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Sample records for aktivatsiya svyazi c-s

  1. Revised Atomistic Models of the Crystal Structure of C-S-H with high C/S Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Goran; Nicoleau, Luc; Nonat, André; Veryazov, Valera

    2016-09-01

    The atomic structure of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C1.67-S-Hx) has been studied. Atomistic C-S-H models suggested in our previous study have been revised in order to perform a direct comparison of energetic stability of the different structures. An extensive set of periodic structures of C-S-H with variation of water content was created, and then optimized using molecular dynamics with reactive force field ReaxFF and quantum chemical semiempirical method PM6. All models show organization of water molecules inside the structure of C-S-H. The new geometries of C-S-H, reported in this paper, show lower relative energy with respect to the geometries from the original definition of C-S-H models. Model that corresponds to calcium enriched tobermorite structure has the lowest relative energy and the density closest to the experimental values.

  2. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  3. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  4. Bond activation with an apparently benign ethynyl dithiocarbamate Ar-C≡C-S-C(S)NR2.

    PubMed

    Ung, Gaël; Frey, Guido D; Schoeller, Wolfgang W; Bertrand, Guy

    2011-10-10

    The hedgehog molecule: A simple ethynyl dithiocarbamate [Ar-C≡C-S-C(S)NR(2)] is able to cleave a broad range of enthalpically strong σ bonds and to activate carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur. Depending on the substrate, the bond activation process involves either the existence of an equilibrium with the nonobservable mesoionic carbene isomer or the cooperation of the nucleophilic carbon-carbon triple bond and the electrophilic CS carbon atom. PMID:23210141

  5. Sister M. Madeleva Wolff, C.S.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, M. Loretta

    2006-01-01

    Sister M. Madeleva Wolff, C.S.C., teacher, essayist, poet, and college administrator, through her creative ability and innovative practices made possible major contributions to Catholic education in her lifetime. Without her strong personality and boundless energy, many of her dreams for an ideal college curriculum would not have come to fruition.…

  6. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Liu, Yi-Chen; Badsara, Satpal Singh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur-containing molecules such as thioethers are commonly found in chemical biology, organic synthesis, and materials chemistry. While many reliable methods have been developed for preparing these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are usually required in the traditional methods. The transition metals have been applied in this field, and the palladium-catalyzed coupling of thiols with aryl halides and pseudo halides is one of the most important methods in the synthesis of thioethers. Other metals have also been used for the same purpose. Here, we summarize recent efforts in metal-catalyzed C-S bond cross-coupling reactions, focusing especially on the coupling of thiols with aryl- and vinyl halides based on different metals.

  7. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-08-18

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM's antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering.

  8. C-S bond cleavage by a polyketide synthase domain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Liu, Tao; Shen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Leinamycin (LNM) is a sulfur-containing antitumor antibiotic featuring an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for LNM’s antitumor activity, by virtue of its ability to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate capable of alkylating DNA. We have previously cloned and sequenced the lnm gene cluster from Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140. In vivo and in vitro characterizations of the LNM biosynthetic machinery have since established that: (i) the 18-membered macrolactam backbone is synthesized by LnmP, LnmQ, LnmJ, LnmI, and LnmG, (ii) the alkyl branch at C-3 of LNM is installed by LnmK, LnmL, LnmM, and LnmF, and (iii) leinamycin E1 (LNM E1), bearing a thiol moiety at C-3, is the nascent product of the LNM hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS). Sulfur incorporation at C-3 of LNM E1, however, has not been addressed. Here we report that: (i) the bioinformatics analysis reveals a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent domain, we termed cysteine lyase (SH) domain (LnmJ-SH), within PKS module-8 of LnmJ; (ii) the LnmJ-SH domain catalyzes C-S bond cleavage by using l-cysteine and l-cysteine S-modified analogs as substrates through a PLP-dependent β-elimination reaction, establishing l-cysteine as the origin of sulfur at C-3 of LNM; and (iii) the LnmJ-SH domain, sharing no sequence homology with any other enzymes catalyzing C-S bond cleavage, represents a new family of PKS domains that expands the chemistry and enzymology of PKSs and might be exploited to incorporate sulfur into polyketide natural products by PKS engineering. PMID:26240335

  9. Surface carbonation of synthetic C-S-H samples: A comparison between fresh and aged C-S-H using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Leon Garbev, Krassimir; Gee, Ian

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a continuation of studies into silicate anion structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A series of C-S-H samples have been prepared mechanochemically, and then stored under ambient conditions for six months. Storage led to surface carbonation, the extent of which was dependent upon the calcium/silicon ratio of the fresh sample. Carbonation arose through decalcification of the C-S-H, leading to increased silicate polymerisation. The surfaces of the most calcium-rich phases (C/S = 1.33 and 1.50) underwent complete decalcification to yield silica (possibly containing some silanol groups) and calcium carbonate. Carbonation, and hence changes in silicate anion structure, was minimal for the C-S-H phases with C/S = 0.67 and 0.75.

  10. Spectroscopy study of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions immobilization on C-S-H phase.

    PubMed

    Żak, Renata; Deja, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) have a large number of structural sites available for cations and anions to bind. The C-S-H phases are materials which have ability to toxic ions immobilization. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing, substitution and precipitation of insoluble compounds. This study presents the C-S-H (prepared with C/S ratios 1.0) phase as absorbent for immobilization of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions. The C-S-H spectra before and after incorporation of heavy metals ions into the C-S-H structure were obtained. The effect of added heavy metals ions on the hydration phenomena was studied by means of X-ray diffractions analysis. FTIR spectra was measured. The microstructure and phase composition of C-S-H indicate that they can play an essential role in the immobilization of heavy metals. The properties of C-S-H in the presence of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr cations were studied. The leaching ML test was used to evaluate the level of immobilization of heavy metals in C-S-H. The leached solutions are diluted and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the activated solid particles are separated, washed, desiccated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr cations immobilization was very high (exceeding 99.96%).

  11. Depositional and diagenetic C-S-Fe signatures in early Paleozoic normal marine shales

    SciTech Connect

    Raiswell, R.; Al-Biatty, H.J. )

    1989-05-01

    The degree of pyritisation (DOP) of Cambrian-Silurian normal marine shales is always less than 0.70, similar to that found previously for sediments of Devonian to Cretaceous ages. This indicates that DOP can be used as a paleoenvironmental indicator of deposition from normal marine (i.e., oxygenated) bottom waters throughout the Phanerozoic record. Although the range in DOP is similar, significant variations in normal marine C/S ratios can occur. Relatively low C/S ratios (<1) result from depositional or diagenetic conditions which give high reactive iron contents (which are positively correlated with increasing organic carbon concentrations), whereas higher C/S ratios (>1.5) result from lower reactive iron contents (which are also independent of organic carbon variations). Reactive iron contents, and hence normal marine C/S ratios, are able to vary at a regional or basinal level.

  12. Depositional and diagenetic C-S-Fe signatures in early Paleozoic normal marine shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiswell, R.; Al-Biatty, H. J.

    1989-05-01

    The degree of pyritisation (DOP) of Cambrian-Silurian normal marine shales is always less than 0.70, similar to that found previously for sediments of Devonian to Cretaceous ages. This indicates that DOP can be used as a paleoenvironmental indicator of deposition from normal marine ( i.e., oxygenated) bottom waters throughout the Phanerozoic record. Although the range in DOP is similar, significant variations in normal marine C/S ratios can occur. Relatively low C/S ratios (<1) result from depositional or diagenetic conditions which give high reactive iron contents (which are positively correlated with increasing organic carbon concentrations), whereas higher C/S ratios (> 1.5) result from lower reactive iron contents (which are also independent of organic carbon variations). Reactive iron contents, and hence normal marine C/S ratios, are able to vary at a regional or basinal level.

  13. Improving the structural consistency of C-S-H solid solution thermodynamic models

    SciTech Connect

    Kulik, Dmitrii A.

    2011-05-15

    Simple aqueous-solid solution models of C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrate) are widely used in studies of cement hydration and waste-cement interactions. Even without a clear structural/mechanistic basis, such thermodynamic models yield a good description of solubility data in [Ca]-C/S space, while only satisfactory in [Si]-C/S, H{sub 2}O-C/S, [Ca]-[Si] spaces and in the 0.1 < C/S < 0.8 range. Here, using a multi-site (sublattice) concept, the ideal solid solution model of C-S-H is revised to make it consistent with the Richardson-Groves structural model of C-S-H and with the modern interpretation of spectroscopic ({sup 29}Si MAS NMR) and solubility data. Consideration of two site substitutions, (1) coupled H{sub 2}OCa{sup 2+} for SiO{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup 2+} replacement in bridging tetrahedral and adjacent interlayer sites, and (2) substitution of interstitial Ca(OH){sub 2} for a vacancy, leads to a new CSHQ model of (A,B) (C,D)X type composed of two tobermorite-like and two jennite-like end members. Because this ideal sublattice SS model cannot fit solubility data well at 0.8 < C/S < 1.1, a simpler CSH3T model is constructed from a polymeric TobH (CaO){sub 2}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}, a dimeric T2C (CaO){sub 3}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}, and an ordered pentameric T5C (CaO){sub 2.5}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 2.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5} tobermorite-like end members. This solid solution model, limited to the range 0.67 < C/S < 1.5, has a correct built-in dependence of the mean silicate chain length on C/S, yields quite realistic fits to the solubility data, and provides a basis for extensions with foreign cations whose sites in the defect-tobermorite structure of C-S-H are known. To account for C-S-H compositions with C/S > 1.5, CSHQ end members were downscaled to one tetrahedral site and used within the simple mixing model. Despite some loss of structural consistency, the solubility and mean silicate chain length data can be reproduced well with this downscaled

  14. Changes in the elastic moduli of C-S-H due to presence of interlaminar cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Shirley; Hoyos, Bibian

    2016-03-01

    A set of models of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) with alkali cations in the interlaminar layer, various calcium/silicon ratios, and each with a density of 2.4 g cm-3 is presented. Using molecular simulation techniques, the objective was to study how the Young’s, bulk, and shear modulus, as well as the Poisson’s ratio changed due to the presence of monovalent ions. The effect of density on the elastic moduli was neglected, thus the NVT ensemble was used. Comparing the different simulation cells, it was found that models with sodium and potassium ions in the structure and an alkali/silicon ratio of 0.18 showed negative effects on the elastic moduli of C-S-H. This could be mainly ascribed to the shielding effect of the alkali on the interlaminar interactions that contribute to the cohesion between the layers of C-S-H.

  15. Analysis of C-S-H gel and cement paste by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Andrew J. . E-mail: andrew.allen@nist.gov; Thomas, Jeffrey J. . E-mail: jthomas@northwestern.edu

    2007-03-15

    The role of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in the characterization of cement is briefly reviewed. The unique information obtainable from SANS analysis of C-S-H gel in hydrating cement is compared with that obtainable by other neutron methods. Implications for the nature of C-S-H gel, as detected by SANS, are considered in relation to current models. Finally, the application of the SANS method to cement paste is demonstrated by analyzing the effects of calcium chloride acceleration and sucrose retardation on the resulting hydrated microstructure.

  16. Incorporation of zinc into calcium silicate hydrates, Part I: formation of C-S-H(I) with C/S=2/3 and its isochemical counterpart gyrolite

    SciTech Connect

    Stumm, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.stumm@itc-wgt.fzk.de; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Black, Leon; Stemmermann, Peter; Nueesch, Rolf

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the incorporation of zinc into both nanocrystalline and crystalline calcium silicate hydrates with starting C/S ratios of 2/3 (0.66). Zinc was added replacing calcium in the starting mixtures [Zn/(Zn+Ca)=0-1/4; 0-10 wt.% Zn], and the resultant phases were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In both groups of samples, increasing zinc content led to gradual structural changes, until eventually a second phase was formed. Zinc was incorporated to similar limits in both sets of samples. The thermal stability of the structures increased to a certain zinc content, beyond which there was structural destabilisation. Zinc incorporation is possible up to {approx}6 wt.%. Our observations strongly indicate similar zinc incorporation mechanisms in both sample series, namely incorporation of zinc into the interlayer of C-S-H(I) and the X-sheet of gyrolite for nanocrystalline and crystalline samples, respectively.

  17. Oral Interpretation of C.S. Lewis'"Narnia Tales": A Refracting of "Pictures."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Carolyn

    "The Chronicles of Narnia" are a series of seven fairy tales written by C.S. Lewis that have become popular with both children and adults. Lewis points to five aspects of the fairy tale form that made the form suitable for expressing the images he saw. The aspects are: (1) no love interest; (2) no close psychology; (3) severe restraints on…

  18. Volatile sulphur compounds-forming abilities of lactic acid bacteria: C-S lyase activities.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Irene; Martínez-Bartolomé, Miguel A; Achemchem, Fouad; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall aroma of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavours. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. Here, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from different ecological origins were screened for their abilities to produce VSCs from L-methionine. From the data presented, VSC-forming abilities were shown to be strain-specific and were correlated with the C-S lyase enzymatic activities determined using different approaches. High VSCs formation were detected for those strains that were also shown to possess high thiol-producing abilities (determined either by agar plate or spectrophotometry assays). Moreover, differences in C-S lyase activities were shown to correspond with the enzymatic potential of the strains as determined by in situ gel visualization. Therefore, the assessment of the C-S lyase enzymatic potential, by means of either of these techniques, could be used as a valuable approach for the selection of LAB strains with high VSC-producing abilities thus, representing an effective way to enhance cheese sulphur aroma compounds synthesis. In this regard, this study highlights the flavour forming potential of the Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, that therefore could be used as a starter culture in cheese manufacture. Furthermore, although C-S lyases are involved in both biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, an association between methionine and cysteine auxotrophy of the selected strains and their VSCs-producing abilities could not be found.

  19. Mathematics, Art, Research, Collaboration, and Storytelling: The High M.A.R.C.S. Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Edel M.; Pagnucci, Gian S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a curriculum integration project designed to help students better contextualize their learning: The High M.A.R.C.S. Project linked mathematics, art, research, collaboration, and storytelling. The article explains the project in detail, discusses sample student work from the project, and describes how the project work was…

  20. P.H.Y.S.I.C.S. Can Be Done!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Lois

    2004-01-01

    P.H.Y.S.I.C.S. (Physics Headstart Yearlong Science Inquiry at Central School) is a series of inquiry investigations and science activities designed to motivate students and teachers and develop a love of physics in our rural agricultural community. The program?s approach infuses physics into the science curriculum while capitalizing on our…

  1. An Integrated Perspective of Humanism and Supernaturalism for Education: C. S. Lewis's Version of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung Chun

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical reflections on the connection between C. S. Lewis's thoughts on the purpose and process of education and his understanding of supernatural human nature which has been relatively little explored. An introduction about Lewis's career as a college teacher blends into the background of this paper. It is followed by…

  2. Dorothy L. Sayers and C. S. Lewis: Christian Postmodernism beyond Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    Modern critics do not consider science fiction and mystery novels to be "serious reading", but Dorothy L. Sayers and C. S. Lewis questioned the boundaries between "popular" and "serious" literature. Both Christian writers critically discuss the spiritual crisis of the modern world in each fiction genre. This paper will discuss Sayers and Lewis…

  3. 363. A.C.S., Delineator March 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    363. A.C.S., Delineator March 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CONTRACT NO. 6A; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; AMERICAN BRIDGE CO.; AMBRIDGE PLANT; ORDER NO. G4866; SHEET NO E3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 378. A.C.S., Delineator March 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    378. A.C.S., Delineator March 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CONTRACT NO. 6A; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; YERBA BUENA ANCHORAGE & CABLE BENT. AMERICAN BRIDGE CO.; AMBRIDGE PLANT; ORDER NO. G 4866; SHEET NO. E4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Paradise Lost and Found: Obedience, Disobedience, and Storytelling in C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Considers how in the fantasy series "The Chronicles of Narnia" and "His Dark Materials," by C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman respectively, the authors use symbols and themes from "Paradise Lost." Notes that each author's narrative choice uses his view of cosmic order to persuade readers that obedience should be understood as central to coming of age.…

  6. An unidentified absorption in the spectra of C-S stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybski, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    An absorption feature in the low-dispersion red spectrograms of carbon Mira variables and C-S stars shown to exhibit strikingly different behavior in these similarly appearing carbon and carbonlike stars. Evidence is presented that in the carbon Miras the feature may be due to unresolved bandheads of the (0,0) system of calcium iodide. In this group of stars the feature exhibits a temperature sensitivity similar to absorptions due to calcium chloride and to the neutral sodium doublet. No identification is suggested for the feature appearing among the C-S stars, though there is evidence against it being composed partially of a zero-volt line of neutral scandium.

  7. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-8 proposal. - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 c/s/5PCU levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  8. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    One of the most valuable unique characteristics of the PCA is the high count rates (100,000 c/s) it can record, and the resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our Cycle-1 work on Sco X-1 has shown that performing high count rate observations is very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 100,000 c/s levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of-the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  9. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2&3 proposal. - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our Cycle 1-3 work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 100,000 c/s levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  10. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-5 proposal. - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 100,000 c/s levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  11. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    RESUBMISSION ACCEPTED CYCLE 2 PROPOSAL - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our Cycle 1&2 work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 has shown that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 100,000 c/s levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  12. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2,3&4 proposal. - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our Cycle 1-3 work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 100,000 c/s levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  13. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-7 proposal. - The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 c/s/5PCU levels. When this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state-of- the-art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Thioetherification of Quinolone Derivatives via Decarboxylative C-S Cross-Couplings.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chengcai; Wei, Zhenjiang; Yang, Yong; Yu, Wenbo; Liao, Hanxiao; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Pengfei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and practical procedure for palladium-catalyzed direct thioetherification of quinolone derivatives with diaryl disulfides through decarboxylative C-S coupling has been established. The reaction could proceed smoothly under air in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and Ag2 CO3 in DMSO. This protocol provides an appealing alternative to existing approaches to construct aryl sulfides of quinolone derivatives, which may be used as key intermediates in the synthesis of drug candidates.

  15. Sulfide synthesis through copper-catalyzed C-S bond formation under biomolecule-compatible conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Xiaomei; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2015-01-18

    We report here an efficient and mild method for constructing C-S bonds. The reactions were carried out with Na2S2O3 as a sulfurating reagent, CuSO4 as a catalyst, and water as solvent without any surfactant. The products were achieved in moderate to excellent yields at room temperature under air. Notably, this reaction is compatible with various biomolecules including amino acids, oligosaccharides, nucleosides, proteins, and cell lysates. PMID:25435202

  16. Effect of hydration on the dielectric properties of C-S-H gel.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Silvina; Arrese-Igor, Silvia; Dolado, Jorge S; Gaitero, Juan J; Alegría, Angel; Colmenero, Juan

    2011-01-21

    The behavior of water dynamics confined in hydrated calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel has been investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS; 10(-2)-10(6) Hz) in the low-temperature range (110-250 K). Different water contents in C-S-H gel were explored (from 6 to 15 wt%) where water remains amorphous for all the studied temperatures. Three relaxation processes were found by BDS (labeled 1 to 3 from the fastest to the slowest), two of them reported here for the first time. We show that a strong change in the dielectric relaxation of C-S-H gel occurs with increasing hydration, especially at a hydration level in which a monolayer of water around the basic units of cement materials is predicted by different structural models. Below this hydration level both processes 2 and 3 have an Arrhenius temperature dependence. However, at higher hydration level, a non-Arrhenius behavior temperature dependence for process 3 over the whole accessible temperature range and, a crossover from low-temperature Arrhenius to high-temperature non-Arrhenius behavior for process 2 are observed. Characteristics of these processes will be discussed in this work.

  17. Structural insights into catalysis by βC-S lyase from Streptococcus anginosus.

    PubMed

    Kezuka, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nonaka, Takamasa

    2012-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a causative agent of oral malodor and may play an important role in the pathogenicity of oral bacteria such as Streptococcus anginosus. In this microorganism, H(2)S production is associated with βC-S lyase (Lcd) encoded by lcd gene, which is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the α,β-elimination of sulfur-containing amino acids. When Lcd acts on L-cysteine, H(2)S is produced along with pyruvate and ammonia. To understand the H(2)S-producing mechanism of Lcd in detail, we determined the crystal structures of substrate-free Lcd (internal aldimine form) and two reaction intermediate complexes (external aldimine and α-aminoacrylate forms). The formation of intermediates induced little changes in the overall structure of the enzyme and in the active site residues, with the exception of Lys234, a PLP-binding residue. Structural and mutational analyses highlighted the importance of the active site residues Tyr60, Tyr119, and Arg365. In particular, Tyr119 forms a hydrogen bond with the side chain oxygen atom of L-serine, a substrate analog, in the external aldimine form suggesting its role in the recognition of the sulfur atom of the true substrate (L-cysteine). Tyr119 also plays a role in fixing the PLP cofactor at the proper position during catalysis through binding with its side chain. Finally, we partly modified the catalytic mechanism known for cystalysin, a βC-S lyase from Treponema denticola, and proposed an improved mechanism, which seems to be common to the βC-S lyases from oral bacteria.

  18. The embodiment of value: C.S. Sherrington and the cultivation of science.

    PubMed

    Smith, R

    2000-09-01

    The paper examines the ruputation of C.S. Sherrington as both eminent physiologist and eminent representative of scientific culture. It describes Sherrington's 'figurehead' status. In his career, research and personal manner, he embodied a life of science, not only in opposition to humanistic values but in fact appearing to be the highest achievement of those values. An analysis of Sherrington's research, of his lectures on Man on His Nature and of his poetry supports this account. The paper uses Sherrington's reputation to describe the values of an establishment group of English-speaking scientists and physicians in the 1930s and 1940s.

  19. [Design of Balance Function Telerehabilitation System Based on C/S].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulin; Zhang, Jiaojiao; An, Meijun; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    This article shows a new design of telerehabilitation system for balance function assessment and training in our laboratory. The system is based on C/S network architecture, and realizes the telecommunication through socket network communication technology. It implements the teletransmission of training data and assessment report of sit-down and stand-up, online communication between doctors and patients, and doctors'management of patient information. This system realizes remote evaluation and telerehabilitation of patients, and brings great convenience for the patients.

  20. Soil arsenic contamination in the Cape Region, B.C.S., Mexico.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Pulido, A; Romero-Schmidt, H; Mendez-Rodriguez, L; Acosta-Vargas, B; Ortega-Rubio, A

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated the content of arsenic in soils of an abandoned mining zone in the Cape Region, B.C.S. During June to August 1997, we were in the field sampling these soils. The concentration of arsenic was determined using the Chapman and Parket techniques. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA tests. Our results indicate that all the soils sampled in the region exceed the environmental limit (2 mg/K) established by Galvan and Corey (1987). According to the data found the more probable cause of this soil arsenic contamination is the rainy runoff.

  1. The selectionist meaning of C. S. Peirce and B. F. Skinner

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2002-01-01

    The selectionist meaning of C. S. Peirce and B. F. Skinner, which has an empirical existence, is advanced against essentialist meaning, which does not. Against a tradition that advocates essentialist meanings, the development of selectionist meaning is traced from Darwin through Peirce and on to Skinner. The views of Peirce and Skinner on meaning are presented as sharing a compatible conceptual foundation with contrasting but complementary distinctions. Support for selectionist meaning comes from contemporary dictionary construction, pragmatist philosophers, and recent views of scientific verbal behavior. Some implications are discussed. PMID:22477230

  2. The embodiment of value: C.S. Sherrington and the cultivation of science.

    PubMed

    Smith, R

    2000-09-01

    The paper examines the ruputation of C.S. Sherrington as both eminent physiologist and eminent representative of scientific culture. It describes Sherrington's 'figurehead' status. In his career, research and personal manner, he embodied a life of science, not only in opposition to humanistic values but in fact appearing to be the highest achievement of those values. An analysis of Sherrington's research, of his lectures on Man on His Nature and of his poetry supports this account. The paper uses Sherrington's reputation to describe the values of an establishment group of English-speaking scientists and physicians in the 1930s and 1940s. PMID:11624665

  3. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  4. Asm-Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-9 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100,000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life og the satallire probably only one black-hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5PCU levels. when this occurs, a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crucial aspects of the source variability.

  5. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Klis, Michiel

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-10 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  6. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2008-10-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS

  7. KIF5C S176 Phosphorylation Regulates Microtubule Binding and Transport Efficiency in Mammalian Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Padzik, Artur; Deshpande, Prasannakumar; Hollos, Patrik; Franker, Mariella; Rannikko, Emmy H.; Cai, Dawen; Prus, Piotr; Mågård, Mats; Westerlund, Nina; Verhey, Kristen J.; James, Peter; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Coffey, Eleanor T.

    2016-01-01

    Increased phosphorylation of the KIF5 anterograde motor is associated with impaired axonal transport and neurodegeneration, but paradoxically also with normal transport, though the details are not fully defined. JNK phosphorylates KIF5C on S176 in the motor domain; a site that we show is phosphorylated in brain. Microtubule pelleting assays demonstrate that phosphomimetic KIF5C(1-560)S176D associates weakly with microtubules compared to KIF5C(1-560)WT. Consistent with this, 50% of KIF5C(1-560)S176D shows diffuse movement in neurons. However, the remaining 50% remains microtubule bound and displays decreased pausing and increased bidirectional movement. The same directionality switching is observed with KIF5C(1-560)WT in the presence of an active JNK chimera, MKK7-JNK. Yet, in cargo trafficking assays where peroxisome cargo is bound, KIF5C(1-560)S176D-GFP-FRB transports normally to microtubule plus ends. We also find that JNK increases the ATP hydrolysis of KIF5C in vitro. These data suggest that phosphorylation of KIF5C-S176 primes the motor to either disengage entirely from microtubule tracks as previously observed in response to stress, or to display improved efficiency. The final outcome may depend on cargo load and motor ensembles. PMID:27013971

  8. Sphalerite geobarometry of deformed sulphide ores from the C. S. A. Mine, Cobar, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangameshwar, S. R.; Marshall, B.

    1980-12-01

    The C. S. A. Mine is located near Cobar, central New South Wales. The copper-zinc-lead ores occur in Early Devonian rocks of the Cobar Super-Group. Lower greenschist (“slate-grade”) metamorphism has developed elongate lenticular ore systems parallel to the extension (down-dip) lineation in cleavage. FeS contents of sphalerites coexisting with pyrite and pyrrhotite outside and inside pressure shadows indicate much higher pressures (7.7 to 9.0 kbar) than those inferred from stratigraphic reasoning and the low metamorphic grade. The homogeneous distribution of Fe in sphalerites suggests equilibration with pyrite-pyrrhotite; and concentrations of Co and Ni in iron sulphides, and Mn, Cd and Cu in sphalerite are too low to have influenced phase relations in the FeS-ZnS pseudobinary system. The anomalously high pressures are therefore ascribed to reequilibration of sphalerite compositions with a monoclinic pyrrhotite-pyrite buffer. The FeS contents of the reequilibrated sphalerites apparently reflect the differing mean stress domains that exist outside and inside pressure shadows. This suggests that reequilibration occurred under the same stress distribution as produced the original pressure shadows, and implies FeS dissolution during the decay of the cleavage-producing structuro-metamorphic event. The commonly observed scatter of sphalerite compositions in low grade assemblages appears to record micro-scale mean stress domains, and thereby testifies to the pressure sensitivity of the mole percent FeS contents.

  9. High Performance C/S Composite Cathodes with Conventional Carbonate-Based Electrolytes in Li-S Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiyou; Han, Pan; Han, Zhuo; Zhang, Huijuan; Tang, Zhihong; Yang, Junhe

    2014-04-01

    High stable C/S composites are fabricated by a novel high-temperature sulfur infusion into micro-mesoporous carbon method following with solvent cleaning treatment. The C/S composite cathodes show high Coulombic efficiency, long cycling stability and good rate capability in the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC (1:1 v/v), for instance, the reversible capacity of the treated C/S-50 (50% S) cathode retains around 860 mAh/g even after 500 cycles and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100%, which demonstrates the best electrochemical performance of carbon-sulfur composite cathodes using the carbonate-based electrolyte reported to date. It is believed that the chemical bond of C-S is responsible for the superior electrochemical properties in Li-S battery, that is, the strong interaction between S and carbon matrix significantly improves the conductivity of S, effectively buffers the structural strain/stress caused by the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation, completely eliminates the formation of high-order polysulfide intermediates, and substantially avoids the shuttle reaction and the side reaction between polysulfide anions and carbonate solvent, and thus enables the C/S cathode to use conventional carbonate-based electrolytes and achieve outstanding electrochemical properties in Li-S battery. The results may substantially contribute to the progress of the Li-S battery technology.

  10. High Performance C/S Composite Cathodes with Conventional Carbonate-Based Electrolytes in Li-S Battery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiyou; Han, Pan; Han, Zhuo; Zhang, Huijuan; Tang, Zhihong; Yang, Junhe

    2014-01-01

    High stable C/S composites are fabricated by a novel high-temperature sulfur infusion into micro-mesoporous carbon method following with solvent cleaning treatment. The C/S composite cathodes show high Coulombic efficiency, long cycling stability and good rate capability in the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC (1:1 v/v), for instance, the reversible capacity of the treated C/S-50 (50% S) cathode retains around 860 mAh/g even after 500 cycles and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100%, which demonstrates the best electrochemical performance of carbon-sulfur composite cathodes using the carbonate-based electrolyte reported to date. It is believed that the chemical bond of C-S is responsible for the superior electrochemical properties in Li-S battery, that is, the strong interaction between S and carbon matrix significantly improves the conductivity of S, effectively buffers the structural strain/stress caused by the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation, completely eliminates the formation of high-order polysulfide intermediates, and substantially avoids the shuttle reaction and the side reaction between polysulfide anions and carbonate solvent, and thus enables the C/S cathode to use conventional carbonate-based electrolytes and achieve outstanding electrochemical properties in Li-S battery. The results may substantially contribute to the progress of the Li-S battery technology. PMID:24776750

  11. Ransom, Religion, and Red Giants: C.S. Lewis and Fred Hoyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Famed fantasy writer C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) was known to friends as a well-read astronomy aficionado. However, this medieval scholar and Christian apologist embraced a pre-Copernican universe (with its astrological overtones) in his Chronicles of Narnia series and defended the beauty and relevance of the geocentric model in his final academic work, "The Discarded Image". In the "Ransom Trilogy” ("Out of the Silent Planet", "Perelandra", and "That Hideous Strength") philologist Ransom (loosely based on Lewis's close friend J.R.R. Tolkien) travels to Lewis's visions of Mars and Venus, where he interacts with intelligent extraterrestrials, battles with evil scientists, and aids in the continuation of extraterrestrial Christian values. In the final book, Ransom is joined by a handful of colleagues in open warfare against the satanic N.I.C.E. (National Institute for Coordinated Experiments). Geneticist and evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane criticized Lewis for his scientifically inaccurate descriptions of the planets, and his disdain for the scientific establishment. Lewis responded to the criticism in essays of his own. Another of Lewis's favorite scientific targets was atheist Fred Hoyle, whom he openly criticized for anti-Christian statements in Hoyle's BBC radio series. Writer and Lewis friend Dorothy L. Sayers voiced her own criticism of Hoyle. In a letter, Lewis dismissed Hoyle as "not a great philosopher (and none of my scientific colleagues think much of him as a scientist.” Given Lewis's lack of respect for Hoyle, and use of creative license in describing the planets, and the flat-earth, "geocentric” Narnia, it is surprising that Lewis very carefully includes an astronomically correct description of red giants in two novels in the Narnia series ("The Magician's Nephew" and "The Last Battle"). This inclusion is even more curious given that Fred Hoyle is well-known as one of the pioneers in the field of stellar death and the properties of red giants.

  12. A soft matter in construction - Statistical physics approach to formation and mechanics of C-S-H gels in cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gado, E.; Ioannidou, K.; Masoero, E.; Baronnet, A.; Pellenq, R. J.-M.; Ulm, F.-J.; Yip, S.

    2014-10-01

    Calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main binding agent in cement and concrete. It forms at the beginning of cement hydration, it progressively densifies as cement hardens and is ultimately responsible of concrete performances. This hydration product is a cohesive nano-scale gel, whose structure and mechanics are still poorly understood, in spite of its practical importance. Here we review some of the open questions for this fascinating material and a statistical physics approach recently developed, which allows us to investigate the gel formation under the out-of-equilibrium conditions typical of cement hydration and the role of the nano-scale structure in C-S-H mechanics upon hardening. Our approach unveils how some distinctive features of the kinetics of cement hydration can be related to changes in the morphology of the gels and elucidates the role of nano-scale mechanical heterogeneities in the hardened C-S-H.

  13. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction. PMID:26149121

  14. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate.

    PubMed

    Song, Heng; Hu, Wen; Naowarojna, Nathchar; Her, Ampon Sae; Wang, Shu; Desai, Rushil; Qin, Li; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Pinghua

    2015-01-01

    Ergothioneine is a histidine thio-derivative isolated in 1909. In ergothioneine biosynthesis, the combination of a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxidative C-S bond formation reaction and a PLP-mediated C-S lyase (EgtE) reaction results in a net sulfur transfer from cysteine to histidine side-chain. This demonstrates a new sulfur transfer strategy in the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing natural products. Due to difficulties associated with the overexpression of Mycobacterium smegmatis EgtE protein, the proposed EgtE functionality remained to be verified biochemically. In this study, we have successfully overexpressed and purified M. smegmatis EgtE enzyme and evaluated its activities under different in vitro conditions: C-S lyase reaction using either thioether or sulfoxide as a substrate in the presence or absence of reductants. Results from our biochemical characterizations support the assignment of sulfoxide 4 as the native EgtE substrate and the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate in the ergothioneine C-S lyase reaction.

  15. The C-S-H gel of Portland cement mortars: Part I. The interpretation of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses from scanning electron microscopy, with some observations on C-S-H, AFm and AFt phase compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Famy, C.; Brough, A.R.; Taylor, H.F.W

    2003-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel in Portland cement pastes rarely represent single phases. Essential experimental requirements are summarised and new procedures for interpreting the data are described. These include, notably, plots of Si/Ca against other atom ratios, 3D plots to allow three such ratios to be correlated and solution of linear simultaneous equations to test and quantify hypotheses regarding the phases contributing to individual microanalyses. Application of these methods to the C-S-H gel of a 1-day-old mortar identified a phase with Al/Ca=0.67 and S/Ca=0.33, which we consider to be a highly substituted ettringite of probable composition C{sub 6}A{sub 2}S-bar{sub 2}H{sub 34} or {l_brace}Ca{sub 6}[Al(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O{r_brace}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 4}]{sub 2}. If this is true for Portland cements in general, it might explain observed discrepancies between observed and calculated aluminate concentrations in the pore solution. The C-S-H gel of a similar mortar aged 600 days contained unsubstituted ettringite and an AFm phase with S/Ca=0.125.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Assembled C/S Cathode with Trace Binder for Li-S Battery Application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yan, Na; Wang, Meiri; Qu, Chao; Yang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-11-18

    The C/S cathode with only 0.5 wt % binder, composed with Nafion and PVP, was assembled layer-by-layer for lithium-sulfur battery (Li-S) application. It achieved excellent binding strength and battery performance compared to the cathode with 10 wt % PVDF, which is promising to further increase the practical energy density of Li-S batteries. PMID:26541216

  17. C/S algorithm based on properties of dual-polarization radar measurements derived from disdrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Roberto, Nicoletta; Russo, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    The paper proposes a convective/stratiform (C/S) classification algorithm based on dual-polarization radar measurements obtained from disdrometer measurements through an electromagnetic scattering/extinction model. The drop size distributions, collected by a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) installed in Rome during HyMeX SOP1, have been used to define the algorithm, and the C-band radar measurements, collected by a Polar 55C, have been analyzed to assess the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Copper-Catalyzed Domino Synthesis of 2-Arylthiochromanones through Concomitant C-S Bond Formations Using Xanthate as Sulfur Source.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Subramani; Muthupandi, Pandi; Sekar, Govindasamy

    2015-12-18

    An efficient domino process for the synthesis of thioflavanones has been described using a copper catalyst without addition of any external ligand. A variety of thioflavanones have been synthesized from easily accessible 2'-iodochalcones or 2'-bromochalcones in excellent yield through in situ incorporation of sulfur using xanthate as an odorless sulfur source. This domino process proceeds through Cu-catalyzed C(aryl)-S bond formation by the coupling reaction of xanthate with 2'-halochalcones followed by C-S bond cleavage of thioester then S-C bond formation by intramolecular Michael addition. PMID:26642368

  19. Composition, morphology and nanostructure of C-S-H in 70% white Portland cement-30% fly ash blends hydrated at 55 {sup o}C

    SciTech Connect

    Girao, A.V.; Richardson, I.G.; Taylor, R.; Brydson, R.M.D.

    2010-09-15

    Outer product C-S-H had a mixture of fibrillar and foil-like morphology in a 28-day-old water-activated paste, and foil- or lath-like morphology in an alkali-activated paste. It was not possible to determine the chemical composition of C-S-H using SEM-EDX because of fine-scale intermixing with other phases; TEM-EDX was necessary. The C-S-H formed in the alkali-activated paste had a lower mean Ca/(Al + Si) ratio than that formed with water. The mean length of the aluminosilicate anions in the C-S-H was similar in both systems and increased with age; those in the Op C-S-H were likely to be shorter than those present in the Ip C-S-H with water activation, but longer (and more protonated) with alkali. The potassium in the alkali-activated paste was present either within the C-S-H structure charge balancing the substitution of Al{sup 3+} for Si{sup 4+}, or adsorbed on the C-S-H charge balancing sulfate ions.

  20. Structural characterization of C-S-H and C-A-S-H samples-Part II: Local environment investigated by spectroscopic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Renaudin, Guillaume; Russias, Julie; Leroux, Fabrice; Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine; Frizon, Fabien

    2009-12-15

    Spectroscopic studies ({sup 1}H, {sup 23}Na and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy) have been used to characterize three series of C-S-H samples (0.8C-S-H series, one aluminum inserted C-S-H series (named C-A-S-H series), and one sodium and aluminum inserted C-S-H series (named C-N-A-S-H series). Previous Rietveld analyses have been performed on the two first series and have clearly shown that (1) a unique 'tobermorite M defect' structural model allows to describe the C-S-H structure whatever the Ca/Si ratio and (2) the insertion of aluminum into the C-S-H structure led to the degradation of the crystallinity and to a systematic increase of the basal spacing of about 2 A regardless the Ca/(Si+Al) ratio (at a constant Al/Si ratio of 0.1). Spectroscopic investigations indicate that the main part of the Al atoms is readily incorporated into the interlayer region of the C-S-H structure. Al atoms are mainly inserted as four-fold coordinated aluminates in the dreierketten silicate chain (either in bridging or paired tetrahedra) at low Ca/Si ratio. Four-fold aluminates are progressively replaced by six-fold coordinated aluminates located into the interlayer region of the C-S-H structure and bonded to silicate chains. Investigation of the hydrogen bonding in C-S-H indicates that the main part of the hydrogen bonds is intra-main layer, and thus explains the low stacking cohesion of the C-S-H structure leading to its nanometric crystal size and the OD character of the tobermorite like structures. - Graphical abstract: The insertion of aluminum atoms into the C-S-H structure has been investigated by spectroscopic analyses ({sup 27}Al and {sup 1}H MAS NMR and Raman). The previously determined structural continuity, when increasing the C/S ratio from the C-S-H(I) type to the C-S-H(II) type, has been confirmed even in the presence of aluminum.

  1. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 < C/S/TiO2 < Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization.

  2. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 < C/S/TiO2 < Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization. PMID:27333563

  3. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-01-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g(-1) (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm(-2), and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg(-1) (654 Wh L(-1)), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application. PMID:26456914

  4. Transition metal-catalyzed C-C bond formation via C-S bond cleavage: an overview.

    PubMed

    Modha, Sachin G; Mehta, Vaibhav P; Van der Eycken, Erik V

    2013-06-21

    Transition metal-catalyzed C-C bond formations have been well studied over the last four decades. An improved mechanistic understanding of such reactions has helped chemists to develop further improvements, modifications and even new reactions. In the area of transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions the C-S bond cleaving reactions have attracted a lot of attention in the last decade as they provide a good alternative to the use of organo-halide reagents in traditional cross-coupling reactions. The availability of a wide range of organo-sulfur species provides the opportunity for developing different transformations for the synthesis of interesting organic compounds. This tutorial review focuses on recent examples of the transition metal-catalyzed C-C bond forming reactions using organo-sulfur species.

  5. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-01-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g−1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm−2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg−1 (654 Wh L−1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application. PMID:26456914

  6. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-10-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g-1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm-2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg-1 (654 Wh L-1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application.

  7. ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.

  8. Synthesis and nano-mechanical characterization of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) made with 1.5 CaO/SiO{sub 2} mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Emmy M.; Kim, Jung J.; Reda Taha, M.M.

    2012-09-15

    In this study, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is synthesized and characterized. C-S-H slurry was made with calcium oxide (CaO) to micro-silica (SiO{sub 2}) mixture ratio of 1.5 and enough deionized water. The slurry was continuously mixed for 7 days, then the excess water was removed. Two methods of drying were implemented: one method used the standard d-dry technique and the other was equilibrated to 11% relative humidity (RH). The dried powders were characterized using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA), and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The stoichiometric formulas of synthetic C-S-H powders dried to d-dry and 11% RH in this study were approximated as C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 0.7} and C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 2.4} respectively. The powders were then compacted to create specimens with porosities similar to C-S-H in hydrated cement. The specimens underwent nanoindentation to mechanically characterize C-S-H. The experiments provide insight on the nanoscale mechanical characteristics of C-S-H.

  9. C-S barrier and vibrational analyses of (halocarbonyl)sulfenyl halides XCO-SX (X = F, Cl, and Br).

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M

    2004-09-01

    The structural stability of (halocarbonyl)sulfenyl halides XCO-SX (X is F, Cl, and Br) was investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 calculations using 6-311 + G(**) basis set. From the calculations the molecules were found to exist predominantly in the trans conformation (two halogen atoms are trans to each other). Full energy optimizations were carried out for the minima and the transition states (TS) at the two levels, from which the rotational barriers about C-S bond in the three molecules were calculated to be about 12-13 kcal mol(-1). The vibrational frequencies of (fluorocarbonyl)sulfenyl fluoride (FCO-SF), (chlorocarbonyl)-sulfenyl chloride (ClCO-SCl), and (bromocarbonyl)-sulfenyl bromide (BrCO-SBr) were computed at the DFT-B3LYP level and the vibrational assignments for the normal modes of the stable forms of the compounds were made on the basis of normal coordinate calculations and experimental data of the chloride.

  10. Metatranscriptomic evidence of pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophy relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Talia N M; Karaoz, Ulas; Brodie, Eoin L; Williams, Kenneth H; Beller, Harry R

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are conventionally thought to be fueled by surface-derived allochthonous organic matter and dominated by heterotrophic microbes living under often-oligotrophic conditions. However, in a 2-month study of nitrate amendment to a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO), strain-resolved metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophic bacterial activity relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling. Before nitrate injection, anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria accounted for 16% of overall microbial community gene expression, whereas during the nitrate injection, two other groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria collectively accounted for 80% of the metatranscriptome: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Notably, the proportion of the metatranscriptome accounted for by these three groups was considerably greater than the proportion of the metagenome coverage that they represented. Transcriptional analysis revealed some unexpected metabolic couplings, in particular, putative nitrate-dependent Fe(II) and S oxidation among nominally microaerophilic Gallionellaceae strains, including expression of periplasmic (NapAB) and membrane-bound (NarGHI) nitrate reductases. The three most active groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in this study had overlapping metabolisms that allowed them to occupy different yet related metabolic niches throughout the study. Overall, these results highlight the important role that chemolithoautotrophy can have in aquifer biogeochemical cycling, a finding that has broad implications for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling and is supported by recent studies of geochemically diverse aquifers. PMID:26943628

  11. Coupled C-S-Fe geochemistry in a rapidly accumulating marine sedimentary system: Diagenetic and depositional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peketi, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Joao, H. M.; Patil, D. J.; Usapkar, A.; Dewangan, P.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the C-S-Fe systematics in a sediment core (MD161-13) from the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, Bay of Bengal. The core covers the late Holocene period with high overall sedimentation rate of ˜573 cm kyr-1. Pore fluid chemical analyses indicate that the depth of the present sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) is at ˜6 mbsf. The (ΔTA + ΔCa + ΔMg)/ΔSO42- ratios suggest that both organoclastic degradation and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) drive sulfate reduction at the study site. The positive correlation between total organic carbon content (TOC) and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) content indicates marked influence of organoclastic sulfate reduction on sulfidization. Coupled occurrence of 34S-enriched iron sulfide (pyrite) with 12C-enriched authigenic carbonate zones is the possible records of paleo-sulfate methane transition zones where AOM-driven-focused sulfate reduction was likely fueled by sustained high methane flux from underlying gas-rich zone. Aluminum normalized poorly reactive iron (FePR/Al) and La/Yb ratios suggest increasing contribution from Deccan basalts relative to that of Archean-Proterozoic granitic complex in sediment flux of Krishna-Godavari basin during the last 4 kyr.

  12. Solid-phase cyclopalladation in S,C,S'-pincer systems: rising alternative for synthesis in solution.

    PubMed

    Aleksanyan, Diana V; Klemenkova, Zinaida S; Vasil'ev, Andrei A; Gorenberg, Arkadii Ya; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Kozlov, Vladimir A

    2015-02-21

    In pursuit of a new and simple approach to complex organometallic systems, the possibility of formation of a palladium-carbon bond in the solid state via direct cyclopalladation has been studied toward several S,C,S'-pincer ligands with thione sulfur donors of different nature. It is found that mixtures of the ligand and PdCl2(NCPh)2 obtained by the manual grinding of reactants in a mortar efficiently undergo solid-phase cyclometalation upon heating in open test tubes without the addition of a solvent to afford the desired pincer-type products in high yields. In the case of the most active bis(thiocarbamoyl) ligand, solid-phase cyclopalladation proceeds even at room temperature. For the challenging bis(thiophosphoryl) derivative, the preformed non-metallated complexes can be successfully used as a starting material to essentially enhance the yield of the desired pincer complex compared to the conventional synthesis in solution. The solid-phase transformation is followed by IR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. The results obtained show that the suggested solid-phase methodology can serve as a powerful alternative to conventional synthesis of pincer complexes in solution.

