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Sample records for al anal chem

  1. Ab-initio calculations and phase diagram assessments of An-Al systems (An = U, Np, Pu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedmidubský, D.; Konings, R. J. M.; Souček, P.

    2010-02-01

    The enthalpies of formation of binary intermetallic compounds AnAl n(n=2,3,4, An=U,Np,Pu) were assessed from first principle calculations of total energies performed using full potential APW + lo technique within density functional theory ( WIEN2k). The substantial contribution to entropies, S298°, arising from lattice vibrations was calculated by direct method within harmonic crystal approximation ( Phonon software + VASP for obtaining Hellmann-Feynman forces). The electronic heat capacity and the corresponding contribution to entropy were estimated from the density of states at Fermi level obtained from electronic structure calculations. The phase diagrams of the relevant systems An-Al were calculated based on the thermodynamic data assessed from ab-initio calculations, known equilibrium and calorimetry data by employing the FactSage program.

  2. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Anal Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Whether you (or ... the topics below to get started. What Is Anal Cancer? What is anal cancer? What are the ...

  3. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Anal Cancer Anal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Anal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Anal Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention Screening ...

  4. [Anal suppurations].

    PubMed

    Senéjoux, A

    2001-01-15

    Anal suppurations can be classified according to their origin: from the anal canal, from above the anal canal, or independent from the ano-rectum. Wherever suppuration comes from, an abscess can be present at the acute phase. Anal fistulas represent about 70% of anal suppurations. They always begin by cryptoglandular infection, which can spread to the intersphincteric space and then pass through the anal sphincter. Treatment of anal fistula is a double challenge: healing the suppuration, and preserving anal continence. Among suppurations independent from the ano-rectum pilonidal disease is the most frequent (15% of the suppurations). Other causes of ano-perineal suppurations are infected fissure, Verneuil's disease, and gland, recto-vaginal fistulas and Crohn's disease. PMID:11234090

  5. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual activity. Having many sexual partners and having anal sex are both major risks. This may be due ... have sex with many partners or have unprotected anal sex are at high risk of these infections. Using ...

  6. Anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Amanda M

    2002-12-01

    Anal fissure is a common condition with a characteristic presentation. Despite increased pharmaceutical options in the medical management of anal fissures, surgical therapy is not in danger of becoming obsolete. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains an attractive option for many patients suffering from this painful condition. PMID:12516855

  7. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the last part of your large intestine where solid waste from food (stool) is stored. Stool leaves your body through the anus when you have a bowel movement. Anal cancer is fairly rare. It spreads ... Squamous cell carcinoma. This is the most common type of anal cancer. It starts in cells that ...

  8. Anal fissure

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain interferes with normal bowel movements Petroleum jelly Zinc oxide, 1% hydrocortisone cream, Preparation H, and other ... anal muscle Prescription creams such as nitrates or calcium channel blockers, applied over the fissure to help ...

  9. AdapChem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluwole, Oluwayemisi O.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Green, William

    2012-01-01

    AdapChem software enables high efficiency, low computational cost, and enhanced accuracy on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations used for combustion studies. The software dynamically allocates smaller, reduced chemical models instead of the larger, full chemistry models to evolve the calculation while ensuring the same accuracy to be obtained for steady-state CFD reacting flow simulations. The software enables detailed chemical kinetic modeling in combustion CFD simulations. AdapChem adapts the reaction mechanism used in the CFD to the local reaction conditions. Instead of a single, comprehensive reaction mechanism throughout the computation, a dynamic distribution of smaller, reduced models is used to capture accurately the chemical kinetics at a fraction of the cost of the traditional single-mechanism approach.

  10. AutoChem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lary, David John

    2005-01-01

    AutoChem is a suite of Fortran 90 computer programs for the modeling of kinetic reaction systems. AutoChem performs automatic code generation, symbolic differentiation, analysis, and documentation. It produces a documented stand-alone system for the modeling and assimilation of atmospheric chemistry. Given databases of chemical reactions and a list of constituents defined by the user, AutoChem automatically does the following: 1. Selects the subset of reactions that involve a user-defined list of constituents and automatically prepares a document listing the reactions; 2. Constructs the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describe the reactions as functions of time and prepares a document containing the ODEs; 3. Symbolically differentiates the time derivatives to obtain the Jacobian and prepares a document containing the Jacobian; 4. Symbolically differentiates the Jacobian to obtain the Hessian and prepares a document containing the Hessian; and 5. Writes all the required Fortran 90 code and datafiles for a stand-alone chemical modeling and assimilation system (implementation of steps 1 through 5). Typically, the time taken for steps 1 through 5 is about 3 seconds. The modeling system includes diagnostic components that automatically analyze each ODE at run time, the relative importance of each term, time scales, and other attributes of the model.

  11. Anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Schlichtemeier, Steven; Engel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY An anal fissure is a common, mostly benign, condition that can be acute or chronic. The diagnosis is usually made on history and physical examination, but further investigations are sometimes necessary. Primary fissures are usually benign and located in the posterior or anterior position. Secondary fissures are lateral or multiple and often indicate a more serious underlying pathology. The management of primary anal fissures is generally non-operative and includes increased dietary fibre, sitz baths, topical ointments and botulinum toxin injections. If these treatments are ineffective the patient will need a surgical referral. Secondary anal fissures require further investigation. Multidisciplinary management is preferable and is essential in the case of malignancy. PMID:27041801

  12. Anal Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... entire pelvic region to include the vaginal or penile area to look for other warts that may require treatment. MUST I BE HOSPITALIZED FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT? Surgical treatment of anal warts is usually performed as outpatient surgery. HOW MUCH TIME WILL I LOSE FROM WORK ...

  13. Anal fissure - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of ... Anal fissures are tears in the skin overlying the anal sphincter, usually due to increased tone of ...

  14. ChemCam video footage

    NASA Video Gallery

    ChemCam is a rock-zapping laser instrument that can hit rocks with a laser then observes the flash through a telescope and analyzes the spectrum of light to identify the chemical elements in the ta...

  15. The ChemEcology Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wygoda, Linda J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities based on readings from ChemEcology that incorporate student writing with thinking skills as part of a reading/writing portfolio. Helps students to develop a broader understanding of chemistry, the chemical industry, and the environment. (JRH)

  16. Anal fissure - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100154.htm Anal fissure - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of ...

  17. PubChem Substance and Compound databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A.; Bolton, Evan E.; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  18. PubChem Substance and Compound databases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Chen, Jie; Fu, Gang; Gindulyte, Asta; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, launched in 2004 as a component of the Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiatives of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). For the past 11 years, PubChem has grown to a sizable system, serving as a chemical information resource for the scientific research community. PubChem consists of three inter-linked databases, Substance, Compound and BioAssay. The Substance database contains chemical information deposited by individual data contributors to PubChem, and the Compound database stores unique chemical structures extracted from the Substance database. Biological activity data of chemical substances tested in assay experiments are contained in the BioAssay database. This paper provides an overview of the PubChem Substance and Compound databases, including data sources and contents, data organization, data submission using PubChem Upload, chemical structure standardization, web-based interfaces for textual and non-textual searches, and programmatic access. It also gives a brief description of PubChem3D, a resource derived from theoretical three-dimensional structures of compounds in PubChem, as well as PubChemRDF, Resource Description Framework (RDF)-formatted PubChem data for data sharing, analysis and integration with information contained in other databases. PMID:26400175

  19. Anal Warts and Anal Intradermal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2011-01-01

    For the last five millennia we have been dealing with the annoyance of verrucas. Anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and is increasing in incidence. As in other gastrointestinal conditions, HPV infection can lead to a stepwise transition from normal cells to dysplastic cells and then to invasive anal cancer. Knowledge of the natural history of HPV infection, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic methods gives us the tools to adequately prevent, evaluate, treat, and counsel our patients. In this review, the authors detail the diagnosis, management, and treatment of anal condyloma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia with a focus on prevention, early detection, and treatment using current data and technology. PMID:22379403

  20. Anal condyloma acuminatum.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Tonna

    2009-01-01

    Anal condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV) that affects the mucosa and skin of the anorectum and genitalia. Anal condyloma acuminatum is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in the United States. To date, there are more than 100 HPV types, with HPV-6, HPV-10, and HPV-11 predominately found in the anogenital region and causing approximately 90% of genital warts. Risk factors for anal condyloma acuminatum include multiple sex partners, early coital age, anal intercourse, and immunosuppression. Transmission occurs by way of skin-to-skin contact through sexual intercourse, oral sex, anal sex, or other contact involving the genital area. The virus may remain latent for months to years until specific mechanisms cause production of viral DNA, leading to the presentation of anal condyloma acuminatum.Patients with anal condyloma acuminatum may be asymptomatic or present with presence of painless bumps, itching, and discharge or bleeding. It is not uncommon to have involvement of more than one area, and multiple lesions may also be present and extend into the anal canal or rectum. To date, there is no serologic testing or culture to detect anal condyloma acuminatum; therefore, diagnosis is made clinically or by detection of HPV DNA. Multiple factors determine the choice of treatment, which may range from patient-applied medications to surgical intervention. Despite treatment choice, recurrence rates are high, indicating the importance of patient education on prevention of HPV infection and reinfection. Unfortunately, at this time, no cure exists for anal condyloma acuminatum; however, recently Gardasil and Cervarix (in Australia only) vaccines have become available and are showing promising results. PMID:19820442

  1. What Is Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... anal papillae are also called fibroepithelial polyps . Skin tags: Skin tags are benign growths of connective tissue that are covered by squamous cells. Skin tags are often mistaken for hemorrhoids (swollen veins inside ...

  2. Stages of Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... following stages are used for anal cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells ... or check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of stage 0 is ...

  3. Anal Dysplasia Screening

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC. The screening process is now thought to be improved with the addition of testing for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in high-risk populations. High-resolution anoscopy (a method to view the rectal area, using an anoscope, a lighted instrument inserted into the rectum) rather than routine anoscopy-guided biopsy, is also now considered to be the diagnostic standard. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection. Human papillomavirus is extremely prevalent, particularly in young, sexually active populations. Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions. Anal cancer is rare. It occurs at a rate of about 1 to 2 per 100,000 in the general population. It is the least common of the lower gastrointestinal cancers, representing about 4% of them, in contrast to colorectal cancers, which remain the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy. Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer. Those with the highest identified risk for anal cancer are HIV-positive homosexual and bisexual men, at a rate of 70 per 100,000 men. The risk for anal cancer is reported to be increasing dramatically in HIV-positive males and females, particularly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s. The introduction of effective viral therapy has been said to have transformed the AIDS epidemic in developed countries into a chronic

  4. Exploiting PubChem for Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field PubChem is a public molecular information repository, a scientific showcase of the NIH Roadmap Initiative. The PubChem database holds over 27 million records of unique chemical structures of compounds (CID) derived from nearly 70 million substance depositions (SID), and contains more than 449,000 bioassay records with over thousands of in vitro biochemical and cell-based screening bioassays established, with targeting more than 7000 proteins and genes linking to over 1.8 million of substances. Areas covered in this review This review builds on recent PubChem-related computational chemistry research reported by other authors while providing readers with an overview of the PubChem database, focusing on its increasing role in cheminformatics, virtual screening and toxicity prediction modeling. What the reader will gain These publicly available datasets in PubChem provide great opportunities for scientists to perform cheminformatics and virtual screening research for computer-aided drug design. However, the high volume and complexity of the datasets, in particular the bioassay-associated false positives/negatives and highly imbalanced datasets in PubChem, also creates major challenges. Several approaches regarding the modeling of PubChem datasets and development of virtual screening models for bioactivity and toxicity predictions are also reviewed. Take home message Novel data-mining cheminformatics tools and virtual screening algorithms are being developed and used to retrieve, annotate and analyze the large-scale and highly complex PubChem biological screening data for drug design. PMID:21691435

  5. Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kimberly R; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and methodological recommendations for new research. PMID:20358456

  6. Anal itching - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Anal itching occurs when the skin around your anus becomes irritated. You may feel intense itching around ... Anal itching may be caused by: Spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, and other irritating foods and beverages Scents ...

