and tumorigenesis. This study is designed to explore the relationship of these signaling pathways with multidrug resistance in prostate cancer (PCa). The PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways were investigated utilizing paclitaxel resistant DU145-TxR PCa cells and their parental non-resistant DU145 cells to determine their relationship with resistance to paclitaxel and other anticancer drugs. Our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways are upregulated in DU145-TxR cells compared to the DU145 cells. Inactivating these pathways using the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 or the MAP kinase pathway inhibitor PD98059 renders the DU145-TxR cells more sensitive to paclitaxel. We investigated the effects of these inhibitors on other anticancer drugs including docetaxel, vinblastine, doxorubicin, 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (10-HCPT) and cisplatin and find that both inhibitors induces DU145-TxR cells to be more sensitive only to the microtubule-targeting drugs (paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine). Furthermore, the treatment with these inhibitors induces cleaved-PARP production in DU145-TxR cells, suggesting that apoptosis induction might be one of the mechanisms for the reversal of drug resistance. In conclusion, the PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways are associated with resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Inactivating these pathways renders these PCa cells more sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine. Combination therapies with novel inhibitors of these two signaling pathways potentially represents a more effective treatment for drug resistant PCa. PMID:25640606

  6. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Epigallocatechin-3-gallate via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, C C; Hsu, M C; Hsieh, C W; Lin, J B; Lai, P H; Wung, B S

    2006-05-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by various phytochemicals and we examined the ability of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent of green tea, to upregulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that EGCG induces HO-1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG-mediated HO-1 induction was abrogated in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating that this upregulation of HO-1 occurred at the transcriptional level. EGCG also upregulates Nrf2 levels in nuclear extracts and increases ARE-luciferase activity. Furthermore, EGCG is the most potent inducer of HO-1 expression of the different green tea constituents that we analyzed, but had no detectable cytotoxic effects over the 25-100 microM dosage range. The inhibition of intracellular ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone, results in a decrease in EGCG-dependent HO-1 expression. In addition, we determined that tyrosine kinase is involved in EGCG induction of HO-1 as this is abrogated by genistein. ECs treated with EGCG exhibit activation of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MEK1/2, which are upstream of Akt and ERK1/2, respectively, attenuate EGCG-induced HO-1 expression. On the other hand, pretreatment of these cells with EGCG exerts significant cytoprotective effects against H2O2, suggesting that the induction of HO-1 is an important component in the protection against oxidative stress. Hence, EGCG is a novel phytochemical inducer of HO-1 expression and we further identify the principal underlying mechanisms involved in this process. PMID:16378625

  7. Cl- Channels in CF: Lack of Activation by Protein Kinase C and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Lu, Luo; Zeitlin, Pamela L.; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Huganir, Richard; Guggino, William B.

    1989-06-01

    Secretory chloride channels can be activated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase in normal airway epithelial cells but not in cells from individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In excised, inside-out patches of apical membrane of normal human airway cells and airway cells from three patients with CF, the chloride channels exhibited a characteristic outwardly rectifying current-voltage relation and depolarization-induced activation. Channels from normal tissues were activated by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. However, chloride channels from CF patients could not be activated by either kinase. Thus, gating of normal epithelial chloride channels is regulated by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C, and regulation by both kinases is defective in CF.

  8. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Trappanese, Danielle M; Sivilich, Sarah; Ets, Hillevi K; Kako, Farah; Autieri, Michael V; Moreland, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle contraction is primarily regulated by phosphorylation of myosin light chain. There are also modulatory pathways that control the final level of force development. We tested the hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase modulate vascular smooth muscle activity via effects on MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Swine carotid arteries were mounted for isometric force recording and subjected to histamine stimulation in the presence and absence of inhibitors of PKC [bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis)], MAP kinase kinase (MEK) (U0126), and MKP-1 (sanguinarine) and flash frozen for measurement of MAP kinase, PKC-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), and caldesmon phosphorylation levels. CPI-17 was phosphorylated in response to histamine and was inhibited in the presence of Bis. Caldesmon phosphorylation levels increased in response to histamine stimulation and were decreased in response to MEK inhibition but were not affected by the addition of Bis. Inhibition of PKC significantly increased p42 MAP kinase, but not p44 MAP kinase. Inhibition of MEK with U0126 inhibited both p42 and p44 MAP kinase activity. Inhibition of MKP-1 with sanguinarine blocked the Bis-dependent increase of MAP kinase activity. Sanguinarine alone increased MAP kinase activity due to its effects on MKP-1. Sanguinarine increased MKP-1 phosphorylation, which was inhibited by inhibition of MAP kinase. This suggests that MAP kinase has a negative feedback role in inhibiting MKP-1 activity. Therefore, PKC catalyzes MKP-1 phosphorylation, which is reversed by MAP kinase. Thus the fine tuning of vascular contraction is due to the concerted effort of PKC, MAP kinase, and MKP-1. PMID:27053523

  9. Identification of Protein Kinase Substrates by the Kinase-Interacting Substrate Screening (KISS) Approach.

    PubMed

    Amano, Mutsuki; Nishioka, Tomoki; Yura, Yoshimitsu; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the substrates of protein kinases to understand their modes of action has been undertaken by various approaches and remains an ongoing challenge. Phosphoproteomic technologies have accelerated the accumulation of data concerning protein phosphorylation and have uncovered vast numbers of phosphorylation sites in vivo. In this unit, a novel in vitro screening approach for protein kinase substrates is presented, based on protein-protein interaction and mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic technology. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27580705

  10. Protein kinases are potential targets to treat inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Yan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the two main forms of which are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In this article, we will review the mechanisms of involvement of protein kinases in the pathogenesis of and intervention against IBD, in terms of their effects on genetics, microbiota, mucous layer and tight junction, and the potential of protein kinases as therapeutic targets against IBD. PMID:25374761

  11. Antiapoptotic effects of vasopressin in the neuronal cell line H32 involve protein kinase C alpha and beta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Ying; Soh, Jae-Won; Aguilera, Greti

    2009-01-01

    Activation of V1 vasopressin (VP) receptors prevents serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in neuronal H32 cells, partially through mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated Bad phosphorylation. Here we investigated the role of protein kinases C (PKC) and B (PKB) mediating VP induced antiapoptosis in H32 cells. Serum deprivation increased PKCδ but not PKCα or PKCβ activity, while VP increased PKCα and PKCβ without affecting PKCδ activity. Inhibition of PKCδ prevented caspase-3 activation, indicating that PKCδ mediates the proapoptotic actions of serum deprivation. Simultaneous inhibition of PKC α&β and MAP kinase abolished VP-induced Bad phosphorylation, but it only partially prevented caspase-3 inhibition. Complete abolition of the protective effect of VP on serum deprivation-induced caspase 3 activity required additional blockade of PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt). The data demonstrate that VP exerts antiapoptosis through multiple pathways; while PKCα&β together with ERK/MAP kinase activation mediates Bad phosphorylation (inactivation), the full protective action of VP requires additional activation of PKB (PI3K/Akt) pathway. PMID:19519660

  12. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  14. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression

  15. PD-1 Increases PTEN Phosphatase Activity While Decreasing PTEN Protein Stability by Inhibiting Casein Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Li, Lequn; Sari, Duygu; Petkova, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a potent inhibitor of T cell responses. PD-1 abrogates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, but the mechanism remains unclear. We determined that during T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation, PTEN is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal regulatory domain, which stabilizes PTEN, resulting in increased protein abundance but suppressed PTEN phosphatase activity. PD-1 inhibited the stabilizing phosphorylation of the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal domain of PTEN, thereby resulting in ubiquitin-dependent degradation and diminished abundance of PTEN protein but increased PTEN phosphatase activity. These effects on PTEN were secondary to PD-1-mediated inhibition of CK2 and were recapitulated by pharmacologic inhibition of CK2 during TCR/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation without PD-1. Furthermore, PD-1-mediated diminished abundance of PTEN was reversed by inhibition of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Our results identify CK2 as a new target of PD-1 and reveal an unexpected mechanism by which PD-1 decreases PTEN protein expression while increasing PTEN activity, thereby inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling axis. PMID:23732914

  16. Akt signaling dynamics in individual cells

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Sean M.; Rotwein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protein kinase Akt (for which there are three isoforms) is a key intracellular mediator of many biological processes, yet knowledge of Akt signaling dynamics is limited. Here, we have constructed a fluorescent reporter molecule in a lentiviral delivery system to assess Akt kinase activity at the single cell level. The reporter, a fusion between a modified FoxO1 transcription factor and clover, a green fluorescent protein, rapidly translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to Akt stimulation. Because of its long half-life and the intensity of clover fluorescence, the sensor provides a robust readout that can be tracked for days under a range of biological conditions. Using this reporter, we find that stimulation of Akt activity by IGF-I is encoded into stable and reproducible analog responses at the population level, but that single cell signaling outcomes are variable. This reporter, which provides a simple and dynamic measure of Akt activity, should be compatible with many cell types and experimental platforms, and thus opens the door to new insights into how Akt regulates its biological responses. PMID:26040286

  17. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  18. Protein Kinases: Emerging Therapeutic Targets in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although protein kinases are primary targets for inhibition in hematological malignancies, until recently their contribution to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was poorly understood. Insights into B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and its role in regulating key cellular functions have shed light on candidate protein kinases that are aberrantly activated in CLL. In this regard, protein kinases are now considered as potential drug targets in CLL. Area covered This review has covered signaling pathways and associated protein kinases in CLL and the kinase inhibitors currently available in preclinical and clinical investigations. Individual protein kinases that are abnormally active in CLL and the functional consequences of their inhibition are discussed. Expert opinion A growing body of evidence suggests that protein kinases are druggable targets for patients with CLL. The emergence of novel and bio-available kinase inhibitors and their promising clinical activity in CLL underscore the oncogenic role of kinases in leukemogenesis. Further investigations directed towards their role as single agents or in combinations may provide insight into understanding the substantial role of kinase mediated signal transduction pathways and their inhibition in B- CLL. PMID:22409342

  19. Phlorofucofuroeckol A suppresses expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases, and Akt in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Reum; Lee, Min-Sup; Choi, Ji-Woong; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Kim, Jae-Il; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2013-04-01

    Microglial activation has been implicated in many neurological disorders for its inflammatory and neurotrophic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of phlorofucofuroeckol A isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia. Pre-treatment of phlorofucofuroeckol A attenuated the productions of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated microglia. Profoundly, phlorofucofuroeckol A treatment showed inactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by preventing the degradation of inhibitor κB-α and the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB subunit. Moreover, phlorofucofuroeckol A inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These results indicate that phlorofucofuroeckol A inhibits the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators through inactivation of NF-κB, JNKs, p38 MAPK, and Akt pathways. These findings suggest that phlorofucofuroeckol A can be considered as a nutraceutical candidate for the treatment of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22993079

  20. Prolactin-Stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases is Controlled by PI3-Kinase/Rac/PAK Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Hoek, Jan B.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  1. Prolactin-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases is controlled by PI3-kinase/Rac/PAK signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N; Hoek, Jan B; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-11-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  2. Protein kinase C, an elusive therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Das, Kanad; Grimes, Kevin V

    2013-01-01

    Preface Protein kinase C (PKC) has been a tantalizing target for drug discovery ever since it was first identified as the receptor for the tumor promoter phorbol ester in 19821. Although initial therapeutic efforts focused on cancer, additional diseases, including diabetic complications, heart failure, myocardial infarction, pain and bipolar disease were targeted as researchers developed a better understanding of the roles that PKC’s eight conventional and novel isozymes play in health and disease. Unfortunately, both academic and pharmaceutical efforts have yet to result in the approval of a single new drug that specifically targets PKC. Why does PKC remain an elusive drug target? This review will provide a short account of some of the efforts, challenges and opportunities in developing PKC modulators to address unmet clinical needs. PMID:23197040

  3. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  4. The extended protein kinase C superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, H; Parker, P J

    1998-01-01

    Members of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily play key regulatory roles in a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from control of fundamental cell autonomous activities, such as proliferation, to more organismal functions, such as memory. However, understanding of mammalian PKC signalling systems is complicated by the large number of family members. Significant progress has been made through studies based on comparative analysis, which have defined a number of regulatory elements in PKCs which confer specific location and activation signals to each isotype. Further studies on simple organisms have shown that PKC signalling paradigms are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans, underscoring the importance of this family in cellular signalling and giving novel insights into PKC function in complex mammalian systems. PMID:9601053

  5. Human protein kinase CK2 genes.

    PubMed

    Wirkner, U; Voss, H; Lichter, P; Pyerin, W

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the genomic structure of human protein kinase CK2. Of the presumably four genes, the gene encoding the regulatory subunit beta and a processed (pseudo)gene of the catalytic subunit alpha have been characterized completely. In addition, a 18.9 kb-long central part of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit alpha has been characterized. The subunit beta gene spans 4.2 kb and is composed of seven exons. Its promoter region shows several features of a "housekeeping gene" and shares common features with the promoter of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Conforming to the genomic structure, the beta gene transcripts form a band around 1.1 kb. The central part of the subunit alpha gene contains eight exons comprising bases 102 to 824 of the translated region. Within the introns, 16 Alu repeats were identified, some of which arranged in tandems. The structure of both human CK2 coding genes, alpha and beta, is highly conserved. Several introns are located at corresponding positions in the respective genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The processed alpha (pseudo)gene has a complete open reading frame and is 99% homologous to the coding region of the CK2 alpha cDNA. Although the gene has a promoter-like upstream region, no transcript could be identified so far. The genomic clones were used for localization in the human genome. The beta gene was mapped to locus 6p21, the alpha gene to locus 20p13 and the alpha (pseudo)gene to locus 11p15. There is no evidence for additional alpha or beta loci in the human genome. PMID:7735323

  6. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  7. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Daniel G.; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (∼5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ∼1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.—Corum, D. G., Tsichlis, P. N., Muise-Helmericks, R. C. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1. PMID:24081905

  8. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  9. Angiotensin II regulates phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt cascade via a negative crosstalk between AT1 and AT2 receptors in skin fibroblasts of human hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Biao; Yu, Wen-Lin; Sun, Rui-Xia; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Jie; Liao, Yuan-Xing; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2006-06-27

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation has been shown to regulate proliferation of skin fibroblasts and production of extracellular matrix, which are very important process in skin wound healing and scarring; however, the signaling pathways involved in this process, especially in humans, are less explored. In the present study, we used skin fibroblasts of human hypertrophic scar, which expressed both AT1 and AT2 receptors, and observed that Ang II increased Akt phosphorylation and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI 3-K) activity. In addition, the Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was blocked by wortmannin, a PI 3-K inhibitor. This Ang II-activated PI 3-K/Akt cascade was markedly inhibited by valsartan, an AT(1) receptor-specific blocker, whereas it was enhanced by PD123319, an AT(2) receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the Ang II- or EGF-induced activation of PI 3-K/Akt was strongly attenuated by AG1478, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase. Moreover, Ang II stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF receptor and p85alpha subunit of PI 3-K accompanied by an increase in their association, which was inhibited by valsartan, and enhanced by PD123319. The Ang II-induced transactivation of EGF receptor resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that was also inhibited by valsartan, and enhanced by PD123319. Taken together, our results showed that AT(1) receptor-mediated activation of PI 3-K/Akt cascades occurs at least partially via the transactivation of EGF receptor, which is under a negative control by AT(2) receptor in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. These findings contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of human hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:16522324

  10. Sevoflurane postconditioning reduces myocardial reperfusion injury in rat isolated hearts via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling and modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-na; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yang, Mei-juan; Ding, Ting-ting; Wang, Jun-kuan; He, Wei; Fang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yan, Min

    2010-01-01

    Sevoflurane postconditioning reduces myocardial infarct size. The objective of this study was to examine the role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in anesthetic postconditioning and to determine whether PI3K/Akt signaling modulates the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins in sevoflurane postconditioning. Isolated and perfused rat hearts were prepared first, and then randomly assigned to the following groups: Sham-operation (Sham), ischemia/reperfusion (Con), sevoflurane postconditioning (SPC), Sham plus 100 nmol/L wortmannin (Sham+Wort), Con+Wort, SPC+Wort, and Con+dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Sevoflurane postconditioning was induced by administration of sevoflurane (2.5%, v/v) for 10 min from the onset of reperfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximum increase in rate of LVDP (+dP/dt), maximum decrease in rate of LVDP (−dP/dt), heart rate (HR), and coronary flow (CF) were measured at baseline, R30 min (30 min of reperfusion), R60 min, R90 min, and R120 min. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured after 5 min and 10 min reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at the end of reperfusion. Total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt), Bax, Bcl-2, Bad, and phospho-Bad were determined by Western blot analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls’ test were used to investigate the significance of differences between groups. The LVDP, ±dP/dt, and CF were higher and LVEDP was lower in the SPC group than in the Con group at all points of reperfusion (P<0.05). The SPC group had significantly reduced CK and LDH release and decreased infarct size compared with the Con group [(22.9±8)% vs. (42.4±9.4)%, respectively; P<0.05]. The SPC group also had increased the expression of phosphor-Akt, Bcl-2, and phospho-Bad, and decreased the expression of Bax. Wortmannin abolished the

  11. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I.; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP protein family (Solute Carrier Family 39A, SLC39A) transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in zinc transporter ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn2+ from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity assay, and mutagenesis, we identified CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that eukaryotic transition element channels can be activated post-translationally by phosphorylation eliciting a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals for these events which are characteristic of cancerous cells. Furthermore, the interaction of ZIP7 with CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotoc and promotes cell division, highlights the potential for ZIP7 as a target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22317921

