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Sample records for akt signal transducer

  1. AKT/PKB Signaling: Navigating Downstream

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Brendan D.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2009-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a central node in cell signaling downstream of growth factors, cytokines, and other cellular stimuli. Aberrant loss or gain of Akt activation underlies the pathophysiological properties of a variety of complex diseases, including type-2 diabetes and cancer. Here, we review the molecular properties of Akt and the approaches used to characterize its true cellular targets. In addition, we discuss those Akt substrates that are most likely to contribute to the diverse cellular roles of Akt, which include cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, and migration. PMID:17604717

  2. PI3K/AKT Signaling Regulates Bioenergetics in Immortalized Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Li, Yang; He, Lina; Agarwal, Amit R.; Zeng, Ni; Cadenas, Enrique; Stiles, Bangyan L.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of cellular bioenergetics by PI3K/AKT signaling was examined in isogenic hepatocyte cell lines lacking the major inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on Chromosome 10). PI3K/AKT signaling was manipulated using the activator (IGF-1) and the inhibitor (LY 294002) of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Activation of PI3K/AKT signaling resulted in an enhanced anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. AKT, when phosphorylated and activated, translocated to mitochondria and localized within the membrane structure of mitochondria, where it phosphorylated a number of mitochondrial residence proteins including the subunits α and β of ATP synthase. Inhibition of GSK3β by either phosphorylation by AKT or lithium chloride resulted in activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, i.e., decrease of its phosphorylated form. AKT-dependent phosphorylation of ATP synthase subunits α and β resulted in an increased complex activity. AKT translocation to mitochondria was associated with an increased expression and activity of complex I. These data suggest that the mitochondrial signaling pathway AKT-GSK3β-PDH, AKT-dependent phosphorylation of ATP synthase, and upregulation of mitochondrial complex I expression and activity are involved in the control of mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing substrate availability and regulating the mitochondrial catalytic/energy-transducing capacity. PMID:23376468

  3. Photochemical "triode" molecular signal transducer.

    PubMed

    Keirstead, Amy E; Bridgewater, James W; Terazono, Yuichi; Kodis, Gerdenis; Straight, Stephen; Liddell, Paul A; Moore, Ana L; Moore, Thomas A; Gust, Devens

    2010-05-12

    A molecular "hexad" in which five bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA) fluorophores and a dithienylethene photochrome are organized by a central hexaphenylbenzene unit has been prepared. Singlet-singlet energy transfer among the BPEA units occurs on the 0.4 and 60 ps time scales, and when the dithienylethene is in the open form, the BPEA units fluoresce in the 515 nm region with a quantum yield near unity. When the dithienylethene is photoisomerized by UV light to the closed form, which absorbs in the 500-700 nm region, the closed isomer strongly quenches all of the excited singlet states of BPEA via energy transfer, causing the fluorescence quantum yield to drop to near zero. This photochemical behavior permits the hexad to function in a manner analogous to a triode vacuum tube or transistor. When a solution of the hexad is irradiated with steady-state light at 350 nm and with red light (>610 nm) of modulated intensity, the BPEA fluorescence excited by the 350 nm light is modulated accordingly. The fluorescence corresponds to the output of a triode tube or transistor and the modulated red light to the grid signal of the tube or gate voltage of the transistor. Frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and phase modulation are all observed. The unusual ability to modulate intense, shorter-wavelength fluorescence with longer-wavelength light could be useful for the detection of fluorescence from probe molecules without interference from other emitters in biomolecular or nanotechnological applications.

  4. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  9. Signal processing schemes for optical voltage transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Xie, Delin; Chen, Hongbin; Xie, Latang; Song, Jianhe; Luo, Xiaoni

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes an optical voltage transducer(OVT) for a 35kV system based on Pockels effect in a BGO(Bi 4Ge 3O 12) crystal. OVT used to measure the voltage of power are superior to conventional electromagnet-induced voltage transducer in many aspects, thus it has great potential to applications. It has some advantages. These advantages are: 1)Optics provides total galvanic separation between the measuring point at high voltage (HV) potential and the measuring equipment at ground potential. 2)Transmission of measuring signals in optical fibers is immune to induced electromagnetic noise even in EMI-environment of switchyards and other high voltage installations. 3)Optics and especially optical fibers make the insulation costs independent of voltage levels thus giving an economical advantage at voltage levels above 100kV. 4)The use of optics is expected to reduce the weight of the transducers. 5)Optical transducers are expected to have a large bandwidth than conventional transducers. 6)The output-signals from an optical transducer are easily interfaced with computers and electronically operated equipment such as digital relays. New techniques developed in electronics and optical field including fiber optic technology bring new contributions to the measurement of voltage and electric field. A Pockels voltage sensor has been widely introduced to electrical power transmission and distribution systems and some advantage of the optical voltage measuring techniques are reported. In this paper, a brief summary of electro-optic effects and the principle of OVT is proposed. The signal processing schemes of different optical path and features are analyzed. The basic principle of OVT is to modulate the irradiance of the light-directed to OVT by an optical fiber-according to the potential difference between the HV-line and the ground potential. The modulation of the light is accomplished by placing a material-that has an optical property (the birefringence), which is

  10. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB-mediated glycosaminoglycan synthesis is transduced through Akt.

    PubMed

    Cartel, Nicholas J; Wang, Jinxia; Post, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) signal-transduction pathway mediates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis in fetal lung fibroblasts. In the present study we further investigated the signal-transduction pathway(s) that results in PDGF-BB-induced GAG synthesis. Over-expression of a soluble PDGF beta-receptor as well as a mutated form of the beta-receptor, unable to bind PI-3K, diminished GAG synthesis in fetal lung fibroblasts subsequent to PDGF-BB stimulation. The PI-3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked PDGF-BB-induced Akt activity as well as significantly diminishing PDGF-BB-mediated GAG synthesis. Expression of dominant-negative PI-3K also abrogated Akt activity and GAG synthesis. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative Akt abrogated endogenous Akt activity, Rab3D phosphorylation and GAG synthesis, whereas expression of constitutively activated Akt stimulated Rab3D phosphorylation and GAG synthesis in the absence of PDGF-BB. Over-expression of wild-type PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10) inhibited Akt activity and concomitantly attenuated GAG synthesis in fibroblasts stimulated with PDGF-BB. These data suggest that Akt is an integral protein involved in PDGF-BB-mediated GAG regulation in fetal lung fibroblasts.

  11. AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Emamian, Effat S.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent complex trait disorder manifested by severe neurocognitive dysfunctions and lifelong disability. During the past few years several studies have provided direct evidence for the involvement of different signaling pathways in schizophrenia. In this review, we mainly focus on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia. The original study on the involvement of this pathway in schizophrenia was published by Emamian et al. in 2004. This study reported convergent evidence for a decrease in AKT1 protein levels and levels of phosphorylation of GSK-3β in the peripheral lymphocytes and brains of individuals with schizophrenia; a significant association between schizophrenia and an AKT1 haplotype; and a greater sensitivity to the sensorimotor gating-disruptive effect of amphetamine, conferred by AKT1 deficiency. It also showed that haloperidol can induce a stepwise increase in regulatory phosphorylation of AKT1 in the brains of treated mice that could compensate for the impaired function of this signaling pathway in schizophrenia. Following this study, several independent studies were published that not only confirmed the association of this signaling pathway with schizophrenia across different populations, but also shed light on the mechanisms by which AKT/GSK3 pathway may contribute to the development of this complex disorder. In this review, following an introduction on the role of AKT in human diseases and its functions in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, a review on the results of studies published on AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway in schizophrenia after the original 2004 paper will be provided. A brief review on other signaling pathways involved in schizophrenia and the possible connections with AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway will be discussed. Moreover, some possible molecular mechanisms acting through this pathway will be discussed besides the mechanisms by which they may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Finally, different

  12. Cellular prion protein transduces neuroprotective signals

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Luciana B.; Freitas, Adriana R.O.; Zanata, Silvio M.; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Martins, Vilma R.; Linden, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    To test for a role for the cellular prion protein (PrPc) in cell death, we used a PrPc-binding peptide. Retinal explants from neonatal rats or mice were kept in vitro for 24 h, and anisomycin (ANI) was used to induce apoptosis. The peptide activated both cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and Erk pathways, and partially prevented cell death induced by ANI in explants from wild-type rodents, but not from PrPc-null mice. Neuroprotection was abolished by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, with human peptide 106–126, with certain antibodies to PrPc or with a PKA inhibitor, but not with a MEK/Erk inhibitor. In contrast, antibodies to PrPc that increased cAMP also induced neuroprotection. Thus, engagement of PrPc transduces neuroprotective signals through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. PrPc may function as a trophic receptor, the activation of which leads to a neuroprotective state. PMID:12093733

  13. Cyclophilin A as a downstream effector of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zuo-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Jou; Chen, Jin-An; Lin, Kuo-Chih; Hsu, Jung-Hsin

    2015-12-01

    Cyclophilin A (Cyp A), a member of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPI) family, may function as a molecular signalling switch. Comparative proteomic studies have identified Cyp A as a potential downstream target of protein kinase B (Akt). This study confirmed that Cyp A is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway. Cyp A was highly phosphorylated in response to interleukin-6 treatment, which was consistent with the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt, suggesting that Cyp A is a phosphorylation target of Akt and downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a PPI inhibitor, inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) U266 cells. Moreover, CsA treatment inhibited the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in MM U266 cells. Several Cyp A mutants were generated. Mutants with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites increased the G1 phase arrest in MM U266 cells. The other mutants that mimicked the phosphorylated state of Cyp A decreased the percentage of G1 phase. These results demonstrated that the states of phosphorylation of Cyp A by Akt can influence the progress of the cell cycle in MM U266 cells and that this effect is probably mediated through the Janus-activated kinase 2/STAT3 signalling pathway.

  14. Pulse transducer with artifact signal attenuator. [heart rate sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, W. H., Jr.; Polhemus, J. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An artifact signal attenuator for a pulse rate sensor is described. The circuit for attenuating background noise signals is connected with a pulse rate transducer which has a light source and a detector for light reflected from blood vessels of a living body. The heart signal provided consists of a modulated dc signal voltage indicative of pulse rate. The artifact signal resulting from light reflected from the skin of the body comprises both a constant dc signal voltage and a modulated dc signal voltage. The amplitude of the artifact signal is greater and the frequency less than that of the heart signal. The signal attenuator circuit includes an operational amplifier for canceling the artifact signal from the output signal of the transducer and has the capability of meeting packaging requirements for wrist-watch-size packages.

  15. AKT Regulates BRCA1 Stability in Response to Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew C.; Lyons, Traci R.; Young, Christian D.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Anderson, Steven M.; Holt, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1, with its binding partner BARD1, regulates the cellular response to DNA damage in multiple tissues, yet inherited mutations within BRCA1 result specifically in breast and ovarian cancers. This observation, along with several other lines of evidence, suggests a functional relationship may exist between hormone signaling and BRCA1 function. Our data demonstrates that AKT activation promotes the expression of BRCA1 in response to estrogen and IGF-1 receptor signaling. Further, we have identified a novel AKT phosphorylation site in BRCA1 at S694 which is responsive to activation of these signaling pathways. This rapid increase in BRCA1 protein levels appears to occur independently of new protein synthesis and treatment with the clinically utilized proteasome inhibitor bortezomib similarly leads to a rapid increase in BRCA1 protein levels. Together, these data suggest that AKT phosphorylation of BRCA1 increases total protein expression by preventing proteasomal degradation. AKT activation also appears to support nuclear localization of BRCA1, and co-expression of activated AKT with BRCA1 decreases radiation sensitivity, suggesting this interaction has functional consequences for BRCA1's role in DNA repair. We conclude that AKT regulates BRCA1 protein stability and function through direct phosphorylation of BRCA1. Further, the responsiveness of the AKT-BRCA1 regulatory pathway to hormone signaling may, in part, underlie the tissue specificity of BRCA1 mutant cancers. Pharmacological targets within this pathway could provide strategies for modulation of BRCA1 protein, which may prove therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. PMID:20085797

  16. Simulation of transducer-couplant effects on broadband ultrasonic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing use of broadband, pulse-echo ultrasonics in nondestructive evaluation of flaws and material properties has generated a need for improved understanding of the way signals are modified by coupled and bonded thin-layer interfaces associated with transducers. This understanding is most important when using frequency spectrum analyses for characterizing material properties. In this type of application, signals emanating from material specimens can be strongly influenced by couplant and bond-layers in the acoustic path. Computer synthesized waveforms were used to simulate a range of interface conditions encountered in ultrasonic transducer systems operating in the 20 to 80 MHz regime. The adverse effects of thin-layer multiple reflections associated with various acoustic impedance conditions are demonstrated. The information presented is relevant to ultrasonic transducer design, specimen preparation, and couplant selection.

  17. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  18. Connective tissue growth factor induces cardiac hypertrophy through Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayata, Nozomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Tomohiko; Obana, Masanori; Takai, Mika; Mohri, Tomomi; Nonen, Shinpei; Maeda, Makiko; Azuma, Junichi

    2008-05-30

    In the process of cardiac remodeling, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is secreted from cardiac myocytes. Though CTGF is well known to promote fibroblast proliferation, its pathophysiological effects in cardiac myocytes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the biological effects of CTGF in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiac myocytes stimulated with full length CTGF and its C-terminal region peptide showed the increase in cell surface area. Similar to hypertrophic ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, such as endothelin-1, CTGF activated amino acid uptake; however, CTGF-induced hypertrophy is not associated with the increased expression of skeletal actin or BNP, analyzed by Northern-blotting. CTGF treatment activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and Akt. The inhibition of Akt by transducing dominant-negative Akt abrogated CTGF-mediated increase in cell size, while the inhibition of MAP kinases did not affect the cardiac hypertrophy. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel hypertrophic factor in cardiac myocytes.

  19. Transducer Signal Noise Analysis for Sensor Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Svoboda; Mark J. Schanfein

    2012-07-01

    The abstract is being passed through STIMS for submision to the conference. International safeguards organizations charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy employ unattended and remote monitoring systems supplemented with onsite inspections to ensure nuclear materials are not diverted for weaponization purposes. These systems are left unattended for periods of several months between inspections. During these periods physical security means are the main deterrent used to detect intentional monitoring system tampering. The information gathering components are locked in secure and sealed rooms. The sensor components (i.e. neutron and gamma detectors) are located throughout the plant in unsecure areas where sensor tampering could take place during the periods between inspections. Sensor tampering could allow the diversion of nuclear materials from the accepted and intended use to uses not consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear energy. A method and an apparatus is presented that address the detection of sensor tampering during the periods between inspections. It was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the IAEA. The method is based on the detailed analysis of the sensor noise floor after the sensor signal is removed. The apparatus consists of a 2.1” x 2.6” electronic circuit board containing all signal conditioning and processing components and a laptop computer running an application that acquires and stores the analysis results between inspection periods. The sensors do not require any modification and are remotely located in their normal high radiation zones. The apparatus interfaces with the sensor signal conductors using a simple pass through connector at the normal sensor electronics interface package located in the already secure and sealed rooms. The apparatus does not require hardening against the effects of radiation due to its location. Presented is the apparatus design

  20. Polished Downhole Transducer Having Improved Signal Coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    Apparatus and methods to improve signal coupling in downhole inductive transmission elements to reduce the dispersion of magnetic energy at the tool joints and to provide consistent impedance and contact between transmission elements located along the drill string. A transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including an annular core constructed of a magnetically conductive material. The annular core forms an open channel around its circumference and is configured to form a closed channel by mating with a corresponding annular core along an annular mating surface. The mating surface is polished to provide improved magnetic coupling with the corresponding annular core. An annular conductor is disposed within the open channel.

  1. Roles of oxidative stress and Akt signaling in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ichihara, Sahoko . E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji; Kawai, Yoshichika; Osawa, Toshihiko; Furuhashi, Koichi; Duan Zhiwen; Ichihara, Gaku

    2007-07-20

    Cardiotoxicity is a treatment-limiting side effect of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We have now investigated the roles of oxidative stress and signaling by the protein kinase Akt in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity as well as the effects on such toxicity both of fenofibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}, and of polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), an antioxidant. Mice injected intraperitoneally with DOX were treated for 4 days with fenofibrate or PEG-SOD. Fenofibrate and PEG-SOD each prevented the induction of cardiac dysfunction by DOX. Both drugs also inhibited the activation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and increase in lipid peroxidation in the left ventricle induced by DOX, whereas only PEG-SOD inhibited the DOX-induced activation of Akt and Akt-regulated gene expression. These results suggest that fenofibrate and PEG-SOD prevented cardiac dysfunction induced by DOX through normalization of oxidative stress and redox-regulated NF-{kappa}B signaling.

  2. Sensing feeble microwave signals via an optomechanical transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Weiping; Meystre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Due to their low energy content microwave signals at the single-photon level are extremely challenging to measure. Guided by recent progress in single-photon optomechanics and hybrid optomechanical systems, we propose a multimode optomechanical transducer that can detect intensities significantly below the single-photon level via off-resonant adiabatic transfer of the microwave signal to the optical frequency domain where the measurement is then performed. The influence of intrinsic quantum and thermal fluctuations on the performance of this detector are considered in detail. We acknowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  3. Cooperative unfolding of distinctive mechanoreceptor domains transduces force into signals

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Lining; Chen, Yunfeng; Xue, Lingzhou; Du, Xiaoping; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    How cells sense their mechanical environment and transduce forces into biochemical signals is a crucial yet unresolved question in mechanobiology. Platelets use receptor glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), specifically its α subunit (GPIbα), to signal as they tether and translocate on von Willebrand factor (VWF) of injured arterial surfaces against blood flow. Force elicits catch bonds to slow VWF–GPIbα dissociation and unfolds the GPIbα leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD) and juxtamembrane mechanosensitive domain (MSD). How these mechanical processes trigger biochemical signals remains unknown. Here we analyze these extracellular events and the resulting intracellular Ca2+ on a single platelet in real time, revealing that LRRD unfolding intensifies Ca2+ signal whereas MSD unfolding affects the type of Ca2+ signal. Therefore, LRRD and MSD are analog and digital force transducers, respectively. The >30 nm macroglycopeptide separating the two domains transmits force on the VWF–GPIbα bond (whose lifetime is prolonged by LRRD unfolding) to the MSD to enhance its unfolding, resulting in unfolding cooperativity at an optimal force. These elements may provide design principles for a generic mechanosensory protein machine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15447.001 PMID:27434669

  4. TRAF6 is a signal transducer for interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Xiong, J; Takeuchi, M; Kurama, T; Goeddel, D V

    1996-10-03

    Many cytokines signal through different cell-surface receptors to activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Members of the TRAF protein family have been implicated in the activation of NF-kappaB by the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily. Here we report the identification of a new TRAF family member, designated TRAF6. When overexpressed in human 293 cells, TRAF6 activates NF-kappaB. A dominant-negative mutant of TRAF6 inhibits NF-kappaB activation signalled by interleukin-1 (IL-1) but not by TNF. IL-1 treatment of 293 cells induces the association of TRAF6 with IRAK, a serine/threonine kinase that is rapidly recruited to the IL-1 receptor after IL-1 induction. These findings indicate that TRAF proteins may function as signal transducers for distinct receptor families and that TRAF6 participates in IL-1 signalling.

  5. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    discovered that the Akt pathway modulates breast cancer cell survival in response to genotoxic agents, and discovered a new substrate of Akt, MERIT40, that...12 3         INTRODUCTION Genotoxic chemotherapy agents are used to...resistance to genotoxic chemotherapy agents is activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. We proposed that genotoxic drugs induce the activation of

  6. Signal processing for damage detection using two different array transducers.

    PubMed

    El Youbi, F; Grondel, S; Assaad, J

    2004-04-01

    This work describes an investigation into the development of a new health monitoring system for aeronautical applications. The health monitoring system is based on the emission and reception of Lamb waves by multi-element piezoelectric transducers (i.e., arrays) bonded to the structure. The emitter array consists of three different elementary bar transducers. These transducers have the same thickness and length but different widths. The receiver array has 32 same elements. This system offers the possibility to understand the nature of the generated waves and to determine the sensitivity of each mode to possible damage. It presents two principal advantages: Firstly, by exciting all elements in phase, it is possible to generate several Lamb modes in the same time. Secondly, the two-dimensional fourier transform (2D-FT) of the received signal can be easily computed. Experimental results concerning an aluminum plate with different hole sizes will be shown. The A0-, S0-, A1-, S1- and S2-modes are generated at the same time. This study shows that the A0 mode seems particularly interesting to detect flaws of this geometrical type.

  7. Multiple roles and therapeutic implications of Akt signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Emiliano; Bolós, Victoria; Grande, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    The prominence of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in several tumors indicates a relationship with tumor grade and proliferation. Critical cellular processes are driven through this pathway. More detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of tumors would enable us to design targeted drugs to block both membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and the intracellular kinases involved in the transmission of the signal. The newly approved molecular inhibitors sunitinib (an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and other tyrosine kinase receptors), sorafenib (a serine–threonine kinase inhibitor that acts against B-Raf) and temsirolimus (an mTOR inhibitor) shown clinical activity in advanced kidney cancer. Chronic myeloid leukemia has changed its natural history thanks to imatinib and dasatinib, both of which inhibit the intracellular bcr/abl protein derived from the alteration in the Philadelphia chromosome. Intracellular pathways are still important in cancer development and their blockade directly affects outcome. Cross-talk has been observed but is not well understood. Vertical and horizontal pathway blockade are promising anticancer strategies. Indeed, preclinical and early clinical data suggest that combining superficial and intracellular blocking agents can synergize and leverage single-agent activity. The implication of the Akt signaling pathway in cancer is well established and has led to the development of new anticancer agents that block its activation. PMID:20616901

  8. Sequential Phosphorylation of Smoothened Transduces Graded Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying; Ospina, Jason K.; Zhang, Junzheng; Michelson, Andrew P.; Schoen, Adam M.; Zhu, Alan Jian

    2012-01-01

    The correct interpretation of a gradient of the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh) during development requires phosphorylation of the Hh signaling activator Smoothened (Smo); however, the molecular mechanism by which Smo transduces graded Hh signaling is not well understood. We show that regulation of the phosphorylation status of Smo by distinct phosphatases at specific phosphorylated residues creates differential thresholds of Hh signaling. Phosphorylation of Smo was initiated by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP)–dependent protein kinase (PKA) and further enhanced by casein kinase I (CKI). We found that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) directly dephosphorylated PKA-phosphorylated Smo to reduce signaling mediated by intermediate concentrations of Hh, whereas PP2A specifically dephosphorylated PKA-primed, CKI-phosphorylated Smo to restrict signaling by high concentrations of Hh. We also established a functional link between sequentially phosphorylated Smo species and graded Hh activity. Thus, we propose a sequential phosphorylation model in which precise interpretation of morphogen concentration can be achieved upon versatile phosphatase-mediated regulation of the phosphorylation status of an essential activator in developmental signaling. PMID:21730325

  9. Emerging EPO and EPO receptor regulators and signal transducers.

    PubMed

    Kuhrt, David; Wojchowski, Don M

    2015-06-04

    As essential mediators of red cell production, erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPO receptor [EPOR]) have been intensely studied. Early investigations defined basic mechanisms for hypoxia-inducible factor induction of EPO expression, and within erythroid progenitors EPOR engagement of canonical Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (JAK2/STAT5), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAS/MEK/ERK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Contemporary genetic, bioinformatic, and proteomic approaches continue to uncover new clinically relevant modulators of EPO and EPOR expression, and EPO's biological effects. This Spotlight review highlights such factors and their emerging roles during erythropoiesis and anemia.

  10. TMEFF2 modulates the AKT and ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofei; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and two follistatin (FS) motifs 2 (TMEFF2) has a limited tissue distribution with strong expression only in brain and prostate. While TMEFF2 is overexpressed in prostate cancer indicating an oncogenic role, several studies indicate a tumor suppressor role for this protein. This dual mode of action is, at least in part, the result of metalloproteinase-dependent shedding that generates a soluble TMEFF2 ectodomain with a growth promoting function. While recent studies have shed some light on the biology of different forms of TMEFF2, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that influence its oncogenic/tumor suppressive function. In several non-prostate cell lines, it has been shown that a recombinant form of the TMEFF2 ectodomain can interact with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA to suppress PDGF receptor signaling and can promote ErbB4 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, the role of the full length TMEFF2 in these pathways has not been examined. Using prostate cell lines, here we examine the role of TMEFF2 in ERK and Akt activation, two pathways implicated in prostate cancer progression and that have been shown to cross talk in several cancers. Our results show that different forms of TMEFF2 distinctly affect Akt and ERK activation and this may contribute to a different cellular response of either proliferation or tumor suppression. PMID:23936739

  11. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  12. Sorafenib inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling associated with growth arrest and apoptosis of medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Van Meter, Timothy E; Buettner, Ralf; Hedvat, Michael; Liang, Wei; Kowolik, Claudia M; Mepani, Nilesh; Mirosevich, Janni; Nam, Sangkil; Chen, Mike Y; Tye, Gary; Kirschbaum, Mark; Jove, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most frequent malignant brain tumors in children. Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006), a multikinase inhibitor, blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. Sorafenib inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in two established cell lines (Daoy and D283) and a primary culture (VC312) of human medulloblastomas. In addition, sorafenib inhibited phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in both cell lines and primary tumor cells. The inhibition of phosphorylated STAT3 (Tyr(705)) occurs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, AKT (protein kinase B) was only decreased in D283 and VC312 medulloblastoma cells and mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) were not inhibited by sorafenib in these cells. Both D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) and E-type cyclin were down-regulated by sorafenib. Also, expression of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1, a member of the Bcl-2 family, was decreased and correlated with apoptosis induced by sorafenib. Finally, sorafenib suppressed the growth of human medulloblastoma cells in a mouse xenograft model. Together, our data show that sorafenib blocks STAT3 signaling as well as expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, associated with inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in medulloblastomas. These findings provide a rationale for treatment of pediatric medulloblastomas with sorafenib.

  13. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  14. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dar, Altaf A; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W; Miller, James R; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-05-31

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression.

  15. G-quadruplex as signal transducer for biorecognition events.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Guo, Zhijun; Wang, Jiahai; Wang, Erkang

    2012-01-01

    G-rich nucleic acid oligomers can form G-quadruplexes built by G-tetrads stacked upon each other. The basic building block of the G-quadruplexes is similar, but the formation of different quadruplex structures is highly responsive to the strand stoichiometry, strand orientation, guanine glycosidic torsion angle, connecting loops, and the metal coordination. Because of its structural variations and different functions, G-quadruplex applied in biorecognition events can function as a versatile signaling component. A variety of strategies that incorporate G-quadruplex have also been reported. In this review, we mainly discuss G-quadruplex as signal transducer from the following aspects for biorecognition events: analyte-induced G-quadruplex reconfiguration and fluorescence enhancement of small ligand; analyte-induced G-quadruplex reconstruction and formation of DNAzyme; Stimulus-responsive G-quadruplex refolding and manipulation of electron transfer; Stimulus-responsive G-quadruplex and its combination with nanopore systems; Small ligand-responsive G-quadruplex stabilization for drug screening; Nanomaterial-reponsive G-quadruplex reformation; Target-triggered continuous formation of G-quadruplex by DNA nanomachine. We have comprehensively described the recent progress in our labs and others. Undoubtedly, bioanalytical technology and nanotechnology based on G-quadruplex will continue to grow, leading to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics and drug development.

  16. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Altaf A.; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Miller, James R.; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression. PMID:27185926

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 4-induced migration of porcine trophectoderm cells is mediated via the AKT cell signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Lee, Jieun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung

    2016-01-05

    cells by FGF4 secreted by conceptus/endometrium transduces its signal through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway which is linked to migration of trophectoderm cells that is critical to development of the porcine conceptus.

  18. Positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling mediates oncogenic property of RARα in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gui-Li; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jin-Xing; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Wen-Ming; Shen, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal expression and function of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) have been reported to be associated with various cancers including acute promyelocytic leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role and the mechanism of RARα in gastric carcinoma (GC) were unknown. Here, the expression of RARα was frequently elevated in human GC tissues and cell lines, and its overexpression was closely correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages in GC patients. Moreover, RARα overexpression was related with pathological differentiation. Functionally, RARα knockdown inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, as well as enhanced drug susceptibility both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, RARα knockdown suppressed GC progression through regulating the expression of cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and drug resistance associated proteins, such as PCNA, CyclinB1, CyclinD2, CyclinE, p21, MMP9 and MDR1. Mechanistically, the above oncogenic properties of RARα in GC were closely associated with Akt signaling activation. Moreover, overexpression of RARα was induced by IL-1β/Akt signaling activation, which suggested a positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling in GC. Taken together, we demonstrated that RARα was frequently elevated in GC and exerted oncogenic properties. It might be a potential molecular target for GC treatment. PMID:28035062

  19. Dissecting signalling by individual Akt/PKB isoforms, three steps at once.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Klip, Amira

    2015-09-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) is key for mammalian cell growth, survival, metabolism and oncogenic transformation. The diverse level and tissue expression of its three isoforms, Akt1/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ and Akt3/PKBγ, make it daunting to identify isoform-specific actions in vivo and even in isolated tissues/cells. To date, isoform-specific knockout and knockdown have been the best strategies to dissect their individual overall functions. In a recent article in the Biochemical Journal, Kajno et al. reported a new strategy to study isoform selectivity in cell lines. Individual Akt/PKB isoforms in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes are first silenced via shRNA and stable cellular clones lacking one or the other isoform are selected. The stably silenced isoform is then replaced by a mutant engineered to be refractory to inhibition by MK-2206 (Akt1(W80A) or Akt2(W80A)). Akt1(W80A) or Akt2(W80A) are functional and effectively recruited to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. The system affords the opportunity to acutely control the activity of the endogenous non-silenced isoform through timely addition of MK-2206. Using this approach, it is confirmed that Akt1/PKBα is the preferred isoform sustaining adipocyte differentiation, but both Akt1/PKBα and Akt2/PKBβ can indistinctly support insulin-dependent FoxO1 (forkhead box O1) nuclear exclusion. Surprisingly, either isoform can also support insulin-dependent glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 translocation to the membrane, in contrast with the preferential role of Akt2/PKBβ assessed by knockdown studies. The new strategy should allow analysis of the plurality of Akt/PKB functions in other cells and in response to other stimuli. It should also be amenable to high-throughput studies to speed up advances in signal transmission by this pivotal kinase.

  20. The PI3K/Akt signal hyperactivates Eya1 via the SUMOylation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Kaneko, Satoshi; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Eya1 is a conserved critical regulator of organ-specific stem cells. Ectopic Eya1 activities, however, promote transformation of mammary epithelial cells. Signals that instigate Eya1 oncogenic activities remain to be determined. Here, we show that Akt1 kinase physically interacts with Eya1 and phosphorylates a conserved consensus site of the Akt kinase. PI3K/Akt signaling enhances Eya1 transcription activity, which largely attributes to the phosphorylation-induced reduction of Eya1 SUMOylation. Indeed, SUMOylation inhibits Eya1 transcription activity; and pharmacologic and genetic activation of PI3K/Akt robustly reduces Eya1 SUMOylation. Wild type but not Akt phosphorylation site mutant Eya1 variant rescues the cell migratory phenotype of EYA1-silenced breast cancer cells, highlighting the importance of Eya1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, knockdown EYA1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to the PI3K/Akt1 inhibitor and irradiation treatments. Thus, the PI3K/Akt signal pathway activates Eya1. These findings further suggest that regulation of SUMOylation by PI3K/Akt signaling is likely an important aspect of tumorigenesis. PMID:24954506

  1. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  2. Signaling Through the PI 3-K, Akt, and SGK Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The aggressive behavior of malignant breast cancer is determined by a complex array of signaling pathways that regulate cell...Akt signaling promotes cancer progression. Many of the enzymes that regulate PI 3-K signaling are frequently mutated in human breast cancer , thereby...K, PIK3CA, is the most frequently mutated oncogene in breast cancer . However, recent studies have demonstrated that distinct Akt isoforms can either

  3. Modeling of Ultrasonic Signals from a Side-Drilled Hole Captured By a Rectangular Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Song, Sung-Jin; Schmerr, Lester W.

    2006-03-01

    In ultrasonic nondestructive testing an angle beam transducer with a rectangular piezoelectric element is often adopted in practice to detect flaws. Also, a side-drilled hole (SDH) is very widely used as a standard reflector in ultrasonic testing. For proper interpretation of the measurement results from a SDH using a rectangular transducer, it is very helpful to have a complete ultrasonic measurement model including an ultrasonic beam model of the rectangular transducer, a scattering model of the SDH, and an ultrasonic system model. Recently, a highly efficient ultrasonic beam model of the rectangular transducer and an accurate scattering model of the SDH have been proposed. Thus, in this study, by combining those components with a system efficiency factor for a rectangular transducer, we develop a complete ultrasonic measurement model to predict ultrasonic signals from a SDH. Based on this model, we have calculated the ultrasonic signals from a SDH at different transducer orientations. The predicted results are compared with the experiments.

  4. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity.

  5. The role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway in human cancers induced by infection with human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifang; Wu, Jianhong; Ling, Ming Tat; Zhao, Liang; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2015-04-17

    Infection with Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) leads to the development of a wide-range of cancers, accounting for 5% of all human cancers. A prominent example is cervical cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death in women worldwide. It has been well established that tumor development and progression induced by HPV infection is driven by the sustained expression of two oncogenes E6 and E7. The expression of E6 and E7 not only inhibits the tumor suppressors p53 and Rb, but also alters additional signalling pathways that may be equally important for transformation. Among these pathways, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling cascade plays a very important role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis by acting through multiple cellular and molecular events. In this review, we summarize the frequent amplification of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signals in HPV-induced cancers and discuss how HPV oncogenes E6/E7/E5 activate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway to modulate tumor initiation and progression and affect patient outcome. Improvement of our understanding of the mechanism by which the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway contributes to the immortalization and carcinogenesis of HPV-transduced cells will assist in devising novel strategies for preventing and treating HPV-induced cancers.

  6. AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway is critically involved in human pluripotent stem cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Romorini, Leonardo; Garate, Ximena; Neiman, Gabriel; Luzzani, Carlos; Furmento, Verónica Alejandra; Guberman, Alejandra Sonia; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio; Scassa, María Elida; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent stem cells (PSC) that can differentiate into a wide range of specialized cells. Basic fibroblast growth factor is essential for PSC survival, stemness and self-renewal. PI3K/AKT pathway regulates cell viability and apoptosis in many cell types. Although it has been demonstrated that PI3K/AKT activation by bFGF is relevant for PSC stemness maintenance its role on PSC survival remains elusive. In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PSC survival by AKT. We found that inhibition of AKT with three non-structurally related inhibitors (GSK690693, AKT inhibitor VIII and AKT inhibitor IV) decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. We observed a rapid increase in phosphatidylserine translocation and in the extent of DNA fragmentation after inhibitors addition. Moreover, abrogation of AKT activity led to Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated by pharmacological inhibition and siRNA knockdown that GSK3β signaling is responsible, at least in part, of the apoptosis triggered by AKT inhibition. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition decreases basal apoptosis rate and promotes PSC proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AKT activation prevents apoptosis, partly through inhibition of GSK3β, and thus results relevant for PSC survival. PMID:27762303

  7. Muc-1 promotes migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells via PI3K-Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xiao, Li Ying; Tan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Muc-1 is a member of the carbohydrate-binding protein family that contributes to neoplastic transformation, tumor survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of muc-1 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma progression. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that muc-1 regulate oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCC-9) malignant biological behaviors, and silencing muc-1 reduced SCC-9 cellular colony forming ability, migration and invasion. Moreover, silenced cells present defects in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-serine/threonine kinase (Akt) signaling, and reduced expression/activity of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2/9. Furthermore, in muc-1 siRNA-transfected cells, we detected a decrease in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In vivo, muc-1 siRNA cells inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice demonstrated decreased tumor growth and PI3K-Akt signaling inhibition. These results indicate that muc-1 is a key factor in SCC-9 tumor migration, invasion, and suggesting that muc-1 can be a novel therapeutic target in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. HER2-induced metastasis is mediated by AKT/JNK/EMT signaling pathway in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yiseul; Ko, Young San; Park, Jinju; Choi, Youngsun; Kim, Younghoon; Pyo, Jung-Soo; Jang, Bo Gun; Hwang, Douk Ho; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Byung Lan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationships between HER2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase B (AKT) with respect to metastatic potential of HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 423 human GC specimens. Using HER2-positve GC cell lines SNU-216 and NCI-N87, HER2 expression was silenced by RNA interference, and the activations of JNK and AKT were suppressed by SP600125 and LY294002, respectively. Transwell assay, Western blot, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used in cell culture experiments. RESULTS In GC specimens, HER2, JNK, and AKT activations were positively correlated with each other. In vitro analysis revealed a positive regulatory feedback loop between HER2 and JNK in GC cell lines and the role of JNK as a downstream effector of AKT in the HER2/AKT signaling pathway. JNK inhibition suppressed migratory capacity through reversing EMT and dual inhibition of JNK and AKT induced a more profound effect on cancer cell motility. CONCLUSION HER2, JNK and AKT in human GC specimens are positively associated with each other. JNK and AKT, downstream effectors of HER2, co-operatively contribute to the metastatic potential of HER2-positive GC cells. Thus, targeting of these two molecules in combination with HER2 downregulation may be a good approach to combat HER2-positive GC. PMID:27895401

  9. Phospholipase D2 mediates survival signaling through direct regulation of Akt in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bruntz, Ronald C; Taylor, Harry E; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-01-10

    The lack of innovative drug targets for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) limits patient survival to approximately 1 year following diagnosis. The pro-survival kinase Akt provides an ideal target for the treatment of GBM as Akt signaling is frequently activated in this cancer type. However, the central role of Akt in physiological processes limits its potential as a therapeutic target. In this report, we show that the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipaseD(PLD) is a novel regulator of Akt inGBM.Studies using a combination of small molecule PLD inhibitors and siRNA knockdowns establish phosphatidic acid, the product of the PLD reaction, as an essential component for the membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PLD enzymatic activity and subsequent Akt activation decreases GBM cell viability by specifically inhibiting autophagic flux. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of beclin1 by Akt prevents binding of Rubicon (RUN domain cysteine-rich domain containing beclin1-interacting protein), an interaction known to inhibit autophagic flux. These findings provide a novel framework through which Akt inhibition can be achieved without directly targeting the kinase.

  10. Phospholipase D2 Mediates Survival Signaling through Direct Regulation of Akt in Glioblastoma Cells*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bruntz, Ronald C.; Taylor, Harry E.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    The lack of innovative drug targets for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) limits patient survival to approximately 1 year following diagnosis. The pro-survival kinase Akt provides an ideal target for the treatment of GBM as Akt signaling is frequently activated in this cancer type. However, the central role of Akt in physiological processes limits its potential as a therapeutic target. In this report, we show that the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) is a novel regulator of Akt in GBM. Studies using a combination of small molecule PLD inhibitors and siRNA knockdowns establish phosphatidic acid, the product of the PLD reaction, as an essential component for the membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PLD enzymatic activity and subsequent Akt activation decreases GBM cell viability by specifically inhibiting autophagic flux. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of beclin1 by Akt prevents binding of Rubicon (RUN domain cysteine-rich domain containing beclin1-interacting protein), an interaction known to inhibit autophagic flux. These findings provide a novel framework through which Akt inhibition can be achieved without directly targeting the kinase. PMID:24257753

  11. Constitutively expressed COX-2 in osteoblasts positively regulates Akt signal transduction via suppression of PTEN activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ching-Ju; Chang, Je-Ken; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2011-02-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is thought to be an inducible enzyme, but increasing reports indicate that COX-2 is constitutively expressed in several organs. The status of COX-2 expression in bone and its physiological role remains undefined. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors, which commonly suppress COX-2 activity, were reported to suppress osteoblast proliferation via Akt/FOXO3a/p27(Kip1) signaling, suggesting that COX-2 may be the key factor of the suppressive effects of NSAIDs on proliferation. Although Akt activation correlates with PTEN deficiency and cell viability, the role of COX-2 on PTEN/Akt regulation remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that COX-2 may be constitutively expressed in osteoblasts and regulate PTEN/Akt-related proliferation. We examined the localization and co-expression of COX-2 and p-Akt in normal mouse femurs and in cultured mouse (mOBs) and human osteoblasts (hOBs). Our results showed that osteoblasts adjacent to the trabeculae, periosteum and endosteum in mouse femurs constitutively expressed COX-2, while COX-2 co-expressed with p-Akt in osteoblasts sitting adjacent to trabeculae in vivo, and in mOBs and hOBs in vitro. We further used COX-2 siRNA to test the role of COX-2 in Akt signaling in hOBs; COX-2 silencing significantly inhibited PTEN phosphorylation, enhanced PTEN activity, and suppressed p-Akt level and proliferation. However, replenishment of the COX-2 enzymatic product, PGE2, failed to reverse COX-2-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, transfection with recombinant human COX-2 (rhCOX-2) significantly reversed COX-2 siRNA-suppressed PTEN phosphorylation, but this effect was reduced when the enzymatic activity of rhCOX-2 was blocked. This finding indicated that the effect of COX-2 on PTEN/Akt signaling is not related to PGE2 but still dependent on COX-2 enzymatic activity. Conversely, COX-1 silencing did not affect PTEN/Akt signaling. Our findings provide

  12. [IL-12 induces autophagy via AKT/mTOR/STAT3 signaling pathway in human hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuiying; Xie, Changli; Lin, Yan; Wu, Bitao; Wang, Qin; Li, Ziwei; Tu, Zhiguang

    2016-07-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of IL-12 on autophagy and the relative possible mechanism in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells. Methods The hepatoma cells were treated with IL-12 (10 ng/mL) for 6 hours. Western blotting was applied to detect the expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC-3), Beclin 1 and the phosphorylated levels of protein kinase B (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3); immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the formation of autophagosome. After STAT3 was inhibited by STATTIC or siSTAT3 and AKT was activated by insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), Western blotting and IFA were performed again to analyze the change of IL-12-induced autophagy. After the cells were treated with IL-12 (10 ng/mL) for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days, CCK-8 assay was used to determine the growth ability. After the hepatoma cells were treated with IL-12 (10 ng/mL) for 48 hours, trypan blue staining was used to detect the death rate of the cells. After cell autophagy was inhibit by siBeclin 1, CCK-8 assay and trypan blue staining were performed again to study the effect of IL-12 on the proliferation and death of human hepatoma cells. Results IL-12 induced autophagy and inhibited cell growth in the hepatoma cells. Silencing Beclin 1 gene enhanced IL-12-mediated growth inhibition and cell death. Furthermore, IL-12 treatment also decreased the expressions of p-AKT, p-mTOR and p-STAT3. The pretreatment of siSTAT3 or STATTIC inhibited STAT3-enhanced IL-12-induced autophagy. Accordingly, activation of AKT with IGF-1 decreased IL-12-induced autophagy. Conclusion IL-12 could induce autophagy through AKT/mTOR/STAT3 signaling pathways and the induction of autophagy attenuates the growth-inhibitory effect of IL-12 on hepatoma cells.

  13. Vascular neuroprotection via TrkB- and Akt-dependent cell survival signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuzhen; Som, Angel T; Waeber, Christian; Lo, Eng H

    2012-11-01

    The cerebral endothelium can be a vital source of signaling factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor that defends the neuronal parenchyma against stress and injury. But the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Here, we use cell models to ask how vascular neuroprotection is sustained. Human brain endothelial cells were grown in culture, and conditioned media were transferred to primary rat cortical neurons. Brain endothelial cell-conditioned media activated neuronal Akt signaling and protected neurons against hypoxia and oxygen-glucose deprivation. Blockade of Akt phosphorylation with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 negated this vascular neuroprotective effect. Upstream of Akt signaling, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB (neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 2) was involved because depletion with TrkB/Fc eliminated the ability of endothelial-conditioned media to protect neurons against hypoxia. Downstream of Akt signaling, activation of GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta), caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bad pathways were detected. Taken together, these findings suggest that the molecular basis for vascular neuroprotection involves TrkB-Akt signaling that ameliorates neuronal apoptosis. Further investigation of these mechanisms may reveal new approaches for augmenting endogenous vascular neuroprotection in stroke, brain injury, and neurodegeneration.

  14. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 mon) and aged (20 mon) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/R in vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a promising

  15. Angiotensin II Signaling in Human Preadipose Cells: Participation of ERK1,2-Dependent Modulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Dünner, Natalia; Quezada, Carolina; Berndt, F. Andrés; Cánovas, José; Rojas, Cecilia V.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system expressed in adipose tissue has been implicated in the modulation of adipocyte formation, glucose metabolism, triglyceride accumulation, lipolysis, and the onset of the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. As we investigated angiotensin II signal transduction mechanisms in human preadipose cells, an interplay of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and Akt/PKB became evident. Angiotensin II caused attenuation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), at serine 473; the p-Akt/Akt ratio decreased to 0.5±0.2-fold the control value without angiotensin II (p<0.001). Here we report that the reduction of phosphorylated Akt associates with ERK1,2 activities. In the absence of angiotensin II, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a 2.1±0.5 (p<0.001) and 1.4±0.2-fold (p<0.05) increase in the p-Akt/Akt ratio, respectively. In addition, partial knockdown of ERK1 protein expression by the short hairpin RNA technique also raised phosphorylated Akt in these cells (the p-Akt/Akt ratio was 1.5±0.1-fold the corresponding control; p<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 prevented the reduction of p-Akt/Akt by angiotensin II. An analogous effect was found on the phosphorylation status of Akt downstream effectors, the forkhead box (Fox) proteins O1 and O4. Altogether, these results indicate that angiotensin II signaling in human preadipose cells involves an ERK1,2-dependent attenuation of Akt activity, whose impact on the biological functions under its regulation is not fully understood. PMID:24098385

  16. Highly sensitive devices for primary signal processing of the micromechanical capacitive transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplev, B.; Ryndin, E.; Lysenko, I.; Denisenko, M.; Isaeva, A.

    2016-12-01

    A method of signal processing devices design for micromechanical accelerometers with capacitive transducers is proposed. This method provides the complex solution of the sensibility increasing and noise immunity problems by finding of the difference frequency of signals, which are formed by two identical generators with micromechanical capacitive transducers in frequency control circuits. In this study the analog and digital versions of the highly sensitive signal processing devices circuits with frequency output were developed. The breadboards of these devices are fabricated and studied and the project of their integral realization is designed.

  17. [Signaling pathways mTOR and AKT in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Romero-Leguizamon, C R; Ramirez-Latorre, J A; Mora-Munoz, L; Guerrero-Naranjo, A

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. La via de señalizacion AKT/mTOR es un eje central en la regulacion celular, especialmente en las enfermedades neurologicas. En la epilepsia, se ha evidenciado su alteracion dentro de su proceso fisiopatologico. Sin embargo, aun no se han descrito todos los mecanismos de estas rutas de señalizacion, las cuales podrian abrir la puerta hacia nuevas investigaciones y estrategias terapeuticas, que finalmente permitan desarrollar tratamientos efectivos en enfermedades neurologicas como la epilepsia. Objetivo. Revisar las asociaciones existentes entre las rutas de señalizacion intracelular de mTOR y AKT en la fisiopatologia de la epilepsia. Desarrollo. La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurologica con un alto impacto epidemiologico en el mundo, por lo cual es de sumo interes la investigacion de los componentes fisiopatologicos que puedan generar nuevos tratamientos farmacologicos. En esta busqueda se han involucrado diferentes rutas de señalizacion intracelular en neuronas, como determinantes epileptogenos. Los avances en esta materia han permitido incluso la implementacion de nuevas estrategias terapeuticas exitosas y que abren el camino hacia nuevas investigaciones. Conclusiones. Mejorar los conocimientos respecto al papel fisiopatologico de la via de señalizacion mTOR/AKT en la epilepsia permite plantear nuevas investigaciones que ofrezcan nuevas alternativas terapeuticas para el tratamiento de la enfermedad. El uso de inhibidores de mTOR ha surgido en los ultimos años como una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento de algunos tipos de epilepsias, pero es evidente la necesidad de seguir en la busqueda de nuevas terapias farmacologicas involucradas en estas vias de señalizacion.

  18. Model based separation of transmitted and received signal for single transducer distance measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, A.; Henning, B.

    2012-05-01

    Single transducer distance measurement systems have a blind zone which is increased if the transmitted signals are coded to reduce errors due to crosstalk. A method to reduce this blind zone is a model based separation of the transmitted and received signal. This contribution compares two systems, one working with the measured band pass signals, and another one which is based on I/Q-demodulated base band signals.

  19. Antitumor Effects of Fucoidan on Human Colon Cancer Cells via Activation of Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-05-01

    We identified a novel Akt signaling mechanism that mediates fucoidan-induced suppression of human colon cancer cell (HT29) proliferation and anticancer effects. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth, induced G1-phase-associated upregulation of p21WAF1 expression, and suppressed cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Additionally, fucoidan treatment activated the Akt signaling pathway, which was inhibited by treatment with an Akt inhibitor. The inhibition of Akt activation reversed the fucoidan-induced decrease in cell proliferation, the induction of G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction in cell cycle regulatory protein expression. Intraperitoneal injection of fucoidan reduced tumor volume; this enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis. These data suggest that the activation of Akt signaling is involved in the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells treated with fucoidan. Thus, fucoidan may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  20. Myostatin regulates cardiomyocyte growth through modulation of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Morissette, Michael R; Cook, Stuart A; Foo, ShiYin; McKoy, Godfrina; Ashida, Noboru; Novikov, Mikhail; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Li, Ling; Matsui, Takashi; Brooks, Gavin; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2006-07-07

    Myostatin is a highly conserved, potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in many species, from rodents to humans, although its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Transcript profiling of hearts from a genetic model of cardiac hypertrophy revealed dramatic upregulation of myostatin, not previously recognized to play a role in the heart. Here we show that myostatin abrogates the cardiomyocyte growth response to phenylephrine in vitro through inhibition of p38 and the serine-threonine kinase Akt, a critical determinant of cell size in many species from drosophila to mammals. Evaluation of male myostatin-null mice revealed that their cardiomyocytes and hearts overall were slightly smaller at baseline than littermate controls but exhibited more exuberant growth in response to chronic phenylephrine infusion. The increased cardiac growth in myostatin-null mice corresponded with increased p38 phosphorylation and Akt activation in vivo after phenylephrine treatment. Together, these data demonstrate that myostatin is dynamically regulated in the heart and acts more broadly than previously appreciated to regulate growth of multiple types of striated muscle.