  7. [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    de Parades, Vincent; Fathallah, Nadia; Barret, Maximilien; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lemarchand, Nicolas; Molinié, Vincent; Weiss, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Anal intraepithelial lesions are caused by chronic infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus. Their incidence and prevalence are increasing, especially among patients with HIV infection. Their natural history is not well known, but high-grade intraepithelial lesions seem to have an important risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Their treatment can be achieved by many ways (surgery, coagulation, imiquimod, etc.) but there is a high rate of recurrent lesions. Pretherapeutic evaluation should benefit from high-resolution anoscopy. Periodic physical examination and anal cytology may probably be interesting for screening the disease among patients with risk factors. Vaccine against oncogenic types of papillomavirus may prevent the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:23122632

  8. Encopresis and anal masturbation.

    PubMed

    Aruffo, R N; Ibarra, S; Strupp, K R

    2000-01-01

    Current pediatric and psychiatric studies on encopresis and its treatment are heavily influenced by mechanical, physiological, and behavioral considerations. Although psychodynamic treatment has generally been considered to be of little benefit, and its findings suspect, the authors suggest that a psychodynamic approach adds substantially to the understanding of some cases of encopresis; that the anal sensations and anal erotic feelings reported by a number of encopretic children are intense, and that the encopretic symptom, soiling, in these children is the result of a conscious form of anal masturbation in which the fecal mass is used for stimulation; and that any study of encopresis is incomplete that does not include what encopretic children, engaged in a sound therapeutic relationship, know and say about their soiling. The authors further suggest that physical treatments of those children whose encopresis is psychologically driven may be contraindicated. The presence of a large stool does not in itself substantiate a physical illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the prevalence of anal masturbation in encopretic children. PMID:11212192

  9. ChemCam Passive Spectroscopy of the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Bender, S. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Blaney, D. L.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design priority of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument (Wiens et al. 2012, Space Sci, Rev. 170) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is its active mode, which acquires spectra of a laser induced plasma using three spectrometers. However these same spectrometers have excellent sensitivity to ambient light and so are also used independent of the laser in 'passive' mode to acquire spectra of the Martian surface (Johnson et al., 2013, LPSC #1372) and, as we will describe here, the Martian sky. Using ChemCam passive sky observations, we have successfully measured the column abundance of water vapor, molecular oxygen, and carbon dioxide gas, and with further analysis will likely be able to constrain the column abundance of ozone as well as aerosol and cloud particle properties. Although data analysis is ongoing, we currently estimate a 2 sigma precision of < +/- 1 precipitable microns for water vapor, < +/- 30 ppm for molecular oxygen, and < +/- 4 % for carbon dioxide. The three ChemCam spectrometers span 240-342 nm, 382-469 nm, and 474-906 nm, respectively, with a resolution of 0.6 nm FWHM or better. Passive sky observations were obtained on sols 131, 230, and then at regular ~7 sol intervals starting on sol 278. The observation consists of acquiring spectra of light scattered by the atmosphere at two elevation angles so that the ratio of the two resulting radiance spectra yields (after removing the continuum) an extremely precise absorption spectrum with both the solar spectrum and instrument response uncertainties removed. To yield column abundances, the spectra are modeled with a discrete ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer code that incorporates gas absorption via the correlated-k method.

  10. PubChemSR: A search and retrieval tool for PubChem

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Junguk; Wild, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen an explosion in the amount of publicly available chemical and related biological information. A significant step has been the emergence of PubChem, which contains property information for millions of chemical structures, and acts as a repository of compounds and bioassay screening data for the NIH Roadmap. There is a strong need for tools designed for scientists that permit easy download and use of these data. We present one such tool, PubChemSR. Implementation PubChemSR (Search and Retrieve) is a freely available desktop application written for Windows using Microsoft .NET that is designed to assist scientists in search, retrieval and organization of chemical and biological data from the PubChem database. It employs SOAP web services made available by NCBI for extraction of information from PubChem. Results and Discussion The program supports a wide range of searching techniques, including queries based on assay or compound keywords and chemical substructures. Results can be examined individually or downloaded and exported in batch for use in other programs such as Microsoft Excel. We believe that PubChemSR makes it straightforward for researchers to utilize the chemical, biological and screening data available in PubChem. We present several examples of how it can be used. PMID:18482452

  11. Chem 13 News: A Valuable Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, Kathy

    2002-02-01

    This column provides a brief description of material pertinent to high school chemistry teaching appearing in Chem 13 News, a periodical published by the University of Waterloo in Canada. Featured articles, demonstrations, laboratory experiences, and special features from the January through May 2001 issues are discussed.

  12. "CHEM"opera for Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yong Hee

    2013-01-01

    "CHEM"opera is an opera blended with demonstrations of chemical reactions. It has been produced and performed twice by chemistry undergraduate students at Hallym University in South Korea. It aims to demonstrate interesting chemical reactions to chemistry students, children and the public and to facilitate their understanding of the role…

  13. A History of ChemMatters Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinnesand, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    ChemMatters, the chemistry magazine published since 1983, has always provided interesting topics for chemistry students. The American Chemical Society publishes the magazine and many well-known authors like Isaac Asimov, Glen Seaborg and Derek Davenport have contributed to the magazine and the magazine has succeeded in its goal of demystifying…

  14. The Best of Chem 13 News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, Kathy

    1999-07-01

    This column is designed to give JCE readers a few highlights from Chem 13 News, a monthly publication for chemistry educators from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, and provides annotations describing a particular activity or a variety of sources from which new and creative ideas can be extracted.

  15. PubChem promiscuity: a web resource for gathering compound promiscuity data from PubChem

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Stephanie A.; Cruz, Yasel; Southern, Mark R.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Promiscuity counts allow for a better understanding of a compound's assay activity profile and drug potential. Although PubChem contains a vast amount of compound and assay data, it currently does not have a convenient or efficient method to obtain in-depth promiscuity counts for compounds. PubChem promiscuity fills this gap. It is a Java servlet that uses NCBI Entrez (eUtils) web services to interact with PubChem and provide promiscuity counts in a variety of categories along with compound descriptors, including PAINS-based functional group detection. Availability: http://chemutils.florida.scripps.edu/pcpromiscuity Contact: southern@scripps.edu PMID:22084255

  16. ChemCam Targeted Science at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Clark, B. C.; Bridges, N. T.; Clegg, S. M.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P. C.; Dromart, G.; Barraclough, B. L.; Lasue, J.

    2011-12-01

    The MSL rover, Curiosity, uses a novel remote-sensing instrument, ChemCam, which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a high resolution remote micro-imager (RMI). ChemCam uses a focused, pulsed laser beam at targets up to 7 m away to excite a light-emitting plasma. Spectral analysis identifies elements present and provides rapid semi-quantitative analyses. Repeated laser pulses remove dust and weathering coatings from rock samples to depths >0.5 mm and ~0.4 mm in diameter. The RMI, with ~20x20 mrad field of view, provides a broad-band image with 100 μm resolution. LIBS yields abundances of H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Rb, Sr, As, Ba, and Pb. Interference from atmospheric constituents raises the detection limits of C, N, and O (e.g., >2% wt for C). LIBS is very sensitive to alkali and alkali earth elements, with some detection limits to ~1 ppm at close range. Conversely, LIBS is insensitive to F, Cl, S, P, and N, with detection limits of several wt. %. Pointing accuracy is ~3 mrad, however relative pointing accuracy is better, so line scans and rasters will enable analyses of targeted features to ~1 mm. At Gale Crater, determination of elements not previously analyzed in-situ, i.e., H, Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba, along with other elements will constrain aqueous, hydrothermal and vapor geochemical transport processes. Initial analyses after landing will characterize air fall dust and weathering coatings on local rocks, and profile the soil and surfacial materials including bedforms to investigate compositional differences in near-surface layers. Targets within the landing ellipse include fan and inverted channel deposits derived from the crater rim, which may contain alteration minerals produced by impact hydrothermal processes. Enigmatic deposits with bright fracture fill could represent lake sediments modified by injection of deposits from groundwater. During the drive to the Gale mound, ChemCam will

  17. [Death after anal "fisting"].

    PubMed

    Preuss, Johanna; Strehler, Marco; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2008-01-01

    A 45-year-old homeless woman was found dead at her usual sleeping place. Apart from traces of blood on the lower abdomen of the body, the police investigations did not produce any clues pointing to an unnatural death. At autopsy, it was found, however, that death had been caused by extensive disruptions of the intestine. After being confronted with the results, the sexual partner of the victim admitted manual anal penetration, but claimed that this had been done by mutual agreement. The court did not accept that statement and sentenced him to life imprisonment for murder. The frequency of such fatal outcomes of anal penetration, the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim and the special features at the scene are discussed. PMID:18389861

  18. Screening for Anal Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Berry-Lawhorn, J. Michael; Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Khan, Michelle J.; Boardman, Lori A.; Chiao, Elizabeth; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldstone, Stephen E.; Jay, Naomi; Likes, Wendy M.; Stier, Elizabeth A.; Welton, Mark Lane; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of anal cancer is higher in women than men in the general population and has been increasing for several decades. Similar to cervical cancer, most anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is believed that anal cancers are preceded by anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Our goal was to summarize the literature on anal cancer, HSIL and HPV infection in women, and provide screening recommendations in women. Methods A group of experts convened by the ASCCP and the International Anal Neoplasia Society reviewed the literature on anal HPV infection, anal SIL and anal cancer in women. Results Anal HPV infection is common in women but is relatively transient in most. The risk of anal HSIL and cancer varies considerably by risk group, with HIV-infected women and those with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia (LGTN) at highest risk compared with the general population. Conclusions While there are no data yet to demonstrate that identification and treatment of anal HSIL leads to reduced risk of anal cancer, women in groups at the highest risk should be queried for anal cancer symptoms and have digital anorectal examinations to detect anal cancers. HIV-infected women and women with LGTN, may be considered for screening with anal cytology with triage to treatment if HSIL is diagnosed. Healthy women with no known risk factors or anal cancer symptoms do not need to be routinely screened for anal cancer or anal HSIL. PMID:26103446

  19. Do We Know What Causes Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... anal cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes anal cancer? Researchers have found some risk factors that increase ... now being done to learn how HPV might cause anal cancer. There is good evidence that HPV causes many ...

  20. ChemMatCARS Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

  1. ChemDoodle 6.0.

    PubMed

    Todsen, William L

    2014-08-25

    ChemDoodle 6.0 is an advanced software suite for drawing chemical structure diagrams. The program's capabilities extend far beyond mere structures, however, including the ability to calculate NMR spectra, generate IUPAC names and line notations for structures, manipulate structures imported from the Internet, interpret and interconvert files generated by other chemical drawing software programs, illustrate glassware and equipment setups, and draw TLC plates. This latest version supports full round-trip editing, so that structures produced with the program can be used in standard office software and reimported into ChemDoodle if modifications are needed. These features and more are included in the basic package, which is very affordable. PMID:25072815

  2. Building the EarthChem System for Advanced Data Management in Igneous Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Walker, J. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.

    2004-12-01

    Several mature databases of geochemical analyses for igneous rocks are now available over the Internet. The existence of these databases has revolutionized access to data for researchers and students allowing them to extract data sets customized to their specific problem from global data compilations with their desktop computer within a few minutes. Three of the database efforts - PetDB, GEOROC, and NAVDAT - have initiated a collaborative effort called EarthChem to create better and more advanced and integrated data management for igneous geochemistry. The EarthChem web site (http://www.earthchem.org/) serves as a portal to the three databases and information related to EarthChem activities. EarthChem participants agreed to establish a dialog to minimize duplication of effort and share useful tools and approaches. To initiate this dialog, a workshop was run by EarthChem in October, 2003 to discuss cyberinfrastructure needs in igneous geochemistry (workshop report available at the EarthChem site). EarthChem ran an information booth with database and visualization demonstrations at the Fall 2003 AGU meeting (and will have one in 2004) and participated in the May 2003 GERM meeting in Lyon, France where we provided the newly established Publishers' Round Table a list of minimum standards of data reporting to ease the assimilation of data into the databases. Aspects of these suggestions already have been incorporated into new data policies at Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Chemical Geology (Goldstein et al. 2004), and are under study by the Geological Society of America. EarthChem presented its objectives and activities to the Solid Earth Sciences community at the Annual GSA Meeting 2003 (Lehnert et al, 2003). Future plans for EarthChem include expanding the types and amounts of data available from a single portal, giving researchers, faculty, students, and the general public the ability to search, visualize, and download geochemical and geochronological data for a

  3. ChemCam Science Objectives for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R.; Maurice, S.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Cremers, D.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kirkland, L.; Mangold, N.; Manhes, G.; Mauchien, P.

    2005-01-01

    ChemCam consists of two remote sensing instruments. One, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument provides rapid elemental composition data on rocks and soils within 13 m of the rover. By using laser pulses, it can remove dust or profile through weathering layers remotely. The other instrument, the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), provides the highest resolution images between 2 m and infinity. At approximately 80 Rad field of view, its resolution exceeds that of MER Pancam by at least a factor of four. The ChemCam instruments are described in a companion paper by Maurice et al. [1]. Here we present the science objectives for the ChemCam instrument package.

  4. ChemCam Science Objectives for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R.; Maurice, S.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Cremers, D.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kirkland, L.; Mangold, N.; Manhes, G.; Mauchien, P.

    2005-01-01

    ChemCam consists of two remote sensing instruments. One, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument provides rapid elemental composition data on rocks and soils within 13 m of the rover. By using laser pulses, it can remove dust or profile through weathering layers remotely. The other instrument, the Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), provides the highest resolution images between 2 m and infinity. At approximately 80 Rad field of view, its resolution exceeds that of MER Pancam by at least a factor of four. The ChemCam instruments are described in a companion paper by Maurice et al. Here we present the science objectives for the ChemCam instrument package.

  5. The Best of Chem 13 News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsen, Kathy

    1998-11-01

    This column is designed to give JCE readers highlights from Chem 13 News, a monthly publication from the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) for chemistry educators. I have selected a variety of articles appearing from January through May 1998 that captured my interest as a chemistry teacher. I would like to share them with others. The following paragraphs provide references to innovative ways of introducing students to general chemistry concepts and engaging them in experimental design. Through these methods they begin to develop a better understanding of concepts discussed in class.

  6. Can Anal Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of anal cancer Can anal cancer be found early? Many anal cancers can be found early in the course of the ... they reach an advanced stage. Other anal cancers can cause symptoms like those of diseases other than ...