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Isoquinoline Alkaloid Berberine on Ischemia-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mia; Shin, Mal Soon; Lee, Jae Min; Cho, Han Sam; Kim, Chang Ju; Kim, Young Joon; Choi, Hey Ran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Berberine is a type of isoquinoline alkaloid that has been used to treat various diseases. A neuroprotective effect of berberine against cerebral ischemia has been reported; however, the effects of berberine on apoptosis in relation to reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation under ischemic conditions have not yet been fully evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on global ischemia-induced apoptosis, and focused on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in the hippocampus using gerbils. Methods Gerbils received berberine orally once a day for 14 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. In this study, a step-down avoidance task was used to assess short-term memory. Furthermore, we employed the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to evaluate DNA fragmentation, immunohistochemistry to investigate glial fibriallary acidic protein, CD11b, and caspase-3, and western blot to assess PI3K, Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c. Results Our results revealed that berberine treatment alleviated ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Treatment with berbeine also attenuated ischemia-induced apoptosis and inhibited reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Furthermore, berberine enhanced phospho-PI3K and phospho-Akt expression in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. Conclusions Berberine exerted a neuroprotective effect against ischemic insult by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The antiapoptotic effect of berberine was achieved through inhibition of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Berberine may therefore serve as a therapeutic agent for stroke-induced neurourological problems. PMID:25279238

  13. Tanshinone IIA decreases the protein expression of EGFR, and IGFR blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric carcinoma AGS cells both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Cheng; Chiu, Tsung-Lang

    2016-08-01

    Tan-IIA exerts powerful inhibitory effects in gastric cancer AGS cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is one of the most frequently dysregulated kinase cascades in human cancer. In the present study, we investigated the protein expression levels of PI3K, AKT and mTOR in AGS cells treated with Tan-IIA both in vitro and in vivo. The AGS cells were treated with Tan-IIA for different durations in vitro. In the in vivo study, AGS cell xerograft SCID mice were treated with Tan-IIA for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the protein expression of EGFR, IGFR, PI3K, AKT and mTOR was measured by western blotting. The results showed that Tan-IIA was able to decrease the protein expression levels of EGFR, IGFR, PI3K, AKT and mTOR significantly and dose-dependently in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these findings indicate Tan-IIA could inhibit AGS cells through decreasing the protein expression of EGFR, IGFR and blocking PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27277844

  14. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  15. Akt isoform-dependent regulation of ATP-Binding cassette A1 expression by apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, Zhongmao; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-12

    We previously reported that apolipoprotein E (apoE) upregulates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transcription through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Here we demonstrate that treatment of murine macrophages with human apoE3 enhanced Akt phosphorylation, and upregulated ABCA1 protein and mRNA expression. Inhibition of PI3K weakened apoE3-induced Akt phosphorylation, and ABCA1 protein and mRNA increase. In contrast, inhibition of Akt only diminished apoE-induced ABCA1 protein but not the mRNA level. Suppression of protein synthesis did not erase the ability of apoE3 to increase ABCA1 protein level. Further, apoE3 increased the resistance of ABCA1 protein to calpain-mediated degradation without affecting calpain activity. Treatment of macrophages with apoE3 selectively enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt1 and Akt2, but not Akt3. Knockdown of Akt1 or Akt2 increased and decreased ABCA1 protein level, respectively; while overexpression of these Akt isoenzymes caused changes in ABCA1 protein level opposite to those induced by knockdown of the corresponding Akt. These data imply that apoE3 guards against calpain-mediated ABCA1 degradation through Akt2. PMID:27297104

  16. BAI, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor induces apoptosis in A549 cells through activation of caspases and inactivation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin; Lee, Jinho; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jong-Wook

    2013-02-01

    Previously, we have synthesized a novel cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, 2-[1,1'biphenyl]-4-yl-N-[5-(1,1-dioxo-1λ(6) -isothiazolidin-2-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]acetamide (BAI) and reported its anti-cancer activity in head and neck cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of BAI on growth of various human cancer cell lines, including A549 (nonsmall cell lung cancer), HCT116 (colon), and Caki (kidney). Profoundly, results of XTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BAI at nanomolar concentrations (20-60 nM) inhibited growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, suggesting the anti-cancer potency. We show that BAI induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in these human cancer cells, as measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Interestingly, further biochemical analysis showed that treatment with BAI at 20 nM induced apoptosis in A549 cells in association with activation of caspases, cleavage of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), and inhibition of Akt in A549 cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition study revealed that pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor strongly blocked the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Transfection analysis with Akt cDNA encoding constitutively active Akt further addressed the significance of Akt inhibition in the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Notably, disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor potentiated apoptosis in A549 cells by BAI at a subcytotoxic concentration. These findings collectively suggest that BAI potently inhibits growth of A549, HCT116, and Caki cells, and that the BAI-induced apoptosis in A549 cells is associated with activation of caspases, and inhibition of Akt. PMID:22887215

  17. o,p'-DDT induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in murine macrophages: Role of AP-1 and CRE promoter elements and PI3-kinase/Akt/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyung-Kyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used as an insecticide to prevent the devastation of malaria in tropical zones. However, many reports suggest that DDT may act as an endocrine disruptor and may have possible carcinogenic effects. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) acts as a link between inflammation and carcinogenesis through its involvement in tumor promotion. In the present study, we examined the effect of o,p'-DDT on COX-2 gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Exposure to o,p'-DDT markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major COX-2 metabolite, in murine macrophages. Furthermore, o,p'-DDT dose-dependently increased the levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA. Transfection with human COX-2 promoter construct, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA-affinity protein-binding assay experiments revealed that o,p'-DDT activated the activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) sites, but not the NF-{kappa}B site. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, its downstream signaling molecule, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also significantly activated by the o,p'-DDT-induced AP-1 and CRE activation. These results demonstrate that o,p'-DDT induced COX-2 expression via AP-1 and CRE activation through the PI3-K/Akt/ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the carcinogenic effects of o,p'-DDT.

  18. Cytoskeletal protein kinases: titin and its relations in mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Gautel, Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Titin, the giant elastic ruler protein of striated muscle sarcomeres, contains a catalytic kinase domain related to a family of intrasterically regulated protein kinases. The most extensively studied member of this branch of the human kinome is the Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-regulated myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK). However, not all kinases of the MLCK branch are functional MLCKs, and about half lack a CaM binding site in their C-terminal autoinhibitory tail (AI). A unifying feature is their association with the cytoskeleton, mostly via actin and myosin filaments. Titin kinase, similar to its invertebrate analogue twitchin kinase and likely other "MLCKs", is not Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated. Recently, local protein unfolding of the C-terminal AI has emerged as a common mechanism in the activation of CaM kinases. Single-molecule data suggested that opening of the TK active site could also be achieved by mechanical unfolding of the AI. Mechanical modulation of catalytic activity might thus allow cytoskeletal signalling proteins to act as mechanosensors, creating feedback mechanisms between cytoskeletal tension and tension generation or cellular remodelling. Similar to other MLCK-like kinases like DRAK2 and DAPK1, TK is linked to protein turnover regulation via the autophagy/lysosomal system, suggesting the MLCK-like kinases have common functions beyond contraction regulation. PMID:21416260

  19. Regulation of mitochondrial protein import by cytosolic kinases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Rao, Sanjana; Eyrich, Beate; Zahedi, René P; Stojanovski, Diana; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Sickmann, Albert; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2011-01-21

    Mitochondria import a large number of nuclear-encoded proteins via membrane-bound transport machineries; however, little is known about regulation of the preprotein translocases. We report that the main protein entry gate of mitochondria, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex), is phosphorylated by cytosolic kinases-in particular, casein kinase 2 (CK2) and protein kinase A (PKA). CK2 promotes biogenesis of the TOM complex by phosphorylation of two key components, the receptor Tom22 and the import protein Mim1, which in turn are required for import of further Tom proteins. Inactivation of CK2 decreases the levels of the TOM complex and thus mitochondrial protein import. PKA phosphorylates Tom70 under nonrespiring conditions, thereby inhibiting its receptor activity and the import of mitochondrial metabolite carriers. We conclude that cytosolic kinases exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on biogenesis and function of the TOM complex and thus regulate protein import into mitochondria. PMID:21215441

  20. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  1. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  2. Protein Kinase C Pharmacology: Refining the Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Zhang, Alyssa X.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Protein kinase C (PKC) has been in the limelight since the discovery three decades ago that it acts as a major receptor for the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Phorbol esters, with their potent ability to activate two of the three classes of PKC isozymes, have remained the best pharmacological tool for directly modulating PKC activity. However, with the discovery of other phorbol ester-responsive proteins, the advent of various small-molecule and peptide modulators, and the need to distinguish isozyme-specific activity, the pharmacology of PKC has become increasingly complex. Not surprisingly, many of the compounds originally touted as direct modulators of PKC have subsequently been shown to hit many other cellular targets and, in some cases, not even directly modulate PKC. The complexities and reversals in PKC pharmacology have led to widespread confusion about the current status of the pharmacological tools available to control PKC activity. Here, we aim to clarify the cacophony in the literature regarding the current state of bona fide and discredited cellular PKC modulators, including activators, small-molecule inhibitors, and peptides, and also address the use of genetically-encoded reporters and of PKC mutants to measure the effects of these drugs on the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling by specific isozymes. PMID:23662807

  3. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakedis, Jeffery; French, Randall; Babicky, Michele; Jaquish, Dawn; Howard, Haleigh; Mose, Evangeline; Lam, Raymond; Holman, Patrick; Miyamoto, Jaclyn; Walterscheid, Zakk; Lowy, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription (IPT) domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient derived xenografts and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirms translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  4. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, J; French, R; Babicky, M; Jaquish, D; Howard, H; Mose, E; Lam, R; Holman, P; Miyamoto, J; Walterscheid, Z; Lowy, A M

    2016-06-23

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of xenografts derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirm translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing cells, activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  5. PPARδ Activation Acts Cooperatively with 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 to Enhance Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Claire B.; Yin, Yuzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Zeng, Xiao; King, Sruthi; Li, Xin; Kopelovich, Levy; Albanese, Chris; Glazer, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ) is a transcription factor that is associated with metabolic gene regulation and inflammation. It has been implicated in tumor promotion and in the regulation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). PDK1 is a key regulator of the AGC protein kinase family, which includes the proto-oncogene AKT/PKB implicated in several malignancies, including breast cancer. To assess the role of PDK1 in mammary tumorigenesis and its interaction with PPARδ, transgenic mice were generated in which PDK1 was expressed in mammary epithelium under the control of the MMTV enhancer/promoter region. Transgene expression increased pT308AKT and pS9GSK3β, but did not alter phosphorylation of mTOR, 4EBP1, ribosomal protein S6 and PKCα. The transgenic mammary gland also expressed higher levels of PPARδ and a gene expression profile resembling wild-type mice maintained on a diet containing the PPARδ agonist, GW501516. Both wild-type and transgenic mice treated with GW501516 exhibited accelerated rates of tumor formation that were more pronounced in transgenic animals. GW501516 treatment was accompanied by a distinct metabolic gene expression and metabolomic signature that was not present in untreated animals. GW501516-treated transgenic mice expressed higher levels of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolites than treated wild-type mice, suggesting the involvement of PDK1 in enhancing PPARδ-driven energy metabolism. These results reveal that PPARδ activation elicits a distinct metabolic and metabolomic profile in tumors that is in part related to PDK1 and AKT signaling. PMID:21297860

  6. Novel RNA chaperone domain of RNA-binding protein La is regulated by AKT phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnert, Julia; Sommer, Gunhild; Zierk, Avery W.; Fedarovich, Alena; Brock, Alexander; Fedarovich, Dzmitry; Heise, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. PMID:25520193

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. Images PMID:7935389

  8. TARGETING SPHINGOSINE KINASE 1 INHIBITS AKT SIGNALING, INDUCES APOPTOSIS, AND SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA CELLS AND XENOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Kapitonov, Dmitri; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Mitchell, Clint; Hait, Nitai C.; Almenara, Jorge A.; Adams, Jeffrey K.; Zipkin, Robert E.; Dent, Paul; Kordula, Tomasz; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent sphingolipid mediator of diverse processes important for brain tumors, including cell growth, survival, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), one of the two isoenzymes that produce S1P, is upregulated in glioblastoma and has been linked to poor prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In the present study, we found that a potent isotype-specific SphK1 inhibitor, SK1-I, suppressed growth of LN229 and U373 glioblastoma cell lines and non-established human GBM6 cells. SK1-I also enhanced GBM cell death and inhibited their migration and invasion. SK1-I rapidly reduced phosphorylation of Akt but had no significant effect on activation of ERK1/2, another important survival pathway for GBM. Inhibition of the concomitant activation of the JNK pathway induced by SK1-I attenuated death of GBM cells. Importantly, SK1-I markedly reduced tumor growth rate of glioblastoma xenografts, inducing apoptosis and reducing tumor vascularization and enhanced the survival of mice harboring LN229 intracranial tumors. Our results support the notion that SphK1 may be an important factor in GBM and suggest that an isozyme-specific inhibitor of SphK1 deserves consideration as a new therapeutic agent for this disease. PMID:19723667

  9. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  10. A Hexane Fraction of Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) Induces Anticancer Activity by Suppressing AKT/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Ribosomal p70 S6 Kinase in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:22280146

  11. Modulation of JAK2, STAT3 and Akt1 proteins by granulocyte colony stimulating factor following carbon monoxide poisoning in male rat.

    PubMed

    Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Imen Shahidi, Mohsen; Moallem, Seyyed Adel; Abnous, Khalil; Ghorbani, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, tasteless and non-irritating by-product of inefficient combustion of hydrocarbon fuels such as motor vehicle exhausted gases. It is the leading cause of mortality in the USA among all unintentional toxicants. Male rats exposed to CO poisoning in the heart has many cardiovascular effects such as, cardiomyopathy, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and ischemia and in severe cases, myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac arrest. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the most frequent consequences in the heart. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that mobilizes and differentiates granulocytes from stem cells. It can stimulate many anti-apoptotic pathways such as JAK2-STAT3 and PI3-Akt kinases following cardiac ischemia. G-CSF exerts its anti-apoptotic effects through binding to its specific cell surface receptor. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of anti-apoptotic effect of G-CSF following CO poisoning. Rats were exposed to CO 1500 or 3000 ppm for 60 min. Animals received G-CSF 100 μg/kg subcutaneously for five consecutive days after CO intoxication. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the expression of six proteins namely JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3, Akt1 and p-Akt1 following G-CSF 100 μg/kg consecutive dose administration after CO poisoning. There was a significant difference between phosphorylated proteins including p-JAK2, p-STAT3 and p-Akt1 in the G-CSF groups and those in control groups and there were not any significant differences in total protein among the groups. PMID:26810905

  12. Protein kinase C mediates platelet secretion and thrombus formation through protein kinase D2

    PubMed Central

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A.; Harper, Matthew T.; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M. E. M.; Williams, Christopher M.; Navarro, Maria N.; Carter, Deborah A.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W.

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion. PMID:21527521

  13. Tonoplast-Bound Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1992-01-01

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a member of a family of putative membrane channels found in bacteria, animals, and plants. Plants have seed-specific, vegetative/reproductive organ-specific, and water-stress-induced forms of TIP. Here, we report that the seed-specific TIP is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation can be monitored in vivo by allowing bean cotyledons to take up [32P]orthophosphate and in vitro by incubating purified tonoplasts with γ-labeled [32P]ATP. Characterization of the in vitro phosphorylation of TIP indicates that a membrane-bound protein kinase phosphorylates TIP in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The capacity of the isolated tonoplast membranes to phosphorylate TIP declined markedly during seed germination, and this decline occurred well before the development-mediated decrease in TIP occurs. Phosphoamino acid analysis of purified, radiolabeled TIP showed that serine is the major, if not only, phosphorylated residue, and cyanogen bromide cleavage yielded a single radioactive peptide peak on a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatogram. Estimation of the molecular mass of the cyanogen bromide phosphopeptide by laser desorption mass spectroscopy led to its identification as the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of TIP. The putative phosphate-accepting serine residue occurs in a consensus phosphorylation site for serine/threonine protein kinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16653198

  14. Resolution of thylakoid polyphenol oxidase and a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Race, H.L.; Davenport, J.W.; Hind, G.

    1995-12-31

    The predominant protein kinase activity in octylglucoside (OG) extracts of spinach thylakoids has been attributed to a 64-kDa protein, tp64. Recent work calls into question the relation between tp64 and protein kinase activity, which were fractionated apart using fluid phase IEF and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Hind et al. sequenced tp64 from the cDNA and showed it to be a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) homolog. Its transit peptide indicates a location for the mature protein within the thylakoid lumen, where there is presumably no ATP and where it is remote from the presumed kinase substrates: the stromally exposed regions of integral PS-II membrane proteins. Here the authors suggest that the kinase is a 64-kDa protein distinct from tp64.