  13. Metatranscriptomic evidence of pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophy relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling in a shallow alluvial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Talia N M; Karaoz, Ulas; Brodie, Eoin L; Williams, Kenneth H; Beller, Harry R

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are conventionally thought to be fueled by surface-derived allochthonous organic matter and dominated by heterotrophic microbes living under often-oligotrophic conditions. However, in a 2-month study of nitrate amendment to a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO), strain-resolved metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophic bacterial activity relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling. Before nitrate injection, anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria accounted for 16% of overall microbial community gene expression, whereas during the nitrate injection, two other groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria collectively accounted for 80% of the metatranscriptome: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Notably, the proportion of the metatranscriptome accounted for by these three groups was considerably greater than the proportion of the metagenome coverage that they represented. Transcriptional analysis revealed some unexpected metabolic couplings, in particular, putative nitrate-dependent Fe(II) and S oxidation among nominally microaerophilic Gallionellaceae strains, including expression of periplasmic (NapAB) and membrane-bound (NarGHI) nitrate reductases. The three most active groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in this study had overlapping metabolisms that allowed them to occupy different yet related metabolic niches throughout the study. Overall, these results highlight the important role that chemolithoautotrophy can have in aquifer biogeochemical cycling, a finding that has broad implications for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling and is supported by recent studies of geochemically diverse aquifers. PMID:26943628

  14. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  15. Metatranscriptomic Evidence of Chemolithoautotrophy in the Rifle (CO) Subsurface Relevant to C, S, N, and Fe Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, H. R.; Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Although there is a limited understanding of the chemolithoautotrophic activity of aquifer microorganisms, such subsurface microbial activity could greatly influence the cycling of elements such as C, S, N, and Fe. Here, we present transcriptional (RNA-Seq) evidence of the emergence of such chemolithoautotrophic activities in groundwater filter samples from a 2-month experiment in which up to 1.5 mM nitrate (a native electron acceptor) was injected into a perennially suboxic/anoxic aquifer (Rifle, CO) containing a large reservoir of reduced Fe- and S-containing compounds. Illumina sequence data from rRNA-subtracted cDNA libraries was assembled and mapped to phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome data. Indicative of the activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, many high-abundance transcripts mapped to the Gallionellaceae family, whose known members are chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that catalyze Fe(II) oxidation. For example, included among the most abundant transcripts were a cold-shock protein and an acyl carrier protein with 96-98% protein sequence identity to Gallionella capsiferriformans and a nitrite reductase (nirS) gene likely belonging to a Sideroxydans relative. The apparent activity of Gallionellaceae members is consistent with 16S rRNA iTag analyses of these samples, which indicated that Gallionella-related taxa accounted for up to ~50% of these communities. Evidence of sulfide oxidation also was apparent in these samples. For example, highly expressed subunits of APS reductase were very similar to those of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic S- and Fe(II)-oxidizing Thiobacillus denitrificans in terms of sequence identity (98-99%) and synteny of the mapped scaffold. Also highly expressed were a ß-Proteobacterial Form II RubisCO gene and a hydrazine oxidoreductase gene (93% identity to the planctomycete KSU-1), the latter strongly indicative of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity, which has seldom been reported in aquifer environments. Such

  16. Hydrodesulfurization on Transition Metal Catalysts: Elementary Steps of C-S Bond Activation and Consequences of Bifunctional Synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yik, Edwin Shyn-Lo

    The presence of heteroatoms (e.g. S, N) in crude oil poses formidable challenges in petroleum refining processes as a result of their irreversible binding on catalytically active sites at industrially relevant conditions. With increasing pressures from legislation that continues to lower the permissible levels of sulfur content in fuels, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), the aptly named reaction for removing heteroatoms from organosulfur compounds, has become an essential feedstock pretreatment step to remove deleterious species from affecting downstream processing. Extensive research in the area has identified the paradigm catalysts for desulfurization; MoSx or WSx, promoted with Co or Ni metal; however, despite the vast library of both empirical and fundamental studies, a clear understanding of site requirements, the elementary steps of C-S hydrogenolysis, and the properties that govern HDS reactivity and selectivity have been elusive. While such a lack of rigorous assessments has not prevented technological advancements in the field of HDS catalysis, fundamental interpretations can inform rational catalyst and process design, particularly in light of new requirements for "deep" desulfurization and in the absence of significant hydrotreatment catalyst developments in recent decades. We report HDS rates of thiophene, which belongs to a class of compounds that are most resistant to sulfur removal (i.e. substituted alkyldibenzothiophenes), over a range of industrially relevant temperatures and pressures, measured at differential conditions and therefore revealing their true kinetic origins. These rates, normalized by the number of exposed metal atoms, on various SiO 2-supported, monometallic transition metals (Re, Ru, Pt), range several orders of magnitude. Under relevant HDS conditions, Pt and Ru catalysts form a layer of chemisorbed sulfur on surfaces of a metallic bulk, challenging reports that assume the latter exists as its pyrite sulfide phase during reaction. While

  17. Newspaper Fundamentals for Student Publications and the Official C.S.P.A. Scorebooks for Newspapers, News-Magazines, Pages in Daily Papers and Departmental Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Lambert, Ed.

    This scorebook summarizes the fundamentals of journalism as they apply to student publications and outlines established practices and techniques essential in the production of a good newspaper. The Columbia Scholastic Press Association (C.S.P.A.) has reduced to a 1000-point scoring system the fundamental objective factors of basic…

  18. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Özer, Mehmet; Yaylak, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA) patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S) with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP). Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient. PMID:27006853

  19. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Özer, Mehmet; Yaylak, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA) patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S) with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP). Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient. PMID:27006853

  20. A Comparison of Positive Outcome Expectancies: A Review of the Theories of M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, M. E. P. Seligman, and C. R. Snyder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, William A.

    Research has shown that optimistic and pessimistic outcome expectancy evaluations are associated with adaptive and maladaptive levels of psychological functioning, physical wellness, and health recovery issues. The research of M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, M. E. P. Seligman, and C. R. Snyder supports the hypothesis that elevated optimism or…

  1. Photosensitized oxidation of aryl benzyl sulfoxides. Evidence for nucleophilic assistance to the C-s bond cleavage of aryl benzyl sulfoxide radical cations.

    PubMed

    Del Giacco, Tiziana; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Mazzonna, Marco; Mencarelli, Paolo

    2015-02-20

    The radical cations of a series of aryl benzyl sulfoxides (4-X-C6H4CH2SOC6H4Y(+•)) have been generated by photochemical oxidation of the parent sulfoxides sensitized by 3-cyano-N-methylquinolinium perchlorate (3-CN-NMQ(+)ClO4(-)). Steady-state photolysis experiments showed the prevailing formation of benzylic products deriving from the C-S fragmentation in the radical cations, together with sulfur-containing products. Formation of sulfoxide radical cations was unequivocally established by laser flash photolysis experiments showing the absorption bands of 3-CN-NMQ(•) (λmax = 390 nm) and of the radical cations (λmax = 500-620 nm). The decay rate constants of radical cations, determined by LFP experiments, decrease by increasing the electron-donating power of the arylsulfinyl Y substituent and to a smaller extent by increasing the electron-withdrawing power of the benzylic X substituent. A solvent nucleophilic assistance to the C-S bond cleavage has been suggested, supported by the comparison of substituent effects on the same process occurring in aryl tert-butyl sulfoxide radical cations. DFT calculations, performed to determine the bond dissociation free energy in the radical cations, the transition state energies associated with the unimolecular C-S bond cleavage, and the charge and spin delocalized on their structures, were also useful to endorse the nucleophilic assistance to the C-S scission.

  2. The N-H, N-D and C=S stretching regions in the infrared spectrum of thiosaccharin : Comparison with the spectrum of saccharin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupče, O.; Jovanovski, G.; Šoptrajanov, B.

    1993-03-01

    The infrared spectra of the protiated and partially deuterated samples of 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-thione 1,1-dioxide (known as thiosaccharin) in the N-H, N-D and C=S stretching regions were studied. The spectral features were correlated with the structural data obtained by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  3. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Oscar; Giraldo, Carolina; Camargo, Sergio S.

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  4. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  5. An investigation of the structure and phase relations of C-S-H gels. Final report, August 15, 1991--September 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, M.W.; Benesi, A.

    1997-12-14

    Solid state NMR was used to obtain data on the atomic level structure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that formed from a variety of starting materials under a variety of conditions. Because C-S-H is the major component of hydrated portland cement, a knowledge of its structure and of its structural evolution will ultimately allow users of cement containing materials such as mortars and concrete to more accurately predict the physical and mechanical behavior of these materials once they are placed into service. From the outset, the goal of the work was to observe the hydration process on the atomic level, integrate the findings with existing data in the literature, and refine hydration models as necessary to accommodate the newly acquired data.

  6. Relevance of thermal effects in the formation of endohedral metallofullerenes: the case of Gd3N@C(s)(39663)-C82 and other related systems.

    PubMed

    Mulet-Gas, Marc; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Echegoyen, Luis; Poblet, Josep M

    2013-02-18

    Thermal contributions to the free energy have to be taken into account to rationalize the formation of Gd(3)N@C(s)(39663)-C(82), a nitride endohedral metallofullerene that shows a carbon cage with two fused pentagons which is not predicted to have the lowest electronic energy among the isomers of C(82). The lower symmetry and the larger number of pyracylene units of C(s)(39663)-C(82) with respect to the cage in the lowest-energy metallofullerene, C(2v)(39705)-C(82), favor its formation at high temperatures, as seen for other similar cage isomers that encapsulate metal clusters within the C(80) and C(82) families. These cages, which share common motifs with the prototypical I(h)(7)-C(80), are all related by C(2) insertions/extrusions and Stone-Wales transformations.

  7. A novel C-S lyase from the latex-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum displays alanine aminotransferase and l-cystine lyase activity.

    PubMed

    Munt, Oliver; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We isolated a novel pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent l-cystine lyase from the dandelion Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Real time qPCR analysis showed that C-S lyase from Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbCSL) mRNA is expressed in all plant tissues, although at relatively low levels in the latex and pedicel. The 1251 bp TbCSL cDNA encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 46,127 kDa. It is homologous to tyrosine and alanine aminotransferases (AlaATs) as well as to an Arabidopsis thaliana carbon-sulfur lyase (C-S lyase) (SUR1), which has a role in glucosinolate metabolism. TbCSL displayed in vitrol-cystine lyase and AlaAT activities of 4 and 19nkatmg(-1) protein, respectively. However, we detected no in vitro tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) activity and RNAi knockdown of the enzyme had no effect on phenotype, showing that TbCSL substrates might be channeled into redundant pathways. TbCSL is in vivo localized in the cytosol and functions as a C-S lyase or an aminotransferase in planta, but the purified enzyme converts at least two substrates specifically, and can thus be utilized for further in vitro applications.

  8. Modifications of the C-S-H gel by hydration at 40{sup o}C of belite cements from coal fly ash class C

    SciTech Connect

    Goni, S.; Guerrero, A.

    2008-01-15

    Abstract: The influence of the temperature on two types of hydrated fly ash belite cement (FABC) pastes were investigated at a nanoscale (1-100 nm) by measuring the specific surface area and pore-size distribution by the sorption isotherms of nitrogen gas and the BET method, and at a microscale from the pore-size distribution measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry. The two belite cements were fabricated by the hydrothermal-calcination route of fly ash class C in NaOH 1M solution (FABC-2-N) and demineralized water (FABC-2-W). In the case of FABC-2-W, a densification of the C-S-H gel was produced at the temperature of 40{sup o}C, which favored the formation of pores about 3 nm in diameter leading to higher surface area values, compared with the C-S-H gel formed at 20{sup o}C. At a microscale, the temperature led to an increase of capillary porosity (>0.05 {mu} m) at a later age of hydration and, consequently, a decrease of compressive mechanical strength. In the case of FABC-2-N, the densification of the gel was less evident, but the increase of capillary porosity (pores of diameter >0.05 {mu} m) was higher. Significant direct linear quantitative correlations were found among these nanostructure characteristics of the C-S-H gel and macrostructural engineering property such as the compressive mechanical strength, for the two FABC-2-W and FABC-2-N cements under normal conditions. At 40{sup o}C, the correlations were not so clear probably due to another microstructural factor such as the increase of the larger capillary porosity (>0.05 {mu} m).

  9. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR).

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10-50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera. PMID:26983801

  10. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10–50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera. PMID:26983801

  11. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10-50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera.

  12. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR).

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10-50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera.

  13. Occurrence of S and F1C/S-related fimbrial determinants and their expression in Escherichia coli strains isolated from extraintestinal infections.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska-Köhler, W; Schönian, G; Bollmann, R; Schubert, A; Parschau, J; Seeberg, A; Presber, W

    1997-05-01

    The presence of S and F1C/S-related fimbrial determinants was determined in 462 E. coli strains obtained from different extraintestinal infections and in 162 control isolates of E. coli by using two different DNA probes: an oligonucleotide probe consisting of three oligonucleotides that bind specifically to the S adhesin gene and a polynucleotide probe which is not able to distinguish between S, F1C, and S-related sequences. The expression of S and F1C phenotypes was tested by dot enzyme immunoassay with the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. S fimbriae genotypes were observed more frequently in septic (25%) and urinary (12%) isolates of E. coli than in faecal and water isolates (1%) and often occurred together with O2, O6, O18 and O83 antigens. F1C/S-related fimbrial DNA was detected with a higher frequency in UTI isolates (26%) than in septic (16%) and faecal (10%) isolates and was most frequently associated with O4, O6, and O75 serotypes. Since the production of S and F1C fimbriae was comparatively rare in all clinical and control isolates of E. coli, DNA hybridization assays which allow the sensitive and specific detection of fimbrial determinants even in the absence of their expression are preferable to phenotypic assays.

  14. Early Permian extensional shearing of an Ordovician granite: The Saint-Eutrope "C/S-like" orthogneiss (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2012-08-01

    Dating the magmatic events in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome is a key point to arbitrate between the different interpretations of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian tectonics in this southern part of the Variscan belt. The Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss crops out along the northern flank of the dome. We show that the protolith of this orthogneiss is an Ordovician granite dated at 455 ± 2 Ma (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on zircon). This age is identical to that previously obtained on the augen orthogneiss of the southern flank, strongly suggesting that both orthogneiss occurrences have the same Ordovician protolith. The Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss experienced intense shearing along the Espinouse extensional detachment at ca. 295 Ma (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb-Th on monazite), an age close to that determined previously on mica by the 39Ar-40Ar method and contemporaneous with the emplacement age of the syntectonic Montalet granite farther to the west. This normal sense shearing reworked previous fabrics related to Variscan thrusting that can be still observed in the augen orthogneiss of the southern flank, and is responsible for the spectacular "C/S-like" pattern of the Saint-Eutrope orthogneiss. This work also shows that care is needed when dealing with C/S-type structures, since they can develop not only in syntectonic intrusions, but also in orthogneisses affected by an intense secondary deformation, at decreasing temperature.

  15. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10–50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera.

  16. D.C.'s Braveheart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Michelle Rhee's style of leadership--as steely as the sound of her peekaboo high heels on a linoleum-tile hallway--which has angered much of Washington, D.C., and baffled the rest since she arrived as schools chancellor in June 2007. But it is also helping her gain control of a school system that has defied management for…

  17. Volatile compounds of sulfur in the Fe-C-S system at 5.3 GPa and 1300°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhimulev, E. I.; Sonin, V. M.; Bul'bak, T. A.; Chepurov, A. I.; Tomilenko, A. A.; Pokhilenko, N. P.

    2015-05-01

    This report presents the results of experimental studies of the fluid phase in the Fe-C-S system at high P and T values (5.3 GPa and 1300°C) conforming to diamond synthesis. The samples for experiments were mounted on air; therefore, the volatile compounds detected after the experiments are characterized by a wide variety and complicated composition involving both inorganic and organic components. Among the inorganic compounds, CO2, H2O, N2, SO2, CS2, and COS were detected. The GC/MS analysis revealed hydrocarbons (paraffins, olefins, and arenes), including high-molecular compounds. The formation of heavy hydrocarbons confirms their thermodynamic stability under high pressure. Oxygenated hydrocarbons (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and ethers) were also detected.

  18. Terminal titanium-ligand multiple bonds. Cleavages of C=O and C=S double bonds with Ti imido complexes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Chang, Jr-Chiuan; Lai, Chun-Liang; Hu, Ching-Han; Lee, Hon Man; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming; Huang, Jui-Hsien

    2004-10-18

    Treatment of (t-)BuN=TiCl(2)Py(3) with 2 equiv lithium ketiminate compound, Li[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)] (where Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl), in toluene at room temperature gave (t-)BuN=Ti[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)](2) (1) in high yield. The reaction of 1 with phenyl isocyanate at room-temperature resulted in imido ligand exchange producing PhN=Ti[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)](2) (2). Compound 1 decomposed at 90 degrees C to form a terminal titanium oxo compound O=Ti[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)](2) (3) and (t-)BuNHCMeCHCMeNAr (4). Also, the compound 3 could be obtained by reacting 1 with CO(2) under mild condition. Similarly, while 1 reacts with an excess of carbon disulfide, a novel terminal titanium sulfido compound S=Ti[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)](2) (5) was formed via a C=S bond breaking reaction. A novel titanium isocyanate compound Ti[OCMeCHCMeN(Ar)](2)(NCO)(OEt) (6) was formed on heating 1 with 1 equiv of urethane, H(2)NCOOEt. Compounds 1-6 have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The molecular structures of 1, 3, 5, and 6 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A theoretical calculation predicted that the cleavage of the C-S double bonds for carbon disulfide with the Ti=N bond of compound 1 was estimated at ca. 21.8 kcal.mol(-1) exothermic.

  19. Geochemical constraints on the stability of zeolites and C-S-H in the high pH reaction of bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Raúl; Rodríguez, Manuel; Villa, Raquel Vigil de la; Cuevas, Jaime

    2010-02-01

    Cement-bentonite interactions will occur in deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste. We performed laboratory experiments in order to constrain some previous geochemical and mineralogical uncertainties in the formation of secondary minerals in the high pH reaction of FEBEX bentonite at moderate temperatures. The reactivity of a Mg-homoionic FEBEX bentonite was studied at 25, 60 and 90 °C in batch reactors using two solutions representative of short and long time evolution stages of cement degradation. These solutions were periodically renewed in order to maintain a constant pH regime for a period of almost 2 years. Chabazite and merlinoite were observed to be the main zeolites that formed at 60 °C, while merlinoite was the dominant zeolite formed at 90 °C with the hyperalkaline (K-Na-OH) solution. The alkaline experiments (Ca-OH solution) showed minor reactivity and negligible mineralogical alteration, but the overall results suggest that the reaction tends to equilibrium conditions between C-S-H and montmorillonite at high temperature and metastable conditions at low temperature. The montmorillonite dissolution rates were calculated for all experiments, showing good agreement with previous calculations.

  20. Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles via Oxidative Heterocyclization: Selective C-N Bond Over C-S Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Anupal; Guin, Srimanta; Rajamanickam, Suresh; Rout, Saroj Kumar; Patel, Bhisma K

    2015-09-18

    The higher propensity of C-N over C-S bond forming ability was demonstrated, through formal C-H functionalization during the construction of 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides catalyzed by Cu(II). However, steric factors imparted by the o-disubstituted substrates tend to change the reaction path giving thiodiazole as the major or an exclusive product. Upon prolonging the reaction time, the in situ generated thiones are transformed to 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles via a desulfurization process. Two classes of heterocycles viz. 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles can be synthesized from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides by simply adjusting the reaction time. Desulfurization of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones is assisted by thiophilic Cu to provide 1,2,4-triazoles with concomitant formation of CuS and polynuclear sulfur anions as confirmed from scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A one-pot synthesis of an antimicrobial compound has been successfully achieved following this strategy. PMID:26332253

  1. Polarized and depolarized Raman spectra of liquid carbon disulfide in the pressure range 0-10 kbar. I. Vibration frequencies, C-S bond length, and Fermi resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, S.; Whalley, Edward

    1986-09-01

    The effect of pressure on the polarized and depolarized Raman spectra of liquid carbon disulphide, i.e., the peak frequencies, bandwidths, and relative intensities of both the allowed ν1 and 2ν2 bands and the interaction-induced ν2 and ν3 bands, have been measured at 22 °C up to 10 kbar. This paper discusses the effect of pressure on the frequencies and on the relative isotropic intensity of the ν1 and 2ν2 bands. The frequency of the ν1 band increases linearly with pressure, within the experimental uncertainty, at the rate 0.16±0.01 cm-1 kbar-1, and the frequencies of the ν2, ν3, and 2ν2 bands decrease nonlinearly. The frequency shifts are described by second-order perturbation theory with the molecular anharmonicity and the intermolecular interaction as perturbations. The leading terms of the shifts consist of the same derivative of the interaction potential, multiplied by different anharmonicity constants, and the shifts of the ν1 and 2ν2 bands suggests that the C-S bond length decreases at the rate 2×10-4 Å kbar-1. The relative isotropic intensity of the 2ν2 and ν1 bands increases with pressure at the rate 0.050 kbar-1, whereas the anisotropic 2ν2 intensity relative to the isotropic ν1 intensity is independent of pressure to the experimental precision of ˜0.005. The effect of pressure on the second derivative of the isotropic and anisotropic parts of the polarizability with respect to the bend coordinate was estimated as 1.1×10-43 C m2 V-1 kbar-1 and ˜0, respectively, from these values.

  2. Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory ``+'' Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

  3. Computational modeling of the bHLH domain of the transcription factor TWIST1 and R118C, S144R and K145E mutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human TWIST1 is a highly conserved member of the regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. TWIST1 forms homo- or heterodimers with E-box proteins, such as E2A (isoforms E12 and E47), MYOD and HAND2. Haploinsufficiency germ-line mutations of the twist1 gene in humans are the main cause of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), which is characterized by limb abnormalities and premature fusion of cranial sutures. Because of the importance of TWIST1 in the regulation of embryonic development and its relationship with SCS, along with the lack of an experimentally solved 3D structure, we performed comparative modeling for the TWIST1 bHLH region arranged into wild-type homodimers and heterodimers with E47. In addition, three mutations that promote DNA binding failure (R118C, S144R and K145E) were studied on the TWIST1 monomer. We also explored the behavior of the mutant forms in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the structural changes of the wild-type versus mutant dimers. Results The solvent-accessible surface area of the homodimers was smaller on wild-type dimers, which indicates that the cleft between the monomers remained more open on the mutant homodimers. RMSD and RMSF analyses indicated that mutated dimers presented values that were higher than those for the wild-type dimers. For a more careful investigation, the monomer was subdivided into four regions: basic, helix I, loop and helix II. The basic domain presented a higher flexibility in all of the parameters that were analyzed, and the mutant dimer basic domains presented values that were higher than the wild-type dimers. The essential dynamic analysis also indicated a higher collective motion for the basic domain. Conclusions Our results suggest the mutations studied turned the dimers into more unstable structures with a wider cleft, which may be a reason for the loss of DNA binding capacity observed for in vitro circumstances. PMID:22839202

  4. Iridium-mediated C-S bond activation and transformation: organoiridium(III) thioether, thiolato, sulfinato and thiyl radical compounds. Synthesis, mechanistic, spectral, electrochemical and theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Das, Ujjwal; Ghorui, Tapas; Adhikari, Basab; Roy, Sima; Pramanik, Shuvam; Pramanik, Kausikisankar

    2015-05-14

    An attractive methodology, single-electron transfer (SET) reductive cleavage of the C-S bond mediated by a metal in the presence of the external stimuli PPh3, has been applied to the kinetically inert IrCl3 in order to synthesize the thiolato complex [Ir(III)(L(S))Cl(PPh3)2] 3 from precursor thioether complexes [Ir(III)(L(SR))Cl2(PPh3)] (R = alkyl) 2. The aforesaid cleavage process in association with (arene)C-H activation furnishes a new class of organosulfur compounds of iridium(III). The thiolato chelate 3 displays a reversible oxidative wave at 0.75 V vs. Ag/AgCl signifying its remarkable nucleophilic character. The high electron density on the thiolato-S vis-à-vis superior nucleophilicity can be envisaged through the formation of a number of S-centered derivatives. This observation has been corroborated with the nature of HOMO in 3, which assumes 49% of S(3p). Notably, the facile oxidative nature of 3 makes it an apposite precursor for metal-stabilized thiyl radical species. Indeed, iridium(III)-stabilized 3˙(+) can be generated by chemical/electrochemical means. The axial EPR spectra with g ∼ 2.0 along with theoretical analysis of SOMO (S(3p) 24% + Ph(π) 43% + d(yz) 15%) and spin density (ρ(S) = +0.543, ρ(Ph) = +0.315, ρ(Ir) = +0.151) of one-electron oxidized 3˙(+) validate the iridium-stabilized thiyl radical description. This observation suggests that the CNS coordination mode in thiophenolato complex 3 is redox-active. Complex 3 is very prone to S-centered oxidation under normal aerobic conditions to yield metallosulfoxide [Ir(III)(L(SO2))Cl(PPh3)2] 4. The enhanced nucleophilicity of thiolato-S can also be manifested via the smooth S-C bond making process with alkyl halides (R'X, R' = Me and allyl; X = Br, I) and subsequent formation of thioether complexes of type [Ir(III)(L(SR'))ClX(PPh3)] 5. The organosulfur compounds of iridium(III) exhibit rich spectral properties including luminescence and the origin of these transitions is scrutinized with

  5. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  6. An elusive vinyl radical isolated as an appended unit in a five-coordinate Co(iii)-bis(iminobenzosemiquinone) complex formed via ligand-centered C-S bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Tiwari, Archana; Sarmah, Amrit; Bhandary, Subhrajyoti; Roy, Ram Kinkar; Mukherjee, Chandan

    2016-08-23

    Redox-active ligand H4Pra(edt(AP/AP)) experienced C-S bond cleavage during complexation reaction with Co(OAc)2·2H2O in the presence of Et3N in CH3OH in air. Thus, formed complex 1 was composed of two iminobenzosemiquinone radicals in its coordination sphere and an unprecedented stable tethered-vinyl radical. The complex has been characterized by mass, X-ray single crystal, X-band EPR, variable-temperature magnetic moment measurements and DFT based computational study.

  7. Simultaneous Synchrotron WAXD and Fast Scanning (Chip) Calorimetry: On the (Isothermal) Crystallization of HDPE and PA11 at High Supercoolings and Cooling Rates up to 200 °C s(-1).

    PubMed

    Baeten, Dorien; Mathot, Vincent B F; Pijpers, Thijs F J; Verkinderen, Olivier; Portale, Giuseppe; Van Puyvelde, Peter; Goderis, Bart

    2015-06-01

    An experimental setup, making use of a Flash DSC 1 prototype, is presented in which materials can be studied simultaneously by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) and synchrotron wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Accumulation of multiple, identical measurements results in high quality, millisecond WAXD patterns. Patterns at every degree during the crystallization and melting of high density polyethylene at FSC typical scanning rates from 20 up to 200 °C s(-1) are discussed in terms of the temperature and scanning rate dependent material crystallinities and crystal densities. Interestingly, the combined approach reveals FSC thermal lag issues, for which can be corrected. For polyamide 11, isothermal solidification at high supercooling yields a mesomorphic phase in less than a second, whereas at very low supercooling crystals are obtained. At intermediate supercooling, mixtures of mesomorphic and crystalline material are generated at a ratio proportional to the supercooling. This ratio is constant over the isothermal solidification time. PMID:25845310

  8. Simultaneous Synchrotron WAXD and Fast Scanning (Chip) Calorimetry: On the (Isothermal) Crystallization of HDPE and PA11 at High Supercoolings and Cooling Rates up to 200 °C s(-1).

    PubMed

    Baeten, Dorien; Mathot, Vincent B F; Pijpers, Thijs F J; Verkinderen, Olivier; Portale, Giuseppe; Van Puyvelde, Peter; Goderis, Bart

    2015-06-01

    An experimental setup, making use of a Flash DSC 1 prototype, is presented in which materials can be studied simultaneously by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) and synchrotron wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Accumulation of multiple, identical measurements results in high quality, millisecond WAXD patterns. Patterns at every degree during the crystallization and melting of high density polyethylene at FSC typical scanning rates from 20 up to 200 °C s(-1) are discussed in terms of the temperature and scanning rate dependent material crystallinities and crystal densities. Interestingly, the combined approach reveals FSC thermal lag issues, for which can be corrected. For polyamide 11, isothermal solidification at high supercooling yields a mesomorphic phase in less than a second, whereas at very low supercooling crystals are obtained. At intermediate supercooling, mixtures of mesomorphic and crystalline material are generated at a ratio proportional to the supercooling. This ratio is constant over the isothermal solidification time.

  9. Synthesis of Bioactive 2-(Arylamino)thiazolo[5,4-f]-quinazolin-9-ones via the Hügershoff Reaction or Cu- Catalyzed Intramolecular C-S Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Hédou, Damien; Dubouilh-Benard, Carole; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Fruit, Corinne; Besson, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A library of thirty eight novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolin-9(8H)-one derivatives (series 8, 10, 14 and 17) was prepared via the Hügershoff reaction and a Cu catalyzed intramolecular C-S bond formation, helped by microwave-assisted technology when required. The efficient multistep synthesis of the key 6-amino-3-cyclopropylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (3) has been reinvestigated and performed on a multigram scale from the starting 5-nitroanthranilic acid. The inhibitory potency of the final products was evaluated against five kinases involved in Alzheimer's disease and showed that some molecules of the 17 series described in this paper are particularly promising for the development of novel multi-target inhibitors of kinases. PMID:27322235

  10. Evidence for cysteine persulfide as reaction product of L-Cyst(e)ine C-S-lyase (C-DES) from Synechocystis. Analyses using cystine analogues and recombinant C-DES.

    PubMed

    Lang, T; Kessler, D

    1999-01-01

    The pyridoxal phosphate-dependent monomeric L-cysteine/cystine C-S-lyase (C-DES), previously isolated from Synechocystis PCC 6714 by its capacity to direct [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly of ferredoxin in vitro (Leibrecht, I., and Kessler, D. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10442-10447), has now been cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence of C-DES was found to be nearly identical (92% identity) to the open reading frame slr2143 of Synechocystis PCC 6803 and showed a more distant relationship to the NifS family of proteins (about 27% identity). Recombinant C-DES displayed activities equal to the isolate from Synechocystis in terms of the cyst(e)ine lyase reaction and holoferredoxin formation which recommended its use for functional and mechanistic studies. Investigation of the substrate spectrum for beta-elimination found L-cysteine to be a poor substrate (kcat approximately 0.15 s-1) in contrast to L-cystine (kcat = 36 s-1) and several related compounds. Of these compounds, desaminocystine (S-(carboxyethylthio)-L-cysteine) was used for C-DES-mediated persulfide generation. Stabilization of the linear persulfide 3-(disulfanyl)-propionic acid was achieved by cyclization as a novel intramolecular trapping reaction; this yielded 1,2-dithiolan-3-one which was isolated and identified by chemical analyses.

  11. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f(0) v 1/f(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  12. Fe-Ni-Cu-C-S phase relations at high pressures and temperatures - The role of sulfur in carbon storage and diamond stability at mid- to deep-upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, Kyusei; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2015-02-01

    Constraining the stable form of carbon in the deep mantle is important because carbon has key influence on mantle processes such as partial melting and element mobility, thereby affecting the efficiency of carbon exchange between the endogenic and exogenic reservoirs. In the reduced, mid- to deep-upper mantle, the chief host of deep carbon is expected to be graphite/diamond but in the presence of Fe-Ni alloy melt in the reduced mantle and owing to high solubility of carbon in such alloy phase, diamond may become unstable. To investigate the nature of stable, C-bearing phases in the reduced, mid- to deep-upper mantle, here we have performed experiments to examine the effect of sulfur on the phase relations of the Ni-rich portion of Fe-Ni ± Cu-C-S system, and carbon solubility in the Fe-Ni solid and Fe-Ni-S liquid alloys at 6-8 GPa and 800-1400 °C using a multianvil press. Low-temperature experiments for six starting mixes (Ni/(Fe + Ni) ∼ 0.61, 8-16 wt.% S) contain C-bearing, solid Fe-Ni alloy + Fe-Ni-C-S alloy melt + metastable graphite, and the solid alloy-out boundary is constrained, at 1150-1200 °C at 6 GPa and 900-1000 °C at 8 GPa for S-poor starting mix, and at 1000-1050 °C at 6 GPa and 900-1000 °C at 8 GPa for the S-rich starting mix. The carbon solubility in the liquid alloy significantly diminishes from 2.1 to 0.8 wt.% with sulfur in the melt increasing from 8 to 24 wt.%, irrespective of temperature. We also observed a slight decrease of carbon solubility in the liquid alloy with increasing pressure when alloy liquid contains >∼18 wt.% S, and with decreasing Ni/(Fe + Ni) ratio from 0.65 to ∼0.53. Based on our results, diamond, coexisting with Ni-rich sulfide liquid alloy is expected to be stable in the reduced, alloy-bearing oceanic mantle with C content as low as 20 to 5 ppm for mantle S varying between 100 and 200 ppm. Deep, reduced root of cratonic mantle, on the other hand, is expected to have C distributed among solid alloy, liquid alloy

  13. The shape of the Sc2(μ2-S) unit trapped in C82: crystallographic, computational, and electrochemical studies of the isomers, Sc2(μ2-S)@C(s)(6)-C82 and Sc2(μ2-S)@C(3v)(8)-C82.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Brandon Q; Chen, Ning; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Mackey, Mary A; Stevenson, Steven; Echegoyen, Luis; Poblet, Josep M; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L

    2011-05-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) reveal that both contain fully ordered fullerene cages. The crystallographic data for Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82)·Ni(II)(OEP)·2C(6)H(6) show two remarkable features: the presence of two slightly different cage sites and a fully ordered molecule Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) in one of these sites. The Sc-S-Sc angles in Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) (113.84(3)°) and Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(3v)(8)-C(82) differ (97.34(13)°). This is the first case where the nature and structure of the fullerene cage isomer exerts a demonstrable effect on the geometry of the cluster contained within. Computational studies have shown that, among the nine isomers that follow the isolated pentagon rule for C(82), the cage stability changes markedly between 0 and 250 K, but the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C when using the energies obtained with the free encapsulated model (FEM). However, the C(3v)(8)-C(82) cage is preferred at temperatures ≥250 °C using the energies obtained by rigid rotor-harmonic oscillator (RRHO) approximation. These results corroborate the fact that both cages are observed and likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-S) cluster, whereas earlier FEM and RRHO calculations predicted only the C(s)(6)-C(82) cage is likely to trap the Sc(2)(μ(2)-O) cluster. We also compare the recently published electrochemistry of the sulfide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-S)@C(s)(6)-C(82) to that of corresponding oxide-containing Sc(2)(μ(2)-O)@C(s)(6)-C(82). PMID:21473581

  14. X-ray crystallographic characterization of new soluble endohedral fullerenes utilizing the popular C82 bucky cage. Isolation and structural characterization of Sm@C3v(7)-C82, Sm@C(s)(6)-C82, and Sm@C2(5)-C82.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Jin, Hongxiao; Wang, Xinqing; Liu, Ziyang; Yu, Meilan; Zhao, Fukun; Mercado, Brandon Q; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L

    2012-08-29

    Three isomers of Sm@C(82) that are soluble in organic solvents were obtained from the carbon soot produced by vaporization of hollow carbon rods doped with Sm(2)O(3)/graphite powder in an electric arc. These isomers were numbered as Sm@C(82)(I), Sm@C(82)(II), and Sm@C(82)(III) in order of their elution times from HPLC chromatography on a Buckyprep column with toluene as the eluent. The identities of isomers, Sm@C(82)(I) as Sm@C(s)(6)-C(82), Sm@C(82)(II) as Sm@C(3v)(7)-C(82), and Sm@C(82)(III) as Sm@C(2)(5)-C(82), were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction on cocrystals formed with Ni(octaethylporphyrin). For endohedral fullerenes like La@C(82), which have three electrons transferred to the cage to produce the M(3+)@(C(82))(3-) electronic distribution, generally only two soluble isomers (e.g., La@C(2v)(9)-C(82) (major) and La@C(s)(6)-C(82) (minor)) are observed. In contrast, with samarium, which generates the M(2+)@(C(82))(2-) electronic distribution, five soluble isomers of Sm@C(82) have been detected, three in this study, the other two in two related prior studies. The structures of the four Sm@C(82) isomers that are currently established are Sm@C(2)(5)-C(82), Sm@C(s)(6)-C(82), Sm@C(3v)(7)-C(82), and Sm@C(2v)(9)-C(82). All of these isomers obey the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) and are sequentially interconvertable through Stone-Wales transformations. PMID:22860880

  15. Special catalyst improves c-s compounds conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    Carbon-sulfur compounds normally formed in the Claus furnace can be almost totally decomposed when a promoted catalyst is used rather than a standard unpromoted catalyst. Compound formation and decomposition chemistries are described. The use of a promoted active alumina is shown to yield better results compared with a standard active alumina catalyst.

  16. A,B,C`s of nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Noto, V.A.; Norman, E.B.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Dairiki, J.; Matis, H.S.; McMahan, M.A.; Otto, R.

    1995-08-07

    This introductory level presentation contains information on nuclear structure, radioactivity, alpha decay, beta decay, gamma decay, half-life, nuclear reactions, fusion, fission, cosmic rays, and radiation protection. Nine experiments with procedures and test questions are included.

  17. Darwin's historical sketch - an American predecessor: C.S. Rafinesque.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, C T

    2010-01-01

    When early reviewers of Darwin's "On the origin of species" chided him for neglecting to mention predecessors to his theory of evolution, he added an "historical sketch" in later editions. Among the predecessors he cited was a French émigré to American named Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, who in the mid-1830s had written about the emergence of new species at a time when most naturalists (including Darwin initially) accepted the biblical story of creation and assumed the immutability of species. Rafinesque discovered and named thousands of new plants and animals in his American travels and flooded the taxonomic literature with reports, which seemed incomplete, confusing, and excessive to other naturalists. He alienated many who later dismissed his findings and excluded them from the biological literature. Soon after Rafinesque's death in 1840, Asa Gray, the young American botanist, wrote a damning critique of his work and suggested it be ignored. How Darwin learned of Rafinesque and his views on species is the focus of this essay, which also mentions briefly the two other American naturalists cited by Darwin in his sketch. Gray seems the likely informant through his correspondence with Darwin or his close associates.

  18. Belief, Doubt and Reason: C. S. Peirce on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J.; Schreiber, James B.; Moss, Connie M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore Peirce's work for insights into a theory of learning and cognition for education. Our focus for this exploration is Peirce's paper The "Fixation of Belief" (FOB), originally published in 1877 in "Popular Science Monthly". We begin by examining Peirce's assertion that the study of logic is essential for understanding…

  19. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier News & Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures Images Audio Pronunciations The ...

  20. Washington, D.C.'s vanishing springs and waterways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper traces the disappearance or reduction of the many prominent springs and waterways that existed in Washington, D.C. , 200 years ago. The best known springs were the Smith Springs (now under the McMillan Reservoir), the Franklin Park Springs (13th and I Streets, NW.), Gibson 's Spring (15th and E Streets, NE.), Caffrey 's Spring (Ninth and F Streets, NW.), and the City Spring (C Street between Four and One-Half and Sixth Streets, NW.). Tiber Creek, flowing south to the Capitol and thence westward along Consititution Avenue, joined the Potomac River at 17th Street and Constitution Avenue. In the 1800's, the Constitution Avenue reach was made into a canal which was used by scows and steamboats up to about 1850. The canal was changed into a covered sewer in the 1870's, and the only remaining visible surface remnant is the lock-keeper 's little stone house at 17th and Constitution Avenue, NW. Because of sedimentation problems and reclamation projects, Rock Creek, the Potomac River , and the Anacostia River are considerably narrower and shallower today than they were in colonial times. For example, the mouth of Rock Creek at one time was a wide, busy ship harbor , which Georgetown used for an extensive foreign trade, and the Potomac River shore originally extended to 17th and Constitution Avenue, NW. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. El Midwest Canto Al Pueblo: "otra vez, c/s"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernica, Antonio Jose; Saavedra, Pilar

    1977-01-01

    El Midwest Canto Al Pueblo was a successful effort to bring artists, poets, musicians, and cultural workers together in a setting conducive to a free and easy interchange of ideas and directions in order to reaffirm, share, and celebrate the identity of La Raza with el pueblo. The activities during the 10-day festival included poetry readings,…

  2. Unexpected reactions of 2,5-dimethylthiopene (2,5-Me{sub 2}t) in Cp{sup *}Ir({eta}{sup 5}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T){sup 2+}, Cp{sup *}Ir({eta}{sup 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T), and Cp{sup *}Ir(C,S-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) with cobaltocene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Daniels, L.M.; Angelica, R.J. |

    1996-02-20

    The reaction of Cp{sup *}Ir({eta}{sup 5}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T){sup 2+} (1) (Cp{sup *} = {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}) with the reducing agent Cp{sub 2}Co yields Cp{sup *}Ir({eta}{sup 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) (2) and Cp{sup *}Ir(C,S-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) (3), as well as the unexpected Cp{sup *}Ir({eta}{sup 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T{center_dot}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}) (4), which can also be prepared by reacting 1 with Cp{sup -}. An X-ray diffraction study of 4 shows the {eta}{sup 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T{center_dot}C{sub 5}H{sub 5} ligand to be a ring-opened 2,5-Me{sub 2}T allyl thiolate conjugated to a cyclopentadienylidene unit. The reduced products 2 and 3 react with Cp{sub 2}Co to give a ferrole-type product Cp{sup *}[IrC(Me)=CHCH=C(Me)]CoCp in which the planar iridacyclopentadiene ring is {pi}-bonded to the cobalt, as established by a structural investigation. The Cp{sup *}Co analog of 5 is prepared by the reaction of 2 or 3 with Cp{sup *}Co(CH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}){sub 2}. These studies demonstrate that cobaltocene and Cp{sup *}Co(CH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}){sub 2} readily desulfurize the 2,5-dimethylthiophene ligand in 2 and 3, which supports a previously proposed mechanism for the thiophene hydrodesulfurization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Portal vein thrombosis with protein C-S deficiency in a non-cirrhotic patient

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Leal, Gustavo A; Morán, Segundo; Corona-Cedillo, Roberto; Brom-Valladares, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    There are several conditions that can lead to portal vein thrombosis (PVT), including including infection, malignancies, and coagulation disorders. Anew condition of interest is protein C and S deficiencies, associated with hypercoagulation and recurrent venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a non-cirrhotic 63-year-old male diagnosed with acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis and PVT and combined deficiencies in proteins C and S, recanalized by short-term low molecular heparin plus oral warfarin therapy. PMID:25068006

  4. Role of TBATB in nano indium oxide catalyzed C-S bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Prasanta; Hazarika, Sukanya; Barman, Pranjit

    2015-01-01

    Nano sized indium oxide is found to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of thiols to sulfides using Na2CO3 as base and TBATB as reagent in DMSO at 110 °C. Here in situ generation of bromo intermediate by TBATB takes place through indium surface. A variety of aryl sulfides can be synthesized in excellent yields from less reactive chlorides, boronic acids and thiols. PMID:26415729

  5. A Multicultural Social Studies Series for C.S.L. Students. Book 1. Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man

    This text is written primarily for students of Chinese as a second language who are continuing in the ESEA Title VII Chinese Bilingual Pilot Program at the secondary level, and introduces different aspects and general knowledge of Europe. The text is divided into twenty-five lessons, having the following headings: European Countries, Class, On the…

  6. Alaskan frozen soil impact tests of the B83-C/S and Strategic Earth Penetrator

    SciTech Connect

    Dockery, H.A.; Clarke, J.B.; Stull, S.P.; Cain, S.G.; Everett, R.N.; Flower, E.C.; Huntting, J.D.; Spencer, C.R.; Todaro, A.F.; Vidlak, A.J.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the penetrability of the B83 strategic bomb and a Strategic Earth Penetrator design into frozen soil and ice, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, assisted by the US Air Force and US Army, conducted a series of tests in 1987. In April, Strategic Earth Penetrator units were dropped into multi-year sea ice and frozen tundra near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Calculated impact velocity ranged from 200 to 308 ft/s into ice and from 200 to 444 ft/s into frozen tundra. Tests in May include drops of a B83 design with specially designed ogive nose shape, a B83 with a cap over the production ''cookie cutter'' nose, and a Strategic Earth Penetrator. The May tests were conducted near Fairbanks, Alaska, at Eielson Air Force Base and at Donnelly Flats on the Fort Greely Military Reservation. The type of frozen soil encountered at Eielson was very homogeneous in composition; however. Two drops impacted areas with very thin frozen soil layers at depths of about 24 in. below the surface. Velocities of these drops prior to impact ranged from 256 to 308 ft/s, and peak axial deceleration ranged from 160 to 490 g. The units penetrated to depths of 7.5-12 ft. Three other events impacted in a target area where frozen soil averaging 35 in. thick extended essentially to the surface. We calculated velocities prior to impact at 200-256 ft/s; and penetration depths of 3.2-9.6 ft. The geologic material at Donnelly Flats was primarily a very hard, rocky glacial deposit with a variable degree of ice bonding. Here, the test units dropped from 10,000 ft above ground level and achieved an average calculated velocity of 802 ft/s. Depth of penetration ranged from 7.6 to 13.5 ft.