  1. O-GlcNAcylation regulates ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis through AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianhua; Gu, Jin-hua; Dai, Chun-ling; Gu, Jianlan; Jin, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jianming; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in neural development and neurological disorders. In this study, we found that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique protein posttranslational modification with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), promoted apoptosis through attenuating phosphorylation/activation of AKT and Bad. By using co-immunoprecipitation and mutagenesis techniques, we identified O-GlcNAc modification at both Thr308 and Ser473 of AKT. O-GlcNAcylation-induced apoptosis was attenuated by over-expression of AKT. We also found a dynamic elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation during the first four hours of cerebral ischemia, followed by continuous decline after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the mouse brain. The elevation of O-GlcNAcylation coincided with activation of cell apoptosis. Finally, we found a negative correlation between AKT phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation in ischemic brain tissue. These results indicate that cerebral ischemia induces a rapid increase of O-GlcNAcylation that promotes apoptosis through down-regulation of AKT activity. These findings provide a novel mechanism through which O-GlcNAcylation regulates ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis through AKT signaling. PMID:26412745

  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in cancer stem cells: from basic research to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Pu; Xu, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess unique self-renewal activity and mediate tumor initiation and propagation. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can be considered as a master regulator for cancer. More and more recent studies have shown the links between PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and CSC biology. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of signaling components upstream and downstream of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in CSC. In addition, we also summarize various classes of small molecule inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and their clinical potential in CSC. Overall, the current available data suggest that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway could be a promising target for development of CSC-target drugs. PMID:26175931

  3. Inhibitors beta-amyloid-induced toxicity by modulating the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro

    2004-12-01

    The Akt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in neuronal survival, leading to inhibition of apoptosis. Many stimulants including neurotrophins are reported to activate this pathway in preclinical studies; however, there are no drugs for neurodegenerative diseases adopting such a concept on the market so far. Among neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease is the most common and characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which consist of beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau, respectively. Recent studies suggest that activation of Akt inhibits toxicity of beta-amyloid and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, leading to protection of neurons against apoptosis. This review discusses the possibility of treatment of Alzheimer's disease by activating the Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Stability and function of adult vasculature is sustained by Akt/Jagged1 signalling axis in endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Bethany A.; West, Xiaoxia Z.; Kim, Young-Woong; Zhao, Yongzhong; Tischenko, Miroslava; Cull, Rebecca M.; Phares, Timothy W.; Peng, Xiao-Ding; Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Adams, Ralf H.; Hay, Nissim; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The signalling pathways operational in quiescent, post-development vasculature remain enigmatic. Here we show that unlike neovascularization, endothelial Akt signalling in established vasculature is crucial not for endothelial cell (EC) survival, but for sustained interactions with pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) regulating vascular stability and function. Inducible endothelial-specific Akt1 deletion in adult global Akt2KO mice triggers progressive VSMC apoptosis. In hearts, this causes a loss of arteries and arterioles and, despite a high capillary density, diminished vascular patency and severe cardiac dysfunction. Similarly, endothelial Akt deletion induces retinal VSMC loss and basement membrane deterioration resulting in vascular regression and retinal atrophy. Mechanistically, the Akt/mTOR axis controls endothelial Jagged1 expression and, thereby, Notch signalling regulating VSMC maintenance. Jagged1 peptide treatment of Akt1ΔEC;Akt2KO mice and Jagged1 re-expression in Akt-deficient endothelium restores VSMC coverage. Thus, sustained endothelial Akt1/2 signalling is critical in maintaining vascular stability and homeostasis, thereby preserving tissue and organ function. PMID:26971877

  5. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  6. Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  7. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Differential Akt Regulation in Plasma Membrane Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xinxin

    2008-01-01

    As a central kinase in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, Akt has been the subject of extensive research; yet, spatiotemporal regulation of Akt in different membrane microdomains remains largely unknown. To examine dynamic Akt activity in membrane microdomains in living cells, we developed a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based Akt activity reporter, AktAR, through systematic testing of different substrates and fluorescent proteins. Targeted AktAR reported higher Akt activity with faster activation kinetics within lipid rafts compared with nonraft regions of plasma membrane. Disruption of rafts attenuated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated Akt activity in rafts without affecting that in nonraft regions. However, in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF)-1 stimulation, Akt signaling in nonraft regions is dependent on that in raft regions. As a result, cholesterol depletion diminishes Akt activity in both regions. Thus, Akt activities are differentially regulated in different membrane microdomains, and the overall activity of this oncogenic pathway is dependent on raft function. Given the increased abundance of lipid rafts in some cancer cells, the distinct Akt-activating characteristics of PDGF and IGF-1, in terms of both effectiveness and raft dependence, demonstrate the capabilities of different growth factor signaling pathways to transduce differential oncogenic signals across plasma membrane. PMID:18701703

  8. Clusterin facilitates metastasis by EIF3I/Akt/MMP13 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Luo, Qin; Zhang, Yurong; Gao, Dongmei; Jiang, Kai; Gu, Dishui; Shen, Qiujing; Huo, Xisong; Hu, Fangyuan; Ge, Tianxiang; Zhao, Fangyu; Chu, Wei; Shu, Huiqun; Yao, Ming; Cong, Wenming; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is a stress-induced chaperone that confers proliferative and survival advantages to cancer cells. However, effects and molecular mechanisms of CLU in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis are still unknown. In this study, HCC tissue array (n = 198) was utilized to investigate correlation between CLU expression and clinicopathological features. Overexpression of CLU in HCC tissues was correlated with shorter overall survival and higher tumor recurrence. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that silencing CLU attenuated the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of CLU resulted in the forced metastasis of HCC cells. We also revealed that CLU activated Akt signaling through complexing with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit I (EIF3I), which in turn promoted matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) expression and HCC metastasis. Positive correlations between CLU and MMP13, p-Akt, or EIF3I were found in HCC tissues. We further observed that CLU knockdown using the CLU inhibitor OGX-011 significantly suppressed HCC metastasis in two metastatic models through inhibiting EIF3I/Akt/MMP13 signaling. These findings indicate that CLU is an independent predictive factor for prognosis of HCC and it facilitates metastasis through EIF3I/Akt/MMP13 signaling. CLU suppression using OGX-011 may represent a promising therapeutic option for suppressing HCC metastasis. PMID:25609201

  9. Cervical spinal erythropoietin induces phrenic motor facilitation via ERK and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Erica A.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is typically known for its role in erythropoiesis, but is also a potent neurotrophic/neuroprotective factor for spinal motor neurons. Another trophic factor regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), signals via ERK and Akt activation to elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since EPO also signals via ERK and Akt activation, we tested the hypothesis that EPO elicits similar pMF. Using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemical techniques, we demonstrate in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats that EPO and its receptor, EPO-R, are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons. Intrathecal EPO at C4 elicits long-lasting pMF; integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude increased >90 min post-injection (63±12% baseline 90 min post-injection; p<0.001). EPO increased phosphorylation (and presumed activation) of ERK (1.6 fold vs controls; p<0.05) in phrenic motor neurons; EPO also increased pAkt (1.6 fold vs controls; p<0.05). EPO-induced pMF was abolished by the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and the PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor LY294002, demonstrating that ERK MAP kinases and Akt are both required for EPO-induced pMF. Pre-treatment with U0126 and LY294002 decreased both pERK and pAkt in phrenic motor neurons (p<0.05), indicating a complex interaction between these kinases. We conclude that EPO elicits spinal plasticity in respiratory motor control. Since EPO expression is hypoxia-sensitive, it may play a role in respiratory plasticity in conditions of prolonged or recurrent low oxygen. PMID:22539857

  10. Testosterone regulation of Akt/mTORC1/FoxO3a Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    White, James P.; Gao, Song; Puppa, Melissa J.; Sato, Shuichi; Welle, Stephen L.; Carson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Low endogenous testosterone production, known as hypogonadism is commonly associated with conditions inducing muscle wasting. Akt signaling can control skeletal muscle mass through mTOR regulation of protein synthesis and FoxO regulation of protein degradation, and this pathway has been previously identified as a target of androgen signaling. However, the testosterone sensitivity of Akt/mTOR signaling requires further understanding in order to grasp the significance of varied testosterone levels seen with wasting disease on muscle protein turnover regulation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of androgen availability on muscle Akt/mTORC1/FoxO3a regulation in skeletal muscle and cultured C2C12 myotubes. C57BL/6 mice were either castrated for 42 days or castrated and treated with the nandrolone decanoate (ND) (6 mg/kg bw/wk). Testosterone loss (TL) significantly decreased volitional grip strength, body weight, and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscle mass, and ND reversed these changes. Related to muscle mass regulation, TL decreased muscle IGF-1 mRNA, the rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis, Akt phosphorylation, and the phosphorylation of Akt targets, GSK3β, PRAS40 and FoxO3a. TL induced expression of FoxO transcriptional targets, MuRF1, atrogin1 and REDD1. Muscle AMPK and raptor phosphorylation, mTOR inhibitors, were not altered by low testosterone. ND restored IGF-1 expression and Akt/mTORC1 signaling while repressing expression of FoxO transcriptional targets. Testosterone (T) sensitivity of Akt/mTORC1 signaling was examined in C2C12 myotubes, and mTOR phosphorylation was induced independent of Akt activation at low T concentrations, while a higher T concentration was required to activate Akt signaling. Interestingly, low concentration T was sufficient to amplify myotube mTOR and Akt signaling after 24h of T withdrawal, demonstrating the potential in cultured myotubes for a T initiated positive feedback mechanism to amplify Akt

  11. lschemic preconditioning in pigs: a causal role for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.

    PubMed

    Gent, Sabine; Skyschally, Andreas; Kleinbongard, Petra; Heusch, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), i.e., brief episodes of nonlethal myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before sustained ischemia with subsequent reperfusion, reduces infarct size in all species tested so far, including humans. In rodents, the cardioprotective signal transduction causally involves an activation of Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3. However, there are apparent species differences in the signal transduction between rodents and larger mammals such as pigs, where data on IPC's signal transduction are inconsistent for Akt and ERK1/2. The role of STAT3 has not yet been analyzed. Pigs were subjected to 60 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 180 min of reperfusion without or with IPC (2 cycles of 3-min occlusion separated by 2 min of reperfusion 15 min before sustained I/R). Infarct size was analyzed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, and Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 phosphorylation was quantified in myocardial biopsies taken at baseline and early reperfusion. AG490 was used to block the STAT3 signaling pathway. IPC reduced infarct size (%area at risk; mean ± SE, I/R, 45 ± 3 vs. IPC, 18 ± 3, P < 0.05). Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased at early reperfusion without and with IPC. In contrast, STAT3 phosphorylation at early reperfusion was only increased with IPC (%baseline; mean ± SE, I/R, 126 ± 29 vs. IPC, 408 ± 147, P < 0.05). AG490 prevented the IPC-related increase of STAT3 phosphorylation at reperfusion (%baseline; mean ± SE, 82 ± 12) and abolished IPC's cardioprotection (%area at risk; mean ± SE, 35 ± 4). In pigs, increased phosphorylation of STAT3 is causally involved, whereas Akt and ERK1/2 seem to play no role in IPC's cardioprotection.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In pig hearts in situ, ischemic preconditioning (IPC) causally involves increased phosphorylation of STAT3, whereas Akt and ERK1/2 play no role for cardioprotection. The cardioprotective signal transduction of IPC is similar to that of ischemic postconditioning

  12. Nuclear Akt2 opposes limbal keratinocyte stem cell self-renewal by repressing a FOXO-mTORC1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Saoncella, Stefania; Tassone, Beatrice; Deklic, Erika; Avolio, Fabio; Jon, Cristina; Tornillo, Giusy; De Luca, Elisa; Di Iorio, Enzo; Piva, Roberto; Cabodi, Sara; Turco, Emilia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Calautti, Enzo

    2014-03-01

    Signals downstream of Akt can either favor or oppose stem cell (SC) maintenance, but how this dual role can be achieved is still undefined. Using human limbal keratinocyte stem cells (LKSCs), a SC type used in transplantation therapies for corneal regeneration, we show that Akt signaling is prominent in SC populations both in vivo and in vitro, and that Akt1 promotes while Akt2 opposes SC self-renewal. Noteworthy, loss of Akt2 signaling enhances LKSC maintenance ex vivo, whereas Akt1 depletion anticipates SC exhaustion. Mechanistically, the antagonistic functions of Akt1 and Akt2 in SC control are mainly dictated by their differential subcellular distribution, being nuclear Akt2 selectively implicated in FOXO inhibition. Akt2 downregulation favors LKSC maintenance as a result of a gain of FOXO functions, which attenuates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex one signaling via tuberous sclerosis one gene induction, and promotes growth factor signaling through Akt1. Consistently, Akt2 deficiency also enhances limbal SCs in vivo. Thus, our findings reveal distinct roles for nuclear versus cytosolic Akt signaling in normal epithelial SC control and suggest that the selective Akt2 inhibition may provide novel pharmacological strategies for human LKSC expansion in therapeutic settings and mechanistic research.

  13. Glycitin regulates osteoblasts through TGF-β or AKT signaling pathways in bone marrow stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyan; Chen, Jiying; Chai, Wei; Ni, Min; Sun, Xin; Tian, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of glycitin on the regulation of osteoblasts from bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β or protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. BMSCs were extracted from New Zealand white rabbits and used to analyze the effect of glycitin on BMSCs. BMSCs were cleared using xylene and observed via light microscopy. BMSCs were subsequently induced with glycitin (0.01, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 µM) for 7 days, and stained with Oil Red O. The mechanism of action of glycitin on BMSCs was investigated, in which contact with collagen type I (Col I), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TGF-β and AKT was studied. Firstly, BMSCs appeared homogeneously mazarine blue, and which showed that BMSCs were successful extracted. Administration of glycitin increased cell proliferation and promoted osteoblast formation from BMSCs. Furthermore, glycitin activated the gene expression of Col I and ALP in BMSCs. Notably, glycitin suppressed protein expression of TGF-β and AKT in BMSCs. These results indicated that glycitin may regulate osteoblasts through TGF-β or AKT signaling pathways in BMSCs. PMID:27882117

  14. Orexins protect neuronal cell cultures against hypoxic stress: an involvement of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Paulina; Urbańska, Anna; Biegańska, Kaja; Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech; Namiecińska, Magdalena; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2014-01-01

    Orexins A and B are peptides produced mainly by hypothalamic neurons that project to numerous brain structures. We have previously demonstrated that rat cortical neurons express both types of orexin receptors, and their activation by orexins initiates different intracellular signals. The present study aimed to determine the effect of orexins on the Akt kinase activation in the rat neuronal cultures and the significance of that response in neurons subjected to hypoxic stress. We report the first evidence that orexins A and B stimulated Akt in cortical neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Orexin B more potently than orexin A increased Akt phosphorylation, but the maximal effect of both peptides on the kinase activation was very similar. Next, cultured cortical neurons were challenged with cobalt chloride, an inducer of reactive oxygen species and hypoxia-mediated signaling pathways. Under conditions of chemical hypoxia, orexins potently increased neuronal viability and protected cortical neurons against oxidative stress. Our results also indicate that Akt kinase plays an important role in the pro-survival effects of orexins in neurons, which implies a possible mechanism of the orexin-induced neuroprotection.

  15. Pancreas-specific Pten deficiency causes partial resistance to diabetes and elevated hepatic AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zan; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Weiqi; Xu, Jun; Cheng, Jing; Ding, Mingxiao; Deng, Hongkui

    2009-06-01

    PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathway, is an important modulator of insulin signaling. To determine the metabolic function of pancreatic Pten, we generated pancreas-specific Pten knockout (PPKO) mice. PPKO mice had enlarged pancreas and elevated proliferation of acinar cells. They also exhibited hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and altered amino metabolism. Notably, PPKO mice showed delayed onset of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and sex-biased resistance to high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. To investigate the mechanism for the resistance to HFD-induced hyperglycemia in PPKO mice, we evaluated AKT phosphorylation in major insulin-responsive tissues: the liver, muscle, and fat. We found that Pten loss in the pancreas causes the elevation of AKT signaling in the liver. The phosphorylation of AKT and its downstream substrate GSK3beta was increased in the liver of PPKO mice, while PTEN level was decreased without detectable excision of Pten allele in the liver of PPKO mice. Proteomics analysis revealed dramatically decreased level of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the liver of PPKO mice, which may also contribute to the lower blood glucose level of PPKO mice fed with HFD. Together, our findings reveal a novel response in the liver to pancreatic defect in metabolic regulation, adding a new dimension to understanding diabetes resistance.

  16. Crosstalk between Akt/GSK3β signaling and dynamin-1 regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Carlos R; Chen, Ping-Hung; Srinivasan, Saipraveen; Aguet, François; Mettlen, Marcel; Schmid, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates signaling from the plasma membrane. Analysis of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics led us to propose the existence of a rate-limiting, regulatory step(s) that monitor the fidelity of early stages in CCP maturation. Here we show that nascent endocytic vesicles formed in mutant cells displaying rapid, dysregulated CME are defective in early endosomal trafficking, maturation and acidification, confirming the importance of this “checkpoint.” Dysregulated CME also alters EGF receptor signaling and leads to constitutive activation of the protein kinase Akt. Dynamin-1, which was thought to be neuron specific, is activated by the Akt/GSK3β signaling cascade in non-neuronal cells to trigger rapid, dysregulated CME. Acute activation of dynamin-1 in RPE cells by inhibition of GSK3β accelerates CME, alters CCP dynamics and, unexpectedly, increases the rate of CCP initiation. CRISPR-Cas9n-mediated knockout and reconstitution studies establish that dynamin-1 is activated by Akt/GSK3β signaling in H1299 non-small lung cancer cells. These findings provide direct evidence for an isoform-specific role for dynamin in regulating CME and reveal a feed-forward pathway that could link signaling from cell surface receptors to the regulation of CME. PMID:26139537

  17. PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossini, Amir M.; Quast, Annika S.; Plötz, Michael; Grauel, Katharina; Exner, Tarik; Küchler, Judit; Stachelscheid, Harald; Eberle, Jürgen; Rabien, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly conserved biochemical mechanism which is tightly controlled in cells. It contributes to maintenance of tissue homeostasis and normally eliminates highly proliferative cells with malignant properties. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have recently been described with significant functional and morphological similarities to embryonic stem cells. Human iPSCs are of great hope for regenerative medicine due to their broad potential to differentiate into specialized cell types in culture. They may be useful for exploring disease mechanisms and may provide the basis for future cell-based replacement therapies. However, there is only poor insight into iPSCs cell signaling as the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we focused our attention on the apoptotic response of Alzheimer fibroblast-derived iPSCs and two other Alzheimer free iPSCs to five biologically relevant kinase inhibitors as well as to the death ligand TRAIL. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that the relatively high basal apoptotic rate of iPSCs is strongly suppressed by the pancaspase inhibitor QVD-Oph, thus underlining the dependency on proapoptotic caspase cascades. Furthermore, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositid-3 kinase / Akt signaling (PI3K-AKT), dramatically and rapidly induced apoptosis in iPSCs. In contrast, parental fibroblasts as well as iPSC-derived neuronal cells were not responsive. The resulting condensation and fragmentation of DNA and decrease of the membrane potential are typical features of apoptosis. Comparable effects were observed with an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206). Wortmannin resulted in disappearance of phosphorylated AKT and activation of the main effector caspase-3 in iPSCs. These results clearly demonstrate for the first time that PI3K-AKT represents a highly essential survival signaling pathway in iPSCs. The findings provide improved understanding on the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis regulation in iPSCs. PMID:27138223

  18. Myostatin signaling regulates Akt activity via the regulation of miR-486 expression.

    PubMed

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Nakatani, Masashi; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2014-02-01

    Myostatin, also known as growth and differentiation factor-8, is a pivotal negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and reduces muscle protein synthesis by inhibiting the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. However, the precise mechanism by which myostatin inhibits the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the global microRNA expression profile in myostatin knockout mice and identified miR-486, a positive regulator of the IGF-1/Akt pathway, as a novel target of myostatin signaling. In myostatin knockout mice, the expression level of miR-486 in skeletal muscle was significantly increased. In addition, we observed increased expression of the primary transcript of miR-486 (pri-miR-486) and Ankyrin 1.5 (Ank1.5), the host gene of miR-486, in myostatin knockout mice. In C2C12 cells, myostatin negatively regulated the expression of Ank1.5. Moreover, canonical myostatin signaling repressed the skeletal muscle-specific promoter activity of miR-486/Ank1.5. This repression was partially mediated by the E-box elements in the proximal region of the promoter. We also show that overexpression of miR-486 induced myotube hypertrophy in vitro and that miR-486 was essential to maintain skeletal muscle size both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, inhibition of miR-486 led to a decrease in Akt activity in C2C12 myotubes. Our findings indicate that miR-486 is one of the intermediary molecules connecting myostatin signaling and the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway in the regulation of skeletal muscle size.

  19. Molecular characterization of the Akt-TOR signaling pathway in rainbow trout: potential role in muscle growth/degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Akt-TOR signaling pathway plays a key role in cellular metabolism and muscle growth. Hormone, nutrition and stress factors affect the Akt-TOR pathway by regulating gene transcription, protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, we previously showed that energetic demands elevate during vit...

  20. Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

  1. Fas transduces dual apoptotic and trophic signals in hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Pearl-Yafe, Michal; Stein, Jerry; Yolcu, Esma S; Farkas, Daniel L; Shirwan, Haval; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and progenitors are often required to realize their differentiation potential in hostile microenvironments. The Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interaction is a major effector pathway of apoptosis, which negatively regulates the expansion of differentiated hematopoietic cells. The involvement of this molecular interaction in the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is not well understood. In the murine syngeneic transplant setting, both Fas and FasL are acutely upregulated in bone marrow-homed donor cells; however, the Fas(+) cells are largely insensitive to FasL-induced apoptosis. In heterogeneous populations of lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow cells and progenitors isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation, trimerization of the Fas receptor enhanced the clonogenic activity. Inhibition of caspases 3 and 8 did not affect the trophic signals mediated by Fas, yet it efficiently blocked the apoptotic pathways. Fas-mediated tropism appears to be of physiological significance, as pre-exposure of donor cells to FasL improved the radioprotective qualities of hematopoietic progenitors, resulting in superior survival of myeloablated hosts. Under these conditions, the activity of long-term reconstituting cells was not affected, as determined in sequential secondary and tertiary transplants. Dual caspase-independent tropic and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling place the Fas receptor at an important junction of activation and death. This regulatory mechanism of hematopoietic homeostasis activates progenitors to promote the recovery from aplasia and converts into a negative regulator in distal stages of cell differentiation. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  2. GIV/girdin links vascular endothelial growth factor signaling to Akt survival signaling in podocytes independent of nephrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghui; Misaki, Taro; Taupin, Vanessa; Eguchi, Akiko; Ghosh, Pradipta; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2015-02-01

    Podocytes are critically involved in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier and are key targets of injury in many glomerular diseases. Chronic injury leads to progressive loss of podocytes, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. Thus, it is essential to maintain podocyte survival and avoid apoptosis after acute glomerular injury. In normal glomeruli, podocyte survival is mediated via nephrin-dependent Akt signaling. In several glomerular diseases, nephrin expression decreases and podocyte survival correlates with increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. How VEGF signaling contributes to podocyte survival and prevents apoptosis remains unknown. We show here that Gα-interacting, vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/girdin mediates VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and compensates for nephrin loss. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), GIV expression increased, GIV was phosphorylated by VEGFR2, and p-GIV bound and activated Gαi3 and enhanced downstream Akt2, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 (mTORC2) signaling. In GIV-depleted podocytes, VEGF-induced Akt activation was abolished, apoptosis was triggered, and cell migration was impaired. These effects were reversed by introducing GIV but not a GIV mutant that cannot activate Gαi3. Our data indicate that after PAN injury, VEGF promotes podocyte survival by triggering assembly of an activated VEGFR2/GIV/Gαi3 signaling complex and enhancing downstream PI3K/Akt survival signaling. Because of its important role in promoting podocyte survival, GIV may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in the nephrotic syndrome and other proteinuric diseases.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  4. Role of Akt signaling in resistance to DNA-targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Abolfazl; Narayan, Ravi; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peters, Godefridus J

    2016-01-01

    The Akt signal transduction pathway controls most hallmarks of cancer. Activation of the Akt cascade promotes a malignant phenotype and is also widely implicated in drug resistance. Therefore, the modulation of Akt activity is regarded as an attractive strategy to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy and irradiation. This pathway consists of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin, and the transforming serine-threonine kinase Akt protein isoforms, also known as protein kinase B. DNA-targeted agents, such as platinum agents, taxanes, and antimetabolites, as well as radiation have had a significant impact on cancer treatment by affecting DNA replication, which is aberrantly activated in malignancies. However, the caveat is that they may also trigger the activation of repairing mechanisms, such as upstream and downstream cascade of Akt survival pathway. Thus, each target can theoretically be inhibited in view of improving the potency of conventional treatment. Akt inhibitors, e.g., MK-2206 and perifosine, or PI3K modulators, e.g., LY294002 and Wortmannin, have shown some promising results in favor of sensitizing the cancer cells to the therapy in vitro and in vivo, which have provided the rationale for incorporation of these novel agents into multimodality treatment of different malignancies. Nevertheless, despite the acceptable safety profile of some of these agents in the clinical studies, with regard to the efficacy, the results are still too preliminary. Hence, we need to wait for the upcoming data from the ongoing trials before utilizing them into the standard care of cancer patients. PMID:27777878

  5. Cobalt chloride stimulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Mi Heon; Park, Jeong Hee; Park, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2010-04-01

    Tumor cells are often found under hypoxic conditions due to the rapid outgrowth of their vascular supply, and, in order to survive hypoxia, these cells induce numerous signaling factors. Akt is an important kinase in cell survival, and its activity is regulated by the upstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In this study, we examined Akt activation and RTKs/PI3K/Akt signaling using the hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride in oral squamous carcinoma cells. Cobalt chloride increases Akt phosphorylation in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Blocking the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway using LY294002 abolished Akt activation in response to cobalt chloride, suggesting that Akt phosphorylation by cobalt chloride is dependent on PI3K. In addition, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway seems to rely on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), since the inhibition of EGFR attenuated cobalt chloride-induced Akt activation. The results in this study also demonstrate that cobalt chloride increases EGFR protein levels and induces oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to enter S phase.

  6. Ultrasonic Detection of Cracks in a Complex Aircraft Structure Using a Local Correlation Method for Signals from a Moving Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Mandeville, John R.; Kropas-Hughes, Claudia V.

    2004-02-01

    A challenge in nondestructive evaluation is the ability to discern signals that are closely spaced or superimposed in time. A feature extraction methodology is proposed where signals from a moving transducer are accurately aligned to a primary part feature and analyzed within multiple time gates for shifting signals from a defect. The local correlation method functions to detect the relative shift of signals in time for adjacent transducer locations due to differing echo dynamics from cracks and part geometries.

  7. Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 reduces bortezomib-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C; Chao, A; Tsai, C L; Lin, C Y; Chuang, W C; Chen, H W; Yen, T C; Wang, T H; Lai, C H; Wang, H S

    2013-01-01

    The potent and selective proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has shown remarkable antitumor activity and is now entering clinical trials for several cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms by which bortezomib induces cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells still remain unclear. In this study, we show that bortezomib induced apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the downregulation of antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, p-Bad, and p-AKT) and the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins (p21, p27, and cleaved-Bid) in ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, bortezomib stimulates Janus kinase (JAK) phosphorylation and activates heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), ultimately leading to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation. Phosphorylated STAT1 partially counteracted apoptosis induced by bortezomib in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the antitumor activity of bortezomib in ovarian cancer can be improved by inhibiting bortezomib-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. This effect can be achieved by STAT1 knockdown, HSP70 knockdown, JAK inhibition, or the addition of cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. These results provide the first evidence that STAT1 phosphorylation can play a role in bortezomib resistance by exerting antiapoptotic effects. They also suggest the possibility to abolish or reduce bortezomib chemoresistance in ovarian cancer by the addition of cisplatin or JAK inhibitors. PMID:23449448

  8. Functional proteomic analysis of a three-tier PKCepsilon-Akt-eNOS signaling module in cardiac protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Baines, Christopher P; Zong, Chenggong; Cardwell, Ernest M; Wang, Guangwu; Vondriska, Thomas M; Ping, Peipei

    2005-02-01

    Cardiac protective signaling networks have been shown to involve PKCepsilon. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PKCepsilon interacts with other members of these networks to form task-specific modules remain unknown. Among 93 different PKCepsilon-associated proteins that have been identified, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are of importance because of their independent abilities to promote cell survival and prevent cell death. The simultaneous association of PKCepsilon, Akt, and eNOS has not been examined, and, in particular, the formation of a module containing these three proteins and the role of such a module in the regulation of NO production and cardiac protection are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether these molecules form a signaling module and, thereby, play a collective role in cardiac signaling. Using recombinant proteins in vitro and PKCepsilon transgenic mouse hearts, we demonstrate the following: 1) PKCepsilon, Akt, and eNOS interact and form signaling modules in vitro and in the mouse heart. Activation of either PKCepsilon or Akt enhances the formation of PKCepsilon-Akt-eNOS signaling modules. 2) PKCepsilon directly phosphorylates and enhances activation of Akt in vitro, and PKCepsilon activation increases phosphorylation and activation of Akt in PKCepsilon transgenic mouse hearts. 3) PKCepsilon directly phosphorylates eNOS in vitro, and this phosphorylation enhances eNOS activity. Activation of PKCepsilon in vivo increased phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1177), indicating eNOS activation. This study characterizes, for the first time, the physical, as well as functional, coupling of PKCepsilon, Akt, and eNOS in the heart and implicates these PKCepsilon-Akt-eNOS signaling modules as critical signaling elements during PKCepsilon-induced cardiac protection.

  9. Computational Modeling of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Francesco; Russo, Giulia; Candido, Saverio; Pennisi, Marzio; Cavalieri, Salvatore; Motta, Santo; McCubrey, James A.; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor of the skin and seems to be resistant to current therapeutic approaches. Melanocytic transformation is thought to occur by sequential accumulation of genetic and molecular alterations able to activate the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and/or the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways. Specifically, mutations of B-RAF activate MAPK pathway resulting in cell cycle progression and apoptosis prevention. According to these findings, MAPK and AKT pathways may represent promising therapeutic targets for an otherwise devastating disease. Result Here we show a computational model able to simulate the main biochemical and metabolic interactions in the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways potentially involved in melanoma development. Overall, this computational approach may accelerate the drug discovery process and encourages the identification of novel pathway activators with consequent development of novel antioncogenic compounds to overcome tumor cell resistance to conventional therapeutic agents. The source code of the various versions of the model are available as S1 Archive. PMID:27015094

  10. Smoothened transduces Hedgehog signal by forming a complex with Evc/Evc2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiping; Chen, Wenlin; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays pivotal roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis in species ranging from Drosophila to mammals. The Hh signal is transduced by Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein related to G protein coupled receptors. Despite a conserved mechanism by which Hh activates Smo in Drosophila and mammals, how mammalian Hh signal is transduced from Smo to the Gli transcription factors is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that two ciliary proteins, Evc and Evc2, the products of human disease genes responsible for the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, act downstream of Smo to transduce the Hh signal. We found that loss of Evc/Evc2 does not affect Sonic Hedgehog-induced Smo phosphorylation and ciliary localization but impedes Hh pathway activation mediated by constitutively active forms of Smo. Evc/Evc2 are dispensable for the constitutive Gli activity in Sufu(-/-) cells, suggesting that Evc/Evc2 act upstream of Sufu to promote Gli activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Hh stimulates binding of Evc/Evc2 to Smo depending on phosphorylation of the Smo C-terminal intracellular tail and that the binding is abolished in Kif3a(-/-) cilium-deficient cells. We propose that Hh activates Smo by inducing its phosphorylation, which recruits Evc/Evc2 to activate Gli proteins by antagonizing Sufu in the primary cilia.

  11. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Wu, Chuanlong; Liu, Guangwang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  12. MFN2 suppresses cancer progression through inhibition of mTORC2/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Chen, Guo; Li, Xiaobo; Wu, Xiaoqin; Chang, Zhijie; Xu, Jianhua; Zhu, Yu; Yin, Peihao; Liang, Xin; Dong, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial GTPase mitofusin-2 (MFN2) has previously been reported to play a role in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in a number of cell types. Here, we report that breast cancer patients with low MFN2 expression are associated with poor prognosis as compared to patients with high MFN2 expression. We find that MFN2 knockout from MCF7 and A549 cells via Crispr/Cas9 greatly promotes cell viability, colony formation, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which were confirmed by colony formation assay, transwell invasion assay, and tumor xenograft model. Signaling analyses suggest the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)/Akt signaling pathway is highly elevated in MFN2 knockout cancer cells. The elevated mTORC2 promotes cancer cell growth and metastasis via AktS437 phosphorylation mediated signaling pathway. Mechanistic studies reveal that MFN2 suppresses mTORC2 through direct interaction by binding its domain HR1. Inhibition of mTORC2 significantly suppresses MFN2 deficient tumor growth. Collectively, this study provides novel insights into the tumor progression associated with MFN2 deficiency and suggests that the importance of mTORC2 inhibitor in the treatment of MFN2 downregulated cancer patients. PMID:28176801

  13. Deoxycholyltaurine Rescues Human Colon Cancer Cells From Apoptosis by Activating EGFR-Dependent PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Shant, Jasleen; Guo, Chang Yue; Roy, Sanjit; Cheng, Kunrong

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that secondary bile acids promote colon cancer cell proliferation but their role in maintaining cell survival has not been explored. We found that deoxycholyltaurine (DCT) markedly attenuated both unstimulated and TNF-α-stimulated programmed cell death in colon cancer cells by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mechanism. To examine the role of bile acids and PI3K signaling in maintaining colon cancer cell survival, we explored the role of signaling downstream of bile acid-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in regulating both apoptosis and proliferation of HT-29 and H508 human colon cancer cells. DCT caused dose- and time-dependent Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation, a commonly used marker of activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Both EGFR kinase and PI3K inhibitors attenuated DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation, as demonstrated by reduced phosphorylation of a GSK-3-paramyosin substrate. Transfection of HT-29 cells with kinase-dead EGFR (K721M) reduced DCT-induced Akt phosphorylation. In HT-29 cells, EGFR and PI3K inhibitors as well as transfection with dominant negative AKT attenuated DCT-induced cell proliferation. DCT-induced PI3K/Akt activation resulted in downstream phosphorylation of GSK-3 (Ser21/9) and BAD (Ser136), and nuclear translocation (activation) of NF-κB, thereby confirming that DCT-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signaling regulates both proproliferative and prosurvival signals. Collectively, these results indicate that DCT-induced activation of post-EGFR PI3K/Akt signaling stimulates both colon cancer cell survival and proliferation. PMID:18064605

  14. Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Jenna M; Lee, Elaine C; Bailey, Brooke L; Saenz, Catherine; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Craig, Stuart A S; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the effect of betaine supplementation on selected circulating hormonal measures and Akt muscle signaling proteins after an acute exercise session. Twelve trained men (age 19.7 ± 1.23 years) underwent 2 weeks of supplementation with either betaine (B) (1.25 g BID) or placebo (P). Following a 2-week washout period, subjects underwent supplementation with the other treatment (B or P). Before and after each 2-week period, subjects performed an acute exercise session (AES). Circulating GH, IGF-1, cortisol, and insulin were measured. Vastus lateralis samples were analyzed for signaling proteins (Akt, p70 S6k, AMPK). B (vs. P) supplementation approached a significant increase in GH (mean ± SD (Area under the curve, AUC), B: 40.72 ± 6.14, P: 38.28 ± 5.54, p = 0.060) and significantly increased IGF-1 (mean ± SD (AUC), B: 106.19 ± 13.45, P: 95.10 ± 14.23, p = 0.010), but significantly decreased cortisol (mean ± SD (AUC), B: 1,079.18 ± 110.02, P: 1,228.53 ± 130.32, p = 0.007). There was no difference in insulin (AUC). B increased resting Total muscle Akt (p = 0.003). B potentiated phosphorylation (relative to P) of Akt (Ser(473)) and p70 S6 k (Thr(389)) (p = 0.016 and p = 0.005, respectively). Phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr(172)) decreased during both treatments (both p = 0.001). Betaine (vs. placebo) supplementation enhanced both the anabolic endocrine profile and the corresponding anabolic signaling environment, suggesting increased protein synthesis.

  15. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Axis in Children with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David; Brown, Valerie I.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Teachey, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) is frequently dysregulated in disorders of cell growth and survival, including a number of pediatric hematologic malignancies. The pathway can be abnormally activated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as well as in some pediatric lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Most commonly, this abnormal activation occurs as a consequence of constitutive activation of AKT, providing a compelling rationale to target this pathway in many of these conditions. A variety of agents, beginning with the rapamycin analogue (rapalog) sirolimus, have been used successfully to target this pathway in a number of pediatric hematologic malignancies. Rapalogs demonstrate significant preclinical activity against ALL, which has led to a number of clinical trials. Moreover, rapalogs can synergize with a number of conventional cytotoxic agents and overcome pathways of chemotherapeutic resistance for drugs commonly used in ALL treatment, including methotrexate and corticosteroids. Based on preclinical data, rapalogs are also being studied in AML, CML, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Recently, significant progress has been made using rapalogs to treat pre-malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, including the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS); complete remissions in children with otherwise therapy-resistant disease have been seen. Rapalogs only block one component of the pathway (mTORC1), and newer agents are under preclinical and clinical development that can target different and often multiple protein kinases in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Most of these agents have been tolerated in early-phase clinical trials. A number of PI3K inhibitors are under investigation. Of note, most of these also target other protein kinases. Newer agents are under development that target both m

  16. Pharmacological manipulation of the akt signaling pathway regulates myxoma virus replication and tropism in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2010-04-01

    Viruses have evolved an assortment of mechanisms for regulating the Akt signaling pathway to establish a cellular environment more favorable for viral replication. Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a rabbit-specific poxvirus that encodes many immunomodulatory factors, including an ankyrin repeat-containing host range protein termed M-T5 that functions to regulate tropism of MYXV for rabbit lymphocytes and certain human cancer cells. MYXV permissiveness in these human cancer cells is dependent upon the direct interaction between M-T5 and Akt, which has been shown to induce the kinase activity of Akt. In this study, an array of compounds that selectively manipulate Akt signaling was screened and we show that only a subset of Akt inhibitors significantly decreased the ability of MYXV to replicate in previously permissive human cancer cells. Furthermore, reduced viral replication efficiency was correlated with lower levels of phosphorylated Akt. In contrast, the PP2A-specific phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid promoted increased Akt kinase activation and rescued MYXV replication in human cancer cells that did not previously support viral replication. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt at residue Thr308 was shown to dictate the physical interaction between Akt and M-T5, which then leads to phosphorylation of Ser473 and permits productive MYXV replication in these human cancer cells. The results of this study further characterize the mechanism by which M-T5 exploits the Akt signaling cascade and affirms this interaction as a major tropism determinant that regulates the replication efficiency of MYXV in human cancer cells.

  17. Upregulation of Akt/NF-κB-regulated inflammation and Akt/Bad-related apoptosis signaling pathway involved in hepatic carcinoma process: suppression by carnosic acid nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Tang, Fang; Wang, Zhenran; Qi, Guangying; Liang, Xingsi; Li, Bo; Yuan, Shengguang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Shuiping; He, Songqing

    Primary liver cancer is globally the sixth most frequent cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death and its incidence is increasing in many countries, becoming a serious threat to human health. Many researches focused on the treatment and prevention of liver cancer. However, due to the underlying molecular mechanism of liver cancer still not fully understood, the studies and development of treatments were forced to be delayed. Akt has been suggested to play an essential role in the progression of inflammation response and apoptosis. Hence, in this study, Akt-knockout mice and cells of liver cancer were used as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism of Akt-associated inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathway linked with NF-κB and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) for the progression of liver cancer. Carnosic acid (CA), as a phenolic diterpene with anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, is produced by many species from Lamiaceae family. Administration of CA nanoparticles was sufficient to lead to considerable inhibition of liver cancer progression. The results indicated that, compared to the normal liver cells, the expression of Akt was significantly higher in liver cancer cell lines. Also, we found that Akt-knockout cancer cell lines modulated inflammation response and apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB activation and inducing apoptotic reaction. Our results indicated that the downstream signals, including cytokines regulated by NF-κB and caspase-3-activated apoptosis affected by Bad, were re-modulated for knockout of Akt. And CA nanoparticles, acting as Akt-knockout, could inhibit inflammation and accelerate apoptosis in liver cancer by altering NF-κB activation and activating caspase-3 through Bad pathway. These findings demonstrated that the nanoparticulate drug CA performed its effective role owing to its ability to reduce inflammatory action and enhance apoptosis for the overexpression of NF

  18. Upregulation of Akt/NF-κB-regulated inflammation and Akt/Bad-related apoptosis signaling pathway involved in hepatic carcinoma process: suppression by carnosic acid nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Tang, Fang; Wang, Zhenran; Qi, Guangying; Liang, Xingsi; Li, Bo; Yuan, Shengguang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Shuiping; He, Songqing

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is globally the sixth most frequent cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death and its incidence is increasing in many countries, becoming a serious threat to human health. Many researches focused on the treatment and prevention of liver cancer. However, due to the underlying molecular mechanism of liver cancer still not fully understood, the studies and development of treatments were forced to be delayed. Akt has been suggested to play an essential role in the progression of inflammation response and apoptosis. Hence, in this study, Akt-knockout mice and cells of liver cancer were used as a model to investigate the molecular mechanism of Akt-associated inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathway linked with NF-κB and Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) for the progression of liver cancer. Carnosic acid (CA), as a phenolic diterpene with anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, is produced by many species from Lamiaceae family. Administration of CA nanoparticles was sufficient to lead to considerable inhibition of liver cancer progression. The results indicated that, compared to the normal liver cells, the expression of Akt was significantly higher in liver cancer cell lines. Also, we found that Akt-knockout cancer cell lines modulated inflammation response and apoptosis via inhibiting NF-κB activation and inducing apoptotic reaction. Our results indicated that the downstream signals, including cytokines regulated by NF-κB and caspase-3-activated apoptosis affected by Bad, were re-modulated for knockout of Akt. And CA nanoparticles, acting as Akt-knockout, could inhibit inflammation and accelerate apoptosis in liver cancer by altering NF-κB activation and activating caspase-3 through Bad pathway. These findings demonstrated that the nanoparticulate drug CA performed its effective role owing to its ability to reduce inflammatory action and enhance apoptosis for the overexpression of NF

  19. Increase in reactive oxygen species and activation of Akt signaling pathway in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata P; Araújo, Alex S R; Janner, Daiane; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M; Partata, Wania A

    2008-12-01

    Neuropathic pain occurs as a result of peripheral or central nervous system injury. Its pathophysiology involves mainly a central sensitization mechanism that may be correlated to many molecules acting in regions involved in pain processing, such as the spinal cord. It has been demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling molecules, such as the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, are involved in neuropathic pain mechanisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide evidence of this relationship. Sciatic nerve transection (SNT) was used to induce neuropathic pain in rats. Western blot analysis of Akt and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-Michael adducts, and measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the lumbosacral spinal cord were performed. The main findings were found seven days after SNT, when there was an increase in HNE-Michael adducts formation, total and p-Akt expression, and H(2)O(2) concentration. However, one and 15 days after SNT, H(2)O(2) concentration was raised in both sham (animals that were submitted to surgery without nerve injury) and SNT groups, showing the high sensibility of this ROS to nociceptive afferent stimuli, not only to neuropathic pain. p-Akt also increased in sham and SNT groups one day post injury, but at 3 and 7 days the increase occurred exclusively in SNT animals. Thus, there is crosstalk between intracellular signaling pathways and ROS, and these molecules can act as protective agents in acute pain situations or play a role in the development of chronic pain states.

  20. Optogenetic clustering of CNK1 reveals mechanistic insights in RAF and AKT signalling controlling cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Adrian; Warscheid, Bettina; Weber, Wilfried; Radziwill, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Scaffold proteins such as the multidomain protein CNK1 orchestrate the signalling network by integrating and controlling the underlying pathways. Using an optogenetic approach to stimulate CNK1 uncoupled from upstream effectors, we identified selective clusters of CNK1 that either stimulate RAF-MEK-ERK or AKT signalling depending on the light intensity applied. OptoCNK1 implemented in MCF7 cells induces differentiation at low light intensity stimulating ERK activity whereas stimulation of AKT signalling by higher light intensity promotes cell proliferation. CNK1 clustering in response to increasing EGF concentrations revealed that CNK1 binds to RAF correlating with ERK activation at low EGF dose. At higher EGF dose active AKT binds to CNK1 and phosphorylates and inhibits RAF. Knockdown of CNK1 protects CNK1 from this AKT/RAF crosstalk. In C2 skeletal muscle cells CNK1 expression is induced with the onset of differentiation. Hence, AKT-bound CNK1 counteracts ERK stimulation in differentiated but not in proliferating cells. Ectopically expressed CNK1 facilitates C2 cell differentiation and knockdown of CNK1 impaired the transcriptional network underlying C2 cell differentiation. Thus, CNK1 expression, CNK1 clustering and the thereto related differential signalling processes decide on proliferation and differentiation in a cell type- and cell stage-dependent manner by orchestrating AKT and RAF signalling. PMID:27901111

  1. MicroRNA-145 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IRS1 and its downstream Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yelin; Hu, Chen; Cheng, Jun; Chen, Binquan; Ke, Qinghong; Lv, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • MiR-145 expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues and inversely related with IRS1 levels. • MiR-145 directly targets IRS1 in HCC cells. • Restored expression of miR-145 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and growth. • MiR-145 induced IRS1 under-expression potentially reduced downstream AKT signaling. - Abstract: Accumulating evidences have proved that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we showed that miRNA-145 level was significantly decreased in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissues and cell lines, and its low expression was inversely associated with the abundance of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a key mediator in oncogenic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. We verified IRS1 as a direct target of miR-145 using Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Further, the restoration of miR-145 in HCC cell lines suppressed cancer cell growth, owing to down-regulated IRS1 expression and its downstream Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Our results demonstrated that miR-145 could inhibit HCC through targeting IRS1 and its downstream signaling, implicating the loss of miR-145 regulation may be a potential molecular mechanism causing aberrant oncogenic signaling in HCC.

  2. Cross Talk between the Akt and p38α Pathways in Macrophages Downstream of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Victoria A.; Gray, Alexander; Monk, Claire E.; Santos, Susana G.; Lee, Keunwook; Aubareda, Anna; Crowe, Jonathan; Ronkina, Natalia; Schwermann, Jessica; Batty, Ian H.; Leslie, Nick R.; Dean, Jonathan L. E.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Boothby, Mark; Gaestel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) results in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that are required for initiating a host immune response. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are activated rapidly in response to TLR activation and are required to coordinate effective host responses to pathogen invasion. In this study, we analyzed the role of the p38-dependent kinases MK2/3 in the activation of Akt and show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308 and Ser473 requires p38α and MK2/3. In cells treated with p38 inhibitors or an MK2/3 inhibitor, phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and Thr308 is reduced and Akt activity is inhibited. Furthermore, BMDMs deficient in MK2/3 display greatly reduced phosphorylation of Ser473 and Thr308 following TLR stimulation. However, MK2/3 do not directly phosphorylate Akt in macrophages but act upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 to regulate Akt phosphorylation. Akt is recruited to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the membrane, where it is activated by PDK1 and mTORC2. Analysis of lipid levels in MK2/3-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) revealed a role for MK2/3 in regulating Akt activity by affecting availability of PIP3 at the membrane. These data describe a novel role for p38α-MK2/3 in regulating TLR-induced Akt activation in macrophages. PMID:23979601

  3. Myogenic Akt signaling attenuates muscular degeneration, promotes myofiber regeneration and improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle H.; Kay, Danielle I.; Rudra, Renuka T.; Chen, Bo Ming; Hsu, Nigel; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Martinez, Leonel; Spencer, Melissa J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Grinnell, Alan D.; Crosbie, Rachelle H.

    2011-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy, is caused by X-linked inherited mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin deficiencies result in the loss of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex at the plasma membrane, which leads to structural instability and muscle degeneration. Previously, we induced muscle-specific overexpression of Akt, a regulator of cellular metabolism and survival, in mdx mice at pre-necrotic (<3.5 weeks) ages and demonstrated upregulation of the utrophin–glycoprotein complex and protection against contractile-induced stress. Here, we found that delaying exogenous Akt treatment of mdx mice after the onset of peak pathology (>6 weeks) similarly increased the abundance of compensatory adhesion complexes at the extrasynaptic sarcolemma. Akt introduction after onset of pathology reverses the mdx histopathological measures, including decreases in blood serum albumin infiltration. Akt also improves muscle function in mdx mice as demonstrated through in vivo grip strength tests and in vitro contraction measurements of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. To further explore the significance of Akt in myofiber regeneration, we injured wild-type muscle with cardiotoxin and found that Akt induced a faster regenerative response relative to controls at equivalent time points. We demonstrate that Akt signaling pathways counteract mdx pathogenesis by enhancing endogenous compensatory mechanisms. These findings provide a rationale for investigating the therapeutic activation of the Akt pathway to counteract muscle wasting. PMID:21245083

  4. Activation of the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 survival signaling pathway in human cholesteatoma epithelium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Tuanfang; Ren, Jihao; Li, Lihua; Xiao, Zian; Chen, Xing; Xie, Dinghua

    2014-02-01

    Cholesteatoma is a benign keratinizing squamous epithelial lesion characterized by the hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes with abundant production of keratin debris in the middle ear. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Akt/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/cyclinD1 signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways in regulating cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 signaling pathway may be activated and involved in the cellular hyperplasia mechanism in acquired cholesteatoma epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 protein was performed in 40 cholesteatoma samples and 20 samples of normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium. Protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, activated NF-κB and cyclinD1 in cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly increased when compared with normal EAC epithelium (p < 0.01). In cholesteatoma epithelium, a significant positive association was observed between p-EGFR and p-Akt expression and between the expressions of p-Akt and NF-κB, NF-κB and cyclinD1, respectively (p < 0.01). No significant relationships were observed between the levels of investigated proteins and the degree of bone destruction (p > 0.05). The increased protein expression of p-EGFR, p-Akt, NF-κB and cyclinD1 and their associations in cholesteatoma epithelium suggest that the EGFR/Akt/NF-κB/cyclinD1 survival signaling pathway is active and may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of cellular hyperplasia in cholesteatoma epithelium.

  5. SC79 protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from UV radiation via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guo-fan; Cao, Cong; Jiang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection. Further studies showed that SC79 activated Akt-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and inhibited UV-induced oxidative stress in RPE cells. Reversely, Nrf2 shRNA knockdown or S40T mutation attenuated SC79-induced anti-UV activity. For the in vivo studies, we showed that intravitreal injection of SC79 significantly protected mouse retina from light damages. Based on these results, we suggest that SC79 protects RPE cells from UV damages possibly via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling axis. PMID:27517753

  6. Increasing effect of Tangzhiqing formula on IRS-1-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling in muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tangzhiqing fomula (TZQ-F), the mixture of Red Paeony root, Mulberry leaf, Lotus leaf, Danshen root and Hawthorn leaf, regulates the abnormal glucose and lipids in prediabetic patients. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of TZQ-F and its fractions on glucose metabolism. Methods After orally administration of TZQ-F for 4 weeks in KK-Ay mice, we dissected out the liver and muscle, and employed PCR and western blotting to screening the PI3K/AKT pathway. The following PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were performed in L-6 myotube and HepG2 cells. Results In the liver of KK-Ay mice, no significance was observed on PI3K, AKT and their phosphorylation between TZQ-F and controls , while, in the muscle, up-regulation of PI3K, AKT, Glycogen synthase (GYS) and their phosphorylation type, as well as GluT4, was deteced in TZQ-F. In HepG2 cells, TZQ-F increased IRS-2 by 10 folds, without interrupting AKT, IRS-1 and GluT4. In L-6 myotube cells, TZQ-F and its fractions treatment significantly increased IRS-1 and AKT at mRNA level. Conclusion TZQ-F prevents pre-diabetes through increasing effect on IRS-1-dependent PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in muscle. PMID:24952587

  7. SC79 protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from UV radiation via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-Qing; Huang, Wei; Li, Ke-Ran; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Guo-Fan; Cao, Cong; Jiang, Qin

    2016-09-13

    Excessive Ultra-violet (UV) radiation causes oxidative damages and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Here we tested the potential activity of SC79, a novel small molecule activator of Akt, against the process. We showed that SC79 activated Akt in primary and established (ARPE-19 line) RPE cells. It protected RPE cells from UV damages possibly via inhibiting cell apoptosis. Akt inhibition, via an Akt specific inhibitor (MK-2206) or Akt1 shRNA silence, almost abolished SC79-induced RPE cytoprotection. Further studies showed that SC79 activated Akt-dependent NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and inhibited UV-induced oxidative stress in RPE cells. Reversely, Nrf2 shRNA knockdown or S40T mutation attenuated SC79-induced anti-UV activity. For the in vivo studies, we showed that intravitreal injection of SC79 significantly protected mouse retina from light damages. Based on these results, we suggest that SC79 protects RPE cells from UV damages possibly via activating Akt-Nrf2 signaling axis.

  8. Zinc induces cell death in immortalized embryonic hippocampal cells via activation of Akt-GSK-3beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Kyu; Lee, Jong Eun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2007-01-15

    Zinc is an essential catalytic and structural element of many proteins and a signaling messenger that is released by neuronal activity at many central excitatory synapses. Excessive synaptic release of zinc followed by entry into vulnerable neurons contributes severe neuronal cell death. We have previously observed that zinc-induced neuronal cell death is accompanied by Akt activation in embryonic hippocampal progenitor (H19-7) cells. In the present study, we examined the role of Akt activation and its downstream signaling events during extracellular zinc-induced neuronal cell death. Treatment of H19-7 cells with 10 microM of zinc plus zinc ionophore, pyrithione, led to increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473/Thr-308 and increased Akt kinase activity. Zinc-induced Akt activation was accompanied by increased Tyr-phosphorylated GSK-3beta as well as increased GSK-3beta kinase activity. Transient overexpression of a kinase-deficient Akt mutant remarkably suppressed GSK-3beta activation and cell death. Furthermore, tau phosphorylation, but not the degradation of beta-catenin, was dependent upon zinc-induced GSK-3beta activation and contributed to cell death. The current data suggest that, following exposure to zinc, the sequential activation of Akt and GSK-3beta plays an important role directing hippocampal neural precursor cell death.