  15. Downregulation of AKT3 Increases Migration and Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Upregulating S100A4

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Tobias; Nörz, Dominik; Herzberger, Christiane; Bach, Johanna; Grabinski, Nicole; Gräser, Lareen; Höppner, Frank; Nashan, Björn; Schumacher, Udo; Jücker, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of breast cancer patients with distant metastases represents one of the biggest challenges in today’s gynecological oncology. Therefore, a better understanding of mechanisms promoting the development of metastases is of paramount importance. The serine/threonine kinase AKT was shown to drive cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is emerging data that single AKT isoforms (i.e. AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) have different or even opposing functions in the regulation of cancer cell migration in vitro, giving rise to the hypothesis that inhibition of distinct AKT isoforms might have undesirable effects on cancer dissemination in vivo. Methods The triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to investigate the functional roles of AKT in migration and metastasis. AKT single and double knockdown cells were generated using isoform specific shRNAs. Migration was analyzed using live cell imaging, chemotaxis and transwell assays. The metastatic potential of AKT isoform knockdown cells was evaluated in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model in vivo. Results Depletion of AKT3, but not AKT1 or AKT2, resulted in increased migration in vitro. This effect was even more prominent in AKT2,3 double knockdown cells. Furthermore, combined downregulation of AKT2 and AKT3, as well as AKT1 and AKT3 significantly increased metastasis formation in vivo. Screening for promigratory proteins revealed that downregulation of AKT3 increases the expression of S100A4 protein. In accordance, depletion of S100A4 by siRNA approach reverses the increased migration induced by knockdown of AKT3. Conclusions We demonstrated that knockdown of AKT3 can increase the metastatic potential of triple negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, our results provide a rationale for the development of AKT isoform specific inhibitors. PMID:26741489

  16. Inhibition of aldose reductase prevents growth factor-induced G1-S phase transition through the AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/E2F-1 pathway in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Kota V; Tammali, Ravinder; Srivastava, Satish K

    2010-04-01

    Colon cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. The deregulated cell cycle control or decreased apoptosis of normal epithelial cells leading to uncontrolled proliferation is one of the major features of tumor progression. We have previously shown that aldose reductase (AR), a NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase, has been shown to be involved in growth factor-induced proliferation of colon cancer cells. Herein, we report that inhibition of AR prevents epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced HT29 cell proliferation by accumulating cells at G(1) phase of cell cycle. Similar results were observed in SW480 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with AR inhibitor, sorbinil or zopolrestat, prevented the EGF- and bFGF-induced DNA binding activity of E2F-1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Inhibition of AR also prevented EGF- and bFGF-induced phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2 and expression of G(1)-S transition regulatory proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk4, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin E, and c-myc. More importantly, inhibition of AR prevented the EGF- and bFGF-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and reactive oxygen species generation in colon cancer cells. Further, inhibition of AR also prevented the tumor growth of human colon cancer cells in nude mouse xenografts. Collectively, these results show that AR mediates EGF- and bFGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation by activating or expressing G(1)-S phase proteins such as E2F-1, cdks, and cyclins through the reactive oxygen species/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway, indicating the use of AR inhibitors in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 813-24. (c)2010 AACR. PMID:20354121

  17. Thr308 determines Akt1 nuclear localization in insulin-stimulated keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, Itamar; Mueller, Elke; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2008-07-18

    Here, we determined the localization and activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in acute cutaneous wound tissue in mice. Akt1 represented the major Akt isoform that was expressed and activated in wound margin keratinocytes and also in the cultured human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Mutation of Akt1 protein, exchanging the activation-essential Ser473 and Thr308 residues for inactive Ala or phosphorylation-mimicking Asp and Glu residues, revealed that phosphorylation of Ser473 represented an essential prerequisite for auto-phosphorylation of Thr308 within the Akt1 protein in keratinocytes. Moreover, cell culture experiments and transfection studies using Thr308 mutated Akt1 proteins demonstrated that phosphorylation of Akt1 at Thr308 appeared to selectively exclude the active kinase from the nucleus and direct the kinase to the cytoplasmic compartment in keratinocytes upon insulin stimulation. In summary, our data show that phosphorylation of Thr308 during insulin-mediated Akt1 activation is an essential prerequisite to exclude Akt1 from the nuclear compartment.

  18. Rosiglitazone-induced myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury is mediated via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Jiao; Xiong, Zi-Bo; Tang, An-Li; Ma, Hong; Ma, Yue-Dong; Wu, Jing-Guo; Dong, Yu-Gang

    2010-02-01

    1. Rosiglitazone is widely used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. However, in recent years it has become evident that the therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands reach far beyond their use as insulin sensitizers. Recently, the ability of rosiglitazone pretreatment to induce cardioprotection following ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been well documented; however, the protective mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signalling pathway in rosiglitazone cardioprotection following I/R injury. 2. Mice were pretreated with 3 mg/kg per day rosiglitazone for 14 days before hearts were subjected to ischaemia (30 min) and reperfusion (2 h). Wortmannin (1.4 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of PI3-K, was administered 10 min prior to myocardial I/R. Then, activation of the PI3-K/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3alpha signalling pathway was examined. The effects of PI3-K inhibition on rosiglitazone-induced cardioprotection were also evaluated. 3. Compared with control rats, the ratio of infarct size to ischaemic area (area at risk) and the occurrence of sustained ventricular fibrillation in rosiglitazone-pretreated rats was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Rosiglitazone pretreatment attenuated cardiac apoptosis, as assessed by ELISA to determine cardiomyocyte DNA fragmentation. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly increased levels of phosphorylated (p-) Akt and p-GSK-3alpha in the rat myocardium. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3-K by wortmannin markedly abolished the cardioprotection induced by rosiglitazone. 4. These results indicate that rosiglitazone-induced cardioprotection in I/R injury is mediated via a PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3alpha-dependent pathway. The data also suggest that modulation of PI3-K/Akt/GSK-3alpha-dependent signalling pathways may be a viable strategy to reduce myocardial I/R injury. PMID:19566839

  19. Notch1 Receptor Regulates AKT Protein Activation Loop (Thr308) Dephosphorylation through Modulation of the PP2A Phosphatase in Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-null T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Eric C.; Orr, Steven M.; Larson Gedman, Amanda; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2013-01-01

    Notch1 activating mutations occur in more than 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases and increase expression of Notch1 target genes, some of which activate AKT. HES1 transcriptionally silences phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), resulting in AKT activation, which is reversed by Notch1 inhibition with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs). Mutational loss of PTEN is frequent in T-ALL and promotes resistance to GSIs due to AKT activation. GSI treatments increased AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and signaling in PTEN-deficient, GSI-resistant T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, and MOLT3), suggesting that Notch1 represses AKT independent of its PTEN transcriptional effects. AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and downstream signaling were also increased by knocking down Notch1 in Jurkat (N1KD) cells. This was blocked by treatment with the AKT inhibitor perifosine. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid both impacted AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation to a greater extent in nontargeted control than N1KD cells, suggesting decreased dephosphorylation of AKT-Thr308 by PP2A in the latter. Phosphorylations of AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα)-Thr172 and p70S6K-Thr389, both PP2A substrates, were also increased in both N1KD and GSI-treated cells and responded to okadaic acid treatment. A transcriptional regulatory mechanism was implied because ectopic expression of dominant-negative mastermind-like protein 1 increased and wild-type HES1 decreased phosphorylation of these PP2A targets. This was independent of changes in PP2A subunit levels or in vitro PP2A activity, but was accompanied by decreased association of PP2A with AKT in N1KD cells. These results suggest that Notch1 can regulate PP2A dephosphorylation of critical cellular regulators including AKT, AMPKα, and p70S6K. PMID:23788636

  20. Mitogen activated protein kinase at the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, Randolph S; Maddaford, Thane G; Pierce, Grant N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases control eukaryotic proliferation, and import of kinases into the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can influence gene expression to affect cellular growth, cell viability and homeostatic function. The NPC is a critical regulatory checkpoint for nucleocytoplasmic traffic that regulates gene expression and cell growth, and MAP kinases may be physically associated with the NPC to modulate transport. In the present study, highly enriched NPC fractions were isolated and investigated for associated kinases and/or activity. Endogenous kinase activity was identified within the NPC fraction, which phosphorylated a 30 kD nuclear pore protein. Phosphomodification of this nucleoporin, here termed Nup30, was inhibited by apigenin and PD-98059, two MAP kinase antagonists as well as with SB-202190, a pharmacological blocker of p38. Furthermore, high throughput profiling of enriched NPCs revealed constitutive presence of all members of the MAP kinase family, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase. The NPC thus contains a spectrum of associated MAP kinases that suggests an intimate role for ERK and p38 in regulation of nuclear pore function. PMID:20497490

  1. Protein kinase A alterations in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, S; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J

    2014-11-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. PMID:25105543

  2. PTH-related protein upregulates integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and activates Akt in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Xiaoli; Falzon, Miriam . E-mail: mfalzon@utmb.edu

    2006-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma that metastasizes to bone. Tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a known stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, is a major mediator of the osteolytic process in breast cancer. We have previously shown that PTHrP increases breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and pro-invasive integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. To determine the role of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 in these PTHrP-mediated effects, we utilized two strategies to modulate expression of the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits in parental and PTHrP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells: overexpression of {alpha}6{beta}4 by transfection with constructs encoding the {alpha}6 and {beta}4 subunits, and suppression of endogenous {alpha}6{beta}4 expression by transfection with siRNAs targeting these subunits. We now show that the effects of PTHrP are mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression. We also show that integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression is modulated at the mRNA level, indicating a transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanism of action for PTHrP. PTHrP expression also increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt, with a consequent increase in the levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The role of PTHrP in breast cancer growth and metastasis may thus be mediated via upregulation of integrin {alpha}6{beta}4 expression and Akt activation, with consequent inactivation of GSK-3.

  3. Targeting Protein Kinase CK2 Suppresses Pro-survival Signaling Pathways and Growth of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ying; McFarland, Braden C.; Drygin, Denis; Yu, Hao; Bellis, Susan L.; Kim, Hyunsoo; Bredel, Markus; Benveniste, Etty N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary malignancies in the brain, and glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive of these tumors. Protein kinase CK2 is composed of two catalytic subunits (α and/or α’) and two β regulatory subunits. CK2 suppresses apoptosis, promotes neo-angiogenesis, and enhances activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, Hsp90, Wnt and Hedgehog pathways. Aberrant activation of the NF-κB, PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT-3 pathways is implicated in GBM progression. Since CK2 is involved in their activation, the expression and function of CK2 in GBM was evaluated. Experimental Design and Results Analysis of 537 GBMs from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project demonstrates the CSNK2A1 gene, encoding CK2α, has gene dosage gains in GBM (33.7%), and is significantly associated with the classical GBM subtype. Inhibition of CK2 activity by CX-4945, a selective CK2 inhibitor, or CK2 knockdown by siRNA suppresses activation of the JAK/STAT, NF-κB and AKT pathways and downstream gene expression in human GBM xenografts. On a functional level, CX-4945 treatment decreases the adhesion and migration of GBM cells, in part through inhibition of integrin β1 and α4 expression. In vivo, CX-4945 inhibits activation of STAT-3, NF-κB p65 and AKT, and promotes survival of mice with intracranial human GBM xenografts. Conclusions CK2 inhibitors may be considered for treatment of patients with GBM. PMID:24036851

  4. Ribosomal protein mutations induce autophagy through S6 kinase inhibition of the insulin pathway.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Harry F; van Wijk, Richard; Pereboom, Tamara C; Goos, Yvonne J; Seinen, Cor W; van Oirschot, Brigitte A; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W; Gazda, Hanna T; Bierings, Marc B; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  5. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  6. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  7. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  8. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  9. Implication of the calcium sensing receptor and the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in the extracellular calcium-mediated migration of RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Cédric; Saidak, Zuzana; Boulanouar, Abdel Krim; Petit, Laurent; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Massy, Ziad; Brazier, Michel; Mentaverri, Romuald; Kamel, Saïd

    2010-05-01

    While the processes involved in the formation, maturation and apoptosis of osteoclasts have been investigated extensively in previous studies, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the localization and homing of osteoclast precursor cells to the bone environment in order to initiate the bone remodeling process. Recent studies have suggested that the extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) concentration gradient present near the bone environment may be one of the participating factors, producing a chemoattractant effect on osteoclast precursors. Using the murine osteoclast precursor cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, the RAW 264.7 cell line, we have shown that Ca(2+)(o) increases the migration of these cells in a directional manner. The participation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in this effect was tested by knocking down its expression through RNA interference, which resulted in an abolition of the migratory response. By the use of specific pathway inhibitors and western blot analysis, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and phospholipase Cbeta pathways were shown to be implicated in the migratory effect. The implication of the Akt pathway in the Ca(2+)(o)-induced chemoattraction of RAW 264.7 cells was also confirmed by transducing the cells with the fusion protein TAT-dominant negative-Akt, which decreased the migratory effect. In contrast, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) were not involved in the production of the migratory effect. We conclude that through the activation of the CaR and subsequent signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway, Ca(2+)(o) produces a chemoattractant effect on the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the Ca(2+)(o) gradient present near the bone may be one of the initiating factors for the homing of osteoclast precursors to bone, thus possibly playing a role in the initiation of bone remodeling. PMID:20149906

  10. c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt signalling pathways regulating tumour necrosis factor-α-induced interleukin-32 expression in human lung fibroblasts: implications in airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dagen; Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Hong; Song, Zixin; Xu, Wenchun; He, Yujuan; Yin, Yibing; Cao, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are associated with elevated expression of interleukin-32 (IL-32), a recently described cytokine that appears to play a critical role in inflammation. However, so far, the regulation of pulmonary IL-32 production has not been fully established. We examined the expression of IL-32 by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in primary human lung fibroblasts. Human lung fibroblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of TNF-α and/or other cytokines/Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands or various signalling molecule inhibitors to analyse the expression of IL-32 by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Next, activation of Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathways was investigated by Western blot. Interleukin-32 mRNA of four spliced isoforms (α,β,γ and δ) was up-regulated upon TNF-α stimulation, which was associated with a significant IL-32 protein release from TNF-α-activated human lung fibroblasts. The combination of interferon-γ and TNF-α induced enhanced IL-32 release in human lung fibroblasts, whereas IL-4, IL-17A, IL-27 and TLR ligands did not alter IL-32 release in human lung fibroblasts either alone, or in combination with TNF-α. Furthermore, the activation of Akt and JNK pathways regulated TNF-α-induced IL-32 expression in human lung fibroblasts, and inhibition of the Akt and JNK pathways was able to suppress the increased release of IL-32 to nearly the basal level. These data suggest that TNF-α may be involved in airway inflammation via the induction of IL-32 by activating Akt and JNK signalling pathways. Therefore, the TNF-α/IL-32 axis may be a potential therapeutic target for airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:25157456

  11. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  12. Protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by Soyasaponin I by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/GSK3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Cao, Wei; Zhao, Shifeng; Han, Zengtai; Han, Boxiang

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can be ascribed to the progressive and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and thus molecules with neuroprotective ability may have therapeutic value against PD. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of Soyasaponin I (Soya-I), a naturally occurring triterpene extracted from a widely used ingredient in many foods, such as Glycine max (soybean), were evaluated in a widely used cellular PD model in which neurotoxicity was induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP) in cultured SH-SY5Y cells. We found that Soya-I at 10-40 μM considerably protected against MPP-induced neurotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in cell viability, a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase release, and a reduction in apoptotic nuclei. Moreover, Soya-I effectively inhibited the elevated intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by MPP. Most importantly, Soya-I markedly reversed the inhibition of protein expression of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated GSK3β caused by MPP. LY294002, the specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, significantly abrogated the upregulated phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated GSK3β offered by Soya-I, suggesting that the neuroprotection of Soya-I was mainly dependent on the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. The results taken together indicate that Soya-I may be a potential candidate for further preclinical study aimed at the prevention and treatment of PD. PMID:27196724

  13. Notch signaling regulates the phosphorylation of Akt and survival of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19)

    PubMed Central

    Sangphech, Naunpun; Osborne, Barbara A.; Palaga, Tanapat

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune defense by sensing microbes using pattern-recognition receptors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages via TLR, which leads to activation of downstream signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the roles of a conserved signaling pathway, Notch signaling, in regulating the downstream signaling cascades of the LPS/TLR4 pathways in macrophages. Using a phosphoproteomic approach and a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to suppress the processing and activation of Notch signaling, we identified regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19) as a target protein whose phosphorylation was affected by GSI treatment. RGS19 is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein that functions to negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptors via Gαi/Gαq-linked signaling. Stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS increased the level of the phosphorylated form of RGS19, while LPS stimulation in the presence of GSI decreased its level. GSI treatment did not alter the mRNA level of rgs19. Treatment with GSI or silencing of rgs19 in macrophages impaired the phosphorylation of Akt Thr308 upon LPS stimulation. Furthermore, targeted deletion of a DNA-binding protein and binding partner of the Notch receptor, RBP-Jκ/CSL, in macrophages resulted in delayed and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Because the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates cell survival in various cell types, the cell cycle and cell death were assayed upon GSI treatment, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor treatment or silencing of rgs19. GSI treatment resulted in decreased cell populations in the G1 and S phases, while it increased the cell population of cell death. Similarly, silencing of rgs19 resulted in a decreased cell population in the G1 phase and an increased cell population in the subG1 phase. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by PI3K inhibitor in LPS-stimulated macrophages increased cell population in G1 phase, suggesting a possible cell cycle

  14. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Is Required for Regulation during Dark-Light Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Horim