  7. A Multicultural Social Studies Series for C.S.L. Students, Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Mary C.; And Others

    A multicultural social studies text for junior high school students of Chinese as a second language is presented. This level two text is designed for the Chinese Bilingual Pilot Program sponsored through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title VII. The book consists of 25 lessons with no more than 50 characters each. Each lesson has a…

  8. Global nuclear material monitoring with NDA and C/S data through integrated facility monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Argo, P.; Goulding, C.; Klosterbuer, S.; Halbig, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper focuses on a flexible, integrated demonstration of a monitoring approach for nuclear material monitoring. This includes aspects of item signature identification, perimeter portal monitoring, advanced data analysis, and communication as a part of an unattended continuous monitoring system in an operating nuclear facility. Advanced analysis is applied to the integrated nondestructive assay and containment and surveillance data that are synchronized in time. End result will be the foundation for a cost-effective monitoring system that could provide the necessary transparency even in areas that are denied to foreign nationals of both US and Russia should these processes and materials come under full-scope safeguards or bilateral agreements. Monitoring systems of this kind have the potential to provide additional benefits including improved nuclear facility security and safeguards and lower personnel radiation exposures. Demonstration facilities in this paper include VTRAP-prototype, Los Alamos Critical Assemblies Facility, Kazakhstan BM-350 Reactor monitor, DUPIC radiation monitoring, and JOYO and MONJU radiation monitoring.

  9. Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Kim M; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Sharon, Itai; Miller, Christopher S; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian C; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Philip E; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates complex community functioning and syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer and recovered during microbial sulfate reduction. De novo reconstruction of community sequences yielded near-complete genomes of Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria), Sulfurovum- and Sulfurimonas-like Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen fixation and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results indicate less abundant Desulfuromonadales, and possibly Bacteroidetes, also actively contributed to CO2 production via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. We infer that high acetate concentrations, aimed at stimulating anaerobic heterotrophy, led to the co-enrichment of, and carbon fixation in Epsilonproteobacteria. Results give an insight into ecosystem behavior following addition of simple organic carbon to the subsurface, and demonstrate a range of biological processes and community interactions were stimulated. PMID:23190730

  10. Clitoridectomy -- the disastrous downfall of Isaac Baker Brown, F.R.C.S. (1867).

    PubMed

    Fleming, J B

    1960-12-01

    The investigation of the circumstances surrounding the downfall of the surgeon Baker Brown is reviewed. In March 1866 Brown's book "The Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females" was published. Brown's thesis presented in this volume was that nervous affections complicating diseases of the female genitalia were the direct result of "peripheral excitement of the pudic nerve" or masturbation. Brown maintained that this excitement gave rise to disease which could be divided into 8 stages -- hysteria, spinal irritation, epileptoid fits or hysterical epilepsy, cataleptic fits, epileptic fits, idiocy, mania, death -- the 8th stage being arrived at, by gradations, more or less distinct, directly from the 1st stage. The book was harshly criticized by the editor of the "British Medical Journal." Brown proposed excision of the clitoris and nymphae as a cure of epilepsy in females. Brown's success as a bold and courageous operator, which raised him to an important position in the field, caused extreme jealousy among his rivals. By involving himself, however sincerely, with the highly controversial subject of clitoridectomy progress in ovariotomy was considerably slowed for a considerable period. Although his character and shortcomings remain open to speculation, there is little question that he was an acknowledged leader in ovariotomy.

  11. D.C.'s Achievement Gap: Why Place Matters. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Every child deserves educational opportunity and the chance to achieve, no matter his or her school, neighborhood or background. Unfortunately, large and persistent disparities in achievement among public school students in the District of Columbia indicate that all children here may not have the same opportunities. This Data Snapshot examines…

  12. Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, KM; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Sharon, I; Williams, Ken; Miller, CS; Frischkorn, Kyle C; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Phil; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used community proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer. Genomic sequences from the community recovered during microbial sulfate reduction were used to econstruct, de novo, near-complete genomes for Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria) and relatives of Sulfurovum and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria), and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen-fixation (Nif) and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results suggest less abundant Desulfuromonadales and Bacteroidetes also actively contributed to CO2 production via the TCA cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. Modeling shows that this reaction was thermodynamically possible, and kinetically favorable relative to acetate-dependent denitrification. We conclude that high-levels of carbon amendment aimed to stimulate anaerobic heterotrophy led to carbon fixation in co-dependent chemoautotrophs. These results have implications for understanding complex ecosystem behavior, and show that high levels of organic carbon supplementation can expand the range of microbial functionalities accessible for ecosystem manipulation.

  13. Success in College: From "C"s in High School to "A"s in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Peter F.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides important information and advice that students need in order to learn more and receive higher grades offers strategies for test and note taking, studying, writing papers, and making class schedules. This book also gives an insider's guide to the academic semester, in-class behavior, and how and when to approach professors.…

  14. Position Paper on International Studies Program at C. S. Mott Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Wise B.

    This descriptive report outlines the history and operation of the International Studies Program at Charles Stewart Mott Community College (MCC). First, introductory material discusses the growing importance of international studies in the nation's community colleges. Next, the need for an international studies and international trade program at…

  15. Biostimulation induces syntrophic interactions that impact C, S and N cycling in a sediment microbial community.

    PubMed

    Handley, Kim M; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Steefel, Carl I; Williams, Kenneth H; Sharon, Itai; Miller, Christopher S; Frischkorn, Kyle R; Chourey, Karuna; Thomas, Brian C; Shah, Manesh B; Long, Philip E; Hettich, Robert L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-04-01

    Stimulation of subsurface microorganisms to induce reductive immobilization of metals is a promising approach for bioremediation, yet the overall microbial community response is typically poorly understood. Here we used proteogenomics to test the hypothesis that excess input of acetate activates complex community functioning and syntrophic interactions among autotrophs and heterotrophs. A flow-through sediment column was incubated in a groundwater well of an acetate-amended aquifer and recovered during microbial sulfate reduction. De novo reconstruction of community sequences yielded near-complete genomes of Desulfobacter (Deltaproteobacteria), Sulfurovum- and Sulfurimonas-like Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Partial genomes were obtained for Clostridiales (Firmicutes) and Desulfuromonadales-like Deltaproteobacteria. The majority of proteins identified by mass spectrometry corresponded to Desulfobacter-like species, and demonstrate the role of this organism in sulfate reduction (Dsr and APS), nitrogen fixation and acetate oxidation to CO2 during amendment. Results indicate less abundant Desulfuromonadales, and possibly Bacteroidetes, also actively contributed to CO2 production via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Proteomic data indicate that sulfide was partially re-oxidized by Epsilonproteobacteria through nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation (using Nap, Nir, Nos, SQR and Sox), with CO2 fixed using the reverse TCA cycle. We infer that high acetate concentrations, aimed at stimulating anaerobic heterotrophy, led to the co-enrichment of, and carbon fixation in Epsilonproteobacteria. Results give an insight into ecosystem behavior following addition of simple organic carbon to the subsurface, and demonstrate a range of biological processes and community interactions were stimulated.

  16. Phosphorylation of Protein Phosphatase Inhibitor-1 by Protein Kinase C*s

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bogachan; Shu, Hongjun; Fernandez, Joseph; El-Armouche, Ali; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Nairn, Angus C.; Bibb, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor-1 becomes a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 when phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase at Thr35. Moreover, Ser67 of inhibitor-1 serves as a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the brain. Here, we report that dephosphoinhibitor-1 but not phospho-Ser67 inhibitor-1 was efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase C at Ser65 in vitro. In contrast, Ser67 phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 was unaffected by phospho-Ser65. Protein kinase C activation in striatal tissue resulted in the concomitant phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at Ser65 and Ser67, but not Ser65 alone. Selective pharmacological inhibition of protein phosphatase activity suggested that phospho-Ser65 inhibitor-1 is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 in the striatum. In vitro studies confirmed these findings and suggested that phospho-Ser67 protects phospho-Ser65 inhibitor-1 from dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 in vivo. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors resulted in the up-regulation of diphospho-Ser65/Ser67 inhibitor-1 in this tissue. In contrast, the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type ionotropic glutamate receptors opposed increases in striatal diphospho-Ser65/Ser67 inhibitor-1 levels. Phosphomimetic mutation of Ser65 and/or Ser67 did not convert inhibitor-1 into a protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor. On the other hand, in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that diphospho-Ser65/Ser67 inhibitor-1 is a poor substrate for cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These observations extend earlier studies regarding the function of phospho-Ser67 and underscore the possibility that phosphorylation in this region of inhibitor-1 by multiple protein kinases may serve as an integrative signaling mechanism that governs the responsiveness of inhibitor-1 to cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. PMID:16772299

  17. Late-Type Stars in M31. II. C-, S-, and M-Star Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, James P.; Richer, Harvey B.; Crabtree, Dennis R.

    1996-08-01

    We present spectra of AGB stars in M31 for which observations had been previously secured using a four-band photometric system (FBPS). The FBPS had been used to identify M-, S-, and carbon-star (C-star) candidates, and we use the spectra to show that the FBPS did an excellent job at identifying C- and M-stars. Of the 48 C-stars for which spectra were obtained, 7 have strongly enhanced ^13^C bands (J-stars), 2 have strong Hα emission, while 3 are found to exhibit enhanced Li absorption (Li-stars). Both the J- and Li-stars are fainter than predicted by current theoretical models, while the colors of the Hα stars suggest they may be in the terminal phases of their evolution. The C_2_ and CN bandstrengths of the C-stars are measured, and no correlation between these bandstrengths and either M_bol_ or (V-I) is found. It is suggested that this lack of correlation is due to an age spread. The spectra of the first confirmed S-star in M31 is presented, and two evolutionary pathways are suggested to account for this star's high luminosity.

  18. Alfred Gardiner Brown (1838-1882) M.R.C.S.Eng., F.R.C.S.(Ed.). His contribution to the history of the development of the tuning fork.

    PubMed

    Booth, J B

    1999-04-01

    Alfred Gardiner Brown was the first designated Aural Surgeon to be appointed to the consultant staff of The London Hospital, at the age of 38. In July 1880 he published the paper showing his adaptation of the way in which the tuning fork was applied to the head and its use in measuring hearing power by comparing it with the sense of touch. Had he been blessed with a longer life it is highly probable that he would have made a significant contribution as he was of an innovative and inventive mind. He died at the age of 44.

  19. Homolytic S-S bond dissociation of 11 bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfides R-C(=S)-S-S-C(=S)R and prediction of a novel rubber vulcanization accelerator.

    PubMed

    Mak, Adrian Matthew; Steudel, Ralf; Wong, Ming Wah

    2008-06-01

    The structures and energetics of eight substituted bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfides (RCS(2))(2), their associated radicals RCS(2)(*), and their coordination compounds with a lithium cation have been studied at the G3X(MP2) level of theory for R = H, Me, F, Cl, OMe, SMe, NMe(2), and PMe(2). The effects of substituents on the dissociation of (RCS(2))(2) to RCS(2)(*) were analyzed using isodesmic stabilization reactions. Electron-donating groups with an unshared pair of electrons have a pronounced stabilization effect on both (RCS(2))(2) and RCS(2)(*). The S-S bond dissociation enthalpy of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, R = NMe(2)) is the lowest in the above series (155 kJ mol(-1)), attributed to the particular stability of the formed Me(2)NCS(2)(*) radical. Both (RCS(2))(2) and the fragmented radicals RCS(2)(*) form stable chelate complexes with a Li(+) cation. The S-S homolytic bond cleavage in (RCS(2))(2) is facilitated by the reaction [Li(RCS(2))(2)](+)+Li(+)-->2 [Li(RCS(2))](*+). Three other substituted bis(thiocarbonyl) disulfides with the unconventional substituents R = OSF(5), Gu(1), and Gu(2) have been explored to find suitable alternative rubber vulcanization accelerators. Bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfide with a guanidine-type substituent, (Gu(1)CS(2))(2), is predicted to be an effective accelerator in sulfur vulcanization of rubber. Compared to TMTD, (Gu(1)CS(2))(2) is calculated to have a lower bond dissociation enthalpy and smaller associated barrier for the S-S homolysis. PMID:18418826

  20. Homolytic S-S bond dissociation of 11 bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfides R-C(=S)-S-S-C(=S)R and prediction of a novel rubber vulcanization accelerator.

    PubMed

    Mak, Adrian Matthew; Steudel, Ralf; Wong, Ming Wah

    2008-06-01

    The structures and energetics of eight substituted bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfides (RCS(2))(2), their associated radicals RCS(2)(*), and their coordination compounds with a lithium cation have been studied at the G3X(MP2) level of theory for R = H, Me, F, Cl, OMe, SMe, NMe(2), and PMe(2). The effects of substituents on the dissociation of (RCS(2))(2) to RCS(2)(*) were analyzed using isodesmic stabilization reactions. Electron-donating groups with an unshared pair of electrons have a pronounced stabilization effect on both (RCS(2))(2) and RCS(2)(*). The S-S bond dissociation enthalpy of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, R = NMe(2)) is the lowest in the above series (155 kJ mol(-1)), attributed to the particular stability of the formed Me(2)NCS(2)(*) radical. Both (RCS(2))(2) and the fragmented radicals RCS(2)(*) form stable chelate complexes with a Li(+) cation. The S-S homolytic bond cleavage in (RCS(2))(2) is facilitated by the reaction [Li(RCS(2))(2)](+)+Li(+)-->2 [Li(RCS(2))](*+). Three other substituted bis(thiocarbonyl) disulfides with the unconventional substituents R = OSF(5), Gu(1), and Gu(2) have been explored to find suitable alternative rubber vulcanization accelerators. Bis(thiocarbonyl)disulfide with a guanidine-type substituent, (Gu(1)CS(2))(2), is predicted to be an effective accelerator in sulfur vulcanization of rubber. Compared to TMTD, (Gu(1)CS(2))(2) is calculated to have a lower bond dissociation enthalpy and smaller associated barrier for the S-S homolysis.

  1. Challenging the Objectivist Paradigm: Teaching Biblical Theology with J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and Guillermo del Toro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lief, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The dissimilarity that exists between the historical and cultural situation of North American college students and the world described by the biblical authors poses a problem for theological and religious education. While the biblical authors tell fantastic stories of miracle and magic, the scientific and technological paradigm prevalent in…

  2. Heterogeneous Decomposition of Volatile Organic Compounds by Visible-Light Activated N, C, S-Embedded Titania.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ho-Hwan; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a N-, C-, and S-doped titania (NCS-TiO2) composite was prepared by combining the titanium precursor with a single dopant source, and the photocatalytic activity of this system for the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at indoor-concentration levels, under exposure to visible light, was examined. The NCS-TiO2 composite and the pure TiO2 photocatalyst, used as a reference, were characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average efficiencies of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene decomposition using NCS-TiO2 for were 70, 87, -100, and -100%, respectively, whereas the values obtained using the pure TiO2 powder were -0, 18, 49, and 51%, respectively. These results suggested that, for the photocatalytic decomposition of toxic VOCs under visible-light exposure conditions, NCS-TiO2 was superior to the reference photocatalyst. The decomposition efficiencies of the target VOCs were inversely related to the initial concentration and relative humidity as well as to the air-flow rate. The decomposition efficiencies of the target chemicals achieved with a conventional lamp/NCS-TiO2 system were higher than those achieved with a light emitting diode/NCS-TiO2 system. Overall, NCS-TiO2 can be used for the efficient decomposition of VOCs under visible-light exposure, if the operational conditions are optimized. PMID:27483788

  3. Reid's Read-Alouds 2: Modern-Day Classics from C.S. Lewis to Lemony Snicket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Need a one-stop resource for jumpstarting sleepy library visitors? Ready to add punch to classroom discussions? In this companion to his best-selling book "Reid's Read-Alouds", children's lit guru Reid dips back into the classics to highlight outstanding titles published between 1950 and 1999 that continue to connect with kids and teens today.…

  4. Chemical model for cement-based materials: Thermodynamic data assessment for phases other than C-S-H

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Ph.; Bourbon, X.; Lassin, A.; Gaucher, E.C.

    2010-09-15

    In the context of waste confinement, concrete may be used both as a confinement and as a building material. Concerning radwaste, the heat released during radioactive decay will modify the equilibrium constants of the minerals forming the concrete. The present work aims to elucidate the temperature dependency of the thermodynamic functions related to minerals from the concrete or associated with some of its degradation products. A large set of experimental data has been collected, for the chemical systems SO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-CO{sub 2}-Cl-H{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-H{sub 2}O, including iron and magnesium bearing phases. Most of the data collected concern experiments in aqueous media but results from calorimetric studies were also included, when available. Based on selected thermodynamic properties for each phase, predominance diagrams were drawn for the chemical elements listed above. Phase relations reported into predominance diagram appear rather consistent with most of the literature results. The case of katoite has been especially discussed, because it shows inconsistencies with respect to a hydrogarnet-grossular solid solution and with respect to phase relations reported into already published works. Finally, we underline the chemical compatibility of Portland cement pastes with carbonate aggregates, compared to silicates, for long-term storage applications.

  5. Deficiencies of proteins C, S and Antithrombin and factor V Leiden and the risk of ischemic strokes

    PubMed Central

    Popa, C

    2010-01-01

    Although hypercoagulable states are most often associated with venous thromboses, arterial thromboses are reported in protein C, protein S, antithrombin deficient patients and in those with factor V Leiden, components of hereditary thrombophilia. Because these arterial thromboses (peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, and cerebral infarction) mostly affect young persons, aged below 45 years, it is important to test and treat these thrombophilic defects. Because the relation thrombophilia – arterial thromboses is still under debate, due to conflicting data, this article is a review of studies published in literature regarding the implication of the above–mentioned thrombophilic defects in cerebral infarcts. PMID:20945813

  6. Transition-metal-free C-S bond formation: a facile access to aryl sulfones from sodium sulfinates via arynes.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Virat G; Mhaske, Santosh B

    2014-07-18

    Sulfones have been attractive targets for synthetic organic chemists owing to their immense applications in medicinal, material, and synthetic chemistry. In this context, an efficient transition-metal-free process has been demonstrated, wherein a broad range of alkyl/aryl/heteroaryl sodium sulfinates react with varyingly substituted aryne precursors (o-silyl aryl triflates) under mild reaction conditions to afford structurally diverse sulfones in good to excellent yields.

  7. Content-Learning in a Process-Oriented Curriculum: Some Aspects of B.S.C.S. Biology in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E

    1971-01-01

    Reports study of achievement of ninth and tenth grade level students in Israel City, Kibbuts, and agricultural schools during 1966-68. Mean test scores on adopted BSCS Yellow Version topices attained by 549 BSCS students are signigicantly higher than those by 456 non-BSCS students. (JM)

  8. Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Mariarita; Cellini, Barbara; Laurents, Douglas V; Borri Voltattorni, Carla

    2005-08-01

    MalY from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional dimeric PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate) enzyme acting as a beta-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose system. The spectroscopic and molecular properties of the holoenzyme, in the untreated and NaBH4-treated forms, and of the apoenzyme have been elucidated. A systematic study of the urea-induced unfolding of MalY has been monitored by gel filtration, cross-linking, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid) binding and by visible, near- and far-UV CD, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies under equilibrium conditions. Unfolding proceeds in at least three stages. The first transition, occurring between 0 and 1 M urea, gives rise to a partially active dimeric species that binds PLP. The second equilibrium transition involving dimer dissociation, release of PLP and loss of lyase activity leads to the formation of a monomeric equilibrium intermediate. It is a partially unfolded molecule that retains most of the native-state secondary structure, binds significant amounts of ANS (a probe for exposed hydrophobic surfaces) and tends to self-associate. The self-associated aggregates predominate at urea concentrations of 2-4 M for holoMalY. The third step represents the complete unfolding of the enzyme. These results when compared with the urea-induced unfolding profiles of apoMalY and NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme suggest that the coenzyme group attached to the active-site lysine residue increases the stability of the dimeric enzyme. Both holo- and apo-MalY could be successfully refolded into the active enzyme with an 85% yield. Further refolding studies suggest that large misfolded soluble aggregates that cannot be refolded could be responsible for the incomplete re-activation. PMID:15823094

  9. Heterogeneous Decomposition of Volatile Organic Compounds by Visible-Light Activated N, C, S-Embedded Titania.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ho-Hwan; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a N-, C-, and S-doped titania (NCS-TiO2) composite was prepared by combining the titanium precursor with a single dopant source, and the photocatalytic activity of this system for the decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at indoor-concentration levels, under exposure to visible light, was examined. The NCS-TiO2 composite and the pure TiO2 photocatalyst, used as a reference, were characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average efficiencies of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene decomposition using NCS-TiO2 for were 70, 87, -100, and -100%, respectively, whereas the values obtained using the pure TiO2 powder were -0, 18, 49, and 51%, respectively. These results suggested that, for the photocatalytic decomposition of toxic VOCs under visible-light exposure conditions, NCS-TiO2 was superior to the reference photocatalyst. The decomposition efficiencies of the target VOCs were inversely related to the initial concentration and relative humidity as well as to the air-flow rate. The decomposition efficiencies of the target chemicals achieved with a conventional lamp/NCS-TiO2 system were higher than those achieved with a light emitting diode/NCS-TiO2 system. Overall, NCS-TiO2 can be used for the efficient decomposition of VOCs under visible-light exposure, if the operational conditions are optimized.

  10. Efficient Cu-catalyzed base-free C-S coupling under conventional and microwave heating. A simple access to S-heterocycles and sulfides.

    PubMed

    Soria-Castro, Silvia M; Peñéñory, Alicia B

    2013-01-01

    S-aryl thioacetates can be prepared by reaction of inexpensive potassium thioacetate with both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl iodides under a base-free copper/ligand catalytic system. CuI as copper source affords S-aryl thioacetates in good to excellent yields, by using 1,10-phenanthroline as a ligand in toluene at 100 °C after 24 h. Under microwave irradiation the time was drastically reduced to 2 h. Both procedures are simple and involve a low-cost catalytic system. This methodology was also applied to the "one-pot" synthesis of target heterocycles, such as 3H-benzo[c][1,2]dithiol-3-one and 2-methylbenzothiazole, alkyl aryl sulfides, diaryl disulfides and asymmetric diaryl sulfides in good yields.

  11. An Investigation on the Relationship between the School Level of Funding and Performance at K.C.S.E. in Mumias District, Western Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisungo, Z.; Kaberia, L.; Buhere, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Kenyan government has been spending between 20% to 40% of its revenue on education with the aim to improving access and quality. Much of these resources have been devoted towards establishment and procurement of school inputs such as classrooms, teachers and textbooks. This study investigated the effects of funding on performance in Mumias…

  12. Will the S.C.C.'s Decision on Physician-Assisted Death Apply to Persons Suffering from Severe Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Walker-Renshaw, Barbara; Finley, Margot

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the authors address the question of whether the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Carter v. Canada leaves open the possibility that persons with severe, treatment-refractory mental illness may lawfully seek a physician-assisted death. If so, how will health care providers distinguish between suicidal ideation and intent that is a symptom of the pathology of a treatable mental illness, on the one hand; and suicidal ideation and intent that is, perhaps, a capable and thoughtful response to a "grievous and irremediable" condition, on the other hand? Mental illness is the most common risk factor for suicide. If physician-assisted death becomes an accepted practice in mental health care, how will that be reconciled with the well-established impetus in mental health care to prevent suicide? The authors consider the competing ethical values of beneficence and promoting patient autonomy, in the context of the recovery movement in mental health care. PMID:27169201

  13. Charge calculations in molecular mechanics 7: application to polar pi systems incorporating nitro, cyano, amino, C=S and thio substituents.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R J; Smith, P E

    1989-06-01

    A previously described method for calculating partial atomic charges in molecules has been applied to a variety of different functional groups with pi electrons. The pi charges have been determined by varying the relevant Hükel coulombic and resonance integrals so as to reproduce the experimental dipole moments of known compounds. These include nitro, cyano, mercapto and thiocarbonyl compounds, anilines and a series of heterocyclic ring compounds involving nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur atoms. The calculated dipole moments are in good agreement with experimental values and are a considerable improvement on other calculated values, while requiring only a fraction of the computational time necessary for more rigorous methods. The resulting pi densities compare favourably with other theoretical (CNDO, MNDO and STO-3G) methods. PMID:2778459

  14. G.I. Joe Meets Barbie, Software Engineer Meets Caregiver: Males and Females in B.C.'s Public Schools and Beyond. BCTF Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Anne C.

    Following a referral from the March 2000 Annual General Meeting of the British Columbia (B.C.) Teachers' Federation, the Spring 2000 Representative Assembly passed a motion that recommended research be collected, conducted, and disseminated on the current status of students in the province. This research report identifies current information on…

  15. Charlotte, N.C.'s Project L.I.F.T.: One Teacher's View of Becoming a Paid Teacher-Leader. An Opportunity Culture Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jiye Grace; Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2013-01-01

    Romain Bertrand is a middle school math teacher and Opportunity Culture enthusiast. As the 2012-13 school year wound down, he was already thoroughly looking forward to the next--when he will become a multi-classroom leader at Ranson IB Middle School, taking accountability for the learning results of 700 students. At Ranson, a Project L.I.F.T.…

  16. An Evaluation of the Attained Development of the Intellectual Skills Needed for "Understanding of the Nature of Scientific Enquiry" by B.S.C.S. Pupils in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, E.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to determine the development of the intellectual skills needed for understanding of the nature of scientific enquiry by BSCS pupils in Israel. (LC)

  17. Recognition of a novel type X═N-Hal···Hal (X = C, S, P; Hal = F, Cl, Br, I) halogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Gushchin, Pavel V; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Haukka, Matti; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2013-04-01

    The chlorination of the eight-membered platinum(II) chelates [PtCl2{NH═C(NR2)N(Ph)C(═NH)N(Ph)C(NR2)═NH}] (R = Me (1); R2 = (CH2)5 (2)) with uncomplexed imino group with Cl2 gives complexes bearing the ═N-Cl moiety [PtCl4{NH═C(NR2)N(Ph)C(═NCl)N(Ph)C(NR2)═NH}] (R = Me (3); R2 = (CH2)5 (4)). X-ray study for 3 revealed a novel type intermolecular halogen bonding ═N-Cl···Cl(-), formed between the Cl atom of the chlorinated imine and the chloride bound to the platinum(IV) center. The processing relevant structural data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSDB) shows that this type of halogen bonding is realized in 18 more molecular species having X═N-Hal moieties (X = C, P, S, V, W; Hal = Cl, Br, I), but this weak ═N-Hal···Hal(-) bonding was totally neglected in the previous works. The presence of the halogen bonding in 3 was confirmed by theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (DFT, M06-2X) level, and its nature was analyzed. PMID:23469756

  18. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys praecox C.D. Chu et C.S. Chao).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-jie; Ji, Rong; Hu, Ya-qin; Chen, Jian-chu; Ye, Xing-qian

    2011-09-01

    Three cooking methods, namely boiling, steaming, and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min, were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components, free amino acids, L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox). Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein, soluble sugar, and ash, and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%, respectively). Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods. Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil. After boiling, the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced, while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content). Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots. It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities.

  19. Dissolution rates of coals and graphite in Fe-C-S melts in direct ironmaking: Dependence of carbon dissolution rate on carbon structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.; Sahajwalla, V.

    2000-02-01

    It is commonly recognized that the rates of carbon dissolution from graphite as compared to that from glassy carbon are very different, although they are similar in composition and density. Previous studies have established that the liquid-side mass-transfer rate limitation mechanism could not account for the carbon dissolution from nongraphite carbon sources. It has been assumed that the carbon structure affects its dissolution rate in molten iron. In many in-bath direct smelting processes such as HISMELT, predicting the carbon dissolution rate of coals prior to their use in a smelting bath is crucial. In order to verify the relationship between the carbon dissolution rate and the structure of coals, carbon dissolution experiments were conducted in an induction to furnace using the carburizer cover method.

  20. Will the S.C.C.'s Decision on Physician-Assisted Death Apply to Persons Suffering from Severe Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Walker-Renshaw, Barbara; Finley, Margot

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the authors address the question of whether the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Carter v. Canada leaves open the possibility that persons with severe, treatment-refractory mental illness may lawfully seek a physician-assisted death. If so, how will health care providers distinguish between suicidal ideation and intent that is a symptom of the pathology of a treatable mental illness, on the one hand; and suicidal ideation and intent that is, perhaps, a capable and thoughtful response to a "grievous and irremediable" condition, on the other hand? Mental illness is the most common risk factor for suicide. If physician-assisted death becomes an accepted practice in mental health care, how will that be reconciled with the well-established impetus in mental health care to prevent suicide? The authors consider the competing ethical values of beneficence and promoting patient autonomy, in the context of the recovery movement in mental health care.

  1. Charlotte, N.C.'s Project L.I.F.T.: Ranson IB Middle School Launches an Opportunty Culture. An Opportunity Culture Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull; Han, Jiye Grace

    2015-01-01

    Principal Alison Harris is blunt in describing what she confronted on her arrival to Ranson IB Middle School in 2011. "I was placed in what many people would call an impossible situation," she says. During her initial visit to the school in 2009-10, she watched as students changed classes--while teachers pressed against the lockers to…

  2. A mixture of mantle and crustal derived He-Ar-C-S ore-forming fluids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; He, HuaiYu; Jin, LuYing

    2015-02-01

    Most large to huge porphyry Cu deposits (PCDs) are oxidized, making the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit (RPCD) a relative rarity. CH4-bearing ore-forming fluids formed at several hydrothermal stages, however, their source is still unclear. To address this issue, isotopic investigations of sulfide He-Ar-S and calcite C were conducted. Fluid inclusions hosted in sulfides (arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrite) showed 3He/4He ratios of 0.06-0.30 Ra (Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air = 1.39 × 10-6), 40Ar/36Ar of 311-405, 40Ar∗/4He of 0.06-1.01, and F4He ratios of 902-11,074 (sample BGT-Py 2 yielded a ratio of 100), indicating a predominantly crustal source for the fluids with minor mantle input (less than 5%). The δ13C values of carbonate yielded a value of -7.8‰ (n = 3), implying that CO2 was probably sourced from mantle or juvenile lower crust. According to the restricted sulfide δ34S values, the total S isotopic composition of the hydrothermal system was estimated to be 0.0-0.5‰, suggesting that the sulfur was derived from mantle or lower crust magmatic source. According to the published granitoids Nd isotopic compositions at the Baogutu RPCD, fairly young TDM model ages (450-650 Ma) suggest that the granitoids were derived from partial melting of a juvenile basaltic lower crust. Thus, we propose that small proportion of mantle-derived fluids (less than 5%), probably rise up and then mix with the fluids of juvenile lower crust under an extensional tectonic setting, forming the mantle-derived Sr-Nd-Pb-S-C but crustal He-Ar isotopic compositions.

  3. Charlotte, N.C.'s Project L.I.F.T.: New Teaching Roles Create Culture of Excellence in High-Need Schools. An Opportunity Culture Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jiye Grace; Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2013-01-01

    This case study reports on the work of Denise Watts, who in 2011 was the newly named Project L.I.F.T. executive director and a Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools zone superintendent. She approached Public Impact for help in meeting the new Project L.I.F.T. (Leadership and Investment for Transformation) goals. Facing urgent needs for real change, Watts…

  4. Prato and Bingel-Hirsch cycloaddition to heptagon-containing LaSc2N@C(s)(hept)-C80: importance of pentalene units.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingming; Popov, Alexey A

    2015-04-01

    Possible cycloaddition sites in the heptagon-containing fullerene LaSc2N@Cs(hept)-C80 are studied computationally. Thermodynamically controlled Prato addition is predicted to proceed regioselectively across the pentagon/pentagon (p/p) edges, whereas in the kinetically-controlled Bingel-Hirsch reaction the most reactive are carbons next to the p/p edge. PMID:25704065

  5. A facile method for the synthesis of copper modified amine-functionalized mesoporous zirconia and its catalytic evaluation in C-S coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sujata; Rana, Surjyakanta; Parida, Kulamani

    2011-09-28

    A new copper modified amine functionalized zirconia has been synthesized by a co-condensation method using zirconium butoxide and aminopropyltriethoxy-silane (APTES) in the presence of a cationic surfactant CTAB followed by impregnation of copper. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron micrography (SEM), transmittance electron micrography (TEM), thermo gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis DRS spectroscopic tools are used to characterize the materials. FT-IR and DRS results indicated the incorporation of Cu and amino groups on the surface of zirconia. This Cu-anchored mesoporous material acts as an efficient, reusable catalyst in the aryl-sulfur coupling reaction between aryl iodide and thiophenol for the synthesis of value added diarylsulfides. PMID:21826356

  6. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys praecox C.D. Chu et C.S. Chao)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-jie; Ji, Rong; Hu, Ya-qin; Chen, Jian-chu; Ye, Xing-qian

    2011-01-01

    Three cooking methods, namely boiling, steaming, and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min, were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components, free amino acids, L-ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents, and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox). Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein, soluble sugar, and ash, and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%, respectively). Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods. Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil. After boiling, the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced, while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content). Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots. It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities. PMID:21887851

  7. Electron spin resonance studies on the organic linear-chain compounds (TMTCF)2X (C=S,Se X=PF6,AsF6,ClO4,Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumm, M.; Loidl, A.; Fravel, B. W.; Starkey, K. P.; Montgomery, L. K.; Dressel, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have conducted comprehensive electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations on single crystals of the one-dimensional organic compounds (TMTTF)2PF6, (TMTTF)2ClO4, (TMTTF)2Br, (TMTSF)2PF6, and (TMTSF)2AsF6 in the temperature range from 4 to 500 K and additionally, (TMTSF)2ReO4 and (TMTSF)2ClO4 at room temperature. In contrast to the selenium analogs TMTSF which are one-dimensional metals, the sulfur salts are semiconductors with localized spins on the TMTTF dimers. Taking into account the thermal expansion of the crystals at high temperature (T>20 K) the ESR intensity of all sulfur compounds can be described as a spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain with exchange constants 420<=J<=500 K. Although the TMTSF compounds are one-dimensional organic metals down to 10 K, the temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility can also be described within the framework of the Hubbard model in the limit of strong Coulomb repulsion with J~1400 K. By modeling (TMTTF)2ClO4 as an alternating spin chain, the change of the alternation parameter at the first-order phase transition (TAO=72.5 K) indicates a tetramerization of the chain. (TMTTF)2PF6 undergoes a spin-Peierls transition at TSP=19 K which can be well described by Bulaevskii's model with a singlet-triplet gap Δσ(0)=32.3 K. We find evidence of antiferromagnetic fluctuations at temperatures well above the magnetic ordering in (TMTTF)2Br, (TMTSF)2PF6, and (TMTSF)2AsF6 which follow the critical behavior expected for three-dimensional ordering. (TMTTF)2PF6 and (TMTTF)2Br show one-dimensional lattice fluctuations.

  8. "The Trees of Knowledge and Life Growing Together" in the Educational Vision of C. S. Lewis: Why Medway and Stevens Are Almost Right about Enlightenment and Romantic Values in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Peter Medway's paper "English and Enlightenment" ("Changing English," 2010) and David Stevens' response to it, "Critically Enlightened Romantic Values and English Pedagogy: A Response to Peter Medway" ("Changing English," 2011), address the relative merits of the quest for truth and the place of aesthetic…

  9. Gold deposition by sulfidation of ferrous Fe in the lacustrine sediments of the Pueblo Viejo district (Dominican Republic): The effect of Fe-C-S diagenesis on later hydrothermal mineralization in a Maar-Diatreme complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kettler, R.M.; Rye, R.O.; Kesler, S.E.; Meyers, P.A.; Polanco, J.; Russell, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Pueblo Viejo district, located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, contains large Au-Ag deposits associated with acid-sulfate alteration within spilites, conglomerates and carbonaceous sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a maar-diatreme complex. Much of the Au mineralization occurs in pyritic, carbonaceous siltstones of the Pueblo Viejo Maar-Diatreme Member of the Cretaceous Los Ranchos Formation. Pyrite is the only Fe-bearing phase in mineralized rock, whereas siderite is the dominant Fe-bearing phase in siltstones distal to mineralization. Disseminated pyrite occurs as framboids, cubes, pyritohedra, concretions and cement. Early framboids occur throughout the district. Au occurs as inclusions in later non-framboid disseminated pyrite (NFDP); an occurrence that is interpreted to be indicative of contemporaneous deposition. Pyrite framboids exhibit a wide range of ??34Scdt-values (-17.5 to +4.8???) and are interpreted to have formed during biogenic reduction of pore-water sulfate. The NFDP yield restricted ??34Scdt-values ( x ?? = -5.2???, s = ??2.4???, n = 43) similar to those obtained from later vein pyrite ( x ?? = -6.4???, s = ??1.5???, n = 12). Alunite and barite have ??34S-values ranging from +18.8 to +21.6???. The interpretation that the NFDP, vein pyrite, alunite and barite, and possibly even the framboidal pyrite share a common source of igneous sulfur is supported by the ??34S data. Siderite occurs as concretions and cement, contains abundant Mg (Fe0.75Mg0.19Mn0.03Ca0.02CO3) and has ??13Cpdb- and ??18Osmow-values ranging from -2.5 to +1.1%. and +14.6 to +19.5???, respectively. These data are consistent with the interpretation that the siderite formed in lacustrine sediments and that the carbonate in the siderite is probably methanogenic, although contributions from oxidation of organic matter during biogenic sulfate reduction, thermal decarboxylation of organic matter, or magmatic vapor cannot be ruled out. Disseminated Au mineralization in the sedimentary rocks formed when a hydrothermal fluid encountered reactive Fe2+ in diagenetic siderite. The ensuing pyrite deposition consumed H2S and destabilized the Au (HS)-2 complex, leading to precipitation of Au. The capacity of the sedimentary rocks to consume H2S and precipitate Au was controlled by the amount of non-pyrite Fe present as siderite. The abundance of siderite was controlled by the extent of pyrite formation during diagenesis. ?? 1992.

  10. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, J.; Lapidaryus, M.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antonoff-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)-Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)-fixed-point base=units=scale-invariance proven Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann. 7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac, Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons were always digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic "square-of-opposition" : FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of "short-cut method";1870)-Polya(1922)-"Anderson"(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell, Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!].

  11. Cu-catalyzed Fe-driven C(sp)-C(sp) and C(s)p-C(sp2) cross-coupling: an access to 1,3-diynes and 1,3-enynes.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Sabir; Kundu, Debasish; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2014-08-15

    An efficient Csp-Csp cross-coupling of alkynyl bromide and pinacol ester of alkynyl boronic acid catalyzed by CuFe2O4 nanoparticles has been accomplished in dimethyl carbonate to produce unsymmetric 1,3-diynes. This protocol is also extended for the Csp-Csp2 coupling of alkynyl bromide and alkenyl boronic acid to provide conjugated 1,3-enynes. The aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic alkynes couple with various substituted alkynyl/alkenyl boronates/boronic acids by this procedure to furnish a library of 1,3-diynes and enynes in high yields. The catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and recycled 10 times. PMID:25046329

  12. Charlotte, N.C.'s Project L.I.F.T.: Ashley Park PreK-8 Launches Multi-Classroom Leadership and Blended Learning. An Opportunity Culture Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull; Han, Jiye Grace

    2015-01-01

    Tonya Kales came to Ashley Park PreK-8 as its principal (2009-2013), and confronted a school at the end of its rope. Ashley Park was a beautiful facility, but there was no learning going on in the building, it was a chaotic environment for both kids and adults. It was a hostile environment--had adults that were totally incompetent in their…

  13. (R C,S Fe)-1-[3,5-Bis(trifluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]-3-{1-[2-(diphenyl-phosphan-yl)ferro-cen-yl]eth-yl}thio-urea (unknown solvate).

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Ma, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Ru

    2013-05-01

    In the molecule of the the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C28H22F6N2PS)], the absolute configuration is R C ,SFe . The dihedral angle between the trifluoro-methyl-substituted phenyl ring and the thio-urea plane is 41.8 (9)°. The iron atom is bound to the cyclo-penta-dienyl rings in the typical η(5)-manner in a close to eclipsed conformation. The crystal structure features N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, with the S atom as an acceptor for both N-H groups, forming a layered arrangement parallel to (1-10). The two -CF3 groups are each disordered over two positions with refined occupancy rates for the major components of 0.66 (7) and 0.55 (5). The crystal was grown from mixed solvents (n-hexane and ethyl acetate). These solvents are disordered in the crystal and the resulting electron density was found to be uninterpretable. The solvent contribution to the structure factors was taken into account by back-Fourier transformation of all density found in the disordered solvent area using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The formula mass and density do not take account of the solvent. PMID:23723760

  14. Eye-Tracking Investigations Exploring How Students Learn Geology from Photographs and The Structural Setting of Hydrothermal Gold Deposits in the San Antonio Area, B.C.S., MX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyan, Joshua

    Geoscience educators commonly teach geology by projecting a photograph in front of the class. Geologic photographs often contain animals, people, and inanimate objects that help convey the scale of features in the photograph. Although scale items seem innocuous to instructors and other experts, the presence of such items is distracting and has a profound effect on student learning behavior. To evaluate how students visually interact with distracting scale items in photographs and to determine if cueing or signaling is an effective means to direct students to pertinent information, students were eye tracked while looking at geologically-rich photographs. Eye-tracking data revealed that learners primarily looked at the center of an image, focused on faces of both humans and animals if they were present, and repeatedly returned to looking at the scale item (distractor) for the duration an image was displayed. The presence of a distractor caused learners to look at less of an image than when a distractor was not present. Learners who received signaling tended to look at the distractor less, look at the geology more, and surveyed more of the photograph than learners who did not receive signaling. The San Antonio area in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula is host to hydrothermal gold deposits. A field study, including drill-core analysis and detailed geologic mapping, was conducted to determine the types of mineralization present, the types of structures present, and the relationship between the two. This investigation revealed that two phases of mineralization have occurred in the area; the first is hydrothermal deposition of gold associated with sulfide deposits and the second is oxidation of sulfides to hematite, goethite, and jarosite. Mineralization varies as a function of depth, whereas sulfides occurring at depth, while minerals indicative of oxidation are limited to shallow depths. A structural analysis revealed that the oldest structures in the study area include low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic foliation and ductile mylonitic shear zones overprinted by brittle-ductile mylonitic fabrics, which were later overprinted by brittle deformation. Both primary and secondary mineralization in the area is restricted to the later brittle features. Alteration-bearing structures have an average NNW strike consistent with northeast-southwest-directed extension, whereas unaltered structures have an average NNE strike consistent with more recent northwest-southeast-directed extension.

  15. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin From Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-12-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely rifted plate margin, gravity surveys were conducted across the normal-fault-bounded basins within the gulf-margin array and, along with optically stimulated luminescence dating of offset surfaces, fault-slip rates were estimated and fault patterns across basins were assessed, providing insight into sedimentary basin evolution. Additionally, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps were constructed along two faults within the system, leading to a more complete understanding of the role of individual normal faults within a larger array. These faults slip at a low rate (0.1--1 mm/yr) and have relatively shallow hanging wall basins (˜500--3000 m). Overall, the gulf-margin faults accommodate protracted, distributed deformation at a low rate and provide a minor contribution to overall rifting. Integrating figures with text can lead to greater science learning than when either medium is presented alone. Textbooks, composed of text and graphics, are a primary source of content in most geology classes. It is essential to understand how students approach learning from text and figures in textbook-style learning materials and how the arrangement of the text and figures influences their learning approach. Introductory geology students were eye tracked while learning from textbook-style materials composed of text and graphics. Eye fixation data showed that students spent less time examining the figure than the text, but the students who more frequently examined the figure tended to improve more from the pretest to the posttest. In general, students tended to examine the figure at natural breaks in the reading. Textbook-style materials should, therefore, be formatted to include a number of natural breaks so that learners can pause to inspect the figure without the risk of losing their place in the reading and to provide a chance to process the material in small chunks. Multimedia instructional materials should be designed to support the cognitive processes of the learner.

  16. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin from Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-01-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely…

  17. Riemann-Hypothesis Millennium-Problem(MP) Physics Proof via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F =C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, Joao-Joan; Lapidaryus, Michelle; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2013-03-01

    Riemann-hypothesis physics-proof combines: Siegel-Antono®-Smith[AMS Joint Mtg.(2002)- Abs.973-03-126] digits on-average statistics HIll[Am. J. Math 123, 3, 887(1996)] logarithm-function's (1,0)- xed-point base =units =scale-invariance proven Newcomb [Am. J. Math. 4, 39(1881)]-Weyl[Goett. Nachr.(1914); Math. Ann.7, 313(1916)]-Benford[Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 78, 4, 51(1938)]-law [Kac,Math. of Stat.-Reasoning(1955); Raimi, Sci. Am. 221, 109(1969)] algebraic-inversion to ONLY Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) with digit d = 0 gapFUL Bose-Einstein Condensation(BEC) insight that digits are quanta are bosons because bosons are and always were quanta are and always were digits, via Siegel-Baez category-semantics tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics in Plato-Aristotle classic ''square-of-opposition'' : FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS/Category-Semantics, with Goodkind Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) ABOVE ground-state with/and Rayleigh(cut-limit of ''short-cut method''1870)-Polya(1922)-''Anderson''(1958) localization [Doyle and Snell,Random-Walks and Electrical-Networks, MAA(1981)-p.99-100!!!] in Brillouin[Wave-Propagation in Periodic-Structures(1946) Dover(1922)]-Hubbard-Beeby[J.Phys.C(1967)] Siegel[J.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(1980)] generalized-disorder collective-boson negative-dispersion mode-softening universality-principle(G...P) first use of the ``square-of-opposition'' in physics since Plato and Aristote!!!