  7. Invited commentary: Biological and clinical insights from epidemiologic research into HIV, HPV, and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Engels, Eric A; Madeleine, Margaret M

    2013-09-15

    Anal cancer is common among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This cancer is caused by human papillomavirus, and immunosuppression likely contributes to its development. In this issue of the Journal, Bertisch et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(6):877-884) present the results of a case-control study of anal cancer among HIV-infected people in Switzerland. They demonstrate that anal cancer risk is increased in association with a low CD4+ cell count (a clinical measurement of immune status). In particular, HIV-induced immunosuppression was most severe among cases approximately 6-7 years prior to the diagnosis of anal cancer. A plausible biological interpretation is that immunosuppression is important at an early stage of the development of anal cancer, but that the neoplastic process becomes irreversible over time with persistent human papillomavirus infection and genetic damage. With current efforts to provide earlier combination antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected people, anal cancer incidence may start to decline. Bertisch et al. also demonstrate a strong association between serum antibodies against the human papillomavirus type 16 protein E6 and anal cancer risk, highlighting the role of this viral oncoprotein in carcinogenesis. Additional biomarkers could help refine clinical approaches to anal cancer screening and prevention for the HIV-infected population. PMID:23900552

  8. Invited Commentary: Biological and Clinical Insights From Epidemiologic Research Into HIV, HPV, and Anal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Eric A.; Madeleine, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Anal cancer is common among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This cancer is caused by human papillomavirus, and immunosuppression likely contributes to its development. In this issue of the Journal, Bertisch et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(6):877–884) present the results of a case-control study of anal cancer among HIV-infected people in Switzerland. They demonstrate that anal cancer risk is increased in association with a low CD4+ cell count (a clinical measurement of immune status). In particular, HIV-induced immunosuppression was most severe among cases approximately 6–7 years prior to the diagnosis of anal cancer. A plausible biological interpretation is that immunosuppression is important at an early stage of the development of anal cancer, but that the neoplastic process becomes irreversible over time with persistent human papillomavirus infection and genetic damage. With current efforts to provide earlier combination antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected people, anal cancer incidence may start to decline. Bertisch et al. also demonstrate a strong association between serum antibodies against the human papillomavirus type 16 protein E6 and anal cancer risk, highlighting the role of this viral oncoprotein in carcinogenesis. Additional biomarkers could help refine clinical approaches to anal cancer screening and prevention for the HIV-infected population. PMID:23900552

  9. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  10. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Spring 2014 ConfChem Virtual Poster Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Robert E.; Stoltzfus, Matthew; Houseknecht, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes the virtual poster session of the Flipped Classroom online ConfChem conference that was hosted by the ACS CHED Committee on Computers in Chemical Education (CCCE) from May 9 to June 12, 2014. During the conference's online discussions, it became evident that multiple participants who were not presenting papers had been…

  11. Chem-2-Chem: A One-to-One Supportive Learning Environment for Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báez-Galib, Rosita; Colón-Cruz, Héctor; Resto, Wilfredo; Rubin, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The Chem-2-Chem (C2C) tutoring mentoring program was developed at the University of Puerto Rico at Cayey, an undergraduate institution serving Hispanic students, to increase student retention and help students achieve successful general chemistry course outcomes. This program provides a supportive learning environment designed to address students' academic and emotional needs in a holistic way. Advanced chemistry students offered peer-led, personalized, and individualized learning experiences through tutoring and mentoring to approximately 21% of students enrolled in the general chemistry course. Final grades from official class lists of all general chemistry course sections were analyzed using Student's t -test, paired t -test, and χ 2 analysis. Results during the seven semesters studied show an increase of 29% in successful course outcomes defined as final letter grades of A, B, and C obtained by Chem-2-Chem participants. For each final grade, highly statistically significant differences between participants and nonparticipants were detected. There were also statistically significant differences between successful course outcomes obtained by participants and nonparticipants for each of the semesters studied. This research supports recent trends in chemical education to provide a social context for learning experiences. This peer-led learning strategy can serve as an effective model to achieve excellence in science courses at a wide range of educational institutions.

  12. Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: what dermatologists should know.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

    2014-11-01

    Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

  13. [HPV-induced anal lesions].

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Kreuter, A

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections belong to the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, more than 200 completely classified HPV-types have been reported, and those belonging to the genus alpha predominantly infect the anogenital region. Condylomata acuminata are caused by the two low-risk types HPV6 and HPV11 in more than 90 % of cases. Treatment of genital warts might be either ablative (e.g. electrocautery, surgical excision, or laser therapy) or topical (e.g. podophyllotoxine, trichloroacetic acid, or imiquimod), and depends on the size, location, morphology and anatomical region. Recurrences after treatment are frequent. Therefore, combination therapies (e.g. topical and ablative) play an important role in daily routine. HIV-infected individuals, especially HIV-positive MSM, have a strongly increased risk for anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Condylomata acuminata and a large proportion of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma are preventable by prophylactic HPV-vaccination. PMID:25859930

  14. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  15. Modern management of anal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of

  16. Modern management of anal fistula.

    PubMed

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of

  17. Using ChemBank to probe chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Petri Seiler, Kathleen; Kuehn, Heidi; Pat Happ, Mary; Decaprio, Dave; Clemons, Paul A

    2008-06-01

    ChemBank (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) is a public, Web-based informatics environment. ChemBank stores and makes freely available data derived from small molecules and small-molecule screens and has resources for relating and studying these data. Currently, ChemBank stores information on hundreds of thousands of small molecules and hundreds of biomedically relevant assays performed at the Broad Institute screening center. Web-based analysis tools are available within ChemBank to study the relationships between small molecules, cell measurements, and cell states. This unit demonstrates the use of ChemBank data to ask and answer questions relating to chemical biology and screening experiments contained within ChemBank. PMID:18551413

  18. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2014-08-12

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  19. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-02-15

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  20. Sphincteroplasty for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pescatori, Lorenzo Carlo; Pescatori, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Sphincteroplasty (SP) is the operation most frequently performed in patients suffering from moderate-to-severe anal incontinence (AI) who do not respond to conservative treatment. Other costly surgeries, such as artificial bowel sphincter (ABS) and electro-stimulated graciloplasty, have been more or less abandoned due to their high morbidity rate. Minimally invasive procedures are widely used, such as sacral neuromodulation and injection of bulking agents, but both are costly and the latter may cure only mild incontinence. The early outcome of SP is usually good if the sphincters are not markedly denervated, but its effect diminishes over time. SP is more often performed for post-traumatic than for idiopathic AI. It may also be associated to the Altemeier procedure, aimed at reducing the recurrence rate of rectal prolapse, and may be useful when AI is due either to injury to the sphincter, or to a narrowed rectum following the procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids (PPH) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR). The outcome of SP is likely to be improved with biological meshes and post-operative pelvic floor rehabilitation. SP is more effective in males than in multiparous women, whose sphincters are often denervated, and its post-operative morbidity is low. In conclusion, SP, being both low-cost and safe, remains a good option in the treatment of selected patients with AI. PMID:24759337

  1. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Amount Surface Pressure Solar Radiation Surface Air Temperature Particulates Trace Metals Order Data:  ... Data Guide Documents:  St Louis Air Chem Guide St Louis Final Report  (PDF) St Louis QA ...

  2. NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Thermooptical Transmission Location:  New York Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  New York Air Chem Guide CPM Summary Report  (PDF) ...

  3. ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavak, Nusret

    2012-01-01

    Learning the symbolic language of chemistry is a difficult task that can be frustrating for students. This article introduces a game, ChemOkey, that can help students learn the names and symbols of common ions and their compounds in a fun environment. ChemOkey, a game similar to Rummikub, is played with a set of 106 plastic or wooden tiles. The…

  4. Engineering Analysis in the Chem-E-Car Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Randy S.; Moshfeghian, Aliakbar; Madihally, Sundararajan V.

    2006-01-01

    The AIChE Chem-E-Car competition provides students an opportunity to demonstrate their design and teamwork skills. Engineering analysis is not required at the national competition and is often not applied. This work describes an engineering analysis of a Chem-E-Car to predict the distance traveled by the car. Engineering analysis is advantageous…

  5. Chem-nuclear's midwest volume reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loiselle, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 amendments to the Low-Level Waste Policy Act mandated volume allocation limits for nuclear utilities over a 7-yr period ending December 31, 1992. Under the provisions of the act, nonsited regions of the US, such as the Midwest, have received more stringent volume limitations than the sited regions. Restrictions, however severe, are causing all nuclear utilities to carefully examine the source and volume generation of low-level wastes at their respective plants. Nuclear utilities dry active wastes (DAW), as compared to wet wastes, amount to 50 to 75% of wastes generated. The progress in reducing DAW can now be achieved with volume reduction by supercompaction. Chem-Nuclear established and licensed its Midwest Volume Reduction Facility (MWVRF) to provide an integrated volume reduction service. Although compaction of DAW is not new, supercompaction is. Through millions of pounds-force (as compared to tens of thousands pounds-force currently available from conventional equipment) much greater volume reduction can be achieved. The results of supercompaction is a product that approaches the theoretical density of its solid constituents - a logical and ultimate end point for compaction capability and volume reduction overall. The reduction service, equipment, and the facility interfacing with other services of transportation and disposal and the generator are discussed in detail. As a result of the integrated service, significant savings in waste management and volume allocation can be achieved.

  6. One year of chemical diversity seen by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Forni, Olivier; Leveillé, Richard; Bridges, Nathan; Lasue, Jérémie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine

    2014-05-01

    evidences are provided by the discovery with ChemCam of three rocks with Mn-enriched coatings [11]. There are also some indications through the measurement of lithium abundance for a low level aqueous alteration pulling the alkalis out to the surface [12]. The influx of subsurface water must have been limited though otherwise the Li concentration in the soils should be higher than what ChemCam measured (first detection on Mars [12]). References: [1] Meslin et al. (2013) Science, 341, doi:10.1126/science.1238670 ; [2] Schröder et al. (2013) Europ. Planet. Sci. Congress, 120 ; [3] Cousin et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf., 1278; [4] Sautter et al. (2014) J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2013JE004472; [5] Grotzinger et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1242777; [6] McLennan et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1244734; [7] Vaniman et al. (2013) Science, doi:10.1126/science.1243480; [8] Siebach et al. (2013) Am. Geophys. Union Assembly, P13D-07; [9] Leveillé et al. (2013) Am. Geophys. Union Assembly, P13D-08; [10] Nachon et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf.; [11] Lanza et al. (2014) Lunar Planet. Conf.; [12] Ollila et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2013JE004517.

  7. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  8. Comment on "Replica-exchange-with-tunneling for fast exploration of protein landscapes" [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224102 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuraba, Shun

    2016-08-01

    In "Replica-exchange-with-tunneling for fast exploration of protein landscapes" [F. Yaşar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224102 (2015)], a novel sampling algorithm called "Replica Exchange with Tunneling" was proposed. However, due to its violation of the detailed balance, the algorithm fails to sample from the correct canonical ensemble.

  9. RESRAD-CHEM: A computer code for chemical risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Hartmann, H.M.; Jones, L.G.; Biwer, B.M.; Dovel, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    RESRAD-CHEM is a computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate chemically contaminated sites. The code is designed to predict human health risks from multipathway exposure to hazardous chemicals and to derive cleanup criteria for chemically contaminated soils. The method used in RESRAD-CHEM is based on the pathway analysis method in the RESRAD code and follows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance on chemical risk assessment. RESRAD-CHEM can be used to evaluate a chemically contaminated site and, in conjunction with the use of the RESRAD code, a mixed waste site.

  10. Comment on ``The application of the thermodynamic perturbation theory to study the hydrophobic hydration'' [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    It is shown that the behaviour of the hydration thermodynamic functions obtained in the 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water by Mohoric et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 024101 (2013)] is not qualitatively correct with respect to experimental data for a solute whose diameter is 1.5-fold larger than that of a water molecule. It is also pointed out that the failure is due to the fact that the used 3D Mercedes-Benz model of water [A. Bizjak, T. Urbic, V. Vlachy, and K. A. Dill, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 194504 (2009)] does not reproduce in a quantitatively correct manner the peculiar temperature dependence of water density.

  11. Comparing UCLALES-SALSA and WRF-Chem LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonttila, Juha; Dunne, Eimear; Ahola, Jaakko; Korhonen, Hannele; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2016-04-01

    The new UCLALES-SALSA model, which uses a sectional representation of aerosols and cloud droplets, is compared against the LES configuration of the established WRF-Chem model. Two configurations of WRF-Chem are compared: the first using the sectional MOSAIC aerosol representation, and the second using the modal MADE/SORGAM representation. Both sets of WRF-Chem simulations use the two-moment Morrisson bulk cloud scheme. Wherever possible, the three sets of simulations have identical processes and initial conditions. By comparing UCLALES-SALSA against an established model in an ideal scenario, we demonstrate that the new model provides a realistic representation of warm cloud processes. The two configurations of WRF-Chem make it possible (to an extent) to isolate whether differences in model outputs are due to meteorological or microphysical effects.