    2015-07-01

    Plant growth and development are coordinately orchestrated by environmental cues and phytohormones. Light acts as a key environmental factor for fundamental plant growth and physiology through photosensory phytochromes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Although phytochromes are known to possess serine/threonine protein kinase activities, whether they trigger a signal transduction pathway via an intracellular protein kinase network remains unknown. In analyses of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, also called MKK) mutants, the mkk3 mutant has shown both a hypersensitive response in plant hormone gibberellin (GA) and a less sensitive response in red light signaling. Surprisingly, light-induced MAPK activation in wild-type (WT) seedlings and constitutive MAPK phosphorylation in dark-grown mkk3 mutant seedlings have also been found, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that MKK3 acts in negative regulation in darkness and in light-induced MAPK activation during dark-light transition. PMID:26082029

  15. Regulation of the Intracellular Localization of Foxo3a by Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Stephan; Siffroi-Fernandez, Sandrine; Coldefy, Anne Sophie; Boulukos, Kim; Pisani, Didier F.; Dérijard, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Muscle atrophy is a debilitating process associated with many chronic wasting diseases, like cancer, diabetes, sepsis, and renal failure. Rapid loss of muscle mass occurs mainly through the activation of protein breakdown by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Foxo3a transcription factor is critical for muscle atrophy, since it activates the expression of ubiquitin ligase Atrogin-1. In several models of atrophy, inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway induces nuclear import of Foxo3a through an Akt-dependent process. This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the control of Foxo3a nuclear translocation in muscle cells. We observed that after nuclear import of Foxo3a by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition, activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways induced nuclear export of Foxo3a through CRM1. This mechanism involved the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway and was independent of Akt. Likewise, we showed that inhibition of p38 induced a massive nuclear relocalization of Foxo3a. Our results thus suggest that SAPKs are involved in the control of Foxo3a nucleocytoplasmic translocation in C2C12 cells. Moreover, activation of SAPKs decreases the expression of Atrogin-1, and stable C2C12 myotubes, in which the p38 pathway is constitutively activated, present partial protection against atrophy. PMID:19917721

  16. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  17. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  18. Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Frings, S

    1993-02-01

    Effects of neurotransmitters on cAMP-mediated signal transduction in frog olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) were studied using in situ spike recordings and radioimmunoassays. Carbachol, applied to the mucosal side of olfactory epithelium, amplified the electrical response of ORCs to cAMP-generating odorants, but did not affect unstimulated cells. A similar augmentation of odorant response was observed in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC). The electrical response to forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase (AC), was also enhanced by PDBu, and it was attenuated by the PKC inhibitor Goe 6983. Forskolin-induced accumulation of cAMP in olfactory tissue was potentiated by carbachol, serotonin, and PDBu to a similar extent. Potentiation was completely suppressed by the PKC inhibitors Goe 6983, staurosporine, and polymyxin B, suggesting that the sensitivity of olfactory AC to stimulation by odorants and forskolin was increased by PKC. Experiments with deciliated olfactory tissue indicated that sensitization of AC was restricted to sensory cilia of ORCs. To study the effects of cell Ca2+ on these mechanisms, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of olfactory tissue was either increased by ionomycin or decreased by BAPTA/AM. Increasing cell Ca2+ had two effects on cAMP production: (a) the basal cAMP production was enhanced by a mechanism sensitive to inhibitors of calmodulin; and (b) similar to phorbol ester, cell Ca2+ caused sensitization of AC to stimulation by forskolin, an effect sensitive to Goe 6983. Decreasing cell Ca2+ below basal levels rendered AC unresponsive to stimulation by forskolin. These data suggest that a crosstalk mechanism is functional in frog ORCs, linking the sensitivity of AC to the activity of PKC. At increased activity of PKC, olfactory AC becomes more responsive to stimulation by odorants, forskolin, and cell Ca2+. Neurotransmitters appear to use this crosstalk mechanism to regulate olfactory

  19. Protein kinase A alterations in endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Ragazzon, B; Rizk-Rabin, M; Bertherat, J

    2012-09-01

    Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Since protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway, studies of the alterations of PKA subunits in endocrine tumors reveal new aspects of the mechanisms of cAMP pathway alterations in human diseases. So far, most alterations have been observed for the regulatory subunits, mainly PRKAR1A and to a lower extent, PRKAR2B. One of the best examples of such alteration today is the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC). The most common endocrine gland manifestations of CNC are pituitary GH-secreting adenomas, thyroid tumors, testicular tumors, and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) are observed in about two-third of CNC patients, and also in patients with isolated PPNAD. PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic endocrine tumors. More than 120 different PRKAR1A mutations have been found today. Most of them lead to an unstable mutant mRNA, which will be degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. In vitro and in vivo functional studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms of endocrine tumor development due to PKA regulatory subunits inactivation. PRKAR1A mutations stimulate in most models PKA activity, mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. Cross-talks with other signaling pathways summarized in this review have been described and might participate in endocrine tumorigenesis. PMID:22752956

  20. In silico design of protein kinase inhibitors: successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Dubinina, Galina G; Chupryna, Oleksandr O; Platonov, Maxim O; Borisko, Petro O; Ostrovska, Galina V; Tolmachov, Andriy O; Shtil, Alexander A

    2007-03-01

    Protein kinases are among the most exploited targets in modern drug discovery due to key roles these enzymes play in human diseases including cancer. The in silico approach, an important part of rational design of protein kinase inhibitors, is founded on vast information about 3D structures of these enzymes. This review summarizes general structural features of the kinase inhibitors and the studies applied toward a large scale chemical database for virtual screening. Analyzed are the ways of validating the modern docking tools and their combinations with different scoring functions. In particular, we discuss the kinase flexibility as a reason for failures of the docking procedure. Finally, evidence is provided for the main patterns of kinase-inhibitor interactions and creation of the hinge-region-directed 2D filters. PMID:17348826

  1. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa(R), ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. PMID:25662161

  2. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    PubMed Central

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês CR; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the—in many cells—asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02860.001 PMID:24948515

  3. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID.

    PubMed

    Zourelidou, Melina; Absmanner, Birgit; Weller, Benjamin; Barbosa, Inês C R; Willige, Björn C; Fastner, Astrid; Streit, Verena; Port, Sarah A; Colcombet, Jean; de la Fuente van Bentem, Sergio; Hirt, Heribert; Kuster, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hammes, Ulrich Z; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant. PMID:24948515

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  5. Molecular and functional interactions between AKT and SOX2 in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Perihan; Konantz, Martina; Pereboom, Tamara C.; Paczulla, Anna M.; Merz, Britta; Fehm, Tanja; Perner, Sven; Rothfuss, Oliver C.; Kanz, Lothar; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Lengerke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX2 is a key regulator of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and plays important roles in early organogenesis. Recently, SOX2 expression was documented in various cancers and suggested as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. Here we identify the Ser/Thr-kinase AKT as an upstream regulator of SOX2 protein turnover in breast carcinoma (BC). SOX2 and pAKT are co-expressed and co-regulated in breast CSCs and depletion of either reduces clonogenicity. Ectopic SOX2 expression restores clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of AKT-inhibited cells, suggesting that SOX2 acts as a functional downstream AKT target. Mechanistically, we show that AKT physically interacts with the SOX2 protein to modulate its subcellular distribution. AKT kinase inhibition results in enhanced cytoplasmic retention of SOX2, presumably via impaired nuclear import, and in successive cytoplasmic proteasomal degradation of the protein. In line, blockade of either nuclear transport or proteasomal degradation rescues SOX2 expression in AKT-inhibited BC cells. Finally, AKT inhibitors efficiently suppress the growth of SOX2-expressing putative cancer stem cells, whereas conventional chemotherapeutics select for this population. Together, our results suggest the AKT/SOX2 molecular axis as a regulator of BC clonogenicity and AKT inhibitors as promising drugs for the treatment of SOX2-positive BC. PMID:26498353

  6. Molecular and functional interactions between AKT and SOX2 in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Thorsten; Wang, Hui; Mir, Perihan; Konantz, Martina; Pereboom, Tamara C; Paczulla, Anna M; Merz, Britta; Fehm, Tanja; Perner, Sven; Rothfuss, Oliver C; Kanz, Lothar; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Lengerke, Claudia

    2015-12-22

    The transcription factor SOX2 is a key regulator of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and plays important roles in early organogenesis. Recently, SOX2 expression was documented in various cancers and suggested as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. Here we identify the Ser/Thr-kinase AKT as an upstream regulator of SOX2 protein turnover in breast carcinoma (BC). SOX2 and pAKT are co-expressed and co-regulated in breast CSCs and depletion of either reduces clonogenicity. Ectopic SOX2 expression restores clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenicity of AKT-inhibited cells, suggesting that SOX2 acts as a functional downstream AKT target. Mechanistically, we show that AKT physically interacts with the SOX2 protein to modulate its subcellular distribution. AKT kinase inhibition results in enhanced cytoplasmic retention of SOX2, presumably via impaired nuclear import, and in successive cytoplasmic proteasomal degradation of the protein. In line, blockade of either nuclear transport or proteasomal degradation rescues SOX2 expression in AKT-inhibited BC cells. Finally, AKT inhibitors efficiently suppress the growth of SOX2-expressing putative cancer stem cells, whereas conventional chemotherapeutics select for this population. Together, our results suggest the AKT/SOX2 molecular axis as a regulator of BC clonogenicity and AKT inhibitors as promising drugs for the treatment of SOX2-positive BC. PMID:26498353

  7. Activation of protein kinase C induces mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation and pronucleus formation in rat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Smith, Gary D; Chen, Da-Yuan; Han, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2002-07-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) before fertilization. When oocytes are stimulated by spermatozoa, they exit MII stage and complete meiosis. It has been suggested that an immediate increase in intracellular free calcium concentration and inactivation of maturation promoting factor (MPF) are required for oocyte activation. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and their interplay in rat oocyte activation. We found that MAP kinase became dephosphorylated in correlation with pronucleus formation after fertilization. Protein kinase C activators, phorbol 12-myriatate 13-acetate (PMA) and 1,2-dioctanoyl-rac-glycerol (diC8), triggered dephosphorylation of MAP kinase and pronucleus formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Dephosphorylation of MAP kinase was also correlated with pronucleus formation when oocytes were treated with PKC activators. Effects of PKC activators were abolished by the PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and staurosporine, as well as a protein phosphatase blocker, okadaic acid (OA). These results suggest that PKC activation may cause rat oocyte pronucleus formation via MAP kinase dephosphorylation, which is probably mediated by OA-sensitive protein phosphatases. We also provide evidence supporting the involvement of such a process in fertilization. PMID:12080000

  8. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ping . E-mail: chenping@263.net; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-04-14

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-{kappa}B in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-{kappa}B expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that

  9. The C-terminal tail of protein kinase D2 and protein kinase D3 regulates their intracellular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papazyan, Romeo; Rozengurt, Enrique; Rey, Osvaldo . E-mail: orey@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-14

    We generated a set of GFP-tagged chimeras between protein kinase D2 (PKD2) and protein kinase D3 (PKD3) to examine in live cells the contribution of their C-terminal region to their intracellular localization. We found that the catalytic domain of PKD2 and PKD3 can localize to the nucleus when expressed without other kinase domains. However, when the C-terminal tail of PKD2 was added to its catalytic domain, the nuclear localization of the resulting protein was inhibited. In contrast, the nuclear localization of the CD of PKD3 was not inhibited by its C-terminal tail. Furthermore, the exchange of the C-terminal tail of PKD2 and PKD3 in the full-length proteins was sufficient to exchange their intracellular localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the short C-terminal tail of these kinases plays a critical role in determining their cytoplasmic/nuclear localization.

  10. Dynamics of Protein Kinases: Insights from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yao; Liddle, Jennifer C.; Pardi, Arthur; Ahn, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes with critical roles in cellular processes and pathology. As a result, researchers have studied their activity and regulatory mechanisms extensively. Thousands of X-ray structures give snapshots of the architectures of protein kinases in various states of activation and ligand binding. However, the extent of and manner by which protein motions and conformational dynamics underlie the function and regulation of these important enzymes is not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide complementary information about protein conformation and dynamics in solution. However, until recently, the large size of these enzymes prevented researchers from using these methods with kinases. Developments in transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY)-based techniques and more efficient isotope labeling strategies are now allowing researchers to carry out NMR studies on full-length protein kinases. In this Account, we describe recent insights into the role of dynamics in protein kinase regulation and catalysis that have been gained from NMR measurements of chemical shift changes and line broadening, residual dipolar couplings, and relaxation. These findings show strong associations between protein motion and events that control kinase activity. Dynamic and conformational changes occurring at ligand binding sites and other regulatory domains of these proteins propagate to conserved kinase core regions that mediate catalytic function. NMR measurements of slow time scale (microsecond to millisecond) motions also reveal that kinases carry out global exchange processes that synchronize multiple residues and allosteric interconversion between conformational states. Activating covalent modifications or ligand binding to form the Michaelis complex can induce these global processes. Inhibitors can also exploit the exchange properties of kinases by using conformational selection to form dynamically quenched

  11. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections. PMID:27148265

  12. Akt3 Deficiency in Macrophages Promotes Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang; Biswas, Sudipta; Morton, Richard E.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hay, Nissim; Byzova, Tatiana; Febbraio, Maria; Podrez, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Summary Akt, a serine-threonine protein kinase, exists as three isoforms. The Akt signaling pathway controls multiple cellular functions in the cardiovascular system, and the atheroprotective endothelial cell dependent role of Akt1 has been recently demonstrated. The role of Akt3 isoform in cardiovascular pathophysiology is not known. We explored the role of Akt3 in atherosclerosis using mice with a genetic ablation of the Akt3 gene. Using hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice, we demonstrated a macrophage dependent, atheroprotective role for Akt3. In vitro experiments demonstrated differential subcellular localization of Akt1 and Akt3 in macrophages, and showed that Akt3 specifically inhibits macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation and foam cell formation, a critical early event in atherogenesis. Mechanistically, Akt3 suppresses foam cell formation by reducing lipoprotein uptake and promoting ACAT-1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These studies demonstrate the non-redundant atheroprotective role for Akt3 exerted via the previously unknown link between the Akt signaling pathway and cholesterol metabolism. PMID:22632897

  13. Deletion of the phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110(gamma) gene attenuates murine atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammatory cell activation by chemokines requires intracellular signaling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and the PI3-kinase-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase Akt. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process driven by oxidatively modified (atherogenic) lipoproteins, ch...

  14. Giant protein kinases: domain interactions and structural basis of autoregulation.

    PubMed Central

    Kobe, B; Heierhorst, J; Feil, S C; Parker, M W; Benian, G M; Weiss, K R; Kemp, B E

    1996-01-01

    The myosin-associated giant protein kinases twitchin and titin are composed predominantly of fibronectin- and immunoglobulin-like modules. We report the crystal structures of two autoinhibited twitchin kinase fragments, one from Aplysia and a larger fragment from Caenorhabditis elegans containing an additional C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. The structure of the longer fragment shows that the immunoglobulin domain contacts the protein kinase domain on the opposite side from the catalytic cleft, laterally exposing potential myosin binding residues. Together, the structures reveal the cooperative interactions between the autoregulatory region and the residues from the catalytic domain involved in protein substrate binding, ATP binding, catalysis and the activation loop, and explain the differences between the observed autoinhibitory mechanism and the one found in the structure of calmodulin-dependent kinase I. Images PMID:9003756

  15. Targeting protein kinases in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chico, Laura K.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Watterson, D. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases are a growing drug target class in disorders in peripheral tissues, but the development of kinase-targeted therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge, largely owing to issues associated specifically with CNS drug discovery. However, several candidate therapeutics that target CNS protein kinases are now in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. We review candidate compounds and discuss selected CNS protein kinases that are emerging as important therapeutic targets. In addition, we analyse trends in small-molecule properties that correlate with key challenges in CNS drug discovery, such as blood–brain barrier penetrance and cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and discuss the potential of future approaches that will integrate molecular-fragment expansion with pharmacoinformatics to address these challenges. PMID:19876042

  16. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold

    SciTech Connect

    Peisach, D.; Gee, P.; Kent, K.; Xu, Z.

    2010-03-08

    Choline kinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of choline, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of a choline kinase from C. elegans (CKA-2) reveals that the enzyme is a homodimeric protein with each monomer organized into a two-domain fold. The structure is remarkably similar to those of protein kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, despite no significant similarity in amino acid sequence. Comparisons to the structures of other kinases suggest that ATP binds to CKA-2 in a pocket formed by highly conserved and catalytically important residues. In addition, a choline binding site is proposed to be near the ATP binding pocket and formed by several structurally flexible loops.