  18. Total Syntheses and Initial Evaluation of [Ψ[C(=S)NH]Tpg4]vancomycin, [Ψ[C(=NH)NH]Tpg4]vancomycin, [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin and their (4-Chlorobiphenyl)methyl Derivatives: Synergistic Binding Pocket and Peripheral Modifications for the Glycopeptide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Akinori; Nakayama, Atsushi; Wu, Kejia; Lindsey, Erick A.; Schammel, Alex W.; Feng, Yiqing; Collins, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Full details of studies are disclosed on the total synthesis of binding pocket analogues of vancomycin, bearing the peripheral L-vancosaminyl-1,2-D-glucosyl disaccharide, that contain changes to a key single atom in the residue 4 amide (residue 4 carbonyl O → S, NH, H2) designed to directly address the underlying molecular basis of resistance to vancomycin. Also disclosed are studies piloting the late stage transformations conducted on the synthetically more accessible C-terminus hydroxymethyl aglycon derivatives and full details of the peripheral chlorobiphenyl functionalization of all the binding pocket modified vancomycin analogues designed for dual D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding are reported. Their collective assessment indicate that combined binding pocket and chlorobiphenyl peripherally modified analogues exhibit a remarkable spectrum of antimicrobial activity (VSSA, MRSA, VanA and VanB VRE) and impressive potencies against both vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MICs = 0.06–0.005 μg/mL and 0.5–0.06 μg/mL for the amidine and methylene analogues, respectively) and likely benefit from two independent and synergistic mechanisms of action, only one of which is dependent on D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding. Such analogues are likely to display especially durable antibiotic activity not prone to rapidly acquired clinical resistance. PMID:25750995

  19. Soil C sequestration and agronomic yield of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual ...

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates synthesised by reactive milling

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Leon . E-mail: l.black@shu.ac.uk; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Stemmermann, Peter; Schild, Dieter

    2006-06-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyse a series of mechanochemically synthesised, nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples, with Ca/Si ratios of 0.2 to 1.5, showed structural features of C-S-H(I). XPS analysis revealed changes in the extent of silicate polymerisation. Si 2p, Ca 2p and O 1s spectra showed that, unlike for the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases studied previously, there was no evidence of silicate sheets (Q{sup 3}) at low Ca/Si ratios. Si 2p and O 1s spectra indicated silicate depolymerisation, expressed by decreasing silicate chain length, with increasing C/S. In all spectra, peak narrowing was observed with increasing Ca/Si, indicating increased structural ordering. The rapid changes of the slope of FWHM of Si 2p, {delta} {sub Ca-Si} and {delta} {sub NBO-BO} as function of C/S ratio indicated a possible miscibility gap in the C-S-H-solid solution series between C/S 5/6 and 1. The modified Auger parameter ({alpha}') of nanocrystalline C-S-H decreased with increasing silicate polymerisation, a trend already observed studying crystalline C-S-H. Absolute values of {alpha}' were shifted about - 0.7 eV with respect to crystalline phases of equal C/S ratio, due to reduced crystallinity.

  1. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  2. Chiari Malformation: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... endorse any doctors, procedures, or products. © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® Treatment Options Patients evaluated for Chiari-like ... when there is a significant syrinx © 2012 C&S Patient Education Foundation, ® This presentation is for informational purposes, consult ...

  3. Telemedicine Service Use: A New Metric

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy makers and funding agencies require relevant information on current practices of the use of telemedicine infrastructure and services. Several metrics have been used to describe average use of telemedicine services. None are adequate. Objective To identify and assess a new metric–consultations per site per week (C/S/W). Methods To determine existing usage, all papers and abstracts published between January 2005 and December 2009 in the Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare and Telemedicine Journal and eHealth were reviewed. Pilot studies, research projects, services reporting less than one year’s data and teleradiology services were excluded. Results In total, 210 reports of telemedicine services were identified, 77 of which provided sufficient data to calculate C/S/W. Average use was low, 1.8±3.5 (median 0.7) C/S/W, with 61% of services reporting less than 1 C/S/W and 71% reporting 2 or fewer C/S/W. Studies reporting on data from 2006 to 2009 showed less use (average 1.5±2.3; median 0.7 C/S/W) than earlier reports from 1996 to 2005 (1.7±2.5; median 0.7 C/S/W). Conclusions The use of this new metric, C/S/W, is proposed as a standard measure of telemedicine service use. The generally low results opens debate about how well current clinical services are used. PMID:23253897

  4. 77 FR 18795 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... empower consumers to improve their financial decision- making skills and outcomes. The CFPB expects to... to consumers with the goal of improving consumers' financial decision-making skills and outcomes... literacy and decision-making skills. \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. s. 5493(d)(1). \\2\\ 12 U.S.C. s. 5493(b)(1). In...

  5. Developing Consumer/Survivor/Recovering Voice and Its Impact on Services and Research: Our Experience with the SAMHSA Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockus, Susan; Mars, Laura Cinq; Ovard, Dorothy Guazzo; Mazelis, Ruta; Bjelajac, Paula; Grady, Janice; LaClair, Christine; Livingston, Cardenia; Slavin, Sharon; Williams, Susan; McKinney, Jacki

    2005-01-01

    Integrating consumer/survivor/recovering (C/S/R) women in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence Study involved both struggles and growth. The C/S/R women and all of our professional allies, both individually and collectively, greatly enhanced the study by overcoming what earlier…

  6. 76 FR 48946 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 12978 (60 FR 54579... Alzate S.C.S., Cali, Colombia; c/o Outsourcing De Operaciones S.A., Bogota, Colombia; c/o Turismo Hansa S... S.C.S., Calle 16 Norte No. 9N-41, Cali, Colombia; NIT 805009126-0 (Colombia) 8. Outsourcing...

  7. Mass density and water content of saturated never-dried calcium silicate hydrates.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Julio C; Trtik, Pavel; Diaz, Ana; Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Raabe, Jörg; Bunk, Oliver; Menzel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) are the most abundant hydration products in ordinary Portland cement paste. Yet, despite the critical role they play in determining mechanical and transport properties, there is still a debate about their density and exact composition. Here, the site-specific mass density and composition of C-S-H in hydrated cement paste are determined with nanoscale resolution in a nondestructive approach. We used ptychographic X-ray computed tomography in order to determine spatially resolved mass density and water content of the C-S-H within the microstructure of the cement paste. Our findings indicate that the C-S-H at the border of hydrated alite particles possibly have a higher density than the apparent inner-product C-S-H, which is contrary to the common expectations from previous works on hydrated cement paste.

  8. Possible role of cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase in species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Rieko; Nagata, Saori; Iida, Hiroko; Yamagishi, Norio; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2011-09-01

    To better understand species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we focused on renal cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase (C-S lyase), which may play a crucial role in the metabolism of platinum (Pt)-cysteine conjugates. Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride (AOAA), an inhibitor of C-S lyase, reduced renal injuries due to cisplatin in rats, suggesting involvement of C-S lyase. On day 5 following a bolus cisplatin injection, three species showed in vivo nephrotoxic potentials in the order of rats>mice=rabbits (the highest to lowest), based on body surface. The levels of renal Pt residue at the nephrotoxic dose were in order of rabbits>rats>mice. Meanwhile, the activity of endogenous (basal) mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (AST), one of the C-S lyases, in the renal cortex of naive animals was rats>mice=rabbits. In a qualitative Western blot analysis, expression of mitochondrial C-S lyase in the kidney was observed at approximately 37kDa in all five species used. In in vitro studies, the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was dependent on the expression level of C-S lyase mRNA in the respective renal cells. These results demonstrate that species differences in cisplatin nephrotoxicity are attributable to an interaction of renal Pt transition with C-S lyase activity.

  9. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  10. A Case of Type 2 Youssef's Syndrome following Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Obuz, Funda

    2016-01-01

    Vesicouterine fistula is a rare type of urogenital fistulas. It is most commonly observed after cesarean section (C/S) due to iatrogenic reasons. In this article, a case of a vesicouterine fistula which developed after C/S operation is presented. This was the patient's second C/S and this time placenta previa totalis was the primary pathology. Since it is a rare complication, we found it interesting, and, in this article, this clinical problem was discussed with details about diagnosis and treatment in light of the literature. PMID:27803827

  11. Correlation between circulating schistosomal antigen, schistosomal complement C3 and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Rashed, S M; Khashaba, A; Madwar, M A; Rafik, M M; Abul Fadl, A A; Shash, A M

    1990-06-01

    53.7% of the already parasitologically proved schistosomiasis cases showed circulating schistosomal antigen (C.S.A.) in their sera with significantly higher levels than the controls, with no correlation between the level of C.S.A. and the foecal egg count. Significant higher levels of schistosomal complement C3 were found in schistosomiasis patients as compared to the control group, with no significant difference in the mean level of C3 between patients with positive and negative C.S.A.

  12. 12 CFR 560.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) If a loan or other investment is authorized under more than one section of the HOLA, as amended, or... with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent that funds have been advanced...

  13. 12 CFR 560.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) If a loan or other investment is authorized under more than one section of the HOLA, as amended, or... with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent that funds have been advanced...

  14. 12 CFR 160.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section of the HOLA, as amended, or this part, a Federal savings association may designate under which... purposes of calculating compliance with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent...

  15. 12 CFR 160.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section of the HOLA, as amended, or this part, a Federal savings association may designate under which... purposes of calculating compliance with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent...

  16. 12 CFR 160.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section of the HOLA, as amended, or this part, a Federal savings association may designate under which... purposes of calculating compliance with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent...

  17. 12 CFR 560.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) If a loan or other investment is authorized under more than one section of the HOLA, as amended, or... with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent that funds have been advanced...

  18. Response to Reichardt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, L. B.

    2000-01-01

    Responds to C. S. Reichardt's discussion of regression artifacts, random measurement error, and change scores. Emphasizes that attention to regression artifacts in program evaluation is almost bound to be problematic and proposes some arguments in support of this position. (SLD)

  19. Chiari Malformation: Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause tinnitus (ringing in the ears), depth perception, running into walls and tripping. © 2012 C&S Patient ... Of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning What We Know: Many ...

  20. Effect of Heating Rate on Recrystallization of Twin Roll Cast Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Naiyu; Patterson, Burton R.; Suni, Jaakko P.; Doherty, Roger D.; Weiland, Hasso; Kadolkar, Puja; Blue, Craig A.; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of heating rate on precipitation and recrystallization behavior in twin roll cast (TRC) AA3105 has been investigated by three different means: conventional air furnace, controlled infrared, and lead bath heating. Experimental results showed that as-recrystallized grain size decreased and became more equiaxed as the annealing heating rate increased. These results were explained via time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves for both dispersoid precipitation and recrystallization. With the faster heating rate, recrystallization could occur before precipitation of Mn present in the unhomogenized TRC samples. At a heating rate of 50 °C/s, the material underwent grain growth after recrystallization at 500 °C. No sign of grain growth was observed in materials annealed with lower heating rates, 3 °C/s, 0.5 °C/s, and 0.01 °C/s, due to greater dispersoid precipitation.

  1. 15 CFR 748.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., references to the Export Administration Regulations or EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C...'s Simplified Network Application Processing system (SNAP-R), unless BIS authorizes submission...

  2. The Copper-nicotinamide complex: sustainable applications in coupling and cycloaddition reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crystalline copper (II)-nicotinamide complex, synthesized via simple mixing of copper chloride and nicotinamide solution at room temperature, catalyzes the C-S, C-N bond forming and cycloaddition reactions under a variety of sustainable reaction conditions.

  3. 12 CFR 560.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) If a loan or other investment is authorized under more than one section of the HOLA, as amended, or... with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent that funds have been advanced...

  4. 12 CFR 560.31 - Election regarding categorization of loans or investments and related calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) If a loan or other investment is authorized under more than one section of the HOLA, as amended, or... with HOLA section 5(c)'s investment limitations only to the extent that funds have been advanced...

  5. The effects of moisture on the microstructure of cement-based materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, H.M.

    1993-07-15

    New information about shrinkage at the microstructural level has been acquired. Experiments and computer analysis serve as a basis for modeling. Some highlights: C-S-H (shrinking phase) shrinks and values for dimensional change are being determined. There may be two types of C-S-H, only one of which shrinks. All other phases serve as restraints to shrinkage. Pores expand on drying and therefore may be a mechanism for the ``size effect``, in addition to microcracks.

  6. Giving Teachers Useful Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A vast gulf in academic achievement separates public schools in Washington, D.C.'s poorest neighborhoods from those in its most affluent. Achievement Prep, which serves 4th-8th graders in D.C.'s impoverished 8th Ward, is an outlier. Yet in 2011, 60% of Achievement Prep's "scholars" scored proficient or advanced in reading on the DC-CAS tests,…

  7. Results from the 2010 INMM International Containment and Surveillance Workshop focused on Concepts for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Tolk, Keith M; Keel, Frances M; Lamontagne, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop, 'Containment & Surveillance (C/S): Concepts for the 21st Century,' June 6-11, 2010, at the Oak National Laboratory, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development and Office of Nonproliferation and International Security sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions by subject matter experts and international practitioners addressed daily topical themes encompassing the following areas of C/S: authentication; tagging, sealing, and containment verification; and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed by a question-and-answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile information and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors; technology providers; vendors; students; and individuals with an interest in, or desire to learn about, future C/S system needs. The primary goal of the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This talk will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop.

  8. Ethylene is Involved in Brassinosteroids Induced Alternative Respiratory Pathway in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Jie; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhu, Tong; Zheng, Ting; Li, Peng-Xu; Wu, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 μM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs) relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (C S ACS1), ripening-related ACC synthase2 (C S ACS2), ripening-related ACC synthase3 (C S ACS3), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (C S ACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (C S ACO2), and C S AOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor) and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  9. Structural stability and electronic property of C68X4 (X=H, F, and Cl) fullerene compounds.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Wei; Feng, Jing-Dong; Sun, Li-Li; Wang, Feng-Di; Sun, Hao; Chang, Ying-Fei; Wang, Rong-Shun

    2010-06-01

    A systematic study on the geometrical structures and electronic properties of C(68)X(4) (X=H, F, and Cl) fullerene compounds has been carried out on the basis of density functional theory. In all classical C(68)X(4) isomers with two adjacent pentagons and one quasifullerene isomer [C(s):C(68)(f)] containing a heptagon in the framework, the C(s):0064 isomers are most favorable in energy. The addition reaction energies of C(68)X(4) (C(s):0064) are high exothermic, and C(68)F(4) is more thermodynamically accessible. The C(68)X(4) (C(s):0064) possess strong aromatic character, with nucleus independent chemical shifts ranging from -22.0 to -26.1 ppm. Further investigations on electronic properties indicate that C(68)F(4) and C(68)Cl(4) could be excellent electron-acceptors for potential photonic/photovoltaic applications in consequence of their large vertical electron affinities (3.29 and 3.15 eV, respectively). The Mulliken charge populations and partial density of states are also calculated, which show that decorating C(68) fullerene with various X atoms will cause remarkably different charge distributions in C(68)X(4) (C(s):0064) and affect their electronic properties distinctly. Finally, the infrared spectra of the most stable C(68)X(4) (C(s):0064) molecules are simulated to assist further experimental characterization.

  10. Studies of the development of brain barrier systems to lipid insoluble molecules in fetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Dziegielewska, K M; Evans, C A; Malinowska, D H; Møllgård, K; Reynolds, J M; Reynolds, M L; Saunders, N R

    1979-01-01

    1. The development of the blood-brain and blood-c.s.f barriers to lipid insoluble substances of different molecular radii has been studied in fetal sheep, early (60 days) and late (125 days) in gestation, using labelled erythritol (C14), sucrose (3H or 14C), inulin (3H or 14C) and albumin (125I), or albumin and IgG detected by immunoassay. 2. Morphological studies of fetal brain and choroid plexus at the same gestational stages were carried out using thin section electron microscopy and the freeze fracture techniques. 3. Penetration of markers into c.s.f. was substantially greater at 60 days than at 125 days, but at both ages the steady-state level achieved appeared to be related to molecular size. 4. A simple model describing penetration from blood into c.s.f. at 60 days is proposed. It involves the assumption that c.s.f. and brain extracellular fluid are effectively separate compartments; morphological and permeability data which supports this assumption is presented. The data for c.s.f. at 60 days are consistent with the suggestion that the markers penetrate into c.s.f. by diffusion and are not restricted by small pores in the interface between blood and c.s.f. 5. The reduction in penetration which occurred by 125 days for all markers except erythritol appears to be accounted for by an increase in the sink effect and a decrease in the effective surface area for exchange between blood and c.s.f. 6. Intercellular tight junctions of both cerebral endothelial cells and choroid plexus epithelial cells were well formed at 60 days gestation. There was no change in junctional characteristics previously thought to correlate with transepithelial permeability (tight junction depth and strand number) between the two ages studied, although there were marked changes in permeability. 7. Evidence is advanced in support of the hypothesis that in the fetus much of the penetration of lipid insoluble non-polar substances across the blood-c.s.f. barrier and perhaps across the blood

  11. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  12. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. . E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-07-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  13. Towards a Map of Solidification Cracking Risk in Laser Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermejo, María-Asunción Valiente; DebRoy, Tarasankar; Hurtig, Kjell; Karlsson, Leif; Svensson, Lars-Erik

    In this work, two series of specimens with Hammar and Svensson's Cr- and Ni-equivalents (Creq+Nieq) = 35 and 45 wt% were used to cover a wide range of austenitic grades. These were laser welded with different energy inputs achieving cooling rates in the range of 103 °C/s to 104 °C/s. As high cooling rates and rapid solidification conditions could favour fully austenitic solidification and therefore raise susceptibility to solidification cracking, the solidification modes of the laser welded specimens were compared to the ones experienced by the same alloys under arc welding conditions. It was found that high cooling rates experienced in laser welding promoted fully austenitic solidification for a wider range of compositions, for example specimens with (Creq+Nieq) = 35% under arc welding cooling conditions at 10 °C/s showed fully austenitic solidification up to Creq/Nieq = 1.30, whilst the same specimens laser cooled at 103 °C/s showed fully austenitic solidification up to Creq/Nieq = 1.50 and those cooled at 104 °C/s showed it up to Creq/Nieq = 1.68. Therefore, high cooling rates extended the solidification cracking risk to a wider range of Creq/Nieq values. This work also compares the cooling rates experimentally determined by thermocouples to the computed cooling rates calculated by a highly-advanced computational model. The distance between the thermocouple's wires and the thermal resistance of thermocouples together with the small size of the weld pools proved to be practical limitations in the experimental determination of cooling rates. However, an excellent agreement was found between computed and experimental solidus isotherms at high energy input settings. For low energy input settings cooling rate was in the order of magnitude of 104 °C/s, whilst for high energy input settings cooling rate was found to be in the order of magnitude of 103 °C/s.

  14. Characterization and machine learning prediction of allele-specific DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    He, Jianlin; Sun, Ming-an; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Qianfei; Li, Qing; Xie, Hehuang

    2015-12-01

    A large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) has been identified in the human genome. Currently, the epigenetic influences of SNPs on their neighboring CpG sites remain elusive. A growing body of evidence suggests that locus-specific information, including genomic features and local epigenetic state, may play important roles in the epigenetic readout of SNPs. In this study, we made use of mouse methylomes with known SNPs to develop statistical models for the prediction of SNP associated allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM). ASM has been classified into parent-of-origin dependent ASM (P-ASM) and sequence-dependent ASM (S-ASM), which comprises scattered-S-ASM (sS-ASM) and clustered-S-ASM (cS-ASM). We found that P-ASM and cS-ASM CpG sites are both enriched in CpG rich regions, promoters and exons, while sS-ASM CpG sites are enriched in simple repeat and regions with high frequent SNP occurrence. Using Lasso-grouped Logistic Regression (LGLR), we selected 21 out of 282 genomic and methylation related features that are powerful in distinguishing cS-ASM CpG sites and trained the classifiers with machine learning techniques. Based on 5-fold cross-validation, the logistic regression classifier was found to be the best for cS-ASM prediction with an ACC of 0.77, an AUC of 0.84 and an MCC of 0.54. Lastly, we applied the logistic regression classifier on human brain methylome and predicted 608 genes associated with cS-ASM. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis indicated that these cS-ASM associated genes are significantly enriched in the category coding for transcripts with alternative splicing forms. In summary, this study provided an analytical procedure for cS-ASM prediction and shed new light on the understanding of different types of ASM events.

  15. Monte Carlo evaluation of the convolution/superposition algorithm of Hi-Art tomotherapy in heterogeneous phantoms and clinical cases

    SciTech Connect

    Sterpin, E.; Salvat, F.; Olivera, G.; Vynckier, S.

    2009-05-15

    The reliability of the convolution/superposition (C/S) algorithm of the Hi-Art tomotherapy system is evaluated by using the Monte Carlo model TomoPen, which has been already validated for homogeneous phantoms. The study was performed in three stages. First, measurements with EBT Gafchromic film for a 1.25x2.5 cm{sup 2} field in a heterogeneous phantom consisting of two slabs of polystyrene separated with Styrofoam were compared to simulation results from TomoPen. The excellent agreement found in this comparison justifies the use of TomoPen as the reference for the remaining parts of this work. Second, to allow analysis and interpretation of the results in clinical cases, dose distributions calculated with TomoPen and C/S were compared for a similar phantom geometry, with multiple slabs of various densities. Even in conditions of lack of lateral electronic equilibrium, overall good agreement was obtained between C/S and TomoPen results, with deviations within 3%/2 mm, showing that the C/S algorithm accounts for modifications in secondary electron transport due to the presence of a low density medium. Finally, calculations were performed with TomoPen and C/S of dose distributions in various clinical cases, from large bilateral head and neck tumors to small lung tumors with diameter of <3 cm. To ensure a ''fair'' comparison, identical dose calculation grid and dose-volume histogram calculator were used. Very good agreement was obtained for most of the cases, with no significant differences between the DVHs obtained from both calculations. However, deviations of up to 4% for the dose received by 95% of the target volume were found for the small lung tumors. Therefore, the approximations in the C/S algorithm slightly influence the accuracy in small lung tumors even though the C/S algorithm of the tomotherapy system shows very good overall behavior.

  16. Differences in airway reactivity in normal and allergic sheep after exposure to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Oliver, W. Jr.; Welker, M.J.; King, M.M.; Wanner, A.; Sackner, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheep. Allergic sheep were defined as animals in which inhalation of Axcaris suum extract resulted in bronchospasm as evidenced by an increase in mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL), hyperinflation, and a fall in dynamic compliance. Airway reactivity was assessed by measuring the increase of RL after 18 breaths of 0.25% carbachol (c), from an initial RL value obtained after 18 breaths of buffered saline (s) (RL(c-s)). RL and RL(c-s) were determined prior to, immediately after, and 24 h after exposure to 5 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. In both groups RL remained unchanged after SO/sub 2/ exposure. Prior to exposure, RL(c-s) was not significantly different in seven normal (0.3 +/- 0.1) and seven allergic sheep (0.4 +/- 0.2 (SD) cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s), and there was no significant change in RL (c-s) immediately after SO/sub 2/ exposure in either group. Twenty-four h later, RL(c-s) RL(c-s) increased to 0.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.2) in normal and to 1.8 +/- 0.9 cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s (P < 0.01) in allergic sheep. Because the increase in RL(c-s) after 24 h was greater (P < 0.01) in allergic than in normal sheep, we conclude that SO/sub 2/ exposure increased airway reactivity more in the former than in the latter.

  17. The relationship between first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels and intrapartum fetal distress development

    PubMed Central

    Avşar, Ayşe Filiz; Seçen, Elçin İşlek; Akçay, Gülin Feykan Yeğin; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Taş, Emre Erdem; Dalgacı, Ahmet Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the development of intrapartum fetal distress and serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels measured during first-trimester aneuploidy screening tests. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 283 uncomplicated pregnancies that resulted in full-term live births via spontaneous labor or with the induction by oxytocin. Cases were divided into two groups based on whether their first-trimester PAPP-A multiple of the median (MoM) levels were ≤0.5 (Group 1, n=75) or >0.5 (Group 2, n=208). As primary end points, the rate of cesarean section (C/S), the rate of C/S due to fetal distress, and the umbilical artery blood pH values in cases of C/S for fetal distress were compared between the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test and independent samples t-test. P≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The mean gestational age at birth and the birth weights were significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively). Although the rate of C/S was similar between the groups (p=0.823), the rate of C/S due to fetal distress was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (68.4% vs. 42%, respectively; p=0.050) and the mean umbilical artery blood pH value for C/S deliveries indicated by fetal distress was lower (p=0.048) in Group 1 than in Group 2. When the mode of delivery was analyzed according to the application of labor induction, both the C/S delivery rates (31.6% in Group 1 and 31.7% in Group 2; p=0.992) and C/S delivery rates due to fetal distress (66.7% in Group 1 and 46.2% in Group 2; p=0.405) were similar in both groups. Conclusion Low PAPP-A levels (≤0.5 MoM) in the first trimester are associated with the risk of intrapartum fetal distress development and the likelihood of C/S for fetal distress. Nonetheless, this risk is not affected by labor induction.

  18. The relationship between first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A levels and intrapartum fetal distress development

    PubMed Central

    Avşar, Ayşe Filiz; Seçen, Elçin İşlek; Akçay, Gülin Feykan Yeğin; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Taş, Emre Erdem; Dalgacı, Ahmet Ferit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the development of intrapartum fetal distress and serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels measured during first-trimester aneuploidy screening tests. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 283 uncomplicated pregnancies that resulted in full-term live births via spontaneous labor or with the induction by oxytocin. Cases were divided into two groups based on whether their first-trimester PAPP-A multiple of the median (MoM) levels were ≤0.5 (Group 1, n=75) or >0.5 (Group 2, n=208). As primary end points, the rate of cesarean section (C/S), the rate of C/S due to fetal distress, and the umbilical artery blood pH values in cases of C/S for fetal distress were compared between the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test and independent samples t-test. P≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The mean gestational age at birth and the birth weights were significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively). Although the rate of C/S was similar between the groups (p=0.823), the rate of C/S due to fetal distress was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (68.4% vs. 42%, respectively; p=0.050) and the mean umbilical artery blood pH value for C/S deliveries indicated by fetal distress was lower (p=0.048) in Group 1 than in Group 2. When the mode of delivery was analyzed according to the application of labor induction, both the C/S delivery rates (31.6% in Group 1 and 31.7% in Group 2; p=0.992) and C/S delivery rates due to fetal distress (66.7% in Group 1 and 46.2% in Group 2; p=0.405) were similar in both groups. Conclusion Low PAPP-A levels (≤0.5 MoM) in the first trimester are associated with the risk of intrapartum fetal distress development and the likelihood of C/S for fetal distress. Nonetheless, this risk is not affected by labor induction. PMID:27651721

  19. Sound Speed of Primordial Fluctuations in Supergravity Inflation.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Alexander; Palma, Gonzalo A

    2016-09-01

    We study the realization of slow-roll inflation in N=1 supergravities where inflation is the result of the evolution of a single chiral field. When there is only one flat direction in field space, it is possible to derive a single-field effective field theory parametrized by the sound speed c_{s} at which curvature perturbations propagate during inflation. The value of c_{s} is determined by the rate of bend of the inflationary path resulting from the shape of the F-term potential. We show that c_{s} must respect an inequality that involves the curvature tensor of the Kähler manifold underlying supergravity, and the ratio M/H between the mass M of fluctuations ortogonal to the inflationary path, and the Hubble expansion rate H. This inequality provides a powerful link between observational constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity and information about the N=1 supergravity responsible for inflation. In particular, the inequality does not allow for suppressed values of c_{s} (values smaller than c_{s}∼0.4) unless (a) the ratio M/H is of order 1 or smaller, and (b) the fluctuations of mass M affect the propagation of curvature perturbations by inducing on them a nonlinear dispersion relation during horizon crossing. Therefore, if large non-Gaussianity is observed, supergravity models of inflation would be severely constrained.

  20. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds, relative to fragmentation of the coal macromolecule via C-C, C-O, and C-N bond cleavage. During this funding period, we plan to carry out examinations of: (a) the effects of various reaction conditions on radical-initiated and Lewis acid-catalyzed C-S bond cleavages; (b) the effects of caustic impregnation and subsequent alcoholic reflux on C-S bond cleavage strategies; (c) the reactions of coal model compounds with electron-deficient substrates; (d) examinations of photooxidative C-S bond cleavage reactions; (e) the effects of moderate (300--400{degrees}C) temperatures and pressures as well as ultrasonic radiation on (a) - (c). Also planned are differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examinations of selected C-S bond cleavage protocols, including those on Illinois coals that possess varying amounts of organic and inorganic sulfur.

  1. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Quarterly report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1991-12-31

    Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost--effective of desulfurizing Illinois coal is non-existent at the present time. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds, relative to fragmentation of the coal macromolecule via C-C, C-O, and C-N bond cleavage. During this funding period, we plan to carry out examinations of: (a) the effects of various reaction conditions on radical-initiated and Lewis acid-catalyzed C-S bond cleavages; (b) the effects of caustic impregnation and subsequent alcoholic reflux on C-S bond cleavage strategies; (c) the reactions of coal model compounds with electron-deficient substrates; (d) examinations of photooxidative C-S bond cleavage reactions; (e) the effects of moderate (300--400{degrees}C) temperatures and pressures as well as ultrasonic radiation on (a) - (c). Also planned are differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) examinations of selected C-S bond cleavage protocols, including those on Illinois coals that possess varying amounts of organic and inorganic sulfur.

  2. Stat5a serine 725 and 779 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for hematopoietic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Kovacic, Boris; Li, Geqiang; Hoelbl, Andrea; Yahiaoui, Saliha; Sexl, Veronika; Müllner, Ernst W.; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Valent, Peter; Beug, Hartmut; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Bunting, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Stat5 transcription factors are essential gene regulators promoting proliferation, survival, and differentiation of all hematopoietic cell types. Mutations or fusions of oncogenic tyrosine kinases often result in constitutive Stat5 activation. We have modeled persistent Stat5 activity by using an oncogenic Stat5a variant (cS5). To analyze the hitherto unrecognized role of Stat5 serine phosphorylation in this context, we have generated cS5 constructs with mutated C-terminal serines 725 and 779, either alone or in combination. Genetic complementation assays in primary Stat5null/null mast cells and Stat5ΔN T cells demonstrated reconstitution of proliferation with these mutants. Similarly, an in vivo reconstitution experiment of transduced Stat5null/null fetal liver cells transplanted into irradiated wild-type recipients revealed that these mutants exhibit biologic activity in lineage differentiation. By contrast, the leukemogenic potential of cS5 in bone marrow transplants decreased dramatically in cS5 single-serine mutants or was completely absent upon loss of both serine phosphorylation sites. Our data suggest that Stat5a serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for cS5-mediated leukemogenesis. Hence, interference with Stat5a serine phosphorylation might provide a new therapeutic option for leukemia and myeloid dysplasias without affecting major functions of Stat5 in normal hematopoiesis. PMID:20508164

  3. Sound Speed of Primordial Fluctuations in Supergravity Inflation.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Alexander; Palma, Gonzalo A

    2016-09-01

    We study the realization of slow-roll inflation in N=1 supergravities where inflation is the result of the evolution of a single chiral field. When there is only one flat direction in field space, it is possible to derive a single-field effective field theory parametrized by the sound speed c_{s} at which curvature perturbations propagate during inflation. The value of c_{s} is determined by the rate of bend of the inflationary path resulting from the shape of the F-term potential. We show that c_{s} must respect an inequality that involves the curvature tensor of the Kähler manifold underlying supergravity, and the ratio M/H between the mass M of fluctuations ortogonal to the inflationary path, and the Hubble expansion rate H. This inequality provides a powerful link between observational constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity and information about the N=1 supergravity responsible for inflation. In particular, the inequality does not allow for suppressed values of c_{s} (values smaller than c_{s}∼0.4) unless (a) the ratio M/H is of order 1 or smaller, and (b) the fluctuations of mass M affect the propagation of curvature perturbations by inducing on them a nonlinear dispersion relation during horizon crossing. Therefore, if large non-Gaussianity is observed, supergravity models of inflation would be severely constrained. PMID:27636467

  4. Retention of alkali ions by hydrated low-pH cements: Mechanism and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, T.T.H.; Chabas, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Frizon, F.

    2013-09-15

    Low-pH cements, also referred to as low-alkalinity cements, can be designed by replacing significant amounts of Portland cement by pozzolanic materials. Their pore solution is characterized by a pH near 11, and an alkali concentration much lower than that of Portland cement. This work investigates the retention of sodium and potassium by a hydrated low-pH cement comprising 60% Portland cement and 40% silica fume. It is shown that sorption of potassium is higher than that of sodium and mainly results from counterion charge balancing of the C-S-H negative surface charge. To explain the greater retention of potassium compared to sodium, it is postulated that potassium, unlike sodium, may enter the interlayer of C-S-H to compensate the negative charges in the interlayer, in addition to the external surfaces. This assumption is supported by structural characterization of C-S-H using X-ray diffraction.

  5. In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction of tobermorite formation in autoclaved aerated concrete: Influence of silica source reactivity and Al addition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kunio; Kikuma, Jun; Tsunashima, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuji; Matsuno, Shin-ya; Ogawa, Akihiro; Sato, Masugu

    2011-05-15

    The hydrothermal formation of tobermorite during the processing of autoclaved aerated concrete was investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. To investigate the effects of the silica source, reactive quartz from chert and less-reactive quartz from quartz sand were used as starting materials. The effect of Al addition on tobermorite formation was also studied. In all cases, C-S-H, hydroxylellestadite and katoite were clearly observed as intermediates. Acceleration of tobermorite formation by Al addition was clearly observed. However, Al addition did not affect the dissolution rate of quartz. Two pathways, via C-S-H and katoite, were also observed in the Al-containing system. These results suggest that the structure of initially formed C-S-H is important for the subsequent tobermorite formation reactions.

  6. Influence of γ-dose, dopant/codopant and heating rate on thermoluminescence properties of CaWO4 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambast, A. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    A series of Ca1-2xKxDyxWO4 (x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04) phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction method and their thermoluminescence properties were investigated. Before thermoluminescence measurements, the sample was heated to 300°C for 1hour and then quenched to room temperature to erase out all the previous radiation memory. The prepared phosphors were irradiated by γ-ray in the dose range 1KGy-5KGy and their glow curves were recorded at an uniform rate of 5°C/s. In order to see the effect of heating rate as well as concentration of dopant/codopant, TL glow curves were also recorded by heating the samples at the rate of 3°C/s and 7°C/s as well as by varying the concentration x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04.

  7. Stepping analysis in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, O; Taguchi, K; Kikukawa, M; Ogiba, T

    1993-07-01

    POLGON (Polarized light goniometer) was used to evaluate ataxia during stepping movements in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and Parkinson's disease. The measurements included mean angular change of shoulders (M.A.C.S.) and its coefficient of variation (C.V.). In patients with SCD, the values of M.A.C.S. were significantly larger at 1.0 step/s than those at other stepping rhythms. This results suggests that the stepping rhythm of 1.0 step/s is useful for the detection of cerebellar ataxia. The values of C.V. correlated with the degree of advancement of SCD. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the values of M.A.C.S. tended to decrease because of the restricted elevation of the knee, while those of C.V. were increased. The results showed that the stepping test using the POLGON was useful for estimation of the characteristic disequilibrium of SCD and Parkinson's disease.

  8. Grain Boundary Segregation Behavior of Boron in Low-Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigesato, Genichi; Fujishiro, Taishi; Hara, Takuya

    2014-04-01

    The boron concentration profiles around prior austenite grain boundaries in Fe-0.05C-0.5Mo-0.001B (mass pct) are examined using aberration-corrected STEM-EELS. In order to obtain the precise distribution of boron around the boundaries, tilt series measurements with thin specimens (<30 nm) are performed and the EEL spectra are analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The boron concentration profile changes with the cooling rate from the solid solution temperature. The concentration at grain boundaries is maximized at a medium rate (30 °C/s), where the concentration reaches 8 at. pct, and it decreases at a larger (250 °C/s) or smaller (5 °C/s) rate. On the other hand, the boron distribution becomes wider as the cooling rate becomes smaller. The current results suggest that the boron segregation in the alloy is formed by the "non-equilibrium segregation mechanism."

  9. Interaction grand potential between calcium-silicate-hydrate nanoparticles at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaud, Patrick A.; Labbez, Christophe; Miura, Ryuji; Suzuki, Ai; Miyamoto, Naoto; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Miyamoto, Akira; van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium-silicate-hydrate (or C-S-H), an inosilicate, is the major binding phase in cement pastes and concretes and a porous hydrated material made up of a percolated and dense network of crystalline nanoparticles of a mean apparent spherical diameter of ~5 nm that are each stacks of multiple C-S-H layers. Interaction forces between these nanoparticles are at the origin of C-S-H chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at the meso- and macroscales. These particle interactions and the resulting properties may be affected significantly by nanoparticle density and environmental conditions such as the temperature, relative humidity, or concentration of chemical species in the bulk solution. In this study, we combined grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and an extension of the mean force integration method to derive the pair potentials. This approach enables realistic simulation of the physical environment surrounding the C-S-H particles. We thus constructed the pair potentials for C-S-H nanoparticles of defined chemical stoichiometry at 10% relative humidity (RH), varying the relative crystallographic orientations at a constant particle density of ρpart ~ 2.21 mmol L-1. We found that cohesion between nanoparticles is affected strongly by both the aspect ratio and the crystallographic misorientation of interacting particles. This method and the findings underscore the importance of accounting for relative dimensions and orientation among C-S-H nanoparticles in descriptions of physical and simulated multiparticle aggregates or mesoscale systems.Calcium-silicate-hydrate (or C-S-H), an inosilicate, is the major binding phase in cement pastes and concretes and a porous hydrated material made up of a percolated and dense network of crystalline nanoparticles of a mean apparent spherical diameter of ~5 nm that are each stacks of multiple C-S-H layers. Interaction forces between these nanoparticles are at the origin of C-S-H chemical, physical, and mechanical

  10. Composition et volume molaire apparent des gels Ca_Si, une approche expérimentaleComposition and apparent molar volume of Ca_Si gels, an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perruchot, Alain; Massard, Pierre; Lombardi, Jérôme

    2003-11-01

    Synthetic CaSi gels of various compositions were prepared from sodium metasilicate and calcium chloride solutions. These synthetic CaSi gels are good analogues of fresh natural gels found within concrete affected by Alkalis-Silica Reaction (ASR). Results show that these synthetic gels in equilibrium with their formation solutions present an optimum of composition for a molar ratio CaO/SiO 2=(C/S) g≅0.48. Correspondingly, this characteristic value of (C/S) g denotes a rearrangement in the structure of gels accounted for the variation with (C/S) g of the apparent molar volume Vg. To cite this article: A. Perruchot et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  11. Swift/XRT monitoring of SN2011dh: evidence for fading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A.

    2011-06-01

    We have analyzed 24 ks of Swift/XRT data of SN1011dh (Silverman et al. 2001, Atel #3398; Reiland et al. 2011, CBET #2736) collected in the time period June 3-7. In agreement with Campana & Burrows (2011, Atel #3414) we find that the source is detected at an average level of ~6 E-03 c/s. We furthermore find that the source has faded from ~1.3 E-02 c/s to ~3 E-03 c/s, with a power-law decay index of alpha~ -1.8 (+0.6,-0.6 90% c.l.) The probability of a chance fluctuation is below 0.01% (binomial test), thus we conclude that the observed decay is statistically significant.

  12. Chemical structure of cement aged at normal and elevated temperatures and pressures, Part II: Low permeability class G oilwell cement

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saout, Gwenn . E-mail: gwenn.lesaout@epfl.ch; Lecolier, Eric; Rivereau, Alain; Zanni, Helene

    2006-03-15

    Recently, Low Permeability Cement formulation has been developed for oilwell cementing. Therefore, it is important to understand the physical and chemical processes causing cement degradation in the downhole environment. In this study, we have characterised a Low Permeability Class G oilwell Cement immersed for one year in brine at T = 293 K, p = 10{sup 5} Pa and T = 353 K, p = 7 x 10{sup 6} Pa using {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al NMR and XRD techniques. Elevated temperature and pressure conditions increase the rate of the pozzolanic reaction and have significant effects on the polymerisation of C-S-H and on the incorporation of Al in the C-S-H structure. Leaching resulted in the formation of calcite and a more polymerised C-S-H with the appearance of tobermorite in the sample cured at elevated temperature and pressure.

  13. Model for the developing microstructure in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, H.M.; Tennis, P.D. )

    1994-12-01

    A method is proposed for quantitatively predicting the volume of the major phases in hydrated cement pastes as a function of (1) the composition of the cement, (2) the degree of reaction, and (3) the initial water: cement ratio. This procedure is then used to develop a quantitative model for the surface area and volume of porosity that is accessible to nitrogen in calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). Published values for surface areas and volume of pores are compared with the predictions made by the model. An implication of the model is that there are two types of C-S-H, or perhaps regions within the C-S-H: one that nitrogen can penetrate and one that it cannot.

  14. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-02-23

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C-S-H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C-S-H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C-S-H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C-S-H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  15. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  16. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  17. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  18. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids.

  19. Conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters: correlation of resonance Raman spectra with structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Angus, R.H.; Storer, A.C.; Varughese, K.I.; Carey, P.R.

    1988-01-12

    The conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters, involving rotational isomers about the RC(=O)NH-CH(CH/sub 3/) and NHCH(CH/sub 3/)-C(=S) bonds, are defined and compared to those of N-acylglycine dithio esters. The structure of N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester has been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis; it is a B-type conformer with the amide N atom cis to the thiol sulfur. Raman and resonance Raman (RR) measurements on this compound and for the B conformers of solid N-benzoyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and N-(..beta..-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester and its NHCH(CD/sub 3/)C(=S) and NHCH(CH/sub 3/)/sup 13/C(=S) analogues are used to set up a library of RR data for alanine-based dithio esters in a B-conformer state. RR data for this solid material in its isotopically unsubstituted and CH(C-D/sub 3/)C(=S) and CH(CH/sub 3/)/sup 13/C(=S) forms provide information on the RR signatures of alanine dithio esters in A-like conformations. RR spectra are compared for the solid compounds, for N-(p-nitrobenzoyl)-DL-alanine, N-(..beta..-phenylpropionyl)-DL-alanine, and (methyloxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-DL-alanine ethyl dithio ester, and for several /sup 13/C=S- and CD/sub 3/-substituted analogues in CCl/sub 4/ or aqueous solutions. The RR data demonstrate that the alanine-based dithio esters take up A, B, and C/sub 5/ conformations in solution. The RR spectra of these conformers are clearly distinguishable from those for the same conformers of N-acylglycine dithio esters. However, the crystallographic and spectroscopic results show that the results show that the conformational properties of N-acylglycine and N-acylalanine dithio esters are very similar.

  20. An Improved Method of Heterogeneity Compensation for the Convolution / Superposition Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Robert; McNutt, Todd

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of convolution/superposition (C/S) in heterogeneous material by developing a new algorithm: heterogeneity compensated superposition (HCS). Methods: C/S has proven to be a good estimator of the dose deposited in a homogeneous volume. However, near heterogeneities electron disequilibrium occurs, leading to the faster fall-off and re-buildup of dose. We propose to filter the actual patient density in a position and direction sensitive manner, allowing the dose deposited near interfaces to be increased or decreased relative to C/S. We implemented the effective density function as a multivariate first-order recursive filter and incorporated it into GPU-accelerated, multi-energetic C/S implementation. We compared HCS against C/S using the ICCR 2000 Monte-Carlo accuracy benchmark, 23 similar accuracy benchmarks and 5 patient cases. Results: Multi-energetic HCS increased the dosimetric accuracy for the vast majority of voxels; in many cases near Monte-Carlo results were achieved. We defined the per-voxel error, %|mm, as the minimum of the distance to agreement in mm and the dosimetric percentage error relative to the maximum MC dose. HCS improved the average mean error by 0.79 %|mm for the patient volumes; reducing the average mean error from 1.93 %|mm to 1.14 %|mm. Very low densities (i.e. < 0.1 g / cm3) remained problematic, but may be solvable with a better filter function. Conclusions: HCS improved upon C/S's density scaled heterogeneity correction with a position and direction sensitive density filter. This method significantly improved the accuracy of the GPU based algorithm reaching the accuracy levels of Monte Carlo based methods with performance in a few tenths of seconds per beam. Acknowledgement: Funding for this research was provided by the NSF Cooperative Agreement EEC9731748, Elekta / IMPAC Medical Systems, Inc. and the Johns Hopkins University. James Satterthwaite provided the Monte Carlo benchmark simulations.

  1. DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Addamiano, Claudia; Gerland, Béatrice; Payrastre, Corinne; Escudier, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ) functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid) at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5'-C(S)-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5'-C(S)-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected. PMID:27563857

  2. Sulfide capacities of Na2O-SiO2 melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. G.; Zhao, W.

    1995-10-01

    Sulfide capacities of Na2O-SiO2 melts at 1473, 1523, 1573, 1623, and 1673 K were calculated a priori using the revised Reddy Blander model. An expression for C S in the composition range of 0≤ X SiO 2<1.0 was derived. Our predictions of C S values are in very good agreement with the experimental data available in the range of 0< X SiO 2<0.8. The sulfide capacities of slags are found to be directly related to two independent quantities: the equilibrium constant K and the activity of the base oxide.