  12. Cisplatin and Fluorouracil Compared With Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Inoperable Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Anal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-22

    Anal Basaloid Carcinoma; Anal Canal Cloacogenic Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Anal Canal Carcinoma; Recurrent Anal Canal Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Anal Canal Cancer; Stage IV Anal Canal Cancer

  13. PubChem BioAssay: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Suzek, Tugba; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jiyao; He, Siqian; Cheng, Tiejun; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Gindulyte, Asta; Bryant, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    PubChem's BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for archiving biological tests of small molecules generated through high-throughput screening experiments, medicinal chemistry studies, chemical biology research and drug discovery programs. In addition, the BioAssay database contains data from high-throughput RNA interference screening aimed at identifying critical genes responsible for a biological process or disease condition. The mission of PubChem is to serve the community by providing free and easy access to all deposited data. To this end, PubChem BioAssay is integrated into the National Center for Biotechnology Information retrieval system, making them searchable by Entrez queries and cross-linked to other biomedical information archived at National Center for Biotechnology Information. Moreover, PubChem BioAssay provides web-based and programmatic tools allowing users to search, access and analyze bioassay test results and metadata. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay resource, such as information content growth, new developments supporting data integration and search, and the recently deployed PubChem Upload to streamline chemical structure and bioassay submissions. PMID:24198245

  14. Chemerin-ChemR23 Signaling in Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, T.; Spear, D.; Azimi, N.; Andreeva, V.; Yelick, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to identify and characterize molecular mechanisms regulating tooth development, including those mediating the critical dental epithelial-dental mesenchymal (DE-DM) cell interactions required for normal tooth development. The goal of this study was to investigate Chemerin (Rarres2)/ChemR23(Cmklr1) signaling in DE-DM cell interactions in normal tooth development. Here we present, for the first time, tissue-specific expression patterns of Chemerin and ChemR23 in mouse tooth development. We show that Chemerin is expressed in cultured DE progenitor cells, while ChemR23 is expressed in cultured DM cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ribosomal protein S6 (rS6) and Akt, downstream targets of Chemerin/ChemR23 signaling, are phosphorylated in response to Chemerin/ChemR23 signaling in vitro and are expressed in mouse tooth development. Together, these results suggest roles for Chemerin/ChemR23-mediated DE-DM cell signaling during tooth morphogenesis. PMID:23053848

  15. ChromPlot for MicroChemLab

    2001-12-19

    The software entitled "ChromPlot for MicroChemLab" is used to collect, display, and save data from the Sandia National Laboratories chemical analysis system dubbed MicroChemLab. Sensor data is streamed from a MicroChemLab unit into a computer thru RS-232 in a manner that is not amenable to plotting. Also, there is no direct way to start and stop the unit as is. This software rearranges the data into something that can be easily plotted in real-time thenmore » save the data into a text file. In addition, this software provides the users a means to start and stop the hardware. This software was written specifically for MicroChemLab. MicroChemLab data is delivered at 6- 7 pts/sec/channel in a two-channel system for 1-2 min. This code is written around that premise. It is written for Pentium or higher machines running Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP. This software was not developed under the BMS CRADA; it is software we use in the lab for our own testing. Bristol Meyers Squibb (BMS) will use this software for testing an online process monitor based on MicroChemLab. They have not indicated their interest in marketing our device or the software.« less

  16. Internal anal sphincter: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Uz, A; Elhan, A; Ersoy, M; Tekdemir, I

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the internal anal sphincter and surrounding structures was investigated in 24 cadavers using a surgical microscope (6-25 x magnification). An understanding of the anatomy of the internal anal sphincter is helpful in avoiding complications during surgical procedures in the anorectal region. The external anal sphincter was composed of three ellipsoid rings of skeletal muscle (subcutaneous, superficial, and deep) that encircle the anal canal; in contrast, we found that the internal anal sphincter was composed of flat rings of smooth muscle bundles stacked one on top of the other, like the slats of a Venetian blind. In each anal canal, the average number of ring-like slats observed was 26.33 +/- 2.93 (range = 20-30) and each was covered by its own fascia. The smooth muscle fibers and fascia coalesced at three equidistant points around the anal canal to form three columns that extended distally into the lumen and differed in form from the other anal columns. When viewed from an anterior position, the columns were located anteriorly at the observer's right (5 o'clock position), posteriorly at the right (1 o'clock position), and laterally at the left (9 o'clock position). This heretofore unreported anatomy of the internal anal sphincter may play an important role in closing off the lumen of the anal canal and maintaining bowel continence. PMID:14695582

  17. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  18. Conservative management of anal leiomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Minsky, B.D.; Cohen, A.M.; Hajdu, S.I. )

    1991-10-01

    Leiomyosarcomas of the large intestine are unusual neoplasms, comprising less than 0.1% of all malignancies of the colon and rectum. Six cases of leiomyosarcoma of the anus have been reported. The optimal treatment for this neoplasm is not known. The standard surgical approach is abdominoperineal resection. The authors report the seventh case of this rare neoplasm and outline its treatment using local excision and iridium 192 brachytherapy in an attempt to preserve the anal sphincter. In selected patients, conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy may be an alternative to radical surgery, with the goals of local control of the disease and anal sphincter preservation. However, more experience is needed before this approach could be recommended routinely.

  19. [Anal cancer in HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Quéro, Laurent; Duval, Xavier; Abramowitz, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Despite effective highly active antiretroviral treatment, anal cancer incidence has recently strongly increased in HIV-infected population. Treatment strategy in HIV-infected patients does not differ from general population. HIV-infected patients treated by chemo-radiotherapy are exposed to high-grade toxicities and should be closely monitored to deliver the optimal treatment. Close collaboration between oncologist and infectiologist is highly recommended to adjust antiretroviral therapy if necessary. PMID:25418596

  20. Elements of an anal dysplasia screening program.

    PubMed

    Jay, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is highly elevated compared to the general population, as is the incidence of its precursor lesion, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN). MSM in general and other immunocompromised populations are also at higher risk. Treatment of HGAIN may prevent development of cancer, similar to the decrease in cervical cancers that has occurred since the advent of cervical cancer screening programs in women. Cervical cancer screening tools have been adapted and validated for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of anal HGAIN. Anal cancer screening programs have now been available for more than a decade, although they are not yet standards of care. Incorporating screening procedures into practice depends on the available resources in a particular community. This article discusses the procedures for anal cancer screening including cytology, digital anal rectal examinations, high-resolution anoscopy, and biopsy. PMID:22035526

  1. PubChem BioAssay: 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Suzek, Tugba; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jiyao; He, Siqian; Cheng, Tiejun; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Gindulyte, Asta; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    PubChem’s BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for archiving biological tests of small molecules generated through high-throughput screening experiments, medicinal chemistry studies, chemical biology research and drug discovery programs. In addition, the BioAssay database contains data from high-throughput RNA interference screening aimed at identifying critical genes responsible for a biological process or disease condition. The mission of PubChem is to serve the community by providing free and easy access to all deposited data. To this end, PubChem BioAssay is integrated into the National Center for Biotechnology Information retrieval system, making them searchable by Entrez queries and cross-linked to other biomedical information archived at National Center for Biotechnology Information. Moreover, PubChem BioAssay provides web-based and programmatic tools allowing users to search, access and analyze bioassay test results and metadata. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay resource, such as information content growth, new developments supporting data integration and search, and the recently deployed PubChem Upload to streamline chemical structure and bioassay submissions. PMID:24198245

  2. Detection of Zn with ChemCam on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Berger, J.; Blaney, D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Johnson, J.; LeDeit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; M. S. L. Science Team

    2015-10-01

    C h e m C a m i s a L a s e r- I n d u c e d B r e a k d o w n Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument on-board the NASA Curiosity rover currently exploring Mars. ChemCam can analyze the chemical composition of geological samples without preparation and at a distance by detecting the laser induced atomic emission lines from elements present [1, 2]. ChemCam is sensitive to most chemical elements. In addition to the major elements, ChemCam can be used to detect and quantify a set of minor and trace elements such as Li, Sr, Ba, and Rb using univariate and multivariate regression techniques [3]. Mn has also been detected and quantified with ChemCam at high concentrations indicating that highly oxidizing conditions must have occurred on the surface of Mars [4]. We report here the detection of high Zn content targets with ChemCam at the Kimberley location at Gale Crater that are linked to high-Mn concentrations.

  3. EarthChem: Next Developments to Meet New Demands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, D.; Block, K. A.; Ash, J. M.; Chan, C.

    2009-12-01

    EarthChem is a community-driven effort to facilitate the discovery, access, and preservation of geochemical data to support research and enable new and better science. After its first 4 years of development, EarthChem has established itself as a leading community resource that offers to its users a range of data services comprising: the EarthChem Portal as a central access point to geochemical data in federated databases with tools for data discovery, data access, and data analysis; the Geochemical Resource Library that serves as a repository for user-submitted data and features an online submission tool and a searchable metadata catalog; topical data collections such as the Deep Lithosphere Dataset that are developed and maintained by EarthChem; and GEOCHRON, a system for easy population and access of geochronology and thermochronology data. Growing demands for user-based data contributions, long-term data archiving, interoperability, and expanded data coverage will be addressed in EarthChem’s next development phase, during which EarthChem will enhance its information technology infrastructure, create new digital content, expand partnerships, and continue to promote the implementation of more open and standardized data reporting in geochemistry. Large emphasis will be placed on the development of services that help investigators to organize and manage their data in a way that submission of the data and metadata to EarthChem becomes effortless, seamless, and comprehensive, and that also facilitates the publication of data. The new EarthChem Repository will provide data storage and stewardship for the widest range of geochemical data sets and data collections, with tools for data submission and a data publication service that will allow users to obtain Digital Object Identifier for Scientific Primary Data (STD-DOI) to make their submitted data citable as publications. These applications are expected to ensure more efficient and timely growth of the data

  4. Increased anal basal pressure in chronic anal fissures may be caused by overreaction of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex.

    PubMed

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M; Trzpis, Monika; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2016-09-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a painful disorder caused by linear ulcers in the distal anal mucosa. Even though it counts as one of the most common benign anorectal disorders, its precise etiology and pathophysiology remains unclear. Current thinking is that anal fissures are caused by anal trauma and pain, which leads to internal anal sphincter hypertonia. Increased anal basal pressure leads to diminished anodermal blood flow and local ischemia, which delays healing and leads to chronic anal fissure. The current treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure is either lateral internal sphincterotomy or botulinum toxin injections. In contrast to current thinking, we hypothesize that the external, rather than the internal, anal sphincter is responsible for increased anal basal pressure in patients suffering from chronic anal fissure. We think that damage to the anal mucosa leads to hypersensitivity of the contact receptors of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex, resulting in overreaction of the reflex. Overreaction causes spasm of the external anal sphincter. This in turn leads to increased anal basal pressure, diminished anodermal blood flow, and ischemia. Ischemia, finally, prevents the anal fissure from healing. Our hypothesis is supported by two findings. The first concerned a chronic anal fissure patient with increased anal basal pressure (170mmHg) who had undergone lateral sphincterotomy. Directly after the operation, while the submucosal anesthetic was still active, basal anal pressure decreased to 80mmHg. Seven hours after the operation, when the anesthetic had completely worn off, basal anal pressure increased again to 125mmHg, even though the internal anal sphincter could no longer be responsible for the increase. Second, in contrast to previous studies, recent studies demonstrated that botulinum toxin influences external anal sphincter activity and, because it is a striated muscle relaxant, it seems reasonable to presume that it affects the striated

  5. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: review and recommendations for screening and management.

    PubMed

    Smyczek, Petra; Singh, Ameeta E; Romanowski, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Anal cancer is a rare malignancy of the distal gastrointestinal tract, often associated with human papillomavirus, the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Currently available screening methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor for anal cancer, combine anal Papanicolaou cytology and high resolution anoscopy with biopsy of suspicious lesions. Significant barriers to establishing anal cancer screening programmes include the small number of healthcare professionals performing high resolution anoscopy and the lack of data showing that anal cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality related to anal carcinoma. Despite several controversies surrounding anal cancer screening, the rising incidence of this disease in some groups supports routine screening programmes in high-risk populations, especially in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. This review outlines the epidemiology of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer and summarizes issues related to the introduction of anal cancer screening programmes. PMID:23970583

  6. ChemCom Has Students Hooked on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Betsy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a year-long course of study called Chemistry in the Community, or ChemCom, developed by the American Chemical Society (ACS) to improve chemistry studies in high schools and to relate chemistry to the real world of students. Students spend half the time in the laboratory with more discussion on nuclear, organic, and biochemistry than that…

  7. BioCom? Is that Like ChemCom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the philosophy, development, content structure, and general instructional strategy of BioCom, an introductory biology curriculum for the heterogeneously mixed high school science classroom. Discusses recent recommendations by national commissions and science education research and similarities and differences between BioCom and ChemCom.…

  8. AutoClickChem: Click Chemistry in Silico

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Academic researchers and many in industry often lack the financial resources available to scientists working in “big pharma.” High costs include those associated with high-throughput screening and chemical synthesis. In order to address these challenges, many researchers have in part turned to alternate methodologies. Virtual screening, for example, often substitutes for high-throughput screening, and click chemistry ensures that chemical synthesis is fast, cheap, and comparatively easy. Though both in silico screening and click chemistry seek to make drug discovery more feasible, it is not yet routine to couple these two methodologies. We here present a novel computer algorithm, called AutoClickChem, capable of performing many click-chemistry reactions in silico. AutoClickChem can be used to produce large combinatorial libraries of compound models for use in virtual screens. As the compounds of these libraries are constructed according to the reactions of click chemistry, they can be easily synthesized for subsequent testing in biochemical assays. Additionally, in silico modeling of click-chemistry products may prove useful in rational drug design and drug optimization. AutoClickChem is based on the pymolecule toolbox, a framework that may facilitate the development of future python-based programs that require the manipulation of molecular models. Both the pymolecule toolbox and AutoClickChem are released under the GNU General Public License version 3 and are available for download from http://autoclickchem.ucsd.edu. PMID:22438795