  17. AKAP79 Selectively Enhances Protein Kinase C Regulation of GluR1 at a Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II/Protein Kinase C Site*

    PubMed Central

    Tavalin, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of AMPA receptor activity in response to synaptic plasticity inducing stimuli may arise, in part, through phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit at Ser-831. This site is a substrate for both Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase C (PKC). However, neuronal protein levels of CaMKII may exceed those of PKC by an order of magnitude. Thus, it is unclear how PKC could effectively regulate this common target site. The multivalent neuronal scaffold A-kinase-anchoring protein 79 (AKAP79) is known to bind PKC and is linked to GluR1 by synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97). Here, biochemical studies demonstrate that AKAP79 localizes PKC activity near the receptor, thus accelerating Ser-831 phosphorylation. Complementary electrophysiological studies indicate that AKAP79 selectively shifts the dose-dependence for PKC modulation of GluR1 receptor currents ∼20-fold, such that low concentrations of PKC are as effective as much higher CaMKII concentrations. By boosting PKC activity near a target substrate, AKAP79 provides a mechanism to overcome limitations in kinase abundance thereby ensuring faithful signal propagation and efficient modification of AMPA receptor-mediated responses. PMID:18305116

  18. Expression of a phosphorylated p130Cas substrate domain attenuates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Shefali; Lin, Bor-Tyh; August, Avery; Nicholson, Robert I.; Kirsch, Kathrin H.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated expression of p130Cas/BCAR1 (breast cancer anti estrogen resistance 1) in human breast tumors is a marker of poor prognosis and poor overall survival. Specifically, p130Cas signaling has been associated with antiestrogen resistance, for which the mechanism is currently unknown. TAM-R cells, which were established by long-term exposure of estrogen (E2)-dependent MCF-7 cells to tamoxifen, displayed elevated levels of total and activated p130Cas. Here we have investigated the effects of p130Cas inhibition on growth factor signaling in tamoxifen resistance. To inhibit p130Cas, a phosphorylated substrate domain of p130Cas, that acts as a dominant-negative (DN) p130Cas molecule by blocking signal transduction downstream of the p130Cas substrate domain, as well as knockdown by siRNA was employed. Interference with p130Cas signaling/expression induced morphological changes, which were consistent with a more epithelial-like phenotype. The phenotypic reversion was accompanied by reduced migration, attenuation of the ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways, and induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Importantly, these changes re-sensitized TAM-R cells to tamoxifen treatment by inducing cell death. Therefore, our findings suggest that targeting the product of the BCAR1 gene by a peptide which mimics the phosphorylated substrate domain may provide a new molecular avenue for treatment of antiestrogen resistant breast cancers. PMID:19330798

  19. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Mediates Adult OPC Maturation and Myelin Repair through Modulation of Akt and GsK-3β Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, FuCheng; Burke, Kathryn; Kantor, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Failure of remyelination in diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to permanent axonal damage and irreversible functional loss. The mechanisms controlling remyelination are currently poorly understood. Recent studies implicate the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in regulating oligodendrocyte (OL) development and myelination in CNS. In this study, we show that Cdk5 is also an important regulator of remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 inhibits repair of lysolecithin lesions. This inhibition is a consequence of Cdk5 disruption in neural cells because remyelination in slice cultures is blocked by Cdk5 inhibitors, whereas specific deletion of Cdk5 in OLs inhibits myelin repair. In CNP-Cre;Cdk5fl/fl conditional knock-out mouse (Cdk5 cKO), myelin repair was delayed significantly in response to focal demyelinating lesions compared with wild-type animals. The lack of myelin repair was reflected in decreased expression of MBP and proteolipid protein and a reduction in the total number of myelinated axons in the lesion. The number of CC1+ cells in the lesion sites was significantly reduced in Cdk5 cKO compared with wild-type animals although the total number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells (Olig2+ cells) was increased, suggesting that Cdk5 loss perturbs the transition of early OL lineage cell into mature OL and subsequent remyelination. The failure of remyelination in Cdk5 cKO animals was associated with a reduction in signaling through the Akt pathway and an enhancement of Gsk-3β signaling pathways. Together, these data suggest that Cdk5 is critical in regulating the transition of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells to mature OLs that is essential for myelin repair in adult CNS. PMID:25080600

  20. Protein Kinase Cδ mediates the activation of Protein Kinase D2 in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Kim, Soochong; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2011-01-01

    Protein Kinase D (PKD) is a subfamily of serine/threonine specific family of kinases, comprised of PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 (PKCμ, PKD2 and PKCν in humans). It is known that PKCs activate PKD, but the relative expression of isoforms of PKD or the specific PKC isoform/s responsible for its activation in platelets is not known. This study is aimed at investigating the pathway involved in activation of PKD in platelets. We show that PKD2 is the major isoform of PKD that is expressed in human as well as murine platelets but not PKD1 or PKD3. PKD2 activation induced by AYPGKF was abolished with a Gq inhibitor YM-254890, but was not affected by Y-27632, a RhoA/p160ROCK inhibitor, indicating that PKD2 activation is Gq-, but not G12/13-mediated Rho-kinase dependent. Calcium-mediated signals are also required for activation of PKD2 as dimethyl BAPTA inhibited its phosphorylation. GF109203X, a pan PKC inhibitor abolished PKD2 phosphorylation but Go6976, a classical PKC inhibitor had no effect suggesting that novel PKC isoforms are involved in PKD2 activation. Importantly, Rottlerin, a non-selective PKCδ inhibitor, inhibited AYPGKF-induced PKD2 activation in human platelets. Similarly, AYPGKF- and Convulxin-induced PKD2 phosphorylation was dramatically inhibited in PKCδ-deficient platelets, but not in PKCθ– or PKCε–deficient murine platelets compared to that of wild type platelets. Hence, we conclude that PKD2 is a common signaling target downstream of various agonist receptors in platelets and Gq-mediated signals along with calcium and novel PKC isoforms, in particular, PKCδ activate PKD2 in platelets. PMID:21736870

  1. Rumex acetosa L. induces vasorelaxation in rat aorta via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt- AND Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Su, X H; Jin, J Y; Zhou, Z Q; Sun, S S; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N

    2015-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (RA) (Polygonaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in clinic for a long history in China and the aerial parts of RA has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as diuretic, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanisms involved are to be defined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect and define the mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of Rumex acetosa L. (ERA) in rat aorta. ERA was examined for its vascular relaxant effect in isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat thoracic aorta and its acute effects on arterial blood pressure. In addition, the roles of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the ERA-induced effects were tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The phosphorylation levels of Akt and eNOS were assessed by Western blot analysis in the cultured HUVECs. ERA induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The ERA-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by L-NAME (an NOS inhibitor) or ODQ (a sGC inhibitor), but not by indomethacin. Inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway markedly reduced the ERA-induced vasorelaxation. In HUVECs, ERA increased NO formation in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by L-NAME and by removing extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, ERA promoted phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which was prevented by wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that ERA induces eNOS phosphorylation through the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Further, in anesthetized rats, intravenously administered ERA decreased arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner through an activation of the NOS-NO system. In summary, the ERA- induced vasorelaxation was dependent on endothelial integrity and NO production, and was mediated by activation of both the endothelial PI3-kinase/Akt- and Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling and muscular NO-sGC-cGMP signaling. PMID:26769840

  2. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  3. Livin enhances tumorigenesis by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ae; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Park, Young-Lan; Chung, Ik-Joo; Joo, Young-Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-07-01

    Livin, a member of the human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is expressed at high levels in various human cancer tissues and may have prognostic significance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Livin on tumor cell behavior and oncogenic signaling pathways in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. A cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis were used to assess the functional effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated Livin knockdown. Livin was overexpressed in fresh HSCC tissues, compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. Livin knockdown led to significantly reduced cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the human HSCC cells. The expression levels of c‑myc, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin‑dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK6 were decreased. The phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c‑Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt were also decreased by Livin knockdown in the HSCC cells. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that Livin may enhance tumorigenesis by modulating the mitogen‑activated/Akt signaling pathways in human HSCC. PMID:27175933

  4. Systematic Analysis Reveals Elongation Factor 2 and α-Enolase as Novel Interaction Partners of AKT2.

    PubMed

    Bottermann, Katharina; Reinartz, Michael; Barsoum, Marian; Kötter, Sebastian; Gödecke, Axel

    2013-01-01

    AKT2 is one of the three isoforms of the protein kinase AKT being involved in the modulation of cellular metabolism. Since protein-protein interactions are one possibility to convey specificity in signal transduction, we performed AKT2-protein interaction analysis to elucidate their relevance for AKT2-dependent cellular functions. We identified heat shock protein 90 kDa (HSP90), Cdc37, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), 78 kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78), tubulin, GAPDH, α-enolase and elongation factor 2 (EF2) as AKT2-interacting proteins by a combination of tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry in HEK293T cells. Quantitative MS-analysis using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) revealed that only HSP90 and Cdc37 interact stably with AKT2, whereas the other proteins interact with low affinity with AKT2. The interactions of AKT2 with α-enolase and EF2 were further analyzed in order to uncover the functional relevance of these newly discovered binding partners. Despite the interaction of AKT2 and α-enolase, which was additionally validated by proximity ligation assay (PLA), no significant impact of AKT on α-enolase activity was detected in activity measurements. AKT stimulation via insulin and/or inhibition with the ATP-competitive inhibitor CCT128930 did not alter enzymatic activity of α-enolase. Interestingly, the direct interaction of AKT2 and EF2 was found to be dynamically regulated in embryonic rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 before stimulation with several hormones stabilized the complex, whereas stimulation alone led to complex dissociation which was analyzed in situ with PLA. Taken together, these findings point to new aspects of AKT2-mediated signal transduction in protein synthesis and glucose metabolism. PMID:23823123

  5. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Kühne, Sina; Bocksberger, Simone; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation. PMID:25421240

  7. Dissecting signalling by individual Akt/PKB isoforms, three steps at once.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Klip, Amira

    2015-09-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) is key for mammalian cell growth, survival, metabolism and oncogenic transformation. The diverse level and tissue expression of its three isoforms, Akt1/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ and Akt3/PKBγ, make it daunting to identify isoform-specific actions in vivo and even in isolated tissues/cells. To date, isoform-specific knockout and knockdown have been the best strategies to dissect their individual overall functions. In a recent article in the Biochemical Journal, Kajno et al. reported a new strategy to study isoform selectivity in cell lines. Individual Akt/PKB isoforms in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes are first silenced via shRNA and stable cellular clones lacking one or the other isoform are selected. The stably silenced isoform is then replaced by a mutant engineered to be refractory to inhibition by MK-2206 (Akt1(W80A) or Akt2(W80A)). Akt1(W80A) or Akt2(W80A) are functional and effectively recruited to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. The system affords the opportunity to acutely control the activity of the endogenous non-silenced isoform through timely addition of MK-2206. Using this approach, it is confirmed that Akt1/PKBα is the preferred isoform sustaining adipocyte differentiation, but both Akt1/PKBα and Akt2/PKBβ can indistinctly support insulin-dependent FoxO1 (forkhead box O1) nuclear exclusion. Surprisingly, either isoform can also support insulin-dependent glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 translocation to the membrane, in contrast with the preferential role of Akt2/PKBβ assessed by knockdown studies. The new strategy should allow analysis of the plurality of Akt/PKB functions in other cells and in response to other stimuli. It should also be amenable to high-throughput studies to speed up advances in signal transmission by this pivotal kinase. PMID:26348913

  8. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  9. Expression of FLNa in human melanoma cells regulates the function of integrin α1β1 and phosphorylation and localisation of PKB/AKT/ERK1/2 kinases.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Kristi; Ruusmann, Anu; Simonlatser, Grethel; Velling, Teet

    2015-12-01

    FLNa is a ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that links transmembrane receptors, including integrins, to F-actin and functions as a signalling intermediate. We investigated FLNa's role in the function of integrin-type collagen receptors, EGF-EGFR signalling and regulation of PKB/Akt and ERK1/2. Using FLNa-deficient M2 human melanoma cells, and same cells expressing EGFP-FLNa (M2F) or its Ig-like repeats 1-8+24, 8-15+24 and 16-24, we found that in M2F and M2 8-15+24 cells, EGF induced the increased phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and ERK1/2. In M2F cells EGF induced the localisation of these kinases to cell nucleus and lamellipodia, respectively, and the ERK1/2 phosphorylation-dependent co-immunoprecipitation of FLNa with ERK1/2. Only M2F and M2 8-15+24 cells adhered to and spread on type I collagen whereas on fibronectin all cells behaved similarly. α1β1 and α2β1 were the integrin-type collagen receptors expressed on these cells with primarily α1β1 localising to focal contacts and affecting cell adhesion and migration in a manner dependent on FLNa or its Ig-like repeats 8-15. Our results suggest a role for FLNa repeats 8-15 in the α1-subunit-dependent regulation of integrin α1β1 function, EGF-EGFR signalling to PKB/Akt and ERK1/2, identify ERK1/2 in EGF-induced FLNa-associated protein complexes, and show that the function of different integrins is subjected to differential regulation by FLNa. PMID:26572583

  10. The Protein Kinase 2 Inhibitor CX-4945 Regulates Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Son, You Hwa; Moon, Seong Hee; Kim, Jiyeon

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning can identify new therapeutic applications for existing drugs, thus mitigating high R&D costs. The Protein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor CX-4945 regulates human cancer cell survival and angiogenesis. Here we found that CX-4945 significantly inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, but enhanced the BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. CX-4945 inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of TRAP and NFATc1 expression accompanied with suppression of Akt phosphorylation, but, in contrast, it enhanced the BMP2-mediated ALP induction and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CX-4945 is thus a novel drug candidate for bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:24293011

  11. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUA; XIONG, ZHOUYI; WANG, JIAO; ZHANG, SHUANGSHUANG; LEI, LEI; YANG, LI; ZHANG, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylino-sitol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26717963

  13. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  14. Focal adhesion kinases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases regulate protein tyrosine phosphorylation in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Lauro; Macías-García, Beatriz; Loux, Shavahn C; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2013-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) is a hallmark of sperm capacitation. In stallion sperm, calcium inhibits PY at pH <7.8, mediated by calmodulin. To explore the mechanism of that inhibition, we incubated stallion sperm in media without added calcium, with calcium, or with calcium plus the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (Ca/W-7 treatment). Treatment with inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, protein kinase A (PRKA), or Src family kinases suppressed the PY induced by the absence of added calcium, but not that induced by the Ca/W-7 treatment, indicating that PY in the absence of added calcium occurred via the canonical PRKA pathway, but that PY in the Ca/W-7 treatment did not. This suggested that when calmodulin was inhibited, calcium stimulated PY via a noncanonical pathway. Incubation with PF-431396, an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinases (FAKs), a family of calcium-induced protein tyrosine kinases, inhibited the PY induced both by the absence of added calcium and by the Ca/W-7 treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that both FAK family members, protein tyrosine kinases 2 and 2B, were phosphorylated in the absence of added calcium and in the Ca/W-7 treatment, but not in the presence of calcium without calmodulin inhibitors. Inhibition of FAK proteins inhibited PY in stallion sperm incubated under capacitating conditions (in the presence of calcium, bovine serum albumin, and bicarbonate at pH >7.8). These results show for the first time a role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in PRKA-dependent sperm PY; a non-PRKA-dependent pathway regulating sperm PY; and the apparent involvement of the FAK family of protein tyrosine kinases downstream in both pathways. PMID:23595906

  15. Alternative Activation Mechanisms of Protein Kinase B Trigger Distinct Downstream Signaling Responses.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Deborah; Fawal, Mohamad-Ali; Velázquez, Jose V; Santiveri, Clara M; Yang, Joshua; Pastor, Joaquín; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Djouder, Nabil; Lietha, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is an important mediator of signals that control various cellular processes including cell survival, growth, proliferation, and metabolism. PKB promotes these processes by phosphorylating many cellular targets, which trigger distinct downstream signaling events. However, how PKB is able to selectively target its substrates to induce specific cellular functions remains elusive. Here we perform a systematic study to dissect mechanisms that regulate intrinsic kinase activity versus mechanisms that specifically regulate activity toward specific substrates. We demonstrate that activation loop phosphorylation and the C-terminal hydrophobic motif are essential for high PKB activity in general. On the other hand, we identify membrane targeting, which for decades has been regarded as an essential step in PKB activation, as a mechanism mainly affecting substrate selectivity. Further, we show that PKB activity in cells can be triggered independently of PI3K by initial hydrophobic motif phosphorylation, presumably through a mechanism analogous to other AGC kinases. Importantly, different modes of PKB activation result in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Our data indicate that specific mechanisms have evolved for signaling nodes, like PKB, to select between various downstream events. Targeting such mechanisms selectively could facilitate the development of therapeutics that might limit toxic side effects. PMID:26286748

  16. Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 in human eosinophils by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Myou, Shigeharu; Leff, Alan R; Myo, Saori; Boetticher, Evan; Meliton, Angelo Y; Lambertino, Anissa T; Liu, Jie; Xu, Chang; Munoz, Nilda M; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2003-10-15

    Activation of group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (gIV-PLA(2)) is the essential first step in the synthesis of inflammatory eicosanoids and in integrin-mediated adhesion of leukocytes. Prior investigations have demonstrated that phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) results from activation of at least two isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We investigated the potential role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in the activation of gIV-PLA(2) and the hydrolysis of membrane phosphatidylcholine in fMLP-stimulated human blood eosinophils. Transduction into eosinophils of Deltap85, a dominant negative form of class IA PI3K adaptor subunit, fused to an HIV-TAT protein transduction domain (TAT-Deltap85) concentration dependently inhibited fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B, a downstream target of PI3K. FMLP caused increased arachidonic acid (AA) release and secretion of leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)). TAT-Deltap85 and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, blocked the phosphorylation of gIV-PLA(2) at Ser(505) caused by fMLP, thus inhibiting gIV-PLA(2) hydrolysis and production of AA and LTC(4) in eosinophils. FMLP also caused extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in eosinophils; however, neither phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 nor p38 was inhibited by TAT-Deltap85 or LY294002. Inhibition of 1) p70 S6 kinase by rapamycin, 2) protein kinase B by Akt inhibitor, or 3) protein kinase C by Ro-31-8220, the potential downstream targets of PI3K for activation of gIV-PLA(2), had no effect on AA release or LTC(4) secretion caused by fMLP. We find that PI3K is required for gIV-PLA(2) activation and hydrolytic production of AA in activated eosinophils. Our data suggest that this essential PI3K independently activates gIV-PLA(2) through a pathway that does not involve MAPK. PMID:14530366