  3. High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen

    2013-04-22

    We present high performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated on thermally oxidized silicon substrates. The best device showed a system detection efficiency (DE) of 74%, dark count rate of 100 c/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps under a bias current of 18.0 μA with a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system. We also introduced six detectors into the cryocooler and confirmed that the system DE of all detectors was higher than 67% at the dark count rate of 100 c/s.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practices for design for safety: A study on civil & structural engineers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yang Miang; Chua, Sijie

    2016-08-01

    Design for safety (DfS) (also known as prevention through design, safe design and Construction (Design and Management)) promotes early consideration of safety and health hazards during the design phase of a construction project. With early intervention, hazards can be more effectively eliminated or controlled leading to safer worksites and construction processes. DfS is practiced in many countries, including Australia, the UK, and Singapore. In Singapore, the Manpower Ministry enacted the DfS Regulations in July 2015, which will be enforced from August 2016 onwards. Due to the critical role of civil and structural (C&S) engineers during design and construction, the DfS knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of C&S engineers have significant impact on the successful implementation of DfS. Thus, this study aims to explore the DfS KAP of C&S engineers so as to guide further research in measuring and improving DfS KAP of designers. During the study, it was found that there is a lack of KAP studies in construction management. Therefore, this study also aims to provide useful lessons for future applications of the KAP framework in construction management research. A questionnaire was developed to assess the DfS KAP of C&S engineers. The responses provided by 43 C&S engineers were analyzed. In addition, interviews with experienced construction professionals were carried out to further understand perceptions of DfS and related issues. The results suggest that C&S engineers are supportive of DfS, but the level of DfS knowledge and practices need to be improved. More DfS guidelines and training should be made available to the engineers. To ensure that DfS can be implemented successfully, there is a need to study the contractual arrangements between clients and designers and the effectiveness of different implementation approaches for the DfS process. The questionnaire and findings in this study provided the foundation for a baseline survey with larger sample size, which is

  5. Large amplitude super-soft X-ray intensity variations and a 54 sec QPO in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.

    2013-11-01

    In ATEL #5505 we reported the rise of the super-soft X-ray source in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del) seen by the Swift XRT. Since the last observation reported there, at 1.5 c/s on day 70.8 after outburst, the soft X-ray count rate has risen to a peak count rate of ~100 c/s on day 87.9 (10 Nov). All count rates are from grade 0 events only. The rising count rate was interspersed by a few large dips, one of which reached down to <1% of the count rate one day earlier.

  6. Experiments with powdered CMN thermometers between 10 mK and 4K, and a comparison with an NBS SRM 768 fixed-point device

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, W.E.; Hornung, E.W.; Mayberry, M.C.; Phillips, N.E.

    1981-08-01

    Comparison of a powdered CMN thermometer with an NBS fixed point device demonstrates an internal inconsistency in the T/sub c/'s assigned to the fixed point device. T/sub c/'s between 100 and 200 mK are in excellent agreement with a temperature scale interpolated between He vapor pressure temperatures and nuclear orientation temperatures, but there is a discrepancy of 8% at the 15 mK point. Evidence for different susceptibility-temperature relations for superficially similar CMN thermometers is also presented.

  7. Periodic eye tracking in the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, A. F.

    1967-01-01

    1. Eye movements were measured in monkeys trained for visual tracking. 2. In response to periodic square wave target movements, monkeys do not show a significant reduction in the latency of saccadic movements. 3. Under similar conditions, human beings subconsciously reduce their latency and after several cycles are in step with the target. 4. In response to sinusoidal targets, monkeys show a latency or phase lag which increases monotonically with frequency starting at 0·3 c/s. Human beings can remain in phase with the target at frequencies up to 1·0 c/s. 5. Hence, monkeys do not exhibit the human predictive tracking response. PMID:16992282

  8. Manufacture of bulk superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) by a continuous process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, R. L.; Kinalidis, C.; Sun, Y. Y.; Gao, L.; Tao, Y. K.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous process for fabricating large bulk superconductors with a predetermined grain orientation is reported. A bar of the 123 compound with dimensions 5 x 0.5 x about 0.3 cm with excellent grain alignment has been fabricated continuously. The bulk 123 thus obtained has magnetically determined J(c)s of about 30,000 and 12,000 A/sq cm at 0 and 1 T, respectively, and transport J(c)s of 20,000, 11,000, and 7500 A-sq cm at 0, 0.54, and 0.83 T.

  9. Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Herbert Allan

    A non-profit corporation, called the Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project (S.C.C.S.T.P.), is proposed that would produce videotape for the purpose of intra-community communication. The corporation would use portable videotape equipment to record a variety of community programs, such as an ecological history of the Monterey Bay area, the…

  10. Dynamics of minimally coupled dark energy in spherical halos of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the evolution of scalar field dark energy in the spherical halos of dark matter at the late stages of formation of gravitationally bound systems in the expanding Universe. The dynamics of quintessential dark energy at the center of dark matter halo strongly depends on the value of effective sound speed c_s (in units of speed of light). If c_s˜ 1 (classical scalar field) then the dark energy in the gravitationally bound systems is only slightly perturbed and its density is practically the same as in cosmological background. The dark energy with small value of sound speed (c_s<0.1), on the contrary, is important dynamical component of halo at all stages of their evolution: linear, non-linear, turnaround, collapse, virialization and later up to current epoch. These properties of dark energy can be used for constraining the value of effective sound speed c_s by comparison the theoretical predictions with observational data related to the large scale gravitationally bound systems.

  11. Protect Yourself! How To Minimize Your Risk of an IRS Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Thomas; Moser, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Shows how to minimize risk of an IRS audit and how to avoid traps caused by improper documentation and reporting requirements. Outlines the most likely audit areas for business tax returns. These include cash business; for sole proprietors, Schedule C; S and C corporation salary issues; shareholder loans; contractors versus employees; fringe…

  12. [Design and trial of computer test system for experiment courses of human parasitology].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Ling, Jin; Su, Shui-Lian; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Qiong-Jun

    2011-06-01

    Based on the traditional experimental test of human parasitology, a reform was conducted to avoid the shortage of specimens and a disclosure of test questions. An experimental test system of human parasitology based on client/server (C/S) structure was therefore developed. This practicable system can increase the efficiency and fairness of examination and reduce cost.

  13. Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Ian, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Edmund Wilson, Ian Watt, Alan D. McKillop, Reuben A. Brower, Marvin Mudrick, Mark Schorer, Arnold Kettle, Lionel Trilling, Kingsley Amis, Andrew H. Wright, Donald J. Greene, and D. W.…

  14. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea Power L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. Yearbook Fundamentals for Student Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, DeWitt D., Ed.

    The basic objective and the concepts involved in planning an effective contemporary yearbook are examined. Yearbooks are rated on the design, layout, content coverage, and other considerations. An official C.S.P.A. Scorebook is included in the document. The booklet is divided into four principal sections. Section I, The Design of the Book, lists…

  16. 76 FR 9402 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel ARIELS SONG. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the... applicant the intended service of the vessel ARIELS SONG is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel:...

  17. Comparison of carbon-sulfur and carbon-amine bond in therapeutic drug: 4β-S-aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives display antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Herein is a first effort to systematically study the significance of carbon-sulfur (C-S) and carbon-amine (C-NH) bonds on the antitumor proliferation activity of podophyllum derivatives and their precise mechanism of apoptosis. Compared with the derivative modified by a C-NH bond, the derivative modified by a C-S bond exhibited superior antitumor activity, the inhibition activity of target proteins tubulin or Topo II, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction. Antitumor mechanistic studies showed that the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were simultaneously activated by the C-S bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives with a higher cellular uptake percentage of 60–90% and induction of a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was activated by the C-NH bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives, with a lower cellular uptake percentage of 40–50%. This study provided insight into effects of the C-S and C-NH bond modification on the improvement of the antitumor activity of Podophyllum derivatives. PMID:26443888

  18. Comparison of carbon-sulfur and carbon-amine bond in therapeutic drug: 4β-S-aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives display antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ya-Ling; Liang, Xin-Hua; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2015-10-07

    Herein is a first effort to systematically study the significance of carbon-sulfur (C-S) and carbon-amine (C-NH) bonds on the antitumor proliferation activity of podophyllum derivatives and their precise mechanism of apoptosis. Compared with the derivative modified by a C-NH bond, the derivative modified by a C-S bond exhibited superior antitumor activity, the inhibition activity of target proteins tubulin or Topo II, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction. Antitumor mechanistic studies showed that the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were simultaneously activated by the C-S bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives with a higher cellular uptake percentage of 60-90% and induction of a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was activated by the C-NH bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives, with a lower cellular uptake percentage of 40-50%. This study provided insight into effects of the C-S and C-NH bond modification on the improvement of the antitumor activity of Podophyllum derivatives.

  19. Food Allergy Concerns in Primary Classrooms: Keeping Children Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Peggy; Cameron, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Food-allergy awareness and management have only lately come to the forefront in early childhood settings, although advocacy organizations have been working on the issue for more than a decade. A national poll (C.S. Mott Children's Hospital 2009) asked parents with children in early education settings if they were aware of what their program does…

  20. Instructional Partnerships to Extend Learning in Urban High Schools: Lessons from New York City and Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Eileen M.; Allender, Sara; Cooc, North; Edwards, Sara; Riley, Derek R.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2007 New Visions for Public Schools, a New York City reform organization, received a grant from the C.S. Mott Foundation to organize select high schools and community partners into delivery systems that could improve student achievement. New Visions asked Policy Studies Associates, Inc. to provide research support for this effort in the…

  1. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ANTI-ANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vivo and In Vitro Anti-androgenic Effects of DE-71, A Commerical Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Mixture.

    Stoker, T.E., Lambright, C.S. and Gray, L.E.
    Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    PBDEs are synthesized in...

  2. Education Matters, October 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Fixing D.C.'s Schools: How a 38-Year-Old Rookie…

  3. 49 CFR 571.219 - Standard No. 219; Windshield zone intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... parallel to the outer surface of the glazing material. S5. Requirement. When the vehicle travelling... line. (d) The lower edge of the protected zone is the longitudinal projection onto the outer surface of the windshield of the line determined in S6.1(c). S6.2The protected zone is the space enclosed by...

  4. 75 FR 28672 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... January 8, 1999 (see 64 FR 2935). Dated: May 17, 2010. C.S. Eliot Kang, Acting Assistant Secretary of... of International Security and Nonproliferation; Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures Against Two... measures on two Russian entities. DATES: Effective Date: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. 75 FR 5836 - Lifting of Nonproliferation Measures Against One Russian Entity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... July 30, 1998 (see 63 FR 42089). Dated: January 29, 2010. C.S. Eliot Kang, Acting Assistant Secretary... of Nonproliferation Measures Against One Russian Entity AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice..., 1994, as amended, to remove nonproliferation measures on one Russian entity. DATES: Effective...

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified beneficiary by reason of the provisions in section 9801 (relating to limitations on preexisting... employer of C 's spouse. C terminates employment (for reasons other than gross misconduct), and the... terminates employment (for reasons other than gross misconduct), and the termination of employment causes...

  7. 75 FR 25312 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel GAME DAY. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that the.... You may also send comments electronically via the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov...

  8. Metabolic programming of offspring by vitamin B12, folate imbalance during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With two reports in the current issue of Diabetologia, C. S. Yajnik and his international cast of collaborators have created conceptual bridges between some of the most important global public health challenges of our time: obesity (or is it adiposity?), fetal or early life origins of adult disease,...

  9. Early age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in natural zeolite blended cements: Reaction kinetics and products by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, R.; Mertens, G.; Cizer, O.; Elsen, J.

    2010-12-15

    The in situ early-age hydration and pozzolanic reaction in cements blended with natural zeolites were investigated by time-resolved synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. Chabazite and Na-, K-, and Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite materials were mixed with Portland cement in a 3:7 weight ratio and hydrated in situ at 40 {sup o}C. The evolution of phase contents showed that the addition of natural zeolites accelerates the onset of C{sub 3}S hydration and precipitation of CH and AFt. Kinetic analysis of the consumption of C{sub 3}S indicates that the enveloping C-S-H layer is thinner and/or less dense in the presence of alkali-exchanged clinoptilolite pozzolans. The zeolite pozzolanic activity is interpreted to depend on the zeolite exchangeable cation content and on the crystallinity. The addition of natural zeolites alters the structural evolution of the C-S-H product. Longer silicate chains and a lower C/S ratio are deduced from the evolution of the C-S-H b-cell parameter.

  10. Burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur in sediments over phanerozoic time: a new theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Robert A.; Raiswell, Robert

    1983-05-01

    In present day marine sediments, almost all of which are deposited in normal oxygenated seawater, rates of burial of organic carbon (C) and pyrite sulfur (S) correlate positively and bear a constant ratio to one another (C/S ˜- 3 on a weight basis). By contrast, calculations, based on the isotopic model of GARRELS and LERMAN (1981), indicate that at various times during the Phanerozoic the worldwide burial ratio must have been considerably different than the present day value. This ratio change is caused by the requirement that, increases in the worldwide mass of organic carbon must be accompanied by equivalent decreases in the mass of sedimentary pyrite sulfur, in order to maintain a roughly constant level of O 2 in the atmosphere. Such apparently contradictory behavior can be explained if the locus of major organic carbon burial has shifted over time from normal marine environments, as at present, to non-marine freshwater, or to euxinic environments, in the geologic past. A shift to predominantly freshwater burial can help explain predicted high C/S ratios in Permo-Carboniferous sediments, and a shift to euxinic environments can help explain predicted low C/S ratios during the early Paleozoic. It is demonstrated that the three environments today exhibit distinguishably different average C/S ratios.

  11. CaCl 2 -Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29 Si MAS NMR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Qinfei; Ge, Yong; Geng, Guoqing; Bae, Sungchul; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he effect of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) on tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29 Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system.he Ca L 3,2 -edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C 3 S hydration in the presence of CaCl 2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C 3 S. Based on the Ca L 3,2 -edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl 2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C 3 S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl 2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29 Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl 2 in hydrated C 3 S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups ( Q 2 ) and branch sites ( Q 3 ) in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.« less

  12. Evolution of recrystallization microstructure and texture during rapid annealing in strip-cast non-oriented electrical steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Bo; Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Wang, Yang; Lu, Xiang; Misra, R. D. K.; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Non-oriented electrical steel as-cast strip was produced by twin roll strip casting process, and subsequently cold rolled and annealed at heating rates in the range of 3-450 °C/s with the aim to elucidate the effect of heating rate on the evolution of recrystallized microstructure and texture. The average grain size was rapidly increased when the heating rate was increased from 3 to 25 °C/s, and decreased when the heating rate was greater than 25 °C/s. The average grain size did not increase linearly with heating rate, which was related to different degree of nucleation and growth rate. The recrystallization texture exhibited pronounced improvement during rapid annealing. At high heating rate, the Goss and Cube had a higher probability of nucleation of shear bands with high stored energy, while the intensity of the γ-fiber texture was significantly reduced. The highest B50 value attained was 1.803 T at a heating rate of 300 °C/s. The study indicates that rapid heating has strong effect on the recrystallization behavior in non-oriented electrical steels, which facilitates optimization of microstructure and texture, especially in the coarse-grained structure.

  13. Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1978-01-01

    Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

  14. The Green and Burning Tree: On the Writing and Enjoyment of Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Eleanor

    This collection of 12 critical essays--written for teachers, librarians, students, and parents--comments on the style, characterization, sense of wonder, and sense of reality in children's books. Specific subjects covered are (1) the fantasy worlds of Andersen, Beatrix Potter, Walter de la Mare, C. S. Lewis, Lewis Carroll, and J. R. R. Tolkien;…

  15. China-U.S. Conference on Education. Collected Papers. (Beijing, People's Republic of China, July 9-13, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.

    This book contains papers presented by educators during the China-U.S. Conference on Education in July, 1997. Only papers prepared by American authors were received and included in this collection. Chapters included are (1) "Art, Education, and Community: Arts Genesis, Inc." (C. S. Kestler); (2) "Applications of Portfolio Assessment in a Teaching…

  16. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WHITE RIVER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'WHITE RIVER, PETERSON & EARNHART, CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION, DWIGHT H. BLACKWOOD, CHAIRMAN, C.S. CHRISTIAN, ENGINEER, 1931' - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  17. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  18. Current Sports: Medicine Issues. Annual Safety Education Review--1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Timothy T., Ed.

    This document is a collection of papers whose theme is sports safety. Section one, "Government Interest in Sports Safety," includes an article on Washington, D.C.'s focus on sports safety. Section two, "Medical Aspects of Safety in Sports," includes articles regarding the medical basis of restriction from athletics, orthopaedic restrictions, and…

  19. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  20. Poor Schools or Poor Kids?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joe; Noguera, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Since the run-up to the 2008 election, the Democratic Party has been home to two prominent and very different reform wings. One, spearheaded by the group Democrats for Education Reform and notable school-district chiefs like New York's Joel Klein and Washington, D.C.'s Michelle Rhee, is the Education Equality Project (EEP). The other, A Broader,…

  1. Pupil Disaffection in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage: Implications for Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Nesling, Norma

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines specific elements of a much wider study that attempted to ascertain the reasons for under-achievement in a large comprehensive school in the Welsh valleys. Specific Academic performance at General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E.) level was poor in Randall, the main case school, in relation to other schools with…

  2. Quantum-chemical calculations and electron diffraction study of the equilibrium molecular structure of vitamin K3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, L. S.; Tikhonov, D. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Rykov, A. N.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium molecular structure of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) having C s symmetry is experimentally characterized for the first time by means of gas-phase electron diffraction using quantum-chemical calculations and data on the vibrational spectra of related compounds.

  3. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN LUNGS. Jung-il Choi*, Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; C. S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711

    Partic...

  4. 75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC...-2010-0083. Applicant: Pan Am Railways, Mr. Timothy R. Kunzler, Chief Engineer, C&S, Iron Horse Park... Freight Main Line (FML) of Pan Am Southern, LLC. (PAS). The applicant's corporate name is...

  5. 75 FR 34200 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Issued in Washington, DC on June 10.... Applicant: Pan Am Railways, Mr. Timothy R. Kunzler, Chief Engineer, C&S, Iron Horse Park, North Billerica... (FML) of Pan Am Southern, LLC. (PAS). The applicant's corporate name is Springfield Terminal...

  6. Shakespeare, The Tragedies: A collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Alfred, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Alfred Harbage, H. B. Charlton, Willard Farnham, H. T. Price, Donald A. Stauffer, Brents Stirling, Maynard Mack, Helen Gardner, C. S. Lewis, Alvin Kernan, Bernard Spivack, L. C. Knights, Francis Fergusson, G. Wilson…

  7. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution. PMID:26329200

  8. The Promise and Practice of Pragmatism-Based Music Education in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In his book, "What's So Important about Music Education?" (2010), Goble J. Scott argues from a foundation of C. S. Peirce's pragmatist philosophy that school music education that enables students to understand and engage with the musical practices (or "praxes") of different cultural communities in terms of their…

  9. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1368-1 - Distributions by S corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distributions by S corporations. 1.1368-1... Distributions by S corporations. (a) In general. This section provides rules for distributions made by an S... by the shareholder. (c) S corporation with no earnings and profits. A distribution made by an...

  11. 77 FR 18794 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... aimed at improving consumers' financial literacy and decision-making skills. \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. s. 5493(b)(1... through online multi-media prompts and responses. The Bureau will employ a qualitative, iterative, testing methodology to assess: The quality and impact of written and visual information, Methods and media...

  12. High efficiency n-Si/ p-Cu2O core-shell nanowires photodiode prepared by atomic layer deposition of Cu2O on well-ordered Si nanowires array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hangil; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Ko, Kyung Yong; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jaehoon; Oh, Jihun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient n-Si/ p-Cu2O core-shell (C-S) nanowire (NW) photodiode was fabricated using Cu2O grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a well-ordered Si NW array. Ordered Si nanowires arrays were fabricated by nano-sphere lithography to pattern metal catalysts for the metal-assisted etching of silicon, resulting in a Si NW arrays with a good arrangement, smooth surface and small diameter distribution. The ALD-Cu2O thin films were grown using a new non-fluorinated Cu precursor, bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy)copper (C14H32N2O2Cu), and water vapor (H2O) at 140°C. Transmission electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer confirmed that p-Cu2O thin films had been coated over arrayed Si NWs with a diameter of 150 nm (aspect ratio of ˜7.6). The C-S NW photodiode exhibited more sensitive photodetection performance under ultraviolet illumination as well as an enhanced photocurrent density in the forward biasing region than the planar structure diode. The superior performance of C-S NWs photodiode was explained by the lower reflectance of light and the effective carrier separation and collection originating from the C-S NWs structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Society and Management as a Postgraduate Management Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, J. C.; Lowes, B.

    1982-01-01

    Argues the case for teaching society and management in postgraduate courses and reviews the authors' experience of teaching the subject within Masters of Business Administration programs. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England. (SK)

  14. Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Explores the theories and models of self-actualization and human development. Twelve tables illustrate developmental stages, ways of knowing, moral and ethical development, management style, goals of learning, organizational development, and other dimensions. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1…

  15. Self-Development Groups in Industry--What Actually Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temporal, Paul

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the stages and processes in the growth of a self-development group, designed to increase a manager's capacity and willingness to be responsible for his/her own learning. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England. (SK)

  16. The Shrinking Ladder: Career Development and Management Contraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Adrian

    1982-01-01

    Examines the limitations of present systems of management development, with particular attention to the problems caused by increasing organizational and occupational change and fluctuation. Availability: M.E.A.D. Subscriptions, C.S.M.L., University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YX, England. (SK)

  17. Do Students Care About Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    2002-01-01

    Question/Answer session with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, D.J. and C.S. Davidson Professor of Psychology at the Drucker School of Management, Claremont Graduate University, and author of "Becoming Adult: How Teenagers Prepare for the World of Work." Covers such topics such as student engagement, challenge, and flow experience. (PKP)

  18. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Co., Baltimore, Md., or equivalent) or by distillation. Methyl alcohol, A.C.S. reagent grade. Use 10... 280-400 mµ. Methyl alcohol may be purified by simple distillation or by refluxing in the presence of... this operation twice more. Let the flask cool. Add 10 milliliters of methyl alcohol and about 0.3...

  19. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... equivalent) or by distillation. Methyl alcohol, A.C.S. reagent grade. Use 10 milliliters and proceed as with isooctane. The absorbance per centimeter of path length should be 0.00 between 280-400 mµ. Methyl alcohol... cool. Add 10 milliliters of methyl alcohol and about 0.3 gram of sodium borohydride. (Minimize...

  20. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Co., Baltimore, Md., or equivalent) or by distillation. Methyl alcohol, A.C.S. reagent grade. Use 10... 280-400 mµ. Methyl alcohol may be purified by simple distillation or by refluxing in the presence of... this operation twice more. Let the flask cool. Add 10 milliliters of methyl alcohol and about 0.3...

  1. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Co., Baltimore, Md., or equivalent) or by distillation. Methyl alcohol, A.C.S. reagent grade. Use 10... 280-400 mµ. Methyl alcohol may be purified by simple distillation or by refluxing in the presence of... this operation twice more. Let the flask cool. Add 10 milliliters of methyl alcohol and about 0.3...

  2. Dissociating Conflict Adaptation from Feature Integration: A Multiple Regression Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notebaert, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Congruency effects are typically smaller after incongruent than after congruent trials. One explanation is in terms of higher levels of cognitive control after detection of conflict (conflict adaptation; e.g., M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, & J. D. Cohen, 2001). An alternative explanation for these results is based on…

  3. Independent Retrieval of Source Dimensions: An Extension of Results by Starns and Hicks (2005) and a Comment on the ACSIM Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Vera; Broder, Arndt

    2007-01-01

    Recently, J. J. Starns and J. L. Hicks (2005) have argued that source dimensions are retrieved independently from memory. In their innovative experiment, manipulating the retrievability of 1 source feature did not affect memory for a 2nd feature. Following C. S. Dodson and A. P. Shimamura (2000), the authors argue that the source memory measure…

  4. Gentrifying Water and Selling Jim Crow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett

    2002-01-01

    Explores the gentrification of Washington, D.C.'s Anacostia watershed, tracing the projects of federal and local government to devitalize and demolish living black relationships and institutions while reifying lost, invented, or imagined communities. Explores connections among capital, community, culture, and state power. Examines problems in the…

  5. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  6. Irradiation Instability at the Inner Edges of Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2014-07-01

    An instability can potentially operate in highly irradiated disks where the disk sharply transitions from being radially transparent to opaque (the "transition region"). Such conditions may exist at the inner edges of transitional disks around T Tauri stars and accretion disks around active galactic nuclei. We derive the criterion for this instability, which we term the "irradiation instability," or IRI. We also present the linear growth rate as a function of β, the ratio between radiation force and gravity, and c s, the sound speed of the disk, obtained using two methods: a semi-analytic analysis of the linearized equations and a numerical simulation using the GPU-accelerated hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn. In particular, we find that IRI occurs at β ~ 0.1 if the transition region extends as wide as ~0.05r, and at higher β values if it is wider. This threshold value applies to c s ranging from 3% of the Keplerian orbital speed to 5%, and becomes higher if c s is lower. Furthermore, in the nonlinear evolution of the instability, disks with a large β and small c s exhibit "clumping," extreme local surface density enhancements that can reach over 10 times the initial disk surface density.

  7. Measurement of cooling and warming rates in vitrification-based plant cryopreservation protocols.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Aline S; González-Benito, M Elena; Molina-García, Antonio D

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols include the use of additives and pretreatments aimed to reduce the probability of ice nucleation at all temperatures, mainly through micro-viscosity increase. Still, there is a risk of ice formation in the temperature region comprised between the equilibrium freezing (Tf ) and the glass transition (TG ) temperatures. Consequently, fast cooling and warming, especially in this region, is a must to avoid ice-derived damage. Vitrification and droplet-vitrification techniques, frequently used cryopreservation protocols based in fast cooling, were studied, alongside with the corresponding warming procedures. A very fast data acquisition system, able to read very low temperatures, down to that of liquid nitrogen, was employed. Cooling rates, measured between -20°C and -120°C, ranged from ca. 5°C s(-1) to 400°C s(-1) , while warming rates spanned from ca. 2°C s(-1) to 280°C s(-1) , for the different protocols and conditions studied. A wider measuring window (0°C to -150°C) produced lower rates for all cases. The cooling and warming rates were also related to the survival observed after the different procedures. Those protocols with the faster rates yielded the highest survival percentages. PMID:24933257

  8. Kif2C Minimal Functional Domain Has Unusual Nucleotide Binding Properties That Are Adapted to Microtubule Depolymerization*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiyi; Jiang, Qiyang; Argentini, Manuela; Cornu, David; Gigant, Benoît; Knossow, Marcel; Wang, Chunguang

    2012-01-01

    The kinesin-13 Kif2C hydrolyzes ATP and uses the energy released to disassemble microtubules. The mechanism by which this is achieved remains elusive. Here we show that Kif2C-(sN+M), a monomeric construct consisting of the motor domain with the proximal part of the N-terminal Neck extension but devoid of its more distal, unstructured, and highly basic part, has a robust depolymerase activity. When detached from microtubules, the Kif2C-(sN+M) nucleotide-binding site is occupied by ATP at physiological concentrations of adenine nucleotides. As a consequence, Kif2C-(sN+M) starts its interaction with microtubules in that state, which differentiates kinesin-13s from motile kinesins. Moreover, in this ATP-bound conformational state, Kif2C-(sN+M) has a higher affinity for soluble tubulin compared with microtubules. We propose a mechanism in which, in the first step, the specificity of ATP-bound Kif2C for soluble tubulin causes it to stabilize a curved conformation of tubulin heterodimers at the ends of microtubules. Data from an ATPase-deficient Kif2C mutant suggest that, then, ATP hydrolysis precedes and is required for tubulin release to take place. Finally, comparison with Kif2C-Motor indicates that the binding specificity for curved tubulin and, accordingly, the microtubule depolymerase activity are conferred to the motor domain by its N-terminal Neck extension. PMID:22403406

  9. Active transport of 131I across the blood—brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Davson, Hugh; Hollingsworth, Jillian R.

    1973-01-01

    The ventricular space of rabbits was perfused with a low-viscosity silicone oil for the purpose of (1) collecting freshly secreted cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) uninfluenced by diffusional exchanges with the brain and (2) studying passage of solutes from the blood into the brain, uncomplicated by exchanges with c.s.f. The freshly secreted c.s.f. appeared as fine droplets suspended in the less dense silicone, and accumulated at the bottom of the collected silicone. Studies on the penetration of 24Na from blood into this fluid indicated that considerable exchanges with the brain had occurred between its secretion and collection, in spite of this method of collection. The second objective was attained, in that the exchanges between the freshly secreted fluid and the brain were quantitatively insufficient to affect the measure of kinetics of uptake by brain from the blood. In consequence, it was possible to demonstrate unequivocally that the increased uptake by brain of 131I, when treated with perchlorate, was due to inhibition of an active process occurring across the blood—brain barrier. Other studies, involving ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with artificial c.s.f., lent further support to this concept. 131I distribution is some 32% of the brain weight, a figure close to the `chloride-space'. PMID:4355804

  10. 78 FR 46678 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    .... Applicant: Norfolk Southern Corporation, Mr. Brian Sykes, Chief Engineer, C&S Engineering, 1200 Peachtree... 81 will be converted to a hand-operated switch equipped with an electric lock. The reason given for...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR...

  11. Weatherization Partnerships Project, Grant No. DE FG 0299EE27594, October 1, 1999 - December 31, 2000. Final Technical Report and FY 1999 version of 'Lessons learned the long way: Integrating utility, energy efficiency tasks with weatherization'

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Meg

    2002-11-01

    Includes reports on (1) the results of focus groups on managing utility residential efficiency [attitudes?] for low-income housing, and (2) low-income household energy consumption and expenditures patterns and weatherization opportunities 1987-1997, intensive analysis of R.E.C.S. data.

  12. Case Studies in the Campus Ministry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Clement W. (Ed.)

    This collection of essays on the campus ministry attempts to stimulate interest in developing an efficacious, contemporary role for religion in campus life. An introduction by Clement W. Welch states the place and relationship of the church in the academic community. A section of descriptive essays follows. John J. Kirvan, C.S.P., describes the…

  13. Supreme Court Strikes down a Gun Ban and Raises Questions for College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court's landmark ruling overturning Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban could have implications for colleges that prohibit firearms on their campuses. Last month the court declared for the first time that the U.S. Constitution's Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep a gun, not just the right of states to maintain armed…

  14. Measurement of cooling and warming rates in vitrification-based plant cryopreservation protocols.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Aline S; González-Benito, M Elena; Molina-García, Antonio D

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols include the use of additives and pretreatments aimed to reduce the probability of ice nucleation at all temperatures, mainly through micro-viscosity increase. Still, there is a risk of ice formation in the temperature region comprised between the equilibrium freezing (Tf ) and the glass transition (TG ) temperatures. Consequently, fast cooling and warming, especially in this region, is a must to avoid ice-derived damage. Vitrification and droplet-vitrification techniques, frequently used cryopreservation protocols based in fast cooling, were studied, alongside with the corresponding warming procedures. A very fast data acquisition system, able to read very low temperatures, down to that of liquid nitrogen, was employed. Cooling rates, measured between -20°C and -120°C, ranged from ca. 5°C s(-1) to 400°C s(-1) , while warming rates spanned from ca. 2°C s(-1) to 280°C s(-1) , for the different protocols and conditions studied. A wider measuring window (0°C to -150°C) produced lower rates for all cases. The cooling and warming rates were also related to the survival observed after the different procedures. Those protocols with the faster rates yielded the highest survival percentages.

  15. WINDOW OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)-INDUCED NEONATAL MORTALITY IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GRASTY1, 2, R.C., B.E. GREY1, C.S. LAU1 and J.M. ROGERS1, 2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC. Window of susceptibility to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induce...

  16. Thoracoscopic Sympathicotomy vs Sympathectomy in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Mehrvarz, Shaban; Manoochehry, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary hyperhidrosis (P.H.H.) is characterized by excessive sweating in certain parts of body. It’s estimated prevalence is 0%-6.1% in different populations. In Asian population its prevalence is around 3%. In 57% of cases, there is a positive family history. Objectives To evaluate and compare the early and late satisfaction, outcomes and complications of thoracoscopic sympathectomy and sympathicotomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. Materials and Methods From April 2007 to January 2011, we prospectively treated 60 primary hyperhidrosis patients via thoracoscopic surgery. The first 30 patients underwent sympathectomy and the next 30 patients underwent sympathicotomy. We evaluated early and late satisfactions, outcomes and complications on the first visit (5-8days) following surgery and 12 months after surgery, for all patients. Results The mean operative time was 66.3 minutes in sympathicotomy group and 110.8 minutes in sympathectomy group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in overall early and late satisfaction, gustatory sweating, pompholyx and post-operative pain. There was comparatively less early and late compensatory sweating (C.S.), and other adverse influences of C.S. in the sympathicotomy group. Conclusions Because of shorter operative time, less C.S. and less adverse influence of C.S., sympathicotomy seems a better treatment for primary hyperhidrosis, compared with sympathectomy. PMID:24350109

  17. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS '1930, WHITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS '1930, WHITE RIVER BRIDGE, ARKANSAS HIGHWAY COMMISSION, DWIGHT BLACKWOOD, CHAIRMAN, JUSTIN MATTHEWS, J. LAN WILLIAMS, J.S. PARKS, SAM J. WILSON, COMMISSIONERS, C.S. CHRISTIAN, STATE HIGHWAY ENGINEER, IRA HEDRICK, INC., CONSULTING ENGINEERS, PARHAM CONT. CO., CONTRACTOR' - Augusta Bridge, Spanning White River at Highway 64, Augusta, Woodruff County, AR

  18. 78 FR 62360 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference Federal Energy.... to approximately 1:00 p.m., to consider issues related to PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.'s...

  19. 77 FR 3766 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Staff Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Staff Technical Conference On... explore the issues presented by PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.'s (PJM) filing.\\1\\ Take notice that the... Commission's questions by February 10, 2012. \\1\\ PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., 137 FERC ] 61,204...

  20. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  1. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.3 Definitions. (a) Adverse Conditions... publisher of the Stars and Stripes produced by that organization. (c) S&S Management Action Group (MAG) and... issues. Neither the DoD S&S Steering Committee, nor the S&S MAG, involve themselves in Stars and...

  2. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.3 Definitions. (a) Adverse Conditions... publisher of the Stars and Stripes produced by that organization. (c) S&S Management Action Group (MAG) and... issues. Neither the DoD S&S Steering Committee, nor the S&S MAG, involve themselves in Stars and...

  3. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.3 Definitions. (a) Adverse Conditions... publisher of the Stars and Stripes produced by that organization. (c) S&S Management Action Group (MAG) and... issues. Neither the DoD S&S Steering Committee, nor the S&S MAG, involve themselves in Stars and...

  4. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.3 Definitions. (a) Adverse Conditions... publisher of the Stars and Stripes produced by that organization. (c) S&S Management Action Group (MAG) and... issues. Neither the DoD S&S Steering Committee, nor the S&S MAG, involve themselves in Stars and...

  5. Crystal structure of S-(4-methyl­benz­yl) piperidine­dithio­carbamate

    PubMed Central

    Rahima, Z. A.; Abdul Halim, Siti Nadiah; How, Fiona N.-F.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C14H19NS2, crystallizes in the thione form with the presence of a C=S bond. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the essentially planar di­thio­carbamate and p-tolyl fragments is 74.46 (10)° PMID:26396883

  6. Hebbian Learning of Cognitive Control: Dealing with Specific and Nonspecific Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2008-01-01

    The conflict monitoring model of M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, and J. D. Cohen (2001) triggered several research programs investigating various aspects of cognitive control. One problematic aspect of the Botvinick et al. model is that there is no clear account of how the cognitive system knows where to intervene when…

  7. 77 FR 26316 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Foreign Claims Settlement Commission Sunshine Act Meeting F.C.S.C. Meeting and Hearing Notice No. 04-12...., Suite 6002, Washington, DC 20579. Telephone: (202) 616-6975. Jaleh F. Barrett, Chief Counsel....

  8. Hydration of a silica fume blended low-alkali shotcrete cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Rentsch, Daniel; Wieland, Erich

    Ettringite and C-S-H are the main hydrates formed during the hydration of the low-alkali cement “ESDRED” consisting of 60% CEM I, 40% microsilica and 4.8% set accelerator. Small quantities of portlandite and hemicarbonate present as intermediate phases destabilise within a few weeks. The use of a set accelerator leads to massive ettringite precipitation, a moderate decalcification of C-S-H and reduction of pH due to presence of dissolved formate. The slow reaction of the silica fume during hydration decalcifies the C-S-H and decreases the alkali concentration to 30 mM and the pH value of the pore solution to 11.5 after 1 year and longer. The further reaction of the silica fume is expected to be slow and to result in a decrease of pH to 11. Further, the destabilisation of ettringite to thaumasite is expected. The long-term stability of C-S-H and the pH of approximately 11 make ESDRED a good candidate for usage in contact with the clay-based barriers of a repository for radioactive waste.

  9. Summer Booklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Heins, Ethel L.

    1979-01-01

    Lists and annotates new books for children, arranged according to the following categories: picture books; stories for younger, for intermediate, and for older readers; folklore and mythology; poetry and song; and nonfiction. A book about C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien, of interest to adults, is also annotated. (GT)

  10. Item-Specific Adaptation and the Conflict-Monitoring Hypothesis: A Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Chris; Robidoux, Serje; Risko, Evan F.; Besner, Derek

    2007-01-01

    Comments on articles by Botvinick et al. and Jacob et al. M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, D. M. Barch, C. S. Carter, and J. D. Cohen (2001) implemented their conflict-monitoring hypothesis of cognitive control in a series of computational models. The authors of the current article first demonstrate that M. M. Botvinick et al.'s (2001)…

  11. Research Using ASDC Data Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... use with PICASSO-CENA lidar data," (PDF 4MB) Stuart A. Young, C.S.I.R.O. Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC, Australia. ... Thomas Charlock, Lead Scientist) CERES/ARM/GEWEX Experiment (CAGEX) [see CAVE] - Input, Output, and Validation - northern Kansas ...

  12. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  13. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS '1929, WHITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS '1929, WHITE RIVER BRIDGE, BUILT BY ARKANSAS HIGHWAY COMMISSION, DWIGHT BLACKWOOD, CHAIRMAN, JUSTIN MATTHEWS, J. LAN WILLIAMS, J.S. PARKS, SAM J. WILSON, COMMISSIONERS, C.S. CHRISTIAN, STATE HIGHWAY ENGINEER, IRA HEDRICK, INC., CONSULTING ENGINEERS, LIST & WEATHERLY, CONSTRUCTION CO.' - Newport Bridge, Spanning White River at State Highway 14, Newport, Jackson County, AR

  14. Conceptual, Methodological, and Empirical Ambiguities in the Linkage between Anger and Approach: Comment on Carver and Harmon-Jones (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomarken, Andrew J.; Zald, David H.

    2009-01-01

    C. S. Carver and E. Harmon-Jones have made an important contribution to the understanding of anger, its linkage to higher order dimensions of emotion, and potential neurobiological substrates. The authors believe, however, that their model and future research conducted to test it would be improved by a more precise explication and parsing of the…

  15. Decalcification resistance of alkali-activated slag.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, Miroslav M; Baščarević, Zvezdana; Marjanović, Nataša; Nikolić, Violeta

    2012-09-30

    This paper analyses the effects of decalcification in concentrated 6M NH(4)NO(3) solution on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Decalcification process led to a decrease in strength, both in AAS and in CEM II, and this effect was more pronounced in CEM II. The decrease in strength was explicitly related to the decrease in Ca/Si atomic ratio of C-S-H gel. A very low ratio of Ca/Si ~0.3 in AAS was the consequence of coexistence of C-S-H(I) gel and silica gel. During decalcification of AAS almost complete leaching of sodium and tetrahedral aluminum from C-S-H(I) gel also took place. AAS showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification in relation to the benchmark CEM II due to the absence of portlandite, high level of polymerization of silicate chains, low level of aluminum for silicon substitution in the structure of C-S-H(I), and the formation of protective layer of polymerized silica gel during decalcification process. In stabilization/solidification processes alkali-activated slag represents a more promising solution than Portland-slag cement due to significantly higher resistance to decalcification. PMID:22818592

  16. The Influence of Psycholinguistic Variables on Articulatory Errors in Naming in Progressive Motor Speech Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Code, Chris; Tree, Jeremy; Ball, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe an analysis of speech errors on a confrontation naming task in a man with progressive speech degeneration of 10-year duration from Pick's disease. C.S. had a progressive non-fluent aphasia together with a motor speech impairment and early assessment indicated some naming impairments. There was also an absence of significant…

  17. A Description of What Charles Sanders Peirce Meant by Truth and an Application of His Doctrine of Truth to Rhetorical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmis, John H., III

    This paper investigated the doctrine of truth of the pragmatic philosopher C.S. Peirce. The ontological and epistemological bases of the doctrine are described, and the status of truth, reality, investigation, and belief are drawn from these bases. The results indicate that Peirce's doctrine could be productively related to rhetorical theory,…

  18. The Emergence of Frequency Effects in Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanyukov, Polina M.; Warren, Tessa; Wheeler, Mark E.; Reichle, Erik D.

    2012-01-01

    A visual search experiment employed strings of Landolt "C"s to examine how the gap size of and frequency of exposure to distractor strings affected eye movements. Increases in gap size were associated with shorter first-fixation durations, gaze durations, and total times, as well as fewer fixations. Importantly, both the number and duration of…

  19. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  20. Purification and characterisation of two enzymes related to endogenous formaldehyde in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Yuan, Yan; Lei, Xiao-yu; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, S A; Huang, Wen

    2013-06-15

    In this study, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and l-cysteine sulphoxide lyase (C-S lyase) were purified from the fruiting body of Lentinula edodes in three steps and then characterised. We found that GGT together with C-S lyase caused the generation of endogenous formaldehyde in L. edodes. GGT was composed of a large subunit of 41 kDa and a small subunit of 25 kDa, and C-S lyase was composed of two identical subunits of 46 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. GGT was stable at pH 8.0-10.0 with an optimum pH of 8.8, and was stable at 20-50°C with an optimum activity at 37°C. C-S lyase was stable at pH 8.0-9.0 with an optimum pH of 8.5, and was stable at 20-60°C with an optimum activity at 40°C. The present work supports the study of the mechanism of endogenous formaldehyde in L. edodes.

  1. Bismuth(III)-catalyzed dehydrative etherification and thioetherification of phenolic hydroxy groups.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masahito; Origuchi, Kazuki; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2014-07-18

    Use of a bismuth catalyst allowed efficient dehydrative substitution of phenolic hydroxy groups with alcohols and thiols to form C-O and C-S bonds. The reaction required equimolar amounts of two readily available substrates that generated H(2)O as the only byproduct. The relatively mild reaction conditions were compatible with the functional groups selected, and provided excellent chemoselectivity. PMID:25007290

  2. 32 CFR 246.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.3 Definitions. (a) Adverse Conditions... publisher of the Stars and Stripes produced by that organization. (c) S&S Management Action Group (MAG) and... issues. Neither the DoD S&S Steering Committee, nor the S&S MAG, involve themselves in Stars and...

  3. 75 FR 70068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY: Maritime... administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel TAXI 1. SUMMARY: As authorized by 46 U.S.C....S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084; April 30, 2003), that...

  4. Neither Fair nor Accurate: Research-Based Reasons Why High-Stakes Tests Should Not Be Used to Evaluate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Current and former leaders of many major urban school districts, including Washington, D.C.'s Michelle Rhee and New Orleans' Paul Vallas, have sought to use tests to evaluate teachers. In fact, the use of high-stakes standardized tests to evaluate teacher performance in the manner of value-added measurement (VAM) has become one of the cornerstones…

  5. Marx in Narnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Barrie; Sheppard, John

    1989-01-01

    Argues that teachers must understand the different values found in children's literature. Examines four aspects of values present in C. S. Lewis's "Chronicles of Narnia." Asserts that teachers must take responsibility for how such texts are received by young readers in the current multicultural, sexually equal society. (MM)

  6. THE MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER--THE WORLD OF STEPHEN SHAKER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    THE C.S. MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER WAS BUILT TO SERVE CHILDREN OF THOSE BORDERLINE FAMILIES WHOSE INCOMES PROHIBIT PRIVATE MEDICAL CARE YET MAKE THEM INELIGIBLE FOR DIRECT RELIEF OF ANY KIND. THE NEED FOR SUCH A CENTER WAS PROVED BY THE CHILDREN'S 18,000 VISITS ANNUALLY FOR HEALTH CARE. WHILE PROVIDING CARE FOR CHILDREN WAS THE MAIN…

  7. Mental Muscularity: Shaping Implicit Theories of Intelligence via Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Scott Victor

    2009-01-01

    Motivating students is a central challenge for many teachers, particularly in subjects students commonly perceive as "impenetrable," such as statistics. One line of motivation research by C.S. Dweck (2006) has found that when students believe their intelligence is malleable (i.e., a growth mindset) and that learning is a function of effort, they…

  8. Sequential Compatibility Effects and Cognitive Control: Does Conflict Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burle, Boris; Allain, Sonia; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that control mechanisms are necessary for human behavior to be adapted, very little is known about how such mechanisms are recruited. A suggestion to fill the gap was put forward by M. M. Botvinick, T. S. Braver, C. S. Carter, D. M. Barch, and J. D. Cohen (2001), who proposed the conflict-loop theory. This theory has…

  9. Density functional theory investigation on Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of azoles with aryl thioethers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Meng; Dang, Zhi-Min; Yu, Hai-Zhu

    2016-05-11

    In the present study, a density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on the Pd-catalyzed coupling of azoles with aryl thioethers. Our effort is mainly put into identifying the most feasible catalytic cycle, and especially the origin of chemoselectivity for the exclusive aromatic Csp(2)-S bond activation (in the presence of an alkyl Csp(3)-S bond). The coupling mainly consists of three steps: C-S activation, NaO(t)Bu mediated C-H palladation, and reductive elimination. The Csp(2)-S activation is favored over Csp(3)-S activation, and thus di(hetero)aryls are the predicted products. This conclusion well reproduces Wang's recent experimental observations. The rate- and chemoselectivity determining steps of the C-H/Csp(2)-S activation mechanism are C-H palladation and C-S activation steps, respectively. Analyzing the origin of chemoselectivity, we found that the easiness of Pd catalyzed C-S activation is independent of the C-S bond strengths in thioether substrates. By contrast, d-π* backdonation in Csp(2)-S-Pd intermediates is the main driving force for the favorable Csp(2)-S activation (over the Csp(3)-S activation). PMID:27097907

  10. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-062-AD; Amendment 39-17251; AD 2012-22-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M), and S-70C(M1) helicopters with...