  9. Effects of AFP-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on cell proliferation of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gong, Wei; Liang, Ping; Huang, XiaoBing; You, Nan; Han, Ke Qiang; Li, Yu Ming; Li, Jing

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway on hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. Active cirrhosis patients after hepatitis B infection (n = 20) and viral hepatitis patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 20) were selected as the subjects of the present study. Another 20 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The serum AFP expression and liver tissue PI3K and Akt gene mRNA expression were detected. The hepatoma cell model HepG2 which had a stable expression of AFP gene was used. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot and other methods were used to analyze the intracellular PI3K and Akt protein levels. Compared with control group and cirrhosis group, the serum AFP levels in HCC group significantly increased, and the tissue PI3K and Akt mRNA expression also significantly increased. HepG2 cells were intervened using AFP, in which the PIK and Akt protein expression significantly increased. After intervention by use of AFP monoclonal antibodies or LY294002 inhibitor, the PIK and Akt protein expression in HepG2 cell was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). AFP can promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. TRIM14 regulates cell proliferation and invasion in osteosarcoma via promotion of the AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoxing; Guo, Yongfei; Xu, Dabo; Wang, Yi; Shen, Yafeng; Wang, Feifei; Lv, Yuanyuan; Song, Fanglong; Jiang, Dawei; Zhang, Yinquan; Lou, Yi; Meng, Yake; Yang, Yongji; Kang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some members of the tripartite motif-containing protein (TRIM) family serve as important regulators of tumorigenesis. However, the biological role of TRIM14 in osteosarcoma remains to be established. In this study, we showed that TRIM14 is upregulated in human osteosarcoma specimens and cell lines, and correlated with osteosarcoma progression and shorter patient survival times. Functional studies demonstrated that overexpression of TRIM14 enhances osteosarcoma cell proliferation, clone formation, cell cycle procession, migration and invasion in vitro and promotes tumor growth in vivo, and conversely, its silencing has the opposite effects. Furthermore, TRIM14 overexpression induced activation of the AKT pathway. Inhibition of AKT expression reversed the TRIM14-mediated promotory effects on cell growth and mobility, in addition to TRIM14-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cyclin D1 upregulation. Our findings collectively suggest that TRIM14 functions as an oncogene by upregulating the AKT signaling pathway in osteosarcoma cells, supporting its potential utility as a therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:28205534

  11. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-03-14

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Singularity analysis of the AKT signaling pathway reveals connections between cancer and metabolic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyu

    2010-12-01

    Connections between cancer and metabolic diseases may consist in the complex network of interactions among a common set of biomolecules. By applying singularity and bifurcation analysis, the phenotypes constrained by the AKT signaling pathway are identified and mapped onto the parameter space, which include cancer and certain metabolic diseases. By considering physiologic properties (sensitivity, robustness and adaptivity) the AKT pathway must possess in order to efficiently sense growth factors and nutrients, the region of normal responses is located. To optimize these properties, the intracellular concentration of the AKT protein must be sufficiently high to saturate its enzymes; the strength of the positive feedback must be stronger than that of the negative feedback. The analysis illuminates the parameter space and reveals system-level mechanisms in regulating biological functions (cell growth, survival, proliferation and metabolism) and how their deregulation may lead to the development of diseases. The analytical expressions summarize the synergistic interactions among many molecules, which provides valuable insights into therapeutic interventions. In particular, a strategy for overcoming the limitations of mTOR inhibition is proposed for cancer therapy.

  13. Adiponectin Induces Oncostatin M Expression in Osteoblasts through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chen-Ming; Lee, Wei-Lin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Lu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Li-Hong; Xu, Guo-Hong; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune disorder, is associated with a chronic inflammatory response and unbalanced bone metabolism within the articular microenvironment. Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by adipocytes, is involved in multiple functions, including lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory activity. However, the mechanism of adiponectin performance within arthritic inflammation remains unclear. In this study, we observed the effect of adiponectin on the expression of oncostatin M (OSM), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in human osteoblastic cells. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB reduced the adiponectin-induced OSM expression in osteoblasts. Stimulation of the cells with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and p65. Adiponectin treatment of osteoblasts increased OSM-luciferase activity and p65 binding to NF-κB on the OSM promoter. Our results indicate that adiponectin increased OSM expression via the PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that adiponectin is a novel target for arthritis treatment. PMID:26712749

  14. Overexpression of decorin promoted angiogenesis in diabetic cardiomyopathy via IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jinsheng; Chen, Fuqiong; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Guoran; He, Mengying; Chen, Chen; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2017-01-01

    Microcirculatory dysfunction is believed to play an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin is generally considered a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we investigate whether overexpression of decorin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy and its effects on angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Diabetes was induced through intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin combined with a high-fat diet, and decorin was overexpressed via recombinant adeno-associated virus in Wistar rats. Six months later, cardiac function was determined using an echocardiography and cardiac catheter system. The results showed that cardiac function was decreased in diabetic rats and restored by overexpression of decorin. In addition, overexpression of decorin upregulated the expression of VEGF and attenuated the reduction in the cardiac capillary density. In the in vitro study, high glucose induced apoptosis and inhibited the capabilities of tube formation, migration and proliferation, which were all ameliorated by decorin overexpression. Meanwhile, decorin overexpression increased the expression of VEGF and IGF1R, as well as the phosphorylation level of AKT and AP-1. Nonetheless, all of these effects were abolished by pretreatment with the IGF1R antibody or AKT inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of decorin ameliorated diabetic cardiomyopathy and promoted angiogenesis through the IGF1R-AKT-VEGF signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. PMID:28290552

  15. p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT Signalling Cascades inParkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Kar, Rohan; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative condition which has the second largest incidence rate among all other neurodegenerative disorders barring Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently there is no cure and researchers continue to probe the therapeutic prospect in cell cultures and animal models of PD. Out of the several factors contributing to PD prognosis, the role of p38 MAPK (Mitogen activated protein-kinase) and PI3K/AKT signalling module in PD brains is crucial because the impaired balance between the pro- apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways trigger unwanted phenotypes such as microglia activation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These factors continue challenging the brain homeostasis in initial stages thereby essentially assisting the dopaminergic (DA) neurons towards progressive degeneration in PD. Neurotherapeutics against PD shall then be targeted against the misregulated accomplices of the p38 and PI3K/AKT cascades. In this review, we have outlined many such established mechanisms involving the p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways which can offer therapeutic windows for the rectification of aberrant DA neuronal dynamics in PD brains. PMID:26261796

  16. Inhibition of Akt/mTOR Signaling by the Dietary Flavonoid Fisetin

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Plants have long been providing mankind with remedies of different ailments. Flavonoids, a family of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plants. Development of polyphenol-based drugs has not attracted much attention by researchers and drug companies. Therefore, despite extensive studies on polyphenols, this vast group of compounds is underrepresented in clinical medicine. Fisetin (3,7,3’,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone) belongs to the flavonol subgroup of flavonoids together with quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol and is found in several fruits and vegetables including strawberries, apples, persimmons and onions. Fisetin is showing promise as a useful natural agent against cancer and has been evaluated for its potential inhibitory role against cancer in several in vitro and in vivo studies. The Akt/mTOR pathway is known to play a central role in various cellular processes that contribute to the malignant phenotype. Accordingly, inhibition of this signaling cascade has been a focus of recent therapeutic studies. Novel inhibitors of PI3-K, Akt, and mTOR are now passing through early phase clinical trials. Herein, we review the effect of fisetin on the PI3-K/Akt/mTOR pathway as studied in different cancer cell models. PMID:23293889

  17. Polycystin-1 Induces Resistance to Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boca, Manila; Distefano, Gianfranco; Boletta, Alessandra; Qian, Feng; Bhunia, Anil K.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1), the PKD1 gene product, is a large receptor whose expression in renal epithelial cells results in resistance to apoptosis and tubulogenesis, a model consistent with the phenotype observed in patients. This study links PC-1 expression to a signaling pathway that is known to be both antiapoptotic and important for normal tubulogenesis. This study found that PC-1 expression results in phosphorylation of Akt and downstream effectors and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors prevent this process. In addition, it is shown that dominant negative Akt can revert PC-1-induced protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, it was observed that increased PI3-K β activity in PC-1- expressing MDCK cells seems to be dependent on both tyrosine-kinase activity and heterotrimeric G proteins. It also was found that PC-1-induced tubulogenesis is inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the PI3-K/Akt cascade may be a central modulator of PC-1 function and that its deregulation might be important in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:16452497

  18. Piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

  19. Berberine ameliorates hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice through activation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Li, Wenyuan; Lan, Tian; Liu, Weihua; Peng, Jing; Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Juan; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it is implicated that the abnormality of Akt signaling pathway is involved in the diabetic pathology. Previous studies have demonstrated that berberine could decrease blood glucose by elevating liver glycogen synthesis. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on fasting blood glucose, liver glycogen, Akt, Glycogen synthase kinase-3, glucokinase and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, exploring its possible hypoglycemic mechanism. We found that in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the high blood glucose was significantly lowered by berberine treatment. Liver glycogen content, the expression and activity of glucokinase and the phosphorylated Akt and IRS were all significantly reduced in diabetic mice whereas berberine blocked these changes. Berberine also depressed the increasing of phosphorylated GSK-3β in diabetic mice. Collectively, Berberine upregulates the activity of Akt possibly via insulin signaling pathway, eventually lowering high blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  20. Attractant and repellent signaling conformers of sensory rhodopsin-transducer complexes.

    PubMed

    Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Sasaki, Jun; Wang, Jihong; Spudich, John L

    2010-08-10

    Attractant and repellent signaling conformers of the dual-signaling phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I and its transducer subunit (SRI-HtrI) have recently been distinguished experimentally by the opposite connection of their retinylidene protonated Schiff bases to the outwardly located periplasmic side and inwardly located cytoplasmic side. Here we show that the pK(a) of the outwardly located Asp76 counterion in the outwardly connected conformer is lowered by approximately 1.5 units from that of the inwardly connected conformer. The pK(a) difference enables quantitative determination of the relative amounts of the two conformers in wild-type cells and behavioral mutants prior to photoexcitation, comparison of their absorption spectra, and determination of their relative signaling efficiency. We have shown that the one-photon excitation of the SRI-HtrI attractant conformer causes a Schiff base connectivity switch from inwardly connected to outwardly connected states in the attractant signaling photoreaction. Conversely, a second near-UV photon drives the complex back to the inwardly connected conformer in the repellent signaling photoreaction. The results suggest a model of the color-discriminating dual-signaling mechanism in which phototaxis responses (his-kinase modulation) result from the photointerconversion of the two oppositely connected SRI-HtrI conformers by one-photon and two-photon activation. Furthermore, we find that the related repellent phototaxis SRII-HtrII receptor complex has an outwardly connected retinylidene Schiff base like the repellent signaling forms of the SRI-HtrI complex, indicating the general applicability of macro conformational changes, which can be detected by the connectivity switch, to phototaxis signaling by sensory rhodopsin-transducer complexes.

  1. Attractant and Repellent Signaling Conformers of Sensory Rhodopsin−Transducer Complexes†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Attractant and repellent signaling conformers of the dual-signaling phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin I and its transducer subunit (SRI−HtrI) have recently been distinguished experimentally by the opposite connection of their retinylidene protonated Schiff bases to the outwardly located periplasmic side and inwardly located cytoplasmic side. Here we show that the pKa of the outwardly located Asp76 counterion in the outwardly connected conformer is lowered by ∼1.5 units from that of the inwardly connected conformer. The pKa difference enables quantitative determination of the relative amounts of the two conformers in wild-type cells and behavioral mutants prior to photoexcitation, comparison of their absorption spectra, and determination of their relative signaling efficiency. We have shown that the one-photon excitation of the SRI−HtrI attractant conformer causes a Schiff base connectivity switch from inwardly connected to outwardly connected states in the attractant signaling photoreaction. Conversely, a second near-UV photon drives the complex back to the inwardly connected conformer in the repellent signaling photoreaction. The results suggest a model of the color-discriminating dual-signaling mechanism in which phototaxis responses (his-kinase modulation) result from the photointerconversion of the two oppositely connected SRI−HtrI conformers by one-photon and two-photon activation. Furthermore, we find that the related repellent phototaxis SRII−HtrII receptor complex has an outwardly connected retinylidene Schiff base like the repellent signaling forms of the SRI−HtrI complex, indicating the general applicability of macro conformational changes, which can be detected by the connectivity switch, to phototaxis signaling by sensory rhodopsin−transducer complexes. PMID:20590098

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment in advanced disease for many decades. Personalized targeted therapy such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) and crizotinib has significantly changed the treatment paradigm in NSCLC. The future success of development of molecular targeted therapy relies on the understanding of signal transduction pathways. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway is commonly deregulated in human malignancy including NSCLC. Therefore, this pathway is a target for many therapeutic developments. This review will provide an overview of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, genetic alterations activating the pathway and clinical therapeutic development of pathway inhibitors. PMID:25870799

  3. Cyproheptadine-induced myeloma cell apoptosis is associated with inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Cao, Biyin; Zhou, Shunye; Zhu, Jingyu; Zhang, Zubin; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies revealed that the anti-allergic cyproheptadine displays anti-blood cancer activity. However, its mechanism is still elusive. In this study, cyproheptadine was found to decrease the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Mcl-1, and XIAP. More importantly, cyproheptadine-induced apoptosis was accompanied by suppressing AKT activation in myeloma cells. In the subsequent study, cyproheptadine was found to inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1-triggered AKT activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Specifically, cyproheptadine blocked AKT translocation from nuclei for phosphorylation. This inhibition led to suppressed activation of p70S6K and 4EBP1, two key downstream signaling proteins in the PI3K/AKT pathway. However, cyproheptadine did not display inhibition on activation of IGF-1R or STAT3, possible upstream signals of AKT activation. These results further demonstrated that cyproheptadine suppresses the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which is probably critical for cyproheptadine-induced MM cell apoptosis.

  4. Oxidative stress induces proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting RUNX3 and activating the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Ki Cheon; Bae, Suk Chul; Hyun, Jin Won

    2013-11-01

    We recently reported that the tumor suppressor Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is silenced in colorectal cancer cells via oxidative stress-induced hypermethylation of its promoter. The resulting downregulation of RUNX3 expression influences cell proliferation. Activation of the Akt signaling pathway is also associated with cell survival and proliferation; however, the effects of oxidative stress on the relationship between RUNX3 and Akt signaling are largely unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms involved in cell proliferation caused by oxidative stress-induced silencing of RUNX3. The levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein were downregulated in response to treatment of the human colorectal cancer cell line SNU-407 with H2O2. Treatment of the cells with H2O2 also upregulated Akt mRNA and protein expression, and inhibited the binding of RUNX3 to the Akt promoter. The inverse correlation between the expression levels of RUNX3 and Akt in H2O2-treated cells was also associated with nuclear translocation of β-catenin and upregulation of cyclin D1 expression, which induced cell proliferation. H2O2 treatment also increased the binding of β-catenin to the cyclin D1 promoter. The results presented here demonstrate that reactive oxygen species silence the tumor suppressor RUNX3, enhance the Akt-mediated signaling pathway, and promote the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  5. Epigenetic silencing mediated through activated PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lan, Xun; Weng, Yu-I; Shen, Rulong; Gu, Fei; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Deatherage, Daniel E; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Taslim, Cenny; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Shapiro, Charles L; Lin, Huey-Jen L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Jin, Victor X; Huang, Tim H-M

    2011-03-01

    Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a critical epigenetic mark for the maintenance of gene silencing. Additional accumulation of DNA methylation in target loci is thought to cooperatively support this epigenetic silencing during tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between the two marks remain to be explored. Here we show that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling can be a trigger of this epigenetic processing at many downstream target genes. We also find that DNA methylation can be acquired at the same loci in cancer cells, thereby reinforcing permanent repression in those losing the H3K27me3 mark. Because of a link between PI3K/AKT signaling and epigenetic alterations, we conducted epigenetic therapies in conjunction with the signaling-targeted treatment. These combined treatments synergistically relieve gene silencing and suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in xenografts. The new finding has important implications for improving targeted cancer therapies in the future.

  6. Epigenetic Silencing Mediated Through Activated PI3K/AKT Signaling in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Liu, Ta-Ming; Lan, Xun; Weng, Yu-I; Shen, Rulong; Gu, Fei; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Taslim, Cenny; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Shapiro, Charles L.; Lin, Huey-Jen L.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; Jin, Victor X.; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a critical epigenetic mark for the maintenance of gene silencing. Additional accumulation of DNA methylation in target loci is thought to cooperatively support this epigenetic silencing during tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between the two marks remain to be explored. Here we demonstrate that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling can be a trigger of this epigenetic processing at many downstream target genes. We also find that DNA methylation can be acquired at the same loci in cancer cells, thereby reinforcing permanent repression in those losing the H3K27me3 mark. Because of a link between PI3K/AKT signaling and epigenetic alterations, we conducted epigenetic therapies in conjunction with the signaling-targeted treatment. These combined treatments synergistically relieve gene silencing and suppress cancer cell growth in vitro and in xenografts. The new finding has important implications for improving targeted cancer therapies in the future. PMID:21216892

  7. New Insights on Signal Propagation by Sensory Rhodopsin II/Transducer Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ishchenko, A.; Round, E.; Borshchevskiy, V.; Grudinin, S.; Gushchin, I.; Klare, J. P.; Remeeva, A.; Polovinkin, V.; Utrobin, P.; Balandin, T.; Engelhard, M.; Büldt, G.; Gordeliy, V.

    2017-01-01

    The complex of two membrane proteins, sensory rhodopsin II (NpSRII) with its cognate transducer (NpHtrII), mediates negative phototaxis in halobacteria N. pharaonis. Upon light activation NpSRII triggers a signal transduction chain homologous to the two-component system in eubacterial chemotaxis. Here we report on crystal structures of the ground and active M-state of the complex in the space group I212121. We demonstrate that the relative orientation of symmetrical parts of the dimer is parallel (“U”-shaped) contrary to the gusset-like (“V”-shaped) form of the previously reported structures of the NpSRII/NpHtrII complex in the space group P21212, although the structures of the monomers taken individually are nearly the same. Computer modeling of the HAMP domain in the obtained “V”- and “U”-shaped structures revealed that only the “U”-shaped conformation allows for tight interactions of the receptor with the HAMP domain. This is in line with existing data and supports biological relevance of the “U” shape in the ground state. We suggest that the “V”-shaped structure may correspond to the active state of the complex and transition from the “U” to the “V”-shape of the receptor-transducer complex can be involved in signal transduction from the receptor to the signaling domain of NpHtrII. PMID:28165484

  8. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11612.001 PMID:26894960

  9. Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, Halil Ibrahim; Yu, Jiujiu; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Worth, Andrew J; Iyer, Shankar S; Wang, Jiawei; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Byles, Vanessa; Polynne-Stapornkul, Tiffany; Espinosa, Erika C; Lamming, Dudley; Manning, Brendan D; Zhang, Yijing; Blair, Ian A; Horng, Tiffany

    2016-02-19

    Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular proliferation and chemokine production. Moreover, metabolic signals impinge on the Akt-mTORC1 axis for such control of M2 activation. We propose that Akt-mTORC1 signaling calibrates metabolic state to energetically demanding aspects of M2 activation, which may define a new role for metabolism in supporting macrophage activation.

  10. IFNγ-induced suppression of β-catenin signaling: evidence for roles of Akt and 14.3.3ζ

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Porfirio; Kamekura, Ryuta; Quirós, Miguel; Medina-Contreras, Oscar; Hamilton, Ross W.; Kolegraff, Keli N.; Koch, Stefan; Candelario, Aurora; Romo-Parra, Hector; Laur, Oskar; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Denning, Timothy L.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ ) influences intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis in a biphasic manner by acutely stimulating proliferation that is followed by sustained inhibition of proliferation despite continued mucosal injury. β-Catenin activation has been classically associated with increased IEC proliferation. However, we observed that IFNγ inhibits IEC proliferation despite sustained activation of Akt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that inhibition of Akt/β-catenin–mediated cell proliferation by IFNγ is associated with the formation of a protein complex containing phosphorylated β-catenin 552 (pβ-cat552) and 14.3.3ζ. Akt1 served as a bimodal switch that promotes or inhibits β-catenin transactivation in response to IFNγ stimulation. IFNγ initially promotes β-catenin transactivation through Akt-dependent C-terminal phosphorylation of β-catenin to promote its association with 14.3.3ζ. Augmented β-catenin transactivation leads to increased Akt1 protein levels, and active Akt1 accumulates in the nucleus, where it phosphorylates 14.3.3ζ to translocate 14.3.3ζ/β-catenin from the nucleus, thereby inhibiting β-catenin transactivation and IEC proliferation. These results outline a dual function of Akt1 that suppresses IEC proliferation during intestinal inflammation. PMID:25079689

  11. Differential regulation of mTOR signaling determines sensitivity to AKT inhibition in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ezell, Scott A.; Wang, Suping; Bihani, Teeru; Lai, Zhongwu; Grosskurth, Shaun E.; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Davies, Barry R.; Huszar, Dennis; Byth, Kate F.

    2016-01-01

    Agents that target components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are under investigation for the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Given the highly heterogeneous nature of DLBCL, it is not clear whether all subtypes of DLBCL will be susceptible to PI3K pathway inhibition, or which kinase within this pathway is the most favorable target. Pharmacological profiling of a panel of DLBCL cell lines revealed a subset of DLBCL that was resistant to AKT inhibition. Strikingly, sensitivity to AKT inhibitors correlated with the ability of these inhibitors to block phosphorylation of S6K1 and ribosomal protein S6. Cell lines resistant to AKT inhibition activated S6K1 independent of AKT either through upregulation of PIM2 or through activation by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling components. Finally, combined inhibition of AKT and BTK, PIM2, or S6K1 proved to be an effective strategy to overcome resistance to AKT inhibition in DLBCL. PMID:26824321

  12. Effects of RAF inhibitors on PI3K/AKT signalling depend on mutational status of the RAS/RAF signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche-Guenther, Raphaela; Witzel, Franziska; Kempa, Stefan; Brummer, Tilman; Sers, Christine; Blüthgen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies within the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling axis become increasingly popular, yet cross-talk and feedbacks in the signalling network lead to unexpected effects. Here we look systematically into how inhibiting RAF and MEK with clinically relevant inhibitors result in changes in PI3K/AKT activation. We measure the signalling response using a bead-based ELISA, and use a panel of three cell lines, and isogenic cell lines that express mutant forms of the oncogenes KRAS and BRAF to interrogate the effects of the MEK and RAF inhibitors on signalling. We find that treatment with the RAF inhibitors have opposing effects on AKT phosphorylation depending on the mutational status of two important oncogenes, KRAS and BRAF. If these two genes are in wildtype configuration, RAF inhibitors reduce AKT phosphorylation. In contrast, if BRAF or KRAS are mutant, RAF inhibitors will leave AKT phosphorylation unaffected or lead to an increase of AKT phosphorylation. Down-regulation of phospho-AKT by RAF inhibitors also extends to downstream transcription factors, and correlates with apoptosis induction. Our results show that oncogenes rewire signalling such that targeted therapies can have opposing effects on parallel pathways, which depend on the mutational status of the cell. PMID:26799289

  13. Coprinus comatus Cap Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Regulation of PPARγ and Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kang, Suk Nam; Jeon, Beong-Sam; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Won, Chung-Kil; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of Coprinus comatus cap (CCC) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effects of CCC on the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Here, we showed that the CCC has an inhibitory effect on the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, resulting in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation through the downregulation of several adipocyte specific-transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, C/EBPδ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Moreover, treatment with CCC during adipocyte differentiation induced a significant down-regulation of PPARγ and adipogenic target genes, including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Interestingly, the CCC treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed the insulin-stimulated Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, and these effects were stronger in the presence of an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, LY294002, suggesting that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the down-regulation of Akt signaling. In the animal study, CCC administration significantly reduced the body weight and adipose tissue weight of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) and attenuated lipid accumulation in the adipose tissues of the HFD-induced obese rats. The size of the adipocyte in the epididymal fat of the CCC fed rats was significantly smaller than in the HFD rats. CCC treatment significantly reduced the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum of HFD rats. These results strongly indicated that the CCC-mediated decrease in body weight was due to a reduction in adipose tissue mass. The expression level of PPARγ and phospho-Akt was significantly lower in the CCC-treated HFD rats than that in the HFD obesity rats. These results suggested that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation by the down-regulation of major transcription factor involved in the adipogenesis pathway including PPARγ through the regulation of the Akt pathway in 3T3

  14. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling & its regulator tumour suppressor genes PTEN & LKB1 in human uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bhatia, Vikram; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite their high occurrence and associated significant level of morbidity manifesting as spectrum of clinical symptoms, the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) remains unclear. We investigated expression profile of tumour suppressor genes PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) and LKB1 (liver kinase B1), and key signaling components of P13K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in leiomyomas and adjacent normal myometrium in women of reproductive age, to explore the possibility of targeting this pathway for future therapeutic implications. Methods: Real time PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify relative gene expression levels of PTEN, Akt1, Akt2, mTOR, LKB1 and VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) in leiomyoma as compared to adjacent normal myometrium. Immunohistochemistry was subsequently performed to analyze expression of PTEN, phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, phospho-S6, LKB1 and VEGFA in leiomyoma and adjacent normal myometrium. Results: Significant upregulation of PTEN (2.52 fold; P=0.03) and LKB1 (3.93 fold; P=0.01), and downregulation of VEGFA (2.95 fold; P=0.01) genes were observed in leiomyoma as compared to normal myometrium. Transcript levels of Akt1, Akt2 and mTOR did not vary significantly between leiomyoma and myometrium. An increased immunoexpression of PTEN (P=0.015) and LKB1 (P<0.001) and decreased expression of VEGFA (P=0.01) was observed in leiomyoma as compared to myometrium. Immunostaining for activated (phosphorylated) Akt, mTOR and S6 was absent or low in majority of leiomyoma and myometrium. Interpretation & conclusions: Upregulation of PTEN and LKB1 in concert with negative or low levels of activated Akt, mTOR and S6 indicates that PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway may not play a significant role in pathogenesis of leiomyoma. PMID:27748285

  15. Low Expression of CAPON in Glioma Contributes to Cell Proliferation via the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shangfeng; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Guangping; Jin, Lei; Ji, Daofei; Wang, Peng; Meng, Qingming; Zhu, Yufu; Yu, Rutong

    2016-01-01

    CAPON is an adapter protein for nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). CAPON has two isoforms in the human brain: CAPON-L (long form of CAPON) and CAPON-S (short form of CAPON). Recent studies have indicated the involvement of CAPON in tumorigenesis beyond its classical role in NOS1 activity regulation. In this study, we found that the protein levels of CAPON-S, but not than CAPON-L, were significantly decreased in glioma tissues. Therefore, we established lentivirus-mediated stable cell lines with CAPON-S overexpression or down-regulation, and investigated the role of CAPON-S in the proliferation of glioma cells by using CCK8, EdU, and flow cytometry assays. Overexpression of CAPON-S reduced the cell variability and the percentage of EdU-positive cells, and arrested the cells in the G1 phase in glioma cells. Silencing of CAPON by short-hairpin RNA showed the opposite effects. Furthermore, an intracellular signaling array revealed that overexpression of CAPON-S resulted in a remarkable reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein in glioma cells, which was further confirmed by Western blot. These findings suggest that CAPON may function as a tumor suppressor in human brain glioma and that the inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway caused by CAPON-S overexpression may provide insight into the underlying mechanism of CAPON in glioma cell proliferation. PMID:27869735

  16. Akt signaling-associated metabolic effects of dietary gold nanoparticles in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Nan; Wei, Yingliang; Li, Jiang; Sun, Li; Wu, Jiarui; Huang, Qing; Liu, Chang; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2012-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often used as vehicles to deliver drugs or biomolecules, due to their mild effect on cell survival and proliferation. However, little is known about their effect on cellular metabolism. Here we examine the in vivo effect of AuNPs on metabolism using Drosophila as a model. Drosophila and vertebrates possess similar basic metabolic functions, and a highly conserved PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism in both organisms. We show that dietary AuNPs enter the fat body, a key metabolic tissue in Drosophila larvae. Significantly, larvae fed with AuNP show increased lipid levels without triggering stress responses. In addition, activities of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and fatty acids synthesis are increased in these larvae. This study thus reveals a novel function of AuNPs in influencing animal metabolism and suggests its potential therapeutic applications for metabolic disorders.

  17. Pipe wall damage detection by electromagnetic acoustic transducer generated guided waves in absence of defect signals.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, Milos; Kundu, Tribikram; Grill, Wolfgang; Twerdowski, Evgeny

    2008-05-01

    Most investigators emphasize the importance of detecting the reflected signal from the defect to determine if the pipe wall has any damage and to predict the damage location. However, often the small signal from the defect is hidden behind the other arriving wave modes and signal noise. To overcome the difficulties associated with the identification of the small defect signal in the time history plots, in this paper the time history is analyzed well after the arrival of the first defect signal, and after different wave modes have propagated multiple times through the pipe. It is shown that the defective pipe can be clearly identified by analyzing these late arriving diffuse ultrasonic signals. Multiple reflections and scattering of the propagating wave modes by the defect and pipe ends do not hamper the defect detection capability; on the contrary, it apparently stabilizes the signal and makes it easier to distinguish the defective pipe from the defect-free pipe. This paper also highlights difficulties associated with the interpretation of the recorded time histories due to mode conversion by the defect. The design of electro-magnetic acoustic transducers used to generate and receive the guided waves in the pipe is briefly described in the paper.

  18. Titration of signalling output: insights into clinical combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A.; Thavasu, P.; de Bono, J. S.; Banerji, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to understand the relative contributions of inhibiting MEK and AKT on cell growth to guide combinations of these agents. Materials and methods A panel of 20 cell lines was exposed to either the MEK inhibitor, PD0325901, or AKT inhibitor, AKT 1/2 inhibitor. p-ERK and p-S6 ELISAs were used to define degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, respectively. Growth inhibition to different degrees of MEK and AKT inhibition, either singly or in combination using 96-h sulphorhodamine assays was then studied. Results A significantly greater growth inhibition was seen in BRAFM and PIK3CAM cells upon maximal MEK (P = 0.004) and AKT inhibition (P = 0.038), respectively. KRASM and BRAF/PIK3CA/KRASWT cells were not significantly more likely to be sensitive to MEK or AKT inhibition. Significant incremental growth inhibition of the combination of MEK + AKT over either MEK or AKT inhibition alone was seen when MEK + AKT was inhibited maximally and not when sub-maximal inhibition of both MEK + AKT was used (11/20 cell lines versus 1/20 cell lines; P = 0.0012). Conclusions KRASM cells are likely to benefit from combinations of MEK and AKT inhibitors. Sub-maximally inhibiting both MEK and AKT within a combination, in a majority of instances, does not significantly increase growth inhibition compared with maximally inhibiting MEK or AKT alone and alternative phase I trial designs are needed to clinically evaluate such combinations. PMID:25908604

  19. Cyclic Compressive Stress Regulates Apoptosis in Rat Osteoblasts: Involvement of PI3K/Akt and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Tianchen; Zhang, Yinquan; Ma, Hui

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that physiological mechanical stimulation suppresses apoptosis and induces synthesis of extracellular matrix by osteoblasts; however, the effect of stress overloading on osteoblasts has not been fully illustrated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cyclic compressive stress on rat osteoblasts apoptosis, using a novel liquid drop method to generate mechanical stress on osteoblast monolayers. After treatment with different levels of mechanical stress, apoptosis of osteoblasts and activations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and PI3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways were investigated. Osteoblasts apoptosis was observed after treated with specific inhibitors prior to mechanical stimulation. Protein levels of Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 signaling were determined using western blot with or without inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPK. Results showed that mechanical stimulation led to osteoblasts apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and a remarkable activation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Activation of PI3K/Akt protected against apoptosis, whereas JNK MAPK increased apoptosis via regulation of Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 activation. In summary, the PI3K/Akt and JNK MAPK signaling pathways played opposing roles in osteoblasts apoptosis, resulting in inhibition of apoptosis upon small-magnitude stress and increased apoptosis upon large-magnitude stress. PMID:27806136

  20. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. METHODS The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. RESULTS The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro. Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. CONCLUSION ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:27784964

  1. PI3K/Akt signaling mediated Hexokinase-2 expression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth in pediatric osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuo, Baobiao; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhengwei; Qin, Haihui; Sun, Qingzeng; Zhang, Fengfei; Shen, Yang; Shi, Yingchun; Wang, Rong

    2015-08-21

    Accumulating evidence has shown that PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently hyperactivated in osteosarcoma (OS) and contributes to tumor initiation and progression. Altered phenotype of glucose metabolism is a key hallmark of cancer cells including OS. However, the relationship between PI3K/Akt pathway and glucose metabolism in OS remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that elevated Hexokinase-2 (HK2) expression, which catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism by conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate, was induced by activated PI3K/Akt signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HK2 was overexpressed in 83.3% (25/30) specimens detected and was closely correlated with Ki67, a cell proliferation index. Silencing of endogenous HK2 resulted in decreased aerobic glycolysis as demonstrated by reduced glucose consumption and lactate production. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling also suppressed aerobic glycolysis and this effect can be reversed by reintroduction of HK2. Furthermore, knockdown of HK2 led to increased cell apoptosis and reduced ability of colony formation; meanwhile, these effects were blocked by 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolysis inhibitor through its actions on hexokinase, indicating that HK2 functions in cell apoptosis and growth were mediated by altered aerobic glycolysis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel relationship between PI3K/Akt signaling and aerobic glycolysis and indicates that PI3K/Akt/HK2 might be potential therapeutic approaches for OS. - Highlights: • PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to elevated expression of HK2 in osteosarcoma. • HK2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth through enhanced Warburg effect. • Inhibition of glycolysis blocks the oncogenic activity of HK2.

  2. Modulation in Activation and Expression of PTEN, Akt1, and PDK1: Further Evidence Demonstrating Altered Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. Method mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls. Results No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide. PMID:20163786

  3. Dissociation of ERK and Akt signaling in endothelial cell angiogenic responses to {beta}-amyloid

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, Jordi; Christensen, Rial A.; Rosen, Kenneth M.; Veereshwarayya, Vimal; Querfurth, Henry W. . E-mail: hquerf01@granite.tufts.edu

    2006-04-15

    Cerebrovascular deposits of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptides are found in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy with stroke or dementia. Dysregulations of angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier and other critical endothelial cell (EC) functions have been implicated in aggravating chronic hypoperfusion in AD brain. We have used cultured ECs to model the effects of {beta}-amyloid on the activated phosphorylation states of multifunctional serine/threonine kinases since these are differentially involved in the survival, proliferation and migration aspects of angiogenesis. Serum-starved EC cultures containing amyloid-{beta} peptides underwent a 2- to 3-fold increase in nuclear pyknosis. Under growth conditions with sublethal doses of {beta}-amyloid, loss of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cell proliferation were observed. By contrast, cell migration was the most sensitive to A{beta} since inhibition was significant already at 1 {mu}M (P = 0.01, migration vs. proliferation). In previous work, intracellular A{beta} accumulation was shown toxic to ECs and Akt function. Here, extracellular A{beta} peptides do not alter Akt activation, resulting instead in proportionate decreases in the phosphorylations of the MAPKs: ERK1/2 and p38 (starting at 1 {mu}M). This inhibitory action occurs proximal to MEK1/2 activation, possibly through interference with growth factor receptor coupling. Levels of phospho-JNK remained unchanged. Addition of PD98059, but not LY294002, resulted in a similar decrease in activated ERK1/2 levels and inhibition of EC migration. Transfection of ERK1/2 into A{beta}-poisoned ECs functionally rescued migration. The marked effect of extracellular A{beta} on the migration component of angiogenesis is associated with inhibition of MAPK signaling, while Akt-dependent cell survival appears more affected by cellular A{beta}.

  4. Withaferin A inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hyung; Lim, In-Hye; Sung, Eon-Gi; Kim, Joo-Young; Song, In-Hwan; Park, Yoon Ki; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Withaferin A (Wit A), a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera, exhibits anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory and anti-angiogenic properties and antitumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wit A on protease-mediated invasiveness of the human metastatic cancer cell lines Caski and SK-Hep1. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in marked inhibition of the TGF‑β‑induced increase in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 in Caski cell line. These effects of Wit A were dose-dependent and showed a correlation with suppression of MMP‑9 mRNA expression levels. Treatment with Wit A resulted in an ~1.6-fold induction of MMP-9 promoter activity, which was also suppressed by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. We found that treatment with Wit A resulted in inhibition of TGF‑β‑induced phosphorylation of Akt, which was involved in the downregulation of expression of MMP-9 at the protein level. Introduction with constitutively active (CA)‑Akt resulted in a partial increase in the secretion of TGF-β-induced MMP-9 blocked by treatment with Wit A in Caski cells. According to these results, Wit A may inhibit the invasive and migratory abilities of Caski cells through a reduction in MMP-9 expression through suppression of the pAkt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that use of Wit A may be an effective strategy for control of metastasis and invasiveness of tumors.

  5. Wogonin induces apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in HL-60 leukemia cells through inhibition of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chengjun; Xu, Maozhong; Qin, Rujuan; Chen, Weifeng; Xu, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Wogonin is a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis root and has multiple pharmacological effects, including anticancer effects. Recent studies have shown that wogonin induces cell cycle arrest and reverses multi-drug resistance in the human K562 leukemia cell line. However, its pharmacological function in the apoptosis of leukemia cells remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesized that wogonin can induce apoptosis in the HL-60 leukemia cell line. In the present study, the HL-60 cells were treated with different doses of wogonin (0-150 µM). Wogonin inhibited the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and analyses of caspase and PARP-1 activation and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of wogonin on HL-60 cells was mediated by caspase-dependent and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Wogonin also induced the expression of certain members of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway (CHOP, GRP94 and GRP78) and the activation of multiple branches of ER stress transducers (IRE1α, PERK-eIF2α and ATF6) in the HL-60 cells. In addition, wogonin reduced the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in the HL-60 cells. Furthermore, constitutive activation of AKT induced by adenoviral vectors inhibited the pro-apoptotic effects and ER stress induced by wogonin in the HL-60 cells. In summary, our results indicated that wogonin induced apoptosis and ER stress in HL-60 cells, which was mediated by the inhibition of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.

  6. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  7. Grape polyphenols inhibit Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and potentiate the effects of gefitinib in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a combination of dietary grape polyphenols resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (RQC), at low concentrations, was effective at inhibiting metastatic cancer progression. Herein, we investigate the molecular mechanisms of RQC in breast cancer and explore the potential of RQC as a potentiation agent for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapeutic gefitinib. Our in vitro experiments showed RQC induced apoptosis in gefitinib-resistant breast cancer cells via regulation of a myriad of proapoptotic proteins. Because the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is often elevated during development of anti-EGFR therapy resistance, the effect of RQC on the mTOR upstream effector Akt and the negative regulator AMP kinase (AMPK) was investigated. RQC was found to reduce Akt activity, induce the activation of AMPK, and inhibit mTOR signaling in breast cancer cells. Combined RQC and gefitinib decreased gefitinib resistant breast cancer cell viability to a greater extent than RQC or gefitinib alone. Moreover, RQC inhibited Akt and mTOR and activated AMPK even in the presence of gefitinib. Our in vivo experiments showed combined RQC and gefitinib was more effective than the individual treatments at inhibiting mammary tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Therefore, RQC treatment inhibits breast cancer progression and may potentiate anti-EGFR therapy by inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling.

  8. AKT signaling is involved in fucoidan-induced inhibition of growth and migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tae-Min; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2014-02-01

    We identified a novel mechanism of AKT signaling in the fucoidan-induced proliferation and migration of human urinary 5637 cancer cells. Fucoidan treatment showed a significant growth inhibition followed by G1-phase-associated up-regulation of p21WAF1 expression and suppression of cyclins and CDK expression in 5637 cells. Also, fucoidan treatment induced the activation of AKT signaling, which was inhibited by treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K-specific inhibitor. Blockade of the AKT function reversed the fucoidan-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, the increased G1-phase-associated p21WAF1 expression, and the reduction of cell-cycle proteins. Moreover, treatment with fucoidan blocked migration and invasion of 5637 cells. This inhibition was attributed to decreased expression of MMP-9, which was mediated by down-regulation of AP-1 and NF-κB binding activity. Furthermore, wortmannin treatment abolished the decreased cell migration and invasion and the inhibition of MMP-9 expression via the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 in fucoidan-treated cells. Similar results were observed in another bladder cancer T-24 cells treated with fucoidan. Finally, overexpression of the AKT gene inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells. These data suggest that the activation of AKT signaling is involved in growth inhibition and suppression of the migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells treated with fucoidan.

  9. High fat diet reduces neuroprotection of isoflurane post-treatment: role of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein-Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective High fat diet (HFD) contributes to the increased prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia in young adults, a possible cause for their recent increase in stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment provides neuroprotection. We determined whether isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in HFD-fed mice. Design and Methods Six-week old CD-1 male mice were fed HFD or regular diet (RD) for 5 or 10 weeks. Their hippocampal slices (400 µm) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Some slices were exposed to isoflurane for 30 min immediately after OGD. Some mice had a 90-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion and were post-treated with 2% isoflurane for 30 min. Results OGD time-dependently induced cell injury. This injury was dose-dependently reduced by isoflurane. The effect was apparent at 1% or 2% isoflurane in RD-fed mice but required 3% isoflurane in HFD-fed mice. HFD influenced the isoflurane effects in DG. OGD increased carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an Akt inhibitor, and decreased Akt signaling. Isoflurane reduced these effects. LY294002, an Akt activation inhibitor, attenuated the isoflurane effects. HFD increased CTMP and reduced Akt signaling. Isoflurane improved neurological outcome in the RD-fed mice but not in the HFD-fed mice. Conclusions HFD attenuated isoflurane post-treatment-induced neuroprotection possibly due to decreased prosurvival Akt signaling. PMID:25142024

  10. Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling network in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martelli, A M; Evangelisti, C; Follo, M Y; Ramazzotti, G; Fini, M; Giardino, R; Manzoli, L; McCubrey, J A; Cocco, L

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) comprise a subset of hierarchically organized, rare cancer cells with the ability to initiate cancer in xenografts of genetically modified murine models. CSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor onset, self-renewal/maintenance, mutation accumulation, and metastasis. The existence of CSCs could explain the high frequency of neoplasia relapse and resistance to all of currently available therapies, including chemotherapy. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulator of physiological cell processes which include proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, motility, metabolism, and autophagy. Nevertheless, aberrantly upregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling characterizes many types of cancers where it negatively influences prognosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that this signaling system plays a key role also in CSC biology. Of note, CSCs are more sensitive to pathway inhibition with small molecules when compared to healthy stem cells. This observation provides the proof-of-principle that functional differences in signaling transduction pathways between CSCs and healthy stem cells can be identified. Here, we review the evidence which links the signals deriving from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network with CSC biology, both in hematological and solid tumors. We then highlight how therapeutic targeting of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling with small molecule inhibitors could improve cancer patient outcome, by eliminating CSCs.

  11. Bamboo leaf extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through activating the AKT signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Ying, Changjiang; Mao, Yizhen; Chen, Lei; Wang, Shanshan; Ling, Hongwei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-27

    Cleaved Caspase-3 levels in STZ-diabetic rats. In conclusion, our study suggested that bamboo leaf extract ameliorated DN in diabetic rats, and this protective effect is possibly related to suppressing oxidative stress through activating AKT signaling pathway. Bamboo leaf extract treatment may be a potential promising therapy for DN.

  12. Differential thiol oxidation of the signaling proteins Akt, PTEN or PP2A determines whether Akt phosphorylation is enhanced or inhibited by oxidative stress in C2C12 myotubes derived from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearl Lin; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been hypothesized to cause or exacerbate skeletal muscle wasting in a number of diseases and chronic conditions. ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide, have the potential to affect signal transduction pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt pathway that regulates protein synthesis. Previous studies have found contradictory outcomes for the effect of ROS on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, where oxidative stress can either enhance or inhibit Akt phosphorylation. The apparent contradictions could reflect differences in experimental cell types or types of ROS treatments. We replicate both effects in myotubes of cultured skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, and show that increased oxidative stress can either inhibit or enhance Akt phosphorylation. This differential response could be explained: thiol oxidation of Akt, but not the phosphatases PTEN or PP2A, caused a decline in Akt phosphorylation; whereas the thiol oxidation of Akt, PTEN and PP2A increased Akt phosphorylation. These observations indicate that a more complete understanding of the effects of oxidative stress on a signal transduction pathway comes not only from identifying the proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation, but also their relative sensitivity to ROS.

  13. Kinetic analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Shin; Schneider, Ian C; Haugh, Jason M

    2003-09-26

    Isoforms of the serine-threonine kinase Akt coordinate multiple cell survival pathways in response to stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Activation of Akt is a multistep process, which relies on the production of 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositide (PI) lipids by PI 3-kinases. To quantitatively assess the kinetics of PDGF receptor/PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts, a systematic study of this pathway was performed, and a mechanistic mathematical model that describes its operation was formulated. We find that PDGF receptor phosphorylation exhibits positive cooperativity with respect to PDGF concentration, and its kinetics are quantitatively consistent with a mechanism in which receptor dimerization is initially mediated by the association of two 1:1 PDGF/PDGF receptor complexes. Receptor phosphorylation is transient at high concentrations of PDGF, consistent with the loss of activated receptors upon endocytosis. By comparison, Akt activation responds to lower PDGF concentrations and exhibits more sustained kinetics. Further analysis and modeling suggest that the pathway is saturated at the level of PI 3-kinase activation, and that the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase contributes most to PDGF-stimulated 3'-PI production. Thus, at high concentrations of PDGF the kinetics of 3'-PI production are limited by the turnover rate of these lipids, while the Akt response is additionally influenced by the rate of Akt deactivation.

  14. Psoralidin, An Herbal Molecule Inhibits PI3K Mediated Akt Signaling In Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer (AIPC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Koduru, Srinivas; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jürgen; Kyprianou, Natasha; Damodaran, Chendil

    2008-01-01

    The protein kinase Akt plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Due to its kinase activity, it serves as a molecular conduit for inhibiting apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis in most cell types. In most of the prostate tumors, Akt signaling is constitutively activated due to the deletion or mutation of the tumor suppressor PTEN, which negatively regulates PI3K through lipid phosphatase activity. Recently, we identified a natural compound, psoralidin, which inhibits Akt phosphorylation and its consequent activation in androgen independent prostate cancer cells (AIPC). Furthermore, ectopic expression of Akt renders AIPC cells resistant chemotherapy; however, psoralidin overcomes Akt-mediated resistance and induces apoptosis in AIPC cells. While dissecting the molecular events, both upstream and downstream of Akt, we found that psoralidin inhibits PI3 kinase activation and transcriptionally represses the activation of NF-κB and its target genes (Bcl-2, Survivin, and Bcl-xL, etc.), which results in the inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 and DU-145 cells. Interestingly, psoralidin selectively targets cancer cells, without causing any toxicity to normal prostate epithelial cells. In vivo xenograft assays substantiate these in vitro findings, and show psoralidin inhibits prostate tumor growth in nude mice. Our findings are of therapeutic significance in the management of prostate cancer patients with advanced or metastatic disease, as they provide new directions for the development of a phyotochemical-based platform for prevention and treatment strategies for AIPC. PMID:19223576

  15. Acarbose Accelerates Wound Healing via Akt/eNOS Signaling in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiawen; Sun, Yuannan; Ren, Guofei; Zhu, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Refractory wound is a dreaded complication of diabetes and is highly correlated with EPC dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia. Acarbose is a widely used oral glucose-lowering drug exclusively for T2DM. Previous studies have suggested the beneficial effect of acarbose on improving endothelial dysfunction in patients with T2DM. However, no data have been reported on the beneficial efficacy of acarbose in wound healing impairment caused by diabetes. We herein investigated whether acarbose could improve wound healing in T2DM db/db mice and the possible mechanisms involved. Acarbose hastened wound healing and enhanced angiogenesis, accompanied by increased circulating EPC number in db/db mice. In vitro, a reversed BM-EPC dysfunction was observed after the administration of acarbose in db/db mice, as reflected by tube formation assay. In addition, a significantly increased NO production was also witnessed in BM-EPCs from acarbose treated db/db mice, with decreased O2 levels. Akt inhibitor could abolish the beneficial effect of acarbose on high glucose induced EPC dysfunction in vitro, accompanied by reduced eNOS activation. Acarbose displayed potential effect in promoting wound healing and improving angiogenesis in T2DM mice, which was possibly related to the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:28373902

  16. Breast Cancer Chemoresistance Mechanisms Through PI 3-Kinase and Akt Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors including the PI3K inhibitor (BKM120) and the Akt inhibitor (MK2206) (Figure 13). Figure 12. Hyperactive (A) PI3K or...The PI3K/Akt pathway is hyperactive in more than 70% of breast tumors and is critical for tumor progression and resistance to anti-cancer drugs

  17. Mechanosensitive Molecular Networks Involved in Transducing Resistance Exercise-Signals into Muscle Protein Accretion

    PubMed Central

    Rindom, Emil; Vissing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ)-phosphatidic acid (PA) axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2)-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA)-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) axis or implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad) axis. PMID:27909410

  18. Mechanosensitive Molecular Networks Involved in Transducing Resistance Exercise-Signals into Muscle Protein Accretion.

    PubMed

    Rindom, Emil; Vissing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ)-phosphatidic acid (PA) axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2)-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA)-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) axis or implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad) axis.

  19. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  20. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase—protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton’s lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min) to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308), cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism. PMID:27494022

  1. PI-103 and Quercetin Attenuate PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in T- Cell Lymphoma Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway has been considered as major drug target site due to its frequent activation in cancer. AKT regulates the activity of various targets to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to oxidative stress and regulation of signaling pathways for metabolic adaptation of tumor microenvironment. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this context is used as ROS source for oxidative stress preconditioning. Antioxidants are commonly considered to be beneficial to reduce detrimental effects of ROS and are recommended as dietary supplements. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive flavonoid is a dietary component which has attracted much of interest due to its potential health-promoting effects. Present study is aimed to analyze PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in H2O2 exposed Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Further, regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway by quercetin as well as PI-103, an inhibitor of PI3K was analyzed. Exposure of H2O2 (1mM H2O2 for 30min) to DLA cells caused ROS accumulation and resulted in increased phosphorylation of PI3K and downstream proteins PDK1 and AKT (Ser-473 and Thr-308), cell survival factors BAD and ERK1/2, as well as TNFR1. However, level of tumor suppressor PTEN was declined. Both PI-103 & quercetin suppressed the enhanced level of ROS and significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of AKT, PDK1, BAD and level of TNFR1 as well as increased the level of PTEN in H2O2 induced lymphoma cells. The overall result suggests that quercetin and PI3K inhibitor PI-103 attenuate PI3K-AKT pathway in a similar mechanism.

  2. Regulation of PI-3-Kinase and Akt Signaling in T Lymphocytes and Other Cells by TNFR Family Molecules

    PubMed Central

    So, Takanori; Croft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt (protein kinase B) is a common response triggered by a range of membrane-bound receptors on many cell types. In T lymphocytes, the PI3K-Akt pathway promotes clonal expansion, differentiation, and survival of effector cells and suppresses the generation of regulatory T cells. PI3K activation is tightly controlled by signals through the T cell receptor (TCR) and the co-stimulatory receptor CD28, however sustained and periodic signals from additional co-receptors are now being recognized as critical contributors to the activation of this pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that many members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, TNFR2 (TNFRSF1B), OX40 (TNFRSF4), 4-1BB (TNFRSF9), HVEM (TNFRSF14), and DR3 (TNFRSF25), that are constitutive or inducible on T cells, can directly or indirectly promote activity in the PI3K-Akt pathway. We discuss recent data which suggests that ligation of one TNFR family molecule organizes a signalosome, via TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) adapter proteins in T cell membrane lipid microdomains, that results in the subsequent accumulation of highly concentrated depots of PI3K and Akt in close proximity to TCR signaling units. We propose this may be a generalizable mechanism applicable to other TNFR family molecules that will result in a quantitative contribution of these signalosomes to enhancing and sustaining PI3K and Akt activation triggered by the TCR. We also review data that other TNFR molecules, such as CD40 (TNFRSF5), RANK (TNFRSF11A), FN14 (TNFRSF12A), TACI (TNFRSF13B), BAFFR (TNFRSF13C), and NGFR (TNFRSF16), contribute to the activation of this pathway in diverse cell types through a similar ability to recruit PI3K or Akt into their signaling complexes. PMID:23760533

  3. Cyclic mechanical strain maintains Nanog expression through PI3K/Akt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Rie; Akimoto, Takayuki; Hong, Zhang; Ushida, Takashi

    2012-08-15

    Mechanical strain has been reported to affect the proliferation/differentiation of many cell types; however, the effects of mechanotransduction on self-renewal as well as pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical strain on mouse ES cell fate, we examined the expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as Nanog-associated intracellular signaling during uniaxial cyclic mechanical strain. The mouse ES cell line, CCE was plated onto elastic membranes, and we applied 10% strain at 0.17 Hz. The expression of Nanog was reduced during ES cell differentiation in response to the withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); however, two days of cyclic mechanical strain attenuated this reduction of Nanog expression. On the other hand, the cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling, which is reported as an upstream of Nanog transcription. The cyclic mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Furthermore, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, also inhibited the mechanical strain-induced increase in phospho-Akt. These findings imply that mechanical force plays a role in regulating Nanog expression in ES cells through the actin cytoskeleton-PI3K-Akt signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of 'stemness' was reduced during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain attenuated the reduction of Nanog expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling and mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor and an inhibitor of actin polymerization.