  9. Characterising Biomass Burning Aerosol in WRF-Chem using the Volatility Basis Set, with Evaluation against SAMBBA Flight Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, D.; Topping, D. O.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-12-01

    The burning of forests in the Amazonia region is a globally significant source of carbonaceous aerosol, containing both absorbing and scattering components [1]. In addition biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are also efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), modifying cloud properties and influencing atmospheric circulation and precipitation tendencies [2]. The impacts of BBA are highly dependent on their size distribution and composition. A bottom-up emissions inventory, the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM) [3], utilising satellite products to generate daily fire emission maps is used. Injection of flaming emissions within the atmospheric column is simulated using both a sub-grid plume-rise parameterisation [4], and simpler schemes, within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem, v3.4.1) [5]. Aerosol dynamics are simulated using the sectional MOSAIC scheme [6], incorporating a volatility basis set (VBS) treatment of organic aerosol [7]. For this work we have modified the 9-bin VBS to use the biomass burning specific scheme developed by May et al. [8]. The model has been run for September 2012 over South America (at a 25km resolution). We will present model results evaluating the modelled aerosol vertical distribution, size distribution, and composition against measurements taken by the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the SAMBBA campaign. The main focus will be on investigating the factors controlling the vertical gradient of the organic mass to black carbon ratio of the measured aerosol. This work is supported by the Nature Environment Research Council (NERC) as part of the SAMBBA project under grant NE/J010073/1. [1] D. G. Streets et al., 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24212. [2] M. O. Andreae et al., 2004, Science, 303, 1337-1342. [3] K. Longo et al., 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5,785-5,795. [4] S. Freitas et al., 2007, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3,385-3,398. [5] S. Archer-Nicholls et al., 2015, Geosci. Model Dev., 8

  10. New Techniques for Treating an Anal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Surgery for an anal fistula may result in recurrence or impairment of continence. The ideal treatment for an anal fistula should be associated with low recurrence rates, minimal incontinence and good quality of life. Because of the risk of a change in continence with conventional techniques, sphincter-preserving techniques for the management complex anal fistulae have been evaluated. First, the anal fistula plug is made of lyophilized porcine intestinal submucosa. The anal fistula plug is expected to provide a collagen scaffold to promote tissue in growth and fistula healing. Another addition to the sphincter-preserving options is the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. This technique is based on the concept of secure closure of the internal opening and concomitant removal of infected cryptoglandular tissue in the intersphincteric plane. Recently, cell therapy for an anal fistula has been described. Adipose-derived stem cells have two biologic properties, namely, ability to suppress inflammation and differentiation potential. These properties are useful for the regeneration or the repair of damaged tissues. This article discusses the rationales for, the estimated efficacies of, and the limitations of new sphincter-preserving techniques for the treatment of anal fistulae. PMID:22413076

  11. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  12. Application of distance correction to ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, A.; Melikechi, N.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Tokar, R.; Bender, S.; Lanza, N. L.; Maurice, S.; Berger, G.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Boucher, T.; Lewin, E.; Fabre, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides chemical information from atomic, ionic, and molecular emissions from which geochemical composition can be deciphered. Analysis of LIBS spectra in cases where targets are observed at different distances, as is the case for the ChemCam instrument on the Mars rover Curiosity, which performs analyses at distances between 2 and 7.4 m is not a simple task. In our previous work we showed that spectral distance correction based on a proxy spectroscopic standard created from first-shot dust observations on Mars targets ameliorates the distance bias in multivariate-based elemental-composition predictions of laboratory data. In this work, we correct an expanded set of neutral and ionic spectral emissions for distance bias in the ChemCam data set. By using and testing different selection criteria to generate multiple proxy standards, we find a correction that minimizes the difference in spectral intensity measured at two different distances and increases spectral reproducibility. When the quantitative performance of distance correction is assessed, there is improvement for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeOT, Na2O, K2O, that is, for most of the major rock forming elements, and for the total major-element weight percent predicted. However, for MgO the method does not provide improvements while for TiO2, it yields inconsistent results. In addition, we have observed that many emission lines do not behave consistently with distance, evidenced from laboratory analogue measurements and ChemCam data. This limits the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Response to ``Comment on `Slow Debye-type peak observed in the dielectric response of polyalcohols' '' [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 037101 (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, R.; Jansson, H.; Swenson, J.

    2011-01-01

    In our recent article [R. Bergman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 044504 (2010)] we investigated some polyalcohols, i.e., glycerol, xylitol, and sorbitol by dielectric spectroscopy. In the study, a low-frequency peak of Debye character that normally is hidden by the large low-frequency dispersion due to conductivity was revealed by analyzing the real part of the permittivity and by using a thin Teflon film to suppress the low-frequency dispersion. We agree with the comment by Paluch et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 037101 (2011)] that the Teflon film setup will indeed create a peak due to the dc conductivity. However, due to the fact that the location of the peak was almost identical in measurement with and without Teflon, we unfortunately mainly showed the data measured with Teflon, despite that it could also be observed in the real part of the permittivity without using the Teflon setup, as shown in our original article [R. Bergman et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 044504 (2010)]. Here, we show that the low-frequency peak of Debye character can also be observed by subtracting the dc conductivity. Furthermore, we show that the modulus representation used in Paluch et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 037101 (2011).] is also not suitable for detecting processes hidden by the conductivity.

  14. Comment on "Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions" [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, Michael; Ratner, Mark A.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the derivation of the optical response in molecular junctions presented by U. Harbola et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)], which questions some terms in the theory of Raman scattering in molecular junctions developed in our earlier publications. We show that the terms considered in our theory represent the correct contribution to calculated Raman scattering and are in fact identical to those considered by Harbola et al. We also indicate drawbacks of the presented approach in treating the quantum transport part of the problem.

  15. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (<0.5nm) and spatial (0.65mrad) resolution. In active LIBS mode, light emitted from a laser-generated plasma is dispersed onto these spectrometers and used to detect elemental emission lines. Typical observations include 3 msec-exposure 'dark' spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the

  16. ChemCalc: a building block for tomorrow's chemical infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Patiny, Luc; Borel, Alain

    2013-05-24

    Web services, as an aspect of cloud computing, are becoming an important part of the general IT infrastructure, and scientific computing is no exception to this trend. We propose a simple approach to develop chemical Web services, through which servers could expose the essential data manipulation functionality that students and researchers need for chemical calculations. These services return their results as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects, which facilitates their use for Web applications. The ChemCalc project http://www.chemcalc.org demonstrates this approach: we present three Web services related with mass spectrometry, namely isotopic distribution simulation, peptide fragmentation simulation, and molecular formula determination. We also developed a complete Web application based on these three Web services, taking advantage of modern HTML5 and JavaScript libraries (ChemDoodle and jQuery). PMID:23480664

  17. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2014-08-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  18. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  19. CHEM-Based Self-Deploying Spacecraft Radar Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold; Huang, John; Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    A document proposes self-deploying spacecraft radar antennas based on cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures. Described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the CHEM concept is one of utilizing open-cell shape-memory-polymer (SMP) foams to make lightweight structures that can be compressed for storage and can later be expanded, then rigidified for use. A CHEM-based antenna according to the proposal would comprise three layers of microstrip patches and transmission lines interspersed with two flat layers of SMP foam, which would serve as both dielectric spacers and as means of deployment. The SMP foam layers would be fabricated at full size at a temperature below the SMP glass-transition temperature (Tg). The layers would be assembled into a unitary structure, which, at temperature above Tg, would be compacted to much smaller thickness, then rolled up for storage. Next, the structure would be cooled to below Tg and kept there during launch. Upon reaching the assigned position in outer space, the structure would be heated above Tg to make it rebound to its original size and shape. The structure as thus deployed would then be rigidified by natural cooling to below Tg

  20. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-03-24

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  1. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2010-09-03

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  2. ChemKits: A Teacher-Training and Instrument-Sharing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mike; Shubert, David; Herman, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the ChemKits initiative devised by private colleges in Kansas to help high school science teachers meet their needs for laboratory equipment. Discusses conclusions from three years of running the ChemKits teacher-education program. (WRM)

  3. The Potassic Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as Seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters-thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system (Grotzinger et al., 2015). From ChemCam LIBS chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than five times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e. mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  4. Dust modeling over Saudi Arabia using WRF-Chem: March 2009 severe dust case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongxin; Liu, Yubao; Kucera, Paul A.; Alharbi, Badr H.; Pan, Linlin; Ghulam, Ayman

    2015-10-01

    This paper documents the performance of the fully coupled WRF-Chem model at 21.6 km and 7.2 km resolution over Saudi Arabia in simulating a severe dust storm event that occurred in March 2009. The comparisons between the model simulations and the observed AOD at the Solar Village AERONET site and the MODIS measurements show that WRF-Chem satisfactorily resolves the arrival, evolution and spatial distributions of the dust storm over Saudi Arabia especially for the fine domain at 7.2 km resolution. The model simulated surface meteorological variables at Riyadh Airport, Hafr Al-Batin Airport, Dammam Airport and Gassim Airport follow the observations in terms of magnitude and temporal evolution although model biases such as deficiencies in simulating the amplitude of diurnal cycles are noted. Higher resolution and shorter initialization time improve the model performance in aerosol optical depth but for surface variables shorter initialization time improves correlation while higher horizontal resolution improves mean biases to some extent. The simulated dust plume is mainly confined between the surface and the 5-km height, with the peak concentrations located in the lowest 500 m. The vertical extent of the dust plume shows gradual decreases during the simulation period when averaged over the entire fine domain and an area centered around Solar Village, and also varies in accordance with the development and decay of the boundary layer.

  5. Anal Cancer: What Happens After Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this phase of your treatment. For patients with colostomies Most people treated for anal cancer don’t ... APR, you will need to have a permanent colostomy. If you have a colostomy, follow-up is ...

  6. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Anal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... following stages are used for anal cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells ... or check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of stage 0 is ...

  9. Neural control of internal anal sphincter function.

    PubMed

    Lubowski, D Z; Nicholls, R J; Swash, M; Jordan, M J

    1987-08-01

    The effect on anal tone of electrical stimulation of the presacral (hypogastric) sympathetic nerves has been studied in eight patients during abdominal rectopexy or restorative proctocolectomy. A sharp fall in anal pressure occurred in seven patients (mean fall 59 cmH2O; range 35-80 cmH2O). In one patient given a beta- and alpha-sympathetic blocking drug (labetalol 200 mg) intra-operatively, the anal pressure decreased by 15 cmH2O. These observations show that stimulation of the presacral sympathetic nerves causes relaxation of the internal anal sphincter and implies that these nerves may induce relaxation of the sphincter in vivo. The pathway of the recto-anal reflex has been studied intra-operatively in three patients undergoing rectal excision. The recto-anal reflex is present after presacral nerve blockade and after full mobilization of the rectum, but is abolished by circumferential rectal myotomy. The reflex has a local intramural pathway. This observation validates the assumption that absence of this reflex is a feature of aganglionosis, as in Hirschsprung's disease. PMID:3651766

  10. Engaging Organic Chemistry Students Using ChemDraw for iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Layne A.; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drawing structures, mechanisms, and syntheses is a vital part of success in organic chemistry courses. ChemDraw for iPad has been used to increase classroom experiences in the preparation of high quality chemical drawings. The embedded Flick-to-Share allows for simple, real-time exchange of ChemDraw documents. ChemDraw for iPad also allows…

  11. 75 FR 57478 - Accreditation and Approval of Chem Coast, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Chem Coast, Inc., as a Commercial...: Notice of accreditation and approval of Chem Coast, Inc., as a commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Chem Coast, Inc., 11820 North...

  12. Formation Conditions of Basalts at Gale Crater, Mars from ChemCam Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiberto, J.; Bridges, J.; Dasgupta, R.; Edwards, P.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface igneous rocks shed light onto the chemistry, tectonic, and thermal state of planetary interiors. For the purpose of comparative planetology, therefore, it is critical to fully utilize the compositional diversity of igneous rocks for different terrestrial planets. For Mars, igneous float rocks and conglomerate clasts at Gale Crater, as analyzed by ChemCam [1] using a new calibration [2], have a larger range in chemistry than have been analyzed at any other landing site or within the Martian meteorite collection [3, 4]. These rocks may reflect different conditions of melting within the Martian interior than any previously analyzed basalts. Here we present new formation conditions for basaltic and trachybasalt/dioritic rocks at Gale Crater from ChemCam analyses following previous procedures [5, 6]. We then compare these estimates of basalt formation with previous estimates for rocks from the Noachian (Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and a clast in the NWA 7034 meteorite [5, 6]), Hesperian (surface volcanics [7]), and Amazonian (surface volcanics and shergottites [7-8]), to calculate an average mantle potential temperature for different Martian epochs and investigate how the interior of Mars has changed through time. Finally, we will compare Martian mantle potential temperatures with petrologic estimate of cooling for the Earth. Our calculated estimate for the mantle potential temperature (TP) of rocks at Gale Crater is 1450 ± 45 °C which is within error of previous estimates for Noachian aged rocks [5, 6]. The TP estimates for the Hesperian and Amazonian, based on orbital analyses of the crust [7], are lower in temperature than the estimates for the Noachian. Our results are consistent with simple convective cooling of the Martian interior. [1] Wiens R. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev 170. 167-227. [2] Anderson R. et al. (2015) LPSC. Abstract #7031. [3] Schmidt M.E. et al. (2014) JGRP 2013JE004481. [4] Sautter V. et al. (2014) JGRP 2013JE004472. [5] Filiberto J

  13. Comment on "Using quaternions to calculate RMSD" [J. Comp. Chem. 25, 1849 (2004)].

    PubMed

    Kneller, G R

    2005-11-30

    Coutsias et al. have recently published a method to find the optimal rotational superposition of two molecular structures, which is based on a representation of rotations by quaternions (J. Comp. Chem. 25(15), 1849 (2004)). The method, which has been suggested by other authors before, is compared to the one by Kabsch, where the elements of the rotation matrix are directly used as variables of the optimization problem. The statement that the two methods are equivalent is misleading in the sense that the Kabsch method may yield an improper optimal rotation, which must be explicitly checked for, whereas the quaternion method does not mix proper and improper rotations. Nevertheless, both types of solutions can be considered by solving the same eigenvector problem. The relation between the two types of solutions is briefly discussed and bounds for the eigenvalues are given. PMID:16175580

  14. Molecular recognition of chem/biowarfare agents using micromechanical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.-F.; Yan, X.; Lu, Y.; Du, H.; Thundat, T.