  11. Carbon disulfide binding at dinuclear and mononuclear nickel complexes ligated by a redox-active ligand: iminopyridine serving as an accumulator of redox equivalents for the activation of heteroallenes.

    PubMed

    Bheemaraju, Amarnath; Beattie, Jeffrey W; Lord, Richard L; Martin, Philip D; Groysman, Stanislav

    2012-10-01

    The dinuclear complex Ni(2)L(1)(η(2)-CS(2))(2) (2), featuring iminopyridine ligation, is prepared by COD substitution from Ni(2)L(1)(COD)(2) (1). Spectroscopic, structural, and theoretical data reveals significant activation of the metal-bound C-S bonds, as well as the different oxidation states of the iminopyridine in (1-) and (0). PMID:22908100

  12. Mental Health Care: Who's Who

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...

  13. Role-Play Technique as an Antecedent of Performance in English Language: Evidence from Secondary Schools in Wareng District, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Kemboi; Osman, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In Kenya, there is a national concern over English language dismal performance over the years in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E). Blame has been put on teachers of English language for relying on techniques that favor them at the expense of their students. This article therefore sought to assess the use of role-play technique as…

  14. 14 CFR 25.415 - Ground gust conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cockpit controls must be designed for loads corresponding to the limit hinge moments H of paragraph (a)(2... surface horns, must be designed for limit hinge moments H, in foot pounds, obtained from the formula, H=.0034KV2cS, where— V=65 (wind speed in knots) K=limit hinge moment factor for ground gusts derived...

  15. 14 CFR 25.415 - Ground gust conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cockpit controls must be designed for loads corresponding to the limit hinge moments H of paragraph (a)(2... surface horns, must be designed for limit hinge moments H, in foot pounds, obtained from the formula, H=.0034KV2cS, where— V=65 (wind speed in knots) K=limit hinge moment factor for ground gusts derived...

  16. Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jae Eun; Clark, Simon M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-02-15

    Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 A tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 A tobermorite was calculated, K{sub o} = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 A tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 A tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules.

  17. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin and Caproic Acid on Storage of Ram Semen in Liquid Form.

    PubMed

    Roostaei-Ali Mehr, M; Parisoush, P

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of silymarin on stored spermatozoa using four rams. In experiment 1, silymarin was evaluated as a supplement for Tris-glucose extender. Semen samples (n = 20) were diluted with extender containing 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/ml silymarin and incubated at 5°C for 72 h. Membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, sperm viability and motility were evaluated at 72 h. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined after 48 h. Membrane integrity was higher in 100 μg/ml silymarin (65.2%) than control group (43.2%, p < 0.05). Acrosome integrity was highest in 100 μg/ml silymarin (71.3%, p < 0.05). Progressive motility was higher in 100 (58.5%), 150 (60.62%) and 200 μg/ml silymarin (54.7%) than control group (30.7%, p < 0.05). The highest MDA concentration was observed in control group (400 mm/10 × 10(6) sperm; p < 0.05). The goal of experiment 2 was to determine the interaction between silymarin and caproic acid on ram stored sperm. Ejaculates (n = 20) were diluted by Tris-glucose extender, added 0 (S- ) or 100 μg/ml (S+ ) silymarin and 0 (C- ) or 0.3125% (C+ ) caproic acid, and thereafter, aliquots were incubated at 5°C for 72 h. Membrane integrity was lower in C- S- (57.6%) than C- S+ (73.2%), C+ S- (80.2%) and C+ S+ (72.1%, p > 0.05). The highest sperm viability and acrosome integrity were observed in C+ S- (82.4 and 80.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no difference between C- S+ and C+ S+ on sperm viability and membrane integrity, progressive motility and MDA concentration (p > 0.05). Therefore, the supplementation of extender with silymarin and caproic acid improved sperm quality and caproic acid was superior to caproic acid plus silymarin. PMID:27321767

  18. Balancing strength and toughness of calcium-silicate-hydrate via random nanovoids and particle inclusions: Atomistic modeling and statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-11-01

    As the most widely used manufactured material on Earth, concrete poses serious societal and environmental concerns which call for innovative strategies to develop greener concrete with improved strength and toughness, properties that are exclusive in man-made materials. Herein, we focus on calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase of all Portland cement concretes, and study how engineering its nanovoids and portlandite particle inclusions can impart a balance of strength, toughness and stiffness. By performing an extensive +600 molecular dynamics simulations coupled with statistical analysis tools, our results provide new evidence of ductile fracture mechanisms in C-S-H - reminiscent of crystalline alloys and ductile metals - decoding the interplay between the crack growth, nanovoid/particle inclusions, and stoichiometry, which dictates the crystalline versus amorphous nature of the underlying matrix. We found that introduction of voids and portlandite particles can significantly increase toughness and ductility, specially in C-S-H with more amorphous matrices, mainly owing to competing mechanisms of crack deflection, voids coalescence, internal necking, accommodation, and geometry alteration of individual voids/particles, which together regulate toughness versus strength. Furthermore, utilizing a comprehensive global sensitivity analysis on random configuration-property relations, we show that the mean diameter of voids/particles is the most critical statistical parameter influencing the mechanical properties of C-S-H, irrespective of stoichiometry or crystalline or amorphous nature of the matrix. This study provides new fundamental insights, design guidelines, and de novo strategies to turn the brittle C-S-H into a ductile material, impacting modern engineering of strong and tough concrete infrastructures and potentially other complex brittle materials.

  19. In vitro activity of five quinolones and analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum clinical isolates from perinatal patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nakura, Yukiko; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Nomiyama, Makoto; Tokuda, Tsugumichi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Shiraishi, Jun; Wasada, Kenshi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tomio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2015-04-01

    Ureaplasma spp. cause several disorders, such as nongonococcal urethritis, miscarriage, and preterm delivery with lung infections in neonates, characterized by pathological chorioamnionitis in the placenta. Although reports on antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma are on the rise, reports on quinolone-resistant Ureaplasma infections in Japan are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibilities to five quinolones of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolated from perinatal samples in Japan and to characterize the quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Out of 28 clinical Ureaplasma strains, we isolated 9 with high MICs of quinolones and found a single parC gene mutation, resulting in the change S83L. Among 158 samples, the ParC S83L mutation was found in 37 samples (23.4%), including 1 sample harboring a ParC S83L-GyrB P462S double mutant. Novel mutations of ureaplasmal ParC (S83W and S84P) were independently found in one of the samples. Homology modeling of the ParC S83W mutant suggested steric hindrance of the quinolone-binding pocket (QBP), and de novo prediction of peptide structures revealed that the ParC S84P may break/kink the formation of the α4 helix in the QBP. Further investigations are required to unravel the extent and mechanism of antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:25645833

  20. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Sungchul; Meral, Cagla; Oh, Jae-eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Kunz, Martin; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using μ-SXRD patterns prove that μ-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. μ-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  1. The evolution of genes within genes and the control of DNA replication in microviruses.

    PubMed

    Doore, Sarah M; Baird, Cameron D; Roznowski, Aaron P; Fane, Bentley A

    2014-06-01

    Single-stranded DNA(ssDNA) viral life cycles must balance double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssDNA biosynthesis. Previously published in vitro results suggest that microvirus C and host cell SSB proteins play antagonistic roles to achieve this balance. To investigate this in vivo, microvirus DNA replication was characterized in cells expressing cloned C or ssb genes, which would presumably alter the C:SSB protein ratios. Representatives of each microvirus clade (φX174, G4, and α3) were used in these studies. α3 DNA replication was significantly more complex. Results suggested that the recognized α3 C gene (C(S): small) is one of two C genes. A larger 5' extended gene could be translated from an upstream GTG start codon (C(B): big). Wild-type α3 acquired resistance to elevated SSB levels by mutations that exclusively frameshifted the C(B) reading frame, whereas mutations in the origin of replication conferred resistance to elevated C protein levels. Expression of either the cloned C(B) or C(S) gene complemented am(C) mutants, demonstrating functional redundancy. When the C(S) start codon was eliminated, strains were only viable if an additional amber mutation was placed in gene C and propagated in an informational suppressing host. Thus, C(B) protein likely reaches toxic levels in the absence of C(S) translation. This phenomenon may have driven the evolution of the C(S) gene within the larger C(B) gene and could constitute a unique mechanism of regulation. Furthermore, cross-complementation data suggested that interactions between the α3 C and other viral proteins have evolved enough specificity to biochemically isolate its DNA replication from G4 and φX174. PMID:24600050

  2. Size-distribution analysis of proteins by analytical ultracentrifugation: strategies and application to model systems.

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Perugini, Matthew A; Gonzales, Noreen R; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Schubert, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Strategies for the deconvolution of diffusion in the determination of size-distributions from sedimentation velocity experiments were examined and developed. On the basis of four different model systems, we studied the differential apparent sedimentation coefficient distributions by the time-derivative method, g(s*), and by least-squares direct boundary modeling, ls-g*(s), the integral sedimentation coefficient distribution by the van Holde-Weischet method, G(s), and the previously introduced differential distribution of Lamm equation solutions, c(s). It is shown that the least-squares approach ls-g*(s) can be extrapolated to infinite time by considering area divisions analogous to boundary divisions in the van Holde-Weischet method, thus allowing the transformation of interference optical data into an integral sedimentation coefficient distribution G(s). However, despite the model-free approach of G(s), for the systems considered, the direct boundary modeling with a distribution of Lamm equation solutions c(s) exhibited the highest resolution and sensitivity. The c(s) approach requires an estimate for the size-dependent diffusion coefficients D(s), which is usually incorporated in the form of a weight-average frictional ratio of all species, or in the form of prior knowledge of the molar mass of the main species. We studied the influence of the weight-average frictional ratio on the quality of the fit, and found that it is well-determined by the data. As a direct boundary model, the calculated c(s) distribution can be combined with a nonlinear regression to optimize distribution parameters, such as the exact meniscus position, and the weight-average frictional ratio. Although c(s) is computationally the most complex, it has the potential for the highest resolution and sensitivity of the methods described. PMID:11806949

  3. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    A multibarrier system consisting of cement-based backfill, structures and support materials, and a bentonite-based buffer material has been studied for the TRU waste disposal concept being developed in Japan, the aim being to restrict the migration of radionuclides. Concern regarding bentonite-based materials in this disposal environment relates to long-term alteration under hyper-alkaline conditions due to the presence of cementitious materials. In tests simulating the interaction between bentonite and cement, formation of secondary minerals due to alteration reactions under the conditions expected for geological disposal of TRU waste (equilibrated water with cement at low liquid/solid ratio) has not been observed, although alteration was observed under extremely hyper-alkaline conditions with high temperatures. This was considered to be due to the fact that analysis of C-S-H gel formed at the interface as a secondary mineral was difficult using XRD, because of its low crystallinity and low content. This paper describes an analytical technique for the characterization of C-S-H gel using a heavy liquid separation method which separates C-S-H gel from Kunigel V1 bentonite (bentonite produced in Japan) based on the difference in specific gravity between the crystalline minerals constituting Kunigel V1 and the secondary C-S-H gel. For development of C-S-H gel separation methods, simulated alteration samples were prepared by mixing 990 mg of unaltered Kunigel V1 and 10 mg of C-S-H gel synthesized using pure chemicals at a ratio of Ca/Si = 1.2. The simulated alteration samples were dispersed in bromoform-methanol mixtures with specific gravities ranging from 2.00 to 2.57 g/cm 3 and subjected to centrifuge separation to recover the light density fraction. Subsequent XRD analysis to identify the minerals was complemented by dissolution in 0.6 N hydrochloric acid to measure the Ca and Si contents. The primary peak (2 θ = 29.4°, Cu Kα) and secondary peaks (2 θ = 32.1

  4. Effects of some aliphatic alcohols on the conductance change caused by a quantum of acetylcholine at the toad end-plate.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, P W; McBurney, R N; Schneider, G T

    1975-01-01

    1. The post-synaptic effects of the aliphatic alcohols, ethanol to hexanol, were investigated at the neuromuscular junctions of toads, with particular emphasis on the effects of ethanol. 2. The alcohols increased the amplitude and duration of miniature end-plate potentials. It is shown that this effect was due to the prolongation of the decay phase of miniature end-plate currents (m.e.p.c.s). There was no effect of alcohols on the growth phase of m.e.p.c.s. 3. The prolonged decay of m.e.p.c.s in ethanol remained exponential and was normally sensitive to membrane potential. Prolonged m.e.p.c.s were associated with an equivalent prolongation of the mean duration of elementary events, as determined from power spectra of acetylcholine noise in 0-5 M ethanol. 4. The relationship betweeen the time constant of decay of m.e.p.c.s (tau) and the concentration of an alcohol of carbon chain length N (C-N) was exponential, conforming to the equation tau equals tau-s exp (B-N-C-N), in which tau-s is the decay time constant in standard solution and B-N is a constant, different for each alcohol. 5. There was also an exponential relationship between B-N and N, which closely followed the relationship between membrane-buffer partition coefficient and carbon chain length for the different alcohols, indicating that the alcohols are active in the lipid phase of the post-synaptic membrane. 6. It is suggested that the alcohols act by causing a change in the dielectric constant of the post-synaptic membrane which forms the environment of the rate-limiting reaction responsible for the decay of the end-plate conductance. On the assumption that this reaction involves dipoles, it is shown that the small changes in dielectric constant, calculated from the partition coefficients of the alcohols and by assuming an initial lipid dielectric constant of 3, would give an exponential relationship between the time constant of decay of m.e.p.c.s and alcohol concentration. 7. The results support the

  5. Peptidergic and muscarinic excitation at amphibian sympathetic synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Kuffler, S W; Sejnowski, T J

    1983-01-01

    A single-electrode voltage clamp was used to study the slow muscarinic and late slow peptidergic excitatory post-synaptic currents (e.p.s.c.s) in B cells of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia of the bull-frog. Conductance decreases were measured during peptidergic e.p.s.c.s in nearly all cells at clamped potentials near the resting level. In about half of the cells the size of the peptidergic e.p.s.c.s increased with hyperpolarization and in some of these cells conductance increases were found at hyperpolarized levels. In the remaining cells conductance decreases occurred at all levels of membrane potential tested, and in a few of these the polarity of the e.p.s.c.s reversed at hyperpolarized potentials. A similar diversity was observed among muscarinic e.p.s.c.s. At least two simple ionic mechanisms are required to explain the heterogeneous voltage dependencies observed: a conductance decrease primarily to K+ that dominates at depolarized potentials and a conductance increase to other ions that is more prominent at hyperpolarized potentials. The proportion of these two mechanisms appears to differ among B cells. The two slow e.p.s.c.s recorded in the same neurone had the same voltage dependence and were accompanied by the same conductance changes in each of eight cells despite differences between cells. The muscarinic e.p.s.c. was reduced during the peptidergic e.p.s.c. in each of twenty-five neurones tested over a range of membrane potentials. Externally-applied luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) produced currents with the same voltage dependence and conductance changes as the nerve-evoked peptidergic e.p.s.c. in each of fifteen cells tested. Bethanechol, a muscarinic agonist, and LHRH produced currents with the same voltage dependence and conductance changes in each of the twelve cells studied. In several cells a saturating response to a prolonged application of LHRH completely occluded the response to bethanechol, and vice versa. Slow currents were

  6. A Study of Tropical Cyclones over India (Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) and Solar Influence on It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dhruba

    2016-07-01

    A prominent example of extreme weather event in India is Cyclonic Storm. In this paper annual variation of tropical Cyclonic Storm (CS), Severe Cyclonic Storm (SCS), Very Severe Cyclonic Storm (VSCS) and Super Cyclonic Storm (SuCS) over Bay Of Bengal (BOB) and Arabian Sea (ARS) during last 20 years (1990-2009) have been analyzed .The analysis revels that the total number of cyclone (TNC) has increased with high rate(gradient being +1.67 per year) and although C.S. is more over BOB than that over ARS.The rate of increase of C.S. over Arabian Sea is more than that over Bay of Bengal. Furthermore, two interesting features have been noted: (i) Monsoon tends to prohibit the formation of C.S (ii) Cyclonic Storm(C.S.) increases with the increase of Global Sea Surface Temperature (GSST) during said period.. Attempt has also been made to find out the influence of solar activity on these extreme weather events. Keeping in mind that the Sun Spot Number (SSN) is an indicator of the strength of solar effects, it has been found that in most of the times the high value of SSN is associated with small number of total cyclone (C.S.). Specifically, when only the years of high Sun's Spot Number (approximately greater than 90) are taken into consideration then Correlation Coefficient (C.C.) between SSN and number of cyclones comes out to be quite high (-0.78) significance at 99.99% level while Correlation Coefficient (C.C.) of cyclones with time is 0.53 and with SSN < 60 it is..095 . Thus it appears that although C.S. frequency is increasing with time, Sun's Spot's influence is such that it basically opposes the formation of cyclone provided SSN exceeds certain critical value (roughly 90). In principle, this is very important for any such event, and it is consistent with the trend of different phenomena occurring in nature. Key words: India, cyclone, solar influence, Critical Sun's Spot Number

  7. Effects of site-directed mutagenesis in the N-terminal domain of thermolysin on its stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Yuichi; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2013-01-01

    The thermolysin variant G8C/N60C/S65P in which the triple mutation in the N-terminal domain, Gly8→Cys/Asn60→Cys/Ser65→Pro, is undertaken increases stability [Yasukawa, K. and Inouye, K. (2007) Improving the activity and stability of thermolysin by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1774, 1281–1288] and its mechanism is examined in this study. The apparent denaturing temperatures based on ellipticity at 222 nm of the wild-type thermolysin (WT), G8C/N60C, S65P and G8C/N60C/S65P were 85, >95, 88 and >95°C, respectively. The first-order rate constants, kobs, of the thermal inactivation of WT and variants at 10 mM CaCl2 increased with increasing thermal treatment temperatures (70–95°C), and those at 80°C decreased with increasing CaCl2 concentrations (1–100 mM). The kobs values were in the order of WT > S65P > G8C/N60C≒G8C/N60C/S65P at all temperatures and CaCl2 concentrations. These results indicate that the mutational combination, Gly8→Cys/Asn60→Cys and Ser65→Pro, increases stability only as high as Gly8→Cys/Asn60→Cys does. Assuming that irreversible inactivation of thermolysin occurs only in the absence of calcium ions, the dissociation constants, Kd, to the calcium ions of WT, G8C/N60C, S65P and G8C/N60C/S65P were 47, 8.9, 17 and 7.2 mM, respectively, suggesting that Gly8→Cys/Asn60→Cys and Ser65→Pro stabilize thermolysin by improving its affinity to calcium ions, most probably the one at the Ca2+-binding site III in the N-terminal domain. PMID:23087322

  8. Sulphur geodynamic cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P.; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/3He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/3He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  9. The effect of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinas, A. Baltakys, K.; Siauciunas, R.

    2012-01-15

    The influence of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of ordinary Portland cement was examined. It was found that the additive of synthetic gyrolite accelerates the early stage of hydration of OPC. This compound binds alkaline ions and serves as a nucleation site for the formation of hydration products (stage I). Later on, the crystal lattice of gyrolite becomes unstable and turns into C-S-H, with higher basicity (C/S {approx} 0.8). This recrystallization process is associated with the consumption of energy (the heat of reaction) and with a decrease in the rate of heat evolution of the second exothermic reaction (stage II). The experimental data and theoretical hypothesis were also confirmed by thermodynamic and the apparent kinetic parameters of the reaction rate of C{sub 3}S hydration calculations. The changes occur in the early stage of hydration of OPC samples and do not have a significant effect on the properties of cement stone.

  10. The influence of composition and microstructure on the HAZ toughness of duplex stainless steels at [minus]20 C

    SciTech Connect

    Lippold, J.C. ); Varol, I.; Baeslack, W.A. III )

    1994-04-01

    The toughness of two commercial duplex stainless steels, Ferralium Alloy 255 and Alloy 2205, was evaluated over a range of cooling rates representative of conditions in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). Both alloys exhibited a loss in toughness at the cooling rate extremes, 90 and 2 C/s, resulting from high ferrite content and larger prior ferrite grain size, respectively. Alloy 255 also showed a drop in toughness at an intermediate cooling rate of 50 C/s. This intermediate loss in toughness, not observed in Alloy 2205, results from the interrelationship between austenite and Cr-rich precipitate formation along ferrite grain boundaries. The precipitation mechanisms and their subsequent effect on toughness are described. The practical implications of HAZ microstructure control are also discussed.

  11. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  12. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  13. Global solutions to a chemotaxis model with consumption of chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangchen; Mu, Chunlai; Hu, Xuegang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the following chemotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S(u)nabla v),quad &xin Ω,quad t>0, v_t=Δ v-uv,quad &xinΩ,quad t>0, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain {Ωsubset {R}^n} ({n≥2}), not necessarily being convex. There are some constants {c_D > 0}, {c_S > 0}, {min{R}} and {qin{R}} such that D(u) ≥ c_D(u+1)^{m-1} quad{and} quad S(u)≤ c_S(u+1)^{q-1}quad for all u≥0. If {q < m+n+2/2n}, it is shown that the model possesses a unique global classical solution which is uniformly bounded; if {q < m/2+n+2/2n}, the global existence of solution is established.

  14. Fabrication and properties of high- Tc tapes and coils made from silver-clad Bi-2223 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Rice, J.A. ); Motowidlo, L.R. ); Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. ); Tkaczyk, J.E.; Bednarczyk, P.J. . Corporate Research and Development Center)

    1992-08-01

    Long lengths of flexible silver-clad Bi-2223 high-{Tc} superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube. technique. By improving process conditions dc transport measurements at liquid helium (4.2K) and hydrogen (20K) temperatures yield J{sub c}'s greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field and exceed 3 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature in short tape samples. Detailed microstructural analysis and J{sub c} measurements with applied fields up to 20 T are reported. Coils have been fabricated from 1 meter lengths of conductor with J{sub c}'s at 77K approaching 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}. Measurements on small pancake coils made from 10 meter tapes are also reported.

  15. Fabrication and properties of high-{Tc} tapes and coils made from silver-clad Bi-2223 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Rice, J.A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Tkaczyk, J.E.; Bednarczyk, P.J.

    1992-08-01

    Long lengths of flexible silver-clad Bi-2223 high-{Tc} superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube. technique. By improving process conditions dc transport measurements at liquid helium (4.2K) and hydrogen (20K) temperatures yield J{sub c}`s greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field and exceed 3 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature in short tape samples. Detailed microstructural analysis and J{sub c} measurements with applied fields up to 20 T are reported. Coils have been fabricated from 1 meter lengths of conductor with J{sub c}`s at 77K approaching 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}. Measurements on small pancake coils made from 10 meter tapes are also reported.

  16. Sulphur geodynamic cycle.

    PubMed

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/(3)He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/(3)He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  17. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius less than 2 REarth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. We compare the abundances to those of a general Galactic disk population and investigate possible abundance trends with condensation temperature of the elements.S.C.S. acknowledges support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  18. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Righter, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history. PMID:26037825

  19. Accelerated growth of calcium silicate hydrates: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoleau, Luc

    2011-12-15

    Despite the usefulness of isothermal calorimetry in cement analytics, without any further computations this brings only little information on the nucleation and growth of hydrates. A model originally developed by Garrault et al. is used in this study in order to simulate hydration curves of cement obtained by calorimetry with different known hardening accelerators. The limited basis set of parameters used in this model, having a physical or chemical significance, is valuable for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying in the acceleration of C-S-H precipitation. Alite hydration in presence of four different types of hardening accelerators was investigated. It is evidenced that each accelerator type plays a specific role on one or several growth parameters and that the model may support the development of new accelerators. Those simulations supported by experimental observations enable us to follow the formation of the C-S-H layer around grains and to extract interesting information on its apparent permeability.

  20. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Righter, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  1. Highly stereoselective, cobalt(III)-directed Mannich additions in water yielding α-methylamino acid products.

    PubMed

    Oerum, Stephanie; Krabbe, Peter; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Furbo, Søren; Bendix, Jesper; Hammershøi, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Highly stereoselective and rapid (<1 min) addition reactions to the imine double bond of 2-(methylimino)acetate complexes [L(4)Co(O(2)CCH=NCH(3))](2+) [L(4) = (en)(2) (7), (tren) (11)] were achieved in aqueous solution with nitromethane, ethyl 3-oxobutanoate or diethyl malonate. The molecular structures of two product complexes, rac-(Δ*-R(C)*-S(N)*)-[Co(en)(2)(O(2)CCH[CH(2)NO(2)]NHCH(3))]ZnCl(4) and rac-(Δ*-R(C)*-S(N)*)-[Co(en)(2)(O(2)CCH[CH(2)COCH(3)]NHCH(3))]ZnCl(4), were established by X-ray diffraction.

  2. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  3. Hadron interactions and exotic hadrons from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yoichi

    2014-09-01

    One of the interesting subjects in hadron physics is to look for the multiquark configurations. One of candidates is the H-dibaryon (udsuds), and the possibility of the bound H-dibaryon has been recently studied from lattice QCD. We also extend the HAL QCD method to define potentials on the lattice between baryons to meson-meson systems including charm quarks to search for the bound tetraquark Tcc (ud c c) and Tcs (ud c s). In the presentation, after reviewing the HAL QCD method, we report the results on the H-dibaryon, the tetraquark Tcc (ud c c) and Tcs (ud c s), where we have employed the relativistic heavy quark action to treat the charm quark dynamics with pion masses, mπ = 410, 570, 700 MeV.

  4. New insights into water bonding during early tricalcium silicate hydration with quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gutberlet, T.; Hilbig, H.; Beddoe, R.E.; Lohstroh, W.

    2013-09-15

    New information on the water bonding during the first 36 h of hydration of tricalcium silicate was obtained using the high neutron flux at the sample position of the time-of-flight spectrometer (TOFTOF), FRM II in Garching, Germany, together with {sup 29}Si NMR and X-ray diffraction measurements. A rapid increase in the amount of constrained water was observed at the beginning of the induction period. This is attributed to the formation of an early C-S-H with a large specific surface area (around 800 m{sup 2}/g). During subsequent hydration, the amount of constrained water, as given by the total surface area of the hydration products, is controlled by (a) the formation of new metastable early C-S-H which increases total surface area and (b) polymerisation processes which reduce total surface area. The relative contribution of these processes varies during hydration.

  5. Bandgap-reduced NaNbO3 by Double-anion Codoping for Visible Light Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.; Chen, H.

    2016-05-01

    The energy band structure of monodoped and codoped NaNbO3 systems are investigated by first-principles calculations. The (N, P, C) monodoped systems appear unfilled impurity states in the band gap, which will reduce the efficiency of the photocatalysis for water splitting. For the S doped, the band gap reduction is not sufficient for visible light photocatalysis. The hole-hole mediated coupling of (N+N, N+P, C+S) codoped systems not only induce appreciate gap narrowing, but also remove the impurity states meaningfully. The band edge positions state that the (N+N, C+S) codoped NaNbO3 are very good candidates for the photocatalysis of water for hydrogen production.

  6. Multiphoton dissociative ionization of CS+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Jochim, Bethany; Zohrabi, M.; Betsch, K. J.; Ablikim, U.; Berry, Ben; Severt, T.; Summers, A. M.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-05-01

    We have studied the dissociative photoionization of a CS+ molecular ion beam in the strong-field regime using <50 fs IR laser pulses (λ ~ 790 nm) from a 10 kHz, ~2 mJ (per pulse) Ti:Sapphire laser system. A coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method was used to measure all ions and neutrals formed during this multiphoton process. Two prominent channels were observed: charge-symmetric dissociation, yielding C+ + S+, and charge-asymmetric dissociation, yielding C + S2+. The differences between these two channels with reference to their relative production probability, energetics, and angular distributions is the focus of this work. This work was supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy. BJ is also supported by DOE-SCGF (DE-AC05-06OR23100).

  7. ATS-6 description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redisch, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    The major design features of the sixth Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-6) are discussed. The three-axis stabilized, geostationary satellite, launched in May 1974, features a 9.1 meter parabolic antenna permitting the use of low cost 3 meter ground terminals for the reception of direct broadcast high quality color television programming. The communication subsystem is an integrated multifrequency RF repeater capable of receiving up to three signals in C, S, L, and VHF bands and retransmitting them at any commanded frequency in C, S, L, and UHF bands. A summary of the experiments carried aboard ATS-6 is provided, and early results from the GEOS Tracking and Data Relay Experiment are presented.

  8. Discrete kinetic eigenmode spectra of electron plasma oscillations in weakly collisional plasma: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Carrie; Ng, C. S.

    2013-01-15

    It has been demonstrated that in the presence of weak collisions, described by the Lenard-Bernstein (LB) collision operator, the Landau-damped solutions become true eigenmodes of the system and constitute a complete set [C.-S. Ng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1974 (1999) and C. S. Ng et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 065002 (2004)]. We present numerical results from an Eulerian Vlasov code that incorporates the Lenard-Bernstein collision operator [A. Lenard and I. B. Bernstein, Phys. Rev. 112, 1456 (1958)]. The effect of collisions on the numerical recursion phenomenon seen in Vlasov codes is discussed. The code is benchmarked against exact linear eigenmode solutions in the presence of weak collisions, and a spectrum of Landau-damped solutions is determined within the limits of numerical resolution. Tests of the orthogonality and the completeness relation are presented.

  9. Gas composition of the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Gas collections were made from a ???900??C vent both by conventional evacuated-bottle/wet-chemical techniques and by manual pumping of flowthrough bottles. The complete analyses suggest an equilibrium assemblage quenched at 1,010??C, about midway between fountain and vent temperatures. I suggest that the very low C S ratio is due to degassing of CO2 during storage of the magma in a shallow reservoir before eruption. The two sampling techniques yielded analytical data in mutual agreement. ?? 1984.

  10. How Reader Girl Got Her Groove Back: One Woman's Heroic Quest to Overcome the Classics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This author has been a "reader girl" since the third grade, when she first read "Trumpet of the Swan" on her own. Fourth grade brought C. S. Lewis, Lloyd Alexander, and Joan Aiken. Fifth grade was Cynthia Voigt, Anne McCaffrey, and Robin McKinley. And so it continued with Ellen Raskin, Patricia McKillip, and L. M. Montgomery, a veritable battalion…

  11. Neutron Scattering Studies of Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a century of research, basic questions remain regarding both the internal structure and the role of water in Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, the world's most widely used manufactured material. Most such questions concern the primary hydration product and strength-building phase of OPC paste, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. When cement and water are mixed, this phase precipitates as clusters of nanoscale (nearly amorphous) colloidal particles with an associated water-filled inter-particle pore system. Most attempts to characterize the C-S-H gel and the behavior of the associated water involve drying or other processes that, themselves, change the bound water content within and around the gel. Neutron scattering methods do not suffer from this disadvantage. Furthermore, the neutron isotope effect and the neutron's sensitivity to molecular motion have enabled considerable progress to be made in recent years by: (i) determining the C-S-H composition, density and gel structure in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) H/D contrast variation studies; (ii) elucidating the changing state of water within cement as hydration progresses using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS); and (iii) measuring the production and consumption of nanoscale calcium hydroxide (CH), a by-product of cement hydration that co-exists with the C-S-H gel, using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). These experiments have provided new insights into the physics and chemistry of cement hydration, and have implications for the design of new concretes with pozzolanic cement additions that are intended to address environmental concerns and sustainability issues.

  12. The Effects of Early Reading with Parents on Developing Literacy Skills. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Mother-Child Bookreading in Low-Income Families: Correlates and Outcomes during the First Three Years of Life" (H. Raikes, B. A. Pan, G. Luze, C. S. Tamis-LeMonda, J. Brooks-Gunn, J. Constantine, L. B.…

  13. Implementation of a Dual Containment/Surveillance System utilizing scene-change detection and radio frequency technology

    SciTech Connect

    FITZGERALD, ERIC; KOENIG, RICHARD

    2005-06-27

    This paper will examine the implementation of scene-change detection and radio frequency technology within a Dual Containment/Surveillance (C/S) System. Additionally, this paper will examine the human performance factors in the operation of these systems. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company utilizes the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System (CIMS) in the performance of Dual C/S to monitor special nuclear materials within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards. CIMS is comprised of the Material Monitoring System (MMS) (R), a multi-media electronic surveillance system developed by Sandia National Laboratory which incorporates the use of active seals commonly called Radio Frequency Tamper Indicating Devices (RFTIDs), NT Vision (R) as developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Microsoft Windows NT (R) based operating system providing for domestic scene-change detection and the Digital Multi-Camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) (R) which provides scene-change detection for IAEA. Although this paper will focus on the implementation of Dual C/S utilizing the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System, the necessity for a thorough review of Safeguards and Security requirements with organizations and personnel having minimal to no prior MPC&A training will also be covered. Successful Dual C/S implementation plans must consider not only system design and failure modes, but must also be accompanied with the appropriate ''mind shift'' within operations and technical personnel. This is required to ensure completion of both physical and electronic activities, and system design changes are performed conscientiously and with full awareness of MPC&A requirements.

  14. Failure Wave in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas

    2005-07-01

    Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor impact experiments reveal that failure wave velocity U/F depends on impact velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with impact velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal wave velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure wave for gold rod impact from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod impact on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with impact velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass impact on a gold rod at an impact velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-impact'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod impact, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. Impact Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).

  15. ATP7B expression confers multidrug resistance through drug sequestration.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, F M; Shinsato, Yoshinari; Komatsu, Masaharu; Mitsuo, Ryoichi; Minami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Kawahara, Kohich; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-04-19

    We previously reported that ATP7B is involved in cisplatin resistance and ATP7A confers multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells.In this study, we show that ATP7B expressing cells also are resistant to doxorubicin, SN-38, etoposide, and paclitaxel as well as cisplatin.In ATP7B expressing cells, doxorubicin relocated from the nuclei to the late-endosome at 4 hours after doxorubicin exposure. EGFP-ATP7B mainly colocalized with doxorubicin.ATP7B has six metal binding sites (MBSs) in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. To investigate the role of the MBSs of ATP7B in doxorubicin resistance, we used three mutant ATP7B (Cu0, Cu6 and M6C/S) expressing cells. Cu0 has no MBSs, Cu6 has only the sixth MBS and M6C/S carries CXXC to SXXS mutation in the sixth MBS. Cu6 expressing cells were less resistance to the anticancer agents than wild type ATP7B expressing cells, and had doxorubicin sequestration in the late-endosome. Cu0- and M6C/S-expressing cells were sensitive to doxorubicin. In these cells, doxorubicin did not relocalize to the late-endosome. EGFP-M6C/S mainly localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) even in the presence of copper. Thus the cysteine residues in the sixth MBS of ATP7B are essential for MDR phenotype.Finally, we found that ammonium chloride and tamoxifen suppressed late endosomal sequestration of doxorubicin, thereby attenuating drug resistance. These results suggest that the sequestration depends on the acidity of the vesicles partly.We here demonstrate that ATP7B confers MDR by facilitating nuclear drug efflux and late endosomal drug sequestration. PMID:26988911

  16. Copper(i) chloride promoted Csp(2)-N cross-coupling of 1,2-di(pyrimidin-2-yl) disulfides with amines: an efficient approach to obtain C2-amino functionalized pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai-Jie; Quan, Zheng-jun; Zhang, Zhang; Da, Yu-xia; Wang, Xi-cun

    2016-02-28

    The copper(i)-promoted cross-coupling of 1,2-di(pyrimidin-2-yl) disulfides with aromatic amines and aliphatic amines to deliver C-N coupling products in moderate to good yields is reported in this paper. Central to this strategy is the conversion of disulfides into aryl- and alkyl amines by a copper-promoted chemoselective C-S bond cleavage. PMID:26821885

  17. P.A.C. Planner's Workbook. E.S.E.A. Title I. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Chuck

    This workbook provides information and guidelines for planning and operating Parent Advisory Councils (P.A.C.s) provided for under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I. The first part of the workbook, which was prepared for P.A.C. planners in the Phoenix, Arizona, Union High School District, is a month-by-month guide to P.A.C.…

  18. 12. 'Portal Strut for 1 208'101/2' C. to C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. 'Portal Strut for 1 - 208'-10-1/2' C. to C. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Skew Span, 6th Crossing of Sacramento River, So. Pac. Co., The Phoenix Bridge Co., C.O. 836D, Drawing No. 12, Scale - 1' = 1', Engineer - B.M. Krohn, May 22nd `01, J.C.S.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 301.85, Milepost 301.85, Pollard Flat, Shasta County, CA

  19. The correlation of fragmentation and structure of a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qinyuan; Cheng, Xueheng; Van Orden, S.

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of proteins of similar structures is important to understanding the biological function of the proteins and the processes with which they are involved. Cytochrome c variants typically have similar sequences, and have similar conformations in solution with almost identical absorption spectra and redox potentials. The authors chose cytochrome c`s from bovine, tuna, rabbit and horse as a model system in studying large biomolecules using MS{sup n} of multiply charged ions generated from electrospray ionization (ESI).

  20. Boundedness in a quasilinear chemotaxis-haptotaxis system with logistic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji; Zheng, Jiashan; Wang, Yifu

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the quasilinear chemotaxis-haptotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S_1(u)nabla v)-nabla\\cdot(S_2(u)nabla w)+uf(u,w),quad xinΩ, t > 0,v_t=Δ v-v+u,quad xinΩ, t > 0,w_t=-vw,quad xinΩ, t > 0 in a bounded smooth domain {Ωsubset R^n (n≥1)} under zero-flux boundary conditions, where the nonlinearities {D, S_1} and {S_2} are assumed to generalize the prototypes D(u)=CD(u+1)^{m-1}, S_1(u)=C_{S_1}u(u+1)^{q_1-1} quad {and} quad S_2(u)=C_{S_2}u(u+1)^{q_2-1} with {C_D,C_{S_1},C_{S_2} > 0, m,q_1,q_2in R} and {f(u,w)in C^1([0,+infty)×[0,+∞))} fulfills f(u,w)≤ r-buquad {for all} ~u≥ 0quad {and} quad w≥ 0, where {r > 0, b > 0.} Assuming nonnegative initial data {u_0(x)in W^{1,∞}(Ω),v_0(x)in W^{1,∞}(Ω)} and {w_0(x)in C^{2,α}(barΩ)} for some {αin(0,1),} we prove that (i) for {n≤2,} if q_1,q_2\\ < m+2/n-1,} then {(star)} has a unique nonnegative classical solution which is globally bounded, (ii) for {n > 2,} if {max{q_1,q_2} < m+2/n-1} and {m > 2-2/n} or {max{q_1,q_2} < m+2/n-1} and {m≤ 1,} then {(star)} has a unique nonnegative classical solution which is globally bounded.

  1. Cysteine mutagenesis reveals alternate proximity between transmembrane domain 2 and hairpin loop 1 of the glutamate transporter EAAT1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Xiuping; Qu, Shaogang

    2014-07-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) plays an important role in restricting the neurotoxicity of glutamate. Previous structure-function studies have provided evidence that reentrant helical hairpin loop (HP) 1 has predominant function during the transport cycle. The proposed internal gate HP1 is packed against transmembrane domain (TM) 2 and TM5 in its closed state, and two residues located in TM2 and HP2 of EAAT1 are in close proximity. However, the spatial relationship between TM2 and HP1 during the transport cycle remains unknown. In this study, we used chemical cross-linking of introduced cysteine pair (V96C and S366C) in a cysteine-less version of EAAT1 to assess the proximity of TM2 and HP1. Here, we show that inhibition of transport by copper(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)3 (CuPh) and cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) were observed in the V96C/S366C mutant. Glutamate or potassium significantly protected against the inhibition of transport activity of V96C/S366C by CuPh, while TBOA potentiated the inhibition of transport activity of V96C/S366C by CuPh. We also checked the kinetic parameters of V96C/S366C treated with or without CuPh in the presence of NaCl, NaCl + L-glutamate, NaCl + TBOA, and KCl, respectively. The sensitivity of V96C and S366C to membrane-impermeable sulfhydryl reagent MTSET [(2-trimethylammonium) methanethiosulfonate] was attenuated by glutamate or potassium. TBOA had no effect on the sensitivity of V96C and S366C to MTSET. These data suggest that the spatial relationship between Val-96 of TM2 and Ser-366 of HP1 is altered in the transport cycle.

  2. Calcium dependence of presynaptic calcium current and post-synaptic response at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, G J; Charlton, M P

    1986-01-01

    1. Neurotransmitter release has a non-linear dependence upon the external Ca concentration, [Ca]o. This may be due to a 'co-operative' action of Ca in triggering release. The dependence of presynaptic Ca currents and post-synaptic currents (p.s.c.s) upon [Ca]o was examined at voltage-clamped 'giant' synapses of squid to determine whether this 'co-operativity' occurs during or after influx of Ca into the presynaptic terminal. 2. Presynaptic Ca current was proportional to [( Ca]o/(1 + [Ca]o/KD]n, where n, the order of the function, was roughly 1 and KD, the apparent dissociation constant for Ca, was approximately 80 mM. 3. P.s.c.s also could be described by the same function, but had an n of 3-4 and a lower KD. 4. These results suggest that the 'co-operative' action of Ca occurs at a step or steps beyond entry of Ca into the presynaptic terminal. 5. Synaptic transfer curves relating presynaptic Ca currents, elicited by depolarizations to different potentials, to resultant p.s.c.s were power functions whose exponent depended upon [Ca]o. Maximum exponents were as high as 4 at [Ca]o of 3 mM. The dependence of these curves upon [Ca]o helps to explain why previous determinations, which were performed at a variety of [Ca]o levels, yielded a variety of transfer curve exponent values. 6. Transfer curves generated from responses to constant presynaptic depolarizations, with Ca current varied by [Ca]o changes, also were power functions with exponents of approximately 4. Thus p.s.c.s were high-exponent power functions of Ca current regardless of whether Ca current was modified by changes in membrane potential or in [Ca]o. PMID:2442355

  3. 49 CFR 571.301 - Standard No. 301; Fuel system integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that have a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less and use fuel with a boiling point above 0 °C, and to school buses that have a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg and use fuel with a boiling point above 0 °C. S4. Definition... part 572 of this chapter at positions required for testing to Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208),...

  4. 49 CFR 571.301 - Standard No. 301; Fuel system integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that have a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less and use fuel with a boiling point above 0 °C, and to school buses that have a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg and use fuel with a boiling point above 0 °C. S4. Definition... part 572 of this chapter at positions required for testing to Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208),...

  5. The influence of drink temperature on thermoregulatory responses during prolonged exercise in a moderate environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-07-01

    Nine males cycled at 53% (s = 2) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.4 degrees C, s = 0.2; relative humidity: 61%, s = 3). One litre of flavoured water at 10 (cold), 37 (warm) or 50 degrees C (hot) was ingested 30 - 40 min into exercise. Immediately after the 90 min of exercise, participants cycled at 95%VO(2peak) to exhaustion to assess exercise capacity. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate were recorded. The gradient of rise in rectal temperature was influenced (P < 0.01) by drink temperature. Mean skin temperature was highest in the hot trial (cold trial: 34.2 degrees C, s = 0.5; warm trial: 34.4 degrees C, s = 0.5; hot trial: 34.7 degrees C, s = 0.6; P < 0.01). Significant differences were observed in heart rate (cold trial: 132 beats . min(-1), s = 13; warm trial: 134 beats . min(-1), s = 12; hot trial: 139 beats . min(-1), s = 13; P < 0.05). Exercise capacity was similar between trials (cold trial: 234 s, s = 69; warm trial: 214 s, s = 52; hot trial: 203 s, s = 53; P = 0.562). The heat load and debt induced via drinking resulted in appropriate thermoregulatory reflexes during exercise leading to an observed heat content difference of only 33 kJ instead of the predicted 167 kJ between the cold and hot trials. These results suggest that there may be a role for drink temperature in influencing thermoregulation during exercise.

  6. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  7. Iodine-Catalyzed Cross Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: A Regioselective Sulfenylation of Imidazoheterocycles Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as an Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Siddaraju, Yogesh; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-09-01

    A regioselective formation of C-S bonds has been achieved using a cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) protocol using iodine as a catalyst and dimethyl sulfoxide as an oxidant under green chemistry conditions. This strategy employs the reaction of easily available heterocyclic thiols or thiones with imidazoheterocycles. This protocol provides an efficient, mild, and inexpensive method for sulfenylation of imidazoheterocycles with a diverse range of heterocyclic thiols and heterocyclic thiones. PMID:27490357

  8. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  9. Universality probability of a prefix-free machine.

    PubMed

    Barmpalias, George; Dowe, David L

    2012-07-28

    We study the notion of universality probability of a universal prefix-free machine, as introduced by C. S. Wallace. We show that it is random relative to the third iterate of the halting problem and determine its Turing degree and its place in the arithmetical hierarchy of complexity. Furthermore, we give a computational characterization of the real numbers that are universality probabilities of universal prefix-free machines. PMID:22711870

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Aryl Sulfides with Diborons.