  17. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Regulates Gene Transcription by Acting as A Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Jenny, J. Yang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate with transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that PKM2 is a protein kinase using PEP as phosphate donor. ADP competes with the protein substrate binding, indicating that the substrate may bind to the ADP site of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 dimer is an active protein kinase, while the tetramer is an active pyruvate kinase. Expression a PKM2 mutant that exists as a dimer promotes cell proliferation, indicating that protein kinase activity of PKM2 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation. Our study reveals an important link between metabolism alteration and gene expression during tumor transformation and progression. PMID:22306293

  18. A secretory kinase complex regulates extracellular protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jixin; Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Rahdar, Meghdad; Dixon, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous extracellular phosphoproteins have been identified, the protein kinases within the secretory pathway have only recently been discovered, and their regulation is virtually unexplored. Fam20C is the physiological Golgi casein kinase, which phosphorylates many secreted proteins and is critical for proper biomineralization. Fam20A, a Fam20C paralog, is essential for enamel formation, but the biochemical function of Fam20A is unknown. Here we show that Fam20A potentiates Fam20C kinase activity and promotes the phosphorylation of enamel matrix proteins in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, Fam20A is a pseudokinase that forms a functional complex with Fam20C, and this complex enhances extracellular protein phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism by which Fam20C and Fam20A collaborate to control enamel formation, and provide the first insight into the regulation of secretory pathway phosphorylation. PMID:25789606

  19. Regulation of Bax/mitochondria interaction by AKT.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Lilit; Renault, Thibaud T; Novais, Maria João da Costa; Sousa, Maria João; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Camougrand, Nadine; Gonzalez, Cécile; Manon, Stéphen

    2016-01-01

    Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeabilization during apoptosis is controlled by multiple factors, including the phosphorylation by the protein kinase AKT. We used the heterologous co-expression of human Bax and AKT1 in yeast to investigate how the kinase modulates the different steps underlying Bax activation. We found that AKT activated Bax and increased its cellular content. Both effects were dependent on Ser184, but a phosphorylation of this residue did not fully explain the effects of AKT. Additional experiments with mutants substituted on Ser184 suggested that the regulation of Bax dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria might be more tightly regulated by Bcl-xL when Bax is phosphorylated. PMID:26763134

  20. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jessica R; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Markus, Benedikt M; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Schwartz, Thomas U; Ploegh, Hidde L; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7-kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  1. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jessica R.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Markus, Benedikt M.; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7–kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. PMID:26305940

  2. Inactivation of MARK4, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase, leads to insulin hypersensitivity and resistance to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Tian, Liang; Nie, Jia; Zhang, Hai; Han, Xiao; Shi, Yuguang

    2012-11-01

    MARK4, also known as Par-1d/MarkL1, is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related family of kinases, which are implicated in the regulation of dynamic biological functions, including glucose and energy homeostasis. However, the physiological function of MARK4 in mammals remains elusive. Here, we investigated a role for MARK4 in regulating energy homeostasis by generating mice with targeted inactivation of the mark4 gene. We show that MARK4 deficiency in mice caused hyperphagia, hyperactivity, and hypermetabolism, leading to protection from diet-induced obesity and its related metabolic complications through up-regulation of brown fat activity. Consequently, MARK4 deficiency mitigated insulin resistance associated with diet-induced obesity by dramatically enhancing insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation in major metabolic tissues. Ablation of MARK4 also significantly improved glucose homeostasis by up-regulating the activity and expression of AMPK kinase in key metabolic tissues. Taken together, these data identify a key role of MARK4 in energy metabolism, implicating the kinase as a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22992738

  3. Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 66 Protein Kinase and Its Relationship to Alphaherpesvirus US3 Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame (ORF) 66 encodes a basophilic kinase orthologous to the US3 protein kinases found in all alphaherpesviruses. This review summarizes current information on the ORF66 kinase, and outlines apparent differences from other US3 kinases, as well as some of the conserved functions. One critical difference is the VZV ORF66 kinase targeting of the major regulatory VZV IE62 protein to control its nuclear import and assembly into the VZV virion, which is so far unprecedented in the alphaherpesviruses. However, ORF66 targets some cellular targets which are also targeted by US3 kinases of other herpesviruses, including the histone deacetylase-1 and 2 proteins, pathways that lead to changes in actin dynamics, and the targeting of substrates of protein kinase A, including the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3. PMID:20186610

  4. PRKX, a phylogenetically and functionally distinct cAMP-dependent protein kinase, activates renal epithelial cell migration and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Li, Hsi-Ping; Amsler, Kurt; Hyink, Deborah; Wilson, Patricia D.; Burrow, Christopher R.

    2002-01-01

    The human protein kinase X gene (PRKX) is a member of an ancient family of cAMP-dependent serine/threonine kinases here shown to be phylogenetically distinct from the classical PKA, PKB/Akt, PKC, SGK, and PKG gene families. Renal expression of the PRKX gene is developmentally regulated and restricted to the ureteric bud epithelium of the fetal metanephric kidney. Aberrant adult kidney expression of PRKX was found in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PRKX kinase expression markedly activated migration of cultured renal epithelial cells in the presence of cAMP; this effect was blocked by cell treatment with the PKA inhibitor H89 and was not observed in PKA-transfected cells. In addition, expression of PRKX kinase activated branching morphogenesis of Madin–Darby canine kidney cells in collagen gels even in the absence of cAMP and/or hepatocyte growth factor, an effect not seen with either PKA expression or expression of a mutant, kinase-inactivated PRKX. These results suggest that the PRKX kinase may regulate epithelial morphogenesis during mammalian kidney development. Because another member of the PRKX gene family (the Dictyostelium discoideum gene KAPC-DICDI) also plays a role in cellular migration, these studies suggest that regulation of morphogenesis may be a distinctive property of these genes that has been conserved in evolution that is not shared with PKA family genes. PMID:12082174

  5. Osteopontin is a myosphere-derived secretory molecule that promotes angiogenic progenitor cell proliferation through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi . E-mail: tueyama@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nomura, Tetsuya; Asada, Satoshi; Tagawa, Masashi; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oh, Hidemasa . E-mail: hidemasa@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-27

    We have reported that skeletal myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) can differentiate into vascular cells, and that MDPC transplantation into cardiomyopathic hearts improves cardiac function. However, the autocrine/paracrine molecules and underlying mechanisms responsible for MDPC growth have not yet been determined. To explore the molecules enhancing the proliferation of MDPCs, we performed serial analysis of gene expression and signal sequence trap methods using RNA isolated from MDPCs. We identified osteopontin (OPN), a secretory molecule, as one of most abundant molecules expressed in MDPCs. OPN provided a proliferative effect for MDPCs. MDPCs treated with OPN showed Akt activation, and inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway repressed the proliferative effect of OPN. Furthermore, OPN-pretreated MDPCs maintained their differentiation potential into endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate an important role of OPN as an autocrine/paracrine molecule in regulating the proliferative growth of muscle-derived angiogenic progenitor cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  6. BRAF, KIT and NRAS mutations and expression of c-KIT, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated AKT in Japanese melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the status of gene mutation and activation of growth signal in melanoma of Japanese patients in vivo, we analyzed the mutation of BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 2, and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18 in melanoma cells obtained by laser capture microdissection, and performed direct sequencing in 20 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and 17 cases of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). In the study of the mutation of BRAF, pyrosequencing was also done. To examine the cell proliferation signaling, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), phosphorylated AKT (phosphorylated AKT) and c-KIT was done. The mutation of BRAF p.V600E was detected in 13 cases of ALM (65.0%) and 12 cases of SSM (70.6%). No NRAS mutation was found in all cases. The mutation in exons 9, 11, and 18 of KIT was detected in nine cases. The mutation of BRAF and KIT showed no correlation with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor thickness, ulceration and histology. pERK and pAKT was observed in small population of melanoma cells and there was no correlation with gene mutation. Our results indicate that the mutations of BRAF and KIT exist in Japanese melanoma patients, however, the cell growth signaling may be regulated by not only these mutated genes, but by other unknown regulatory factors, which may affect the prognosis of melanoma. PMID:25766129

  7. A protein kinase screen of Neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the SNF1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Candido, Thiago De Souza; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Duarte; Felício, Ana Paula; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; De Carvalho, Ana Carolina Gomes Vieira; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2014-12-15

    Glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. We identified multiple kinases that have already been described as controlling glycogen metabolism in different organisms, such as NcSNF1, NcPHO85, NcGSK3, NcPKA, PSK2 homologue and NcATG1. In addition, many hypothetical kinases have been implicated in the control of glycogen metabolism. Two kinases, NcIME-2 and NcNIMA, already functionally characterized but with no functions related to glycogen metabolism regulation, were also identified. Among the kinases identified, it is important to mention the role of NcSNF1. We showed in the present study that this kinase was implicated in glycogen synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by the higher levels of glycogen accumulated during growth, along with a higher glycogen synthase (GSN) ±glucose 6-phosphate activity ratio and a lesser set of phosphorylated GSN isoforms in strain Ncsnf1KO, when compared with the wild-type strain. The results led us to conclude that, in N. crassa, this kinase promotes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase either directly or indirectly, which is the opposite of what is described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinases also play a role in gene expression regulation, in that gdn, the gene encoding the debranching enzyme, was down-regulated by the proteins identified in the screen. Some kinases affected growth and development, suggesting a connection linking glycogen metabolism with cell growth and development. PMID:25253091

  8. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC. PMID:23924858

  9. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers. PMID:23651790

  10. Revisiting protein kinase-substrate interactions: Toward therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio L; Ferraz, Felipe Augusto N; Pena, Darlene A; Pramio, Dimitrius T; Morais, Felipe A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts of pharmaceutical companies to develop specific kinase modulators, few drugs targeting kinases have been completely successful in the clinic. This is primarily due to the conserved nature of kinases, especially in the catalytic domains. Consequently, many currently available inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity for effective clinical application. Kinases phosphorylate their substrates to modulate their activity. One of the important steps in the catalytic reaction of protein phosphorylation is the correct positioning of the target residue within the catalytic site. This positioning is mediated by several regions in the substrate binding site, which is typically a shallow crevice that has critical subpockets that anchor and orient the substrate. The structural characterization of this protein-protein interaction can aid in the elucidation of the roles of distinct kinases in different cellular processes, the identification of substrates, and the development of specific inhibitors. Because the region of the substrate that is recognized by the kinase can be part of a linear consensus motif or a nonlinear motif, advances in technology beyond simple linear sequence scanning for consensus motifs were needed. Cost-effective bioinformatics tools are already frequently used to predict kinase-substrate interactions for linear consensus motifs, and new tools based on the structural data of these interactions improve the accuracy of these predictions and enable the identification of phosphorylation sites within nonlinear motifs. In this Review, we revisit kinase-substrate interactions and discuss the various approaches that can be used to identify them and analyze their binding structures for targeted drug development. PMID:27016527

  11. An optogenetic system for interrogating the temporal dynamics of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kunida, Katsuyuki; Kanno, Akira; Kuroda, Shinya; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic activity of the serine/threonine kinase Akt is crucial for the regulation of diverse cellular functions, but the precise spatiotemporal control of its activity remains a critical issue. Herein, we present a photo-activatable Akt (PA-Akt) system based on a light-inducible protein interaction module of Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome2 (CRY2) and CIB1. Akt fused to CRY2phr, which is a minimal light sensitive domain of CRY2 (CRY2-Akt), is reversibly activated by light illumination in several minutes within a physiological dynamic range and specifically regulates downstream molecules and inducible biological functions. We have generated a computational model of CRY2-Akt activation that allows us to use PA-Akt to control the activity quantitatively. The system provides evidence that the temporal patterns of Akt activity are crucial for generating one of the downstream functions of the Akt-FoxO pathway; the expression of a key gene involved in muscle atrophy (Atrogin-1). The use of an optical module with computational modeling represents a general framework for interrogating the temporal dynamics of biomolecules by predictive manipulation of optogenetic modules. PMID:26423353

  12. G-protein coupled receptor kinases in inflammation and disease

    PubMed Central

    Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases originally discovered for their role in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) phosphorylation. Recent studies have demonstrated a much broader function for this kinase family including phosphorylation of cytosolic substrates involved in cell signaling pathways stimulated by GPCRs as well as non-GPCRs. In addition, GRKs modulate signaling via phosphorylation-independent functions. Because of these various biochemical functions, GRKs have been shown to affect critical physiological and pathophysiological processes and thus are considered as drug targets in diseases such as heart failure. Role of GRKs in inflammation and inflammatory diseases is an evolving area of research and several studies including work from our lab in the recent years have demonstrated critical role of GRKs in the immune system. In this review we discuss the classical and the newly emerging functions of GRKs in the immune system and their role in inflammation and disease processes. PMID:26226012

  13. MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases (MKs): Novel Insights and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Downstream of MAPKs, such as classical/atypical ERKs and p38 MAPKs, but not of JNKs, signaling is often mediated by protein kinases which are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKs and, therefore, designated MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Recently, novel insights into the specificity of the assembly of MAPK/MAPKAPK hetero-dimeric protein kinase signaling complexes have been gained. In addition, new functional aspects of MKs have been described and established functions have been challenged. This short review will summarize recent developments including the linear motif (LM) in MKs, the ERK-independent activation of RSK, the RSK-independent effects of some RSK-inhibitors and the challenged role of MK5/PRAK in tumor suppression. PMID:26779481

  14. MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases (MKs): Novel Insights and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Downstream of MAPKs, such as classical/atypical ERKs and p38 MAPKs, but not of JNKs, signaling is often mediated by protein kinases which are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKs and, therefore, designated MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Recently, novel insights into the specificity of the assembly of MAPK/MAPKAPK hetero-dimeric protein kinase signaling complexes have been gained. In addition, new functional aspects of MKs have been described and established functions have been challenged. This short review will summarize recent developments including the linear motif (LM) in MKs, the ERK-independent activation of RSK, the RSK-independent effects of some RSK-inhibitors and the challenged role of MK5/PRAK in tumor suppression. PMID:26779481

  15. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.

    1986-01-01

    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  17. Protein kinase activity associated with pancreatic zymogen granules.

    PubMed

    Burnham, D B; Munowitz, P; Thorn, N; Williams, J A

    1985-05-01

    Purified zymogen granules were prepared from rat pancreas by using an iso-osmotic Percoll gradient. In the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, phosphorylation of several granule proteins was induced by Ca2+, most notably a Mr-13 000 protein, whereas addition of cyclic AMP was without effect. When phosphatidylserine was also added, Ca2+ increased the phosphorylation of additional proteins, with the largest effect on a protein of Mr 62 000. Purified granules were also able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates. Ca2+-induced phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was enhanced over 3-fold in the presence of phosphatidylserine, and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase activity was revealed with mixed histone as substrate. The concentrations of free Ca2+ and cyclic AMP required for half-maximal phosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous proteins were 1-3 microM and 57 nM respectively. Treatment of granules with 0.25 M-KCl resulted in the release of phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase activity into a high-speed granule supernatant. In contrast, granule-protein substrates of Ca2+-activated kinase activity were resistant to KCl extraction, and in fact were present in purified granule membranes. Kinase activity activated by cyclic AMP was not extracted by KCl treatment. It is concluded that phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins in the zymogen granule can be induced by one or more Ca2+-activated protein kinases. Such a reaction is a potential mechanism by which exocytosis may be regulated in the exocrine pancreas by Ca2+-mediated secretagogues. PMID:4004796

  18. Protein kinase activity associated with pancreatic zymogen granules.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, D B; Munowitz, P; Thorn, N; Williams, J A

    1985-01-01

    Purified zymogen granules were prepared from rat pancreas by using an iso-osmotic Percoll gradient. In the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, phosphorylation of several granule proteins was induced by Ca2+, most notably a Mr-13 000 protein, whereas addition of cyclic AMP was without effect. When phosphatidylserine was also added, Ca2+ increased the phosphorylation of additional proteins, with the largest effect on a protein of Mr 62 000. Purified granules were also able to phosphorylate exogenous substrates. Ca2+-induced phosphorylation of lysine-rich histone was enhanced over 3-fold in the presence of phosphatidylserine, and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase activity was revealed with mixed histone as substrate. The concentrations of free Ca2+ and cyclic AMP required for half-maximal phosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous proteins were 1-3 microM and 57 nM respectively. Treatment of granules with 0.25 M-KCl resulted in the release of phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase activity into a high-speed granule supernatant. In contrast, granule-protein substrates of Ca2+-activated kinase activity were resistant to KCl extraction, and in fact were present in purified granule membranes. Kinase activity activated by cyclic AMP was not extracted by KCl treatment. It is concluded that phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins in the zymogen granule can be induced by one or more Ca2+-activated protein kinases. Such a reaction is a potential mechanism by which exocytosis may be regulated in the exocrine pancreas by Ca2+-mediated secretagogues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4004796

  19. The modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channel function via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway activated by phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Haba, Masanori; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Teramae, Hiroki; Azma, Toshiharu; Hatano, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the modulator role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway activated by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine in ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in intact vascular smooth muscle. We evaluated the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function and the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in the rat thoracic aorta without endothelium. The PI3K inhibitor 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride (LY294002) (10(-5) M) augmented relaxation in response to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener levcromakalim (10(-8) to 3 x 10(-6) M) in aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with 9,11-dideoxy-11alpha,9alpha-epoxy-methanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619; 3 x 10(-8) M), although those agents induced similar contraction. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel currents induced by levcromakalim (10(-6) M) in the presence of phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) were enhanced by the nonselective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (10(-7) M) and LY294002 (10(-5) M). Levels of the regulatory subunits of PI3K p85-alpha and p55-gamma increased in the membrane fraction from aortas without endothelium treated with phenylephrine (3 x 10(-7) M) but not with U46619 (3 x 10(-8) M). Phenylephrine simultaneously augmented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Therefore, activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway seems to play a role in the impairment of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel function in vascular smooth muscle exposed to alpha-1 adrenergic stimuli. PMID:20519555

  20. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by tributyltin induces neuronal cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro Hino, Atsuko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the metabolite-sensing protein kinase family, is activated by energy deficiency and is abundantly expressed in neurons. The environmental pollutant, tributyltin chloride (TBT), is a neurotoxin, and has been reported to decrease cellular ATP in some types of cells. Therefore, we investigated whether TBT activates AMPK, and whether its activation contributes to neuronal cell death, using primary cultures of cortical neurons. Cellular ATP levels were decreased 0.5 h after exposure to 500 nM TBT, and the reduction was time-dependent. It was confirmed that most neurons in our culture system express AMPK, and that TBT induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, reduced the neurotoxicity of TBT, suggesting that AMPK is involved in TBT-induced cell death. Next, the downstream target of AMPK activation was investigated. Nitric oxide synthase, p38 phosphorylation and Akt dephosphorylation were not downstream of TBT-induced AMPK activation because these factors were not affected by compound C, but glutamate release was suggested to be controlled by AMPK. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by TBT causes neuronal death through mediating glutamate release.