    2006-05-01

    Recent terrorists events have shown that an urgent and widespread need exists for development of novel sensors for chemical and biowarfare agents. The advent of inexpensive, mass-produced microcantilever sensors, promises to bring about a revolution in detection of terrorists threats. Extremely sensitive chem/biosensors can be developed using microcantilever platform. Both frequency and bending of microcantilevers can be used to detect the chemical and biological species in air or solution. The specificity is achieved by immobilizing chemically-specific receptors the cantilever. This short report will give an overview of chemical/biological warfare agents sensor recently developed based on microcantilevers.

  15. EOS CHEM: A Mission to Study Ozone and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Earth's stratosphere contains the ozone layer, which shields us from the Sun@ harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone is destroyed through chemical reactions involving natural and man-made nitrogen, hydrogen, bromine, and chlorine compounds. The release of chlorofluoro-carbons CFCs) has caused a dramatic decrease in the protective stratospheric ozone layer during the last two decades. Detection of stratospheric ozone depletion led to regulation and phase-out of CFC production worldwide. As a result, man-made chlorine levels in the atmosphere are slowly beginning to decrease. CHEM will be able to determine whether the stratospheric ozone layer is now recovering, as predicted by scientific models.

  16. Evaluation of Meso-NH and WRF/CHEM simulated gas and aerosol chemistry over Europe based on hourly observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A.; Barbet, C.; Leriche, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Mari, C.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bègue, N.; Tulet, P.; Gazen, D.; Escobar, J.

    2016-07-01

    Gas chemistry and aerosol chemistry of 10 km-resolution mesoscale models Meso-NH and WRF/CHEM were evaluated on three cases over Europe. These one-day duration cases were selected from Freney et al. (2011) and occurred on contrasted meteorological conditions and at different seasons: a cyclonic circulation with a well-marked frontal zone on winter, an anti-cyclonic situation with local storm precipitations on summer and a cold front in the northwest of Europe associated to a convergence of air masses over eastern Europe and conflicting air masses over Spain and France on autumn. To assess the performance of the two models, surface hourly databases from observation stations over Europe were used, together with airborne measurements. For both models, the meteorological fields were in good agreement with the measurements for the three days. Winds presented the largest normalised mean bias integrated over all European stations for both models. Daily gas chemistry was reproduced with normalised mean biases between - 14 and 11%, a level of accuracy that is acceptable for policy support. The two models' performances were degraded during night-time quite likely due to the constant primary species emissions. The PM2.5 bulk mass concentration was overestimated by Meso-NH over Europe and slightly underestimated by WRF/CHEM. The absence of wet deposition in the models partly explains the local discrepancies with the observations. More locally, the systematic low mixing ratio of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase simulated by WRF/CHEM at three stations was correlated with the underestimation of OM (organic matter) mass in the aerosol phase. Moreover, this mass of OM was mainly composed of anthropogenic POAs (primary organic aerosols) in WRF/CHEM, suggesting a missing source for SOAs (secondary organic aerosols) mass in WRF/CHEM aerosol parameterisation. The contribution of OM was well simulated by Meso-NH, with a higher contribution for the summer case. For Meso

  17. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore » agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  18. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore » predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  19. Curiosity ChemCam Finds High-Silica Mars Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenvang, Jens

    2015-12-17

    A team of scientists, including one from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites the Curiosity rover has investigated in the past seven months than anywhere else it has visited since landing on Mars 40 months ago. The first discovery was as Curiosity approached the area “Marias Pass,” where a lower geological unit contacts an overlying one. ChemCam, the rover’s laser-firing instrument for checking rock composition from a distance, detected bountiful silica in some targets the rover passed along the way to the contact zone. The ChemCam instrument was developed at Los Alamos in partnership with the French IRAP laboratory in Toulouse and the French Space Agency. “The high silica was a surprise,” said Jens Frydenvang of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Copenhagen, also a Curiosity science team member. “While we’re still working with multiple hypotheses on how the silica got so enriched, these hypotheses all require considerable water activity, and on Earth high silica deposits are often associated with environments that provide excellent support for microbial life. Because of this, the science team agreed to make a rare backtrack to investigate it more.”

  20. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-01

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  1. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-01

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  2. ChemBrowser: a flexible framework for mining chemical documents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Rhodes, James; Griffin, Thomas D; Boyer, Stephen K; Alba, Alfredo; Cai, Keke

    2010-01-01

    The ability to extract chemical and biological entities and relations from text documents automatically has great value to biochemical research and development activities. The growing maturity of text mining and artificial intelligence technologies shows promise in enabling such automatic chemical entity extraction capabilities (called "Chemical Annotation" in this paper). Many techniques have been reported in the literature, ranging from dictionary and rule-based techniques to machine learning approaches. In practice, we found that no single technique works well in all cases. A combinatorial approach that allows one to quickly compose different annotation techniques together for a given situation is most effective. In this paper, we describe the key challenges we face in real-world chemical annotation scenarios. We then present a solution called ChemBrowser which has a flexible framework for chemical annotation. ChemBrowser includes a suite of customizable processing units that might be utilized in a chemical annotator, a high-level language that describes the composition of various processing units that would form a chemical annotator, and an execution engine that translates the composition language to an actual annotator that can generate annotation results for a given set of documents. We demonstrate the impact of this approach by tailoring an annotator for extracting chemical names from patent documents and show how this annotator can be easily modified with simple configuration alone. PMID:20865486

  3. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for anal cancer What’s new in anal cancer research and treatment? Important research ... cancer cells is expected to help scientists develop new drugs to fight this disease. Early detection Ongoing ...

  4. Introducing the operation method for curing anal fistula by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bingzhi

    1993-03-01

    The key to the treatment of anal fistula lies in scavenging the infected anal gland thoroughly, which is the source of anal fistula infection. The fistula tract at the internal orifice of the anal fistula is cut 1 cm using laser with the infectious source completely degenerated and the wound gassified and scanned. The residual distal fistula softens and disappears upon the action of organic fibrinolysin.

  5. Comment on "Fast determination of the optimal rotational matrix for macromolecular superpositions" [J. Comp. Chem. 31, 1561 (2010)].

    PubMed

    Kneller, Gerald R

    2011-01-15

    Recently Liu et al. published a fast algorithm to solve the eigenvector problem arising in the quaternion-based method for the rotational superposition of molecular structures (J Comput Chem 2010, 31, 1561.). In this Comment, it is shown that the construction of the 4 × 4 matrix to be diagonalized—and not the diagonalization itself—represents the dominating part of the computational effort for the quaternion-based solution of the rotational superposition problem if molecules with more than about 100 atoms are considered. PMID:20662082

  6. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  7. Development and application of the WRFPLUS-Chem online chemistry adjoint and WRFDA-Chem assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrette, J. J.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-02-01

    Here we present the online meteorology and chemistry adjoint and tangent linear model, WRFPLUS-Chem, which incorporates modules to treat boundary layer mixing, emission, aging, dry deposition, and advection of black carbon aerosol. We also develop land surface and surface layer adjoints to account for coupling between radiation and vertical mixing. Model performance is verified against finite difference derivative approximations. A second order checkpointing scheme is created to reduce computational costs and enable simulations longer than six hours. The adjoint is coupled to WRFDA-Chem, in order to conduct a sensitivity study of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources throughout California during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. A cost function weighting scheme was devised to increase adjoint sensitivity robustness in future inverse modeling studies. Results of the sensitivity study show that, for this domain and time period, anthropogenic emissions are over predicted, while wildfire emissions are under predicted. We consider the diurnal variation in emission sensitivities to determine at what time sources should be scaled up or down. Also, adjoint sensitivities for two choices of land surface model indicate that emission inversion results would be sensitive to forward model configuration. The tools described here are the first step in conducting four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a coupled meteorology-chemistry model, which will potentially provide new constraints on aerosol precursor emissions and their distributions. Such analyses will be invaluable to assessments of particulate matter health and climate impacts.

  8. ChemTok: A New Rule Based Tokenizer for Chemical Named Entity Recognition.

    PubMed

    Akkasi, Abbas; Varoğlu, Ekrem; Dimililer, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) from text constitutes the first step in many text mining applications. The most important preliminary step for NER systems using machine learning approaches is tokenization where raw text is segmented into tokens. This study proposes an enhanced rule based tokenizer, ChemTok, which utilizes rules extracted mainly from the train data set. The main novelty of ChemTok is the use of the extracted rules in order to merge the tokens split in the previous steps, thus producing longer and more discriminative tokens. ChemTok is compared to the tokenization methods utilized by ChemSpot and tmChem. Support Vector Machines and Conditional Random Fields are employed as the learning algorithms. The experimental results show that the classifiers trained on the output of ChemTok outperforms all classifiers trained on the output of the other two tokenizers in terms of classification performance, and the number of incorrectly segmented entities. PMID:26942193

  9. ChemTok: A New Rule Based Tokenizer for Chemical Named Entity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Akkasi, Abbas; Varoğlu, Ekrem; Dimililer, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) from text constitutes the first step in many text mining applications. The most important preliminary step for NER systems using machine learning approaches is tokenization where raw text is segmented into tokens. This study proposes an enhanced rule based tokenizer, ChemTok, which utilizes rules extracted mainly from the train data set. The main novelty of ChemTok is the use of the extracted rules in order to merge the tokens split in the previous steps, thus producing longer and more discriminative tokens. ChemTok is compared to the tokenization methods utilized by ChemSpot and tmChem. Support Vector Machines and Conditional Random Fields are employed as the learning algorithms. The experimental results show that the classifiers trained on the output of ChemTok outperforms all classifiers trained on the output of the other two tokenizers in terms of classification performance, and the number of incorrectly segmented entities. PMID:26942193

  10. Triumphs and Tribulations of WRF-Chem Development and Use

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2005-06-27

    In order to address scientific questions related to aerosol chemistry and meteorological-aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks at the urban to regional scale, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have made substantial contributions to the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) during the past one and a half years. These contributions include an additional gas-phase chemistry mechanism, a sectional aerosol module, an additional photolysis module, feedbacks between aerosols and radiation, and extending the nesting capability of WRF to include the chemistry scalars. During the development process, a number of limitations in WRF have been identified that complicate adding all the desired chemistry capabilities as originally planned. These issues will be discussed along with changes that have been made to help mitigate some of them. Mechanisms currently in development will also be discussed including a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mechanism for the sectional aerosol module, aqueous chemistry, and the aerosol indirect effect.

  11. ChemTechLinks: Alliances for Chemical Technician Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nameroff, Tamara

    2003-09-01

    ChemTechLinks (CTL) is a project of the American Chemical Society (ACS) Educational and International Activities Division and funded by the National Science Foundation to support and advance chemistry-based technician education. The project aims to help improve technician education programs, foster academic-industry alliances, provide professional development opportunities for faculty, and increase student recruitment into chemical technology. The CTL Web site serves as an information clearinghouse and link to other ACS resources and programs, including a Web-based, Voluntary Industry Standards (VIS) database, the Chemistry Technician Program Approval Service, the College Chemistry Consultants Service, summer workshops for high school teachers and two-year college faculty that emphasize a technology-oriented curriculum, scholarships for two-year college faculty to attend ACS Short Courses, a self-study instructional guide for faculty to use in preparing for classroom instruction, and information and free recruitment materials about career opportunities in chemistry technology.

  12. Hydrogen isotope MicroChemLab FY15.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David; Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a new method to measure the composition of gaseous mixtures of any two hydrogen isotopes, as well as an inert gas component. When tritium is one of those hydrogen isotopes, there is usually some helium present, because the tritium decays to form helium at a rate of about 1% every 2 months. The usual way of measuring composition of these mixtures involves mass spectrometry, which involves bulky, energy-intensive, expensive instruments, including vacuum pumps that can quite undesirably disperse tritium. Our approach uses calorimetry of a small quantity of hydrogen-absorbing material to determine gas composition without consuming or dispersing the analytes. Our work was a proof of principle using a rather large and slow benchtop calorimeter. Incorporation of microfabricated calorimeters, such as those that have been developed in Sandia’s MicroChemLab program or that are now commercially available, would allow for faster measurements and a smaller instrument footprint.