    PubMed

    Bhanuchandra, M; Baralle, Alexandre; Otsuka, Shinya; Nogi, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-17

    A catalytic Miyaura-type ipso-borylation of aryl sulfides with diboron reagents has been achieved, providing arylboronate esters of synthetic use. The key conditions to transform inherently reluctant C-S bonds into C-B bonds include a palladium-NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and lithium hexamethyldisilazide. This protocol is applicable to a reasonable range of aryl alkyl sulfides. Twofold borylation was observed in the reaction of diphenyl sulfide. PMID:27267542

  11. Accumulation of different sulfur fractions in Chinese forest soil under acid deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyi; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhangwei; Mulder, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Atmogenic sulfur (S) deposition loading by acid rain is one of the biggest environmental problems in China. It is important to know the accumulated S stored in soil, because eventually the size (and also the "desorption" rate) determines how rapidly the soil water pH responds to decrease in S deposition. The S fractions and the ratio of total carbon/total sulfur (C/S) of forest soil in 9 catchments were investigated by comparing soils at the rural and urban sites in China. The S fractions included water-soluble sulfate-S (SO(4)-S), adsorbed SO(4)-S, insoluble SO(4)-S and organic S. The ratio of C/S in soil at the rural site was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that at the urban site. C/S of soil in the A horizon was significantly (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the wet S-deposition rate. The ratio of C/S presents a better indicator for atmogenic S loading. Organic S was the dominant form in soils at rural sites; contributing more than 69% of the total S in the uppermost 30 cm soil. Organic S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were the main forms of S in soil at urban sites. High contents of water-soluble SO(4)-S and adsorbed SO(4)-S were found in uppermost 30 cm soils at urban sites but not at rural sites. Decades of acid rain have caused accumulation of inorganic SO(4)-S in Chinese forest soil especially at the urban sites. The soil at urban sites had been firstly acidified, and the impacts on the forest ecosystem in these areas should be noticed.

  12. Universality probability of a prefix-free machine.

    PubMed

    Barmpalias, George; Dowe, David L

    2012-07-28

    We study the notion of universality probability of a universal prefix-free machine, as introduced by C. S. Wallace. We show that it is random relative to the third iterate of the halting problem and determine its Turing degree and its place in the arithmetical hierarchy of complexity. Furthermore, we give a computational characterization of the real numbers that are universality probabilities of universal prefix-free machines.

  13. Cobalt-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide insertion to amine-based bisnucleophiles: diverse synthesis of substituted 2-aminobenzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, and 2-aminobenzoxazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong-Hao; Wang, Shun-Yi; Wang, Gao-Nan; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Cobalt catalysis: Synthesis of substituted 2-aminobenzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, and 2-aminobenzoxazoles was achieved by using cobalt(II) acetate catalyzed isocyanide insertion to o-diaminobenzene, 2-aminobenzenethiol, and 2-aminophenol derivatives in 1,4-dioxane (see scheme). It was found that the reaction proceeded efficiently to give the desired products in up to 95 % isolated yields by C-N and C-S (O, N) formation in a single step.

  14. A general approach to the synthesis of 5-S-functionalized pyrimidine nucleosides and their analogues.

    PubMed

    Kananovich, Dzmitry G; Reino, Alli; Ilmarinen, Kaja; Rõõmusoks, Marko; Karelson, Mati; Lopp, Margus

    2014-08-14

    A general and efficient approach was developed for the introduction of S-functionality at the C-5 position of cytosine and uracil nucleosides and their analogues. The key step is a palladium-catalyzed C-S coupling of the corresponding 5-bromo nucleoside derivative and alkyl thiol. The butyl 3-mercaptopropionate coupling products were further converted to the corresponding disulphides, the stable precursors of 5-mercaptopyrimidine nucleosides.

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Benzothiazole-Tethered Chromanones/Coumarins via Claisen Rearrangement Using the Solid State Melt Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bakthadoss, Manickam; Selvakumar, Raman

    2016-04-15

    A novel protocol has been successfully established for the efficient synthesis of benzothiazole-tethered chromanone/coumarin scaffolds via Claisen rearrangement using a solid state melt reaction in a one-pot manner. Benzothiazole formation and Claisen rearrangement involve the cleavage of S-S and C-O bonds and formation of C-S, C═N, and C-C bonds in a single operation without using a catalyst or solvent. PMID:26991666

  16. Simulated transient behavior of HT9 cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    Simulated transient tests were performed on sections of HT9 fast- reactor fuel pin cladding irradiated to a fast fluence of nearly 16 /times/ 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ at temperatures ranging from 370 to 620/degree/C. After removing fuel, these specimens were internally pressurized and heated at one of several constant rates (0.56, 5.6, or 110/degree/C/s) until specimen failure occurred. A slight reduction of strength was observed in irradiated cladding, particularly at 110/degree/C/s, when compared with transient results from unirradiated HT9 control specimens; however, this strength reduction did not correlate with either fluence or irradiation temperature. A small reduction of ductility was also observed for irradiated cladding failing at temperatures above 800/degree/C at the lower heating rates (0.56 or 5.6/degree/C/s); irradiated cladding was generally more ductile at 110/degree/C/s than unirradiated HT9 cladding. The HT9 cladding results were compared with similar transient data obtained previously from 20% Cold-Worked Type 316 Stainless Steel (316 SS) cladding. In the unirradiated state, this austenitic cladding is stronger and less ductile than HT9 cladding. However, the 316 SS cladding undergoes a significant loss of strength and ductility during irradiation when in contact with oxide fuel, by a mechanism labeled the fuel adjacency effect (FAE). The FAE is believed to be liquid metal embrittlement from fission products. The HT9 fuel pin cladding remained as strong or stronger than the 316 SS cladding when irradiated in contact with fuel, showing no evidence of the FAE up to the high fluences reported here. The ductility of the irradiated HT9 fuel pin cladding remained significantly greater than that of irradiated 316 SS cladding. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. ATP7B expression confers multidrug resistance through drug sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, F M; Shinsato, Yoshinari; Komatsu, Masaharu; Mitsuo, Ryoichi; Minami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Kawahara, Kohich; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that ATP7B is involved in cisplatin resistance and ATP7A confers multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. In this study, we show that ATP7B expressing cells also are resistant to doxorubicin, SN-38, etoposide, and paclitaxel as well as cisplatin. In ATP7B expressing cells, doxorubicin relocated from the nuclei to the late-endosome at 4 hours after doxorubicin exposure. EGFP-ATP7B mainly colocalized with doxorubicin. ATP7B has six metal binding sites (MBSs) in the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. To investigate the role of the MBSs of ATP7B in doxorubicin resistance, we used three mutant ATP7B (Cu0, Cu6 and M6C/S) expressing cells. Cu0 has no MBSs, Cu6 has only the sixth MBS and M6C/S carries CXXC to SXXS mutation in the sixth MBS. Cu6 expressing cells were less resistance to the anticancer agents than wild type ATP7B expressing cells, and had doxorubicin sequestration in the late-endosome. Cu0- and M6C/S-expressing cells were sensitive to doxorubicin. In these cells, doxorubicin did not relocalize to the late-endosome. EGFP-M6C/S mainly localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) even in the presence of copper. Thus the cysteine residues in the sixth MBS of ATP7B are essential for MDR phenotype. Finally, we found that ammonium chloride and tamoxifen suppressed late endosomal sequestration of doxorubicin, thereby attenuating drug resistance. These results suggest that the sequestration depends on the acidity of the vesicles partly. We here demonstrate that ATP7B confers MDR by facilitating nuclear drug efflux and late endosomal drug sequestration. PMID:26988911

  18. Aryl esters of the aci form of methanetrisulfonyl fluoride and their reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yagupol'skii, Yu.L.; Savina, T.I.

    1986-03-10

    The aryl esters of the aci form of methanetrisulfonyl fluoride are formed during the thermal decomposition of arenediazoniotris(fluorosulfonyl)methanides, which are produced by the action of methanetrisulfonyl fluoride on arenediazonium chlorides. The ylide fluorine atom is substituted by NR/sub 2/ and POh groups with silicon-containing reagents and by a phenyl group with phenyllithium. The obtained ylides add cesium fluoride and silver fluorides at the C=S bond in diglyme.

  19. K-teoria de operadores pseudodiferenciais com simbolos semi-periodicos no cilindro (in Portuguese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Patricia

    2009-05-01

    Let A denote the C*-algebra of bounded operators on L^2(RxS^1) generated by: (a) multiplications by smooth functions on S^1; (b) multiplications by continuous functions on the two point compactification of R; (c) multiplications by 2π-periodic continuous functions; (d) the operator L given by the inverse of the square root of the identity operator minus the Laplacian operator on RxS^1; and (e) operators of the form DL, where D is either the differencial operator on R or a first order differential operator on S^1 with smooth coefficients. Let sigma be the complex-valued symbol on A that arises from the Gelfand map of the C*-algebra A/E, where E is the commutator ideal of A. This is the continuous extension of the usual principal symbol of pseudodifferential operators. It is known that E contains the compact ideal K of A and E/K is isomorphic to C(S^1, K)oplus C(S^1, K), where here K is the algebra of all compact operators on ZxS^1. This isomorphism can be extended to a C*-homomorphism γ from A into C(S^1, B)oplus C(S^1, B), where B denotes the algebra of all bounded operators on ZxS^1. We compute the index map in the six-term exact sequence associated to sigma, using a Fedosov-Atiyah-Singer index formula. Given Adagger generated by classes of operators in (a), (d) and (e), we prove that the image of γ is isomorphic to the direct sum of two copies of the crossed product of Adagger by an automorphism. We use the Pimsner-Voiculescu exact sequence to compute the K-theory of the crossed product. So, we can prove that K0(A) is isomorphic to Z^5 and K1(A) is isomorphic to Z^4.

  20. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications. PMID:27561603

  1. CuO hollow nanosphere-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl iodides with thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyunje; Mohan, Balaji; Heo, Eunjung; Park, Ji Chan; Song, Hyunjoon; Park, Kang Hyun

    2013-09-01

    New functionalized CuO hollow nanospheres on acetylene black (CuO/AB) and on charcoal (CuO/C) have been found to be effective catalysts for C-S bond formation under microwave irradiation. CuO catalysts showed high catalytic activity with a wide variety of substituents which include electron-rich and electron-poor aryl iodides with thiophenols by the addition of two equivalents of K2CO3 as base in the absence of ligands.

  2. 76 FR 11561 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMPANIA S.C.S., Medellin, Colombia; c/o ECOVIVERO EL MATORRAL E.U., Medellin, Colombia; c/o ROBLE DE MINAS..., Colombia; c/o ROBLE DE MINAS S.A., Medellin, Colombia; c/o UNION DE CONSTRUCTORES CONUSA S.A., Bogota... DE MINAS S.A., Medellin, Colombia; Calle 16C Sur No. 42-70, Medellin, Colombia; DOB 18 Jan 1968;...

  3. The psychology of inherence is self-referential (and that is a good thing).

    PubMed

    Bookstein, Fred L

    2014-10-01

    Cimpian & Salomon (C&S) appear to characterize the inherence heuristic and essentialism as unwise or childish aspects of human reasoning. But actually, these cognitive modes lie at the core of statistical analysis across all of the quantitative sciences, including the developmental cognitive psychology in which the argument here is couched. Their whole argument is as much an example of its topic as an analysis of it. PMID:25388030

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Aryl Sulfides with Diborons.

    PubMed

    Bhanuchandra, M; Baralle, Alexandre; Otsuka, Shinya; Nogi, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-17

    A catalytic Miyaura-type ipso-borylation of aryl sulfides with diboron reagents has been achieved, providing arylboronate esters of synthetic use. The key conditions to transform inherently reluctant C-S bonds into C-B bonds include a palladium-NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and lithium hexamethyldisilazide. This protocol is applicable to a reasonable range of aryl alkyl sulfides. Twofold borylation was observed in the reaction of diphenyl sulfide.

  5. 9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtlecovered spring. The original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtle-covered spring. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8096. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Does sleep restore the topology of functional brain networks?

    PubMed

    Koenis, Maria M G; Romeijn, Nico; Piantoni, Giovanni; Verweij, Ilse; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Van Someren, Eus J W; Stam, Cornelis J

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that healthy anatomical as well as functional brain networks have small-world properties and become less optimal with brain disease. During sleep, the functional brain network becomes more small-world-like. Here we test the hypothesis that the functional brain network during wakefulness becomes less optimal after sleep deprivation (SD). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded five times a day after a night of SD and after a night of normal sleep in eight young healthy subjects, both during eyes-closed and eyes-open resting state. Overall synchronization was determined with the synchronization likelihood (SL) and the phase lag index (PLI). From these coupling strength matrices the normalized clustering coefficient C (a measurement of local clustering) and path length L (a measurement of global integration) were computed. Both measures were normalized by dividing them by their corresponding C-s and L-s values of random control networks. SD reduced alpha band C/C-s and L/L-s and theta band C/C-s during eyes-closed resting state. In contrast, SD increased gamma-band C/C-s and L/L-s during eyes-open resting state. Functional relevance of these changes in network properties was suggested by their association with sleep deprivation-induced performance deficits on a sustained attention simple reaction time task. The findings indicate that SD results in a more random network of alpha-coupling and a more ordered network of gamma-coupling. The present study shows that SD induces frequency-specific changes in the functional network topology of the brain, supporting the idea that sleep plays a role in the maintenance of an optimal functional network.

  7. 14 CFR 23.415 - Ground gust conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... according to the formula: H=K c S q where— H=limit hinge moment (ft.-lbs.); c=mean chord of the control... at design maximum weight, except that the design speed need not exceed 88 (f.p.s.); K=limit hinge...) Rudder in neutral. (f) Rudder (f) Rudder at full throw. (c) At all weights between the empty weight...

  8. Influence of γ-dose, dopant/codopant and heating rate on thermoluminescence properties of CaWO{sub 4} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Ambast, A. K. Sharma, S. K.

    2015-08-28

    A series of Ca{sub 1-2x}K{sub x}Dy{sub x}WO{sub 4} (x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04) phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction method and their thermoluminescence properties were investigated. Before thermoluminescence measurements, the sample was heated to 300°C for 1hour and then quenched to room temperature to erase out all the previous radiation memory. The prepared phosphors were irradiated by γ-ray in the dose range 1KGy–5KGy and their glow curves were recorded at an uniform rate of 5°C/s. In order to see the effect of heating rate as well as concentration of dopant/codopant, TL glow curves were also recorded by heating the samples at the rate of 3°C/s and 7°C/s as well as by varying the concentration x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04.

  9. Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-07-23

    To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

  10. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate.

  11. Replication fork bypass of a pyrimidine dimer blocking leading strand DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Stone, M; Zaritskaya, L S; Price, L K; Kaufmann, W K

    1997-05-23

    We constructed a double-stranded plasmid containing a single cis, syn-cyclobutane thymine dimer (T[c,s]T) 385 base pairs from the center of the SV40 origin of replication. This circular DNA was replicated in vitro by extracts from several types of human cells. The dimer was placed on the leading strand template of the first replication fork to encounter the lesion. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of replication intermediates documented the transient arrest of the replication fork by the dimer. Movement of the replication fork beyond the dimer was recognized by the appearance of a single fork arc in DNA sequences located between the T[c,s]T and the half-way point around the circular template (180 degrees from the origin). Upon completion of plasmid replication, the T[c,s]T was detected by T4 endonuclease V in about one-half (46 +/- 9%) of the closed circular daughter molecules. Our results demonstrate that extracts prepared from HeLa cells and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts (SV80, IDH4), including a cell line defective in nucleotide-excision repair (XPA), were competent for leading strand DNA synthesis opposite the pyrimidine dimer and replication fork bypass. In contrast, dimer bypass was severely impaired in otherwise replication-competent extracts from two different xeroderma pigmentosum variant cell lines.

  12. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes. PMID:26054293

  13. Dynamical behaviors of structural, constrained and free water in calcium- and magnesium-silicate-hydrate gels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le, Peisi; Fratini, Emiliano; Ito, Kanae; Wang, Zhe; Mamontov, Eugene; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2016-01-28

    We present the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of cement pastes depend strongly on their porosities. In a saturated paste, the porosity links to the free water volume after hydration. Structural water, constrained water, and free water have different dynamical behavior. Hence, it should be possible to extract information on pore system by exploiting the water dynamics. With our experiments we investigated the slow dynamics of hydration water confined in calcium- and magnesium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H and M-S-H) gels using high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique. C-S-H and M-S-H are the chemical binders present in calcium rich and magnesium rich cements. Wemore » measured three M-S-H samples: pure M-S-H, M-S-H with aluminum-silicate nanotubes (ASN), and M-S-H with carboxyl group functionalized ASN (ASN-COOH). A C-S-H sample with the same water content (i.e. 0.3) is also studied for comparison. We found that structural water in the gels contributes to the elastic component of the QENS spectrum, while constrained water and free water contribute the quasi-elastic component. The quantitative analysis suggests that the three components vary for different samples and indicate the variance in the system porosity, which controls the mechanical properties of cement pastes.« less

  14. PTEN modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling and angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua; Kontos, Christopher D

    2002-03-29

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is activated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and many of the angiogenic cellular responses of VEGF are regulated by the lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The tumor suppressor PTEN has been shown to down-regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, yet the effects of PTEN on VEGF-mediated signaling and angiogenesis are unknown. Inhibition of endogenous PTEN in cultured endothelial cells by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative PTEN mutant (PTEN-C/S) enhanced VEGF-mediated Akt phosphorylation, and this effect correlated with decreases in caspase-3 cleavage, caspase-3 activity, and DNA degradation after induction of apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Overexpression of PTEN-C/S also enhanced VEGF-mediated endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type PTEN inhibited the anti-apoptotic, proliferative, and chemotactic effects of VEGF. Moreover, PTEN-C/S increased the length of vascular sprouts in the rat aortic ring assay and modulated VEGF-mediated tube formation in an in vitro angiogenesis assay, whereas PTEN-wild type inhibited these effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PTEN potently modulates VEGF-mediated signaling and function and that PTEN is a viable target in therapeutic approaches to promote or inhibit angiogenesis.

  15. Molecular mechanistic origin of nanoscale contact, friction, and scratch in complex particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Soroosh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2015-02-11

    Nanoscale contact mechanisms, such as friction, scratch, and wear, have a profound impact on physics of technologically important particulate systems. Determining the key underlying interparticle interactions that govern the properties of the particulate systems has been long an engineering challenge. Here, we focus on particulate calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) as a model system and use atomistic simulations to decode the interplay between crystallographic directions, structural defects, and atomic species on normal and frictional forces. By exhibiting high material inhomogeneity and low structural symmetry, C-S-H provides an excellent system to explore various contact-induced nanoscale deformation mechanisms in complex particulate systems. Our findings provide a deep fundamental understanding of the role of inherent material features, such as van der Waals versus Coulombic interactions and the role of atomic species, in controlling the nanoscale normal contact, friction, and scratch mechanisms, thereby providing de novo insight and strategies for intelligent modulation of the physics of the particulate systems. This work is the first report on atomic-scale investigation of the contact-induced nanoscale mechanisms in structurally complex C-S-H materials and can potentially open new opportunities for knowledge-based engineering of several other particulate systems such as ceramics, sands, and powders and self-assembly of colloidal systems in general.

  16. Molecular equilibria and condensation sequences in carbon rich gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical equilibria in stellar atmospheres have been investigated by many authors. Lattimer, Schramm, and Grossman presented calculations in both O rich and C rich environments and predicted possible presolar condensates. A recent paper by Cherchneff and Barker considered a C rich composition with PAH's included in the calculations. However, the condensation sequences of C bearing species have not been investigated in detail. In a carbon rich gas surrounding an AGB star, it is often assumed that graphite (or diamond) condenses out before TiC and SiC. However, Lattimer et al. found some conditions under which TiC condenses before graphite. We have performed molecular equilibrium calculations to establish the stability fields of C(s), TiC(s), and SiC(s) and other high temperature phases under conditions of different pressures and C/O. The preserved presolar interstellar dust grains so far discovered in meteorites are graphite, diamond, SiC, TiC, and possibly Al2O3.

  17. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1993-12-31

    Results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal are summarized. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures, reagents, and radiation have been completed. A series of reactions have been undertaken in which physically cleaned Illinois coal has been subjected to many of the same reaction conditions that were shown, via the use of model sulfides, to result in substantial C-S bond cleavage and or sulfur oxidation. Therefore, summarized in this final report are results of the investigations of the photooxidation reactions of coal model sulfones and sulfides; the photolytic desulfurization of coal; and various other topics, including a summary of endeavors aimed at initiating C-S bond cleavage reactions using oxidation/chlorination/desulfurization protocols, and various tellurium reagents.

  18. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bausch, M.

    1993-12-31

    This report presents results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Chemical reactions that result in carbon-sulfur bond cleavage are an essential aspect of any protocol designed to remove organic sulfur from coal. In the second year of the project {open_quotes}Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal, the author has completed investigations of reactions in which organic sulfur-containing coal model compounds are subjected to different conditions of temperature, solvent mixtures, reagents, and radiation. He has also undertaken a series of reactions in which physically cleaned Illinois coal has been subjected to many of the same reaction conditions that were shown, via the use of model sulfides, to result in substantial C-S bond cleavage and or sulfur oxidation. Therefore, summarized in this interim final report are results of the investigations of the photooxidation reactions of coal model sulfones and sulfides; the photolytic desulfurization of coal; and various other topics, including a summary of the endeavors aimed at initiating C-S bond cleavage reactions using oxidation/chlorination/desulfurization protocols, and various tellurium reagents. Important experiments remain to be completed on this project; therefore, efforts in these areas will continue through the end of calendar year 1993.

  19. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  20. Low-speed cascade investigation of loaded leading-edge compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, James C

    1956-01-01

    Six percent thick NACA 63-series compressor-blade sections having a loaded leading-edge A4K6 mean line have been investigated systematically in a two-dimensional porous-wall cascade over a range of Reynolds numbers from 160,000 to 385,000. Blades cambered to have isolated-airfoil lift coefficients of 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 were tested over the usable angle-of-attack range at inlet-air angles of 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees and solidities of 1.0 and 1.5. A comparison with data of NACA RM L51G31, shows that the angle-of-attack operating range is 2 degrees to 4 degrees less than the range for the uniformly loaded section; however, the wake losses near design angle of attack are slightly lower than those for the uniformly loaded section. Except for highly cambered blades at high inlet angles, the 63-(C s oA4K6)06 compressor-blade sections are capable of more efficient operation for moderate-speed subsonic compressors at design angle of attack than are the 65-(C s oa10)10 or the 65-(c s oA2I8b)10 compressor-blade sections. In contrast to the other sections, the loaded leading-edge sections are capable of operating efficiently at the lower Reynolds numbers.

  1. Eukaryote-specific insertion elements control human ARGONAUTE slicer activity.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kotaro; Ascano, Manuel; Gogakos, Tasos; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Serganov, Artem A; Briskin, Daniel; Morozov, Pavel; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2013-06-27

    We have solved the crystal structure of human ARGONAUTE1 (hAGO1) bound to endogenous 5'-phosphorylated guide RNAs. To identify changes that evolutionarily rendered hAGO1 inactive, we compared our structure with guide-RNA-containing and cleavage-active hAGO2. Aside from mutation of a catalytic tetrad residue, proline residues at positions 670 and 675 in hAGO1 introduce a kink in the cS7 loop, forming a convex surface within the hAGO1 nucleic-acid-binding channel near the inactive catalytic site. We predicted that even upon restoration of the catalytic tetrad, hAGO1-cS7 sterically hinders the placement of a fully paired guide-target RNA duplex into the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this hypothesis, reconstitution of the catalytic tetrad with R805H led to low-level hAGO1 cleavage activity, whereas combining R805H with cS7 substitutions P670S and P675Q substantially augmented hAGO1 activity. Evolutionary amino acid changes to hAGO1 were readily reversible, suggesting that loading of guide RNA and pairing of seed-based miRNA and target RNA constrain its sequence drift.

  2. Placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Bahkali, Nedaa M.; Al-Basri, Samera F.; Hachim, Estabrq Al; Shoudary, Ibrahim H.; Dause, Wesam R.; Mira, Mohammed Y.; Khojah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review cases of placenta previa in the last 13 years in a tertiary teaching hospital to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of placenta previa managed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2013. Results: The total number of deliveries was 55,862 deliveries, and 11,412 (20.3%) delivered by cesarean section (C/S). The charts of 230 cases diagnosed with placenta previa was reviewed, and different variables were collected and analyzed. Diagnoses were achieved in 94% of them using ultrasound. The prevalence rate of placenta previa was 4.1 per 1000 births. Cesarean section was carried out as an emergency procedure in 130 (56.5%) women and as elective in 100 (43.5%) women. Of them, 26 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (11.3%), all of which received blood transfusion >6 units and 22 patients had a hysterectomy for uncontrollable bleeding. Conclusion: Placenta previa is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Every hospital must have a protocol, or algorithm for the management of placenta previa. Risk factors for maternal morbidity included complete previa, history of previous C/S, emergency C/S at a gestational age of <36 weeks, and estimated blood loss >2000 ml. PMID:27381536

  3. A dissolution-precipitation mechanism is at the origin of concrete creep in moist environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Alizadeh, Rouhollah; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Long-term creep (i.e., deformation under sustained load) is a significant material response that needs to be accounted for in concrete structural design. However, the nature and origin of concrete creep remain poorly understood and controversial. Here, we propose that concrete creep at relative humidity ≥ 50%, but fixed moisture content (i.e., basic creep), arises from a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, active at nanoscale grain contacts, as has been extensively observed in a geological context, e.g., when rocks are exposed to sustained loads, in liquid-bearing environments. Based on micro-indentation and vertical scanning interferometry data and molecular dynamics simulations carried out on calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase in concrete, of different compositions, we show that creep rates are correlated with dissolution rates—an observation which suggests a dissolution-precipitation mechanism as being at the origin of concrete creep. C-S-H compositions featuring high resistance to dissolution, and, hence, creep are identified. Analyses of the atomic networks of such C-S-H compositions using topological constraint theory indicate that these compositions present limited relaxation modes on account of their optimally connected (i.e., constrained) atomic networks.

  4. Characterization of the organic superconductor, {lambda}-(BETS){sub 2}GaCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Burgin, T.P.; Huffman, J.C.; Montgomery, L.K.

    1995-12-01

    {lambda}-(BETS){sub 2}GaCl{sub 4} (BETS denotes bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene) is an ambient pressure superconductor with a resistive onset (T{sub c}) of 7.5 K. This system is of interest for several reasons. Its T{sub c} is 5.5{degrees} higher than any previously known organic superconductor containing selenium. Tight-binding band calculations suggest that {lambda}-(BETS){sub 2}GaCl{sub 4} has both 1-D and 2-D Fermi surfaces, the most prominent feature being a closed hole pocket centered at X accounting for {approximately}33% of the first Brillouin zone. A number of samples possess broad transitions with onsets as high as 10K. The elevated T{sub c}`s appear to be associated with gold paste that is utilized in the resistance measurements. Various mechanisms (pressure, stress, phase transition) for the effect have been examined. The isotropic pressure derivative, dT{sub c}/dT, has been measured in this connection (-0.3{degrees}K/kbar). Nine different crystal morphologies have been isolated and characterized in the quest for BETS/GaC1{sub 4} salts with T{sub c}`s in the 10K range; none have T{sub c}`s greater than 7.5 K.

  5. Iodido{4-phenyl-1-[1-(1,3-thia-zol-2-yl-κN)ethyl-idene]thio-semicarbazidato-κ(2) N',S}{4-phenyl-1-[1-(1,3-thia-zol-2-yl)ethyl-idene]thio-semicarbazide-κS}cadmium(II).

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Ramaiyer; Samuel, Dasary S; Arslan, Zikri; Hossain, Md Alamgir; Fronczek, Frank R

    2013-05-01

    In the title complex, [Cd(C12H11N4S2)I(C12H12N4S2)], the Cd(II) ion is penta-coordinated by two thio-semicarbazone ligands (one neutral and the other anionic) and one iodide ion in a distorted square pyramidal (τ = 0.35) geometry. The central ion is coordinated by the thia-zole N atom, the thio-ureido N and the S atom of the deprotonated thio-semicarbazone ligand. The other ligand is linked with the central ion through the C=S group. The deprotonated ligand intra-molecularly hydrogen bonds to the thia-zole ring N atom, while the ligand forms an inter-molecular hydrogen bond to the thiol-ate S atom of the second ligand. The deprotonation of the tridentate ligand and its coordination to the Cd(II) ion via the S atom strikingly affects the C-S bond lengths. The C-S bond lengths in the neutral and deprotonated ligands in the metal complex are 1.709 (3) and 1.748 (2) Å, respectively, whereas it is 1.671 (3) Å in the free ligand. In the metal complex, the Cd-S distances are 2.6449 (6) and 2.5510 (6) Å. The Cd-I bond length is 2.7860 (2) Å. PMID:23723762

  6. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  7. Behavior of matter at superhigh density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Lodenquai, J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of the pion-pion collision in the GeV region are examined in order to provide insights into the behavior of matter at densities greater than 100 Teragrams per cu cm. The predictions based on the Landau model are used to decide upon the value for the speed of sound in the expression pressure equals c(s) squared times the energy density, where c(s) is the speed of sound expressed in units of c. Several pion-pion Lagrangians are analyzed for their predictions on the value of c(s) squared. The fundamental assumption of the Landau model, namely, the laminar nature of the flow, is investigated. It is found that the hadronic matter can become turbulent in the later stages of evolution when Reynolds number of about 4,000 is reached, which gives rise to the possibility of identifying the observed tendency of the pion gas to cluster with the eddies that characterize any turbulent flow.

  8. Nanogranular origin of concrete creep.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-06-30

    Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C-S-H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate ( approximately 1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years.

  9. From antiferromagnetic insulator to correlated metal in pressurized and doped LaMnPO.

    PubMed

    Simonson, J W; Yin, Z P; Pezzoli, M; Guo, J; Liu, J; Post, K; Efimenko, A; Hollmann, N; Hu, Z; Lin, H-J; Chen, C-T; Marques, C; Leyva, V; Smith, G; Lynn, J W; Sun, L L; Kotliar, G; Basov, D N; Tjeng, L H; Aronson, M C

    2012-07-01

    Widespread adoption of superconducting technologies awaits the discovery of new materials with enhanced properties, especially higher superconducting transition temperatures T(c). The unexpected discovery of high T(c) superconductivity in cuprates suggests that the highest T(c)s occur when pressure or doping transform the localized and moment-bearing electrons in antiferromagnetic insulators into itinerant carriers in a metal, where magnetism is preserved in the form of strong correlations. The absence of this transition in Fe-based superconductors may limit their T(c)s, but even larger T(c)s may be possible in their isostructural Mn analogs, which are antiferromagnetic insulators like the cuprates. It is generally believed that prohibitively large pressures would be required to suppress the effects of the strong Hund's rule coupling in these Mn-based compounds, collapsing the insulating gap and enabling superconductivity. Indeed, no Mn-based compounds are known to be superconductors. The electronic structure calculations and X-ray diffraction measurements presented here challenge these long held beliefs, finding that only modest pressures are required to transform LaMnPO, isostructural to superconducting host LaFeAsO, from an antiferromagnetic insulator to a metallic antiferromagnet, where the Mn moment vanishes in a second pressure-driven transition. Proximity to these charge and moment delocalization transitions in LaMnPO results in a highly correlated metallic state, the familiar breeding ground of superconductivity.

  10. Supplementary cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Scrivener, Karen; Hooton, R.D.

    2011-03-15

    The use of silica rich SCMs influences the amount and kind of hydrates formed and thus the volume, the porosity and finally the durability of these materials. At the levels of substitution normally used, major changes are the lower Ca/Si ratio in the C-S-H phase and consumption of portlandite. Alumina-rich SCMs increase the Al-uptake in C-S-H and the amounts of aluminate containing hydrates. In general the changes in phase assemblages are well captured by thermodynamic modelling, although better knowledge of the C-S-H is needed. At early ages, 'filler' effects lead to an increased reaction of the clinker phases. Reaction of SCMs starts later and is enhanced with pH and temperature. Composition, fineness and the amount of glassy phase play also an important role. Due to the diverse range of SCM used, generic relations between composition, particle size, exposure conditions as temperature or relative humidity become increasingly crucial.

  11. Potential of an injectable chitosan/starch/beta-glycerol phosphate hydrogel for sustaining normal chondrocyte function.

    PubMed

    Ngoenkam, Jatuporn; Faikrua, Atchariya; Yasothornsrikul, Sukkid; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2010-05-31

    An injectable hydrogel for chondrocyte delivery was developed by blending chitosan and starch derived from various sources with beta-glycerol phosphate (beta-GP) in the expectation that it would retain a liquid state at room temperature and gel at raised temperatures. Rheological investigation indicated that the system consisting of chitosan derived from crab shell and corn starch at 4:1 by weight ratio (1.53%, w/v of total polymers), and 6.0% (w/v) beta-GP (C/S/GP system) exhibited the sharpest sol-gel transition at 37+/-2 degrees C. The C/S/GP hydrogel was gradually degraded by 67% within 56 days in PBS containing 0.02 mg/ml lysozyme. The presence of starch in the system increased the water absorption of the hydrogel when compared to the system without starch. SEM observation revealed to the interior structure of the C/S/GP hydrogel having interconnected pore structure (average pore size 26.4 microm) whereas the pore size of the hydrogel without starch was 19.8 microm. The hydrogel also showed an ability to maintain chondrocyte phenotype as shown by cell morphology and expression of type II collagen mRNA and protein. In vivo study revealed that the gel was formed rapidly and localized at the injection site.

  12. [Heat resistance of Cladosporium isolated from laboratory animal facilities].

    PubMed

    Kawai, S; Takatori, K; Ohtaki, T

    1990-07-01

    Heat resistance tests for the saprophyte, Cladosporium, isolated from laboratory animal facilities were carried out. In testing the effects of moderate and high temperature conditions, C. sphaerospermum (C. s) and C. cladosporioides (C. c) were found to grow on media in temperatures less than 32 degrees C, but did not in temperature of 35 degrees C and over. The colony diameter of Cladosporium became smaller as temperature increased. The death time of C. s treated with moist heat was within 12 min at 48 degrees C and that of C. c was within 26 min at 43 degrees C. Both Cladosporium species could not survive for more than 1 min at 55 degrees C. On the other hand, Cladosporium treated with dry heat could not survive more than 69-12 min (C. s) and 39-9.5 min (C. c) at 70-100 degrees C. From these results, it can be seen that Cladosporium was definitely sensitive to heat treatment, and the authors assume that heat is a means of prevention in laboratory animal facilities.

  13. A dissolution-precipitation mechanism is at the origin of concrete creep in moist environments.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Alizadeh, Rouhollah; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Long-term creep (i.e., deformation under sustained load) is a significant material response that needs to be accounted for in concrete structural design. However, the nature and origin of concrete creep remain poorly understood and controversial. Here, we propose that concrete creep at relative humidity ≥ 50%, but fixed moisture content (i.e., basic creep), arises from a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, active at nanoscale grain contacts, as has been extensively observed in a geological context, e.g., when rocks are exposed to sustained loads, in liquid-bearing environments. Based on micro-indentation and vertical scanning interferometry data and molecular dynamics simulations carried out on calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase in concrete, of different compositions, we show that creep rates are correlated with dissolution rates-an observation which suggests a dissolution-precipitation mechanism as being at the origin of concrete creep. C-S-H compositions featuring high resistance to dissolution, and, hence, creep are identified. Analyses of the atomic networks of such C-S-H compositions using topological constraint theory indicate that these compositions present limited relaxation modes on account of their optimally connected (i.e., constrained) atomic networks.

  14. A dissolution-precipitation mechanism is at the origin of concrete creep in moist environments.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Alizadeh, Rouhollah; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Long-term creep (i.e., deformation under sustained load) is a significant material response that needs to be accounted for in concrete structural design. However, the nature and origin of concrete creep remain poorly understood and controversial. Here, we propose that concrete creep at relative humidity ≥ 50%, but fixed moisture content (i.e., basic creep), arises from a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, active at nanoscale grain contacts, as has been extensively observed in a geological context, e.g., when rocks are exposed to sustained loads, in liquid-bearing environments. Based on micro-indentation and vertical scanning interferometry data and molecular dynamics simulations carried out on calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase in concrete, of different compositions, we show that creep rates are correlated with dissolution rates-an observation which suggests a dissolution-precipitation mechanism as being at the origin of concrete creep. C-S-H compositions featuring high resistance to dissolution, and, hence, creep are identified. Analyses of the atomic networks of such C-S-H compositions using topological constraint theory indicate that these compositions present limited relaxation modes on account of their optimally connected (i.e., constrained) atomic networks. PMID:27497566

  15. Shock Wave Propagation in Cementitious Materials at Micro/Meso Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Arunachalam

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical and constitutive response of materials like cement, and bio materials like fish scale and abalone shell is very complex due to heterogeneities that are inherently present in the nano and microstructures. The intrinsic constitutive behaviors are driven by the chemical composition and the molecular, micro, and meso structures. Therefore, it becomes important to identify the material genome as the building block for the material. For instance, in cementitious materials, the genome of C-S-H phase (the glue or the paste) that holds the various clinkers, such as the dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, calcium ferroaluminates, and others is extremely complex. Often mechanical behaviors of C-S-H type materials are influenced by the chemistry and the structures at all nano to micro length scales. By explicitly modeling the molecular structures using appropriate potentials, it is then possible to compute the elastic tensor from molecular dynamics simulations using all atom method. The elastic tensors for the C-S-H gel and other clinkers are determined using the software suite ``Accelrys Materials Studio.'' A strain rate dependent, fracture mechanics based tensile damage model has been incorporated into ABAQUS finite element code to model spall evolution in the heterogeneous cementitious material with all constituents explicitly modeled through one micron element resolution. This paper presents results from nano/micro/meso scale analyses of shock wave propagation in a heterogeneous cementitious material using both molecular dynamic and finite element codes.

  16. Carrier transport in strained N-channel field effect transistors with channel proximate silicon-carbon source/drain stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Shao-Ming; Samudra, Ganesh S.; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the carrier transport characteristics in strained n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (nFETs) with embedded silicon-carbon (Si:C) source/drain (S/D) stressors formed in close proximity to the channel, taking parasitic resistance into account in the extraction of carrier transport parameters. While bringing the Si:C S/D stressors closer to the channel improves their effectiveness in imparting tensile strain to the channel, degradation in ballistic efficiency due to increased carrier scattering is observed. Fortunately, this is more than compensated by an increase in the carrier injection velocity vinj. For channel-proximate (CP) Si:C S/D nFETs with gate lengths ranging from 100 to 130 nm, a ˜10% drive current IDsat enhancement is observed with a ˜15% improvement in vinj. These findings clarified experimentally that in addition to mobility enhancement, vinj improvement also plays a significant role in the IDsat enhancement achieved by CP Si:C S/D nFETs.

  17. X (4140 ), X (4274 ), X (4500 ), and X (4700 ) in the relativized quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Dong, Yu-Bing

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the masses of c s c ¯ s ¯ tetraquark states in a diquark-antidiquark picture employing the relativized quark model proposed by Godfrey and Isgur. Only the antitriplet diquark states in color space are calculated. The diquark masses are obtained with the relativized potential first, and then the diquark and antidiquark are treated as the usual antiquark and quark, respectively, and the masses of the tetraquark states are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation with the relativized potential between the diquark and antidiquark. The theoretical uncertainties induced by screening effects are also taken into account. It is found that the resonance of X (4140 ) can be regarded as the c s c ¯s ¯ tetraquark ground states, and the X (4700 ) can be assigned as the 2 S excited tetraquark state. When the internal excited diquarks are taken into account, the resonance of X (4500 ) can be explained as the tetraquark composed of one 2 S scalar diquark and one scalar antidiquark. In our approach, the X (4274 ) cannot be explained as a tetraquark state; however, it can be a good candidate of the conventional χc 1(3 3P1) state. In addition, other charmoniumlike states χc 0(3915 ), X (4350 ), X (4630 ), and X (4660 ), as the c s c ¯s ¯ tetraquark states, are also discussed.

  18. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes.

  19. Searching for Minimum in Dependence of Squared Speed-of-Sound on Collision Energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Gao, Li-Na; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimore » mental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton ( p - p ) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c s 2 is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a local minimum (knee point) which indicates a softest point in the equation of state (EoS) appearing at about 40 A  GeV/ c (or 8.8 GeV) in c s 2 excitation function (the dependence of c s 2 on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy)). This knee point should be related to the searching for the onset of quark deconfinement and the critical point of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase transition.« less

  20. A luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopic study of the uranium(VI) interaction with cementitious materials and titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Tits, Jan; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten; Macé, Nathalie; Wieland, Erich

    2015-01-21

    Non-selective luminescence spectroscopy and luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopy were used to study the retention of UO2(2+) on titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases and hardened cement paste (HCP). Non-selective luminescence spectra showed strong inhomogeneous line broadening resulting from a strongly disordered UO2(2+) bonding environment. This problem was largely overcome by using luminescence line-narrowing spectroscopy. This technique allowed unambiguous identification of three different types of UO2(2+) sorbed species on C-S-H phases and HCP. Comparison with spectra of UO2(2+) sorbed onto TiO2 further allowed these species to be assigned to a surface complex, an incorporated species and an uranate-like surface precipitate. This information provides the basis for mechanistic models describing the UO2(2+) sorption onto C-S-H phases and HCP and the assessment of the mobility of this radionuclide in a deep geological repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L/ILW) as this kind of waste is often solidified with cement prior to storage. PMID:25407092

  1. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling and relationship to strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, F.Z.; Wang, X.M.; Chen, L.; Yang, S.W.; Shang, C.J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study we elucidate carbide precipitation at varied cooling rates in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling. The study suggests that increasing the cooling rate prevents precipitate formation in the ferrite phase during continuous cooling after finish rolling at 850 °C. At a lower cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s, the microhardness of ferrite grains exhibited maxima because of high volume fraction of fine carbides. A high density of nanoscale carbides with similar precipitation characteristics, including interphase precipitates, was observed at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1 °C/s, but the carbides were marginally larger and the spacing between them was increased with cooling rate. Additionally, carbide precipitation at a high cooling rate was associated with strain-induced precipitation. Through the analysis of selection area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, lattice imaging, the fine spherical-shaped carbides of size ~ 6–10 nm were identified as MC-type carbides of the type (Ti,Nb,Mo)C and NbC. - Highlights: • We model three cooling rates which have indicated different precipitation behaviors. • We find two types of precipitates including NbC and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C based on HRTEM study. • Increasing cooling rate will decrease volume fraction and size of the precipitates. • There is no absence of interphase precipitation when the cooling rate increases to 5 °C/s.

  2. The protonation state of thiols in self-assembled monolayers on roughened Ag/Au surfaces and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Samir; Dey, Abhishek

    2015-10-14

    The protonation state of thiols in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ag and Au surfaces and nanoparticles (NPs) has been an issue of contestation. It has been recently demonstrated that deuterating the thiol proton produces ostentatious changes in the Raman spectra of thiols and can be used to detect the presence of the thiol functional group. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of H/D substituted aliphatic thiols on Ag surfaces clearly shows the presence of S-H vibration between 2150-2200 cm(-1) which shifts by 400 cm(-1) upon deuteration and a simultaneous >20 cm(-1) shift in the C-S vibration of thiol deuteration. Large shifts (>15 cm(-1)) in the C-S vibration are also observed for alkyl thiol SAMs on Au surfaces. Alternatively, neither the S-H vibration nor the H/D isotope effect on the C-S vibration is observed for alkyl thiol SAMs on Ag/Au NPs. XPS data on Ag/Au surfaces bearing aliphatic thiol SAMs show the presence of both protonated and deprotonated thiols while on Ag/Au NPs only deprotonated thiols are detected. These data suggest that aliphatic thiol SAMs on Au/Ag surfaces are partially protonated whereas they are totally deprotonated on Au/Ag NPs. Aromatic PhSH SAMs on Ag/Au surfaces and Ag/Au NPs do not show these vibrations or H/D shifts as well indicating that the thiols are deprotonated at these interfaces.

  3. Comportement des materiaux cimentaires: Actions des sulfates et de la temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O 3-SO-H2O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O 3-SO3-H2O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfoaluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na2SO 4) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85°C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85°C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions.