  1. Solution structure of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.; Olah, G.A.; Walsh, D.A.; Mitchell, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Protein phosphorylation is well established as one of the most important mechanisms of signal transduction and cellular regulation. Two of the key enzymes that catalyze these phosphorylation reactions are the cAMP- (PKA) and cGMP- (PKG) dependent protein kinases. PKA has served as the prototypic model of this class of enzymes that now comprises in excess of 300 phylogenetically related proteins. A large number of these protein kinases are critical for the regulation of cell function and a full analysis of their similarities and differences is essential to understand their diverse physiological roles. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase has the subunit structure R2C2, in which C and R refer to the catalytic and regulatory subunits, respectively. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is highly homologous to PKA but is distinguished from it by having the regulatory and catalytic domains on a contiguous polypeptide. The studies described here use small-angle scattering and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to study domain movements and conformational changes in these enzymes in different functional states in order to elucidate the molecular bases for the regulation of their activities.

  2. Siglec-15 regulates osteoclast differentiation by modulating RANKL-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Erk pathways in association with signaling Adaptor DAP12.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Komatsu, Miki; Mikuni, Shintaro; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Angata, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka; Minami, Akio; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2013-12-01

    Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins that regulate the functions of cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems through glycan recognition. Here we show that Siglec-15 regulates osteoclast development and bone resorption by modulating receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) signaling in association with DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12), an adaptor protein bearing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Among the known Siglecs expressed in myeloid lineage cells, only Siglec-15 was upregulated by RANKL in mouse primary bone marrow macrophages. Siglec-15-deficient mice exhibit mild osteopetrosis resulting from impaired osteoclast development. Consistently, cells lacking Siglec-15 exhibit defective osteoclast development and resorptive activity in vitro. RANKL-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and Erk pathways were impaired in Siglec-15-deficient cells. Retroviral transduction of Siglec-15-null osteoclast precursors with wild-type Siglec-15 or mutant Siglec-15 revealed that the association of Siglec-15 with DAP12 is involved in the downstream signal transduction of RANK. Furthermore, we found that the ability of osteoclast formation is preserved in the region adjacent to the growth plate in Siglec-15-deficient mice, indicating that there is a compensatory mechanism for Siglec-15-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the primary spongiosa. To clarify the mechanism of this compensation, we examined whether osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR)/Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) signaling, an alternative ITAM-mediated signaling pathway to DAP12, rescues impaired osteoclastogenesis in Siglec-15-deficient cells. The ligands in type II collagen activate OSCAR and rescue impaired osteoclastogenesis in Siglec-15-deficient cells when cultured on bone slices, indicating that Siglec-15-mediated signaling can be compensated for by signaling activated by type II collagen and other bone

  3. Phosphorylation of spore coat proteins by a family of atypical protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim B; Sreelatha, Anju; Durrant, Eric S; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Muszewska, Anna; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grynberg, Marcin; Yee, Samantha; Pogliano, Kit; Tomchick, Diana R; Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Dixon, Jack E; Tagliabracci, Vincent S

    2016-06-21

    The modification of proteins by phosphorylation occurs in all life forms and is catalyzed by a large superfamily of enzymes known as protein kinases. We recently discovered a family of secretory pathway kinases that phosphorylate extracellular proteins. One member, family with sequence similarity 20C (Fam20C), is the physiological Golgi casein kinase. While examining distantly related protein sequences, we observed low levels of identity between the spore coat protein H (CotH), and the Fam20C-related secretory pathway kinases. CotH is a component of the spore in many bacterial and eukaryotic species, and is required for efficient germination of spores in Bacillus subtilis; however, the mechanism by which CotH affects germination is unclear. Here, we show that CotH is a protein kinase. The crystal structure of CotH reveals an atypical protein kinase-like fold with a unique mode of ATP binding. Examination of the genes neighboring cotH in B. subtilis led us to identify two spore coat proteins, CotB and CotG, as CotH substrates. Furthermore, we show that CotH-dependent phosphorylation of CotB and CotG is required for the efficient germination of B. subtilis spores. Collectively, our results define a family of atypical protein kinases and reveal an unexpected role for protein phosphorylation in spore biology. PMID:27185916

  4. Novel pharmacodynamic biomarkers for MYCN protein and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway signaling in children with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer R; Moreno, Lucas; Heaton, Simon P; Chesler, Louis; Pearson, Andrew D J; Garrett, Michelle D

    2016-04-01

    There is an urgent need for improved therapies for children with high-risk neuroblastoma where survival rates remain low. MYCN amplification is the most common genomic change associated with aggressive neuroblastoma and drugs targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR, to activate MYCN oncoprotein degradation, are entering clinical evaluation. Our aim was to develop and validate pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers to evaluate both proof of mechanism and proof of concept for drugs that block PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity in children with neuroblastoma. We have addressed the issue of limited access to tumor biopsies for quantitative detection of protein biomarkers by optimizing a three-color fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) method to purify CD45-/GD2+/CD56+ neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow. We then developed a novel quantitative measurement of MYCN protein in these isolated neuroblastoma cells, providing the potential to demonstrate proof of concept for drugs that inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in this disease. In addition we have established quantitative detection of three biomarkers for AKT pathway activity (phosphorylated and total AKT, GSK3β and P70S6K) in surrogate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from pediatric patients. Together our new approach to neuroblastoma cell isolation for protein detection and suite of PD assays provides for the first time the opportunity for robust, quantitative measurement of protein-based PD biomarkers in this pediatric patient population. These will be ideal tools to support clinical evaluation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway drugs and their ability to target MYCN oncoprotein in upcoming clinical trials in neuroblastoma. PMID:26686971

  5. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. PMID:27213455

  6. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  7. Visual detection of Akt mRNA in living cell using gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Tian, Caiping; Li, Siwen; Wang, Zhaohui; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway plays the key role in cell apoptosis and survival, and the components of PI3K /Akt signaling pathway are often abnormally expressed in human tumors. Therefore, determination of the Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression is significantly important in understanding the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) functionalized with gold nanoparticles and fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC) as a beacon for detecting human Akt mRNA. Spectrofluorometer was used to detect the fluorescence quenching and recovery of the beacons, and laser confocal scanning microscopy was adopted to image Akt mRNA in cells. The results showed that this beacon could sensitively and quantitatively measure the Akt mRNA in living cells . This strategy is potentially useful for the cellular imaging of RNA or protein expression in living cells.

  8. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  9. Small molecule inhibitors of the Pyk2 and FAK kinases modulate chemoattractant-induced migration, adhesion and Akt activation in follicular and marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kathy W K; Lin, Kevin B L; Dang-Lawson, May; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Aspnes, Gary E; Buckbinder, Leonard; Gold, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    B-lymphocytes produce protective antibodies but also contribute to autoimmunity. In particular, marginal zone (MZ) B cells recognize both microbial components and self-antigens. B cell trafficking is critical for B cell activation and is controlled by chemoattactants such as CXCL13 and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The related tyrosine kinases focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) regulate cell migration and adhesion but their roles in B cells are not fully understood. Using a novel Pyk2-selective inhibitor described herein (PF-719), as well as a FAK-selective inhibitor, we show that both Pyk2 and FAK are important for CXCL13- and S1P-induced migration of B-2 cells and MZ B cells. In contrast, LFA-1-mediated adhesion required only Pyk2 whereas activation of the Akt pro-survival kinase required FAK but not Pyk2. Thus Pyk2 and FAK mediate critical processes in B cells and these inhibitors can be used to further elucidate their functions in B cells. PMID:22507871

  10. PARP-inhibitor treatment prevents hypertension induced cardiac remodeling by favorable modulation of heat shock proteins, Akt-1/GSK-3β and several PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Deres, Laszlo; Bartha, Eva; Palfi, Anita; Eros, Krisztian; Riba, Adam; Lantos, Janos; Kalai, Tamas; Hideg, Kalman; Sumegi, Balazs; Gallyas, Ferenc; Toth, Kalman; Halmosi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1(Ser473), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β(Ser9), forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)(Ser256), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2(Thr183-Tyr185), Akt-1(Ser473), GSK-3β(Ser9), FKHR(Ser256), and PKC ε(Ser729) and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC α/βII(Thr638/641), ζ/λ(410/403) were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling. PMID

  11. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy as demonstrated by measuring the activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Joshua A; Rappaz, Benjamin; Webb, Donna J; Brown, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    This protocol describes procedures for performing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy analysis by three different methods: acceptor photobleaching, sensitized emission and spectral imaging. We also discuss anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy–based FRET techniques. By using the specific example of the FRET probe Akind (Akt indicator), which is a version of Akt modified such that FRET occurs when the probe is activated by phosphorylation, indicating Akt activation. The protocol provides a detailed step-by-step description of sample preparation, image acquisition and analysis, including control samples, image corrections and the generation of quantitative FRET/CFP ratio images for both sensitized emission and spectral imaging. The sample preparation takes 2 d, equipment setup takes 2–3 h and image acquisition and analysis take 6–8 h. PMID:23306460

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) Activates NFATc1 Transcription Factor via an Autoregulatory Loop Involving Smad/Akt/Ca2+ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chandi C; Das, Falguni; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Harris, Stephen E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini

    2016-01-15

    Bone remodeling is controlled by dual actions of osteoclasts (OCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). The calcium-sensitive nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 transcription factor, as an OC signature gene, regulates differentiation of OCs downstream of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-stimulated osteoblast-coded factors. To analyze a functional link between BMP-2 and NFATc1, we analyzed bones from OB-specific BMP-2 knock-out mice for NFATc1 expression by immunohistochemical staining and found significant reduction in NFATc1 expression. This indicated a requirement of BMP-2 for NFATc1 expression in OBs. We showed that BMP-2, via the receptor-specific Smad pathway, regulates expression of NFATc1 in OBs. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling acting downstream of BMP-2 also drives NFATc1 expression and transcriptional activation. Under the basal condition, NFATc1 is phosphorylated. Activation of NFAT requires dephosphorylation by the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin. We examined the role of calcium in BMP-2-stimulated regulation of NFATc1 in osteoblasts. 1,2Bis(2aminophenoxy)ethaneN,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium abundance, blocked BMP-2-induced transcription of NFATc1. Interestingly, BMP-2 induced calcium release from intracellular stores and increased calcineurin phosphatase activity, resulting in NFATc1 nuclear translocation. Cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin upstream of NFATc1, blocked BMP-2-induced NFATc1 mRNA and protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 directly increased its transcription and VIVIT peptide, an inhibitor of NFATc1, suppressed BMP-2-stimulated NFATc1 transcription, confirming its autoregulation. Together, these data show a role of NFATc1 downstream of BMP-2 in mouse bone development and provide novel evidence for the presence of a cross-talk among Smad, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and Ca(2+) signaling for BMP-2-induced NFATc1 expression through

  13. Gecko proteins induce the apoptosis of bladder cancer 5637 cells by inhibiting Akt and activating the intrinsic caspase cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geun-Young; Park, Soon Yong; Jo, Ara; Kim, Mira; Leem, Sun-Hee; Jun, Woo-Jin; Shim, Sang In; Lee, Sang Chul; Chung, Jin Woong

    2015-09-01

    Gecko proteins have long been used as anti-tumor agents in oriental medicine, without any scientific background. Although anti-tumor effects of Gecko proteins on several cancers were recently reported, their effect on bladder cancer has not been investigated. Thus, we explored the anti-tumor effect of Gecko proteins and its cellular mechanisms in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Gecko proteins significantly reduced the viability of 5637 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These proteins increased the Annexin-V staining and the amount of condensed chromatin, demonstrating that the Gecko proteinsinduced cell death was caused by apoptosis. Gecko proteins suppressed Akt activation, and the overexpression of constitutively active form of myristoylated Akt prevented Gecko proteins-induced death of 5637 cells. Furthermore, Gecko proteins activated caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Gecko proteins suppressed the Akt pathway and activated the intrinsic caspase pathway, leading to the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 531-536]. PMID:26246284

  14. Bryostatins activate protein kinase C in intact human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.; Tallant, E.A.; Pettit, G.R.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Bryostatins, macrocyclic lactones isolated from a marine bryozoan, have antineoplastic activity in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia system. These compounds also stimulate growth in Swiss 3T3 cells, induce secretion in leukocytes, inhibit phorbol dibutyrate binding to a high affinity receptor, and activate the C-kinase in vitro. In human platelets, phorbol esters induce aggregation and activate protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of a 47K protein and the 20K myosin light chain. The authors now show that bryostatin 7 (B-7) triggers platelet aggregation to the same rate and extent as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). B-7 also causes the in vivo activation of the C-kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of both the 47K and the 20K proteins; the time courses and dose-responses of these B-7-induced phosphorylations were similar to those found with PMA. In addition, B-7 increases the level of /sup 32/P-incorporation into the platelet polyphosphoinositides, which also occurs in response to PMA. Bryostatin 3 (B-3), which has been shown to be much less potent than B-7 in mimicking other PMA effects, was much less effective than PMA or B-7 in inducing platelet aggregation and in stimulating /sup 32/P-incorporation into both proteins and the phosphoinositides. These results demonstrate that, intact human platelets, bryostatins mimic the phorbol esters tumor promoters and directly activate protein kinase C.

  15. Inactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in BMP9-mediated tumor-suppressive effects in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang; Ye, Liwei; Wu, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Xueru; Li, Huan; Yuan, Shimei; Zha, He; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Yunyuan; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Lan

    2015-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily signaling factors. Expression of several BMPs (BMP2, BMP4, and BMP7) is correlated to poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. The function of BMP9, the latest discovered and most powerful osteogenetic factor, in gastric cancer is relatively unclear. In this report, we investigated the expression, function and underlying molecular mechanisms of BMP9 in gastric cancer. The results show that BMP9 expression was markedly decreased in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Enforced BMP9 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MNK-45 increased apoptosis and reduced viability and migration. The in vivo function of BMP9 was evaluated in a xenograft mouse model. Tumors derived from SGC-7901 cells with enforced BMP9 expression (SGC-7901/BMP9) showed significantly reduced size and weight compared to that from control cells. Enforced BMP9 expression resulted in decreased Akt activity shown as lower levels of phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 in Akt. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 potentiated BMP9's viability and migration suppression, and apoptosis induction, which was associated with reduced expression of snail and VEGF and increased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, tumors derived from SGC-7901/BMP9 showed reduced Akt activity and VEGF expression, and increased E-cadherin expression. Therefore, our studies reveal for the first time that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway is involved in the tumor suppressor effects of BMP9 in gastric cancer. PMID:25640278

  16. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-11-01

    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  17. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by CX-5011 counteracts imatinib-resistance preventing rpS6 phosphorylation in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells: new combined therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Salizzato, Valentina; Borgo, Christian; Cesaro, Luca; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Donella-Deana, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder promoted by the constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Although treatment with the Bcr-Abl-inhibitor imatinib represents the first-line therapy against CML, almost 20-30% of patients develop chemotherapeutic resistance and require alternative therapy. Here we show that a strong hyper-phosphorylation/activation of ERK1/2, Akt Ser473, and 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is detectable in imatinib-resistant KCL22 and K562 CML cells as compared to the -sensitive cell variants. In imatinib-resistant CML cells, high concentration of imatinib is required to strongly inhibit Bcr-Abl, ERK1/2 and Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, but under these conditions the phosphorylation of rpS6, a common downstream effector of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways is only slightly reduced. By contrast, down-regulation of the protein kinase CK2 by the inhibitor CX-5011 or by silencing the CK2 subunits does not affect the activation state of MEK/ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling, but causes a drop in rpS6 phosphorylation in parallel with reduced protein synthesis. CK2-inhibition by CX-5011 induces cell death by apoptosis and acts synergistically with imatinib or the MEK-inhibitor U0126 in reducing the viability of imatinib-resistant CML cells. The ternary mixture containing CX-5011, imatinib and U0126 represents the most effective synergistic combination to counteract CML cell viability. These results disclose a novel CK2-mediated mechanism of acquired imatinib-resistance resulting in hyper-phosphorylation of rpS6. We suggest that co-targeting CK2 and MEK protein kinases is a promising strategy to restore responsiveness of resistant CML cells to imatinib. PMID:26919095

  18. Cyclophilin represents a novel class of protein kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M.W.; Gorelick, F.S.; Handschumacher, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    Cyclophilin (CyP, Mr 17,737, pI 9.6), a highly specific cytosolic receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA) has ser/thr protein kinase activity. Incorporation of /sup 32/P into bovine histone H/sub 3/ (BH/sub 3/) was catalyzed by major and minor CyP isozymes at the same rate. Salt effects were biphasic with optimal kinase activity between 50-100 mM Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/. Kinase activity was maximal at 37/sup 0/C, stable for 5 min at 45/sup 0/, labile at 56/sup 0/, optimal between pH 6.8 and 8.0 and had an apparent Km of 20 uM ATP with both isozymes. The specific activity of CyP was 1.0 nmole P/mg protein/min with chicken histone H/sub 1/ (CH/sub 1/), 0.2 nmoles P/mg prot/min with BH/sub 3/ and less than 0.01 nmoles P/mg prot/min with synapsin, casein, phosvitin, and ribosomal protein S6. Cofactors including Mn/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ca/sup + +/, phosphatidyl serine, diolein and phorbol ester, cAMP, cGMP and Ca/sup + +/ did not affect basal CyP kinase activity. CsA (<200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of CH/sub 3/ by 50% but did not inhibit phosphorylation of other histones; 2ug CsA/ml was required to cause 50% inhibition of cAMP and Ca/sup + +//CaM dependent kinases. A non-immunosuppressive analog (Me-leu-11-CsA) that does not bind to CyP did not inhibit CH/sub 3/ phosphorylation. Thus, CyP is a novel protein kinase that mediates immunosuppression by CsA.