  13. Charactering biomass burning aerosol in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), with evaluation against SAMBBA flight data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W.; Freitas, S. R.; Longo, K.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2014-12-01

    The burning of forests in the Amazonia region is a globally significant source of carbonaceous aerosol, containing both absorbing and scattering components. Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are efficient CCN, modifying cloud properties and influencing atmospheric circulation and precipitation tendencies. The impacts of BBA are highly dependent on their size distribution and composition. Studies in this region can therefore benefit greatly from the use of state-of-the-art sectional aerosol representations. A bottom-up fire emissions inventory, 3BEM, has been developed by Longo et al.1. It uses satellite products to identify fire locations, applying the emissions factors of Andrei and Merlot3 to generate daily emission maps. Flaming emissions are very buoyant, and a method for injecting emissions at altitude is needed to accurately describe the vertical profile of BBA. A parameterisation has been developed to simulate this sub-grid process4, and previously implemented in WRF-Chem using a modal aerosol scheme5. For this work we have modified the WRF-Chem model to simulate 3BEM emissions using the MOSAIC sectional aerosol scheme6. This modified version of WRF-Chem v3.4.1 has been run for September 2012 over South America (25km grid-spacing). We will present model results evaluating the modelled aerosol vertical distribution, size distribution, composition and optical properties against measurements taken by the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the SAMBBA field campaign. The plume-rise parameterisation was found to inject flaming emissions too high over most fires, resulting in high modelled aerosol loadings at high altitude. We probed the behaviour of the parameterisation by developing a new SAMBBA-tuned 3BEM emissions scenario, which uses more realistic estimates of fire size. Results from high-resolution (5 and 1km) nested simulations will also be presented, in order to evaluate the impacts of explicit aerosol-cloud interactions in non-parameterised clouds. 1. K

  14. Proteins facilitating Escherichia coli O157 persistence at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ) squamous epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157 (O157) persist at the recto-anal junction (RAJ) of gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of cattle, the primary reservoirs of this human pathogen. We recently reported (Kudva et al., BMC Microbiol. 2012, 12: 103) that the previously identified and extensively documented principal O157...

  15. Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Anal Intercourse Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly; Ward, Britney

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of anal intercourse and its associated risk behaviors in a sample of Midwestern, predominantly white rural adolescents. Most of the research on this activity has been local or regional studies, with urban East and West Coast racial and ethnic minority adolescents. Methods: A…

  16. Study of Operated Patients of Lateral Internal Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshad Shankarlal; Chavda, Jagdish; Parikh, Jayesh; Naik, Nehal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anal fissure causes significant morbidity in the population. It is proposed that elevated sphincter pressures may cause ischaemia of the anal lining and this may be responsible for the pain of anal fissures and their failure to heal. When pharmacologic therapy fails or fissures recur frequently, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical treatment of choice. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done of admitted and operated patients of anal fissure by lateral anal internal sphincterotomy either by open or closed technique between April 2010 and November 2011 in Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, India. The follow-up data of all patients was evaluated for pain relief, recurrence, wound infection, incontinence to flatus or stool or both for a period of up to 6 months. Results: Wound infection rate was 10.3% in open method and 4.2% in closed method. Incontinence to flatus was 8.3% in closed method and 3.4% in open method. This was temporary and controlled within a 1 week. Incontinence to stool was 3.4% in open method which was temporary and controlled within 2 weeks while none in closed method. None of the patients in either group had come with recurrence within 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral anal internal sphincterotomy is safe regarding long term incontinence and effective regarding recurrence. PMID:24551659

  17. Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Anal Incontinence among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of anal incontinence in an unselected pregnant population at second trimester. A survey of pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination was conducted in a university hospital in Oslo, Norway. A questionnaire consisting of 105 items concerning anal incontinence (including St. Mark's score), urinary incontinence, medication use, and comorbidity was posted to women when invited to the ultrasound examination. Results. Prevalence of self-reported anal incontinence (St. Mark's score ≥ 3) was the lowest in the group of women with a previous cesarean section only (6.4%) and the highest among women with a previous delivery complicated by obstetric anal sphincter injury (24.4%). Among nulliparous women the prevalence of anal incontinence was 7.7% and was associated to low educational level and comorbidity. Prevalence of anal incontinence increased with increasing parity. Urinary incontinence was associated with anal incontinence in all parity groups. Conclusions. Anal incontinence was most frequent among women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Other obstetrical events had a minor effect on prevalence of anal incontinence among parous women. Prevention of obstetrical sphincter injury is likely the most important factor for reducing bothersome anal incontinence among fertile women. PMID:23819058

  18. Major-Element Compositional Diversity Observed by ChemCam Along the MSL Traverse: The First Three Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Clegg, S. M.; Gasda, P. J.; Frydenvang, J.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Lasue, J.; Lanza, N.; Anderson, R. B.; Sautter, V.; Bridges, J.; Le Deit, L.; Nachon, M.; Rapin, W.; Meslin, P. Y.; Newsom, H. E.; Clark, B. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bridges, N.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M. R.; Francis, R.; Leveille, R. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Melikechi, N.; Jackson, R.; Fabre, C.; Payré, V.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Crisp, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    ChemCam on Curiosity has used LIBS to obtain elemental compositions of >6000 target points at distances to 7.4 m from the rover. Observations include igneous clasts, sediments, diagenetic features, and other details often not accessible by the rover arm. A major re-calibration was recently completed using >350 standards. This significantly improved the accuracies of mineral end-members including plag-feldspars, hi-Si compositions, oxide grains, Mg-rich end-members (presumably Mg saponites; not yet confirmed by CheMin), and Mg and Ca sulfates. Here we draw conclusions from the overall compositional distributions observed in Gale crater from landing until the present using the new calibration. Observations from Bradbury Rise (sols 0-53, 326-520) show a scattering of compositions toward mineral end-members from igneous clasts and pebbles transported from the crater rim. In contrast, Sheepbed mudstones (first drill location; sols 126-300) form a tight cluster close to average Mars composition. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop (sols 306-325)--the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds--shows K enrichment. This enrichment reaches a peak of 6 wt % K2O (sol 625) in the Mt. Remarkable member of the Kimberley formation, Kimberley being a drill location flanked by foreset beds 7 km SW of Shaler. The Pahrump outcrop (sols 753-919)—first observed material of the Murray formation at Mt. Sharp's base—shows lower Mg, higher Si, and much higher Al, consistent with stronger alteration. Further along the traverse ChemCam discovered an outcrop of light-toned Murray formation rock (sols 992 on) of nearly pure SiO2+TiO2. Overall, the ChemCam database points to a very strong diversity of inputs and alteration processes within a relatively short distance within Gale. Igneous compositions: while Jake Matijevic, a float analyzed early by APXS, appeared nepheline normative, no clear nepheline has been found by ChemCam. Additionally, despite the significant number of

  19. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal HPV-related disorders in women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Sebring, Meagan C; Mendez, Audrey E; Ba, Fatimata S; Trimble, Debra D; Chiao, Elizabeth Y

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the findings of publications addressing the epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in women. We conducted a systematic review among publications published from Jan. 1, 1997, to Sept. 30, 2013, to limit to publications from the combined antiretroviral therapy era. Three searches were performed of the National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the following search terms: women and anal HPV, women anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women and anal cancer. Publications were included in the review if they addressed any of the following outcomes: (1) prevalence, incidence, or clearance of anal HPV infection, (2) prevalence of anal cytological or histological neoplastic abnormalities, or (3) incidence or risk of anal cancer. Thirty-seven publications addressing anal HPV infection and anal cytology remained after applying selection criteria, and 23 anal cancer publications met the selection criteria. Among HIV-positive women, the prevalence of high-risk (HR)-HPV in the anus was 16-85%. Among HIV-negative women, the prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection ranged from 4% to 86%. The prevalence of anal HR-HPV in HIV-negative women with HPV-related pathology of the vulva, vagina, and cervix compared with women with no known HPV-related pathology, varied from 23% to 86% and from 5% to 22%, respectively. Histological anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater) was found in 3-26% of the women living with HIV, 0-9% among women with lower genital tract pathology, and 0-3% for women who are HIV negative without known lower genital tract pathology. The incidence of anal cancer among HIV-infected women ranged from 3.9 to 30 per 100,000. Among women with a history of cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, the incidence rates of anal cancer ranged from 0.8 to 63.8 per 100,000 person-years, and in

  20. Development and application of the WRFPLUS-Chem online chemistry adjoint and WRFDA-Chem assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrette, J. J.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Here we present the online meteorology and chemistry adjoint and tangent linear model, WRFPLUS-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting plus chemistry), which incorporates modules to treat boundary layer mixing, emission, aging, dry deposition, and advection of black carbon aerosol. We also develop land surface and surface layer adjoints to account for coupling between radiation and vertical mixing. Model performance is verified against finite difference derivative approximations. A second-order checkpointing scheme is created to reduce computational costs and enable simulations longer than 6 h. The adjoint is coupled to WRFDA-Chem, in order to conduct a sensitivity study of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources throughout California during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. A cost-function weighting scheme was devised to reduce the impact of statistically insignificant residual errors in future inverse modeling studies. Results of the sensitivity study show that, for this domain and time period, anthropogenic emissions are overpredicted, while wildfire emission error signs vary spatially. We consider the diurnal variation in emission sensitivities to determine at what time sources should be scaled up or down. Also, adjoint sensitivities for two choices of land surface model (LSM) indicate that emission inversion results would be sensitive to forward model configuration. The tools described here are the first step in conducting four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a coupled meteorology-chemistry model, which will potentially provide new constraints on aerosol precursor emissions and their distributions. Such analyses will be invaluable to assessments of particulate matter health and climate impacts.

  1. Comment on ``Study of dielectric relaxations of anhydrous trehalose and maltose glasses'' [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014508 (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Wlodarczyk, P.; Paluch, M.

    2011-10-01

    Very recently Kwon et al. [H.-J. Kwon, J.-A. Seo, H. K. Kim, and Y. H. Hwang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014508 (2011)] published an article on the study of dielectric relaxation in trehalose and maltose glasses. They carried out broadband dielectric measurements at very wide range of temperatures covering supercooled liquid as well as glassy state of both saccharides. It is worth to mention that authors have also applied a new method for obtaining anhydrous glasses of trehalose and maltose that enables avoiding their caramelization. Four relaxation processes were identified in dielectric spectra of both saccharides. The slower one was identified as structural relaxation process the next one, not observed by the others, was assigned as Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, while the last two secondary modes were of the same nature as found by Kaminski et al. [K. Kaminski, E. Kaminska, P. Wlodarczyk, S. Pawlus, D. Kimla, A. Kasprzycka, M. Paluch, J. Ziolo, W. Szeja, and K. L. Ngai, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 12816 (2008)]. In this comment we show that the authors mistakenly assigned the slowest relaxation process as structural mode of disaccharides. We have proven that this relaxation process is an effect of formation of thin layer of air or water between plate of capacitor and sample. The same effect can be observed if plates of capacitor are oxidized. Thus, we concluded that their slowest mode is connected to the dc conduction process while their β JG process is primary relaxation of trehalose and maltose.

  2. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  3. Comparison of Formal Operations: Students Enrolled in ChemCom versus a Traditional Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leslie A.; Bitner, Betty L.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of an STS curriculum (ChemCom) versus a traditional chemistry curriculum (GenChem) on student formal reasoning level. Cluster random sampling was used to select the sample (N=123). Gender differences in formal reasoning level were also investigated. The abbreviated GALT pretest was…

  4. Life after "ChemCom": Do They Succeed in University-Level Chemistry Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana

    Chemistry in the Community ("ChemCom") is a high-school level chemistry text developed by the American Chemical Society (ACS) designed for the college-bound student. The purpose of this study was to identify students enrolled in a university-level chemistry course designed for the nonscience major who had experienced the ChemCom curriculum in high…

  5. Outreach within the Bristol ChemLabS CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.; Obey, Tim M.; Croker, Steve J.; Norman, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Bristol ChemLabS project. In particular, it describes the development and impacts of the outreach project within Bristol ChemLabS, the UK's Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) in practical chemistry, and its continuation beyond the funded project. The major elements of working with both…

  6. Online-coupled modeling of volcanic ash and SO2 dispersion with WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, Martin; Egan, Sean; Webley, Peter; Grell, Georg; Freitas, Saulo; Pavolonis, Mike; Dehn, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    We included a volcanic emission and plume model into the Weather Research Forecast Model with inline Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The volcanic emission model with WRF-Chem has been tested and evaluated with historic eruptions, and the volcanic application was included into the official release of WRF-Chem beginning with WRF version 3.3 in 2011. Operational volcanic WRF-Chem runs have been developed using different domains centered on main volcanoes of the Aleutian chain and Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. The Global Forecast System (GFS) is used for the meteorological initialization of WRF-Chem, and default eruption source parameters serve as initial source data for the runs. We report on the model setup, and the advantages to treat the volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide emissions inline within the numerical weather prediction model. In addition we outline possibilities to initialize WRF-Chem with a fully automated algorithm to retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from satellite data. WRF-Chem runs from recent volcanic eruptions resulted in atmospheric ash loadings, which compared well with the satellite data taking into account that satellite retrieval data represent only a limited amount of the actually emitted source due to detection thresholds. In addition particle aggregative effects are not included in the WRF-Chem model to date.

  7. ChemCam Investigation of the John Klein and Cumberland Drill Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. S.; Wiens, R. C.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Williams, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geochemical investigation by MSL’s ChemCam of drill tailings taken from the Sheepbed Mudstone, comparing and contrasting the composition of the substrate and the tailings as well as elemental chemistry from ChemCam and mineralogy observed by CheMin.