  4. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. IL-4, IFN-γ and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

  5. Targeting hyperactivated DNA-PKcs by KU0060648 inhibits glioma progression and enhances temozolomide therapy via suppression of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanming; Zhang, Mingshan; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Zhihua; Zhou, Wei; Fan, Xinyi; Yu, Chunjiang; Zhan, Qimin; Song, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    The overall survival remains undesirable in clinical glioma treatment. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity by its inhibitors suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity of several tumors to chemotherapy. However, whether DNA-PKcs could be a potential target in glioma therapy remains unknown. In this study, we reported that the hyperactivated DNA-PKcs was profoundly correlated with glioma malignancy and observe a significant association between DNA-PKcs activation and survival of the glioma patients. Our data also found that inhibition of DNA-PKcs by its inhibitor KU0060648 sensitized glioma cells to TMZ in vitro. Specifically, we demonstrated that KU0060648 interrupted the formation of DNA-PKcs/AKT complex, leading to suppression of AKT signaling and resultantly enhanced TMZ efficacy. Combination of KU0060648 and TMZ substantially inhibited downstream effectors of AKT. The in vivo results were similar to those obtained in vitro. In conclusion, this study indicated that inhibition of DNA-PKcs activity could suppress glioma malignancies and increase TMZ efficacy, which was mainly through regulation of the of AKT signaling. Therefore, DNA-PKcs/AKT axis may be a promising target for improving current glioma therapy. PMID:27487130

  6. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals after high-LET radiation in mutated p53 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Yosuke

    Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses the activities of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signals were analyzed with Western blotting analysis 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis.Akt-related protein levels were decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G _{2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and depresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signals, even in the mp53 cells.

  7. FAM83B-mediated activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling cooperates to promote epithelial cell transformation and resistance to targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Rocky; Miskimen, Kristy L.S.; Bryson, Benjamin L.; Foy, Chase R.; Bartel, Courtney A.; Jackson, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Therapies targeting MAPK and AKT/mTOR signaling are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for several tumor types. However, recent studies suggest that these therapies may be limited due to acquired cancer cell resistance and a small therapeutic index between normal and cancer cells. The identification of novel proteins that are involved in MAPK or AKT/mTOR signaling and differentially expressed between normal and cancer cells will provide mechanistically distinct therapeutic targets with the potential to inhibit these key cancer-associated pathways. We recently identified FAM83B as a novel, previously uncharacterized oncogene capable of hyperactivating MAPK and mTOR signaling and driving the tumorigenicity of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). We show here that elevated FAM83B expression also activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and confers a decreased sensitivity to PI3K, AKT, and mTOR inhibitors. FAM83B co-precipitated with the p85α and p110α subunits of PI3K, as well as AKT, and increased p110α and AKT membrane localization, consistent with elevated PI3K/AKT signaling. In tumor-derived cells harboring elevated FAM83B expression, ablation of FAM83B decreased p110α and AKT membrane localization, suppressed AKT phosphorylation, and diminished proliferation, AIG, and tumorigenicity in vivo. We propose that the level of FAM83B expression may be an important factor to consider when combined therapies targeting MAPK and AKT/mTOR signaling are used. Moreover, the identification of FAM83B as a novel oncogene and its integral involvement in activating PI3K/AKT and MAPK provides a foundation for future therapies aimed at targeting FAM83B in order to suppress the growth of PI3K/AKT- and MAPK-driven cancers. PMID:23676467

  8. Lung injury, inflammation and Akt signaling following inhalation of particulate hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Schwartz, Arnold; Little, Laura G.; Gigley, Jason P.; Chun, Gina; Sugden, Kent D.

    2009-02-15

    Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0-24 h) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate. Factors associated with lung injury, inflammation and survival signaling were measured in airway lavage fluid and in lung tissue. A single chromate exposure induced an acute immune response in the lung, characterized by a rapid and significant increase in IL-6 and GRO-{alpha} levels, an influx of neutrophils, and a decline in macrophages in lung airways. Histological examination of lung tissue in animals challenged with a single chromate exposure revealed an increase in bronchiolar cell apoptosis and mucosal injury. Furthermore, chromate exposure induced injury and inflammation that progressed to alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, a single Cr(VI) challenge resulted in a rapid and persistent increase in the number of airways immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt, on serine 473. These data illustrate that chromate induces both survival signaling and an inflammatory response in the lung, which we postulate may contribute to early oncogenesis.

  9. Metallic Nanoislands on Graphene as Highly Sensitive Transducers of Mechanical, Biological, and Optical Signals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an effect based on the wetting transparency of graphene; the morphology of a metallic film (≤20 nm) when deposited on graphene by evaporation depends strongly on the identity of the substrate supporting the graphene. This control permits the formation of a range of geometries, such as tightly packed nanospheres, nanocrystals, and island-like formations with controllable gaps down to 3 nm. These graphene-supported structures can be transferred to any surface and function as ultrasensitive mechanical signal transducers with high sensitivity and range (at least 4 orders of magnitude of strain) for applications in structural health monitoring, electronic skin, measurement of the contractions of cardiomyocytes, and substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, including on the tips of optical fibers). These composite films can thus be treated as a platform technology for multimodal sensing. Moreover, they are low profile, mechanically robust, semitransparent and have the potential for reproducible manufacturing over large areas. PMID:26765039

  10. Metallic Nanoislands on Graphene as Highly Sensitive Transducers of Mechanical, Biological, and Optical Signals.

    PubMed

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Root, Samuel E; Savchenko, Alex; Molokanova, Elena; Printz, Adam D; Jibril, Liban; Arya, Gaurav; Mercola, Mark; Lipomi, Darren J

    2016-02-10

    This article describes an effect based on the wetting transparency of graphene; the morphology of a metallic film (≤20 nm) when deposited on graphene by evaporation depends strongly on the identity of the substrate supporting the graphene. This control permits the formation of a range of geometries, such as tightly packed nanospheres, nanocrystals, and island-like formations with controllable gaps down to 3 nm. These graphene-supported structures can be transferred to any surface and function as ultrasensitive mechanical signal transducers with high sensitivity and range (at least 4 orders of magnitude of strain) for applications in structural health monitoring, electronic skin, measurement of the contractions of cardiomyocytes, and substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, including on the tips of optical fibers). These composite films can thus be treated as a platform technology for multimodal sensing. Moreover, they are low profile, mechanically robust, semitransparent and have the potential for reproducible manufacturing over large areas.

  11. Curcumin sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide by simultaneously generating ROS and disrupting AKT/mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haitao; Zhou, Yun; Wen, Cuixia; Zhou, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xiang; Wang, Lifeng; You, Chuanwen; Shao, Junfei

    2014-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA alkylating agent, represents the most important chemotherapeutic option for the treatment of glioblastoma in the clinic. Despite its frequent use, the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ remains very limited due to its frequent resistance in glioblastoma. Previous evidence suggested that curcumin (CUM), an ingredient of the Indian spice turmeric, is able to sensitize glioblastoma to TMZ treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the interaction of CUM and TMZ on the inhibition of glioblastoma and to investigate its potential mechanisms of action using U87MG cell lines and xenograft mouse models. We demonstrated that CUM enhanced the therapeutic response to TMZ in U87MG glioblastoma by enhancing apoptosis. We then proceeded to investigate the potential apoptotic signaling pathways that are involved. We observed a synergistic effect of the combination of CUM and TMZ in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suggesting that ROS may contribute to the impact of CUM on sensitizing TMZ treatment. We also showed that CUM and TMZ treatment alone significantly suppressed phosphorylated AKT and mTOR, whereas their combination achieved a more pronounced inhibitory effect. These data indicated that blockage of AKT/mTOR signaling appeared to contribute to the elevated apoptosis caused by the combination treatment with CUM and TMZ. In conclusion, this study provided molecular insights into the effects of CUM on the therapeutic response of glioblastoma to TMZ and opened new avenues for optimizing the therapeutic effects of TMZ-based therapies.

  12. Characteristics of receptor- and transducer-coupled activation of the intracellular signalling in sensory neuron revealed by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Esikova, N. A.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of sensory neurons upon activation of intracellular cascade processes by comenic acid binding to a membrane opioid-like receptor (receptor-coupled), as well as a very low (endogenous) concentration of ouabain (transducer-coupled), have been investigated. Using atomic force microscopy, it is established that exposure to ouabain, in contrast to the impact of comenic acid, leads to a hardening of the neuron soma. This suggests that the receptor-coupled signal transmission to the cell genome is carried out through mechanisms that are different from the transducer-coupled signal pathways.

  13. Feedback regulation of PRL secretion is mediated by the transcription factor, signal transducer, and activator of transcription 5b.

    PubMed

    Grattan, D R; Xu, J; McLachlan, M J; Kokay, I C; Bunn, S J; Hovey, R C; Davey, H W

    2001-09-01

    PRL secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibited by dopamine produced in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons of the hypothalamus. The activity of tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons is stimulated by PRL; thus, PRL regulates its own secretion by a negative feedback mechanism. PRL receptors are expressed on tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons, but the intracellular signaling pathway is not known. We have observed that mice with a disrupted signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b gene have grossly elevated serum PRL concentrations. Despite this hyperprolactinemia, mRNA levels and immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the key enzyme in dopamine synthesis, were significantly lower in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons of these signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b-deficient mice. Concentrations of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the median eminence were also significantly lower in signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. No changes were observed in nonhypothalamic dopaminergic neuronal populations, indicating that the effects were selective to tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. These data indicate that in the absence of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, PRL signal transduction in tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons is impaired, and they demonstrate that this transcription factor plays an obligatory and nonredundant role in mediating the negative feedback action of PRL on tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons.

  14. Gα13 negatively controls osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of the Akt-GSK3β-NFATc1 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei; Lu, Yun; Zhu, Guochun; Hao, Liang; Li, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Many positive signalling pathways of osteoclastogenesis have been characterized, but negative signalling pathways are less well studied. Here we show by microarray and RNAi that guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit α13 (Gα13) is a negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclast-lineage-specific Gna13 conditional knockout mice have a severe osteoporosis phenotype. Gna13-deficiency triggers a drastic increase in both osteoclast number and activity (hyper-activation), mechanistically through decreased RhoA activity and enhanced Akt/GSK3β/NFATc1 signalling. Consistently, Akt inhibition or RhoA activation rescues hyper-activation of Gna13-deficient osteoclasts, and RhoA inhibition mimics the osteoclast hyperactivation resulting from Gna13-deficiency. Notably, Gα13 gain-of-function inhibits Akt activation and osteoclastogenesis, and protects mice from pathological bone loss in disease models. Collectively, we reveal that Gα13 is a master endogenous negative switch for osteoclastogenesis through regulation of the RhoA/Akt/GSK3β/NFATc1 signalling pathway, and that manipulating Gα13 activity might be a therapeutic strategy for bone diseases. PMID:28102206

  15. Erbin loss promotes cancer cell proliferation through feedback activation of Akt-Skp2-p27 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Song, Yuhua; Wu, Yan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Qian, Lu

    2015-07-31

    Erbin localizes at the basolateral membrane to regulate cell junctions and polarity in epithelial cells. Dysregulation of Erbin has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and yet it is still unclear if and how disrupted Erbin regulates the biological behavior of cancer cells. We report here that depletion of Erbin leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Erbin deficiency accelerates S-phase entry by down-regulating CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 via two independent mechanisms. Mechanistically, Erbin loss promotes p27 degradation by enhancing E3 ligase Skp2 activity though augmenting Akt signaling. Interestingly, we also show that Erbin is an unstable protein when the Akt-Skp2 signaling is aberrantly activated, which can be specifically destructed by SCF-Skp2 ligase. Erbin loss facilitates cell proliferation and migration in Skp2-dependent manner. Thus, our finding illustrates a novel negative feedback loop between Erbin and Akt-Skp2 signaling. It suggests disrupted Erbin links polarity loss, hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • Erbin loss leads to cancer cell excessive proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Erbin loss accelerates cell cycle though down-regulating p21 and p27 expression. • Erbin is a novel negative modulator of Akt1-Skp2-p27 signaling pathway. • Our study suggests that Erbin loss contributes to Skp2 oncogenic function.

  16. Sericin can reduce hippocampal neuronal apoptosis by activating the Akt signal transduction pathway in a rat model of diabetes mellitus☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihong; He, Yaqiang; Song, Chengjun; Dong, Zhijun; Su, Zhejun; Xue, Jingfeng

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by continuous peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. Following intragastric perfusion of sericin for 35 days, blood glucose levels significantly reduced, neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased, hippocampal phosphorylated Akt and nuclear factor kappa B expression were enhanced, but Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter expression decreased. Results demonstrated that sericin can reduce hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of diabetes mellitus by regulating abnormal changes in the Akt signal transduction pathway. PMID:25767499

  17. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J.; Aksoylar, H. Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26360589

  18. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, H Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  19. Quercetin Attenuates Cell Survival, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis via Modulation of AKT Signaling in Murine T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2017-04-01

    AKT signaling is important to maintaining normal physiology. Hyperactivation of AKT signaling is frequent in cancer, which maintains a high oxidative state in a tumor microenvironment that is needed for tumor adaptation. Therefore, antioxidants are proposed to exhibit anticancer properties by interfering with the tumor microenvironment. Quercetin is an ubiquitous bioactive antioxidant rich in vegetables and beverages. The present study aimed to analyze cancer preventive property of quercetin in ascite cells of Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice. Protein level was determined by Western blotting. Nitric oxide (NO) level was estimated spectrophotometrically using Griess reagent. Results show downregulation in phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 by quercetin, which was consistent with decreased phosphorylation of downstream survival factors such as BAD, GSK-3β, mTOR, and IkBα. Further, quercetin attenuated the levels of angiogenic factor VEGF-A and inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS as well as NO levels, whereas it increased the levels of phosphatase PTEN. Overall results suggest that quercetin modulates AKT signaling leading to attenuation of cell survival, inflammation, and angiogenesis in lymphoma-bearing mice.

  20. PI-103 attenuates PI3K-AKT signaling and induces apoptosis in murineT-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2017-05-01

    Aberrant activation of PI3K-AKT signaling in many pathological conditions including cancer has attracted much of interest for drug targeting. Various isoforms are known from three classes of PI3K. Targeting selective isoform is advantageous to overcome the global deleterious effects of drug. PI-103 is a specific inhibitor of p110α of class I PI3K. The present study is aimed to analyze anti-carcinogenic activity of PI-103 in Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) cells. Result shows regression in cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in terms of increased Annexin V binding, nuclear fragmentation and active caspase 3 level. It is correlated with attenuation of PI3K-AKT signaling by PI-103 via downregulation of the level of p110α, phospho-p85α, phospho- AKT, and PKCα in DLA cells as well as in H2O2 induced DLA cells. Additionally, ROS accumulation is declined in H2O2 induced DLA cells. Overall result suggests that PI-103 attenuates PI3K-AKT signaling via induction of apoptosis in murine T-cell lymphoma.

  1. Juglanthraquinone C Induces Intracellular ROS Increase and Apoptosis by Activating the Akt/Foxo Signal Pathway in HCC Cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Qin; Yao, Yao; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Yang, Cheng; Gao, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone extracted from Juglans mandshurica, could induce apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the detailed cytotoxicity mechanism of JC in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. The Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were first used to analyze the mRNA expression exposed to JC or DMSO in HepG2 cells. Consistent with the previous results, the data indicated that JC could induce apoptosis and hyperactivated Akt. The Western blot analysis further revealed that Akt, a well-known survival protein, was strongly activated in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, an obvious inhibitory effect on JC-induced apoptosis was observed when the Akt levels were decreased, while the overexpression of constitutively active mutant Akt greatly accelerated JC-induced apoptosis. The subsequent results suggested that JC treatment suppressed nuclear localization and increased phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a, and the overexpression of Foxo3a abrogated JC-induced apoptosis. Most importantly, the inactivation of Foxo3a induced by JC further led to an increase of intracellular ROS levels by suppressing ROS scavenging enzymes, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase successfully decreased JC-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrated that JC induced the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating Akt/Foxo signaling pathway and increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  2. Mammary ductal growth is impaired in mice lacking leptin-dependent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Stephanie R; Giesy, Sarah L; Myers, Martin G; Boisclair, Yves R

    2010-08-01

    Mice lacking leptin (ob/ob) or its full-length receptor (db/db) are obese and reproductively incompetent. Fertility, pregnancy, and lactation are restored, respectively, in ob/ob mice treated with leptin through mating, d 6.5 post coitum, and pregnancy. Therefore, leptin signaling is needed for lactation, but the timing of its action and the affected mammary process remain unknown. To address this issue, we used s/s mice lacking only leptin-dependent signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 signaling. These mice share many features with db/db mice, including obesity, but differ by retaining sufficient activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis to support reproduction. The s/s mammary epithelium was normal at 3 wk of age but failed to expand through the mammary fat pad (MFP) during the subsequent pubertal period. Ductal growth failure was not corrected by estrogen therapy and did not relate to inadequate IGF-I production by the MFP or to the need for epithelial or stromal leptin-STAT3 signaling. Ductal growth failure coincided with adipocyte hypertrophy and increased MFP production of leptin, TNFalpha, and IL6. These cytokines, however, were unable to inhibit the proliferation of a collection of mouse mammary epithelial cell lines. In conclusion, the very first step of postnatal mammary development fails in s/s mice despite sufficient estrogen IGF-I and an hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis capable of supporting reproduction. This failure is not caused by mammary loss of leptin-dependent STAT3 signaling or by the development of inflammation. These data imply the existence of an unknown mechanism whereby leptin-dependent STAT3 signaling and obesity alter mammary ductal development.

  3. REDD1 enhances protein phosphatase 2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt to repress mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Michael D.; Coleman, Catherine S.; Berg, Arthur; Jefferson, Leonard S.; Kimball, Scot R.

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) in complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes cell growth and proliferation in response to anabolic stimuli, including growth factors and nutrients. Growth factors activate mTORC1 by stimulating the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates and inhibits the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC; which is comprised of TSC1, TSC2, and TBC1D7), thereby stimulating the mTORC1 activator Rheb. Here, we identified the mechanism through which REDD1 (regulated in DNA damage and development 1) represses the mTORC1 signaling pathway. We found that REDD1 promoted the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 but not at Ser473. Consistent with previous studies showing that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr308, but not Ser473, is necessary for phosphorylation of TSC2, we observed a REDD1-dependent reduction in the phosphorylation of TSC2 and subsequently in the activity of Rheb. REDD1 and PP2A coimmunoprecipitated with Akt from wild-type but not REDD1-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that REDD1 may act as a targeting protein for the catalytic subunit of PP2A. Furthermore, binding to both Akt and PP2A was essential for REDD1 to repress signaling to mTORC1. Overall, the results demonstrate that REDD1 acts not just as a repressor of mTORC1, but also as a constant modulator of the phosphorylation of Akt in response to growth factors and nutrients. PMID:25056877

  4. Dysfunctional MnSOD leads to redox dysregulation and activation of prosurvival AKT signaling in uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Vidimar, Vania; Gius, David; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar E.; Wei, Jian-Jun; Kim, J. Julie

    2016-01-01

    AKT signaling promotes cell growth and survival and is often dysregulated via multiple mechanisms in different types of cancer, including uterine leiomyomas (ULMs). ULMs are highly prevalent fibrotic tumors that arise from the smooth muscular layer of the uterus, the myometrium (MM). ULMs pose a major public health issue because they can cause severe morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes. ‬We investigate the mechanisms driving ULM growth and survival via aberrant activation of AKT. We demonstrate that an acetylation-mediated impairment of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity is prevalent in ULM cells compared to the normal-matched MM from the same patients. This impairment increases the levels of superoxide and oxidative stress, which activate AKT via oxidative inactivation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Redox activation of AKT promotes ULM cell survival under conditions of moderate but persistent oxidative stress that are compatible with ULM’s prooxidative microenvironment. Moreover, because of impaired MnSOD activity, ULM cells are sensitive to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide-generating compounds, resulting in decreased ULM cell viability. On the contrary, MM cells with functional MnSOD are more resistant to high levels of oxidants. This study demonstrates a causative role of acetylation-mediated MnSOD dysfunction in activating prosurvival AKT signaling in ULMs. The specific AKT and redox states of ULM cells provide a potential novel therapeutic rationale to selectively target ULM cells because of their defective ROS-scavenging system.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ PMID:27847869

  5. Neuroprotective Role of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Yunzhang; Rong, Xiaozhi; Li, Yun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Lu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal survival and growth in the embryo is controlled partly by trophic factors. For most trophic factors (such as Insulin-like growth factor-1), the ability to regulate cell survival has been attributed to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase cascade. This study presents data illustrating the role of PI3K/Akt in attainment of normal brain size during zebrafish embryogenesis. Blocking PI3K with inhibitor LY294002 caused a significant reduction in brain size (in addition to global growth retardation) during zebrafish embryogenesis. This PI3 Kinase inhibition-induced brain size decrease was recovered by the overexpression of myristoylated Akt (myr-Akt), a constitutive form of Akt. Further analysis reveals that expressing exogenous myr-Akt significantly augmented brain size. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of several marker genes showed that myr-Akt overexpression did not alter brain patterning. Furthermore, the expression of myr-Akt was found to protect neuronal cells from apoptosis induced by heat shock and UV light, suggesting that inhibition of neuronal cell death may be part of the underlying cause of the increased brain size. These data provide a foundation for addressing the role of PI3K/Akt in brain growth during zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:28228749

  6. Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through suppressing cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wenhao; Xu, Chan; Hong, Zongguo; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2014-12-01

    Kurarinol is a flavonoid isolated from roots of the medical plant Sophora flavescens. However, its cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and toxic effects on mammalians remain largely unexplored. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities of kurarinol on HCC cells and its toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis were also investigated. We found that kurarinol dose-dependently provoked HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In addition, kurarinol gave rise to a considerable decrease in the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in HCC cells. Suppression of STAT3 signaling is involved in kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that kurarinol injection substantially induced transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, the transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues was significantly suppressed after kurarinol treatment. Collectively, our current research demonstrated that kurarinol has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with undetectable toxic impacts on the host. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in kurarinol-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. • Kurarinol induces HCC cell apoptosis via inhibiting STAT3. • Kurarinol exhibits low toxic effects on tumor-bearing animals.

  7. Effect of eccentric exercise velocity on akt/mtor/p70(s6k) signaling in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowistch, Carlos; Barroso, Renato; Batista, Mauro A B; Souza, Eduardo O; Aoki, Marcelo S; Siqueira-Filho, Mario A; Zanuto, Ricardo; Carvalho, Carla R O; Neves, Manoel; Mello, Marco T; Tricoli, Valmor

    2011-04-01

    It has been suggested that muscle tension plays a major role in the activation of intracellular pathways for skeletal muscle hypertrophy via an increase in mechano growth factor (MGF) and other downstream targets. Eccentric exercise (EE) imposes a greater amount of tension on the active muscle. In particular, high-speed EE seems to exert an additional effect on muscle tension and, thus, on muscle hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of EE velocity on hypertrophy signaling. This study investigated the effect of acute EE-velocity manipulation on the Akt/mTORCI/p70(S6K) hypertrophy pathway. Twenty subjects were assigned to either a slow (20°·s(-1); ES) or fast EE (210°·s(-1); EF) group. Biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis at baseline (B), immediately after (T1), and 2 h after (T2) the completion of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of eccentric knee extensions. Akt, mTOR, and p70(S6K) total protein were similar between groups, and did not change postintervention. Further, Akt and p70(S6K) protein phosphorylation were higher at T2 than at B for ES and EF. MGF messenger RNA was similar between groups, and only significantly higher at T2 than at B in ES. The acute manipulation of EE velocity does not seem to differently influence intracellular hypertrophy signaling through the Akt/mTORCI/p70S6K pathway.

  8. Targeted disruption of TC-PTP in the proliferative compartment augments STAT3 and AKT signaling and skin tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunseung; Kim, Mihwa; Baek, Minwoo; Morales, Liza D.; Jang, Ik-Soon; Slaga, Thomas J.; DiGiovanni, John; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is a vital mechanism that contributes to skin carcinogenesis. It is regulated by the counter-activities of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here, we report the critical role of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP), encoded by Ptpn2, in chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis via the negative regulation of STAT3 and AKT signaling. Using epidermal specific TC-PTP knockout (K14Cre.Ptpn2fl/fl) mice, we demonstrate loss of TC-PTP led to a desensitization to tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced apoptosis both in vivo epidermis and in vitro keratinocytes. TC-PTP deficiency also resulted in a significant increase in epidermal thickness and hyperproliferation following exposure to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Western blot analysis showed that both phosphorylated STAT3 and phosphorylated AKT expressions were significantly increased in epidermis of TC-PTP-deficient mice compared to control mice following TPA treatment. Inhibition of STAT3 or AKT reversed the effects of TC-PTP deficiency on apoptosis and proliferation. Finally, TC-PTP knockout mice showed a shortened latency of tumorigenesis and significantly increased numbers of tumors during two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Our findings reveal that TC-PTP has potential as a novel target for the prevention of skin cancer through its role in the regulation of STAT3 and AKT signaling. PMID:28322331

  9. The AKT-mTOR signalling pathway in kidney cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Kolegova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    An increased expression of phospho-AKT, m-TOR, glycogen regulator GSK-3-beta and transcription inhibitor 4E-BP1 was observed in kidney cancer tissues. Tumor size growth was associated with a high level of c-Raf and low content of phospho-m-TOR. Cancer metastasis development led to a decreased PTEN and phospho-AKT expression.

  10. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  11. Euphorbia fischeriana Steud inhibits malignant melanoma via modulation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DONG, MENG-HUA; ZHANG, QIAN; WANG, YUAN-YUAN; ZHOU, BAI-SUI; SUN, YU-FEI; FU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers by the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and the inhibitory effect of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud on the growth and metastasis of melanoma B16 cells in vitro, and the underlying mechanisms. MTT assay results indicated that Euphorbia fischeriana Steud inhibited the growth of B16 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Euphorbia fischeriana Steud markedly induced apoptosis of the B16 cells, with arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, in a Transwell assay Euphorbia fischeriana Steud significantly suppressed the migration of B16 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were upregulated, and the phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated, which resulted in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and the eventual suppression of its downstream targets, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA, in B16 cells. The results demonstrated that Euphorbia fischeriana Steud inhibited the growth and migration of B16 cells, possibly via modulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and upregulation of PTEN expression levels, in addition to downregulation of p-Akt expression. The aforementioned findings suggest that Euphorbia fischeriana Steud may have broad therapeutic applications in the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:27073468

  12. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide signaling by 4-hydroxynonenal due to differential regulation of Akt1 and Akt2 contributes to decreases in cell survival and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Reigan, Philip; Petersen, Dennis R

    2012-07-01

    Dysregulation of cell signaling by electrophiles such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a key component in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory liver disease. Another consequence of inflammation is the perpetuation of oxidative damage by the production of reactive oxidative species such as hydrogen peroxide. Previously, we have demonstrated Akt2 as a direct target of 4-HNE in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In the present study, we used the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 as model to understand the combinatorial effects of 4-HNE and hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrate that 4-HNE inhibits hydrogen peroxide-mediated phosphorylation of Akt1 but not Akt2. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with 4-HNE prevented hydrogen peroxide stimulation of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of downstream targets and intracellular Akt activity compared with untreated control cells. Using biotin hydrazide capture, it was confirmed that 4-HNE treatment resulted in carbonylation of Akt1, which was not observed in untreated control cells. Using a synthetic GSK3α/β peptide as a substrate, treatment of recombinant human myristoylated Akt1 (rAkt1) with 20 or 40 μΜ 4-HNE inhibited rAkt1 activity by 29 and 60%, respectively. We further demonstrate that 4-HNE activates Erk via a PI3 kinase and PP2A-dependent mechanism leading to increased Jnk phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, 4-HNE decreased both cell survival and proliferation as evidenced by MTT assays and EdU incorporation as well as decreased expression of cyclin D1 and β-catenin, an effect only moderately increased by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The ability of 4-HNE to exert combinatorial effects on Erk, Jnk, and Akt-dependent cell survival pathways provides additional insight into the mechanisms of cellular damage associated with chronic inflammation.

  13. Novel pharmacodynamic biomarkers for MYCN protein and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway signaling in children with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer R; Moreno, Lucas; Heaton, Simon P; Chesler, Louis; Pearson, Andrew D J; Garrett, Michelle D

    2016-04-01

    There is an urgent need for improved therapies for children with high-risk neuroblastoma where survival rates remain low. MYCN amplification is the most common genomic change associated with aggressive neuroblastoma and drugs targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR, to activate MYCN oncoprotein degradation, are entering clinical evaluation. Our aim was to develop and validate pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers to evaluate both proof of mechanism and proof of concept for drugs that block PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity in children with neuroblastoma. We have addressed the issue of limited access to tumor biopsies for quantitative detection of protein biomarkers by optimizing a three-color fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) method to purify CD45-/GD2+/CD56+ neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow. We then developed a novel quantitative measurement of MYCN protein in these isolated neuroblastoma cells, providing the potential to demonstrate proof of concept for drugs that inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in this disease. In addition we have established quantitative detection of three biomarkers for AKT pathway activity (phosphorylated and total AKT, GSK3β and P70S6K) in surrogate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from pediatric patients. Together our new approach to neuroblastoma cell isolation for protein detection and suite of PD assays provides for the first time the opportunity for robust, quantitative measurement of protein-based PD biomarkers in this pediatric patient population. These will be ideal tools to support clinical evaluation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway drugs and their ability to target MYCN oncoprotein in upcoming clinical trials in neuroblastoma.

  14. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation. PMID:28072855

  15. SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signaling in Lipid Rafts Induces Platelet Aggregation via PI3 Kinase-Dependent Akt Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiroko; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Moyuru; Kaneda, Mizuho; Iida, Kazuko; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Hara, Takahiko; Arai, Morio; Koike, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Kasahara, Kohji

    2017-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through its G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). Here, we demonstrate that SDF-1α induces phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 and Ser473 in human platelets. SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. SDF-1α also induces the phosphorylation of PDK1 at Ser241 (an upstream activator of Akt), GSK3β at Ser9 (a downstream substrate of Akt), and myosin light chain at Ser19 (a downstream element of the Akt signaling pathway). SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SDF-1α-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation are inhibited by pretreatment with the raft-disrupting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Sucrose density gradient analysis shows that 35% of CXCR4, 93% of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαi-1, 91% of Gαi-2, 50% of Gβ and 4.0% of PI3Kβ, and 4.5% of Akt2 are localized in the detergent-resistant membrane raft fraction. These findings suggest that SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in lipid rafts induces platelet aggregation via PI3K-dependent Akt phosphorylation.

  16. The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in Rift Valley fever virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Chelsea; An, Soyeon; Lundberg, Lindsay; Bansal, Neha; Benedict, Ashwini; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and livestock, triggering spontaneous abortion in almost 100% of pregnant ruminants. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is phosphorylated on its conserved tyrosine residue (Y705) following RVFV infection. This phosphorylation was dependent on a major virulence factor, the viral nonstructural protein NSs. Loss of STAT3 had little effect on viral replication, but rather resulted in cells being more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. Phosphorylated STAT3 translocated to the nucleus, coinciding with inhibition of fos, jun, and nr4a2 gene expression, and the presence of STAT3 and NSs at the nr4a2 promoter. NSs was found predominantly in the cytoplasm of STAT3 null cells, indicating that STAT3 influences NSs nuclear localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity through modulation of NSs localization.

  17. Nitric-oxide synthase is a mechanical signal transducer that modulates talin and vinculin expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidball, J. G.; Spencer, M. J.; Wehling, M.; Lavergne, E.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli can cause changes in muscle mass and structure which indicate that mechanisms exist for transducing mechanical stimuli into signals that influence gene expression. Myotendinous junctions show adaptations to modified muscle loading which suggest that these are transcriptionally distinct domains in muscle fibers that may experience local regulation of expression of structural proteins that are concentrated at these sites. Vinculin and talin are cytoskeletal proteins that are highly enriched at myotendinous junctions that we hypothesize to be subject to local transcriptional regulation. Our findings show that mechanical stimulation of muscle cells in vivo and in vitro causes an increase in the expression of vinculin and talin that is mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, nitric oxide-stimulated increases in vinculin and talin expression occur through a protein kinase G-dependent pathway and therefore differ from other mechanisms through which nitric oxide has been shown previously to modulate transcription. Analysis of vinculin mRNA distribution in mechanically stimulated muscle fibers shows that the mRNA is highly concentrated at myotendinous junctions, which supports the hypothesis that myotendinous junctions are distinct domains in which the expression of cytoskeletal proteins is modulated by mechanical stimuli through a nitric oxide and protein kinase G-dependent pathway.

  18. The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in Rift Valley fever virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkham, Chelsea; An, Soyeon; Lundberg, Lindsay; Bansal, Neha; Benedict, Ashwini; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-09-15

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and livestock, triggering spontaneous abortion in almost 100% of pregnant ruminants. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is phosphorylated on its conserved tyrosine residue (Y705) following RVFV infection. This phosphorylation was dependent on a major virulence factor, the viral nonstructural protein NSs. Loss of STAT3 had little effect on viral replication, but rather resulted in cells being more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. Phosphorylated STAT3 translocated to the nucleus, coinciding with inhibition of fos, jun, and nr4a2 gene expression, and the presence of STAT3 and NSs at the nr4a2 promoter. NSs was found predominantly in the cytoplasm of STAT3 null cells, indicating that STAT3 influences NSs nuclear localization. Collectively, these data demonstrate that STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity through modulation of NSs localization. - Highlights: • STAT3 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residue 705 following RVFV infection. • Phosphorylation of STAT3 was dependent on the viral protein NSs. • STAT3 -/- MEFs were more susceptible to RVFV-induced cell death. • Loss of STAT3 led to an increase in pro-apoptotic gene expression. • STAT3 functions in a pro-survival capacity by modulation of NSs localization.

  19. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) modulates adipocyte differentiation via MOF.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yuchao; Liu, Yuantao; Chen, Jicui; Zong, Chen; Yu, Cong; Cui, Shang; Gao, Weina; Qin, Dandan; Sun, Wenchuan; Li, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong

    2015-12-01

    The role and mechanism of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) in adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, our data showed that Males absent on the first (MOF) protein expression was increased during 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation accompanied with STAT5B expression increasing. Over-expression STAT5B enhanced MOF promoter trans-activation in HeLa cells. Mutagenesis assay and ChIP analysis exhibited that STAT5B was able to bind MOF promoter. Knocking-down STAT5B in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes led to decreased expression of MOF, but resulted in increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), which were important factors or enzymes for adipogenesis. We also found that knocking-down MOF in 3 T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in increased expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and Fabp4, which was in the same trend as STAT5B knocking-down. Over-expression MOF resulted in reduced promoter trans-activation activity of C/EBPα. These results suggest that STAT5B and MOF work as negative regulators in adipogenesis, and STAT5B modulates preadipocytes differentiation partially by regulating MOF expression.

  20. Gadd45 Proteins as Critical Signal Transducers Linking NF-κB to MAPK Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z.; Song, L.; Huang, C.

    2013-01-01

    The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45) proteins are a group of critical signal transducers that are involved in regulations of many cellular functions. Accumulated data indicate that all three Gadd45 proteins (i.e., Gadd45α, Gadd45β, and Gadd45γ) play essential roles in connecting an upstream sensor module, the transcription Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), to a transcriptional regulating module, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This NF-κB-Gadd45(s)-MAPK pathway responds to various kinds of extracellular stimuli and regulates such cell activities as growth arrest, differentiation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Defects in this pathway can also be related to oncogenesis. In the first part of this review, the functions of Gadd45 proteins, and briefly NF-κB and MAPK, are summarized. In the second part, the mechanisms by which Gadd45 proteins are regulated by NF-κB, and how they affect MAPK activation, are reviewed. PMID:20025601

  1. Caffeine modulates tau phosphorylation and affects Akt signaling in postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Currais, Antonio; Kato, Kiyoko; Canuet, Leonides; Ishii, Ryouhei; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takeda, Masatoshi; Soriano, Salvador

    2011-03-01

    Neuronal cell cycle reentry, which is associated with aberrant tau phosphorylation, is thought to be a mechanism of neurodegeneration in AD. Caffeine is a neuroprotective drug known to inhibit the cell cycle, suggesting that its neuroprotective nature may rely, at least in part, on preventing tau abnormalities secondary to its inhibitory effect on neuronal cell cycle-related pathways. Accordingly, we have explored in the present study the impact of caffeine on cell cycle-linked parameters and tau phosphorylation patterns in an attempt to identify molecular clues to its neuroprotective effect. We show that caffeine blocks the cell cycle at G1 phase in neuroblastoma cells and leads to a decrease in tau phosphorylation; similarly, exposure of postmitotic neurons to caffeine led to changes in tau phosphorylation concomitantly with downregulation of Akt signaling. Taken together, our results show a unique impact of caffeine on tau phosphorylation and warrant further investigation to address whether caffeine may help prevent neuronal death by preventing tau abnormalities secondary to aberrant entry into the cell cycle.

  2. The marine fungal metabolite, AD0157, inhibits angiogenesis by targeting the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    García-Caballero, Melissa; Cañedo, Librada; Fernández-Medarde, Antonio; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-16

    In the course of a screening program for the inhibitors of angiogenesis from marine sources, AD0157, a pyrrolidinedione fungal metabolite, was selected for its angiosupressive properties. AD0157 inhibited the growth of endothelial and tumor cells in culture in the micromolar range. Our results show that subtoxic doses of this compound inhibit certain functions of endothelial cells, namely, differentiation, migration and proteolytic capability. Inhibition of the mentioned essential steps of in vitro angiogenesis is in agreement with the observed antiangiogenic activity, substantiated by using two in vivo angiogenesis models, the chorioallantoic membrane and the zebrafish embryo neovascularization assays, and by the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay. Our data indicate that AD0157 induces apoptosis in endothelial cells through chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, increases in the subG1 peak and caspase activation. The data shown here altogether indicate for the first time that AD0157 displays antiangiogenic effects, both in vitro and in vivo, that are exerted partly by targeting the Akt signaling pathway in activated endothelial cells. The fact that these effects are carried out at lower concentrations than those required for other inhibitors of angiogenesis makes AD0157 a new promising drug candidate for further evaluation in the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  3. Rab14 Act as Oncogene and Induce Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells via AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenghao; Li, Qian; Zhou, Kaiyue; Zhao, Lingyu; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Juan; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Rab14 is a member of RAS oncogene family, and its dysfunction has been reported to be involved in various types of human cancer. However, its expression and function were still unclear in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and mechanism of Rab14 in gastric cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed in 17 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 4 cell lines to detect the expression of Rab14. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation and flow cytometry assays were employed to determine the proliferative ability, cell cycle transition and apoptosis in vitro in BGC-823 or SGC-7901 cells. Western blot was performed to investigate the pathways and mechanism of Rab14 regulation. In this study, we show that Rab14 presents a significant up-regulated expression among the paired tissue samples and cell lines in gastric cancer. When we overexpressed Rab14 in SGC-7901 cells or silenced Rab14 in BGC-823 cells, we found that Rab14 could modify cell growth, cell cycle or apoptosis, which accompanied with an obvious regulation of CCND1, CDK2 and BAX involving in AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study provides a new evidence on that Rab14 functions as a novel tumor oncogene and could be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28107526

  4. Low Concentration of Caffeine Inhibits the Progression of the Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuying; Kong, Jian; Kong, Jinge; Shen, Qiang; Kong, Fandong; Sun, Wenbing; Zheng, Lemin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have reported that caffeine has anticancer effects at high blood concentrations. However, whether caffeine has anticancer effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells at low concentration, especially at physiologically applicable concentration (< 412 μM) is still not well understood. In this study, HCC cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 were used. The cells were incubated with varying concentrations of caffeine (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 600 μM). MTT assay was used to investigate the proliferation ability in vitro. Migration and invasion abilities were determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. The molecular changes were detected by western blot. An ectopic nude mice model which the mice were gavaged with caffeine was used to reveal the anticancer effects of caffeine on HepG2 cells in vivo. Results showed that caffeine could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion significantly at physiologically applicable concentration in vitro. Also the associated molecular changes of cancer progression were observed. In animal experiment, the mice gavaged with caffeine also performanced reduced tumor burden in vivo. Moreover, the interrelated protein expression was also observed in vivo which was coincident with the results in vitro. All in all, this observation indicated that caffeine may suppress the progression of HCC through Akt signaling pathway. This makes caffeine a potential candidate for treating HCC which will be a safer and more effective treatment by giving for a long time at physiologically applicable concentration.

  5. Flavonoids Extraction from Propolis Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy through PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-wei; Qiu, Zhi-dong; Wang, Wei-nan; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Propolis, a traditional medicine, has been widely used for a thousand years as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drug. The flavonoid fraction is the main active component of propolis, which possesses a wide range of biological activities, including activities related to heart disease. However, the role of the flavonoids extraction from propolis (FP) in heart disease remains unknown. This study shows that FP could attenuate ISO-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH) and heart failure in mice. The effect of the two fetal cardiac genes, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), on PCH was reversed by FP. Echocardiography analysis revealed cardiac ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction in ISO-treated mice. This finding is consistent with the increased heart weight and cardiac ANF protein levels, massive replacement fibrosis, and myocardial apoptosis. However, pretreatment of mice with FP could attenuate cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy in vivo. Furthermore, the cardiac protection of FP was suppressed by the pan-PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. FP is a novel cardioprotective agent that can attenuate adverse cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and associated disorder, such as fibrosis. The effects may be closely correlated with PI3K/AKT signaling. FP may be clinically used to inhibit PCH progression and heart failure. PMID:27213000

  6. Akt signaling leads to stem cell activation and promotes tumor development in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Segrelles, Carmen; García-Escudero, Ramón; Garín, Maria I; Aranda, Juan F; Hernández, Pilar; Ariza, José M; Santos, Mirentxu; Paramio, Jesús M; Lorz, Corina

    2014-07-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) alternate between periods of quiescence and proliferation, to finally differentiate into all the cell types that constitute the hair follicle. Also, they have been recently identified as cells of origin in skin cancer. HF-SCs localize in a precise region of the hair follicle, the bulge, and molecular markers for this population have been established. Thus, HF-SCs are good model to study the potential role of oncogenic activations on SC physiology. Expression of a permanently active form of Akt (myrAkt) in basal cells leads to Akt hyperactivation specifically in the CD34(+)Itga6(H) population. This activation causes bulge stem cells to exit from quiescence increasing their response to proliferative stimuli and affecting some functions such as cell migration. HF-SC identity upon Akt activation is preserved; in this sense, increased proliferation does not result in stem cell exhaustion with age suggesting that Akt activation does not affect self-renewal an important aspect for normal tissue maintenance and cancer development. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of HF-SC isolated from myrAkt and wild-type epidermis underscores changes in metabolic pathways characteristic of cancer cells. These differences manifest during a two-step carcinogenesis protocol in which Akt activation in HF-SCs results in increased tumor development and malignant transformation.

  7. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex-associated Gbetagamma subunits activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling in skeletal muscle in a laminin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein (Galphabetagamma) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsalpha subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gbetagamma, released when Gsalpha is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gbetagamma, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gbetagamma. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to alpha-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gbetagamma also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gbetagamma is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin beta1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gbetagamma, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gbetagamma, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gbetagamma-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Upregulating integrin beta1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease.

  8. Liver Clock Protein BMAL1 Promotes de Novo Lipogenesis through Insulin-mTORC2-AKT Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deqiang; Tong, Xin; Arthurs, Blake; Guha, Anirvan; Rui, Liangyou; Kamath, Avani; Inoki, Ken; Yin, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The clock protein BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1) participates in circadian regulation of lipid metabolism, but its contribution to insulin AKT-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis is unclear. Here we used both Bmal1−/− and acute liver-specific Bmal1-depleted mice to study the role of BMAL1 in refeeding-induced de novo lipogenesis in the liver. Both global deficiency and acute hepatic depletion of Bmal1 reduced lipogenic gene expression in the liver upon refeeding. Conversely, Bmal1 overexpression in mouse liver by adenovirus was sufficient to elevate the levels of mRNA of lipogenic enzymes. Bmal1−/− primary mouse hepatocytes displayed decreased levels of de novo lipogenesis and lipogenic enzymes, supporting the notion that BMAL1 regulates lipid synthesis in hepatocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. Both refed mouse liver and insulin-treated primary mouse hepatocytes showed impaired AKT activation in the case of either Bmal1 deficiency or Bmal1 depletion by adenoviral shRNA. Restoring AKT activity by a constitutively active mutant of AKT nearly normalized de novo lipogenesis in Bmal1−/− hepatocytes. Finally, Bmal1 deficiency or knockdown decreased the protein abundance of RICTOR, the key component of the mTORC2 complex, without affecting the gene expression of key factors of insulin signaling. Thus, our study uncovered a novel metabolic function of hepatic BMAL1 that promotes de novo lipogenesis via the insulin-mTORC2-AKT signaling during refeeding. PMID:25063808

  9. Repression of BIM mediates survival signaling by MYC and AKT in high-risk T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C; Roderick, J E; LaBelle, J L; Bird, G; Mathieu, R; Bodaar, K; Colon, D; Pyati, U; Stevenson, K E; Qi, J; Harris, M; Silverman, L B; Sallan, S E; Bradner, J E; Neuberg, D S; Look, A T; Walensky, L D; Kelliher, M A; Gutierrez, A

    2014-09-01

    Treatment resistance in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is associated with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletions and resultant phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway activation, as well as MYC overexpression, and these pathways repress mitochondrial apoptosis in established T-lymphoblasts through poorly defined mechanisms. Normal T-cell progenitors are hypersensitive to mitochondrial apoptosis, a phenotype that is dependent on the expression of proapoptotic BIM. In a conditional zebrafish model, MYC downregulation induced BIM expression in T-lymphoblasts, an effect that was blunted by expression of constitutively active AKT. In human T-ALL cell lines and treatment-resistant patient samples, treatment with MYC or PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors each induced BIM upregulation and apoptosis, indicating that BIM is repressed downstream of MYC and PI3K-AKT in high-risk T-ALL. Restoring BIM function in human T-ALL cells using a stapled peptide mimetic of the BIM BH3 domain had therapeutic activity, indicating that BIM repression is required for T-ALL viability. In the zebrafish model, where MYC downregulation induces T-ALL regression via mitochondrial apoptosis, T-ALL persisted despite MYC downregulation in 10% of bim wild-type zebrafish, 18% of bim heterozygotes and in 33% of bim homozygous mutants (P=0.017). We conclude that downregulation of BIM represents a key survival signal downstream of oncogenic MYC and PI3K-AKT signaling in treatment-resistant T-ALL.

  10. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 promotes angiogenesis and drives malignant progression in glioma.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Tiffany A; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Yang, Yuhui; Ferguson, Sherise D; Yang, Jinbo; Wei, Jun; Qiao, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N; Bhat, Krishna P; Aldape, Kenneth; Priebe, Waldemar; Bögler, Oliver; Heimberger, Amy B; Rao, Ganesh

    2012-09-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 has been described as a "master regulator" of signaling pathways involved in the transition from low-grade glioma (LGG) to high-grade glioma (HGG). Although STAT3 is overexpressed in HGGs, it remains unclear whether its overexpression is sufficient to induce or promote the malignant progression of glioma. To characterize the effect of STAT3 expression on tumor progression in vivo, we expressed the STAT3 gene in glioneuronal progenitor cells in mice. STAT3 was expressed alone or concurrently with platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), a well-described initiator of LGG. STAT3 alone was insufficient to induce tumor formation; however, coexpression of STAT3 with PDGFB in mice resulted in a significantly higher incidence of HGGs than PDGFB alone. The median symptomatic tumor latency in mice coexpressing STAT3 and PDGFB was significantly shorter, and mice that developed symptomatic tumors demonstrated significantly higher expression of phosphorylated STAT3 intratumorally. In HGGs, expression of STAT3 was associated with suppression of apoptosis and an increase in tumor cell proliferation. HGGs induced by STAT3 and PDGFB also displayed frequent foci of necrosis and microvascular proliferation. The expression of CD31 (a marker of endothelial proliferation) was significantly higher in tumors induced by coexpression of STAT3 and PDGFB. When mice injected with PDGFB and STAT3 were treated with a STAT3 inhibitor, median survival increased and the incidence of HGG and CD31 expression decreased significantly. These results demonstrate that STAT3 promotes the malignant progression of glioma. Inhibiting STAT3 expression mitigates tumor progression and improves survival, validating it as a therapeutic target.

  11. Suppression of Akt-HIF-1α signaling axis by diacetyl atractylodiol inhibits hypoxia-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Kie-In; Kim, Sun-Lim; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Seo, Woo Duck

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a key regulator associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. HIF-1α regulation under hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that diacetyl atractylodiol (DAA) from Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica) is a potent HIF-1α inhibitor that inhibits the Akt signaling pathway. DAA dose-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and downregulated Akt signaling without affecting the stability of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, DAA prevented hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis based on in vitro tube formation and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Therefore, DAA might be useful for treatment of hypoxia-related tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 508-513] PMID:27439603

  12. BRAIN OVERGROWTH IN DISORDERS OF RTK-PI3K-AKT SIGNALING: A MOSAIC OF MALFORMATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hevner, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of brain overgrowth are significant causes of intractable epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism, and other complex neurological problems. The pathology of these disorders is sometimes striking and characteristic, as in hemimegalencephaly, but can also be subtle, as in autism. Recent genetic studies have shown that many diverse forms of brain overgrowth are caused by de novo mutations that increase activity in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)–phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT signaling pathway, a key mediator of signaling by growth factors in the developing brain, such as fibroblast growth factors. In cases where mutations arise in postzygotic embryos, brain regions exhibit mosaic pathology that reflects the distribution of mutant cells, ranging from focal cortical dysplasia to lobar or hemispheric overgrowth. In turn, the histopathology of these disorders is also remarkably varied. The common underlying mechanisms of RTK-PI3K-AKT overactivation suggest new possibilities for drugs that inhibit this pathway. PMID:25432429

  13. PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways, ovarian dysfunction, and infertility: an update.

    PubMed

    Makker, Annu; Goel, Madhu Mati; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-12-01

    Abnormalities in ovarian function, including defective oogenesis and folliculogenesis, represent a key female reproductive deficiency. Accumulating evidence in the literature has shown that the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR signaling pathways are critical regulators of ovarian function including quiescence, activation, and survival of primordial follicles, granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and meiotic maturation of oocytes. Dysregulation of these signaling pathways may contribute to infertility caused by impaired follicular development, intrafollicular oocyte development, and ovulation. This article reviews the current state of knowledge of the functional role of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt and TSC/mTOR pathways during mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis and their association with female infertility.

  14. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps.