  19. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Mitogen Kinase Phosphatase 1: A Critical Interplay in Macrophage Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Jorge; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Tur, Juan; Vico, Tania; Celada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are necessary in multiple processes during the immune response or inflammation. This review emphasizes the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in the functional activities of macrophages. While the phosphorylation of MAPKs is required for macrophage activation or proliferation, MKP-1 dephosphorylates these kinases, thus playing a balancing role in the control of macrophage behavior. MKP-1 is a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase whose expression is regulated at multiple levels, including at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The regulatory role of MKP-1 in the interplay between MAPK phosphorylation/dephosphorylation makes this molecule a critical regulator of macrophage biology and inflammation. PMID:27446931

  20. Contractions Activate Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Rat Muscle by Protein Kinase C and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction-induced activation of HSL was abolished by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I and calphostin C and reduced 50 % by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also completely blocked extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation. None of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant from basal but not from electrically stimulated muscle. In conclusion, in muscle, PKC can stimulate HSL through ERK. Contractions and adrenaline enhance muscle HSL activity by different signalling mechanisms. The effect of contractions is mediated by PKC, at least partly via the ERK pathway. PMID:12794177

  1. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  2. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sossin, Wayne S.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  3. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. PMID:26827688

  4. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  5. α-Tocopherol at Nanomolar Concentration Protects PC12 Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Death and Modulates Protein Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Irina O.; Sokolova, Tatyana V.; Bayunova, Liubov V.; Vlasova, Yulia A.; Rychkova, Maria P.; Avrova, Natalia F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare protective and anti-apoptotic effects of α-tocopherol at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations against 0.2 mM H2O2-induced toxicity in the PC12 neuronal cell line and to reveal protein kinases that contribute to α-tocopherol protective action. The protection by 100 nM α-tocopherol against H2O2-induced PC12 cell death was pronounced if the time of pre-incubation with α-tocopherol was 3–18 h. For the first time, the protective effect of α-tocopherol was shown to depend on its concentration in the nanomolar range (1 nM < 10 nM < 100 nM), if the pre-incubation time was 18 h. Nanomolar and micromolar α-tocopherol decreased the number of PC12 cells in late apoptosis induced by H2O2 to the same extent if pre-incubation time was 18 h. Immunoblotting data showed that α-tocopherol markedly diminished the time of maximal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt)-induced in PC12 cells by H2O2. Inhibitors of MEK 1/2, PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) diminished the protective effect of α-tocopherol against H2O2-initiated toxicity if the pre-incubation time was long. The modulation of ERK 1/2, Akt and PKC activities appears to participate in the protection by α-tocopherol against H2O2-induced death of PC12 cells. The data obtained suggest that inhibition by α-tocopherol in late stage ERK 1/2 and Akt activation induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells makes contribution to its protective effect, while total inhibition of these enzymes is not protective. PMID:23109870

  6. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the ..cap alpha.. subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single ..beta.. subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the ..cap alpha.. subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub s..cap alpha../ relative to G/sub ichemically bond/ and G/sub ochemically bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with (/sup 125/I)protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the ..beta.. subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the ..cap alpha.. subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium.

  7. Ten things you should know about protein kinases: IUPHAR Review 14

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Moebitz, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Many human malignancies are associated with aberrant regulation of protein or lipid kinases due to mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and/or gene amplification. Protein and lipid kinases represent an important target class for treating human disorders. This review focus on ‘the 10 things you should know about protein kinases and their inhibitors', including a short introduction on the history of protein kinases and their inhibitors and ending with a perspective on kinase drug discovery. Although the ‘10 things’ have been, to a certain extent, chosen arbitrarily, they cover in a comprehensive way the past and present efforts in kinase drug discovery and summarize the status quo of the current kinase inhibitors as well as knowledge about kinase structure and binding modes. Besides describing the potentials of protein kinase inhibitors as drugs, this review also focus on their limitations, particularly on how to circumvent emerging resistance against kinase inhibitors in oncological indications. PMID:25630872

  8. Antiapoptotic activity of Akt is down-regulated by Ca2+ in myocardiac H9c2 cells. Evidence of Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of protein phosphatase 2Ac.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Chie; Ihara, Yoshito; Ikeda, Satoshi; Miyahara, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Takahito; Kohno, Shigeru

    2004-12-01

    Cell survival signaling of the Akt/protein kinase B pathway was influenced by a change in the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) for over 2 h via the regulation of a Ser/Thr phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2Ac (PP2Ac), in rat myocardiac H9c2 cells. Akt was down-regulated when [Ca2+]i was elevated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, but was up-regulated when it was suppressed by 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester (BAPTA-AM), a cell permeable Ca2+ chelator. The inactivation of Akt was well correlated with the susceptibility to oxidant-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. To investigate the mechanism of the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Akt via the regulation of PP2A, we examined the transcriptional regulation of PP2Acalpha in H9c2 cells with Ca2+ modulators. Transcription of the PP2Acalpha gene was increased by thapsigargin but decreased by BAPTA-AM. The promoter activity was examined and the cAMP response element (CRE) was found responsible for the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of PP2Acalpha. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CRE-binding protein increased with thapsigargin but decreased with BAPTA-AM. A long term change of [Ca2+]i regulates PP2Acalpha gene transcription via CRE, resulting in a change in the activation status of Akt leading to an altered susceptibility to apoptosis. PMID:15375154

  9. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies activated ERK1/2 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases via binding to surface-expressed citrullinated GRP78 on mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Yin, Wen-Yao; Yu, Hui-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Yu, Chia-Li

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, we found that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) enhance nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and U937 cells via binding to surface-expressed citrullinated glucose-regulated protein 78 (cit-GRP78). However, the downstream signaling pathways remain unclear after binding. In the present study, we firstly measured the effects of different kinase inhibitors on ACPA-mediated TNF-α production from normal PBMCs and monocytes. Then, the native and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were detected in ACPA-activated U937 cells by Western blotting. We also explored the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway in activating IκB kinase alpha (IKK-α) in ACPA-stimulated U937 cells. Finally, we measured the amount of cit-GRP78 from PBMC membrane extracts in RA patients and controls. We found that MAPK and Akt inhibitors, but not PI3K inhibitor, remarkably suppressed ACPA-mediated TNF-α production. Interestingly, ACPAs selectively activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38 MAPK, in U937 cells. This activation was suppressed by cit-GRP78, but not GRP78. The JNK activation further enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and IKK-α. The expression of cit-GRP78 on cell membrane was higher in RA than normal PBMCs. Taken together; these results suggest that through binding to surface, over-expressed cit-GRP78 on RA PBMCs, ACPAs selectively activate ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways to enhance IKK-α phosphorylation, which leads to the activation of NF-κB and the production of TNF-α . PMID:23188524

  10. Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein-Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Qvit, Nir; Disatnik, Marie-Hélène; Sho, Eiketsu; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-06-22

    Protein kinases regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, metabolism, and cell death. Because the primary sequence and the three-dimensional structure of many kinases are highly similar, the development of selective inhibitors for only one kinase is challenging. Furthermore, many protein kinases are pleiotropic, mediating diverse and sometimes even opposing functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates. Here, we set out to develop an inhibitor of a selective protein kinase phosphorylation of only one of its substrates. Focusing on the pleiotropic delta protein kinase C (δPKC), we used a rational approach to identify a distal docking site on δPKC for its substrate, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). We reasoned that an inhibitor of PDK's docking should selectively inhibit the phosphorylation of only PDK without affecting phosphorylation of the other δPKC substrates. Our approach identified a selective inhibitor of PDK docking to δPKC with an in vitro Kd of ∼50 nM and reducing cardiac injury IC50 of ∼5 nM. This inhibitor, which did not affect the phosphorylation of other δPKC substrates even at 1 μM, demonstrated that PDK phosphorylation alone is critical for δPKC-mediated injury by heart attack. The approach we describe is likely applicable for the identification of other substrate-specific kinase inhibitors. PMID:27218445

  11. PPAR-γ agonist stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; He, Ming; Guo, Zong-wei; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •PPAR-γ increases KLF4 protein level but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. •The increase of KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. •Pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-γ are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-γ in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-γ overexpression increases, while PPAR-γ knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-γ and KLF4 in regulating each other’s expression in VSMCs.

  12. Protein kinase A signaling during bidirectional axenic differentiation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bachmaier, Sabine; Witztum, Ronit; Tsigankov, Polina; Koren, Roni; Boshart, Michael; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages, where they proliferate as intracellular amastigotes, and the midgut of female sand flies, where they proliferate as extracellular promastigotes. Shifting between the two environments induces signaling pathway-mediated developmental processes that enable adaptation to both host and vector. Developmentally regulated expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase A subunits in Leishmania and in Trypanosoma brucei point to an involvement of protein kinase A in parasite development. To assess this hypothesis in Leishmania donovani, we determined proteome-wide changes in phosphorylation of the conserved protein kinase A phosphorylation motifs RXXS and RXXT, using a phospho-specific antibody. Rapid dephosphorylation of these motifs was observed upon initiation of promastigote to amastigote differentiation in culture. No phosphorylated sites were detected in axenic amastigotes. To analyse the kinetics of (re)phosphorylation during axenic reverse differentiation from L. donovani amastigotes to promastigotes, we first established a map of this process with morphological and molecular markers. Upon initiation, the parasites rested for 6-12h before proliferation of an asynchronous population resumed. After early changes in cell shape, the major changes in molecular marker expression and flagella biogenesis occurred between 24 and 33h after initiation. RXXS/T re-phosphorylation and expression of the regulatory subunit PKAR1 correlated with promastigote maturation, indicating a promastigote-specific function of protein kinase A signaling. This is supported by the localization of PKAR1 to the flagellum, an organelle reduced to a remnant in amastigote forms. We conclude that a significant increase in protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation is part of the ordered changes that characterise the amastigote to promastigote differentiation

  13. Phosphoproteins and protein kinases of the Golgi apparatus membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1985-11-25

    Incubation of a highly purified fraction derived from rat liver Golgi apparatus with (gamma-TSP)ATP results in phosphorylation of several endogenous phosphoproteins. One phosphoprotein with an apparent Mr of 48,300 is radiolabeled to an apparent extent at least 5-fold higher than any other phosphoprotein as part of either the Golgi apparatus or highly purified rat liver fractions derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane, coated vesicles, cytosol, and total homogenate. Approximately 70% of the 48.3-kDa phosphoprotein appears to be a specific extrinsic Golgi membrane protein with the phosphorylated amino acid being threonine. The protein kinase which phosphorylates the 48.3-kDa protein is an intrinsic Golgi membrane protein and is dependent on MgS , independent of CaS , calmodulin, and cAMP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Preliminary evidence suggests that there are also intrinsic membrane protein kinases in the Golgi apparatus which are dependent on CaS and cAMP. The physiological role of the above phosphoproteins and protein kinases is not known.

  14. Protein kinase inhibitors against malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are intimately involved in multiple signal transduction pathways regulating survival, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells. Deregulation or overexpression of specific oncogenic TKs is implicated in maintaining the malignant phenotype in B-lineage lymphoid malignancies. Several novel targeted TK inhibitors (TKIs) have recently emerged as active in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas that inhibit critical signaling pathways, promote apoptotic mechanisms or modulate the tumor microenvironment. Areas covered In this review, the authors summarize the clinical outcomes of newer TKIs in various B-cell lymphomas from published and ongoing clinical studies and abstracts from major cancer and hematology conferences. Expert opinion Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated that robust antitumor activity can be obtained with TKIs directed toward specific oncogenic TKs that are genetically deregulated in various subtypes of B-cell lymphomas. Clinical success of targeting TKIs is dependent upon on identifying reliable molecular and clinical markers associated with select cohorts of patients. Further understanding of the signaling pathways should stimulate the identification of novel molecular targets and expand the development of new therapeutic options and individualized therapies. PMID:23496343

  15. Cyclic GMP and protein kinase-G in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion: opportunities and obstacles for survival signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burley, D S; Ferdinandy, P; Baxter, G F

    2007-01-01

    It is clear that multiple signalling pathways regulate the critical balance between cell death and survival in myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Recent attention has focused on the activation of survival or salvage kinases, particularly during reperfusion, as a common mechanism of many cardioprotective interventions. The phosphatidyl inositol 3′-hydroxy kinase/Akt complex (PI3K/Akt) and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades have been widely promoted in this respect but the cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) signal transduction cassette has been less systematically investigated as a survival cascade. We propose that activation of the cGMP/PKG signalling pathway, following activation of soluble or particulate guanylate cyclases, may play a pivotal role in survival signalling in ischaemia–reperfusion, especially in the classical preconditioning, delayed preconditioning and postconditioning paradigms. The resurgence of interest in reperfusion injury, largely as a result of postconditioning-related research, has confirmed that the cGMP/PKG pathway is a pivotal salvage mechanism in reperfusion. Numerous studies suggest that the infarct-limiting effects of preconditioning and postconditioning, exogenously donated nitric oxide (NO), natriuretic peptides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and other diverse drugs and mediators such as HMG co-A reductase inhibitors (statins), Rho-kinase inhibitors and adrenomedullin, whether given before and during ischaemia, or specifically at the onset of reperfusion, may be mediated by activation or enhancement of the cGMP pathway, either directly or indirectly via endogenous NO generation downstream of PI3K/Akt. Putative mechanisms of protection include PKG regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis through the modification of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake mechanisms, and PKG-induced opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels during ischaemia and/or reperfusion. At present, significant

  16. Growth-stimulatory activity of TIMP-2 is mediated through c-Src activation followed by activation of FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 independent of MMP inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lee, Seung-Taek; Lee, Seo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) control extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are associated with ECM turnover. Recent studies have revealed that TIMPs are implicated in tumorigenesis in both MMP-dependent and MMP-independent manners. We examined a mechanism by which TIMP-2 stimulated lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, independent of MMP inhibition. The stimulation of growth by TIMP-2 in A549 cells required c-Src kinase activation. c-Src kinase activity, induced by TIMP-2, concomitantly increased FAK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT, and ERK1/2 activation. Selective knockdown of integrin α3β1, known as a TIMP-2 receptor, did not significantly change TIMP-2 growth promoting activity. Furthermore, we showed that high TIMP-2 expression in lung adenocarcinomas is associated with a worse prognosis from multiple cohorts, especially for stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Through integrated analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data, TIMP-2 expression was significantly associated with the alteration of driving genes, c-Src activation, and PI3-kinase/AKT pathway activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TIMP-2 stimulates lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through c-Src, FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 pathway activation in an MMP-independent manner. PMID:26556867

  17. Exendin-4 enhances the migration of adipose-derived stem cells to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-stromal cell-derived factor-1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, HAO; YANG, JUNJIE; XIN, TING; ZHANG, TAO; HU, SHUNYIN; ZHOU, SHANSHAN; CHEN, GUANGHUI; CHEN, YUNDAI

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered a suitable source of cells for the repair of tissue following acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, the transplantation efficiency of ADSCs remains low. Therefore, identification of an efficient method to enhance the migration of engrafted cells to the target site is required. The present study used exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, to optimize the migratory capacity of ADSCs. The aim was to determine the effect and mechanisms of Ex-4 on the migration of ADSCs to neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte-derived conditioned medium (NRVC-CM). The ADSCs and cardiomyocytes were cultured in vitro. Following incubation of the ADSCs with Ex-4, cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay and the expression levels of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were investigated by reverse transctiption quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and flow cytometry. In addition, the expression levels of stromal cel