  4. Novel copper (Cu) loaded core-shell silica nanoparticles with improved Cu bioavailability: synthesis, characterization and study of antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Maniprasad, Pavithra; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2012-08-01

    We report synthesis of a novel core-shell silica based antimicrobial nanoparticles where the silica shell has been engineered to accommodate copper (Cu). Synthesis of the core-shell Cu-silica nanoparticle (C-S CuSiO2NP) involves preparation of base-hydrolyzed Stöber silica "seed" particles first, followed by the acid-catalyzed seeded growth of the Cu-silica shell layer around the core. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measured the seed particle size to be -380 nm and the shell thickness to be -35 nm. The SEM particle characterization confirms formation of highly monodispersed particles with smooth surface morphology. Characterization of particle size distribution in solution by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique was fairly consistent with the electron microscopy results. Loading of Cu to nanoparticles was confirmed by the SEM-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The Cu loading was estimated to be 0.098 microg of metallic copper per mg of C-S CuSiO2NP material by the AAS technique. Antibacterial efficacy of C-S CuSiO2NP was evaluated against E. coli and B. subtilis using Cu hydroxide ("Insoluble" Cu compound, sub-micron size particles) as positive control and silica "seed" particles (without Cu loading) as negative control. Bacterial growth in solution was measured against different concentrations of C-S CuSiO2NP to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value. The estimated MIC values were 2.4 microg metallic Cu/mL for both E. coli and B. subtilis. Bac-light fluorescence microscopy based assay was used to count relative population of the live and dead bacteria cells. Antibacterial study clearly shows that C-S CuSiO2NP is more effective than insoluble Cu hydroxide particles at equivalent metallic Cu concentration, suggesting improvement of Cu bioavailability (i.e., more soluble Cu) in C-SCuSiO2NP material due to its core-shell design. PMID

  5. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  6. Investigation of various energy deposition kernel refinements for the convolution/superposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.; Eklund, David; Childress, Nathan L.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Several simplifications used in clinical implementations of the convolution/superposition (C/S) method, specifically, density scaling of water kernels for heterogeneous media and use of a single polyenergetic kernel, lead to dose calculation inaccuracies. Although these weaknesses of the C/S method are known, it is not well known which of these simplifications has the largest effect on dose calculation accuracy in clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to generate and characterize high-resolution, polyenergetic, and material-specific energy deposition kernels (EDKs), as well as to investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing spatially variant polyenergetic and material-specific kernels in a collapsed cone C/S algorithm.Methods: High-resolution, monoenergetic water EDKs and various material-specific EDKs were simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Polyenergetic kernels, reflecting the primary spectrum of a clinical 6 MV photon beam at different locations in a water phantom, were calculated for different depths, field sizes, and off-axis distances. To investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing spatially variant polyenergetic kernels, depth dose curves in water were calculated using two different implementations of the collapsed cone C/S method. The first method uses a single polyenergetic kernel, while the second method fully takes into account spectral changes in the convolution calculation. To investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing material-specific kernels, depth dose curves were calculated for a simplified titanium implant geometry using both a traditional C/S implementation that performs density scaling of water kernels and a novel implementation using material-specific kernels.Results: For our high-resolution kernels, we found good agreement with the Mackie et al. kernels, with some differences near the interaction site for low photon energies (<500 keV). For our spatially variant polyenergetic kernels, we found

  7. Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Valentino-Álvarez, Jesús Alberto; Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96 h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3 × 3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30 °C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96 h values (±standard error) of 9.13 ± 0.76, 9.17 ± 0.56, and 6.23 ± 0.57 mgAs L(-1)(at 20 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29 ± 2.09, 8.70 ± 0.82, and 8.03 ± 0.59 mgAs L(-1) (at 25 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84 ± 1.30, 8.49 ± 1.40, and 7.54 ± 0.51 mgAs L(-1) (at 30 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25 °C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20 °C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20 °C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25 °C-S 17 and 20 °C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25 °C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to

  8. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    PubMed

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels.

  9. Application of biochar from sewage sludge to plant cultivation: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and biochar-to-soil ratio on yield and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Song, X D; Xue, X Y; Chen, D Z; He, P J; Dai, X H

    2014-08-01

    Applying biochar products from sewage sludge (SS) pyrolysis as soil amendment for plant cultivation was investigated in this study with special attention paid to heavy metal accumulation in the plants when pyrolysis temperature and biochar-to-soil mass ratio (C:S) were changed. Biochar obtained at four different temperatures were adopted as soil amendment for Allium sativum L. garlic plant cultivation. Experimental results revealed that biochars were rich in nutrient contents and they improved garlic yields. Although contents of heavy metals including As, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Cu, etc. were elevated in the biochars compared to local soil, they fell within the acceptable limits for land application and SS is a suitable biochar resource, especially biochar produced at 450°C had rich micropores, relatively stable functional groups in structure and rugged surface to contact well with soil, conducive to its usage as a biochar. The garlic grew faster when planted in the biochar-amended soil and had higher final dry matter yields than those planted in the reference soil, especially biochar produced at 450°C corresponding to the highest final yields. The C:S ratio related to the highest garlic yields changed when the pyrolysis temperature was changed and this ratio was 1:4 for the biochar produced at 450°C. General heavy metal accumulation in the garlic occurred only for the most enriched Zn and Cu, and mainly in the roots & bulbs; in addition this bioaccumulation was increasing as leaching from biochar increased but not increasing with C:S ratio. The garlic planted in soil amended with biochar of 450°C contained the lowest level of heavy metals compared to other biochars. Those results indicated that heavy metal accumulation in plants can be inhibited through proper pyrolysis temperature choice and prevention of heavy metal leaching from the SS biochar.

  10. Flexibility in the inducer binding region is crucial for allostery in the Escherichia coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Matthews, Kathleen S

    2009-06-01

    Lactose repressor protein (LacI) utilizes an allosteric mechanism to regulate transcription in Escherichia coli, and the transition between inducer- and operator-bound states has been simulated by targeted molecular dynamics (TMD). The side chains of amino acids 149 and 193 interact and were predicted by TMD simulation to play a critical role in the early stages of the LacI conformational change. D149 contacts IPTG directly, and variations at this site provide the opportunity to dissect its role in inducer binding and signal transduction. Single mutants at D149 or S193 exhibit a minimal change in operator binding, and alterations in inducer binding parallel changes in operator release, indicating normal allosteric response. The observation that the double mutant D149A/S193A exhibits wild-type properties excludes the requirement for inter-residue hydrogen bond formation in the allosteric response. The double mutant D149C/S193C purified from cell extracts shows decreased sensitivity to inducer binding while retaining wild-type binding affinities and kinetic constants for both operator and inducer. By manipulating cysteine oxidation, we show that the more reduced state of D149C/S193C responds to inducer more like the wild-type protein, whereas the more oxidized state displays diminished inducer sensitivity. These features of D149C/S193C indicate that the novel disulfide bond formed in this mutant impedes the allosteric transition, consistent with the role of this region predicted by TMD simulation. Together, these results establish the requirement for flexibility in the spatial relationship between D149 and S193 rather than a specific D149-S193 interaction in the LacI allosteric response to inducer. PMID:19368358

  11. Interactions between poly(acrylic acid) and sodium dodecyl sulfate: isothermal titration calorimetric and surfactant ion-selective electrode studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Tam, K C

    2005-03-24

    Interaction between a monodispersed poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (M(W) = 5670 g/mol, M(w)/M(n) = 1.02) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and dynamic light scattering measurements. Contrary to previous studies, we report for the first time evidence of interaction between SDS and PAA when the degree of neutralization (alpha) of PAA is lower than 0.2. Hydrocarbon chains of SDS cooperatively bind to apolar segments of PAA driven by hydrophobic interaction. The interaction is both enthalpy and entropy favored (deltaH is negative but deltaS is positive). In 0.05 wt % PAA solution, the SDS concentration corresponding to the onset of binding (i.e., CAC) is approximately 2.4 mM and the saturation concentration (i.e., C(S)) is approximately 13.3 mM when alpha = 0. When PAA was neutralized and ionized, the binding was hindered by the enhanced electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged SDS and PAA chains and improved solubility of the polymer. With increasing alpha to 0.2, CAC increases to approximately 6.2 mM, C(S) drops to 8.6 mM, and the interaction is significantly weakened where the amount of bound SDS on PAA is reduced considerably. The values of CAC and C(S) derived from different techniques are in good agreement. The binding results in the formation of mixed micelles on apolar PAA coils, which then expands and dissociates into single PAA chains. The majority of unneutralized PAA molecules exist as single polymer chains stabilized by bound SDS micelles in solution after the saturation concentration.

  12. Prediction of solvent-induced morphological changes of polyelectrolyte diblock copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan K; Fuss, William H; Tang, Lei; Gu, Renpeng; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zauscher, Stefan; Yingling, Yaroslava G

    2015-11-14

    Self-assembly processes of polyelectrolyte block copolymers are ubiquitous in industrial and biological processes; understanding their physical properties can also provide insights into the design of polyelectrolyte materials with novel and tailored properties. Here, we report systematic analysis on how the ionic strength of the solvent and the length of the polyelectrolyte block affect the self-assembly and morphology of the polyelectrolyte block copolymer materials by constructing a salt-dependent morphological phase diagram using an implicit solvent ionic strength (ISIS) method for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. This diagram permits the determination of the conditions for the morphological transition into a specific shape, namely vesicles or lamellar aggregates, wormlike/cylindrical micelles, and spherical micelles. The scaling behavior for the size of spherical micelles is predicted, in terms of radius of gyration (R(g,m)) and thickness of corona (Hcorona), as a function of solvent ionic strength (c(s)) and polyelectrolyte length (NA), which are R(g,m) ∼ c(s)(-0.06)N(A)(0.54) and Hcorona ∼ c(s)(-0.11)N(A)(0.75). The simulation results were corroborated through AFM and static light scattering measurements on the example of the self-assembly of monodisperse, single-stranded DNA block-copolynucleotides (polyT50-b-F-dUTP). Overall, we were able to predict the salt-responsive morphology of polyelectrolyte materials in aqueous solution and show that a spherical-cylindrical-lamellar change in morphology can be obtained through an increase in solvent ionic strength or a decrease of polyelectrolyte length. PMID:26315065

  13. Comparison of wave and current measurements to NORA10 and NoNoCur hindcast data in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruserud, Kjersti; Haver, Sverre

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare metocean design criteria for waves and currents based on measured and hindcast data and by that provide some insight in the expected differences. At the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), the Norwegian Reanalysis Archive (NORA10) hindcast for wind and waves and the Northern North Sea Current Hindcast Study (NoNoCur) for currents are available. A comparison of NORA10 wave and NoNoCur current data to recent wave and current measurements during May 2011 to October 2015 at four locations in the northern North Sea has been done. For waves, significant wave height ( H s), spectral peak period ( T p), and wave direction are compared, and for currents, current speed ( C s) and direction at two water depths. Scatter and qq-plots of H s, T p, and C s and directional roses, summary statistics, and time histories of H s and C s are provided. In addition, the extreme values of H s are estimated, the conditional log-normal distribution for T p given H s is discussed, and the H s- T p contour lines are established. Good agreement between NORA10 and measured wave data in the northern North Sea is demonstrated. The NORA10 H s is found to be slightly more conservative than the measured H s. The NoNoCur data corresponds well to current measurements in the northern North Sea. However, the NoNoCur data does not correspond as good as the NORA10 data corresponds to measured data. Consequently, NORA10 can be recommended to be used for wave design criteria at NCS, while NoNoCur must be further developed and used with caution.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic variability during replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, C; Plana, J; Mascarella, R; Bergadá, J; Sobrino, F

    1990-12-01

    A plaque-purified preparation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C1 (C-S8c1-1), grown in cell culture, was used to infect nonimmunized pigs. No variant genomes were detected in the average populations of 50 viruses isolated from infected animals by direct RNA sequencing of the carboxy-terminal half of the VP1 gene. However, a mutant with altered phenotypic properties was present in low proportion in an infected animal. The frequency of mutants resistant to neutralization by SD6 monoclonal antibody (MAb) [SD6 epitope MAb-resistant mutants (MARMs)], directly estimated in virus from lesions of infected animals (without passage in cell culture), depended on the procedure used for its determination and ranged from 2.9 x 10(-6) (when the virus was incubated with the MAb prior to plating) to 2.6 x 10(-5) (when incubation with MAb was avoided and the MAb was maintained in the agar overlay of the titration assay). Such a difference was not found for C-S8c1-1, which consistently showed frequencies of about 4 x 10(-5). In addition, the repertoire of amino acid substitutions was similar among SD6 epitope MARMs isolated directly both from vesicles of infected animals and from C-S8c1-1. Thus, in spite of the conservation of the average sequence in the region of VP1 RNA analyzed, antigenic heterogeneity has been found in viral populations of FMDV upon replication in nonimmunized swine.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-V: a potential modulator of plasma triglyceride levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, Ugur; Tanyolaç, Sinan; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) plays an important role in determining plasma triglyceride levels. We studied the effects of APOA5 polymorphisms on plasma triglyceride levels in Turks, a population with low levels of HDL cholesterol and a high prevalence of coronary artery disease. We found 15 polymorphisms, three of which were novel. Seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and genotyped in approximately 3,000 subjects. The rare alleles of the -1464T>C, -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C SNPs were significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (19-86 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and had clear gene-dose effects. Haplotype analysis of the nine common APOA5 haplotypes revealed significant effects on triglyceride levels (P < 0.001). Detailed analysis of haplotypes clearly showed that the -1464T>C polymorphism had no effect by itself but was a marker for the -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C polymorphisms. The -1131T>C and 1259T>C polymorphisms were in a strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium and appeared to have independent effects. Thus, the APOA5 -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C rare alleles were associated with significant increases in plasma triglyceride levels. At least one of these alleles was present in approximately 40% of the Turks. Similar associations were observed for -1131T>C and S19W in white Americans living in San Francisco, California.

  16. A single-channel method for evaluation of very magnitudes of Ca2+ ion fluxes through epsilon4/zeta1 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels in bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, M; Hirano, A; Sugawara, M; Uchino, S; Nakajima-Iijima, S

    2001-01-01

    A single-channel method for evaluating agonist selectivity in terms of the very number of Ca2+ ions passed through the epsilon4/zeta1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion channel in bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) is described. The number of Ca2+ passed through the single-channel was obtained from single-channel recordings in a medium where the primary permeant ion is Ca2+. The recombinant epsilon4/zeta1 NMDA channel was partially purified from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the channel and incorporated in BLMs formed by the tip-dip method. It was found that the epsilon4/zeta1 channel in BLMs is permeable to Ca2+ and Na+, but the number of Ca2+ passed through the channel is much fewer than that of Na+. The integrated Ca2+ currents induced by three typical agonists NMDA, L-glutamate and L-CCG-IV were obtained at concentration of 50 microM, where the integrated currents for all the agonists reached their saturated values. The integrated Ca2+ currents obtained are (3.1+/-0.21) x 10(-13) C/s for NMDA, (4.6+/-0.31) x 10(-13) C/s for L-glutamate and (5.7+/-0.25) x 10(-13) C/s for L-CCG-IV, respectively, suggesting that the three kinds of agonists have different efficacies to induce permeation of Ca2+. The range of the agonist selectivity thus obtained is much narrower than that of binding affinities for the NMDA receptors from rat brain. The present method is able to detect Ca2+ permeation with a detection limit of approximately 10(5) Ca2+ ions/s.

  17. Evaluation of agonist selectivity for the NMDA receptor ion channel in bilayer lipid membranes based on integrated single-channel currents.

    PubMed

    Hirano, A; Sugawara, M; Umezawa, Y; Uchino, S; Nakajima-Iijima, S

    2000-06-01

    A new method for evaluating chemical selectivity of agonists to activate the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was presented by using typical agonists NMDA, L-glutamate and (2S, 3R, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-IV) and the mouse epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor incorporated in bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) as an illustrative example. The method was based on the magnitude of an agonist-induced integrated single-channel current corresponding to the number of total ions passed through the open channel. The very magnitudes of the integrated single-channel currents were compared with the different BLMs as a new measure of agonist selectivity. The epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor was partially purified from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor and incorporated in BLMs formed by the tip-dip method. The agonist-induced integrated single-channel currents were obtained at 50 microM agonist concentration, where the integrated current for NMDA was shown to reach its saturated value. The obtained integrated currents were found to be (4.5 +/- 0.55) x 10(-13) C/s for NMDA, (5.8 +/- 0.72) x 10(-13) C/s for L-glutamate and (6.6 +/- 0.61) x 10(-13) C/s for L-CCG-IV, respectively. These results suggest that the agonist selectivity in terms of the total ion flux through the single epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor is in the order of L-CCG-IV approximately = L-glutamate > NMDA.

  18. Dynamic behaviors of water contained in calcium-silicate-hydrate gel at different temperatures studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhou; Deng, Pei-Na; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Hua

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic behaviors of water contained in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel with different water content values from 10% to 30% (by weight), are studied by using an empirical diffusion model (EDM) to analyze the experimental data of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra at measured temperatures ranging from 230 K to 280 K. In the study, the experimental QENS spectra with the whole Q-range are considered. Several important parameters including the bound/immobile water elastic coefficient A, the bound water index BWI, the Lorentzian with a half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) Γ 1(Q) and Γ 2(Q), the self-diffusion coefficients D t1 and D t2 of water molecules, the average residence times τ 01 and τ 02, and the proton mean squared displacement (MSD) are obtained. The results show that the QENS spectra can be fitted very well not only for small Q (≤ 1 Å-1) but also for large Q. The bound/immobile water fraction in a C-S-H gel sample can be shown by the fitted BWI. The distinction between bound/immobile and mobile water, which includes confined water and ultra-confined water, can be seen by the fitted MSD. All the MSD tend to be the smallest value below 0.25 Å2 (the MSD of bound/immobile water) as the Q increases to 1.9 Å-1, no matter what the temperature and water content are. Furthermore, by the abrupt changes of the fitted values of D t1, τ 01, and Γ 1(Q), a crossover temperature at 250 K, namely the liquid-to-crystal-like transition temperature, can be identified for confined water in large gel pores (LGPs) and/or small gel pores (SGPs) contained in the C-S-H gel sample with 30% water content.

  19. Clinical study of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and puerperium.

    PubMed

    Adachi, T; Hashiguchi, K; Arai, Y; Ohta, H

    2001-01-01

    We encountered 16 cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women during pregnancy and/or puerperium over the past 15 years at our perinatal center, representing 0.14% of all patients who delivered babies. The present study was undertaken to analyze the risk factors, clinical course and outcomes in these 16 cases. The ages of the patients varied from 29 to 39 years. Four women had pulmonary embolism (PE), 3 of which after caesarean section (C/S) at 35 to 40 weeks, and one case after ovarian cystectomy at 13 weeks of gestation. Twelve cases had deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 4 of which during pregnancy, and the remaining 8 cases after C/S. Four patients who had DVT during a normal course of pregnancy had severe thrombophilia: antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, a history of thrombosis and antithrombin (AT) deficiency. They were treated with heparin with or without AT and had healthy babies via successful vaginal deliveries. The common risk factors in 3 cases of PE with C/S was prolonged bed rest due to threatened premature delivery with total placenta previa, uterine myoma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Other risk factors were massive bleeding, and positive lupus anticoagulant. However, the case of the ovarian cystectomy had only one risk factor, which was obesity. This patient died but the remaining patients recovered with treatment. Because of the low incidence of thrombosis in the Japanese population, prophylactic anticoagulant therapy has not routinely been given to patients undergoing obstetrical operations. However, proper management including prophylactic anticoagulant therapy might be considered for risk patients, depending on the risk factors.

  20. In-Situ Phase Mapping and Direct Observations of Phase Transformations During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T

    2005-09-13

    In-situ Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time x-ray diffraction data. The results were compiled along with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids weld model to create a phase map of the HAZ. This map shows the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation taking place during weld heating and the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation taking place during weld cooling. Superheating is required to complete the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation, and the amount of superheat above the A3 temperature was shown to vary with distance from the centerline of the weld. Superheat values as high as 250 C above the A3 temperature were observed at heating rates of 80 C/s. The SRXRD experiments also revealed details about the {gamma} phase not observable by conventional techniques, showing that {gamma} is present with two distinct lattice parameters as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine grained region of the HAZ, at distances greater than 2 mm from the fusion line, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region of the HAZ where the cooling rates are below 40 C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. For HAZ locations closer to the fusion line, undercoolings of 200 C or more below the A1 temperature are required to complete the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation. In this region of the HAZ, grain growth coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 C/s causes the transformation to occur by a bainitic mechanism.

  1. The puzzle of bond length variation in substituted cyclobutenes. A new example: molecular structure and conformations of 1,2-dimethoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluorocyclobut-1-ene.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alan D; Hedberg, Kenneth; Lunelli, Bruno

    2010-04-29

    The structure and composition of 1,2-dimethoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluorocyclobut-1-ene (DMCB) have been measured by electron diffraction from the gas at a temperature of 370 K with the help of auxiliary data from molecular orbital and normal coordinate calculations, the former at several levels of theory and basis-set size, most importantly B3LYP/cc-pVTZ. The compound was found to exist primarily as a rotamer of C(s) symmetry (ca. 98%; 2sigma = 11%) with the remainder one of C(2v) symmetry; theory predicts about 88% C(s). Values for some of the more important parameters (r(g)/A; angle(alpha)/deg) of the C(s) form are r(C=C) = 1.337(21), r(C1-C4) = 1.496(8), r(C2-C3) = 1.501(8), r(C3-C4) = 1.567(12), r(C1-O) = 1.318(12), r(C2-O) = 1.340(12), r(C3-F) = 1.375(4), r(C4-F) = 1.368(4), angle(ave)(C=C-C) = 94.4(4), angle(ave)(C=C-O) = 133.5(12), angle(ave)(C-O-C) = 119.6(13), and angle(ave)(F-C-F) = 104.4(7). Surprisingly, although electron-diffraction values for the fluorinated C3-C4 bond in other cyclobutenes are greater than that for cyclobutene itself, that is not the case for DMCB where it is found to be about the same. Details of the DMCB structure, together with possible reasons for the observed variations in the length of the C3-C4 bond in fluorinated cyclobutene-like molecules, are discussed.

  2. Attenuation of high sucrose diet–induced insulin resistance in ABC transporter deficient white mutant of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Navrotskaya, Valeriya; Oxenkrug, Gregory; Vorobyova, Lyudmila; Summergrad, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high sugar diet (HSD) is an experimental model of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in mammals and insects. In Drosophila, HSD-induced IR delays emergence of pupae from larvae and eclosion of imago from pupae. Understanding of mechanisms of IR/T2D is essential for refining T2D prevention and treatment strategies. Dysregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (Kyn) pathway was suggested as one of the mechanisms of IR/T2D development. Rate-limiting enzyme of Trp-Kyn pathway in Drosophila is Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), an evolutionary conserved ortholog of human TDO. We previously reported attenuation of HSD-induced IR in vermilion mutants with inactive TDO. Conversion of Trp to Kyn is regulated not only by TDO activity but by intracellular Trp transport via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter encoded by white gene in Drosophila. In order to evaluate the possible impact of deficient intracellular Trp transport on the inducement of IR by HSD, we compared the effect of HSD on pre-imago development in wild type flies, Canton-Special (C-S), and C-S flies containing white gene, white (C-S). Presence of white gene attenuated (by 50%) HSD-induced delay of pupae emergence from larvae and female and male imago eclosion from pupae. Present study together with our earlier report reveals that both decreased TDO activity (due to vermilion gene mutation) or deficient Trp transport into cell without affecting TDO levels (due to white gene mutation) attenuate HSD-induced development of IR in Drosophila model of T2D. Our data provide further support for hypothesis that dysregulation of Trp-Kyn pathway is one of the pathophysiological mechanisms and potential target for early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of IR/T2D. PMID:27375855

  3. Retention of trace metals by solidified/stabilized wastes: assessment of long-term metal release.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, R; Humez, A N; Mingelgrin, U; Benchara, A; Meducin, F; Prost, R

    2004-03-01

    Toxic elements found in wastes may have a negative impact on the environment, especially through the contamination of groundwater and plants. To reduce their mobility and availability, French regulations mandate the solidification and stabilization of toxic wastes. Many methods to stabilize and solidify wastes exist, among them the Ecofix process which employs low cost materials and consists of mixing wastes with lime, aluminum hydroxide, and silica. To evaluate the long-term behavior of solidified/stabilized (S/S) samples, their alteration under saturated conditions was studied in a water extractor, a Soxhlet-like device, used to follow the weathering of rocks. Kinetic measurements have shown that the release of Fe, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu was very slow, indicating a strong retention of these elements by the S/S materials prepared by the Ecofix process. To elucidate the mechanisms of retention of the trace metals, the mineral phases that existed in the S/S samples throughout and at the end of the extraction runs were studied by X-ray diffraction and by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations and electron microprobe analyses of the S/S samples were also performed at different stages of weathering. These observations revealed that assorted calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) were the predominant phases in the S/S preparations and that gradual alterations occurred in the structure of the investigated materials. The overall Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H phases decreased as the enhanced alteration progressed. Although trace metals in oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate forms were found in the S/S materials, the bulk of the trace metals was incorporated in the matrix of the C-S-H phases.

  4. Use of the Biphasic 13C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balesh, Albert M.; Shelby, Harold T.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase 13C-sucrose/13C-glucose breath test (13C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When 13C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to 13CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, 13C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). 13CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from 13C-sucrose and secondary 13C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, 13C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing 13CO2-breath enrichment with plasma 13C-glucose enrichment. 13C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. 13CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of 13C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r2 = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60′, 0.92 at 75′, and 0.96 at mean 60′–75′ with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60′, 0.77 at 75′, and 0.76 at mean 60′–75′ (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  5. Transport, Equilibrium, and Stability of a Toroidal Edge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Daniel Raymund

    The stability and transport of the drift resistive ballooning mode (DRBM) and its impact on the dynamics of a toroidal edge plasma is studied. The linear stability of the DRBM is calculated analytically and numerically, and is found to be unstable over a broad range of mode numbers. The nonlinear dynamics of the mode were studied using a fully nonlinear, three dimensional finite difference code. It was found that the saturated turbulent transport was anomalously large and exhibited a large ballooning -like poloidal asymmetry. The growth and saturation of this mode occurred on the time scale t_ {B} = (c_{s}/sqrt{RL _{n}})^{-1}.. Nonlinear two dimensional axisymmetric toroidal simulations of a tokamak edge and scrape off layer were performed to study the effect of this transport on the edge dynamics. Large parallel flows of order the local sound speed c_{s} were generated on the longer time scale t_{s } = (c_{s}/qR)^ {-1}. The stability of this 'equilibrium' depends upon the parameter alpha equiv rho_{s}qR/aL_{r}. For alpha << 1, the edge was unstable to the Stringer spin up instability. For weak magnetic pumping (H-mode), a poloidal rotation of order the poloidal sound speed ac_{s }/qR was generated in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. For strong pumping (L-mode), the rotation opposed the ion diamagnetic drift. The impact of particle sources at various poloidal locations was also studied. For alpha > 1 the edge was unstable to the parallel velocity shear instability. The turbulence gave order unity fluctuation levels and was localized inside the last closed flux surface and on the inner side of the torus.

  6. UV photochemistry of DNA in vitro and in Bacillus subtilis spores at earth-ambient and low atmospheric pressure: implications for spore survival on other planets or moons in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Two major parameters influencing the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores in space and on bodies within the Solar System are UV radiation and vacuum, both of which induce inactivating damage to DNA. To date, however, spore survival and DNA photochemistry have been explored only at the extremes of Earth-normal atmospheric pressure (101.3 kPa) and at simulated space vacuum (10(-3)-10(-6) Pa). In this study, wild-type spores, mutant spores lacking alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), naked DNA, and complexes between SASP SspC and DNA were exposed simultaneously to UV (254 nm) at intermediate pressure (1-2 Pa), and the UV photoproducts cis,syn-thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer (c,sTT), trans,syn-thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer (t,sTT), and "spore photoproduct" (SP) were quantified. At 101.3 kPa, UV-treated wild-type spores accumulated only SP, but spores treated with UV radiation at 1-2 Pa exhibited a spectrum of DNA damage similar to that of spores treated at 10(-6) Pa, with accumulation of SP, c,sTT, and t,sTT. The presence or absence of alpha/beta-type SASP in spores was partly responsible for the shift observed between levels of SP and c,sTT, but not t,sTT. The changes observed in spore DNA photochemistry at 1-2 Pa in vivo were not reproduced by irradiation of naked DNA or SspC:DNA complexes in vitro, suggesting that factors other than SASP are involved in spore DNA photochemistry at low pressure.

  7. Crime and substance misuse in adjudicated delinquent youth: the worst of both worlds.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether comorbid offending and substance misuse in previously adjudicated delinquents correlated better with measures of concurrent antisocial cognition and personality and subsequent criminality and substance misuse than offending or substance misuse alone. A sample of 1,177 youths was divided into four groups based on self-reported crime and substance misuse data from Wave 4 (ages 16-21) of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012): a no-crime and substance-misuse (NCS) group, a crime-only (CO) group, a substance-misuse-only (SO) group, and a crime and substance-misuse (C&S) group. As predicted, youths in the C&S group earned significantly higher scores on concurrent measures of neuroticism, grandiosity/manipulation, callousness/unemotionality, impulsivity/irresponsibility, and moral disengagement, and significantly lower scores on measures of agreeableness, conscientiousness, impulse control, suppression of aggression, and consideration of others than did youths in the other three groups. Prospective analyses revealed that C&S participants engaged in more subsequent crime and experienced more substance-related social problems than participants in the other three groups and reported significantly more substance-related dependency symptoms and episodes of alcohol/drug treatment than participants in the NCS and CO groups. Hence, previously adjudicated youths who experienced problems with crime and substances in late adolescence/early adulthood were at increased risk for concurrent antisocial cognition and personality problems and subsequent crime and substance-misuse problems compared with participants in the other three groups. The prospective effects were found to be partially mediated by antisocial cognition in the form of moral disengagement.

  8. Carbon isotope composition of latex does not reflect temporal variations of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Kanpanon, Nicha; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thaler, Philippe; Kositsup, Boonthida; Gay, Frédéric; Lacote, Régis; Epron, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Latex, the cytoplasm of laticiferous cells localized in the inner bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.), is collected by tapping the bark. Following tapping, latex flows out of the trunk and is regenerated, whereas in untapped trees, there is no natural exudation. It is still unknown whether the carbohydrates used for latex regeneration in tapped trees is coming from recent photosynthates or from stored carbohydrates, and in the former case, it is expected that latex carbon isotope composition of tapped trees will vary seasonally, whereas latex isotope composition of untapped trees will be more stable. Temporal variations of carbon isotope composition of trunk latex (δ(13)C-L), leaf soluble compounds (δ(13)C-S) and bulk leaf material (δ(13)C-B) collected from tapped and untapped 20-year-old trees were compared. A marked difference in δ(13)C-L was observed between tapped and untapped trees whatever the season. Trunk latex from tapped trees was more depleted (1.6‰ on average) with more variable δ(13)C values than those of untapped trees. δ(13)C-L was higher and more stable across seasons than δ(13)C-S and δ(13)C-B, with a maximum seasonal difference of 0.7‰ for tapped trees and 0.3‰ for untapped trees. δ(13)C-B was lower in tapped than in untapped trees, increasing from August (middle of the rainy season) to April (end of the dry season). Differences in δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-B between tapped and untapped trees indicated that tapping affects the metabolism of both laticiferous cells and leaves. The lack of correlation between δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-S suggests that recent photosynthates are mixed in the large pool of stored carbohydrates that are involved in latex regeneration after tapping. PMID:26358051

  9. Carbon isotope composition of latex does not reflect temporal variations of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Kanpanon, Nicha; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thaler, Philippe; Kositsup, Boonthida; Gay, Frédéric; Lacote, Régis; Epron, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Latex, the cytoplasm of laticiferous cells localized in the inner bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.), is collected by tapping the bark. Following tapping, latex flows out of the trunk and is regenerated, whereas in untapped trees, there is no natural exudation. It is still unknown whether the carbohydrates used for latex regeneration in tapped trees is coming from recent photosynthates or from stored carbohydrates, and in the former case, it is expected that latex carbon isotope composition of tapped trees will vary seasonally, whereas latex isotope composition of untapped trees will be more stable. Temporal variations of carbon isotope composition of trunk latex (δ(13)C-L), leaf soluble compounds (δ(13)C-S) and bulk leaf material (δ(13)C-B) collected from tapped and untapped 20-year-old trees were compared. A marked difference in δ(13)C-L was observed between tapped and untapped trees whatever the season. Trunk latex from tapped trees was more depleted (1.6‰ on average) with more variable δ(13)C values than those of untapped trees. δ(13)C-L was higher and more stable across seasons than δ(13)C-S and δ(13)C-B, with a maximum seasonal difference of 0.7‰ for tapped trees and 0.3‰ for untapped trees. δ(13)C-B was lower in tapped than in untapped trees, increasing from August (middle of the rainy season) to April (end of the dry season). Differences in δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-B between tapped and untapped trees indicated that tapping affects the metabolism of both laticiferous cells and leaves. The lack of correlation between δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-S suggests that recent photosynthates are mixed in the large pool of stored carbohydrates that are involved in latex regeneration after tapping.

  10. Use of the Biphasic (13)C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders.

    PubMed

    Opekun, Antone R; Balesh, Albert M; Shelby, Harold T

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). (13)CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from (13)C-sucrose and secondary (13)C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, (13)C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing (13)CO2-breath enrichment with plasma (13)C-glucose enrichment. (13)C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. (13)CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of (13)C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r (2) = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60', 0.92 at 75', and 0.96 at mean 60'-75' with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60', 0.77 at 75', and 0.76 at mean 60'-75' (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  11. K-teoria de operadores pseudodiferenciais na reta com simbolos semiperiodicos (in Portuguese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cintia C.

    2005-05-01

    Let A denote the smallest C*-subalgebra of the algebra of all bounded operators on L^2(R) containing: (i) all multiplications a(M) by functions a in C[-infty,+infty], (ii) all multiplications e^{ijM}, j in Z, and (iii) all operators of the form F^{-1}b(M)F, where F denotes the Fourier transform and b is in C[-infty,+infty]. It is known that the principal symbol mapping extends to a surjective C*-homomorphism sigma from A into C(M), where M is a certain compactification of two copies of R. It is also known that E, the kernel of sigma, contains the compact ideal K and that the quotient of E by K, is isomorphic to the direct sum of two copies of C(S^1,K). Using the explicit form of these two isomorphisms, we are able to compute the connecting mappings in the cyclic exact sequence in K-theory associated to the homomorphism sigma and to proof that K_0(A) is isomorphic to Z and that K_1(A) is isomorphic to Z^2. The isomorphism from E/K into C(S^1,K) can be to extended to a C*-homomorphism γ from A into the direct sum of two copies of C(S^1,B), where B denotes the algebra of all bounded operators on L^2(Z). We prove that the image of γ is isomorphic to the direct sum of two copies of the crossed product of C[-infty,+infty] by the translation-by-one automorphism. Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu exact sequence, we then compute the K-theory of the image of γ. That leads to a second proof that K_0(A) is isomorphic to Z and that K_1(A) is isomorphic to Z^2.

  12. Thermal and tactile interactions in the perception of local skin wetness at rest and during exercise in thermo-neutral and warm environments.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, D; Redortier, B; Hodder, S; Havenith, G

    2014-01-31

    The central integration of thermal (i.e. cold) and mechanical (i.e. pressure) sensory afferents is suggested as to underpin the perception of skin wetness. However, the role of temperature and mechanical inputs, and their interaction, is still unclear. Also, it is unknown whether this intra-sensory interaction changes according to the activity performed or the environmental conditions. Hence, we investigated the role of peripheral cold afferents, and their interaction with tactile afferents, in the perception of local skin wetness during rest and exercise in thermo-neutral and warm environments. Six cold-dry stimuli, characterized by decreasing temperatures [i.e. -4, -8 and -15 °C below the local skin temperature (T(sk))] and by different mechanical pressures [i.e. low pressure (LP): 7 kPa; high pressure (HP): 10 kPa], were applied on the back of 8 female participants (age 21 ± 1 years), while they were resting or cycling in 22 or 33 °C ambient temperature. Mean and local Tsk, thermal and wetness perceptions were recorded during the tests. Cold-dry stimuli produced drops in Tsk with cooling rates in a range of 0.06-0.4 °C/s. Colder stimuli resulted in increasing coldness and in stimuli being significantly more often perceived as wet, particularly when producing skin cooling rates of 0.18 °C/s and 0.35 °C/s. However, when stimuli were applied with HP, local wetness perceptions were significantly attenuated. Wetter perceptions were recorded during exercise in the warm environment. We conclude that thermal inputs from peripheral cutaneous afferents are critical in characterizing the perception of local skin wetness. However, the role of these inputs might be modulated by an intra-sensory interaction with the tactile afferents. These findings indicate that human sensory integration is remarkably multimodal.

  13. Atomic structure of dual-specificity phosphatase 26, a novel p53 phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lokareddy, Ravi Kumar; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Cingolani, Gino

    2013-02-01

    Regulation of p53 phosphorylation is critical to control its stability and biological activity. Dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) is a brain phosphatase highly overexpressed in neuroblastoma, which has been implicated in dephosphorylating phospho-Ser20 and phospho-Ser37 in the p53 transactivation domain. In this paper, we report the 1.68 Å crystal structure of a catalytically inactive mutant (Cys152Ser) of DUSP26 lacking the first 60 N-terminal residues (ΔN60-C/S-DUSP26). This structure reveals the architecture of a dual-specificity phosphatase domain related in structure to Vaccinia virus VH1. DUSP26 adopts a closed conformation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-binding loop, which results in an unusually shallow active site pocket and buried catalytic cysteine. A water molecule trapped inside the PTP-binding loop makes close contacts both with main chain and with side chain atoms. The hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) of ΔN60-C/S-DUSP26 measured from velocity sedimentation analysis (R(H) ∼ 22.7 Å) and gel filtration chromatography (R(H) ∼ 21.0 Å) is consistent with an ∼18 kDa globular monomeric protein. Instead in crystal, ΔN60-C/S-DUSP26 is more elongated (R(H) ∼ 37.9 Å), likely because of the extended conformation of C-terminal helix α9, which swings away from the phosphatase core to generate a highly basic surface. As in the case of phosphatase MKP-4, we propose that a substrate-induced conformational change, possibly involving rearrangement of helix α9 with respect to the phosphatase core, allows DUSP26 to adopt a catalytically active conformation. The structural characterization of DUSP26 presented in this paper provides the first atomic insight into this disease-associated phosphatase.

  14. Leg arteritis exploration by quantitative muscle scintigraphy with 201Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, J.; Thouvenot, P.; Schmidt, C.; Escanye, J.M.; Schmitt, J.

    1984-10-01

    Detection and localization of peripheral arterial disease was evaluated by an intravenous injection of 201Tl at peak exercise in 18 subjects and at rest in 6 patients. Images of the skull (S), thighs (T), knees (K), calves (C) and feet (F) were obtained at rest or after exercise and stored in a computer. Intraleg (T/K, T/C, T/F), and left to right interleg (TL/TR,...) count ratios were calculated. In addition, all patients were submitted to routine functional tests (walk perimeter, serial local arterial blood pressure measurement, Strandness test, venous occlusion plethysmography). Correlations between functional tests and the intra and interleg ratios were calculated. After exercise, there is a medium correlation between the tissular blood flow under hyperemia at the calf level and the T/C and C/K ratios. At the calf level a good correlation is obtained for CL/CR and the flux under hyperemia (r = 0.81, P 0.001). A ratio between the counting rates of limb segments after exercise and those of skull was established. The ratios T/S and C/S compared with the systolic pressure index of the most affected limb after a Strandness test give a correlation of 0.72 (P 0.02) for the thigh and of 0.86 (P 0.001) for the calf. For hyperemic flux, the correlation are 0.58 (P 0.005) with T/S and 0.75 (P 0.001) with C/S. In order to find the best quantitative scintigraphic index of the arterial illness, we compared the different ratio values with the distance walked. For T/S we found a relationship very close to a linear one and for C/S a less significant exponential one. Thus, quantitative scintigraphy using 201Tl appears as an accurate method to measure local muscular perfusion deficit in the cases of lower limb arterial disease.

  15. Involvement of an SHP-2-Rho small G protein pathway in hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced cell scattering.

    PubMed

    Kodama, A; Matozaki, T; Fukuhara, A; Kikyo, M; Ichihashi, M; Takai, Y

    2000-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) induces cell scattering through the tyrosine kinase-type HGF/SF receptor c-Met. We have previously shown that Rho small G protein (Rho) is involved in the HGF/SF-induced scattering of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by regulating at least the assembly and disassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions, but it remains unknown how c-Met regulates Rho activity. We have found here a novel signaling pathway of c-Met consisting of SHP-2-Rho that regulates the assembly and disassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions in MDCK cells. SHP-2 is a protein-tyrosine phosphatase that contains src homology-2 domains. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of SHP-2 (SHP-2-C/S) markedly increased the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in MDCK cells and inhibited their scattering. C3, a Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase, and Y-27632, a specific inhibitor for ROCK, reversed the stimulatory effect of SHP-2-C/S on stress fiber formation and the inhibitory effect on cell scattering. Vav2 is a GDP/GTP exchange protein for Rho. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of Vav2 blocked the stimulatory effect of SHP-2-C/S on stress fiber formation. Conversely, expression of mutants of Vav2 that increased stress fiber formation inhibited HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. These results indicate that SHP-2 physiologically modulates the activity of Rho to form stress fibers and focal adhesions and thereby regulates HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. In addition, Vav2 may be involved in the SHP-2-Rho pathway.

  16. Piezo-/dielectric properties of perovskite-structure high-temperature relaxor ferroelectrics: The Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ternary ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Long, Xifa

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-based ternary ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by solid-state synthesis method. • Morphotropic phase boundary region has been determined by XRD, di-/piezoelectric properties. • The compositions near MPB region exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. - Abstract: A new compositional system of relaxor ferroelectrics was investigated based on the high piezoelectricity Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric perovskite family. Compositions were fabricated near an estimated morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (PLZNT) ternary system by a two-step synthetic process. Their structures have been analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction technique. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction, the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region for the ternary system was obtained. The Curie temperature T{sub C} of ternary system varied from 240 °C to 330 °C and the coercive fields E{sub c}s > 10 kV/cm. The values of piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} vary in the range of 260–450 pC/N with different PZN contents. It is worth noting that the optimum compositions were located at MPB region but near the tetragonal phase. The new PLZNT ceramics exhibit wider range of T{sub C}s and E{sub c}s, making it a promising material for high-powder ultrasound transducers using in a large temperature range.

  17. Mineral Reactions in Active Fault Strands of the SAFOD Borehole: Results from Mineralogical and U/Th Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, A. M.; Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; van der Pluijm, B. A.; Warr, L. N.

    2009-12-01

    Mix-layered clay minerals are common in fault rocks, and their mineralization is strongly influenced by the surrounding environment. Based on detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of mudrock samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), phase 3, we present new TEM-XRD and U/Th results from bore hole depths of 3186.7 m to 3198.9 m, and 3294.9 m to 3313.5 m measured depth. These areas contain two actively creeping sections of the fault zone: Fault strand 10480 (~3194 m) and Fault strand 10830 (~3301 m). XRD analysis of the clay minerals in both fault strands show illite and illite-smectite (I-S) and chlorite dominating from 3186.7 m to 3196.3 m, and 3294.9 m to 3297 m measured depth. Samples containing increased chlorite-smectite (C-S) and corrensite (50:50 C-S) are mostly restricted to a well-defined interval in the center of the two fault strands between 3196.3 m to 3198.1 m, and 3297.5 to ~3305 m. Relatively high U/Th values in both creeping sections of the fault zone indicate that the presence of corrensite and chlorite is associated with reducing conditions during mineral formation, compared to more oxygenated adjacent rocks along the drill cores. TEM also shows serpentine minerals (chrysotile) especially in the fault centers at 3196.8 m and at 3297.5 m depth. These initially tubular phases are slightly flattened and oval in section with distinct strain features that reflect pre-faulting crystallization and subsequent ductile deformation within the fault zone. The C-S phases surrounding the chyrostile show no distinct deformation or subsequent alteration features. Chemical analyses show chlorite and C-S with a high Mg content, which indicates that their crystallization may have involved the destabilization of serpentine, providing Fe and Mg, whereas leaching of mica, feldspar and quartz from the wall-rock, is the probable source of Si and Al. This temporal sequence of reaction weakening suggests distinct changes in the fluid chemistry

  18. Effects of terrain-following vertical coordinates on high-resolution NWP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Chen, Dehui; Li, Xingliang; Hu, Jianglin

    2015-06-01

    With increasing resolution in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the model topography can be described with finer resolution and includes steeper slopes. Consequently, negative effects of the traditional terrain-following vertical coordinate on high-resolution numerical simulations become more distinct due to larger errors in the pressure gradient force (PGF) calculation and associated distortions of the gravity wave along the coordinate surface. A series of numerical experiments have been conducted in this study, including idealized test cases of gravity wave simulation over a complex mountain, error analysis of the PGF estimation over a real topography, and a suite of real-data test cases. The GRAPES-Meso model is utilized with four different coordinates, i.e., the traditional terrain-following vertical coordinate proposed by Gal-Chen and Somerville (hereinafter referred to as the Gal.C.S coordinate), the one-scale smoothed level (SLEVE1), the two-scale smoothed level (SLEVE2), and the COSINE (COS) coordinates. The results of the gravity wave simulation indicate that the GRAPES-Meso model generally can reproduce the mountain-induced gravity waves, which are consistent with the analytic solution. However, the shapes, vertical structures, and intensities of the waves are better simulated with the SLEVE2 coordinate than with the other three coordinates. The model with the COS coordinate also performs well, except at lower levels where it is not as effective as the SLEVE2 coordinate in suppressing the PGF errors. In contrast, the gravity waves simulated in both the Gal.C.S and SLEVE1 coordinates are relatively distorted. The estimated PGF errors in a rest atmosphere over the real complex topography are much smaller (even disappear at the middle and upper levels) in the GRAPES-Meso model using the SLEVE2 and COS coordinates than those using the Gal.C.S and SLEVE1 coordinates. The results of the real-data test cases conducted over a one-month period suggest

  19. Light absorption during alkali atom-noble gas atom interactions at thermal energies: A quantum dynamics treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedivcová, T.; Špirko, V.; Fišer, J.

    2006-10-01

    The potential energy and spin-orbit coupling functions of 11 lowest electronic states of CS2+ dication have been calculated using internally contracted multireference configuration method. Using these functions, the positions and widths of the corresponding vibronic levels have been evaluated by means of the stabilization and log-phase-amplitude methods. The states governing the second step in the sequential pathway CS23+→S+ +CS2+→S++C++S+ of the overall three-body Coulomb explosion of CS23+ have been determined.

  20. Theoretical study of the CS2+ dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedivcová, T.; Špirko, V.; Fišer, J.

    2006-10-01

    The potential energy and spin-orbit coupling functions of 11 lowest electronic states of CS2+ dication have been calculated using internally contracted multireference configuration method. Using these functions, the positions and widths of the corresponding vibronic levels have been evaluated by means of the stabilization and log-phase-amplitude methods. The states governing the second step in the sequential pathway CS23+→ S++CS2+→S++C++S+ of the overall three-body Coulomb explosion of CS23+ have been determined.