  15. DYRK1B blocks canonical and promotes non-canonical Hedgehog signaling through activation of the mTOR/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajeev; Dhanyamraju, Pavan Kumar; Lauth, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays important roles in embryonic development and in tumor formation. Apart from the well-established stimulation of the GLI family of transcription factors, Hh ligands promote the phosphorylation and activation of mTOR and AKT kinases, yet the molecular mechanism underlying these processes are unknown. Here, we identify the DYRK1B kinase as a mediator between Hh signaling and mTOR/AKT activation. In fibroblasts, Hh signaling induces DYRK1B protein expression, resulting in activation of the mTOR/AKT kinase signaling arm. Furthermore, DYRK1B exerts positive and negative feedback regulation on the Hh pathway itself: It negatively interferes with SMO-elicited canonical Hh signaling, while at the same time it provides positive feed-forward functions by promoting AKT-mediated GLI stability. Due to the fact that the mTOR/AKT pathway is itself subject to strong negative feedback regulation, pharmacological inhibition of DYRK1B results in initial upregulation followed by downregulation of AKT phosphorylation and GLI stabilization. Addressing this issue therapeutically, we show that a pharmacological approach combining a DYRK1B antagonist with an mTOR/AKT inhibitor results in strong GLI1 targeting and in pronounced cytotoxicity in human pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells. PMID:27903983

  16. STC2 promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through modulating the PI3K/AKT/Snail signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuwen; Ji, Qinghai; Chang, Bin; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yongxue; Li, Duanshu; Huang, Caiping; Wang, Yulong; Sun, Guohua; Zhang, Ling; Guan, Qing; Xiang, Jun; Wei, Wenjun; Lu, Zhongwu; Liao, Tian; Meng, Jiao; Wang, Ziliang; Ma, Ben; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yu; Yang, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian peptide hormone stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) plays an oncogenic role in many human cancers. However, the exact function of STC2 in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unclear. We aimed to examine the function and clinical significance of STC2 in HNSCC. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we show that overexpression of STC2 suppressed cell apoptosis, promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. By contrast, silencing of STC2 inhibited these activities. We further show that STC2 upregulated the phosphorylation of AKT and enhanced HNSCC metastasis via Snail-mediated increase of vimentin and decrease of E-cadherin. These responses were blocked by silencing of STC2/Snail expression or inhibition of pAKT activity. Furthermore, clinical data indicate that high STC2 expression was associated with high levels of pAKT and Snail in tumor samples from HNSCC patients with regional lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). Thus, we conclude that STC2 controls HNSCC metastasis via the PI3K/AKT/Snail signaling axis and that targeted therapy against STC2 may be a novel strategy to effectively treat patients with metastatic HNSCC. PMID:27863406

  17. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  18. WISP1 overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells via AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Liu, Hao; Lu, Lihe; Wan, Heng; Lin, Zhiqi; Qian, Kai; Yao, Xingxing; Chen, Qing; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Jianyun; Liu, Zhengjun

    2016-10-05

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play crucial roles in the development of vascular restenosis. Our previous study showed that CCN4, namely Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), significantly promotes proliferation and migration of rat VSMCs, but its mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate whether and how WISP1 stimulates proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Western blot analysis showed that FBS treatment increased WISP1 protein levels in human VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of WISP1 using adenovirus encoding WISP1 (AD-WISP1) significantly increased proliferation rate of human VSMCs by 2.98-fold compared with empty virus (EV)-transfected cells, shown by EdU incorporation assay. Additionally, Scratch-induced wound healing assay revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WISP1 significantly increased cell migration compared with EV-transfected cells from 6h (4.56±1.14% vs. 11.23±2.25%, P<0.05) to 48h (25.25±5.51% vs. 97.54±13.12%, P<0.01) after injury. Transwell Migration Assay confirmed that WISP1 overexpression significantly promoted human VSMC migration by 2.25-fold compared with EV. Furthermore, WISP1 overexpression stimulated Akt signaling activation in human VSMCs. Blockage of Akt signaling by Akt inhibitor AZD5363 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002, led to an inhibitory effect of WISP1-induced proliferation and migration in human VSMCs. Moreover, we found that WISP1 overexpression stimulated GSK3α/β phosphorylation, and increased expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9 in human VSMCs, and this effect was abolished by AZD5363. Collectively, we demonstrated that Akt signaling pathway mediates WISP1-induced migration and proliferation of human VSMCs, suggesting that WISP1 may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for vascular restenosis.

  19. PPAR-γ agonist stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; He, Ming; Guo, Zong-wei; Wen, Jin-kun

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •PPAR-γ increases KLF4 protein level but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. •The increase of KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. •Pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) plays important roles in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. Both KLF4 and PPAR-γ are involved in VSMC proliferation and differentiation. However, the actual relationship between KLF4 and PPAR-γ in VSMCs is not clear. In this study, we found that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone increases KLF4 protein levels but does not influence KLF4 gene transcription. PPAR-γ overexpression increases, while PPAR-γ knockdown reduces KLF4 expression, suggesting that the increase in KLF4 protein levels induced by pioglitazone is PPAR-γ-dependent. Further study showed that pioglitazone enhances KLF4 protein stability through reducing KLF4 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that stabilization of KLF4 by pioglitazone was related to the activation of Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, we revealed that PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone stabilizes KLF4 protein via activating Akt signaling and reducing KLF4 ubiquitination, providing further insights into PPAR-γ and KLF4 in regulating each other’s expression in VSMCs.

  20. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  1. Increased basal level of Akt-dependent insulin signaling may be responsible for the development of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Yu; Hong, Tao; Wen, Ge-Bo; Han, Jianmin; Zuo, Degen; Liu, Zhenqi

    2009-01-01

    A majority of subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can maintain their blood glucose levels normal for the whole life presumably through protein kinase B (Akt)-dependent insulin signaling. In this study, we found that the basal Akt phosphorylation level was increased in liver and gastrocnemius of mice under the high-fat diet (HFD). Levels of mitochondrial DNA and expression of some mitochondrion-associated genes were decreased by the HFD primarily in liver. Triglyceride content was increased in both liver and gastrocnemius by the HFD. Oxidative stress was induced by the HFD in both liver and gastrocnemius. Insulin sensitivity was decreased by the HFD. All of these changes were largely or completely reversed by treatment of animals with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002 during the time when animals usually do not eat. Consequently, the overall insulin sensitivity was increased by treatment with LY-294002. Together, our results indicate that increased basal Akt-dependent insulin signaling suppresses mitochondrial production, increases ectopic fat accumulation, induces oxidative stress, and desensitizes insulin signaling in subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:19638508

  2. Effect of lithium on ventricular remodelling in infarcted rats via the Akt/mTOR signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2017-04-28

    Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling is the molecular pathway driving physiological hypertrophy. As lithium, a PI3K agonist, is highly toxic at regular doses, we assessed the effect of lithium at a lower dose on ventricular hypertrophy after myocardial infarction (MI). Male Wistar rats after induction of MI were randomized to either vehicle or lithium (1 mmol/kg per day) for 4 weeks. The dose of lithium led to a mean serum level of 0.39 mM, substantially lower than the therapeutic concentrations (0.8-1.2 mM). Infarction in the vehicle was characterized by pathological hypertrophy in the remote zone; histologically, by increased cardiomyocyte sizes, interstitial fibrosis and left ventricular dilatation; functionally, by impaired cardiac contractility; and molecularly, by an increase of p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) levels, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activity, GATA4 expression and foetal gene expressions. Lithium administration mitigated pathological remodelling. Furthermore, lithium caused increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (p-4E-BP1), the downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Blockade of the Akt and mTOR signalling pathway with deguelin and rapamycin resulted in markedly diminished levels of p-4E-BP1, but not ERK. The present study demonstrated that chronic lithium treatment at low doses mitigates pathological hypertrophy through an Akt/mTOR dependent pathway.

  3. MicroRNA-21 accelerates hepatocyte proliferation in vitro via PI3K/Akt signaling by targeting PTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Yan-nan, Bai; Zhao-yan, Yu; Li-xi, Luo; Jiang, Yi; Qing-jie, Xia

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes under proliferative status. •miR-21 expression level peaked at 12 h after stimulated by EGF. •miR-21 drive rapid S phase entry of primary hepatocytes. •PI3K/Akt signaling was modulated via targeting PTEN by miR-21. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in controlling hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In this study, we established the miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes in vitro under stimulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and found that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was appreciably up-regulated and peaked at 12 h. In addition, we further presented evidences indicating that miR-21 promotes primary hepatocyte proliferation through in vitro transfecting with miR-21 mimics or inhibitor. We further demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was altered accordingly, it is, by targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, PI3K/Akt signaling is activated by miR-21 to accelerate hepatocyte rapid S-phase entry and proliferation in vitro.

  4. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  5. Dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 inhibit BMP-mediated Smad, p38 and Akt signalling in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Boergermann, J H; Kopf, J; Yu, P B; Knaus, P

    2010-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators of cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. BMPs signal through a coordinated assembly of two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors to induce Smad1/5/8 plus non-Smad pathways, such as MAPK and Akt. The recent discovery of BMP receptor inhibitors opened new avenues to study specific BMP signalling and to delineate this effect from TGF-β and Activin signalling. Here we present comprehensive and quantitative analyses on both canonical and non-Smad mediated BMP signalling under Dorsomorphin (DM) and LDN-193189 (LDN) treatment conditions. We demonstrate for the first time, that both compounds affect not only the Smad but also the non-Smad signalling pathways induced by either BMP2, BMP6 or GDF5. The activation of p38, ERK1/2 and Akt in C2C12 cells was inhibited by DM and LDN. In addition "off-target" effects on all branches of BMP non-Smad signalling are presented. From this we conclude that the inhibition of BMP receptors by DM and more efficiently by LDN-193189 affects all known BMP induced signalling cascades.

  6. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  7. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit the Proliferation of Gallbladder Carcinoma Cells by Suppressing AKT/mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Guo, Zhiyong; Wu, Ying; Hu, Ronglin; Du, Jun; He, Xiaoshun; Jiao, Xingyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with high mortality mainly due to the limited potential for curative resection and its resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) trichostatin-A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) reduce the proliferation and induce apoptosis of gallbladder carcinoma cells by suppressing the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Gallbladder carcinoma SGC-996 cells were treated with different concentrations of TSA and SAHA for different lengths of time. Cell proliferation and morphology were assessed with MTT assay and microscopy, respectively. Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were analyzed with flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the proteins related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Our data showed that TSA and SAHA reduced SGC-996 cell viability and arrested cell cycle at the G1 phase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TSA and SAHA promoted apoptosis of SGC-996 cells, down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc and Bmi1, and decreased the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR p70S6K1, S6 and 4E-BP1. Additionally, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin further reduced the cell viability of TSA- and SAHA-treated SGC-996 cells and the phosphorylation of mTOR, whereas the mTOR activator 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (C8-PA) exerted the opposite influence. Our results demonstrate that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) suppress the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma cell via inhibition of AKT/mTOR signaling. These findings offer a mechanistic rationale for the application of HDACIs in gallbladder carcinoma treatment.

  9. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  10. Protective Effect of Tempol on Acute Kidney Injury Through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gensheng; Wang, Qiaoling; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Renjun; Xu, Minze; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Lei; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Liu, Ruisheng; Lai, En Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Tempol is a protective antioxidant against ischemic injury in many animal models. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor during oxidative stress, which is enhanced by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Another factor, tubular epithelial apoptosis, is mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) signaling pathway during renal ischemic injury. We tested the hypothesis that tempol activates PKC or PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathways to transcribe many genes that coordinate endogenous antioxidant defense. Methods The right renal pedicle was clamped for 45 minutes and the left kidney was removed to study renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in C57BL/6 mice. The response was assessed from serum parameters, renal morphology and renal expression of PKC, phosphorylated-PKC (p-PKC), Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in groups of sham and I/R mice given vehicle, or tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). Results The serum malondialdehyde (MDA, marker of reactive oxygen species) doubled and the BUN and creatinine increased 5- to 10-fold after I/R injury. Tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg) prevented the increases in MDA but only tempol (50 mg/kg) lessened the increases in BUN and creatinine and moderated the acute tubular necrosis. I/R did not change expression of PKC or p-PKC but reduced renal expression of Nrf2, p-Akt, HO-1 and pro-caspase-3 and increased cleaved caspase-3. Tempol (50 mg/kg) prevented these changes produced by I/R whereas tempol (100 mg/kg) had lesser or inconsistent effects. Conclusion Tempol (50 mg/kg) prevents lipid peroxidation and attenuates renal damage after I/R injury. The beneficial pathway apparently is not dependent on upregulation or phosphorylation of PKC, at lower tempol doses, does implicate upregulation of Akt with expression

  11. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 mutation with invasive eosinophilic disease

    PubMed Central

    Swender, David; Chernin, Leah; Hafez-Khayyata, Said; Ochs, Hans; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Hostoffer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), or Jobs disease, is a rare immunologic disorder characterized by the triad of staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia with pneumatocele formation, and elevated IgE. It has been shown to have multiple modes of inheritance, autosomal dominant being more common than autosomal recessive, with sporadic cases as well. A mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) gene has been linked to the development of the sporadic and dominant forms of HIES. Peripheral eosinophilia, typically greater than two standard deviations from the normal population, is often seen in association with HIES. Despite these elevated levels of blood eosinophils, there have been no reported cases of invasive eosinophilic disease, such as eosonophilic esophagitic. Here we report the first description, to our knowledge, of a patient with HIES with a STAT3 mutation involving exon 12, Thr389Ile, and invasive eosinophilic disease of the esophagus. STAT3 modulates the expression of several genes that control central cell processes such as growth and death in response to external soluble stimuli. A mutation in the STAT3 molecule may affect the eosinophil's response to IL-5 and thus reduce the chemotaxic ability of those cells to migrate into tissues. This may then explain the paucity of eosinophilic infiltrative disease in patients with STAT3 mutations. The level of eosinophilic involvement may be related to the site or type of mutation within the STAT3 molecule. As more data are collected, we may be able to assess whether certain mutations dictate different clinical outcomes, which could prove helpful in directing therapy. PMID:23342295

  12. AKT induces erythroid-cell maturation of JAK2-deficient fetal liver progenitor cells and is required for Epo regulation of erythroid-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Saghi; Kitidis, Claire; Zhao, Wei; Marinkovic, Dragan; Fleming, Mark D; Luo, Biao; Marszalek, Joseph; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-01

    AKT serine threonine kinase of the protein kinase B (PKB) family plays essential roles in cell survival, growth, metabolism, and differentiation. In the erythroid system, AKT is known to be rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to erythropoietin (Epo) engagement of Epo receptor (EpoR) and to sustain survival signals in cultured erythroid cells. Here we demonstrate that activated AKT complements EpoR signaling and supports erythroid-cell differentiation in wild-type and JAK2-deficient fetal liver cells. We show that erythroid maturation of AKT-transduced cells is not solely dependent on AKT-induced cell survival or proliferation signals, suggesting that AKT transduces also a differentiation-specific signal downstream of EpoR in erythroid cells. Down-regulation of expression of AKT kinase by RNA interference, or AKT activity by expression of dominant negative forms, inhibits significantly fetal liver-derived erythroid-cell colony formation and gene expression, demonstrating that AKT is required for Epo regulation of erythroid-cell maturation.

  13. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Qingyi; Qing, Yong; Wu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  14. MicroRNA-486-dependent modulation of DOCK3/PTEN/AKT signaling pathways improves muscular dystrophy-associated symptoms.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew S; Casar, Juan Carlos; Motohashi, Norio; Vieira, Natássia M; Eisenberg, Iris; Marshall, Jamie L; Gasperini, Molly J; Lek, Angela; Myers, Jennifer A; Estrella, Elicia A; Kang, Peter B; Shapiro, Frederic; Rahimov, Fedik; Kawahara, Genri; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Kunkel, Louis M

    2014-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, which results in dysfunctional signaling pathways within muscle. Previously, we identified microRNA-486 (miR-486) as a muscle-enriched microRNA that is markedly reduced in the muscles of dystrophin-deficient mice (Dmdmdx-5Cv mice) and in DMD patient muscles. Here, we determined that muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of miR-486 in muscle of Dmdmdx-5Cv mice results in reduced serum creatine kinase levels, improved sarcolemmal integrity, fewer centralized myonuclei, increased myofiber size, and improved muscle physiology and performance. Additionally, we identified dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3) as a miR-486 target in skeletal muscle and determined that DOCK3 expression is induced in dystrophic muscles. DOCK3 overexpression in human myotubes modulated PTEN/AKT signaling, which regulates muscle hypertrophy and growth, and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, several components of the PTEN/AKT pathway were markedly modulated by miR-486 in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific miR-486 overexpression in Dmdmdx-5Cv animals decreased levels of DOCK3, reduced PTEN expression, and subsequently increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, which resulted in an overall beneficial effect. Together, these studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of miR-486 ameliorates the disease progression of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  15. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Martín-Broto, Javier; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA), being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR), in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5–50 μM) strongly inhibited (up to 80%) the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6–9 h) strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10–15 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS. PMID:27219337

  16. Role of PI3K/Akt signaling in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) skin tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Erik; Lu, Jerry; Rho, Okkyung; Carbajal, Steve; Beltrán, Linda; DiGiovanni, John

    2005-10-01

    Overexpression of human IGF-1 with the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter (BK5.IGF-1 transgenic mice) induces persistent epidermal hyperplasia and leads to spontaneous skin tumor formation. In previous work, PI3K and Akt activities were found to be elevated in the epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 transgenic mice compared to nontransgenic littermates. In the present study, we examined the importance of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mediating the skin phenotype and the skin tumor promoting action of IGF-1 in these mice. Western blot analyses with epidermal lysates showed that signaling components downstream of PI3K/Akt were altered in epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 mice. Increased phosphorylation of GSK-3 (Ser(9/21)), TSC2(Thr(1462)), and mTOR(Ser(2448)) was observed. In addition, hypophosphorylation and increased protein levels of beta-catenin were observed in the epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 mice. These data suggested that components downstream of Akt might be affected, including cell cycle machinery in the epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 mice. Protein levels of cyclins (D1, E, A), E2F1, and E2F4 were all elevated in the epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 mice. Also, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated an increase in cdk4/cyclin D1 and cdk2/cyclin E complex formation, suggesting increased cdk activity in the epidermis of transgenic mice. In further studies, the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, significantly blocked IGF-1-mediated epidermal proliferation and skin tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated BK5.IGF-1 mice. In addition, inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 reversed many of the cell cycle related changes observed in untreated transgenic animals. Collectively, the current results supported the hypothesis that elevated PI3K/Akt activity and subsequent activation of one or more downstream effector pathways contributed significantly to the tumor promoting action of IGF-1 in the epidermis of BK5.IGF-1 mice.

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Guo, Junli; Xia, Hua; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein activates AKT/mTOR signaling to promote CXCR4 expression and migration of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Fu, Shigan; Li, Mengsen

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4, stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF 1α) receptor, stimulates growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) governs the expression of some metastasis-related genes. Here we report that AFP and CXCR4 levels correlated in HCC tissues. AFP-expressing vectors induced CXCR4. In agreement, AFP depletion by siRNA decreased CXCR4. AFP co-localized and interacted with PTEN, thus inducing CXCR4 by activating AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. In turn, phospho-mTOR(Ser2448) entered the nucleus and bound the CXCR4 gene promoter. Thus, AFP promoted migration of HCC cells. In concusion, AFP induced CXCR4 by activating the AKT/mTOR signal pathway. PMID:25815363

  19. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanzhen; Zhou, Aidong; Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-05-10

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis.

  20. The mitochondrial-derived peptide humanin activates the ERK1/2, AKT, and STAT3 signaling pathways and has age-dependent signaling differences in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jeong; Guerrero, Noel; Wassef, Gabriella; Xiao, Jialin; Mehta, Hemal H; Cohen, Pinchas; Yen, Kelvin

    2016-07-26

    Humanin is a small secreted peptide that is encoded in the mitochondrial genome. Humanin and its analogues have a protective role in multiple age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, through cytoprotective and neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the humanin-mediated signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that humanin acts through the GP130/IL6ST receptor complex to activate AKT, ERK1/2, and STAT3 signaling pathways. Humanin treatment increases phosphorylation in AKT, ERK 1/2, and STAT3 where PI3K, MEK, and JAK are involved in the activation of those three signaling pathways, respectively. Furthermore, old mice, but not young mice, injected with humanin showed an increase in phosphorylation in AKT and ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. These findings uncover a key signaling pathway of humanin that is important for humanin's function and also demonstrates an age-specific in vivo effect in a region of the brain that is critical for memory formation in an age-dependent manner.

  1. The mitochondrial-derived peptide humanin activates the ERK1/2, AKT, and STAT3 signaling pathways and has age-dependent signaling differences in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Jeong; Guerrero, Noel; Wassef, Gabriella; Xiao, Jialin; Mehta, Hemal H.; Cohen, Pinchas; Yen, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    Humanin is a small secreted peptide that is encoded in the mitochondrial genome. Humanin and its analogues have a protective role in multiple age-related diseases including type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, through cytoprotective and neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the humanin-mediated signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that humanin acts through the GP130/IL6ST receptor complex to activate AKT, ERK1/2, and STAT3 signaling pathways. Humanin treatment increases phosphorylation in AKT, ERK 1/2, and STAT3 where PI3K, MEK, and JAK are involved in the activation of those three signaling pathways, respectively. Furthermore, old mice, but not young mice, injected with humanin showed an increase in phosphorylation in AKT and ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. These findings uncover a key signaling pathway of humanin that is important for humanin's function and also demonstrates an age-specific in vivo effect in a region of the brain that is critical for memory formation in an age-dependent manner. PMID:27384491

  2. pangolin encodes a Lef-1 homologue that acts downstream of Armadillo to transduce the Wingless signal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Brunner, E; Peter, O; Schweizer, L; Basler, K

    1997-02-27

    Members of the Wnt/Wingless (Wg) family of signalling proteins organize many aspects of animal development by regulating the expression of particular target genes in responding cells. Recent biochemical studies indicate that the vertebrate HMG-domain proteins Lef-1 and XTcf-3 can physically interact with beta-catenin, a homologue of Drosophila Armadillo (Arm), the most downstream component known in the Wnt signal transduction pathway. However, these studies do not address whether the endogenous Lef/Tcf family members are required in vivo to transduce Wnt signals. Using genetic methods in Drosophila, we define a new segment polarity gene, pangolin (pan), and show that its product is required in vivo for Wg signal transduction in embryos and in developing adult tissues. In addition, we show that pan encodes a Lef/Tcf homologue and provide evidence that its protein product binds to the beta-catenin homologue Armadillo in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that Pan functions downstream of Arm to transduce the Wg signal. Thus, our results indicate that Pan is an essential component of the Wg transduction pathway and suggest that it acts directly to regulate gene transcription in response to Wg signalling.

  3. Delicaflavone induces autophagic cell death in lung cancer via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yuxia; Yao, Hong; Li, Shaoguang; Jin, Long; Shi, Peiying; Li, Zhijun; Wang, Gang; Lin, Shilan; Wu, Youjia; Li, Yuxiang; Huang, Liying; Liu, Qicai; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    Searching for potential anticancer agents from natural sources is an effective strategy for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, data supporting the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of delicaflavone, a rarely occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella doederleinii, were reported. Delicaflavone exhibited favorable anticancer properties, as shown by the MTT assay and xenograft model of human non-small cell lung cancer in male BALB/c nude mice without observable adverse effect. By transmission electron microscopy with acridine orange and Cyto-ID®Autophagy detection dyes, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR assay, we confirmed that delicaflavone induces autophagic cell death by increasing the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, which are autophagy-related proteins, and promoting the generation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes in the cytoplasm of human lung cancer A549 and PC-9 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Delicaflavone downregulated the expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that it induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in A549 and PC-9 cells. Delicaflavone is a potential anticancer agent that can induce autophagic cell death in human non-small cell lung cancer via the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Delicaflavone showed anti-lung cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Delicaflavone induced autophagic cell death via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. Delicaflavone did not show observable side effects in a xenograft mouse model. Delicaflavone may represent a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  4. Leptin reduces gentamicin-induced apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells via the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Cheng, Chung-Yi; Chen, Tzen-Wen

    2011-05-11

    Leptin, a circulating hormone secreted mainly from adipose tissues, possesses protective effects on many cell types. Serum leptin concentration increases in patients with chronic renal failure and those undergoing maintenance dialysis. Gentamicin, a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of bacterial infection, can cause nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we intended to investigate the influence of leptin on apoptotic pathways and its mechanism in rat renal tubular cells treated with gentamicin. By using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining, we found that leptin expressed a dose-dependent protective effect against gentamicin-induced apoptosis in rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) within 24h. Pretreatment of the cells with 50 or 100 ng/ml of leptin induced Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), increased the phosphorylation of Bad, and decreased the cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 in gentamicin-treated NRK-52E cells. Leptin also suppressed the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and upregulated Akt activation in gentamicin-treated NRK-52E cells. We found that leptin activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway as demonstrated by the suppression of the anti-apoptotic effect of leptin by wortmannin. The treatment of wortmannin suppressed the leptin-induced phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, phospho-Bad as well as Bcl-x(L), and recovered the leptin-reduced cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Based on our results, we suggested that leptin can attenuate gentamicin-induced apoptotic injury in rat renal tubular cells through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  6. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling by Destabilizing Ski and Inducing Smad7*

    PubMed Central

    Band, Arja M.; Björklund, Mia; Laiho, Marikki

    2009-01-01

    Ski is an oncoprotein that negatively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. It acts as a transcriptional co-repressor by binding to TGF-β signaling molecules, Smads. Efficient TGF-β signaling is facilitated by rapid proteasome-mediated degradation of Ski by TGF-β. Here we report that Ski is phosphorylated by Akt/PKB kinase. Akt phosphorylates Ski on a highly conserved Akt motif at threonine 458 both in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of Ski at threonine 458 is induced by Akt pathway activators including insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and hepatocyte growth factor. The phosphorylation of Ski causes its destabilization and reduces Ski-mediated inhibition of expression of another negative regulator of TGF-β, Smad7. Induction of Smad7 levels leads to inactivation of TGF-β receptors and TGF-β signaling cascade, as indicated by reduced induction of TGF-β target p15. Therefore, Akt modulates TGF-β signaling by temporarily adjusting the levels of two TGF-β pathway negative regulators, Ski and Smad7. These novel findings demonstrate that Akt pathway activation directly impacts TGF-β pathway. PMID:19875456

  7. Sorafenib induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells through the dephosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Brown, Christine; Buettner, Ralf; Hedvat, Michael; Starr, Renate; Scuto, Anna; Schroeder, Anne; Jensen, Michael; Jove, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common type of primary brain tumor and is rapidly progressive with few treatment options. Here, we report that sorafenib (< or =10 micromol/L) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in two established cell lines (U87 and U251) and two primary cultures (PBT015 and PBT022) from human glioblastomas. The effects of sorafenib on these tumor cells were associated with inhibiting phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3; Tyr705). Expression of a constitutively activated STAT3 mutant partially blocked the effects of sorafenib, consistent with a role for STAT3 inhibition in the response to sorafenib. Phosphorylated Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1 was inhibited in U87 and U251 cells, whereas phosphorylated JAK2 was inhibited in primary cultures. Sodium vanadate, a general inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, blocked the inhibition of phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr705) induced by sorafenib. These data indicate that the inhibition of STAT3 activity by sorafenib involves both the inhibition of upstream kinases (JAK1 and JAK2) of STAT3 and increased phosphatase activity. Phosphorylation of AKT was also reduced by sorafenib. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinases were not consistently inhibited by sorafenib in these cells. Two key cyclins (D and E) and the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 were downregulated by sorafenib in both cell lines and primary cultures. Our data suggest that inhibition of STAT3 signaling by sorafenib contributes to growth arrest and induction of apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. These findings provide a rationale for potential treatment of malignant gliomas with sorafenib. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 953-62. (c)2010 AACR.

  8. Effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 maternal diabetes on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rat neonates.

    PubMed

    Hami, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad-Amin; Karimi, Razieh; Haghir, Hossein; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy impairs hippocampus development in offspring, leading to behavioral problems and learning deficits. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal proliferation, survival and death. The present study was designed to examine the effects of maternal diabetes on PKB/Akt expression and phosphorylation in the developing rat hippocampus. Wistar female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition and male offspring was killed at first postnatal day (P1). The hippocampal expression and phosphorylation level of PKB/Akt, one of the key molecules in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. We found a significant bilateral downregulation of AKT1 gene expression in the hippocampus of pups born to diabetic mothers (p < 0.05). Interestingly, our results revealed a marked upregulation of Akt1 gene in insulin-treated group compared with other groups (p < 0.05). The western blot analysis also showed the reduction of phosphorylation level of all AKT isoforms in both diabetic and insulin-treated groups compared with control (p < 0.05). Moreover, the results showed a significant increase in phosphorylation level of AKT in insulin-treated group compared with the diabetic group. These results represent that diabetes during pregnancy strongly influences the regulation of PKB/AKT in the developing rat hippocampus. Furthermore, although the control of glycemia by insulin administration is not sufficient to prevent the alterations in PKB/Akt expression, it modulates the phosphorylation process, thus ultimately resulting in a situation comparable to that found in the normal condition.

  9. Inhibition of Protein Kinase Akt1 by Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase-1 (ASK1) Is Involved in Apoptotic Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Increase*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Muthangi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Mohri, Tatsuma; Okada, Yasunobu

    2010-01-01

    Most animal cell types regulate their cell volume after an osmotic volume change. The regulatory volume increase (RVI) occurs through uptake of NaCl and osmotically obliged water after osmotic shrinkage. However, apoptotic cells undergo persistent cell shrinkage without showing signs of RVI. Persistence of the apoptotic volume decrease is a prerequisite to apoptosis induction. We previously demonstrated that volume regulation is inhibited in human epithelial HeLa cells stimulated with the apoptosis inducer. Here, we studied signaling mechanisms underlying the apoptotic inhibition of RVI in HeLa cells. Hypertonic stimulation was found to induce phosphorylation of a Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B). Shrinkage-induced Akt activation was essential for RVI induction because RVI was suppressed by an Akt inhibitor, expression of a dominant negative form of Akt, or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Akt1 (but not Akt2). Staurosporine, tumor necrosis factor-α, or a Fas ligand inhibited both RVI and hypertonicity-induced Akt activation in a manner sensitive to a scavenger for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Any of apoptosis inducers also induced phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in a ROS-dependent manner. Suppression of (ASK1) expression blocked the effects of apoptosis, in hypertonic conditions, on both RVI induction and Akt activation. Thus, it is concluded that in human epithelial cells, shrinkage-induced activation of Akt1 is involved in the RVI process and that apoptotic inhibition of RVI is caused by inhibition of Akt activation, which results from ROS-mediated activation of ASK1. PMID:20048146

  10. PKR promotes choroidal neovascularization via upregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in VEGF expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Manhui; Liu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Wu, Liucheng; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Kang, Lihua; Li, Wendie; Cui, Chen; Sang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and related signaling pathways in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Methods A chemical hypoxia model of in vitro RF/6A cells, a rhesus choroid-retinal endothelial cell line, was established by adding cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to the culture medium. PKR, phosphophosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphoprotein kinase B (p-Akt), and VEGF protein levels in RF/6A cells were detected with western blotting. PKR siRNA and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 were used to evaluate the roles of the PKR and PI3K signaling pathways in VEGF expression with western blotting. In an ARPE-19 (RPE cell line) and RF/6A cell coculture system, proliferation, migration, and tube formation of RF/6A cells under hypoxic conditions were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), Transwell, and Matrigel Transwell assays, respectively. In vivo CNV lesions were induced in C57BL/6J mice using laser photocoagulation. The mice were euthanized in a timely manner, and the eyecups were dissected from enucleated eyes. PKR, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and VEGF protein levels in tissues were detected with western blotting. To evaluate the leakage area, fundus fluorescein angiography and choroidal flat mount were performed on day 7 after intravitreal injection of an anti-PKR monoclonal antibody. Results The in vitro RF/6A cell chemical hypoxia model showed that PKR expression was upregulated in parallel with p-PI3K, p-Akt, and VEGF expression, peaking at 12 h. PKR siRNA downregulated PKR, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and VEGF expression. In addition, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 greatly decreased the p-PI3K, p-Akt, and VEGF protein levels, but PKR expression was unaffected, indicating that Akt was a downstream molecule of PKR that upregulated VEGF expression. In the ARPE-19 (RPE cell line) and RF/6A cell coculture system, PKR si

  11. Enhanced Cardiac Akt/Protein Kinase B Signaling Contributes to Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Part by Impairing Mitochondrial Function via Transcriptional Repression of Mitochondrion-Targeted Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Adam R.; O'Neill, Brian T.; Bugger, Heiko; Riehle, Christian; Tuinei, Joseph; Buchanan, Jonathan; Tsushima, Kensuke; Wang, Li; Caro, Pilar; Guo, Aili; Sloan, Crystal; Kim, Bum Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Pereira, Renata O.; McCrory, Mark A.; Nye, Brenna G.; Benavides, Gloria A.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Shioi, Tetsuo; Weimer, Bart C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained Akt activation induces cardiac hypertrophy (LVH), which may lead to heart failure. This study tested the hypothesis that Akt activation contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in pathological LVH. Akt activation induced LVH and progressive repression of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways. Preventing LVH by inhibiting mTOR failed to prevent the decline in mitochondrial function, but glucose utilization was maintained. Akt activation represses expression of mitochondrial regulatory, FAO, and oxidative phosphorylation genes in vivo that correlate with the duration of Akt activation in part by reducing FOXO-mediated transcriptional activation of mitochondrion-targeted nuclear genes in concert with reduced signaling via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/PGC-1α and other transcriptional regulators. In cultured myocytes, Akt activation disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics, which could be partially reversed by maintaining nuclear FOXO but not by increasing PGC-1α. Thus, although short-term Akt activation may be cardioprotective during ischemia by reducing mitochondrial metabolism and increasing glycolysis, long-term Akt activation in the adult heart contributes to pathological LVH in part by reducing mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PMID:25535334

  12. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage.

  13. Prediction of flat-bottom hole signals received by a spherically focused transducer for an ultrasonic pulse echo immersion testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huifang; Sun, Yunyun; Chen, Dan; Xu, Jinwu

    2016-11-01

    The spherically focused transducer has been widely used for nondestructive evaluation of micrometer-scale inner defects in material and microelectronic devices due to its outstanding transverse resolution and high beam intensity. In this paper, by combining the beam model, the flaw scattering model and the system efficiency factor, an ultrasonic measurement model is developed for the spherically focused transducer in an ultrasonic pulse-echo immersion testing and is used to predict the ultrasonic flaw signal for flat bottom hole (FBH). The multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model and the Gaussian beam equivalent point source (GBEPS) model are extended to evaluate the beam fields radiated by the spherically focused transducer in water and transmitted into solid through a planar interface. Results show that the MGB model is more excellent considering both the accuracy and efficiency. Experiments are performed to determine the system efficiency factor and the experimental measured flaw signal is compared with the model predictions to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Effects of the depth and size of the FBH are further studied using the established model.

  14. Contribution of insulin and Akt1 signaling to endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the regulation of endothelial function and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Symons, J David; McMillin, Shawna L; Riehle, Christian; Tanner, Jason; Palionyte, Milda; Hillas, Elaine; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C; Birnbaum, Morris J; McClain, Donald A; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Gale, Derrick; Wilson, Lloyd J; Abel, E Dale

    2009-05-08

    Impaired insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the vasculature has been postulated to lead to arterial dysfunction and hypertension in obesity and other insulin resistant states. To investigate this, we compared insulin signaling in the vasculature, endothelial function, and systemic blood pressure in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet to mice with genetic ablation of insulin receptors in all vascular tissues (TTr-IR(-/-)) or mice with genetic ablation of Akt1 (Akt1-/-). HF mice developed obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated free fatty acids that was associated with endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Basal and insulin-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt in the vasculature was preserved, but basal and insulin-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was abolished in vessels from HF versus lean mice. In contrast, basal vascular eNOS phosphorylation, endothelial function, and blood pressure were normal despite absent insulin-mediated eNOS phosphorylation in TTr-IR(-/-) mice and absent insulin-mediated eNOS phosphorylation via Akt1 in Akt1-/- mice. In cultured endothelial cells, 6 hours of incubation with palmitate attenuated basal and insulin-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and NO production despite normal activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, incubation of isolated arteries with palmitate impaired endothelium-dependent but not vascular smooth muscle function. Collectively, these results indicate that lower arterial eNOS phosphorylation, hypertension, and vascular dysfunction following HF feeding do not result from defective upstream signaling via Akt, but from free fatty acid-mediated impairment of eNOS phosphorylation.

  15. Akt Regulates Drug-Induced Cell Death through Bcl-w Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zanca, Ciro; De Rienzo, Assunta; Romano, Giulia; Acunzo, Mario; Puca, Loredana; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Croce, Carlo M.; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2008-01-01

    Akt is a serine threonine kinase with a major role in transducing survival signals and regulating proteins involved in apoptosis. To find new interactors of Akt involved in cell survival, we performed a two-hybrid screening in yeast using human full-length Akt c-DNA as bait and a murine c-DNA library as prey. Among the 80 clones obtained, two were identified as Bcl-w. Bcl-w is a member of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the regulation of cellular survival, and that is up-regulated in different human tumors, such as gastric and colorectal carcinomas. Direct interaction of Bcl-w with Akt was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Subsequently, we addressed the function of this interaction: by interfering with the activity or amount of Akt, we have demonstrated that Akt modulates the amount of Bcl-w protein. We have found that inhibition of Akt activity may promote apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-w protein and the consequential reduction in interaction of Bcl-w with pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Our data provide evidence that Bcl-w is a new member of the Akt pathway and that Akt may induce anti-apoptotic signals at least in part through the regulation of the amount and activity of Bcl-w. PMID:19114998

  16. Possible role of HIWI2 in modulating tight junction proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells through Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, Suganya; Palanisamy, Karthikka; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga Pandian; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi

    2017-03-01

    PIWI subfamily of proteins is shown to be primarily expressed in germline cells. They maintain the genomic integrity by silencing the transposable elements. Although the role of PIWI proteins in germ cells has been documented, their presence and function in somatic cells remains unclear. Intriguingly, we detected all four members of PIWI-like proteins in human ocular tissues and somatic cell lines. When HIWI2 was knocked down in retinal pigment epithelial cells, the typical honeycomb morphology was affected. Further analysis showed that the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, CLDN1, and TJP1 were altered in HIWI2 knockdown. Moreover, confocal imaging revealed disrupted TJP1 assembly at the TJ. Previous studies report the role of GSK3β in regulating TJ proteins. Accordingly, phospho-kinase proteome profiler array indicated increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3α/β in HIWI2 knockdown, suggesting that HIWI2 might affect TJ proteins through Akt-GSK3α/β signaling axis. Moreover, treating the HIWI2 knockdown cells with wortmannin increased the levels of TJP1 and CLDN1. Taken together, our study demonstrates the presence of PIWI-like proteins in somatic cells and the possible role of HIWI2 in preserving the functional integrity of epithelial cells probably by modulating the phosphorylation status of Akt.

  17. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of human renal cell carcinoma by regulating Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Fan, Yizeng; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Jianbin; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Zeng, Jin; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known as one of the most lethal malignancies in the urological system because of its high incidence of metastasis. Tetrandrine (Tet), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerts a potent anti-cancer effect in a variety of cancer cells. However, the anti-metastatic effect of Tet and its possible mechanism in RCC is still unclear. The present study revealed that Tet significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of RCC 786-O and 769-P cells in vitro. Mechanistically, the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), phosphorylated PI3K, PDK1, Akt and NF-κB were markedly reduced after Tet treatment. Moreover, co-treatment with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) could further enhance the Tet-inhibited migration and invasion, and the NF-κB and MMP-9 protein levels were further decreased. Similar results were observed after PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor) co-treatment. Conversely, SC79, an Akt activator, could partially reverse the anti-metastatic effects of Tet, accompanied by the restoration of NF-κB and MMP-9 protein levels. In conclusion, the current results indicated that Tet inhibited migration and invasion of RCC partially by regulating Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway, suggesting that Tet may be a potential therapeutic candidate against metastatic RCC. PMID:28288190

  18. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of human renal cell carcinoma by regulating Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shurui; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ke; Fan, Yizeng; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Jianbin; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Zeng, Jin; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known as one of the most lethal malignancies in the urological system because of its high incidence of metastasis. Tetrandrine (Tet), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerts a potent anti-cancer effect in a variety of cancer cells. However, the anti-metastatic effect of Tet and its possible mechanism in RCC is still unclear. The present study revealed that Tet significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of RCC 786-O and 769-P cells in vitro. Mechanistically, the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), phosphorylated PI3K, PDK1, Akt and NF-κB were markedly reduced after Tet treatment. Moreover, co-treatment with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) could further enhance the Tet-inhibited migration and invasion, and the NF-κB and MMP-9 protein levels were further decreased. Similar results were observed after PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor) co-treatment. Conversely, SC79, an Akt activator, could partially reverse the anti-metastatic effects of Tet, accompanied by the restoration of NF-κB and MMP-9 protein levels. In conclusion, the current results indicated that Tet inhibited migration and invasion of RCC partially by regulating Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway, suggesting that Tet may be a potential therapeutic candidate against metastatic RCC.

  19. β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; An, Ruidi; Tian, Xiaocui; Yang, Mei; Li, Minghang; Lou, Jie; Xu, Lu; Dong, Zhi

    2017-02-24

    β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been reported to be protective against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory features. Recent study demonstrates that the BCP exhibits potential neuroprotection against I/R injury induced apoptosis, however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigate the underlying anti-apoptotic mechanism of BCP pretreatment in I/R injury. Sprague-Dawley rats (pretreated with BCP suspensions or solvent orally for 7 days) were subjected to transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Results showed that BCP pretreatment improved the neurologic deficit score, lowered the infarct volume and decreased number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus. Moreover, in western blot and RT-qPCR detections, BCP pretreatment down-regulated the expressions of Bax and p53, up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, and enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. Blockage of PI3K activity by wortmannin not only abolished the BCP-induced decreases in infarct volume and neurologic deficit score, but also dramatically abrogated the enhancement of AKt phosphorylation. Our results suggested that BCP pre-treatment protects against I/R injury partly by suppressing apoptosis via PI3K/AKt signaling pathway activation.

  20. Combined ampakine and BDNF treatments enhance poststroke functional recovery in aged mice via AKT-CREB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Parker, Kim; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, F Rohan; Gowing, Emma K

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia results in damage to neuronal circuits and lasting impairment in function. We have previously reported that stimulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors with the ampakine, CX1837, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and affords significant motor recovery after stroke in young mice. Here, we investigated whether administration of CX1837 in aged (24 months old) mice was equally effective. In a model of focal ischemia, administration of CX1837 from 5 days after stroke resulted in a small gain of motor function by week 6 after stroke. Mice that received a local delivery of BDNF via hydrogel implanted into the stroke cavity also showed a small gain of function from 4 to 6 weeks after stroke. Combining both treatments, however, resulted in a marked improvement in motor function from 2 weeks after insult. Assessment of peri-infarct tissue 2 weeks after stroke revealed a significant increase in p-AKT and p-CREB after the combined drug treatment. Using the pan-AKT inhibitor, GSK-690693, or deletion of CREB from forebrain neurons using the CREB-flox/CAMKii-cre mice, we were able to block the recovery of motor function. These data suggest that combined CX1837 and local delivery of BDNF are required to achieve maximal functional recovery after stroke in aged mice, and is occurring via the AKT-GSK3-CREB signaling pathway. PMID:25757752

  1. Effects of extracellular acid stimulation on rat vascular smooth muscle cell in Gas6/Axl or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liwen; Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Zhang, Shenglei; Xu, Jinsheng

    Recent studies have indicated that extracellular acid stimulation inhibited the calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Cell apoptosis played an important role in the occurrence and development of vascular calcification. We further explored the effects of Gas6/Axl or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on the inhibition of rat VSMCs calcification in response to extracellular acid stimulation. Our study demonstrated that a high concentration of phosphorus induced apoptosis and calcification of VSMCs, decreased expression of Axl, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Stimulation of extracellular acid counteracted the effects as above by increasing the expression of Axl and Akt phosphorylation and decreasing the expression of activated Caspase3, which thereby decreased cell apoptosis and calcification. Moreover, the effects can be attenuated by PI3K inhibitor. Our study proved that extracellular acid stimulation played a vital role in the inhibition of rat VSMCs calcification and apoptosis in Gas6/Axl or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Co-operating STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways in chronic myeloid leukemia and mastocytosis: possible new targets of therapy.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Siham; Arslanhan, Melis Dilara; Langenfeld, Florent; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Tchertanov, Luba; Moriggl, Richard; Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis are myeloid neoplasms sharing a number of pathogenetic and clinical features. In both conditions, an aberrantly activated oncoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity, namely BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia, and mutant KIT, mostly KIT D816V, in systemic mastocytosis, is key to disease evolution. The appreciation of the role of such tyrosine kinases in these diseases has led to the development of improved therapies with tyrosine kinase-targeted inhibitors. However, most drugs, including new KIT D816V-blocking agents, have failed to achieve long-lasting remissions in advanced systemic mastocytosis, and there is a similar problem in chronic myeloid leukemia, where imatinib-resistant patients sometimes fail to achieve remission, even with second- or third-line BCR-ABL1 specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. During disease progression, additional signaling pathways become activated in neoplastic cells, but most converge into major downstream networks. Among these, the AKT and STAT5 pathways appear most critical and may result in drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis. Inhibition of phosphorylation of these targets has proven their crucial role in disease-evolution in both malignancies. Together, these observations suggest that STAT5 and AKT are key drivers of oncogenesis in drug-resistant forms of the diseases, and that targeting STAT5 and AKT might be an interesting approach in these malignancies. The present article provides an overview of our current knowledge about the critical role of AKT and STAT5 in the pathophysiology of chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis and on their potential value as therapeutic targets in these neoplasms.

  3. Co-operating STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways in chronic myeloid leukemia and mastocytosis: possible new targets of therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Siham; Arslanhan, Melis Dilara; Langenfeld, Florent; Jeanningros, Sylvie; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Tchertanov, Luba; Moriggl, Richard; Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis are myeloid neoplasms sharing a number of pathogenetic and clinical features. In both conditions, an aberrantly activated oncoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity, namely BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia, and mutant KIT, mostly KIT D816V, in systemic mastocytosis, is key to disease evolution. The appreciation of the role of such tyrosine kinases in these diseases has led to the development of improved therapies with tyrosine kinase-targeted inhibitors. However, most drugs, including new KIT D816V-blocking agents, have failed to achieve long-lasting remissions in advanced systemic mastocytosis, and there is a similar problem in chronic myeloid leukemia, where imatinib-resistant patients sometimes fail to achieve remission, even with second- or third-line BCR-ABL1 specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. During disease progression, additional signaling pathways become activated in neoplastic cells, but most converge into major downstream networks. Among these, the AKT and STAT5 pathways appear most critical and may result in drug-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis. Inhibition of phosphorylation of these targets has proven their crucial role in disease-evolution in both malignancies. Together, these observations suggest that STAT5 and AKT are key drivers of oncogenesis in drug-resistant forms of the diseases, and that targeting STAT5 and AKT might be an interesting approach in these malignancies. The present article provides an overview of our current knowledge about the critical role of AKT and STAT5 in the pathophysiology of chronic myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis and on their potential value as therapeutic targets in these neoplasms. PMID:24598853

  4. Akt isoforms in vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haixiang; Littlewood, Trevor; Bennett, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian serine/threonine Akt kinases comprise three closely related isoforms: Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3. Akt activation has been implicated in both normal and disease processes, including in development and metabolism, as well as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although Akt signalling has been identified as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, its role in cardiovascular disease is less clear. Importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that the three Akt isoforms exhibit distinct tissue expression profiles, localise to different subcellular compartments, and have unique modes of activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, genetic studies in mice show distinct effects of individual Akt isoforms on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. This review summarises recent studies of individual Akt isoforms in atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and aneurysm formation, to provide a comprehensive overview of Akt function in vascular disease. PMID:25929188

  5. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  6. STC2 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer cells through AKT-ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Wang, Xixi; Liang, Ziwei; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi; Liang, Shufang

    2016-01-01

    The STC2 protein involves in carcinogenesis and progression of many cancers. It remains unclear how STC2 regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Here we systematically investigated STC2-activated early occurrence of EMT and CRC cell migration in vitro, clinical associations of STC2 with CRC development and patient survival. The secretion and expression level of STC2 were both greatly increased in EMT cells and CRC cells compared with the normal epithelial NCM460 cells. And the conditioned media from EMT cells stimulated epithelia and colon cancer cells to obtain EMT characteristics. STC2 overexpression promoted CRC cell growth and cell migration in vitro, and STC2 enhanced tumor growth in a mouse CRC-xenograft model. Corresponding to EMT marker expression changes, several critical signaling pathway molecules including pERK, pAKT, PI3K and Ras were remarkably increased either in NCM460 cells transfected with STC2 plasmids or in cells induced with exogenous STC2 protein. However blocking AKT-ERK signaling pathways attenuated STC2-activated EMT process. Furthermore the elevated STC2 expressions were also confirmed in 77 clinical tumor tissues and sera from CRC patients, and the increased STC2 in tumor tissues and sera correlated with tumor pathologic stage and poor survival for CRC patients. In conclusion, STC2 promotes CRC tumorigenesis and EMT progression through activating ERK/MEK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. STC2 protein is also a potential tumor biomarker for CRC diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:27662663

  7. Mutant p53 promotes ovarian cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells via integrin β4 and Akt signals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Jin Kim, Tae; Ho Lee, Jae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-07-30

    Missense mutations in the TP53 gene resulting in the accumulation of mutant proteins are extremely common in advanced ovarian cancer, which is characterised by peritoneal metastasis. Attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneal mesothelium is regarded as an initial, key step for the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of a p53 mutant in the mesothelial adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. We found that OVCAR-3 cells with the R248 TP53 mutation (p53(R248)) were more adhesive to mesothelial Met5A cells than were A2780 cells expressing wild-type p53. In addition, ectopic expression of p53(R248) in p53-null SKOV-3 cells significantly increased adhesion to Met5A cells. Knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised p53(R248)-induced cell adhesion to Met5A cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several adhesion-related genes, including integrin β4, were markedly up-regulated, and certain signalling pathways, including PI3K/Akt, were activated in p53(R248) transfectants of SKOV-3 cells. Inhibition of integrin β4 and Akt signalling using blocking antibody and the inhibitor LY294002, respectively, significantly attenuated p53(R248)-mediated ovarian cancer-mesothelial adhesion. These data suggest that the p53(R248) mutant endows ovarian cancer cells with increased adhesiveness and that integrin β4 and Akt signalling are associated with the mutation-enhanced ovarian cancer-mesothelial cell adhesion.

  8. SIX1 overexpression predicts poor prognosis and induces radioresistance through AKT signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Li, Guang; Tang, Lingrong; Li, Yaming

    2017-01-01

    The Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) protein has been found to be overexpressed in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological roles in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unexplored. This study examined the clinical significance of SIX1 in 119 ESCC tissues. It was found that SIX1 protein was upregulated in 36.9% (44/119) cases. SIX1 overexpression was an independent predictor for short survival of ESCC patients. siRNA knockdown and plasmid transfection were carried out in ESCC cell lines. SIX1 depletion inhibited cell growth, invasion, and colony formation, whereas its overexpression facilitated in vivo and in vitro cell growth, invasion, and colony formation. The apoptosis rate induced by X-ray irradiation was substantially increased by SIX1 knockdown in Eca-109 cells. Ectopic overexpression of SIX1 in TE-1 cells dramatically enhanced resistance to irradiation. Western blot analysis showed that SIX1 depletion downregulated cyclin E, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Bim expression. SIX1 overexpression exhibited the opposite effect on these proteins. In addition, it was found that SIX1 could positively regulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT signaling pathway. ERK inhibitor abolished the effect of SIX1 on MMP-2 expression. AKT inhibitor treatment blocked the role of SIX1 on anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SIX1 overexpression predicts poor survival in ESCC patients and confers radioresistance through activation of AKT signaling pathways. PMID:28260921

  9. Erythropoietin pretreatment suppresses inflammation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    RONG, REN; XIJUN, XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein originally known for its important role in the stimulation of erythropoiesis, has recently been shown to have significant protective effects in animal models of kidney and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the mechanism underlying these protective effects remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of EPO on myocardial IRI and to investigate the mechanism underlying these effects. A total of 18 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely the sham, IRI-saline and IRI-EPO groups. Rats in the IRI-EPO group were administered 5,000 U/kg EPO intraperitoneally 24 h prior to the induction of IRI. IRI was induced by ligating the left descending coronary artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue were observed and scored. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, were evaluated in the serum and myocardial tissue. Furthermore, the effects of EPO on phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling and EPO receptor (EPOR) phosphorylation were measured. Pathological changes in the myocardial tissue, increased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the myocardium, and increased serum levels of these mediators, as a result of IRI, were significantly decreased by EPO pretreatment. The effects of EPO were found to be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, which suppressed the inflammatory responses, following the initiation of EPOR activation by EPO. Therefore, EPO pretreatment was demonstrated to decrease myocardial IRI, which was associated with activation of EPOR, subsequently increasing PI3K/Akt signaling to inhibit the production and release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that EPO may be useful for preventing myocardial IRI. PMID:26622330

  10. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  11. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways.

  12. Heat Stress-Induced PI3K/mTORC2-Dependent AKT Signaling Is a Central Mediator of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survival to Thermal Ablation Induced Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Jondal, Danielle E.; Butters, Kim A.; Knudsen, Bruce E.; Anderson, Jill L.; Lien, Karen R.; Sutor, Shari L.; Lee, Ju-Seog; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Grande, Joseph P.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Woodrum, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal ablative therapies are important treatment options in the multidisciplinary care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but lesions larger than 2–3 cm are plagued with high local recurrence rates and overall survival of these patients remains poor. Currently no adjuvant therapies exist to prevent local HCC recurrence in patients undergoing thermal ablation. The molecular mechanisms mediating HCC resistance to thermal ablation induced heat stress and local recurrence remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the HCC cells with a poor prognostic hepatic stem cell subtype (Subtype HS) are more resistant to heat stress than HCC cells with a better prognostic hepatocyte subtype (Subtype HC). Moreover, sublethal heat stress rapidly induces phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent-protein kinase B (AKT) survival signaling in HCC cells in vitro and at the tumor ablation margin in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation or direct inhibition of AKT function both enhance HCC cell killing and decrease HCC cell survival to sublethal heat stress in both poor and better prognostic HCC subtypes while mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-inhibition has no impact. Finally, we showed that AKT isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially upregulated in primary human HCCs and that overexpression of AKT correlates with worse tumor biology and pathologic features (AKT3) and prognosis (AKT1). Together these findings define a novel molecular mechanism whereby heat stress induces PI3K/mTORC2-dependent AKT survival signaling in HCC cells and provide a mechanistic rationale for adjuvant AKT inhibition in combination with thermal ablation as a strategy to enhance HCC cell killing and prevent local recurrence, particularly at the ablation margin. PMID:27611696

  13. 125I Seeds Radiation Induces Paraptosis-Like Cell Death via PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in HCT116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lelin; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    125I seeds brachytherapy implantation has been extensively performed in unresectable and rerecurrent rectal carcinoma. Many studies on the cancer-killing activity of 125I seeds radiation mainly focused on its ability to trigger apoptosis, which is the most well-known and dominant type of cell death induced by radiation. However our results showed some unique morphological features such as cell swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and plasma membrane integrity, which is obviously different to apoptosis. In this study, clonogenic proliferation was carried out to assay survival fraction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze ultrastructural and evaluate morphologic feature of HCT116 cells after exposure to 125I seeds radiation. Immunofluorescence analysis was used to detect the origin of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to detect the size and granularity of HCT116 cells. Western blot was performed to measure the protein level of AIP1, caspase-3, AKT, p-Akt (Thr308), p-Akt (Ser473), and β-actin. We found that 125I seeds radiation activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and could trigger paraptosis-like cell death. Moreover, inhibitor of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway could inhibit paraptosis-like cell death induced by 125I seeds radiation. Our data suggest that 125I seeds radiation can induce paraptosis-like cell death via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:28078301

  14. High-glucose and advanced glycosylation end products increased podocyte permeability via PI3-K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Sun

    2010-04-01

    Regardless of the underlying disease, the proteinuric condition demonstrates ultrastructural changes in podocytes with retraction and effacement of the highly specialized interdigitating foot processes. To investigate how high-glucose (HG) and advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) induce podocyte phenotypical changes, including quantitative and distributional changes of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein and search for the signaling mechanisms, we cultured rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) and mouse podocytes under: (1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); (2) HG (30 mM); (3) AGE-added; or (4) HG plus AGE-added conditions. HG plus AGE increased the permeability of monolayered GEpCs and induced ultrastructural separation between confluent GEpCs. ZO-1 moved to inner actin filament complexes in both AGE- and/or HG by confocal imaging. HG plus AGE-added condition also decreased ZO-1 protein amount and mRNA expression compared to normal glucose or osmotic control conditions. We could also confirm the induction of RAGE (receptor for AGE) and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway by AGE and HG. In addition, LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor, could prevent the quantitative and distributional changes of ZO-1 and RAGE and the increased permeability induced by HG and AGE. These findings suggest that diabetic conditions induce the podocyte ZO-1 changes via RAGE and PI3-K/Akt signaling, leading to increased permeability.

  15. Cruciferous vegetable phytochemical sulforaphane affects phase II enzyme expression and activity in rat cardiomyocytes through modulation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), abundant in Cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in many cancer cell lines, but studies focused on its cytoprotective action in nontransformed cells are just at the beginning. Since we previously demonstrated that SF elicits cardioprotection through an indirect antioxidative mechanism, the aim of this study was to analyze the signaling pathways through which SF exerts its protective effects. Using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the ability of SF to activate Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways, which are implicated in cardiac cell survival, and to increase the phosphorylation of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its binding to the antioxidant response element. By means of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway represents a mechanism through which SF influences both expression and activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, analyzed by western immunoblotting and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, and modulates Nrf2 binding and phosphorylation resulting in a cytoprotective action against oxidative damage. Results of this study confirm the importance of phase II enzymes modulation as cytoprotective mechanism and support the nutritional assumption of Cruciferous vegetables as source of nutraceutical cardioprotective agents.

  16. ApoA-IV improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in mouse adipocytes via PI3K-Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Fei; Xu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effect of ApoA-IV on glucose uptake in the adipose and muscle tissues of mice and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that treatment with ApoA-IV lowered fasting blood glucose in both WT and diabetic KKAy mice by increasing glucose uptake in cardiac muscle, white adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue through a mechanism that was partially insulin independent. Cell culture experiments showed that ApoA-IV improved glucose uptake in adipocytes in the absence of insulin by upregulating GLUT4 translocation by PI3K mediated activation of Akt signaling pathways. Considering our previous finding that ApoA-IV treatment enhanced pancreatic insulin secretion, these results suggests that ApoA-IV acts directly upon adipose tissue to improve glucose uptake and indirectly via insulin signaling. Our findings warrant future studies to identify the receptor for ApoA-IV and the downstream targets of PI3K-Akt signaling that regulate glucose uptake in adipocytes as potential therapeutic targets for treating insulin resistance. PMID:28117404

  17. Digital ultrasonic signal processing: Primary ultrasonics task and transducer characterization use and detailed description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    This manual describes the use of the primary ultrasonics task (PUT) and the transducer characterization system (XC) for the collection, processing, and recording of data received from a pulse-echo ultrasonic system. Both PUT and XC include five primary functions common to many real-time data acquisition systems. Some of these functions are implemented using the same code in both systems. The solicitation and acceptance of operator control input is emphasized. Those operations not under user control are explained.

  18. JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: effects of salvianolic acid A intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that diabetes impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, while insulin resistance syndrome has been associated with alterations of this pathway in diabetic rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved. The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibiting JNK activity would partially restore the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and protect against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of intervention with salvianolic acid A (Sal A). The inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and Sal A were used in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats, outcome measures included heart hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SERCA2a activity, cardiomyocyte apotosis, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and JNK. The p-Akt levels were increased after myocardial I/R in non-diabetic rats, while there was no change in diabetic rats. Pretreatment with the SP600125 and Sal A decreased the p-JNK levels and increased the p-Akt levels in diabetic rats with I/R, and heart hemodynamic data improved, infarct size and LDH release decreased, SERCA2a activity increased, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Our results suggest that the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats and Sal A exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and improves cardiac function following I/R injury through the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in this model.

  19. JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: effects of salvianolic acid A intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that diabetes impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, while insulin resistance syndrome has been associated with alterations of this pathway in diabetic rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved. The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibiting JNK activity would partially restore the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and protect against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of intervention with salvianolic acid A (Sal A). The inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and Sal A were used in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats, outcome measures included heart hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SERCA2a activity, cardiomyocyte apotosis, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and JNK. The p-Akt levels were increased after myocardial I/R in non-diabetic rats, while there was no change in diabetic rats. Pretreatment with the SP600125 and Sal A decreased the p-JNK levels and increased the p-Akt levels in diabetic rats with I/R, and heart hemodynamic data improved, infarct size and LDH release decreased, SERCA2a activity increased, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Our results suggest that the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats and Sal A exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and improves cardiac function following I/R injury through the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in this model. PMID:27398138

  20. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. PI3K-Akt/PKB signaling pathway in neutrophils and mononuclear cells exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Garley, Marzena; Jablonski, Jakub; Radziwon, Piotr; Iwaniuk, Agnieszka; Grubczak, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) play diverse regulatory and effector functions in the immune system through the release of reactive nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO). The enzyme responsible for NO synthesis in PMN is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that is regulated by various signaling pathways, e.g. PI3K-Akt/PKB, and transcription factors. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a xenobiotic widespread in the human environment, affects immune cells. The study objective here was to examine the role of the PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway in induction of NO synthesis (with involvement of iNOS) in human PMN, as well as in autologous mononuclear cells (PBMC), exposed to NDMA. Isolated cells were incubated for 2 h with a sub-lethal dose of NDMA and then the expression of several select proteins in the cell cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions were determined by Western blot analyses. The results indicated that NDMA enhanced expression of iNOS, phospho-PI3K, and phospho-IκBα in the cytoplasmic fraction of the PMN and PBMC. The nuclear fraction of these cells also had a higher NF-κB expression. Moreover, in PMN, NDMA caused an increased expression of phospho-Akt (T308), phospho-Akt (S473), and phospho-IKKαβ in the cytoplasm, and c-Jun and FosB in the nuclear fraction. Blocking of PI3K caused a decrease in expression of all these proteins in NDMA-exposed PMN. However, inhibition of PI3K led to a drop in expression of iNOS, phospho-PI3K, and phospho-IκBα in the cytoplasm, and in NF-κB in the nuclear fraction, of PBMC. The results of these studies indicated to us that NDMA activates the PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway in human PMN and that this, in turn, contributes to the activation of transcription factors NF-κB, c-Jun, and FosB involved in NO production (through modulation of iNOS expression).

  2. CCN1/Cyr61-PI3K/AKT signaling promotes retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Di, Yu; Zhang, Yiou; Nie, Qingzhu; Chen, Xiaolong

    2015-12-01

    Retinal neovascularization (RNV) is a characteristic pathological finding of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Cysteine-rich 61 [Cyr61, also known as CCN family member 1 (CCN1)] has been reported to mediate angiogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of CCN1/Cyr61-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling in ROP. The contribution of CCN1 to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and apoptosis under hypoxic conditions was determined using a cell counting kit‑8 (CCK-8) and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively, as well as using siRNA targeting CCN1 (CCN1 siRNA). The cells exposed to hypoxia were also treated with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002. In addition, mouse pups with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) were administered an intravitreal injection of CCN1 siRNA. RNV was assessed by magnesium-activated adenosine diphosphate-ase (ADPase) staining. RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the distribution and expression of CCN1, PI3K and AKT. Exposure to hypoxia increased the neovascularization clock hour scores (from 1.23±0.49 to 5.60±0.73, P<0.05) and the number of preretinal neovascular cells, as well as the mRNA and protein expression levels of CCN1, PI3K and AKT (all P<0.05). The injection of CCN1 siRNA decreased the neovascularization clock hour scores and the number of preretinal neovascular cells (1.53±0.72 vs. 4.76±1.04; 12.0±2.8 vs. 31.4±2.6, respectively, both P<0.05), as well as the mRNA and protein expression levels of CCN1, PI3K and AKT (protein, -45.3, -22.5 and -28.4%; mRNA, -43.7, -58.7 and -42.9%, respectively, all P<0.05) compared to the administration of scrambled siRNA under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with LY294002 decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of CCN1 in the cells exposed to hypoxia (both P<0.05). The administration of CCN1 siRNA resulted in less severe neovascularization in the

  3. Effects of adhesive thickness on the Lamb wave pitch-catch signal using bonded piezoelectric wafer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Huang, H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of adhesive layer on Lamb wave ultrasound pitch-catch signals that are excited and sensed by piezoelectric wafer transducers bonded on a slender structure. Analytical models were established to simulate the longitudinal and flexural vibrations of the structures separately and parametric studies of the bonding layer properties, i.e. the shear transfer parameter, adhesive thickness, and shear modulus, were performed. The parametric studies indicate that there exists an optimal adhesive layer thickness that generates maximum ultrasound pitch-catch signal for both wave modes. This prediction was subsequently validated by measurements. In addition, an improved match between the measured and simulated pitch-catch signals was achieved by adjusting the adhesive layer parameters.

  4. JAM-A regulates epithelial proliferation through Akt/β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Nava, Porfirio; Capaldo, Christopher T; Koch, Stefan; Kolegraff, Keli; Rankin, Carl Robert; Farkas, Attila E; Feasel, Mattie E; Li, Linheng; Addis, Caroline; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2011-04-01

    Expression of the tight junction protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) has been linked to proliferation and tumour progression. However, a direct role for JAM-A in regulating proliferative processes has not been shown. By using complementary in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrate that JAM-A restricts intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in a dimerization-dependent manner, by inhibiting Akt-dependent β-catenin activation. Furthermore, IECs from transgenic JAM-A(-/-)/β-catenin/T-cell factor reporter mice showed enhanced β-catenin-dependent transcription. Finally, inhibition of Akt reversed colonic crypt hyperproliferation in JAM-A-deficient mice. These data establish a new link between JAM-A and IEC homeostasis.

  5. A novel 7-bromoindirubin with potent anticancer activity suppresses survival of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Kritsanida, Marina; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jun; Buettner, Ralf; Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2012-11-01

    STAT3 and Akt signaling have been validated as potential molecular targets for treatment of cancers including melanoma. These small molecule inhibitors of STAT3 or Akt signaling are promising for developing anti-melanoma therapeutic agents. MLS-2438, a novel 7-bromoindirubin, a derivative of the natural product indirubin, was synthesized with a bromo-group at the 7-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. We tested the anticancer activity of MLS-2438 and investigated its mechanism of action in human melanoma cell lines. Here, we show that MLS-2438 inhibits viability and induces apoptosis of human melanoma cells associated with inhibition of STAT3 and Akt signaling. Several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are involved in the MLS-2438 mediated apoptosis. MLS-2438 inhibits Src kinase activity in vitro and phosphorylation of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt in cultured cancer cells. In contrast to the decreased phosphorylation levels of JAK2, Src, STAT3 and Akt, phosphorylation levels of the MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling protein were not reduced in cells treated with MLS-2438. These results demonstrate that MLS-2438, a novel natural product derivative, is a Src inhibitor and potentially regulates kinase activity of JAK2 and Akt in cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2438 suppressed tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Our findings support further development of MLS-2438 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets both STAT3 and Akt signaling in human melanoma cells.

  6. Expression of constitutively active Akt/protein kinase B signals GLUT4 translocation in the absence of an intact actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Eyster, Craig A; Duggins, Quwanza S; Olson, Ann Louise

    2005-05-06

    The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to be required for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation; however, the role that the actin network plays is unknown. Actin may play a role in formation of an active signaling complex, or actin may be required for movement of vesicles to the plasma membrane surface. To distinguish between these possibilities, we examined the ability of myr-Akt, a constitutively active form of Akt that signals GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin, to signal translocation of an HA-GLUT4-GFP reporter protein in the presence or absence of an intact cytoskeleton in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of myr-Akt signaled the redistribution of the GLUT4 reporter protein to the cell surface in the absence or presence of 10 microm latrunculin B, a concentration sufficient to completely inhibit insulin-dependent redistribution of the GLUT4 reporter to the cell surface. These data suggest that the actin network plays a primary role in organization of the insulin-signaling complex. To further support this conclusion, we measured the activation of known signaling proteins using a saturating concentration of insulin in cells pretreated without or with 10 microm latrunculin B. We found that latrunculin treatment did not affect insulin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit and IRS-1 but completely inhibited activation of Akt/PKB enzymatic activity. Phosphorylation of Akt/PKB at Ser-473 and Thr-308 was inhibited by latrunculin B treatment, indicating that the defect in signaling lies prior to Akt/PKB activation. In summary, our data support the hypothesis that the actin network plays a role in organization of the insulin-signaling complex but is not required for vesicle trafficking and/or fusion.

  7. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H₂O₂. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H₂O₂ was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H₂O₂ activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H₂O₂-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  8. Atorvastatin attenuates cognitive deficits through Akt1/caspase-3 signaling pathway in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Pan, Ying; Li, Xuejing; Wang, Xianying

    2015-12-10

    Neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation is more sensitive to ischemic stimulation and easily injured, causing severe learning and memory impairment. Therefore, protection of hippocampal neuronal damage is the main contributor for learning and memory impairment during cerebral ischemia. Atorvastatin has been reported to ameliorate ischemic brain damage after ischemia reperfusion (I/R). However, its molecular mechanism has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we established four-vessel occlusion model in rats with cerebral ischemia. Here, we demonstrated that atorvastatin significantly improves the behavior of I/R-rat in open field tasks. We also found that atorvastatin significantly shortens the distance and time of loading onto the hidden platform in the positioning navigation process, decreases the latency in the space exploration process when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed during ischemic stroke in rats. Furthermore, the survival rate of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) in the neurons are increased, whereas the expression of caspase-3 are inhibited by atorvastatin. However, after an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002 (an inhibitor of Akt1), the above neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin are attenuated. In summary, our results imply atorvastatin may improve the survival rate of hippocampal neurons and reduce the impairment of learning and memory by downregulating the activation of the caspase-3 via increasing the phosphorylation of Akt1 during ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. Dynamic Akt/mTOR Signaling in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Onore, Charity; Yang, Houa; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined disorder affecting 1 in 68 children. Currently, there is no known cause for the majority of ASD cases nor are there physiological diagnostic tools or biomarkers to aid behavioral diagnosis. Whole-genome linkage studies, genome-wide association studies, copy number variation screening, and SNP analyses have identified several ASD candidate genes, but which vary greatly among individuals and family clusters, suggesting that a variety of genetic mutations may result in a common pathology or alter a common mechanistic pathway. The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in many cellular processes including synaptic plasticity and immune function that can alter neurodevelopment. In this study, we examined the activity of the Akt/mTOR pathway in cells isolated from children with ASD and typically developing controls. We observed higher activity of mTOR, extracellular receptor kinase, and p70S6 kinase and lower activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)α and tuberin (TSC2) in cells from children with ASD. These data suggest a phosphorylation pattern indicative of higher activity in the Akt/mTOR pathway in children with general/idiopathic ASD and may suggest a common pathological pathway of interest for ASD. PMID:28361047

  10. PKC and AKT Modulate cGMP/PKG Signaling Pathway on Platelet Aggregation in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Pires, M. Elisa; Naime, Ana C. Antunes; Almeida Cardelli, Nádia J.; Anjos, Débora J.; Antunes, Edson; Marcondes, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis severity has been positively correlated with platelet dysfunction, which may be due to elevations in nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP levels. Protein kinase C, Src kinases, PI3K and AKT modulate platelet activity in physiological conditions, but no studies evaluated the role of these enzymes in platelet aggregation in sepsis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that in sepsis these enzymes positively modulate upstream the NO-cGMP pathway resulting in platelet inhibition. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and blood was collected after 6 h. Platelet aggregation was induced by ADP (10 μM). Western blotting assays were carried out to analyze c-Src and AKT activation in platelets. Intraplatelet cGMP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay kit. Phosphorylation of c-SRC at Tyr416 was the same magnitude in platelets of control and LPS group. Incubation of the non-selective Src inhibitor PP2 (10 μM) had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. LPS increased intraplatelet cGMP levels by 5-fold compared with control group, which was accompanied by 76% of reduction in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (25 μM) and the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (25 μM) fully reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on platelet aggregation. Likewise, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10 μM) reversed the inhibition by LPS of platelet aggregation and decreased cGMP levels in platelets. AKT phosphorylation at Thr308 was significantly higher in platelets of LPS compared with control group, which was not reduced by PI3K inhibition. The AKT inhibitor API-1 (20 μM) significantly increased aggregation and reduced cGMP levels in platelets of LPS group. However, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and LY29004 had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. Therefore, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation after LPS injection is mediated by cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanisms, and PKC and AKT act

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor promoting the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells is relative to AKT signal channel and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Wu, Jinjin; Liu, Bo; Lu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multi-effective molecule, playing important roles in organ growth, tumorigenesis and trauma healing. This experiment aims at studying the promoting function of HGF on the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells (hESGc) and its relative signal channels. After HGF at different concentrations were added into cells, MTT was adopted to detect the cell proliferations, Annexin-V/PI the cell apoptosis, and Westernblot the expressions of p-AKT, AKT, p-ERK, p-GSK3β, p-IKBα, and β-catenin in hESGc. After adding siRNA c-Met to block HGF or LY294002 to inhibit p-AKT, we used MTT to detect the proliferation of hESGc and Westernblot to detect the expression of β-catenin. As a result, 20-40 ng/mL HGF could promote the proliferation of hESGc and inhibit its apoptosis. HGF could promote the expressions of p-AKT1/2/3, p-ERK, p-GSK3β, p-IKBα, and β-catenin. The additions of siRNA c-Met to block HGF or LY294002 to inhibit p-AKT could downregulate β-catenin and inhibit the proliferation promotion caused by HGF. Consequently, we concluded HGF can promote the proliferation of human eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells, which is relative to AKT signal channel and β-catenin.

  12. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; LI, Jie; LIU, Jin; GUO, Baosheng; LEUNG, Albert; ZHANG, Ge; ZHANG, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment could significantly attenuate the decreases in the phosphorylation level of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit and its downstream markers related to protein synthesis, and inhibit the increases in protein degradation markers at mRNA and protein levels in rat soleus muscle following 28-day hindlimb unloading. In addition, the decreases in soleus muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, twitch force, specific force, contraction time and half relaxation time could be significantly attenuated by the high dose ICT treatment. The low dose ICT treatment could moderately attenuate the above changes induced by unloading. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit, could abolish the above effects of ICT in vitro and in vivo, indicating that PI3K/Akt signaling could be required by ICT to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading. PMID:26831566

  13. Role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the cell cycle progression of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Shi, Xianglin

    2003-10-31

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men. Recent studies demonstrated that PI3K signaling is an important intracellular mediator which is involved in multiple cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, anti-apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that the inhibition of PI3K activity by LY294002, inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced the G(1) cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by the decreased expression of G(1)-associated proteins including cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation at Ser780, Ser795, and Ser807/811, whereas expression of CDK6 and beta-actin was not affected by LY294002. The expression of cyclin kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1), was induced by LY294002, while levels of p16(INK4) were decreased in the same experiment. The inhibition of PI3K activity also inhibited the phosphorylation and p70(S6K), but not MAPK. PI3K regulates cell cycle through AKT, mTOR to p70(S6K). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has similar inhibitory effects on G(1) cell cycle progression and expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation. These results suggest that PI3K mediates G(1) cell cycle progression and cyclin expression through the activation of AKT/mTOR/p70(S6K) signaling pathway in the prostate cancer cells.

  14. Regulator of G protein signaling 1 suppresses CXCL12-mediated migration and AKT activation in RPMI 8226 human plasmacytoma cells and plasmablasts.

    PubMed

    Pak, Hyo-Kyung; Gil, Minchan; Lee, Yoonkyung; Lee, Hyunji; Lee, A-Neum; Roh, Jin; Park, Chan-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Migration of plasma cells to the bone marrow is critical factor to humoral immunity and controlled by chemokines. Regulator of G protein signaling 1 (RGS1) is a GTPase-activating protein that controls various crucial functions such as migration. Here, we show that RGS1 controls the chemotactic migration of RPMI 8226 human plasmacytoma cells and human plasmablasts. LPS strongly increased RGS1 expression and retarded the migration of RPMI 8226 cells by suppressing CXCL12-mediated AKT activation. RGS1 knockdown by siRNA abolished the retardation of migration and AKT suppression by LPS. RGS1-dependent regulation of migration via AKT is also observed in cultured plasmablasts. We propose novel functions of RGS1 that suppress AKT activation and the migration of RPMI 8226 cells and plasmablasts in CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis.

  15. Berberine protects endothelial progenitor cell from damage of TNF-α via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Men, Li Na; Xu, Ming Guo; Wang, Guo Bing; Lv, Hai Tao; Liu, Cong

    2014-11-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is closely correlated with the coronary artery injury induced by Kawasaki disease (KD). The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elevated significantly in acute phase of KD which can damage the functions of EPCs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether berberine (BBR) can protect EPCs from the inhibition caused by TNF-α via the PI3K (Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase) /AKT (Serine/threonine protein kinase B) /eNOS (endothelial Nitric Oxide synthase) signaling pathway. The cell proliferative ability of EPCs was determined by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assays. Nitric oxide (NO) level was determined in supernatants. The mRNA level of eNOS, PI3K and AKT were measured by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and the protein levels of eNOS, phospho-eNOS (p-eNOS), Akt, phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and PI3K were analyzed using Western-blot. The results demonstrated that TNF-α inhibits the proliferative ability of EPCs. However, BBR improves the proliferative activity of EPCs inhibited by TNF-α. Blockade of PI3K by 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (Ly294002) and blockade of eNOS by l-NAME (NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester) attenuates the effect of BBR. BBR can increase the level of PI3K/Akt/eNOS mRNA and the protein level of PI3K, p-Akt, eNOS and p-eNOS, which can be blocked by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and eNOS inhibitor (l-NAME). Therefore, we concluded that impaired EPCs proliferation could be reversed by BBR via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

  16. Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by mPRα Through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Sun, Limin; Wang, Xiao; Su, Peng; Li, Zhishuang; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Yan; Gao, Peng; Ma, Rong

    2016-07-01

    Invasive breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in women worldwide. However, the mechanism responsible for breast cancer metastasis is still unclear and needs further illustration. It has been proven that matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) promotes metastasis of the cancer cells. However, the interaction between mPRα and MMP-9 has not been studied. Therefore, in the present research, the effect of MMP-9 on the malignant progression of invasive breast cancer promoted by membrane progesterone receptorα (mPRα) was investigated. The results showed that the protein expression of mPRα, p-Akt and MMP-9 increased in the cancerous tissues compared to that of the noncancerous breast tissue. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between mPRα and C-erbB-2, as well as the number of involved local lymph nodes. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between mPRα and estrogen receptors (ER) along with progesterone receptors (PR). Similarly, a positive association was found between MMP-9 and the number of involved local lymph nodes. Besides, the high expression of MMP-9 also had a positive correlation with the tumor size. However, the high level of MMP-9 had a negative correlation with ER and PR. In addition, there was a positive correlation between mPRα and p-Akt together with MMP-9. The results confirm that mPRα was a major marker of harmful prognosis and it promoted the expression of MMP-9 during invasion to the local lymph nodes through the pathway of PI3K/Akt. The present study provided a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit breast cancer growth by preventing mPRα signaling pathway.

  17. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Regulating PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Li; Xie, Li-Xia; Li, Min; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Goto, Shinya; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Background Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been commonly used for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for such protective effects remains largely unknown. It has been considered that cerebral endothelium apoptosis caused by reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disorders. Methodology and Principal Findings By examining the effect of Sal B on H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs), we found that Sal B pretreatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in rCMECs. We next examined the signaling cascade(s) involved in Sal B-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. We showed that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis mainly through the PI3K/ERK pathway, since a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) blocked ERK activation caused by H2O2 and a specific inhibitor of MEK (U0126) protected cells from apoptosis. On the other hand, blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abrogated the protective effect conferred by Sal B and potentated H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Sal B prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis predominantly through the PI3K/Akt (upstream of ERK) pathway. Significance Our findings provide the first evidence that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis via the PI3K/MEK/ERK pathway and that Sal B protects rCMECs against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:18091994

  18. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yeh Siang; Ling, Wei Chih; Murugan, Dharmani; Kwan, Chiu Yin; Mustafa, Mohd Rais

    2015-01-01

    Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE), also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO)-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase), wortmannin (30 nM) and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3)-Kinase inhibitor), NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS)) and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx) level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity. PMID:26133970

  19. Akt/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling deficiency compromises skin wound healing in a type 1 diabetes mouse model

    PubMed Central

    JING, LIFENG; LI, SHUANG; LI, QIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms for impaired skin wound healing in subjects with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) was induced in BALB/c mice using streptozotocin. One month after the establishment of the T1DM mouse model, a wound was formed on the back of the mice, and tissues from the wounds and the margins were collected on days 0, 3, 7 and 10. Protein levels of cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels of Akt, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf), VEGF receptor 2 (Vegfr2), stromal cell-derived growth factor-1α (Sdf-1α) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (Cxcr4) were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The corresponding protein levels were determined using western blotting. The skin wound healing rate in the T1DM mice was significantly lower than that in the control mice, and the protein level of CD31 in the wounded skin of the T1DM mice was significantly decreased. Furthermore, the overall mRNA levels of Akt, Hif-1α, Vegf, Vegfr2, Sdf-1α and Cxcr4 in the T1DM mice were significantly lower than those in the control mice, and similar trends were observed in the protein levels. In conclusion, skin wound healing was impaired in the T1DM mice, and this may have been caused by a deficiency of Akt/HIF-1α and downstream signaling, as well as delayed angiogenesis. PMID:26136949

  20. BCL-3 expression promotes colorectal tumorigenesis through activation of AKT signalling

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Bettina C; Collard, Tracey J; Eagle, Catherine J; Southern, Samantha L; Greenhough, Alexander; Hamdollah-Zadeh, Maryam; Ghosh, Anil; Paraskeva, Christos; Silver, Andrew; Williams, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here we investigate the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) co-factor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL-3) in promoting colorectal tumour cell survival. Design Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 47 tumour samples and normal tissue from resection margins. The role of BCL-3/NF-κB complexes on cell growth was studied in vivo and in vitro using an siRNA approach and exogenous BCL-3 expression in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells. The question whether BCL-3 activated the AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway in colorectal tumour cells was addressed by western blotting and confocal microscopy, and the ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to suppress BCL-3 expression was also investigated. Results We report increased BCL-3 expression in human colorectal cancers and demonstrate that BCL-3 expression promotes tumour cell survival in vitro and tumour growth in mouse xenografts in vivo, dependent on interaction with NF-κB p50 or p52 homodimers. We show that BCL-3 promotes cell survival under conditions relevant to the tumour microenvironment, protecting both colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells from apoptosis via activation of the AKT survival pathway: AKT activation is mediated via both PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, leading to phosphorylation of downstream targets GSK-3β and FoxO1/3a. Treatment with 5-ASA suppressed BCL-3 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions Our study helps to unravel the mechanism by which BCL-3 is linked to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer; we suggest that targeting BCL-3 activity represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity potentially increasing the sensitivity of tumour cells to conventional therapy. PMID:26033966

  1. AcSDKP Regulates Cell Proliferation through the PI3KCA/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Yijian; Li, Guang; Jiang, Xinnong; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Liu, Jianmiao

    2013-01-01

    The natural tetrapeptide acetyl-N-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) is generated from the N-terminus of thymosin-β4 through enzymatic cleavage by prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). AcSDKP regulation of proliferation of different cells is implicated in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. This tetrapeptide present in almost all cells was recently detected at elevated concentrations in neoplastic diseases. However, previously reported in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AcSDKP does not contribute to the pathogenesis of cancers. Here we show that exogenous AcSDKP exerts no effect on the proliferation of actively dividing malignant cells. Using S17092, a specific POP inhibitor (POPi), to suppress the biosynthesis of AcSDKP in U87-MG glioblastoma cells characterized by high intracellular levels of this peptide, we found that all tested doses of POPi resulted in an equally effective depletion of AcSDKP, which was not correlated with the dose-dependent decreases in the proliferation rate of treated cells. Interestingly, addition of exogenous AcSDKP markedly reversed the reduction in the proliferation of U87-MG cells treated with the highest dose of POPi, and this effect was associated with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. However, extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was unaltered by S17092 and AcSDKP co-treatment. Knockdown of individual PI3K catalytic subunits revealed that p110α and p110β contributed differently to AcSDKP regulation of U87-MG cell proliferation. Disruption of p110α expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated AcSDKP-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of p110β expression exhibited no such effect. Our findings indicate for the first time that the PI3KCA/Akt pathway mediates AcSDKP regulation of cell proliferation and suggest a role for this ubiquitous intracellular peptide in cell survival. PMID:24244481

  2. Emerging therapeutic paradigms to target the dysregulated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Tariq I; Girnius, Saulius; Rosen, Steven T; Kumar, Shaji; Wiestner, Adrian; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Wilson, Wyndham H; Van Etten, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing biochemical evidence that the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is aberrantly activated in malignant cells from patients with a wide spectrum of cancers of the blood and immune systems. The emerging availability of small molecule inhibitors of JAK and other signaling molecules in the JAK/STAT pathway has allowed preclinical studies validating an important role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of many hematologic malignancies, and provided motivation for new strategies for treatment of these diseases. Here, a round-table panel of experts review the current preclinical and clinical landscape of the JAK/STAT pathway in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, lymphomas and myeloma, and chronic myeloid neoplasms.

  3. Arctigenin, a Natural Lignan Compound, Induces Apoptotic Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of PI3-K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yubin

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and check the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling. HCC cells were treated with different concentrations of arctigenin and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. Manipulating Akt signaling was used to determine its role in the action of arctigenin. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the viability of HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Arctigenin induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Overexpression of a constitutively active Akt mutant blocked arctigenin-induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with arctigenin and the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly enhanced apoptosis. Arctigenin reduced the expression of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and survivin and the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, which were significantly reversed by overexpression of constitutively active Akt. This is the first report about the anticancer activity of arctigenin in HCC cells, which is mediated by inactivation of PI3-K/Akt signaling.

  4. Inhibiting PI3K-AKt signaling pathway is involved in antitumor effects of ginsenoside Rg3 in lung cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qipeng; Wen, Huaikai; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Weihe; Lin, Xiaoming; Xie, Deyao; Liu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is recognized as the most prevalent type of cancer with high death rate. Ginsenoside Rg3 isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine Panax Ginseng has significant anticancer effects on many tumors. In this study, the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on cells viability, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in lung cancer cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the viability of lung cancer cell lines A549,H23 was examined by CCK-8 kits; The proportion of cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt was evaluated with Western blot. In vivo, A549,H23 cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice. Histopathological analysis was stained with HE, and TUNEL assay was used to detect cell apoptosis. The results showed that Rg3 obviously inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis and inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling pathway on A549, H23 cells in vitro and in vivo. Rg3 effectively inhibited the volume and weight of tumor in xenografts model, which may be related with inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  5. Astrocyte-conditioned medium protecting hippocampal neurons in primary cultures against corticosterone-induced damages via PI3-K/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ze-Hua; Yang, Ru; Fu, Xin; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wu, Gen-Cheng

    2006-10-09

    Prolonged or excessive exposure to corticosterone leads to neuronal damages in the brain regions, including hippocampus. We reported that astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) protected the neurons of the primary hippocampal cultures against the corticosterone-induced damages. Corticosterone added to the cultures resulted in a significant number of TUNEL-positive cells. However, corticosterone-induced TUNEL labeling was suppressed as for ACM-cultured neurons. To delineate the molecular basis underlying the neuroprotection of ACM, we assessed the activation of ERK1/2 and (PI3-K)/Akt signal pathways in response to corticosterone-induced neuronal damages. Western blot test revealed that corticosterone increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt in hippocampal neurons grown in Neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and 500 microm L-glutamine (NBM+). Interestingly, the increase of phospho-ERK1/2 and Akt levels was much pronounced and the time course of phosphorylation was altered in ACM, suggesting that both signaling pathways might participate in ACM protection. Furthermore, the selective inhibitor of Akt, rather than ERK1/2, blocked the neuroprotective activity against corticosterone in ACM-cultured neurons. In summary, our data showed that ACM had a potent neuroprotective effect in cultured neurons. PI3-K/Akt signal pathway, but not ERK1/2, was involved in the protective activity against the corticosterone-induced damages.

  6. Quercetin regresses Dalton's lymphoma growth via suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling leading to upregulation of p53 and decrease in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Akhilendra Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Various oncogenes are associated with deregulation in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell survival, which ultimately cause cancerous growth. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) mediated signaling plays a key role in malignant transformation. Cell proliferation and cell survival of tumor cell are induced by hyper activation of PI3K, AKT1, glycolytic enzyme LDH-A, and inactivation of tumor suppressor gene p53. Dietary flavonoids such as quercetin are considered a powerful modulator of different cellular signaling pathways. The present study is focused on the role of quercetin on regulation of PI3K/AKT pathways in Dalton's lymphoma mice. Effect of quercetin was analyzed in ascite cells in terms of cell viability, glycolytic metabolism as well as expression, and level of PI3K (regulatory and catalytic subunit), AKT1, and p53 using standard methods. Results reflect hyperactivation of PI3K signaling in ascite cells of Dalton's lymphoma mice, leading to activation of AKT1 and inactivation of p53. Quercetin modulates the pathway toward suppression of lymphoma. Glycolytic metabolism was also downregulated by quercetin. Its tumor suppressor activity was confirmed by morphological parameters and longevity of mice. The findings suggest that quercetin may contribute to lymphoma prevention by downregulating PI3K-AKT1-p53 pathway as well as by glycolytic metabolism.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species through PI3K/Akt Signaling and Limits Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Spassov, Sashko Georgiev; Donus, Rosa; Ihle, Paul Mikael; Engelstaedter, Helen; Hoetzel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is still a major problem in mechanically ventilated patients. Low dose inhalation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during mechanical ventilation has been proven to prevent lung damage by limiting inflammatory responses in rodent models. However, the capacity of H2S to affect oxidative processes in VILI and its underlying molecular signaling pathways remains elusive. In the present study we show that ventilation with moderate tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg for 6 h led to an excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice lungs which was prevented by supplemental inhalation of 80 parts per million of H2S. In addition, phosphorylation of the signaling protein Akt was induced by H2S. In contrast, inhibition of Akt by LY294002 during ventilation reestablished lung damage, neutrophil influx, and proinflammatory cytokine release despite the presence of H2S. Moreover, the ability of H2S to induce the antioxidant glutathione and to prevent ROS production was reversed in the presence of the Akt inhibitor. Here, we provide the first evidence that H2S-mediated Akt activation is a key step in protection against VILI, suggesting that Akt signaling limits not only inflammatory but also detrimental oxidative processes that promote the development of lung injury. PMID:28250891

  8. Early single Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin blocked morphine anti-nociception tolerance through inhibiting NALP1 inflammasome: Involvement of PI3k/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Liu, Ming; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Wang, Jun; Li, Qian; Liu, Shen-Bin; Mi, Wen-Li; Ma, Hong-Jian; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Clinical usage of opioids in pain relief is dampened by analgesic tolerance after chronic exposure, which is related to opioid-associated neuroinflammation. In the current study, which is based on a chronic morphine tolerance rat model and sustained morphine treatment on primary neuron culture, it was observed that Akt phosphorylation, cleaved-Caspase-1-dependent NALP1 inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation in spinal cord neurons were significantly enhanced by morphine. Moreover, treatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3k/Akt signaling, significantly reduced Caspase-1 cleavage, NALP1 inflammasome activation and attenuated morphine tolerance. Tail-flick tests demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition on Caspase-1 activation or antagonizing IL-1β dramatically blocked the development of morphine tolerance. The administration of an exogenous analogue of lipoxin, Aspirin-triggered Lipoxin (ATL), caused a decline in Caspase-1 cleavage, inflammasome activation and mature IL-1β production and thus attenuated the development of morphine tolerance by inhibiting upstream Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with DAMGO, a selective μ-opioid receptor peptide, significantly induced Akt phosphorylation, Caspase-1 cleavage and anti-nociception tolerance, all of which were attenuated by ATL treatment. Taken together, the present study revealed the involvement of spinal NALP1 inflammasome activation in the development of morphine tolerance and the role of the μ-receptor/PI3k-Akt signaling/NALP1 inflammasome cascade in this process. By inhibiting this signaling cascade, ATL blocked the development of morphine tolerance.

  9. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  10. Algae Undaria pinnatifida Protects Hypothalamic Neurons against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress through Akt/mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Il Soo; Goo, Tae-Won; Moon, Seong-Su; Seo, Minchul

    2015-11-25

    Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be one of the causes of hypothalamic neuronal damage, as well as a cause of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Recent evidence has suggested that Undaria pinnatifida (UP), an edible brown algae, has antioxidant activity. However, the neuroprotective effect of UP has yet to be examined. In this study, to investigate the neuroprotective effect of UP on ER stress-induced neuronal damage in mouse hypothalamic neurons, mice immortal hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7) were incubated with extract of UP. ER stress was induced by treating with tunicamycin. Tunicamycin induced apoptotic cell death was compared with the vehicle treatment through excessive ER stress. However UP protected GT1-7 cells from cell death, occurring after treatment with tunicamycin by reducing ER stress. Treatment with UP resulted in reduced increment of ATF6 and CHOP, and recovered the decrease of phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR by tunicamycin and the increment of autophagy. These results show that UP protects GT1-7 cells from ER stress induced cell death through the Akt/mTOR pathway. The current study suggests that UP may have a beneficial effect on cerebral neuronal degeneration in metabolic diseases with elevated ER stress.

  11. Trisubstituted-Imidazoles Induce Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting the Oncogenic PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mervin, Lewis; Mohan, Surender; Paricharak, Shardul; Baday, Sefer; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M. E.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Bender, Andreas; Sethi, Gautam; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2016-01-01

    Overactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR is linked with carcinogenesis and serves a potential molecular therapeutic target in treatment of various cancers. Herein, we report the synthesis of trisubstituted-imidazoles and identified 2-chloro-3-(4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl) pyridine (CIP) as lead cytotoxic agent. Naïve Base classifier model of in silico target prediction revealed that CIP targets RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase which comprises the Akt. Furthermore, CIP downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, PDK and mTOR proteins and decreased expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, procaspase-3 and increased cleavage of PARP. In addition, CIP significantly downregulated the CXCL12 induced motility of breast cancer cells and molecular docking calculations revealed that all compounds bind to Akt2 kinase with high docking scores compared to the library of previously reported Akt2 inhibitors. In summary, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of imidazoles that induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells by negatively regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27097161

  12. Analysis of miRNA profiles identified miR-196a as a crucial mediator of aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Ilaria; D'Angelo, Daniela; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Santos, Mafalda; Scrima, Marianna; Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Laudanna, Carmelo; Ceccarelli, Michele; Falco, Geppino; Rizzuto, Antonia; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-11-17

    Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is observed in most human cancer including lung carcinomas. Here we have investigated the role of miRNAs as downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT signaling in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). To this aim, miRNA profiling was performed in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active AKT1 (BEAS-AKT1-E17K), active PI3KCA (BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K) or with silenced PTEN (BEAS-shPTEN).Twenty-four differentially expressed miRNAs common to BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells were identified through this analysis, with miR-196a being the most consistently up-regulated miRNA. Interestingly, miR-196a was significantly overexpressed also in human NSCLC-derived cell lines (n=11) and primary lung cancer samples (n=28).By manipulating the expression of miR-196a in BEAS-2B and NCI-H460 cells, we obtained compelling evidence that this miRNA acts downstream the PI3K/AKT pathway, mediating some of the proliferative, pro-migratory and tumorigenic activity that this pathway exerts in lung epithelial cells, possibly through the regulation of FoxO1, CDKN1B (hereafter p27) and HOXA9.

  13. Arctigenin Increases Hemeoxygenase-1 Gene Expression by Modulating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway in Rat Primary Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Hui; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we found that the natural compound arctigenin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in rat primary astrocytes. Since hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a critical role as an antioxidant defense factor in the brain, we examined the effect of arctigenin on HO-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes. We found that arctigenin increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also increases the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2/c-Jun to the antioxidant response element (ARE) on HO-1 promoter. In addition, arctigenin increased ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in rat primary astrocytes. Further mechanistic studies revealed that arctigenin increased the phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream substrate of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Treatment of cells with a PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed the HO-1 expression, Nrf2 DNA binding and ARE-mediated transcriptional activities in arctigenin-treated astrocyte cells. The results collectively suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is at least partly involved in HO-1 expression by arctigenin via modulation of Nrf2/ARE axis in rat primary astrocytes.

  14. Liraglutide reduces lipogenetic signals in visceral adipose of db/db mice with AMPK activation and Akt suppression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yimin; Yuan, Geheng; Zhang, Junqing; Guo, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, has been proved to reduce body weight and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in human studies. In this study, we aimed at examining lipogenetic signal changes in VAT after weight-loss with liraglutide in db/db mice. The mice were divided into two groups: liraglutide-treated group (n=14, 8-week-old, fasting glucose. >10 mmol/L, liraglutide 300 μg/kg twice a day for 4 weeks) and control group (n=14, saline). We found body weight gain and food intake were reduced after liraglutide treatment (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the VAT weights were significantly lower in the treated group (2.32±0.37 g versus 3.20±0.30 g, P<0.01) than that in control group. In VAT, compared with control group, the lipogenetic transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα expressions were both reduced with pAMPK and pACC increased 3.5-fold and 2.31-fold respectively, while pAkt and pP38MAPK were reduced 0.38-fold and 0.62-fold respectively (P<0.01). In conclusion, VAT was reduced after weight loss with AMPK activation and Akt suppression with liraglutide treatment, which was associated with reduction of lipogenetic process in VAT.

  15. IL-8 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the activation of AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Lu, Fuding; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Kewei; Huang, Jian; Yu, Dexin; Bi, Liangkuan

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process has increasingly been examined due to its role in the progression of human tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common urological tumors that results in patient mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that the EMT process is closely associated with the metastasis of RCC; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. The present study revealed that interleukin (IL)-8 was highly expressed in metastatic RCC. IL-8 could induce the EMT of an RCC cell line by enhancing N-cadherin expression and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, IL-8 could induce AKT phosphorylation, and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could inhibit the EMT of RCC cells that was induced by IL-8. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-8 is able to promote the EMT of RCC through the activation of the AKT signal transduction pathway, and this may provide a possible molecular mechanism for RCC metastasis. PMID:27588140

  16. Betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shujie; Zhu, Hongcan; He, Ping; Teng, Junfang

    2016-12-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a naturally occurring pentacyclic lupane group triterpenoid, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage. However, the effects of BA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unclear. Hence, this study was to investigate the effects of BA on oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons. Our results showed that BA pretreatment greatly attenuated OGD/R-induced neuronal injury. BA also inhibited OGD/R-induced intracellular ROS production and MDA level in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and the consequent activation of caspase-3 induced by OGD/R were reversed by BA pretreatment. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that BA pretreatment up-regulated the expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt in hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R. Taken together, these data suggested that BA inhibits OGD/R-induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  17. Acadesine Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Thrombus Formation by Activating the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Huan; Tang, Rong; Belcher, John D.; Viollet, Benoit; Geng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Chunxiang; Wu, Chaodong; Slungaard, Arne; Zhu, Chuhong; Huo, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acadesine, an adenosine-regulating agent and activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. This study investigated whether and how acadesine inhibits tissue factor (TF) expression and thrombus formation. Methods and Results Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human peripheral blood monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide to induce TF expression. Pretreatment with acadesine dramatically suppressed the clotting activity and expression of TF (protein and mRNA). These inhibitory effects of acadesine were unchanged for endothelial cells treated with ZM241385 (a specific adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) or AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound C, and in macrophages lacking adenosine A2A receptor or α1–AMP-activated protein kinase. In endothelial cells and macrophages, acadesine activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, reduced the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and consequently suppressed TF expression by inhibiting the activator protein-1 and NF-κB pathways. In mice, acadesine suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated increases in blood coagulation, decreased TF expression in atherosclerotic lesions, and reduced deep vein thrombus formation. Conclusion Acadesine inhibits TF expression and thrombus formation by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This novel finding implicates acadesine as a potentially useful treatment for many disorders associated with thrombotic pathology, such as angina pain, deep vein thrombosis, and sepsis. PMID:20185792

  18. Endoglin regulates PI3-kinase/Akt trafficking and signaling to alter endothelial capillary stability during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Golzio, Christelle; Gatza, Catherine E.; Sharma, Arun; Katsanis, Nicholas; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2012-01-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) coreceptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Although endoglin dysfunction contributes to numerous vascular conditions, the mechanism of endoglin action remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism in which endoglin and Gα-interacting protein C-terminus–interacting protein (GIPC)–mediated trafficking of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates endothelial signaling and function. We demonstrate that endoglin interacts with the PI3K subunits p110α and p85 via GIPC to recruit and activate PI3K and Akt at the cell membrane. Opposing ligand-induced effects are observed in which TGF-β1 attenuates, whereas bone morphogenetic protein-9 enhances, endoglin/GIPC-mediated membrane scaffolding of PI3K and Akt to alter endothelial capillary tube stability in vitro. Moreover, we employ the first transgenic zebrafish model for endoglin to demonstrate that GIPC is a critical component of endoglin function during developmental angiogenesis in vivo. These studies define a novel non-Smad function for endoglin and GIPC in regulating endothelial cell function during angiogenesis. PMID:22593212

  19. Ubenimex attenuates acquired sorafenib resistance in renal cell carcinoma by inhibiting Akt signaling in a lipophagy associated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Gao, Mingwei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ding, Sentai; Lv, Jiaju; Gao, Dexuan; Wang, Zhiyang; Niu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is used as first line treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) due to the poor sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of this malignancy; however, acquired resistance limits the application of sorafenib and its analogues. In this study, we explored a new strategy to overcome acquired resistance to sorafenib. The RCC cell lines 786-O and ACHN were cultured in presence of increasing concentrations of sorafenib to generate sorafenib-resistant cell lines, 786-O-R and ACHN-R. Interestingly, treatment with ubenimex (0.25 mg/ml) and 3-MA (2 mM) restored the sensitivity of resistant cell lines to sorafenib, indicating the involvement of autophagy in acquired resistance. High levels of autophagy flux were observed in resistant cells, and the opposite effects of ubenimex and 3-MA suggested a complex role for autophagy. While 3-MA abolished protection in sorafenib-resistant cells, ubenimex induced uncontrolled autophagy and autophagic cell death. Lipophagy, characterized by a lipid droplet cargo, was observed in RCC tissues and cells. In sorafenib-resistant cells, ubenimex inhibited the Akt signaling pathway that regulates autophagy. In summary, lipophagy participates in sorafenib-resistance of RCC, which could be reversed by interventions targeting the Akt pathway. PMID:27816967

  20. Insulin Stimulates Mitochondrial Fusion and Function in Cardiomyocytes via the Akt-mTOR-NFκB-Opa-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Valentina; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Iglewski, Myriam; del Campo, Andrea; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Jones, Deborah; Zhu, Yi; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Pennanen, Christian; Lopez‑Crisosto, Camila; Jaña, Fabián; Ferreira, Jorge; Noguera, Eduard; Chiong, Mario; Bernlohr, David A.; Klip, Amira; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Abel, Evan Dale; Zorzano, Antonio; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Insulin regulates heart metabolism through the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Studies have indicated that insulin can also regulate mitochondrial function. Relevant to this idea, mitochondrial function is impaired in diabetic individuals. Furthermore, the expression of Opa-1 and mitofusins, proteins of the mitochondrial fusion machinery, is dramatically altered in obese and insulin-resistant patients. Given the role of insulin in the control of cardiac energetics, the goal of this study was to investigate whether insulin affects mitochondrial dynamics in cardiomyocytes. Confocal microscopy and the mitochondrial dye MitoTracker Green were used to obtain three-dimensional images of the mitochondrial network in cardiomyocytes and L6 skeletal muscle cells in culture. Three hours of insulin treatment increased Opa-1 protein levels, promoted mitochondrial fusion, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and elevated both intracellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, the silencing of Opa-1 or Mfn2 prevented all the metabolic effects triggered by insulin. We also provide evidence indicating that insulin increases mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes through the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway. These data demonstrate for the first time in our knowledge that insulin acutely regulates mitochondrial metabolism in cardiomyocytes through a mechanism that depends on increased mitochondrial fusion, Opa-1, and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB pathway. PMID:24009260

  1. Alpha-ketoglutarate promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xingcai; Zhu, Canjun; Xu, Yaqiong; Jing, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yexian; Wang, Lina; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle weight loss is accompanied by small fiber size and low protein content. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) participates in protein and nitrogen metabolism. The effect of AKG on skeletal muscle hypertrophy has not yet been tested, and its underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that AKG (2%) increased the gastrocnemius muscle weight and fiber diameter in mice. Our in vitro study also confirmed that AKG dose increased protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes, which could be effectively blocked by the antagonists of Akt and mTOR. The effects of AKG on skeletal muscle protein synthesis were independent of glutamate, its metabolite. We tested the expression of GPR91 and GPR99. The result demonstrated that C2C12 cells expressed GPR91, which could be upregulated by AKG. GPR91 knockdown abolished the effect of AKG on protein synthesis but failed to inhibit protein degradation. These findings demonstrated that AKG promoted skeletal muscle hypertrophy via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, GPR91 might be partially attributed to AKG-induced skeletal muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27225984

  2. The natural compound sulforaphene, as a novel anticancer reagent, targeting PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weilin; Kuang, Pengqun; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables been shown to possess anticarcinogenic activities in lung malignances. We previously found sulforaphene (4-methylsufinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, SFE), one new kind of isothiocyanates, existing in a relative high abundance in radish seeds. An efficient methodology based on macroporous resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to isolate SFE in reasonably large quantities, high purity and low cost. However, it is still largely unclear whether SFE could function as an antineoplastic compound, especially in lung cancer. In this study, we systematically investigated the anti-cancer effects of SFE in vitro as well as its possible underling molecular mechanisms in lung cancer. The acute toxicity tests and pharmacokinetics tests for SFE were performed to evaluate its drugability in mice. Also, we evaluated the in vivo anti-cancer effects of SFE using nude Balb/C mice with lung cancer xenograft. SFE can induce apoptosis of multiple lung cancer celllines and, thus, inhibited cancer cell proliferation. Lung cancer cells treated with SFE exhibit significant inhibition of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, including depressed PTEN expression and inhibition of AKT phosphoralation. At well-tolerated doses, administration of SFE to mice bearing lung cancer xenografts leads to significant inhibitions of tumor growth. In summary, our work identifies SFE as a novel natural broad-spectrum small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer. PMID:27765931

  3. MiR-21 modulates radiosensitivity of cervical cancer through inhibiting autophagy via the PTEN/Akt/HIF-1α feedback loop and the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Liang; Yao, Hairong; Gao, Fangyuan; Xu, Dongkui; Li, Qian

    2016-09-01

    MiR-21 is an important microRNA (miRNA) modulating radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 upregulation in radioresistant cervical cancer has not been fully understood. In addition, autophagy may either promote or alleviate radioresistance, depending on the types of cancer and tumor microenvironment. How autophagy affects radiosensitivity in cervical cancer and how miR-21 is involved in this process has not been reported. This study showed that miR-21 upregulation in radioresistant cervical cancer is related to HIF-1α overexpression. MiR-21 overexpression decreases PTEN, increases p-Akt, and subsequently increases HIF-1α expression, while miR-21 inhibition results in increased PTEN, decreased p-Akt, and then decreased HIF-1α. Therefore, we inferred that there is a HIF-1α-miR-21 positive feedback loop through the PTEN/Akt/HIF-1α pathway in cervical cancer cells. In addition, we also demonstrated that miR-21 confers decreased autophagy in cervical cancer cells after IR via the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Decreased autophagy is one of the potential mechanisms of increased radioresistance in cervical cancer cells. These findings expand our understanding of radioresistance development in cervical cancer.

  4. Dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells via activation of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Wonkyun; Hong, Jin Tae; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide (DDI), an alkamide derived from the plant Echinacea purpurea, promotes adipocyte differentiation and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether DDI may increase glucose uptake through activation of the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DDI increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and expression and translocation of glucose transporter 4 in adipocytes treated with sub-optimal levels of insulin. Additionally, DDI enhanced Akt phosphorylation, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitors suppressed DDI-induced glucose uptake. These results suggest that DDI may improve insulin sensitivity through the activation of Akt signaling, which leads to enhanced glucose uptake.

  5. An inside job: hacking into Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascades by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Denkers, Eric Y; Bzik, David J; Fox, Barbara A; Butcher, Barbara A

    2012-02-01

    The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is well known for its skill at invading and living within host cells. New discoveries are now also revealing the astounding ability of the parasite to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm to seize control of the host cell. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of one such secretory protein called ROP16. This molecule is released from rhoptries into the host cell during invasion. The ROP16 molecule acts as a kinase, directly activating both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT6 signaling pathways. In macrophages, an important and preferential target cell of parasite infection, the injection of ROP16 has multiple consequences, including downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine signaling and macrophage deviation to an alternatively activated phenotype.

  6. Exclusive inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is not sufficient to prevent PDGF-mediated effects on glycolysis and proliferation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Moench, Romana; Grimmig, Tanja; Kannen, Vinicius; Tripathi, Sudipta; Faber, Marc; Moll, Eva-Maria; Chandraker, Anil; Lissner, Reinhard; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin

    2016-10-18

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and signaling via its receptors plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation and thus may represent an attractive target besides VEGF/EGFR-based antibody therapies. In this study we analyzed the influence of PDGF in colorectal cancer. PDGF was expressed intensively in early and even more intensively in late stage primary CRCs. Like VEGF, PDGF enhanced human colon cancer proliferation, and increased oxidative glycolytic activity, and activated HIF1α and c-Myc in vitro. PDGF activated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway while leaving MAPK signaling untouched. Further dissection showed that inhibition of Akt strongly impeded cancer cell growth while inhibition of PI3K did not. MAPK analysis suggested an inhibitory crosstalk between both pathways, thus explaining the different effects of the Akt and PI3K inhibitors on cancer cell proliferation. PDGF stimulates colon cancer cell proliferation, and prevents inhibitor induced apoptosis, resulting in tumor growth. Therefore inhibition of PDGF signaling seems to be a promising target in colorectal cancer therapy. However, due to the multifaceted nature of the intracellular PDGF signaling, careful intervention strategies are needed when looking into specific signaling pathways like PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK.

  7. Exclusive inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is not sufficient to prevent PDGF-mediated effects on glycolysis and proliferation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Romana; Grimmig, Tanja; Kannen, Vinicius; Tripathi, Sudipta; Faber, Marc; Moll, Eva-Maria; Chandraker, Anil; Lissner, Reinhard; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and signaling via its receptors plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation and thus may represent an attractive target besides VEGF/EGFR-based antibody therapies. In this study we analyzed the influence of PDGF in colorectal cancer. PDGF was expressed intensively in early and even more intensively in late stage primary CRCs. Like VEGF, PDGF enhanced human colon cancer proliferation, and increased oxidative glycolytic activity, and activated HIF1α and c-Myc in vitro. PDGF activated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway while leaving MAPK signaling untouched. Further dissection showed that inhibition of Akt strongly impeded cancer cell growth while inhibition of PI3K did not. MAPK analysis suggested an inhibitory crosstalk between both pathways, thus explaining the different effects of the Akt and PI3K inhibitors on cancer cell proliferation. PDGF stimulates colon cancer cell proliferation, and prevents inhibitor induced apoptosis, resulting in tumor growth. Therefore inhibition of PDGF signaling seems to be a promising target in colorectal cancer therapy. However, due to the multifaceted nature of the intracellular PDGF signaling, careful intervention strategies are needed when looking into specific signaling pathways like PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK. PMID:27626684

  8. Chronic stress prior to pregnancy potentiated long-lasting postpartum depressive-like behavior, regulated by Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Baomei; Chen, Chang; Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Tang, Juanjuan; Tao, Weiwei; Wu, Ruyan; Ren, Li; Wang, Wei; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects over 10% of new mothers and adversely impacts the health of offspring. One of the greatest risk factors for PPD is prepregnancy stress but the underlying biological mechanism is unknown. Here we constructed an animal model which recapitulated prepregnancy stress induced PPD and tested the role of Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus. Female virgin Balb/c mice received chronic restraint stress, followed by co-housing with a normal male mouse. We found that the chronic stress led to a transient depressive-like condition that disappeared within two weeks. However, prepregnantly stressed females developed long-term postpartum depressive-like (PPD-like) symptoms as indicated by deficient performance in tests of sucrose preference, forced swim, and novelty-suppressed feeding. Chronic stress induced transient decrease in Akt-mTOR signaling and altered expressions of glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and GluR1, in contrast to long-term deficits in Akt-mTOR signaling, GluR1/NR1 ratio, and hippocampal neurogenesis in PPD-like mice. Acute ketamine improved the molecular signaling abnormality, and reversed the behavioral deficits in PPD-like mice in a rapid and persistent manner, in contrast to ineffectiveness by chronic fluoxetine treatment. Taken together, we find that chronic prepregnancy stress potentiates a long-term PPD, in which Akt-mTOR signaling may play a crucial role. PMID:27756905

  9. miR-218 inhibits the invasion and migration of colon cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Hongsheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jiping; Cui, Shuzhong

    2015-05-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. Despite major advances in the treatment of colon cancer, the prognosis remains very poor. Thus, novel and effective therapies for colon cancer are urgently needed. In the present study, the expression status of miR-218 and the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway were investigated in colon cancer samples. Firstly, we observed that miR-218 expression was significantly reduced, while PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity was enhanced. The overexpression of miR-218 suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of LoVo colon cancer cells, whereas the inhibition of miR-218 promoted these processes. Furthermore, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was identified as a direct target of miR-218. The upregulation of miR-218 inhibited the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, as well as the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9. The downregulation of miR-218 activated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and promoted MMP9 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-218 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of LoVo colon cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and MMP9. Our data indicate that miR-218 is a potential target in the treatment of colon cancer.

  10. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ping . E-mail: chenping@263.net; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-04-14

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-{kappa}B in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-{kappa}B expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that

  11. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  12. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect against Trimethyltin Chloride-Induced Apoptosis via Sonic Hedgehog and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in Mouse Neuro-2a Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wanyun; Pan, Xiaoqi; Li, Tao; Zhang, Changchun; Shi, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is a classic neurotoxicant that can cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. Some signaling pathways involving cell death play pivotal roles in the central nervous system. In this study, the role of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and PI3K/Akt pathways in TMT-induced apoptosis and protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells were investigated. Results showed that TMT treatment significantly enhanced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic Bax, downregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner in N2a cells. TMT induced oxidative stress in cells, performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) excessive generation, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduction. TMT significantly decreased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibited Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways. However, the addition of LBP upregulated GSK-3β phosphorylation, activated Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways, and eventually reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress caused by TMT. The interaction between Shh and PI3K/Akt pathways was clarified by specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Shh inhibitor GDC-0449. Moreover, LY294002 and GDC-0449 pretreatment both induced phosphorylated GSK-3β downregulation and significantly promoted apoptosis induced by TMT. These results suggest that LBP could reduce TMT-induced N2a cells apoptosis by regulating GSK-3β phosphorylation, Shh, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  13. Inhibition of Aurora-B suppresses HepG2 cell invasion and migration via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ren Feng; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Jie, Zhi Gang

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on HepG2 cell invasion and migration in vitro was investigated. A recombinant plasmid targeting the Aurora-B gene (MiR-Aurora-B) was used to inhibit Aurora-B expression in HepG2 cells. Cell migration and invasion were investigated using Transwell migration and invasion assays. The results demonstrated that cell invasion and migration were suppressed by inhibiting Aurora-B. In addition, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway was investigated by analyzing the protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt, Akt, NF-κB p65, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the protein expression levels of p-Akt, NF-κB p65, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were reduced significantly by inhibiting Aurora-B. Therefore, inhibition of Aurora-B was shown to suppress hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion by decreasing the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro.

  14. A new role for the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenting; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nonghua

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is not only a sign of disease severity but also a major factor causing treatment failure and cancer-related death. Therefore, studies on the molecular mechanisms of tumor metastasis are critical for the development of treatments and for the improvement of survival. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an orderly, polygenic biological process that plays an important role in tumor cell invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. The complex, multi-step process of EMT involves multiple regulatory mechanisms. Specifically, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway can affect the EMT in a variety of ways to influence tumor aggressiveness. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms related to the EMT can provide a theoretical basis for the early prediction of tumor progression as well as targeted therapy. PMID:26241004

  15. Mechanisms of disease: Insights into the emerging role of signal transducers and activators of transcription in cancer.

    PubMed

    Haura, Eric B; Turkson, James; Jove, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway, which were originally identified as key components linking cytokine signals to transcriptional events in cells, have recently been demonstrated to have a major role in cancer. They are cytoplasmic proteins that form functional dimers with each other when activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Activated STAT proteins translocate to the nucleus to regulate expression of genes by binding to specific elements within gene promoters. Constitutive activation of the STAT family members Stat3 and Stat5, and/or loss of Stat1 signaling, is found in a large group of diverse tumors. Increasing evidence demonstrates that STAT proteins can regulate many pathways important in oncogenesis including cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and tumor-cell evasion of the immune system. Based on these findings, a growing effort is underway to target STAT proteins directly and indirectly for cancer therapy. This review will highlight STAT signaling pathways, STAT target genes involved in cancer, evidence for STAT activation in human cancers, and therapeutic strategies to target STAT molecules for anticancer therapy.

  16. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  17. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2481 and Thr2446 was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

  18. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in myeloid-derived suppressor cells: an opportunity for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dufait, Inès; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Menu, Eline; Escors, David; De Ridder, Mark; Breckpot, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Cancer progression is in part determined by interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The identification of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has instigated research into immune stimulating cancer therapies. Although a promising direction, immunosuppressive mechanisms exerted at the TME hamper its success. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have come to the forefront as stromal cells that orchestrate the immunosuppressive TME. Consequently, this heterogeneous cell population has been the object of investigation. Studies revealed that the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) largely dictates the recruitment, activation and function of MDSCs in the TME. Therefore, this review will focus on the role of this key transcription factor during the MDSC's life cycle and on the therapeutic opportunities it offers. PMID:27029037

  19. A Smoothened-Evc2 complex transduces the Hedgehog signal at primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Karolin V; Hughes, Casey E; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2012-10-16

    Vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is initiated at primary cilia by the ligand-triggered accumulation of Smoothened (Smo) in the ciliary membrane. The underlying biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. We find that Hh agonists promote the association between Smo and Evc2, a ciliary protein that is defective in two human ciliopathies. The formation of the Smo-Evc2 complex is under strict spatial control, being restricted to a distinct ciliary compartment, the EvC zone. Mutant Evc2 proteins that localize in cilia but are displaced from the EvC zone are dominant inhibitors of Hh signaling. Disabling Evc2 function blocks Hh signaling at a specific step between Smo and the downstream regulators protein kinase A and Suppressor of Fused, preventing activation of the Gli transcription factors. Our data suggest that the Smo-Evc2 signaling complex at the EvC zone is required for Hh signal transmission and elucidate the molecular basis of two human ciliopathies.

  20. Isoflurane Promotes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Malignancy by Activating the Akt-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Shao, Xueqian

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortalities worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the majority of all lung cancer cases. Surgery remains one of the front-line treatment options for NSCLC, but events within the perioperative period were found to affect cancer prognosis, such as anesthesia procedures. Isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, enhances the malignant potential of renal, prostate, and ovarian cancer cells, but its effects on NSCLC development have not been previously reported. Material/Methods CCK-8 and MTT cell proliferation assays were used to analyze NSCLC cell proliferation. Metastatic ability was examined by wound healing and transwell assays. We used Western blot analysis to study the mechanism of effect of Isoflurane in NSCLC development. Results We demonstrated that isoflurane promotes proliferation, migration and invasiveness of NSCLC cells, as well as upregulation of the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling abolished the ability of isoflurane to promote proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells, indicating that isoflurane promotes NSCLC cell malignancy by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusions Isoflurane promotes NSCLC proliferation, migration and invasion by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27897153

  1. Chicoric acid induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haifang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-02-20

    Chicoric acid has been reported to possess various bioactivities. However, the antiobesity effects of chicoric acid remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of chicoric acid on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Chicoric acid inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes which was characterized by chromatin condensation and poly ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation were observed, indicating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by chicoric acid. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt and MAPK (p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK1/2) signaling pathways were involved in chicoric acid-induced apoptosis. The employment of protein kinase inhibitors LY294002, SB203580, SP600125, and U0126 revealed that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway interplayed with MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, chicoric acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked cell death and changes of Akt and MAPK signalings induced by chicoric acid. In addition, chicoric acid down regulated HO-1 and COX-2 via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  2. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt Signaling Blocks Exercise-Mediated Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Veyrac, Alexandra; Dufour, Franck; Horwood, Jennifer; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has been shown to increase adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and enhances synaptic plasticity. The antiapoptotic kinase, Akt has also been shown to be phosphorylated following voluntary exercise; however, it remains unknown whether the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is involved in exercise-induced neurogenesis and the associated facilitation of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the potential role of this signaling pathway in exercise-induced neurogenesis and LTP in the dentate gyrus rats were infused with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 or vehicle control solution (icv) via osmotic minipumps and exercised in a running wheel for 10 days. Newborn cells in the dentate gyrus were date-labelled with BrdU on the last 3 days of exercise. Then, they were either returned to the home cage for 2 weeks to assess exercise-induced LTP and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, or were killed on the last day of exercise to assess proliferation and activation of the PI3K-Akt cascade using western blotting. Conclusions/Significance Exercise increases cell proliferation and promotes survival of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Immediately after exercise, we found that Akt and three downstream targets, BAD, GSK3β and FOXO1 were activated. LY294002 blocked exercise-induced phosphorylation of Akt and downstream target proteins. This had no effect on exercise-induced cell proliferation, but it abolished most of the beneficial effect of exercise on the survival of newly generated dentate gyrus neurons and prevented exercise-induced increase in dentate gyrus LTP. These results suggest that activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling pathway plays a significant role via an antiapoptotic function in promoting survival of newly formed granule cells generated during exercise and the associated increase in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PMID:19936256

  3. AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting

  4. Zinc-induced downregulation of Notch signaling is associated with cytoplasmic retention of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk via PI3k-Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Mo, Jung-Soon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Lee, Kyu Shik; Park, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jin-Young; Seo, Mi-Sun; Choi, Eui-Ju; Park, Hee-Sae

    2007-09-18

    The Notch signaling pathway appears to perform an important function in the determination of cell fate and in differentiation, in a wide variety of organisms and cell types. In this study, we provide evidence that the inactivation of Notch signaling by zinc is achieved via a PI3K-Akt-dependent, cytoplasmic retention of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk. Extracellular zinc has been determined to inhibit constitutive active mutants of both Notch1 (DeltaEN1) and Notch1-IC-mediated transcription. However, in such cases, neither the cleavage pattern of Notch nor the protein stability of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk was found to have significantly changed. With regard to the modulation of Notch signaling, zinc appears to exert a significant negative influence on the binding occurring between Notch1 and RBP-Jk, both in vivo and in vitro. The zinc-induced inhibition of Notch signaling can be rescued via pretreatment with wortmannin or LY294002, both of which are specific PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors. Furthermore, we ascertained that zinc triggers the cytoplasmic retention of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk, and that cytoplasmic retention could be rescued via treatment with wortmannin. Overall, we have determined that an important relationship exists between zinc and the Notch1 signaling pathway, and that this relationship is intimately involved with the cytoplasmic retention of Notch and RBP-Jk.

  5. Bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex ([Zn(hkt)2]) activates Akt/protein kinase B independent of insulin signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Masuda, Kazufumi; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Since many Zn complexes have been developed to enhance the insulin-like activity and increase the exposure and residence of Zn in the animal body, these complexes are recognized as one of the new candidates with action mechanism different from existing anti-diabetic drugs. However, the molecular mechanism by which Zn complexes exert an anti-DM effect is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of Zn complexes, especially related to the phosphorylation of insulin signaling pathway components. We focused on the insulin-like effects of the bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex, [Zn(hkt)2], using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [Zn(hkt)2] was taken up by cells and induced Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, it showed inhibitory activity against PTP1B and PTEN, which are major negative regulators of insulin signaling. It did not promote the phosphorylation of IR (insulin receptor)-β or IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1 by itself, but in combination with insulin, it enhanced the phosphorylation of IRβ. We conclude that [Zn(hkt)2] has effects on the proteins of insulin signaling pathway without insulin receptor mediation, and [Zn(hkt)2] promotes insulin function and shows the anti-DM effects. Thus, [Zn(hkt)2] may be the basis for improved DM treatments.

  6. Investigation of signal transduction routes within the sensor/transducer protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Staude, Michael W; Frederick, Thomas E; Natarajan, Sivanandam V; Wilson, Brian D; Tanner, Carol E; Ruggiero, Steven T; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-03

    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [Fisher, J. F., Meroueh, S. O., and Mobashery, S. (2005) Chem. Rev. 105, 395-424; Llarrull, L. I., Fisher, J. F., and Mobashery, S. (2009) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4051-4063; Llarrull, L. I., Toth, M., Champion, M. M., and Mobashery, S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 38148-38158]. Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β-lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1.

  7. SiO2@antisense molecules covered by nepetalactone, extracted from Nepeta gloeocephala, inhibits ILK phosphorylation and downstream PKB/AKT signaling in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Dehghany Ashkezary, M; Aboee-Mehrizi, F; Moradi, P

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the anticancer property of SiO2@antisense molecules (SiO2@AMs) and SiO2@AM covered by nepetalactone (SiO2@AM/CN), extracted from Nepeta gloeocephala, was investigated. Here integrin-linked kinase (ILK) phosphorylation and protein kinase B/AKT (PKB/AKT) signaling was studied when HeLa cells were exposed to SiO2@AM and SiO2@AM/CN. First, N. gloeocephala was identified at the Iranian National Herbarium. Then, its essential oil (EO) was obtained by the hydrodistillation method. In the next step, 4aα,7α,7aα-nepetalactone was extracted from the EO, based on the spectroscopic data. To obtain SiO2@AM/CN, 1 ml of SiO2@AM was mixed with extracted nepetalactone and then strongly shaken for 30 min. Finally, serial concentrations (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg ml(-1)) of SiO2@AM and SiO2@AM/CN were prepared and then exposed to HeLa cells (2 × 10(5) cells per ml) for 24 h at 37 °C. After incubation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell-cycle analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and western blots were carried out. To find ILK phosphorylation and PKB/AKT signaling, the expression of threonine-173 (Thr-173), serine-246 (Ser-246), total ILK, AKT-Ser473, AKT-Thr308 and total AKT was investigated. HeLa cells that were treated with SiO2@AM/CN had G2/M arrest. Based on the TUNEL assay, many apoptotic cells have been shown when they were exposed to SiO2@AM/CN. Importantly, SiO2@AM/CN decreased ILK phosphorylation at Thr-173 and Ser-246 without affecting total ILK levels. Moreover, SiO2@AM/CN decreased AKT-Ser473 and AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation without affecting total PKB/AKT protein.

  8. DUAL INHIBITION OF PI3K/AKT AND mTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER CELLS BY A DIETARY FLAVONOID FISETIN

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Khusro, Fatima H.; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Suh, Yewseok; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignancies. It has been reported that mTOR is phosphorylated in lung cancer and its activation was more frequent in tumors with over-expression of PI3K/Akt. Therefore, dual inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling could be valuable agents for treating lung cancer. In the present study, we show that fisetin, a dietary tetrahydroxyflavone inhibits cell-growth with the concomitant suppression of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using autodock 4, we found that fisetin physically interacts with the mTOR complex at two sites. Fisetin treatment was also found to reduce the formation of A549 cell colonies in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with fisetin caused decrease in the protein expression of PI3K (p85 and p110), inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K1, eIF-4E and 4E-BP1. Fisetin-treated cells also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the constituents of mTOR signaling complex like Rictor, Raptor, GβL and PRAS40. There was increase in the phosphorylation of AMPKα and decrease in the phosphorylation of TSC2 on treatment of cells with fisetin. We also found that treatment of cells with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and mTOR-siRNA caused decrease in phosphorylation of mTOR and its target proteins which were further downregulated on treatment with fisetin, suggesting that these effects are mediated in part, through mTOR signaling. Our results show that fisetin suppressed PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling in NSCLC cells and thus, could be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer. PMID:21618507

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) upregulates heparanase expression via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway for gastric cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning-Bo; Tang, Bo; Wang, Guo-Zheng; Xie, Rui; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Su-Min; Wu, Yu-Yun; Liu, En; Xie, Xia; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2015-05-28

    Heparanase (HPA) is an endoglucuronidase that can promote the shedding of associated cytokines in several types of tumors. However, little is known about what controls the expression of HPA or its role in gastric cancer. In this study, we report for the first time that HGF regulates HPA expression to promote gastric cancer metastasis. In this study, HGF and HPA were found to be significantly expressed in 58 gastric cancer patients. High expression of both HGF and HPA was positively associated with TNM stage, invasion depth and poor prognosis. In MKN74 cells, exogenous HGF significantly increased HPA expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Further study revealed that HGF first activated PI3K/Akt signaling. NF-κB signaling was activated downstream of PI3K/Akt and promoted HPA expression. However, when c-met, PI3K/Akt or NF-κB signal inhibitors were used, HPA expression was significantly decreased. All of these results indicate that HGF regulates HPA expression by PI3K/Akt and downstream NF-κB signaling. Using bioinformatics and the ChIP assay, p65 was observed to bind to the HPA promoter. Furthermore, HGF significantly induced tumor cell migration, whereas treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor decreased migration. Moreover, when HPA was overexpressed in MKN74 cells, migration was significantly enhanced, and the HGF concentration was increased. However, when HPA was down-regulated in MKN45 cells, migration and HGF levels decreased. Together, these results demonstrate that HGF/c-met can activate PI3K/Akt and downstream NF-κB signaling to promote HPA expression and subsequent tumor metastasis.

  10. Statins upregulate cystathionine γ-lyase transcription and H2S generation via activating Akt signaling in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Du, Hua-Ping; Li, Jiaojiao; Xu, Ran; Wang, Ya-Li; You, Shou-Jiang; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Fen; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, is implicated in various pathophysiologic processes. In the cardiovascular system, H2S exerts effects of cardioprotection, vascular tone regulation, and atherogenesis inhibition. Recent studies demonstrated that atorvastatin, the inhibitor of 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl coenzyme A reductase, affected H2S formation in kidney and other organs. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effects of three different statins (fluvastatin, atorvastatin and pravastatin) on H2S formation in raw264.7 macrophages. There was a remarkable rise in H2S level in fluvastatin- and atorvastatin-stimulated macrophages, while pravastatin failed to show any significant effect on it. Moreover, fluvastatin and atorvastatin enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in dose- and time-dependent manners. Fluvastatin also markedly enhanced the CSE activity. However, fluvastatin did not alter the mRNA or protein expression of another H2S-producing enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Blockade of CSE with its inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PAG) or siRNA markedly reduced the H2S level in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. In addition, fluvastatin elevated Akt phosphorylation, which occurred as early as 15 min after treatment, peaked at 1h, and lasted at least 3h. Both PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10 μM) and Akt inhibitor perifosine (10μM) were able to reverse the increases of CSE mRNA and H2S production in fluvastatin-stimulated macrophages. Last, we showed that fluvastatin reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-1β and MCP-1 in LPS-treated macrophages, which were completely reversed by CSE inhibitor PAG. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that statins may up-regulate CSE expression/activity and subsequently elevate H2S generation by activating Akt signaling pathway and also imply that CSE-H2S pathway plays a critical role in the anti

  11. Rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects of acetyl-l-carnitine mediated by PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Lu, Y; Xue, Z; Li, C; Wang, C; Zhao, X; Zhang, J; Wei, X; Chen, X; Cui, W; Wang, Q; Zhou, W

    2015-01-29

    The possible involvement of the PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling in rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects of antidepressants has been explored progressively by more studies. However, whether this signaling participates in the antidepressant-like effects of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) has not been examined. Herein, we assessed the antidepressant-like effects of ALC using the forced swimming test (FST). Our results demonstrated the dose-effect relationship of acute administration of ALC (5, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) and showed that it dose-dependently decreased the immobility time on FST of mice. In addition, ALC (100 mg/kg, i.p.) also reversed depressive-like behavior and the down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuropeptide VGF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) paradigm. Further, intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of LY294002 (10 nmol/side), a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, significantly prevented the antidepressant-like effect of ALC (100mg/kg, i.p.). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ALC exerts rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects that might be mediated by the PI3K/AKT/BDNF/VGF signaling pathway.

  12. SPRY2 loss enhances ErbB trafficking and PI3K/AKT signalling to drive human and mouse prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meiling; Patel, Rachana; Ahmad, Imran; Fleming, Janis; Edwards, Joanne; McCracken, Stuart; Sahadevan, Kanagasabai; Seywright, Morag; Norman, Jim; Sansom, Owen; Leung, Hing Y

    2012-01-01

    Loss of SPRY2 and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases are common events in prostate cancer (PC). However, the molecular basis of their interaction and clinical impact remains to be fully examined. SPRY2 loss may functionally synergize with aberrant cellular signalling to drive PC and to promote treatment-resistant disease. Here, we report evidence for a positive feedback regulation of the ErbB-PI3K/AKT cascade by SPRY2 loss in in vitro as well as pre-clinical in vivo models and clinical PC. Reduction in SPRY2 expression resulted in hyper-activation of PI3K/AKT signalling to drive proliferation and invasion by enhanced internalization of EGFR/HER2 and their sustained signalling at the early endosome in a PTEN-dependent manner. This involved p38 MAPK activation by PI3K to facilitate clathrin-mediated ErbB receptor endocytosis. Finally, in vitro and in vivo inhibition of PI3K suppressed proliferation and invasion, supporting PI3K/AKT as a target for therapy particularly in patients with PTEN-haploinsufficient-, low SPRY2- and ErbB-expressing tumours. In conclusion, SPRY2 is an important tumour suppressor in PC since its loss drives the PI3K/AKT pathway via functional interaction with the ErbB system. PMID:22649008

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway mediates acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Moon, Woongjoon; Chae, Younbyoung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that acupuncture treatment reduced dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, the mechanistic pathways underlying, such neuroprotection, are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in a mouse model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). First, we observed that MPTP-induced impairment of Akt activation, but not MPTP-induced c-Jun activation, was effectively restored by acupuncture treatment in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that the brain-specific blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, by intranasal administration of LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, significantly blocked acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement. Our results provide evidence that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may play a central role in the mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced benefits in Parkinsonian mice.

  14. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-11-14

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy.

  15. Curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Binqiang; Zhao, Yingmei; Liang, Tao; Ye, Xuxiao; Li, Zuowei; Yan, Dongliang; Fu, Qiang; Li, Yonghui

    2017-03-26

    We have previously reported that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model. In this study, we report that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Curcumin inhibits IGF2 expression at the transcriptional level and decreases the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and IRS-1 in bladder cancer cells and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced urothelial tumor tissue. Ectopic expression of IGF2 and IGF1R, but not IGF1, in bladder cancer cells restored this process, suggesting that IGF2 is a target of curcumin. Moreover, introduction of constitutively active AKT1 abolished the inhibitory effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, migration, and restored the phosphorylation levels of 4E-BP1 and S6K1, suggesting that curcumin functions via suppressing IGF2-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, our results reveal that suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of action of curcumin. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer caused by aberrant activation of IGF2, which are useful for translational application of curcumin.

  16. AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in salvianolic acid B-induced autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ling; Di, Chunhong; Xia, Xiaofang; Wang, Jie; Chen, Gongying; Shi, Junping; Chen, Pengshuai; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-12-01

    Chinese medicines are emerging as an attractive new generation of anticancer drugs. Here, we explored the impact of salvianolic acid B (Sal B), the major water-soluble compounds of Danshen, on apoptosis and autophagy of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). We also investigated the related molecular mechanisms. We found that Sal B exhibits potent ability to inhibit HCC cells viability in a concentration-dependent manner, and to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Additionally, Sal B could also induce autophagy. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine or 3-methyladenine showed the potential in attenuating the apoptosis rate induced by Sal B. Mechanistically, Sal B treatment inhibited the AKT/mTOR signaling cascade in vitro. Overexpression of AKT abolished the effects of Sal B on HCC cells, suggesting a critical role of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in Sal B-induced biological effects. Our results indicated that the mitochondrial pathway was involved in Sal B-induced apoptosis of HCC cells. Moreover, the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was involved in Sal B-induced autophagy, which promoted apoptosis. This study may provide a promising strategy for using Sal B as a chemotherapeutic agent for patients with HCC.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 2 induces E-cadherin down-regulation via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lau, Man-Tat; So, Wai-Kin; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is produced by ovarian cancer cells and it has been suggested to play an important role in tumor progression. In this study, we report that FGF2 treatment down-regulated E-cadherin by up-regulating its transcriptional repressors, Slug and ZEB1, in human ovarian cancer cells. The pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and MEK suggests that both PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling are required for FGF2-induced E-cadherin down-regulation. Moreover, FGF2 up-regulated Slug and ZEB1 expression via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, respectively. Finally, FGF2-induced cell invasion was abolished by the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways, and the forced expression of E-cadherin diminished the intrinsic invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells as well as the FGF2-induced cell invasion. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which FGF2 down-regulates E-cadherin expression through the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling, and the up-regulation of Slug and ZEB1 in human ovarian cancer cells.

  18. Over-Expression of PDGFR-β Promotes PDGF-Induced Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of EPCs through PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Jinkun; Qin, Zhexue; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Kui; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play critical roles in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Here we evaluated whether the over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) can enhance the PDGF-BB-stimulated biological functions of EPCs through the PDGFR-β/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. We first confirmed the expression of endogenous PDGFR-β and its plasma membrane localization in spleen-derived EPCs. We then demonstrated that the PDGFR-β over-expression in EPCs enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. Using AG1295 (a PDGFR kinase inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and sc-221226 (an Akt inhibitor), we further showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway participates in the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is required for PDGFR-β over-expression to enhance these PDGF-BB-induced phenotypes. PMID:22355314

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1–7)/Mas axis activates Akt signaling to ameliorate hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fangyuan; Shi, Tingting; Yuan, Mingxia; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rongrong; Li, Sen; Li, Hongbing; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The classical axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1, contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of bypass axis of RAS (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1–7)/Mas) in hepatic steatosis is still unclear. Here we showed that deletion of ACE2 aggravates liver steatosis, which is correlated with the increased expression of hepatic lipogenic genes and the decreased expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver of ACE2 knockout (ACE2−/y) mice. Meanwhile, oxidative stress and inflammation were also aggravated in ACE2−/y mice. On the contrary, overexpression of ACE2 improved fatty liver in db/db mice, and the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes were up-regulated. In vitro, Ang-(1–7)/ACE2 ameliorated hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced HepG2 cells, and what’s more, Akt inhibitors reduced ACE2-mediated lipid metabolism. Furthermore, ACE2-mediated Akt activation could be attenuated by blockade of ATP/P2 receptor/Calmodulin (CaM) pathway. These results indicated that Ang-(1–7)/ACE2/Mas axis may reduce liver lipid accumulation partly by regulating lipid-metabolizing genes through ATP/P2 receptor/CaM signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential role of ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis in prevention and treatment of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26883384

  20. JARID2 promotes invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by facilitating epithelial-mesenchymal transition through PTEN/AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiong; Xu, Jiang-Feng; Chang, Rui-Min; Fang, Feng; Zuo, Chao-Hui; Yang, Lian-Yue

    2016-01-01

    JARID2 is crucial for maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about the role of JARID2 in metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study found that JARID2 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in adjacent non-tumor liver tissues (ANLTs), and its expression level correlated with HCC metastasis. High JARID2 expression was significantly correlated with multiple tumor nodules, high Edmondson-Steiner grade, microvascular invasion, advanced TNM stage and advanced BCLC stage (all P < 0.05) and indicated poor prognosis of HCC in training and validation cohorts (all P < 0.05) totaling 182 patients. High JARID2 expression was an independent and significant risk factor for disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.017) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.041) after curative liver resection in training cohort, and also validated as an independent and significant risk factor for DFS (P = 0.033) and OS (P = 0.031) in validation cohort. Moreover, down-regulation of JARID2 dramatically inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion, proliferation in vitro and metastasis in vivo, whereas overexpression of JARID2 significantly increased migration, invasion, proliferation in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, the data showed that JARID2 exerted its function by repressing PTEN expression through increasing H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at PTEN promoter region, which subsequently resulted in activation of protein kinase B (AKT) and enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, this study revealed that JARID2 promotes invasion and metastasis of HCC by facilitating EMT through PTEN/AKT signaling. PMID:27259236

  1. Cucurbitacin E inhibits osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion through attenuation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Xu, Shumei; Wu, Yaochi; Zhang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbitacin E (CuE), a potent member of triterpenoid family isolated from plants, has been confirmed as an antitumour agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms of CuE on osteosarcoma (OS) have not been well understood. The present study aimed to test whether CuE could inhibit growth and invasion of OS cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. After various concentrations of CuE treatment, the anti-proliferative effect of CuE was assessed using the cell counting Kit-8 assay. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of OS cells. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by propidium iodide staining. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate the effect of CuE on invasion potential of OS cells. The protein levels were measured by western blot. In addition, the potency of CuE on OS cells growth inhibition was assessed in vivo. Our results showed that CuE inhibited cell growth and invasion, induced a cell cycle arrest and triggered apoptosis and modulated the expression of cell growth, cell cycle and cell apoptosis regulators. Moreover, CuE inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which suppressed the invasion and metastasis of OS. In addition, we also found that CuE inhibited OS cell growth in vivo. Taken together, our study demonstrated that CuE could inhibit OS tumour growth and invasion through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that CuE can be considered to be a promising anti-cancer agent for OS. PMID:27653525

  2. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 promotes growth of colorectal cancer via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tao; Li, Huihui; Liu, Zifeng

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is the receptor for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNFR2 differs from tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNFR1) in various ways and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic and endothelial cells. However, studies about its functions in tumors are limited. The contributions of TNFR2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In the present study, it was found that TNFR2 was positively associated with Ki67 expression in CRC tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and western blot analysis found that Ki67 was upregulated by overexpressing TNFR2 in SW1116 cells and inhibited by silencing TNFR2 in HT29 cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay found that growth of SW1116 cells overexpressing TNFR2 was significantly increased compared with the control group and that the growth of HT29 cells subsequent to silencing TNFR2 was significantly decreased compared with the control group. Clone formation assay found that more clones were formed in SW1116 cells overexpressing TNFR2 than the control group, and less clones formed in HT29 cells subsequent to silencing TNFR2 than the control group. In addition, western blot analysis found that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) was activated subsequent to overexpressing TNFR2 in SW1116 cells, and inhibited following silencing of TNFR2 in HT29 cells. Additionally, treatment using LY294002 significantly abrogated the promotion of Ki67 expression, growth and clone formation abilities induced by TNFR2 overexpression in SW1116 cells. All the results suggest that TNFR2 can significantly promote CRC growth via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway; this provides evidential support for taking TNFR2 as a new target for CRC treatment. PMID:28123565

  3. Diamond Radio Receiver: Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers as Fluorescent Transducers of Microwave Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Mian; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.; Lončar, Marko

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate a robust frequency-modulated radio receiver using electron-spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. The carrier frequency of the frequency-modulated signal is in the 2.8-GHz range, determined by the zero-field splitting in the nitrogen-vacancy electronic ground state. The radio can be tuned over 300 MHz by applying an external dc magnetic field. We show the transmission of high-fidelity audio signals over a bandwidth of 91 kHz using the diamond radio. We demonstrate operating temperature of the radio as high as 350 ° C .

  4. Large-signal model of a resonating cantilever-based transducer for system level electrical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verd, Jaume; Teva, Jordi; Abadal, Gabriel; Perez-Murano, Francesc; Esteve, Jaume; Barniol, Nuria

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we present a non-linear electromechanical model of an electrostatically excited cantilever that can be used to perform system level electrical simulations. This model is implemented by using an analog hardware description language (VHDL-AMS) that allows its use in a common IC CAD environment like CADENCE. Small-signal and large-signal simulations are performed and the results are compared with a simple linear model (RLC//C) showing the benefits of this model. This model is validated by its fit with the experimental results obtained from a monolithic sub-micrometer cantilever based sensor

  5. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway exerts effects on the implantation of mouse embryos by regulating the expression of RhoA

    PubMed Central

    LIU, LIYUAN; WANG, YINGXIONG; YU, QIUBO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway affects the implantation of mouse embryos by regulating the expression of RhoA. The expression of PI3K, Akt, phosphorylated (p-)Akt, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and RhoA in the uterus of mice on day 5 of pregnancy (D5) and in pseudopregnant mice was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. A functional analysis of these genes was also performed by the intrauterine injection with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, on day 2 of pregnancy (D2). The expression levels of PI3K, p-Akt, RhoA at the implantation site were higher than those at the inter-implantation site in the endometrium; however, opposite effects were observed for PTEN expression. The expression levels of the above genes in the pseudopregnant group and in the group injected with the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, were markedly lower than those in the pregnant group. Functional experiments revealed that the number of implantation sites had been significantly decreased (P<0.05) following the intrauterine injection of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, on day 2 of gestation compared with the contralateral injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These results suggest that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway affects embryo implantation by regulating the expression of RhoA. PMID:24638941

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen protects mandibular condylar chondrocytes from interleukin-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hang; Wu, Gaoyi; Sun, Qi; Dong, Yabing; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis is mainly responsible for the development and progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generally serves an agent that induces chondrocyte apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment increases proteoglycan synthesis in vivo. We explore the protective effect of HBO on IL-1β-induced mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis in rats and the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from the TMJ of 3-4-week old Sprague-Dawley rats. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine cell viability. The phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3 kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated AKT (p-Akt), type II collagen (COL2), and aggrecan (AGG) content was detected by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blotting. The expression of Pi3k, Akt, Col2 and Agg mRNA was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results: HBO inhibited the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in the mandibular condylar chondrocytes. HBO also decreased the IL-1β activity that decreased p-PI3K and p-AKT levels, and increased COL2 and AGG expression, with the net effect of suppressing extracellular matrix degradation. Conclusions: These data suggest that HBO may protect mandibular condylar chondrocytes against IL-1β-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and that it may promote the expression of mandibular condylar chondrocyte extracellular matrix through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27904712

  7. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  8. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3{beta}-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor

  9. Galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) gene: a novel positive regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Bijina; Chen, Wyman; Tang, Manshu; Huang, Xiaoping; Cakici, Didem Demirbas; Siddiqi, Anwer; Berry, Gerard; Lai, Kent

    2016-01-01

    The vital importance of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism has been repeatedly demonstrated by various uni-/multicellular model organisms, as well human patients who have inherited deficiencies of the key GAL enzymes. Yet, other than the obvious links to the glycolytic pathway and glycan biosynthetic pathways, little is known about how this metabolic pathway interacts with the rest of the metabolic and signaling networks. In this study, we compared the growth and the expression levels of the key components of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in primary fibroblasts derived from normal and galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT)-deficient mice, the latter exhibited a subfertility phenotype in adult females and growth restriction in both sexes. The growth potential and the protein levels of the pAkt(Thr308), pAkt(Ser473), pan-Akt, pPdk1, and Hsp90 proteins were significantly reduced by 62.5%, 60.3%, 66%, 66%, and 50%, respectively in the GalT-deficient cells. Reduced expression of phosphorylated Akt proteins in the mutant cells led to diminished phosphorylation of Gsk-3β (−74%). Protein expression of BiP and pPten were 276% and 176% higher respectively in cells with GalT-deficiency. Of the 24 genes interrogated using QIAGEN RT2 Profiler PCR Custom Arrays, the mRNA abundance of Akt1, Pdpk1, Hsp90aa1 and Pi3kca genes were significantly reduced at least 2.03-, 1.37-, 2.45-, and 1.78-fold respectively in mutant fibroblasts. Both serum-fasted normal and GalT-deficient cells responded to Igf-1-induced activation of Akt phosphorylation at +15 minutes, but the mutant cells have lower phosphorylation levels. The steady-state protein abundance of Igf-1 receptor was also significantly reduced in mutant cells. Our results thus demonstrated that GalT deficiency can effect down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts through distinct mechanisms targeting both gene and protein expression levels. PMID:26773505

  10. Galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT) gene: A novel positive regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bijina; Chen, Wyman; Tang, Manshu; Huang, Xiaoping; Cakici, Didem Demirbas; Siddiqi, Anwer; Berry, Gerard; Lai, Kent

    2016-01-29

    The vital importance of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism has been repeatedly demonstrated by various uni-/multicellular model organisms, as well human patients who have inherited deficiencies of the key GAL enzymes. Yet, other than the obvious links to the glycolytic pathway and glycan biosynthetic pathways, little is known about how this metabolic pathway interacts with the rest of the metabolic and signaling networks. In this study, we compared the growth and the expression levels of the key components of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in primary fibroblasts derived from normal and galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalT)-deficient mice, the latter exhibited a subfertility phenotype in adult females and growth restriction in both sexes. The growth potential and the protein levels of the pAkt(Thr308), pAkt(Ser473), pan-Akt, pPdk1, and Hsp90 proteins were significantly reduced by 62.5%, 60.3%, 66%, 66%, and 50%, respectively in the GalT-deficient cells. Reduced expression of phosphorylated Akt proteins in the mutant cells led to diminished phosphorylation of Gsk-3β (-74%). Protein expression of BiP and pPten were 276% and 176% higher respectively in cells with GalT-deficiency. Of the 24 genes interrogated using QIAGEN RT(2) Profiler PCR Custom Arrays, the mRNA abundance of Akt1, Pdpk1, Hsp90aa1 and Pi3kca genes were significantly reduced at least 2.03-, 1.37-, 2.45-, and 1.78-fold respectively in mutant fibroblasts. Both serum-fasted normal and GalT-deficient cells responded to Igf-1-induced activation of Akt phosphorylation at +15 min, but the mutant cells have lower phosphorylation levels. The steady-state protein abundance of Igf-1 receptor was also significantly reduced in mutant cells. Our results thus demonstrated that GalT deficiency can effect down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt growth signaling pathway in mouse fibroblasts through distinct mechanisms targeting both gene and protein expression levels.

  11. Cross-communication between histone H3 and H4 acetylation and Akt-mTOR signalling in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Makarević, Jasmina; Tawanaie, Nassim; Juengel, Eva; Reiter, Michael; Mani, Jens; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-07-01

    Molecular tumour targeting has significantly improved anti-cancer protocols. Still, the addition of molecular targeting to the treatment regime has not led to a curative breakthrough. Combined mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been shown not only to enhance anti-tumour potential, but also to prevent resistance development seen under mono-drug therapy. This investigation was designed to evaluate whether cross-communication exists between mTOR signalling and epigenetic events regulated by HDAC. DU-145 prostate cancer cells were treated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to activate the Akt-mTOR cascade or with the HDAC-inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) to induce histone H3 and H4 acetylation (aH3, aH4). Subsequently, mTOR, Rictor, Raptor, p70s6k, Akt (all: total and phosphorylated), H3 and H4 (total and acetylated) were analysed by western blotting. Both techniques revealed a link between mTOR and the epigenetic machinery. IGF activated mTOR, Rictor, Raptor, p70s6k and Akt, but also enhanced aH3 and aH4. Inversely, IGFr blockade and knock-down blocked the Akt-mTOR axis, but simultaneously diminished aH3 and aH4. VPA treatment up-regulated histone acetylation, but also activated mTOR-Akt signalling. HDAC1 and 2 knock-down revealed that the interaction with the mTOR system is initiated by histone H3 acetylation. HDAC-mTOR communication, therefore, is apparent whereby tumour-promoting (Akt/mTOR(high), aH3/aH4(low)) and tumour-suppressing signals (Akt/mTOR(low) , aH3/aH4(high)) are activated in parallel. Combined use of an HDAC- and mTOR inhibitor might then diminish pro-tumour effects triggered by the HDAC- (Akt/mTOR(high)) or mTOR inhibitor (aH3/aH4(low)) alone.

  12. Cross-communication between histone H3 and H4 acetylation and Akt-mTOR signalling in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Makarević, Jasmina; Tawanaie, Nassim; Juengel, Eva; Reiter, Michael; Mani, Jens; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tumour targeting has significantly improved anti-cancer protocols. Still, the addition of molecular targeting to the treatment regime has not led to a curative breakthrough. Combined mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been shown not only to enhance anti-tumour potential, but also to prevent resistance development seen under mono-drug therapy. This investigation was designed to evaluate whether cross-communication exists between mTOR signalling and epigenetic events regulated by HDAC. DU-145 prostate cancer cells were treated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to activate the Akt-mTOR cascade or with the HDAC-inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) to induce histone H3 and H4 acetylation (aH3, aH4). Subsequently, mTOR, Rictor, Raptor, p70s6k, Akt (all: total and phosphorylated), H3 and H4 (total and acetylated) were analysed by western blotting. Both techniques revealed a link between mTOR and the epigenetic machinery. IGF activated mTOR, Rictor, Raptor, p70s6k and Akt, but also enhanced aH3 and aH4. Inversely, IGFr blockade and knock-down blocked the Akt-mTOR axis, but simultaneously diminished aH3 and aH4. VPA treatment up-regulated histone acetylation, but also activated mTOR-Akt signalling. HDAC1 and 2 knock-down revealed that the interaction with the mTOR system is initiated by histone H3 acetylation. HDAC-mTOR communication, therefore, is apparent whereby tumour-promoting (Akt/mTORhigh, aH3/aH4low) and tumour-suppressing signals (Akt/mTORlow, aH3/aH4high) are activated in parallel. Combined use of an HDAC- and mTOR inhibitor might then diminish pro-tumour effects triggered by the HDAC- (Akt/mTORhigh) or mTOR inhibitor (aH3/aH4low) alone. PMID:24779401

  13. A hardware model of the auditory periphery to transduce acoustic signals into neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Takashi; Nishikawa, Jun; Tsuchioka, Nobuyoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of cochlear implants, we have integrated a microdevice into a model of the auditory periphery with the goal of creating a microprocessor. We constructed an artificial peripheral auditory system using a hybrid model in which polyvinylidene difluoride was used as a piezoelectric sensor to convert mechanical stimuli into electric signals. To produce frequency selectivity, the slit on a stainless steel base plate was designed such that the local resonance frequency of the membrane over the slit reflected the transfer function. In the acoustic sensor, electric signals were generated based on the piezoelectric effect from local stress in the membrane. The electrodes on the resonating plate produced relatively large electric output signals. The signals were fed into a computer model that mimicked some functions of inner hair cells, inner hair cell–auditory nerve synapses, and auditory nerve fibers. In general, the responses of the model to pure-tone burst and complex stimuli accurately represented the discharge rates of high-spontaneous-rate auditory nerve fibers across a range of frequencies greater than 1 kHz and middle to high sound pressure levels. Thus, the model provides a tool to understand information processing in the peripheral auditory system and a basic design for connecting artificial acoustic sensors to the peripheral auditory nervous system. Finally, we discuss the need for stimulus control with an appropriate model of the auditory periphery based on auditory brainstem responses that were electrically evoked by different temporal pulse patterns with the same pulse number. PMID:24324432

  14. Targeted Regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB Signaling by Indole Compounds and their Derivatives: Mechanistic Details and Biological Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aamir; Biersack, Bernhard; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Schobert, Rainer; Padhye, Subhash B.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2014-01-01

    Indole compounds, found in cruciferous vegetables, are potent anti-cancer agents. Studies with indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product, 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) suggest that these compounds have the ability to deregulate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. These natural compounds are also effective modulators of downstream transcription factor NF-κB signaling which might help explain their ability to inhibit invasion and angiogenesis, and the reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and drug resistance. Signaling through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathway is increasingly being realized to play important role in EMT through the regulation of novel miRNAs which further validates the importance of this signaling network and its regulations by indole compounds. Here we will review the available literature on the modulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB signaling by both parental I3C and DIM, as well as their analogs/derivatives, in an attempt to catalog their anticancer activity. PMID:23272910

  15. Protection Against Epithelial Damage During Candida albicans Infection Is Mediated by PI3K/Akt and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Shen, Chengguo; Murciano, Celia; Runglall, Manohursingh; Richardson, Jonathan P.; Arno, Matthew; Aldecoa-Otalora, Estibaliz; Naglik, Julian R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The ability of epithelial cells (ECs) to discriminate between commensal and pathogenic microbes is essential for healthy living. Key to these interactions are mucosal epithelial responses to pathogen-induced damage. Methods. Using reconstituted oral epithelium, we assessed epithelial gene transcriptional responses to Candida albicans infection by microarray. Signal pathway activation was monitored by Western blotting and transcription factor enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of these pathways in C. albicans–induced damage protection was determined using chemical inhibitors. Results. Transcript profiling demonstrated early upregulation of epithelial genes involved in immune responses. Many of these genes constituted components of signaling pathways, but only NF-κB, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt pathways were functionally activated. We demonstrate that PI3K/Akt signaling is independent of NF-κB and MAPK signaling and plays a key role in epithelial immune activation and damage protection via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Conclusions. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling may play a critical role in protecting epithelial cells from damage during mucosal fungal infections independent of NF-κB or MAPK signaling. PMID:24357630

  16. Substance P promotes the recovery of oxidative stress-damaged retinal pigmented epithelial cells by modulating Akt/GSK-3β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Min; Yu, Seung-Young; Son, Youngsook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Senescence of the retina causes an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress associated with ROS can damage RPE cells, leading to neovascularization and severe ocular disorders, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the early treatment of the damage caused by oxidative stress is critical for preventing the development of ocular diseases such as AMD. In this study, we examined the role of substance P (SP) in the recovery of RPE cells damaged by oxidative stress. Methods To induce oxidative stress, RPE cells were treated with H2O2 at various doses. Recovery from oxidative stress was studied following treatment with SP by analyzing cell viability, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation in RPE cells in vitro. Results H2O2 treatment reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. SP inhibited the reduction of cell viability due to H2O2 and caused increased cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis. Cell survival under oxidative stress requires the activation of Akt signaling that enables cells to resist oxidative stress-induced damage. SP treatment activated Akt/GSK-3β signaling in RPE cells, which were damaged due to oxidative stress, and the inhibition of Akt signaling in SP-treated RPE cells prevented SP-induced recovery. Pretreatment with the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist reduced the recovery effect of SP on damaged RPE cells. Conclusions SP can protect RPE cells from oxidant-induced cell death by activating Akt/GSK-3β signaling via NK1R. This study suggests the possibility of SP as a treatment for oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:27582624

  17. TC21 mediates transformation and cell survival via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; He, Qin; Liu, Yusen; Sheikh, M Saeed; Huang, Ying

    2002-02-07

    The signaling pathways of TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival are not well-established. In this study, we have investigated the role of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway in oncogenic-TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival. We found that oncogenic-TC21 stimulated the PI3-K activity. This was associated with the activation of Akt, a key component of PI3-K signaling pathway. We also found that TC21 interacted and formed complex with PI3-K. Mutations in the GTP-binding region of TC21, which enhanced GTP-binding potential of this protein, also stimulated its association with PI3-K, suggesting that PI3-K may preferentially interact with the GTP-bound form. Suppression of PI3-K and Akt by specific inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin reversed TC21-induced transformation. Likewise, inhibition of PI3-K activity by the PI3-K phosphotase PTEN reduced TC21-mediated focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. Investigation of TC21's effect on cell survival revealed that mutant-TC21 expressing cells were more resistant to etoposide- and cisplatin-induced cell death, and this was associated with the activation of anti-apoptotic protein NF-kappaB, a downstream target of Akt. Treatment of PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed TC21-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, we have identified PI3-K as an effector of TC21 and demonstrated that the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway plays important roles in TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival.

  18. cAMP signaling increases histone deacetylase 8 expression via the Epac2–Rap1A–Akt pathway in H1299 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the signaling pathway that mediates cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) degradation, and the effect and underlying mechanisms of the resulting increase in HDAC8 expression on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. cAMP signaling increased HDAC8 expression via a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent pathway in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, treatment with a selective activator of an exchange protein that was activated by cAMP (Epac) increased HDAC8 expression, and Epac2 inhibition abolished the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. ISO and the Epac activator activated Rap1, and Rap1A activation increased HDAC8 expression; moreover, inhibition of Rap1A with a dominant negative Rap1A or by shRNA-mediated knockdown abolished the ISO-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. Activation of cAMP signaling and Rap1A decreased the activating phosphorylation of Akt. Akt inhibition with a pharmacological inhibitor or expression of a dominant negative Akt inhibited the MKK4/JNK pathway and increased HDAC8 expression. The Akt inhibitor-induced increase in HDAC8 expression was abolished by pretreatment with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors. The ISO treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by HDAC8 knockdown. Exogenous HDAC8 expression increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and decreased TIPRL expression, and the knockdown of TIPRL increased the apoptosis of cisplatin-treated cells. The ISO treatment decreased cisplatin-induced transcription of the TIPRL gene in a HDAC8-dependent manner. In conclusion, the Epac–Rap1–Akt pathway mediates cAMP signaling-induced inhibition of JNK-dependent HDAC8 degradation, and the resulting HDAC8 increase augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing TIPRL expression in H1299 lung cancer cells. PMID:28232663

  19. cAMP signaling increases histone deacetylase 8 expression via the Epac2-Rap1A-Akt pathway in H1299 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2017-02-24

    This study was performed to investigate the signaling pathway that mediates cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) degradation, and the effect and underlying mechanisms of the resulting increase in HDAC8 expression on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. cAMP signaling increased HDAC8 expression via a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent pathway in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, treatment with a selective activator of an exchange protein that was activated by cAMP (Epac) increased HDAC8 expression, and Epac2 inhibition abolished the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. ISO and the Epac activator activated Rap1, and Rap1A activation increased HDAC8 expression; moreover, inhibition of Rap1A with a dominant negative Rap1A or by shRNA-mediated knockdown abolished the ISO-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. Activation of cAMP signaling and Rap1A decreased the activating phosphorylation of Akt. Akt inhibition with a pharmacological inhibitor or expression of a dominant negative Akt inhibited the MKK4/JNK pathway and increased HDAC8 expression. The Akt inhibitor-induced increase in HDAC8 expression was abolished by pretreatment with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors. The ISO treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by HDAC8 knockdown. Exogenous HDAC8 expression increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and decreased TIPRL expression, and the knockdown of TIPRL increased the apoptosis of cisplatin-treated cells. The ISO treatment decreased cisplatin-induced transcription of the TIPRL gene in a HDAC8-dependent manner. In conclusion, the Epac-Rap1-Akt pathway mediates cAMP signaling-induced inhibition of JNK-dependent HDAC8 degradation, and the resulting HDAC8 increase augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing TIPRL expression in H1299 lung cancer cells.

  20. Transducer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, B. T.; Eoff, J. M.; Schuetz, L. J.; Cunningham, K. R.

    1980-07-02

    This report has been prepared specifically for ultrasonic transducer users within the Nondestructive Testing Evaluation (NDE) community of the weapons complex. The purpose of the report is to establish an initial set of uniform procedures for measuring and recording transducer performance data, and to establish a common foundation on which more comprehensive transducer performance evaluations may be added as future transducer performance criteria expands. Transducer parameters and the problems with measuring them are discussed and procedures for measuring transducer performance are recommended with special precautionary notes regarding critical aspects of each measurement. An important consideration regarding the recommended procedures is the cost of implementation. There are two distinct needs for transducer performance characterization in the complex. Production oriented users need a quick, reliable means to check a transducer to ascertain its suitability for continued service. Development groups and the Transducer Center need a comprehensive characterization means to collect adequate data to evaluate theoretical concepts or to build exact replacement transducers. The instrumentation, equipment, and procedures recommended for monitoring production transducers are utilitarian and provide only that information needed to determine transducer condition.

  1. CCN1 acutely increases nitric oxide production via integrin αvβ3-Akt-S6K-phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at the serine 1177 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Gyungah; Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Yoon Shin; Jo, Inho

    2015-12-01

    Although CCN1 (also known as cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer 61, CYR61) has been reported to promote angiogenesis and neovascularization in endothelial cells (ECs), its effects on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production have never been studied. Using human umbilical vein ECs, we investigated whether and how CCN1 regulates NO production. CCN1 acutely increased NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) at serine 1177 (eNOS-Ser(1177)), but not that of eNOS-Thr(495) or eNOS-Ser(114). The level of total eNOS expression was unaltered. Treatment with either LY294002, a selective inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase known as an upstream kinase of Akt, or H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated protein kinase 2, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), inhibited CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and subsequent NO production. Ectopic expression of small interfering RNA against Akt and S6K significantly inhibited the effects of CCN1. Consistently, CCN1 increased the phosphorylation of Akt-Ser(473) and S6K-Thr(389). However, CCN1 did not alter the expression or secretion of VEGF, a known downstream factor of CCN1 and a potential upstream factor of Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation. Furthermore, neutralization of integrin αvβ3 with corresponding antibody completely reversed all of the observed effects of CCN1. Moreover, CCN1 increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the rat aortas. Finally, we also found that CCN1-stimulated eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation and NO production are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, CCN1 acutely increases NO production via activation of a signaling axis in integrin αvβ3-Akt-S6K-eNOS-Ser(1177) phosphorylation, suggesting an important role for CCN1 in vasodilation.

  2. Mefloquine exerts anticancer activity in prostate cancer cells via ROS-mediated modulation of Akt, ERK, JNK and AMPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    YAN, KUN-HUANG; YAO, CHIH-JUNG; HSIAO, CHI-HAO; LIN, KE-HSUN; LIN, YUNG-WEI; WEN, YU-CHING; LIU, CHUNG-CHI; YAN, MING-DE; CHUANG, SHUANG-EN; LAI, GI-MING; LEE, LIANG-MING

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) is a prophylactic anti-malarial drug. Previous studies have shown that MQ induces oxidative stress in vitro. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be used as a therapeutic modality to kill cancer cells. This study investigated whether MQ also inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth. We used sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining to determine cell viability. MQ has a highly selective cytotoxicity that inhibits PCa cell growth. The antitumor effect was most significant when examined using a colony formation assay. MQ also induces hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as ROS generation. The blockade of MQ-induced anticancer effects by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pre-treatment confirmed the role of ROS. This indicates that the MQ-induced anticancer effects are caused primarily by increased ROS generation. Moreover, we observed that MQ-mediated ROS simultaneously downregulated Akt phosphorylation and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in PC3 cells. These findings provide insights for further anticancer therapeutic options. PMID:23760395

  3. Insulin signaling via Akt2 switches plakophilin 1 function from stabilizing cell adhesion to promoting cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Annika; Rietscher, Katrin; Glaß, Markus; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Schutkowski, Mike; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Wingenfeld, Aileen; Mun, Andrej; Hatzfeld, Mechthild

    2013-04-15

    Downregulation of adherens junction proteins is a frequent event in carcinogenesis. How desmosomal proteins contribute to tumor formation by regulating the balance between adhesion and proliferation is not well understood. The desmosomal protein plakophilin 1 can increase intercellular adhesion by recruiting desmosomal proteins to the plasma membrane or stimulate proliferation by enhancing translation rates. Here, we show that these dual functions of plakophilin 1 are regulated by growth factor signaling. Insulin stimulation induced the phosphorylation of plakophilin 1, which correlated with reduced intercellular adhesion and an increased activity of plakophilin 1 in the stimulation of translation. Phosphorylation was mediated by Akt2 at four motifs within the plakophilin 1 N-terminal domain. A plakophilin 1 phospho-mimetic mutant revealed reduced intercellular adhesion and accumulated in the cytoplasm, where it increased translation and proliferation rates and conferred the capacity of anchorage-independent growth. The cytoplasmic accumulation was mediated by the stabilization of phosphorylated plakophilin 1, which displayed a considerably increased half-life, whereas non-phosphorylated plakophilin 1 was more rapidly degraded. Our data indicate that upon activation of growth factor signaling, plakophilin 1 switches from a desmosome-associated growth-inhibiting to a cytoplasmic proliferation-promoting function. This supports the view that the deregulation of plakophilin 1, as observed in several tumors, directly contributes to hyperproliferation and carcinogenesis in a context-dependent manner.

  4. Novel effect of helenalin on Akt signaling and Skp2 expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, Corinth A.; Hopkins, Robin G.; Fernandes, Karishma M.; Morrison, Ron F. . E-mail: ron_morrison@uncg.edu

    2006-07-21

    We have previously shown that the F-box protein, Skp2, is highly regulated during preadipocyte proliferation and plays a mechanistic role in p27 degradation during cell cycle progression. Data presented here demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic phytochemical, helenalin is a potent inhibitor of periodic Skp2 protein accumulation during early phases of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, helenalin was shown to completely block p27 degradation, cyclin A accumulation, and G{sub 1}/S transition resulting in G{sub 1} arrest. Helenalin was also shown to block Skp2 mRNA accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner and to completely suppress hormonally induced Skp2 promoter activity suggesting transcriptional mechanisms were involved. Examination of signaling events previously determined to be important for Skp2 upregulation during adipogenesis revealed impaired Akt phosphorylation immediately preceding the inhibitory effect of helenalin on Skp2 mRNA accumulation. These studies demonstrate a novel effect of helenalin on Skp2 regulation and growth factor receptor signaling during early stages of adipocyte differentiation.

  5. PI3K/AKT signaling mediated by G protein‑coupled receptors is involved in neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (Review).

    PubMed

    Nakano, Noriko; Matsuda, Satoru; Ichimura, Mayuko; Minami, Akari; Ogino, Mako; Murai, Toshiyuki; Kitagishi, Yasuko

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Numerous pathological processes including, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neurotransmitter imbalance, and apoptosis as well as genetic factors may lead to neuronal degeneration. Motor deficits in PD are due mostly to the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Neuroprotection of functional neurons is of significance in the treatment of PD. G protein‑coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in the neuroprotection against PD through the survival of dopaminergic neurons. In addition, phosphatidyl‑inositol‑3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling has also been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in this cellular protection could be critical for developing treatments to prevent this neurodegenerative disorder. In this review, we highlight the protective roles of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the function of representative serotonin GPCRs. Particular attention is given to the molecular mechanisms of this pathway proposed to explain the favorable effects of food ingredients against neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) from the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Shao, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2011-11-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defense by a host against invading pathogens. Several signaling pathways participate in the immune response, one of which is the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Various evidences have been provided to suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is involved in both antibacterial and antiviral immunities. In this study, the full-length cDNA and gene sequence of STAT (designated as FcSTAT) was cloned from the Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the FcSTAT is clustered with STAT5s and STAT6s from vertebrates and STATs from invertebrates. Quantitative real-time PCR exhibited that the FcSTAT had a wide distribution in all detected tissues and developmental stages. Time course analysis of the transcription level after WSSV challenge showed a noticeably early up-regulation of FcSTAT in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and intestines. The expression levels of FcSTAT increased corresponding to Vibrio anguillarum stimulation in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas as well. All these imply that the JAK/STAT pathway participates in the immune response against bacteria and virus in F. chinensis.

  7. CDIP1-BAP31 complex transduces apoptotic signals from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Namba, Takushi; Tian, Fang; Chu, Kiki; Hwang, So-Young; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W

    2013-10-31

    Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid) and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  8. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-02-23

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis.

  9. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  10. Galangin Activates the ERK/AKT-Driven Nrf2 Signaling Pathway to Increase the Level of Reduced Glutathione in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Piao, Mei Jing; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Ryu, Yea Seong; Fernando, Pattage Madushan Dilhara Jayatissa; Oh, Min Chang; Park, Jeong Eon; Shilnikova, Kristina; Moon, Yu Jin; Shin, Dae O; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-11-08

    Previously, we demonstrated that galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) protects human keratinocytes against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of galangin on induction of antioxidant enzymes involved in synthesis of reduced glutathione (GSH), and investigated the associated upstream signaling cascades. By activating nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), galangin treatment significantly increased expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS). This activation of Nrf2 depended on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Inhibition of GSH in galangin-treated cells attenuated the protective effect of galangin against the deleterious effects of UVB. Our results reveal that galangin protects human keratinocytes by activating ERK/AKT-Nrf2, leading to elevated expression of GSH-synthesizing enzymes.

  11. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR) by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD). After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR), markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p < 0.05, resp.), whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05). These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction. PMID:27843952

  12. CCL21 Facilitates Chemoresistance and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties of Colorectal Cancer Cells through AKT/GSK-3β/Snail Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin-Lin; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Zong-Cai; Wu, Nong; Wang, Hao; Qi, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cai, Shao Hui; Du, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Some evidence indicated that chemoresistance associates with the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties. Recent studies suggested that chemokines can promote the chemoresistance and stem cell properties in various cancer cells, while the underling mechanism is still not completely illustrated. In our study, we found that CCL21 can upregulate the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and stem cell property markers such as Bmi-1, Nanog, and OCT-4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells and then improve the cell survival rate and mammosphere formation. Our results suggested that Snail was crucial for CCL21-mediated chemoresistance and cancer stem cell property in CRC cells. Further, we observed that CCL21 treatment increased the protein but not mRNA levels of Snail, which suggested that CCL21 upregulates Snail via posttranscriptional ways. The downstream signals AKT/GSK-3β mediated CCL21 induced the upregulation of Snail due to the fact that CCL21 treatment can obviously phosphorylate both AKT and GSK-3β. The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, LY294002 significantly abolished CCL21 induced chemoresistance and mammosphere formation of HCT116 cells. Collectively, our results in the present study revealed that CCL21 can facilitate chemoresistance and stem cell property of CRC cells via the upregulation of P-gp, Bmi-1, Nanog, and OCT-4 through AKT/GSK-3β/Snail signals, which suggested a potential therapeutic approach to CRC patients. PMID:27057280

  13. Co-Inhibition of GLUT-1 Expression and the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway to Enhance the Radiosensitivity of Laryngeal Carcinoma Xenografts In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xing-Mei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Min-Li; Bao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Fan, Jun; Lu, Zhong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of GLUT-1 and PI3K/Akt signaling in radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma xenografts. Volume, weight, radiosensitization, and the rate of inhibition of tumor growth in the xenografts were evaluated in different groups. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K in the xenografts were measured. Treatment with LY294002, wortmannin, wortmannin plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN, and LY294002 plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN after X-ray irradiation significantly reduced the size and weight of the tumors, rate of tumor growth, and apoptosis in tumors compared to that observed in the 10-Gy group (p<0.05). In addition, mRNA and protein expression of GLUT-1, p-Akt, and PI3K was downregulated. The E/O values of LY294002, LY294002 plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN, wortmannin, and wortmannin plus GLUT-1 AS-ODN were 2.7, 1.1, 1.8, and 1.8, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that GLUT-1 AS-ODN as well as the inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling may act as radiosensitizers of laryngeal carcinoma in vivo.

  14. Serine 1179 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase caused by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene through PI3K/Akt signaling in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Sumi, Daigo; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    Although 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been found to uncouple nitric oxide synthase (NOS), thereby leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular response against TNT still remains unclear. Exposure of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) to TNT (100 {mu}M) resulted in serine 1179 phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS). With specific inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002), we found that PI3K/Akt signaling participated in the eNOS phosphorylation caused by TNT, whereas the ERK pathway did not. ROS were generated following exposure of BAECs to TNT. However, TNT-mediated phosphorylation of either eNOS or Akt was drastically blocked by NAC and PEG-CAT. Interestingly, pretreatment with apocynin, a specific inhibitor for NADPH oxidase, diminished the phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt. These results suggest that TNT affects NADPH oxidase, thereby generating hydrogen peroxide, which is capable of activating PI3K/Akt signaling associated with eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation.

  15. Age-related neuroinflammation and changes in AKT-GSK-3β and WNT/ β-CATENIN signaling in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ana Maria Marques; Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2015-12-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process associated with an increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders which can be related to chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation, however, can be characterized by the persistent elevated glucocorticoid (GCs) levels, activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-кB, as well as an increase in cytokines. Interestingly, both NF-кB and cytokines can be even modulated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) activity, which is a key protein that can intermediate inflammation and metabolism, once it has a critical role in AKT signaling pathway, and can also intermediate WNT/β-CATENIN signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to verify age-related changes in inflammatory status, as well as in the AKT and WNT signaling pathways. Results showed an age-related increase in neuroinflammation as indicated by NF-кB activation, TNF-α and GCs increased levels, a decrease in AKT activation and an increase in GSK-3β activity in both 12- and 24- month old animals. Aging also seems to induce a progressive decrease in canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling pathway once there is a decrease in DVL-2 levels and in the transcription of Axin2 gene. Little is known about the DVL-2 regulation as well as its roles in WNT signaling pathway, but for the first time it was suggested that DVL-2 expression can be changed along aging.

  16. Cell Type-Specific Dependency on the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway for the Endogenous Epo and VEGF Induction by Baicalein in Neurons versus Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Hung, Chia-Chi; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Yen-Chu; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo. PMID:23904909

  17. Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lin, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Cheng; Hung, Chia-Chi; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Yen-Chu; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Lien, Cheng-Chang; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo.

  18. Prohibitin confers cytoprotection against ISO-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cells via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadra, Utpal; Devi, Tangutur Anjana; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2017-01-01

    Numerous hypertrophic stimuli, including β-adrenergic agonists such as isoproterenol (ISO), result in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) leading to oxidative stress. This process is well associated with phosphorylation of thymoma viral proto-oncogene Akt (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β) (Ser9), with resultant inactivation of Gsk-3β. In the present study, we found that the protective defensive role of prohibitin (PHB) against ISO-induced hypertrophic response in rat H9c2 cells is via attenuation of oxidative stress-dependent signaling pathways. The intracellular levels of mitochondrial membrane potential along with cellular ROS levels and mitochondrial superoxide generation were determined. In order to understand the regulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling pathway, we carried out immmunoblotting for key proteins of the pathway such as PTEN, PI3K, phosphorylated, and unphosphorylated forms of Akt, Gsk-3β, and immunofluorescence experiments of p-Gsk-3β. Enforced expression of PHB in ISO-treated H9c2 cells suppressed cellular ROS production with mitochondrial superoxide generation and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in suppression of oxidative stress which likely offered potent cellular protection, led to the availability of more healthy cells, and also, significant constitutive activation of Gsk-3β via inactivation of Akt was observed. Knockdown of PHB expression using PHB siRNA in control H9c2 cells reversed these effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that PHB confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in ISO-induced hypertrophy and this process is associated with modulation of Akt/Gsk-3β signaling mechanisms as evident from our PHB overexpression and knockdown experiments.

  19. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:26840401

  20. Ramentaceone, a Naphthoquinone Derived from Drosera sp., Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing PI3K/Akt Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kawiak, Anna; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in processes critical for breast cancer progression and its upregulation confers increased resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. The present study aimed at determining the activity of ramentaceone, a constituent of species in the plant genera Drosera, toward breast cancer cells and defining the involvement of PI3K/Akt inhibition in ramentaceone-mediated cell death induction. The results showed that ramentaceone exhibited high antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer cells, in particular HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by ramentaceone was through apoptosis as determined by cytometric analysis of caspase activity and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis induction was found to be mediated by inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling and through targeting its downstream anti-apoptotic effectors. Ramentaceone inhibited PI3-kinase activity, reduced the expression of the PI3K protein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the Akt protein in breast cancer cells. The expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was decreased and the levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and Bak, were elevated. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K and silencing of Akt expression increased the sensitivity of cells to ramentaceone-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicate that ramentaceone induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition. These findings suggest further investigation of ramentaceone as a potential therapeutic agent in breast cancer therapy, in particular HER2-positive breast cancer.

  1. Combretastatin A4 Regulates Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Apoptosis of Thyroid Cancer Cells via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Weixin; Lai, Yongqiang; Zhu, Mingzhang; Huang, Shangshu; Feng, Weizhao; Gu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Combretastatin A4 (CA4) is a potential therapeutic candidate for a variety of human cancer treatments. However, the inhibitive effects of CA4 on thyroid cancer cells are still not well-clarified. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of CA4 on thyroid cancer cells, as well as underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Human thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line TPC1 was pre-treated with 5 concentrations of CA4 (0, 1, 2, 5, or 10 μM) for 2 h. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl -2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell migration and invasion were detected by a modified Boyden chamber assay. Moreover, cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl (TUNEL) staining assay and flow cytometry method. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression changes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway proteins. Results CA4 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and significantly promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The EMT-related protein levels of N-Cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Slug, Twist1, and ZEB1 were significantly decreased by CA4, while E-cadherin had no significant difference compared with the control group. Moreover, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway protein levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt were significantly decreased, whereas PI3K and Akt had no significant differences compared with the control group. Conclusions CA4 can inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion and promote apoptosis of TPC1 cells. These effects might be through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. CA4 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:27966519

  2. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Ping; Li, Chen-Long; Du, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N‑terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and MMP‑9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP‑2- and MMP‑9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH‑induced upregulation of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP‑2 and ‑9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  3. Antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin in differentiated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells require activation of both the STAT5 and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Um, Moonkyoung; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-03-03

    The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) prevents neuronal death during ischemic events in the brain and in neurodegenerative diseases, presumably through its antiapoptotic effects. To explore the role of different signaling pathways in Epo-mediated antiapoptotic effects in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we employed a prolactin receptor (PrlR)/erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) chimera system, in which binding of prolactin (Prl) to the extracellular domain activates EpoR signaling in the cytosol. On induction of apoptosis by staurosporine, Prl supports survival of the SH-SY5Y cells expressing the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera. In these cells Prl treatment strongly activates the STAT5, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induces weak activation of the p65 NF-kappaB factor. Selective mutation of the eight tyrosine residues of the EpoR cytoplasmic domain results in impaired or absent activation of either STAT5 (mutation of Tyr(343)) or AKT (mutation of Tyr(479)) or both (mutation of all eight tyrosine residues). Most interestingly, Prl treatment does not prevent apoptosis in cells expressing mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras in which either the STAT5 or the AKT signaling pathways are not activated. In contrast, ERK 1/2 is fully activated by all mutant PrlR/EpoR chimeras, comparable with the level seen with the wild-type PrlR/EpoR chimera, implying that activation of the MAPK signaling pathway per se is not sufficient for antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, the antiapoptotic effects of Epo in neuronal cells require the combinatorial activation of multiple signaling pathways, including STAT5, AKT, and potentially MAPK as well, in a manner similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Induces MDSCs-Like Monocytes through TLR2/PI3K/AKT/STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Naicui; Li, Haijun; Song, Hongxiao; Yang, Yang; Cui, An; Li, Tianyang; Niu, Junqi; Crispe, Ian Nicholas; Su, Lishan; Tu, Zhengkun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies reveal the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following HCV infection, which may facilitate and maintain HCV persistent infection. The mechanisms by which HCV induces MDSCs are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms by which HCV induces MDSCs that lead to suppression of T cell proliferation and expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Methods Purified monocytes from healthy donors were cultured with HCV core protein (HCVc) or cell culture-derived HCV virions (HCVcc), and characterized the phenotype and function of these monocytes by flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, ELISA and western blot assays. In addition, peripheral blood from healthy donors and chronic HCV infected patients was collected, and MDSCs and CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Both HCVc and HCVcc induced expression of IDO1, PD-L1 and IL-10, and significantly down-regulated HLA-DR expression in human monocytes. HCVc-treated monocytes triggered CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs expansion, and inhibited autologous CD4+ T cell activation in an IDO1-dependent fashion. Our results showed that HCV virions or HCV core proteins induced MDSC-like suppressive monocytes via the TLR2/PI3K/AKT/STAT3 signaling pathway. Monocytes derived from patients with chronic HCV infection displayed MDSCs characteristics. Moreover, the percentages of CD14+ MDSCs and CD4+CD25+CD127- Tregs in chronic HCV infected patients were significantly higher than healthy individuals, and the frequency of MDSCs correlated with CD4+CD25+CD127- Tregs. Conclusions HCV induced MDSC-like suppressive monocytes through TLR2/PI3K/AKT/STAT3 signaling pathway to induce CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and inhibit autologous CD4+ T cell activation. It will be of interest to test whether antagonizing suppressive functions of MDSCs could enhance immune responses and virus control in chronic

  5. The pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloid Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xing-li; Su, Wen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yue-hu; Ming, Xin; Kong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psm2, one of the pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids isolated from whole Selaginella moellendorffii plants, has shown a potent antiplatelet activity. In this study, we further evaluated the antiplatelet effects of Psm2, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human platelet aggregation in vitro and rat platelet aggregation ex vivo were investigated. Agonist-induced platelet aggregation was measured using a light transmission aggregometer. The antithrombotic effects of Psm2 were evaluated in arteriovenous shunt thrombosis model in rats. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antiplatelet activity of Psm2, ELISAs, Western blotting and molecular docking were performed. The bleeding risk of Psm2 administration was assessed in a mouse tail cutting model, and the cytotoxicity of Psm2 was measured with MTT assay in EA.hy926 cells. Results: Psm2 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by ADP, U4619, thrombin and collagen with IC50 values of 0.64, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.87 mg/mL, respectively. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) administered to rats significantly inhibited platelet aggregation ex vivo induced by ADP. Psm2 (1, 3, 10 mg/mL, iv) administered to rats with the A–V shunt dose-dependently decreased the thrombus formation. Psm2 inhibited platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and collagen with IC50 values of 84.5 and 96.5 mg/mL, respectively, but did not affect the binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa. Furthermore, Psm2 inhibited AktSer473 phosphorylation, but did not affect MAPK signaling and Src kinase activation. Molecular docking showed that Psm2 bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase β (PI3Kβ) with a binding free energy of −13.265 kcal/mol. In addition, Psm2 did not cause toxicity in EA.hy926 cells and produced only slight bleeding in a mouse tail cutting model. Conclusion: Psm2 inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation by affecting PI3K/Akt signaling. Psm2 may be a lead compound or drug candidate that could be developed for the

  6. Effects of activated ACM on expression of signal transducers in cerebral cortical neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Zhengli; Zhu, Changgeng; Li, Zhongyu

    2007-06-01

    To explore the roles of astrocytes in the epileptogenesis, astrocytes and neurons were isolated, purified and cultured in vitro from cerebral cortex of rats. The astrocytes were activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM) was collected to treat neurons for 4, 8 and 12 h. By using Western blot, the expression of calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and adenylate cyclase (AC) was detected in neurons. The results showed that the expression of CaMK II, iNOS and AC was increased significantly in the neurons treated with ACM from 4 h to 12 h (P<0.05), and that of iNOS and AC peaked at 8 h and 12 h respectively. It was suggested that there might be some epileptogenic factors in the ACM and such signal pathways as NOS-NO-cGMP, Ca2+/CaM-CaMK II and AC-cAMP-PKA might take part in the signal transduction of epileptogenesis.

  7. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Yosuke; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro; Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Mori, Eiichiro; Noda, Taichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  8. PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling mediates cardioprotection of FGF-2 against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Li, Guo-Hua; Peng, Li-Jun; Qu, Shun-Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Peng, Juan; Luo, Xin-Yuan; Hu, Heng-Jing; Ren, Zhong; Liu, Yao; Tang, Hui; Liu, Lu-Shan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a growing major global public health problem. Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the key regulators of pathological physiology, which eventually leads to cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms by which FGF-2 rescues cells from oxidative stress damage in cardiovascular disease is not fully elucidated. Herein this study was designed to investigate the protective effects of FGF-2 in H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes, as well as the possible signaling pathway involved. Apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was induced by H2O2 and assessed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Hoechst, and TUNEL staining. Cells were pretreated with PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 to investigate the possible PI3K/Akt pathways involved in the protection of FGF-2. The levels of p-Akt, p-FoxO3a, and Bim were detected by immunoblotting. Stimulation with H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a, and induced nuclear localization of FoxO3a and apoptosis of H9c2 cells. These effects of H2O2 were abrogated by pretreatment with FGF-2. Furthermore, the protective effects of FGF-2 were abolished by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, our data suggest that FGF-2 protects against H2O2-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway.

  9. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Johnson, Mark S.; Harding, Gordon P.; Zuccarelli, Anthony J.; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Taylor, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Domains in Aer are similar to the signaling domain in chemotaxis receptors and the putative oxygen-sensing domain of some transcriptional activators. A putative FAD-binding site in the N-terminal domain of Aer shares a consensus sequence with the NifL, Bat, and Wc-1 signal-transducing proteins that regulate gene expression in response to redox changes, oxygen, and blue light, respectively. A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of which requires the proton motive force and/or electron transport system for signaling. We propose that Aer and Tsr sense the proton motive force or cellular redox state and thereby integrate diverse signals that guide E. coli to environments where maximal energy is available for growth. PMID:9380671

  10. How Intrinsic Molecular Dynamics Control Intramolecular Communication in Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription Factor STAT5

    PubMed Central

    Langenfeld, Florent; Guarracino, Yann; Arock, Michel; Trouvé, Alain; Tchertanov, Luba

    2015-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription STAT5 is a key mediator of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. While STAT5 activity is tightly regulated in normal cells, its constitutive activation directly contributes to oncogenesis and is associated with a broad range of hematological and solid tumor cancers. Therefore the development of compounds able to modulate pathogenic activation of this protein is a very challenging endeavor. A crucial step of drug design is the understanding of the protein conformational features and the definition of putative binding site(s) for such modulators. Currently, there is no structural data available for human STAT5 and our study is the first footprint towards the description of structure and dynamics of this protein. We investigated structural and dynamical features of the two STAT5 isoforms, STAT5a and STAT5b, taken into account their phosphorylation status. The study was based on the exploration of molecular dynamics simulations by different analytical methods. Despite the overall folding similarity of STAT5 proteins, the MD conformations display specific structural and dynamical features for each protein, indicating first, sequence-encoded structural properties and second, phosphorylation-induced effects which contribute to local and long-distance structural rearrangements interpreted as allosteric event. Further examination of the dynamical coupling between distant sites provides evidence for alternative profiles of the communication pathways inside and between the STAT5 domains. These results add a new insight to the understanding of the crucial role of intrinsic molecular dynamics in mediating intramolecular signaling in STAT5. Two pockets, localized in close proximity to the phosphotyrosine-binding site and adjacent to the channel for communication pathways across STAT5, may constitute valid targets to develop inhibitors able to modulate the function-related communication properties of this signaling

  11. Molecular Characterization of Striated Muscle-Specific Gab1 Isoform as a Critical Signal Transducer for Neuregulin-1/ErbB Signaling in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Taku; Masaki, Takeshi; Arita, Yoh; Ishibashi, Tomohiko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Okazawa, Makoto; Oka, Toru; Shioyama, Wataru; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko; Komuro, Issei; Sakata, Yasushi; Nakaoka, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Grb2-associated binder (Gab) docking proteins regulate signals downstream of a variety of growth factors and receptor tyrosine kinases. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), a member of epidermal growth factor family, plays a critical role for cardiomyocyte proliferation and prevention of heart failure via ErbB receptors. We previously reported that Gab1 and Gab2 in the myocardium are essential for maintenance of myocardial function in the postnatal heart via transmission of NRG-1/ErbB-signaling through analysis of Gab1/Gab2 cardiomyocyte-specific double knockout mice. In that study, we also found that there is an unknown high-molecular weight (high-MW) Gab1 isoform (120 kDa) expressed exclusively in the heart, in addition to the ubiquitously expressed low-MW (100 kDa) Gab1. However, the high-MW Gab1 has been molecularly ill-defined to date. Here, we identified the high-MW Gab1 as a striated muscle-specific isoform. The high-MW Gab1 has an extra exon encoding 27 amino acid residues between the already-known 3rd and 4th exons of the ubiquitously expressed low-MW Gab1. Expression analysis by RT-PCR and immunostaining with the antibody specific for the high-MW Gab1 demonstrate that the high-MW Gab1 isoform is exclusively expressed in striated muscle including heart and skeletal muscle. The ratio of high-MW Gab1/ total Gab1 mRNAs increased along with heart development. The high-MW Gab1 isoform in heart underwent tyrosine-phosphorylation exclusively after intravenous administration of NRG-1, among several growth factors. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of the high-MW Gab1 induces more sustained activation of AKT after stimulation with NRG-1 in cardiomyocytes compared with that of β-galactosidase. On the contrary, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the high-MW Gab1 significantly attenuated AKT activation after stimulation with NRG-1 in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the striated muscle-specific high-MW isoform of Gab1 has a crucial role for NRG-1/ErbB signaling

  12. The Molecular Interaction of CAR and JAML Recruits the Central Cell Signal Transducer PI3K

    SciTech Connect

    Verdino, Petra; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-11-15

    Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and most adenovirus serotypes and plays a crucial role in adenoviral gene therapy. Recent discovery of the interaction between junctional adhesion molecule-like protein (JAML) and CAR uncovered important functional roles in immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis. Crystal structures of JAML ectodomain (2.2 angstroms) and its complex with CAR (2.8 angstroms) reveal an unusual immunoglobulin-domain assembly for JAML and a charged interface that confers high specificity. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies illustrate how CAR-mediated clustering of JAML recruits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K) to a JAML intracellular sequence motif as delineated for the {alpha}{beta} T cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Thus, CAR and JAML are cell signaling receptors of the immune system with implications for asthma, cancer, and chronic nonhealing wounds.

  13. AKT/mTOR and C-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Signaling Pathways Are Required for Chrysotile Asbestos-Induced Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ziying; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Wang, Yahong; He, Huijuan; Zhou, Xu; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In the present study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells, and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 2 light chains 3 (LC3-II) expression, an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-P70s6k. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double knockout (AKT DKO) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2−/− MEFs but not JNK1−/− MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, NAC, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of p-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or ATG5 (autophagy-related gene 5) siRNA, indicating that chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical

  14. Redox-Sensitive Oxidation and Phosphorylation of PTEN Contribute to Enhanced Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla and Neurogenic Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kay L.H.; Wu, Chiung-Ai; Wu, Chih-Wei; Chan, Samuel H.H.; Chang, Alice Y.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) is enhanced under hypertension. The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a negative regulator of PI3K signaling, and its activity is redox-sensitive. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is responsible for the maintenance of blood pressure, oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in neurogenic hypertension. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that redox-sensitive inactivation of PTEN results in enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling in RVLM, leading to neurogenic hypertension. Results: Compared to age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, PTEN inactivation in the form of oxidation and phosphorylation were greater in RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). PTEN inactivation was accompanied by augmented PI3K activity and PI3K/Akt signaling, as reflected by the increase in phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin. Intracisternal infusion of tempol or microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of adenovirus encoding superoxide dismutase significantly antagonized the PTEN inactivation and blunted the enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling in SHR. Gene transfer of PTEN to RVLM in SHR also abrogated the enhanced Akt activation and promoted antihypertension. Silencing PTEN expression in RVLM with small-interfering RNA, on the other hand, augmented PI3K/Akt signaling and promoted long-term pressor response in normotensive WKY rats. Innovation: The present study demonstrated for the first time that the redox-sensitive check-and-balance process between PTEN and PI3K/Akt signaling is engaged in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Conclusion: We conclude that an aberrant interplay between the redox-sensitive PTEN and PI3k/Akt signaling in RVLM underpins neural mechanism of hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 36–50. PMID:22746319

  15. Mechanical Stress Regulates Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells through PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fanglong; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Tianchen; Wang, Yi; Lou, Yi; Zhang, Yinquan; Ma, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are regarded as being of great importance in the regulation of bone remodeling. In this study, rat BMSCs were exposed to different levels of cyclic mechanical stress generated by liquid drops and cultured in general medium or adipogenic medium. Markers of osteogenic (Runx2 and Collagen I) and adipogenic (C/EBPα, PPARγ, and lipid droplets) differentiation were detected using Western blot and histological staining. The protein levels of members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway were also examined. Results showed that small-magnitude stress significantly upregulated Runx2 and Collagen I and downregulated PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in BMSCs cultured in adipogenic medium, while large-magnitude stress reversed the effect when compared with unloading groups. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway could be strongly activated by mechanical stimulation; however, large-magnitude stress led to decreased activation of the signaling pathway when compared with small-magnitude stress. Activation of β-catenin with LiCl led to increased expression of Runx2 and Collagen I and reduction of C/EBPα and PPARγ expression in BMSCs. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling partially blocked the expression of β-catenin. Taken together, our results indicate that mechanical stress-regulated osteogenesis and adipogenesis of rat BMSCs are mediated, at least in part, by the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28286769

  16. Asiatic acid enhances Nrf2 signaling to protect HepG2 cells from oxidative damage through Akt and ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhimin; Ci, Xinxin; Huang, Jingbo; Liu, Qinmei; Yu, Qinlei; Zhou, Junfeng; Deng, Xuming

    2017-04-01

    Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, have antioxidative potential, but the molecular mechanism of AA against oxidative stress remains unclear. Our study was performed to investigate the antioxidative effect of AA against oxidative stress and the antioxidative mechanism in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) -stimulated the HepG2 cells. The results showed that AA suppressed t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Additionally, AA activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signal, which was closely related to induction Nrf2 nuclear translocation, reduction the expression of Keap1 and up-regulation the activity of the antioxidant response element (ARE). Meanwhile, activation of Nrf2 signal upregulated the protein expressions of antioxidant genes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidase (NQO-1), and glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). Excitingly, Knockout of Nrf2 almost abolished AA-mediated antioxidant activity and cytoprotection against t-BHP. Further studies showed the mechanism underlying that AA induced Nrf2 activation in HepG2 cells via Akt and ERK signal activation. We found Akt and ERK inhibitors treatment attenuated AA-mediated Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, treatment with either Akt or ERK inhibitor also decreased AA-mediated cytoprotection against t-BHP-induced cellular damage. Collectively, these results presented in this study indicate that AA has the protective effect against t-BHP-induced cellular damage and oxidative stress by modulating Nrf2 signaling through activating the signals of Akt and ERK.

  17. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Shin-il; Yoo, Kyu-dong; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  18. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling involved in Cr

  19. BRAF, KIT and NRAS mutations and expression of c-KIT, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated AKT in Japanese melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the status of gene mutation and activation of growth signal in melanoma of Japanese patients in vivo, we analyzed the mutation of BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 2, and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18 in melanoma cells obtained by laser capture microdissection, and performed direct sequencing in 20 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and 17 cases of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). In the study of the mutation of BRAF, pyrosequencing was also done. To examine the cell proliferation signaling, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), phosphorylated AKT (phosphorylated AKT) and c-KIT was done. The mutation of BRAF p.V600E was detected in 13 cases of ALM (65.0%) and 12 cases of SSM (70.6%). No NRAS mutation was found in all cases. The mutation in exons 9, 11, and 18 of KIT was detected in nine cases. The mutation of BRAF and KIT showed no correlation with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor thickness, ulceration and histology. pERK and pAKT was observed in small population of melanoma cells and there was no correlation with gene mutation. Our results indicate that the mutations of BRAF and KIT exist in Japanese melanoma patients, however, the cell growth signaling may be regulated by not only these mutated genes, but by other unknown regulatory factors, which may affect the prognosis of melanoma.

  20. Leukemia inhibitory factor and NGF regulate signal transducers and activators of transcription activation in sympathetic ganglia: convergence of cytokine- and neurotrophin-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rajan, P; Gearan, T; Fink, J S

    1998-08-17

    We have used the response of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) to axotomy to investigate interactions between neuropoietic cytokines and neurotrophins. Postganglionic sympathetic axotomy leads to a prolonged leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors. To study regulation of LIF-dependent activation of STAT proteins and to mimic the loss of target-derived NGF resulting from postganglionic axotomy in vivo, SCG were explanted into media lacking NGF and activation of STAT proteins was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Like postganglionic axotomy in vivo. STAT proteins were activated for up to 8 days after explantation of SCG in vitro. SCG cultured in the presence of NGF showed decreased STAT binding when compared to ganglia cultured in NGF-free media. This inhibition of STAT activation by NGF was only present in ganglia cultured for more than 5 days and was mimicked by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The serine kinase inhibitor H7 augmented the increase of STAT binding produced by explantation, suggesting the presence of a labile repressor of STAT activation in the SCG. These data indicated that the neuropoietic cytokine-signaling pathway interacts with neurotrophin and H7-sensitive-signaling pathways to regulate activation of STAT proteins in sympathetic neurons. Moreover, these data suggest that one of the mechanisms leading to prolonged activation of STAT proteins after postganglionic axotomy in vivo is loss of target-derived neurotrophins.

  1. Involvement of the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Signaling Pathway in Multiple Sclerosis and the Animal Model of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yudong; McFarland, Braden C.; Qin, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are characterized by focal inflammatory infiltrates into the central nervous system, demyelinating lesions, axonal damage, and abundant production of cytokines that activate immune cells and damage neurons and oligodendrocytes, including interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and interferon-gamma. The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway mediates the biological activities of these cytokines and is essential for the development and regulation of immune responses. Dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway contributes to numerous autoimmune diseases, including MS/EAE. The JAK/STAT pathway is aberrantly activated in MS/EAE because of excessive production of cytokines, loss of expression of negative regulators such as suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins, and significant enrichment of genes encoding components of the JAK/STAT pathway, including STAT3. Specific JAK/STAT inhibitors have been used in numerous preclinical models of MS and demonstrate beneficial effects on the clinical course of disease and attenuation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, other drugs such as statins, glatiramer acetate, laquinimod, and fumarates have beneficial effects that involve inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway. We conclude by discussing the feasibility of the JAK/STAT pathway as a target for neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:25084174

  2. Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Prophylaxis Transduces Immune Dependent Stop Signal for Tumor Angiogenic Switch within Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Saptak; Ghosh, Tithi; Barik, Subhasis; Das, Arnab; Ghosh, Sarbari; Bhuniya, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation. PMID:25391149

  3. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to pyrimidines: a new role for the signal transducer tap.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Rebecca E

    2008-02-01

    Escherichia coli exhibits chemotactic responses to sugars, amino acids, and dipeptides, and the responses are mediated by methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Using capillary assays, we demonstrated that Escherichia coli RP437 is attracted to the pyrimidines thymine and uracil and the response was constitutively expressed under all tested growth conditions. All MCP mutants lacking the MCP Tap protein showed no response to pyrimidines, suggesting that Tap, which is known to mediate dipeptide chemotaxis, is required for pyrimidine chemotaxis. In order to confirm the role of Tap in pyrimidine chemotaxis, we constructed chimeric chemoreceptors (Tapsr and Tsrap), in which the periplasmic and cytoplasmic domains of Tap and Tsr were switched. When Tapsr and Tsrap were individually expressed in an E. coli strain lacking all four native MCPs, Tapsr mediated chemotaxis toward pyrimidines and dipeptides, but Tsrap did not complement the chemotaxis defect. The addition of the C-terminal 19 amino acids from Tsr to the C terminus of Tsrap resulted in a functional chemoreceptor that mediated chemotaxis to serine but not pyrimidines or dipeptides. These results indicate that the periplasmic domain of Tap is responsible for detecting pyrimidines and the Tsr signaling domain confers on Tapsr the ability to mediate efficient chemotaxis. A mutant lacking dipeptide binding protein (DBP) was wild type for pyrimidine taxis, indicating that DBP, which is the primary chemoreceptor for dipeptides, is not responsible for detecting pyrimidines. It is not yet known whether Tap detects pyrimidines directly or via an additional chemoreceptor protein.

  4. TCF21 functions as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Youyi; Duan, Huaxin; Duan, Chaojun; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Rongrong; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Liangfang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become a major public health problem, ranking as the third most common type of cancer. Our previous study has revealed that TCF21 is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in both CRC cell lines and primary CRC, with TCF21 methylation being significantly correlated with lymph node invasion. In this study, we further analyze the expression of TCF21 in CRC tissues and investigate the role of TCF21 in CRC in vitro and in vivo. We also explore the possible pathway regulated by TCF21. We thus demonstrate that decreased levels of TCF21 are associated with the pathological stage, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis, indicating a poor prognosis in CRC patients; overexpression of TCF21 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the colorectal cell lines HCT116 and HT29. Furthermore, TCF21 functions as a tumor suppressor probably through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling and inhibition of MMPs. Our results suggest that enhancement of TCF21 levels may be a potential strategy to facilitate the prevention and treatment of CRC in the clinic.

  5. Withagulatin A inhibits hepatic stellate cell viability and procollagen I production through Akt and Smad signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xu; Yu, Liang; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the natural product Withagulatin A on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) viability and type I procollagen production. The potential mechanism underlying the pharmacological actions was also explored. Methods: The effect of Withagulatin A on cell viability was evaluated in HSC and LX-2 cells using a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry. Type I procollagen gene expression was determined using real-time PCR. Regulation of signaling molecules by Withagulatin A was detected using Western blotting. Results: Primary rat HSCs and the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 treated with Withagulatin A (0.625-20 μmol/L) underwent a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, which was associated with S phase arrest and the induction of cell apoptosis. In addition, the natural product decreased phosphorylation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway that controls cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, Withagulatin A (1, 2 μmol/L) inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulated type I procollagen gene expression, which was attributable to the suppression of TGF-β stimulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Withagulatin A potently inhibited HSC viability and type I procollagen production, thereby implying that this natural product has potential use in the development of anti-fibrogenic reagents for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:20644552

  6. Xylitol inhibits in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis by suppressing the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eui-Yeun; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process involved in tumor growth and metastasis. Many studies have investigated the use of natural compounds such as angiogenic inhibitors. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar alcohol and is an artificial sweetener that has been used in chewing gums to prevent tooth decay. Xylitol has been also known to inhibit inflammatory cytokine expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since angiogenesis and inflammation share a common signaling pathway, we investigated the role of xylitol in angiogenesis. Xylitol inhibited the migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Xylitol also inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse Matrigel plug assay. Furthermore, mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR-II (KDR), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bFGFR-II, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 of HUVECs decreased following treatment with xylitol. These anti-angiogenic effects of xylitol are exerted through inhibition of NF-κB and Akt activation. Taken together, these results suggest that xylitol acts as a beneficial angiogenesis inhibitor.

  7. Myricitrin inhibits PDGF-BB-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through suppressing PDGFRβ/Akt/Erk signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Mei; Ma, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB play major pathological processes involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. As a result, the use of anti-proliferative and anti-migratory agents for VSMCs offers promise for the treatment of vascular disorders. Myricitrin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound which possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effect of myricitrin on PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. In accordance with these findings, myricitrin induced the arrest of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Myricitrin also decreased the expressions of G0/G1 specific regulatory proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4, cyclin E and CDK2, as well as increased the expression of p21 in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Moreover, myricitrin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRβ, Akt and Erk1/2. These results suggest that myricitrin plays an important role in prevention of VSMCs proliferation and migration through the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by PDGF signaling pathway. Thus, myricitrin is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of VSMCs.

  8. Girdin regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells via the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    NI, WEIMIN; FANG, YAN; TONG, LEI; TONG, ZHAOXUE; YI, FUXIN; QIU, JIANWU; WANG, RUI; TONG, XIAOJIE

    2015-01-01

    Girdin, an actin-binding protein, is associated with cell migration and is expressed at high levels in glioma cells. However, the association between girdin and the development of glioma remains to be elucidated. In the present study, short-hairpin RNA technology was used to silence the gene expression of girdin. The effects of girdin silencing on glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion were then assessed using a cell viability assay, wound-healing assay, transwell invasion assay, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and gelatin zymography. The results suggested that girdin silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells. In addition, the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were also affected by girdin silencing. Further mechanistic investigation indicated that girdin may regulate glioma cell migration and invasion through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathway. Therefore, the results of the present study provide a theoretical foundation for the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:26151295

  9. α-Lipoic acid inhibits sevoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis through PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong; Wang, Xiang; Peng, Peipei; Xiong, Jingwei; Dong, Hongquan; Wang, Lixia; Ding, Zhengnian

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is a widely used anaesthetic agent, including in anaesthesia of children and infants. Recent studies indicated that the general anaesthesia might cause the cell apoptosis in the brain. This issue raises the concerns about the neuronal toxicity induced by the application of anaesthetic agents, especially in the infants and young children. In this study, we used Morris water maze, western blotting and immunohistochemistry to elucidate the role of α-lipoic acid in the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. We found that sevoflurane led to the long-term cognitive impairment in the young rats. This adverse effect may be caused by the neuronal death in the hippocampal region, mediated through PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. We also showed that α-lipoic acid offset the effect of sevoflurane on the neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction. This study elucidated the potential clinical role of α-lipoic acid, providing a promising way in the prevention and treatment of long-term cognitive impairment induced by sevoflurane general anesthesia.

  10. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) homologue in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Yang, Chang-Geng; Sun, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Xian-Li; Chen, Song-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) acts as an important mediator in multiple biological processes induced by different cytokines. So far, little information is available in fish STAT3. In this study, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) STAT3 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. The turbot STAT3 full-length cDNA consists of 2355 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 784 amino acids with four conserved domains including STAT_int, STAT_alpha, STAT_bind and SH2 domain. The phylogenetic tree showed that turbot STAT3 shared the closest relationship with mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) STAT3. The autoactivation experiment in yeast proved that turbot STAT3 was a strong transcription factor. The quantitative RT-PCR experiment indicated that Stat3 mRNA was expressed in widespread tissues with the highest expression levels in the liver. And the further expression patterns analysis revealed that turbot Stat3 expression levels were increased in liver, spleen, kidney of fish infected with Vibrio anguillarum and liver of fish infected with LCDV. Meantime, hepcidin, one of STAT3 target gene, was also up-regulated in liver of fish infected with two pathogens. These results suggested that turbot Stat3 may involved in the immune defense process as a transcription factor.

  11. Cross-Talk between CLL Cells and Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells: Role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3

    PubMed Central

    Badoux, Xavier; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Harris, David; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Burger, Jan; O’Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bone marrow is characterized by increased angiogenesis. However, the molecular mediators of neovascularization and the biological significance of increased endothelial cell proliferation in CLL require further investigation. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL we studied the role of STAT3 in modulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the effect of vascular endothelial cells on CLL cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) we found that anti-STAT3 antibodies immunoprecipitated DNA of STAT3, VEGF and other STAT3-regulated genes. In addition, STAT3-short interfering RNA significantly reduced mRNA levels of VEGF in CLL cells suggesting that STAT3 induces VEGF expression in CLL. Remarkably, bone marrow CLL cells expressed high levels of VEGF and high VEGF levels were detected in the plasma of patients with untreated CLL and correlated with white blood cell count. CLL bone marrow biopsies revealed increased microvascular density and attachment of CLL cells to endothelial cells. Co-culture of CLL and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells showed