  8. ChemLabBox for SnifferStars

    2002-01-24

    The software entitled "ChemLabBox for SnifferStars" is used to collect, display, and save data from the Sandia National Laboratories chemical analysis system dubbed SnifferStar. Sensor data is streamed from a SnifferStar unit into a computer thru RS-232 in a manner that is not amendable to plotting. Also, there is no direct way to start and stop the unit as is. This software rearranges the data into something that can be easily plotted in real-time thenmore » saves the data into a text fild. In addition, this software provides the users a means to start and stop the hardware. This software was written specifically for SnifferStar. SnifferStar data is delivered at a very fast rate but for a short period of time. This software is written around that premise. It is written for Pentium or higher machines running Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP. Lockheed Martin is interested in using it for testing SnifferStar units before deployment. To date they have not indicated their intent to deliver the code either in part or whole as part of their product.« less

  9. Internal anal sphincter augmentation and substitution

    PubMed Central

    de la Portilla, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing recognition of the importance of internal anal sphincter (IAS) dysfunction presenting as passive faecal incontinence. This problem may manifest after anal sphincterotomy or following the more minimally invasive operations for haemorrhoids, as well as with advancing age. Because of the poor results of IAS plication and the beneficial outcomes with peri-urethral bulking agents in urology, these materials have been developed for use in IAS dysfunction. This review outlines the basic purported mechanisms of action, defining the materials in clinical use, their methods of deployment, complications and reported outcomes. There is still much that is unknown concerning the ideal agent or the volume and the technique of deployment, which will only be answered by powerful, prospective, randomized, controlled trials. The specific role of autologous stem cells designed to regenerate the sphincters in cases of functional impairment or muscle loss is yet to be seen. PMID:24759338

  10. Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM. Methods. Our study included 305 MSM at an HIV/AIDS clinic in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health Maintenance Organization. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of risk factors comparing men without anal HPV infection; men with anal HPV infection, but no precancer; and men with anal precancer. Results. Low CD4 count (<350 cells/mm3) and previous chlamydia infection were associated with an increased risk of carcinogenic HPV infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–10.40 and OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.16–15.51, respectively). History of smoking (OR, 2.71 95% CI, 1.43–5.14), duration, recency, and dose of smoking increased the risk of anal precancer among carcinogenic HPV-positive men but had no association with HPV infection. Conclusions. We found distinct risk factors for anal HPV infection and anal precancer. Risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer are similar to established risk factors for cervical cancer progression. PMID:23908478

  11. Anorectal conditions: anal fissure and anorectal fistula.

    PubMed

    Fox, Audralan; Tietze, Pamela H; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan

    2014-04-01

    Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening. PMID:24742084

  12. Anal Cancer: An Examination of Radiotherapy Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Glynne-Jones, Rob; Lim, Faye

    2011-04-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9811, ACCORD-03, and ACT II Phase III trials in anal cancer showed no benefit for cisplatin-based induction and maintenance chemotherapy, or radiation dose-escalation >59 Gy. This review examines the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation (CRT) in anal cancer, and discusses potential alternative radiotherapy strategies. The evidence for the review was compiled from randomized and nonrandomized trials of radiation therapy and CRT. A total of 103 retrospective/observational studies, 4 Phase I/II studies, 16 Phase II prospective studies, 2 randomized Phase II studies, and 6 Phase III trials of radiotherapy or chemoradiation were identified. There are no meta-analyses based on individual patient data. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach for all stages of anal cancer is inappropriate. Early T1 tumors are probably currently overtreated, whereas T3/T4 lesions might merit escalation of treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy or the integration of biological therapy may play a role in future.

  13. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Elorza, Garazi; Saralegui, Yolanda; Enríquez-Navascués, Jose María; Placer, Carlos; Velaz, Leyre

    2016-01-01

    Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN) constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population. PMID:26765233

  14. Comment on “Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions” [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Galperin, Michael; Ratner, Mark A.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-04-07

    We discuss the derivation of the optical response in molecular junctions presented by U. Harbola et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)], which questions some terms in the theory of Raman scattering in molecular junctions developed in our earlier publications. We show that the terms considered in our theory represent the correct contribution to calculated Raman scattering and are in fact identical to those considered by Harbola et al. We also indicate drawbacks of the presented approach in treating the quantum transport part of the problem.

  15. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  16. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  17. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  18. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  19. An overview of the PubChem BioAssay resource.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Bolton, Evan; Dracheva, Svetlana; Karapetyan, Karen; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Suzek, Tugba O; Wang, Jiyao; Xiao, Jewen; Zhang, Jian; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The PubChem BioAssay database (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for biological activities of small molecules and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). It archives experimental descriptions of assays and biological test results and makes the information freely accessible to the public. A PubChem BioAssay data entry includes an assay description, a summary and detailed test results. Each assay record is linked to the molecular target, whenever possible, and is cross-referenced to other National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database records. 'Related BioAssays' are identified by examining the assay target relationship and activity profile of commonly tested compounds. A key goal of PubChem BioAssay is to make the biological activity information easily accessible through the NCBI information retrieval system-Entrez, and various web-based PubChem services. An integrated suite of data analysis tools are available to optimize the utility of the chemical structure and biological activity information within PubChem, enabling researchers to aggregate, compare and analyze biological test results contributed by multiple organizations. In this work, we describe the PubChem BioAssay database, including data model, bioassay deposition and utilities that PubChem provides for searching, downloading and analyzing the biological activity information contained therein. PMID:19933261

  20. ChemCam Remote Microscopic Imager (RMI) Onboard Curiosity: Results of the First Three Months on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, Stephane; Gasnault, Olivier; Herkenhoff, Ken; Langevin, Yves; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bridges, Nathan; Pinet, Patrick; Mangold, Nicolas; Johnson, Jeffrey; Wiens, Roger; Bell, Jim; Dromart, Gilles; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) coupled to a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) [1,2]. Its main objective is to remotely determine the elemental composition of soils and rocks situated at distances up to 7 meters from the rover. We focus on the imaging capability of ChemCam using the RMI and initial analysis of RMI data [3,4,5,6]. The objectives of the RMI are to provide geomorphologic context of the LIBS analyses, locate the laser pits, document the changes induced by the laser shots on the target, and study the martian rocks and soils at high resolution. It is also the main tool to check the focusing of the laser, which is directly related to the intrinsic quality of LIBS spectra. This is particularly important for targets displaying significant variations of depth within the scene, and for which the optimum focus distance might differ from one LIBS point to the other. During the first months of the surface mission, well defined holes have been generally observed on soils, whereas the laser pits were sometimes hardly detectable on some rocks. RMI coupled to the LIBS therefore provides a way to investigate the rock hardness. The first images also demonstrate that the camera by itself adds a significant scientific value to the study of rocks by revealing their fine texture and morphology. Secondary imaging products have been produced. These include mosaics, color-added images using pansharpening to merge the black and white high resolution RMI images with the colors acquired by the MastCam multispectral cameras, and 3D-shape retrieval using the z-stack technique [7]. References: [1] Maurice et al., Space Sci. Reviews, Vol 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 95-166, 2012. [2] Wiens et al., Space Science Reviews, Space Sci. Reviews, Vol 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 167-227, 2012. [3] Le Mouélic et al., LPSC XLIV, 2013. [4] Langevin et al., LPSC XLIV, 2013. [5] Bridges et al.., LPSC XLIV, 2013. [6] Cousin et al. , LPSC XLIV, 2013. [7

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal: A report of two cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Medha Pradip; Momin, Yasmin Altaf; Pandav, Amitkumar Bapuso; Sulhyan, Kalpana Ranjitsingh

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal accounts for about 20% of all anal canal cancers. It is subclassified into two types. (1) Colorectal type, which arises from the mucosa above dentate line and (2) extramucosal type, which includes adenocarcinoma arising in anorectal fistulae and adenocarcinoma arising from anal glands. Anal gland adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. In this article, we present two cases of anal adenocarcinoma, one colorectal type, and other anal gland carcinoma along with review of literature. PMID:27510691

  2. ChemSonde: CO2 profiles using Radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul D.; Freshwater, Ray; Ouyang, Bin; Jones, Rod; Harris, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric composition measurements in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), are fairly sparse. They require specialised equipment, such as instrumented aircraft or large balloons, and these platforms can be expensive to run and operate intermittently, and therefore cannot provide continuous or long-term measurements. Although satellites can provide this level of coverage, they have a finite operational lifetime, are expensive to develop and launch, and encounter limits to their information retrieval; especially in the UTLS due in part to the radiative properties of clouds and the spatial gradients of the gas species encountered there, leading to errors and lower resolution vertical measurements compared to in-situ observations. The UTLS generally ia an important region of the atmosphere, being sensitive to changes in climate (through anthropogenic activity for example) which can influence the radiative, transport and chemical processing occurring there. As the interface between the stratosphere and troposphere, changes in the UTLS structure and chemical composition can effect the composition of the stratosphere (e.g. O3 and H2O) in turn changing the radiative environment, with potential feedbacks on tropospheric climate. At present, the only routine profile measurements are provided by the global ozonesonde network with a small number of ground-based lidar measurements. Again, these methods are limited by their spatial coverage and the range of species measured. Extending these existing networks by making it feasible to conduct wide-ranging composition profile measurements, would have the potential to revolutionise atmospheric measurement programmes. ChemSonde is package developed to incorporate a novel miniature optical cavity CO2 instrument launched on standard meteorological balloons (and electrochemical (EC) sensors for CO, O3, NOx).The package is suitable for use in global sonde networks, e.g. Global Climate

  3. ChemCom: A Software Program for Searching and Comparing Chemical Libraries.

    PubMed

    Saeedipour, Sirus; Tai, David; Fang, Jianwen

    2015-07-27

    An efficient chemical comparator, a computer application facilitating searching and comparing chemical libraries, is useful in drug discovery and other relevant areas. The need for an efficient and user-friendly chemical comparator prompted us to develop ChemCom (Chemical Comparator) based on Java Web Start (JavaWS) technology. ChemCom provides a user-friendly graphical interface to a number of fast algorithms including a novel algorithm termed UnionBit Tree Algorithm. It utilizes an intuitive stepwise mechanism for selecting chemical comparison parameters before starting the comparison process. UnionBit has shown approximately an 165% speedup on average compared to its closest competitive algorithm implemented in ChemCom over real data. It is approximately 11 times faster than the Open Babel FastSearch algorithm in our tests. ChemCom can be accessed free-of-charge via a user-friendly website at http://bioinformatics.org/chemcom/. PMID:26067384

  4. ChemDoodle Web Components: HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, interfaces, and informatics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Melanie C

    2015-01-01

    ChemDoodle Web Components (abbreviated CWC, iChemLabs, LLC) is a light-weight (~340 KB) JavaScript/HTML5 toolkit for chemical graphics, structure editing, interfaces, and informatics based on the proprietary ChemDoodle desktop software. The library uses and WebGL technologies and other HTML5 features to provide solutions for creating chemistry-related applications for the web on desktop and mobile platforms. CWC can serve a broad range of scientific disciplines including crystallography, materials science, organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry and chemical biology. CWC is freely available for in-house use and is open source (GPL v3) for all other uses.Graphical abstractAdd interactive 2D and 3D chemical sketchers, graphics, and spectra to websites and apps with ChemDoodle Web Components. PMID:26185528

  5. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Glavich, T.; Rider, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar sun-synchronous orbit on the Earth Observing System (EOS) CHEM satellite in December 2002.

  6. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  7. Survey of anal sphincter dysfunction using anal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence: a possible guide to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mandaliya, Rohan; DiMarino, Anthony J.; Moleski, Stephanie; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the surge of new medical and surgical approaches to treat fecal incontinence, the types of sphincter abnormalities in patients with incontinence have not been well characterized. We aimed to categorize anal sphincter dysfunction using anorectal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence as a potential guide for improved treatment. Methods A retrospective review of 162 consecutive patients with fecal incontinence referred for anorectal manometry was performed. Resting anal pressure and maximal squeeze pressure were considered as measures of internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter function respectively. Results Mean age of the patients was 63 years (13-89); females (81.5%) and males (18.5%). 74% of the patients had sphincter dysfunction on anorectal manometry. Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 62% patients vs. external anal sphincter dysfunction present in 44% patients. 80% females had abnormal manometry vs. 44% in males (P<0.0001). Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 68% females vs. 37% in males (P=0.0026). Conclusions Overall, abnormal anorectal manometry studies revealed that internal anal sphincter dysfunction is the most common finding, alone or in combination with external anal sphincter dysfunction. We suggest that anorectal manometry may be important to delineate anal sphincter function prior to using newer therapeutic mechanical devices. Future studies using pharmacological agents to increase internal anal sphincter tone may be of clinical importance. Finally, the classification of fecal incontinence based on the type of sphincter dysfunction may be an improved guide in the selection of newer agents in treating fecal incontinence. PMID:26423466

  8. [The anal incontinence-- study on 20 operated cases].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Grasa, C; Cristache, C; Botea, F

    2001-01-01

    The authors present 20 cases operated for anal incontinence. Two techniques were performed: direct repair (18 cases) and Musset-Cottrell procedure (2 cases). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 5 cases and satisfactory in 3 cases. The method of choice seems to be the direct repair of the anal sphincter after a proper local and general preparation. PMID:12731180

  9. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  10. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  11. Comment on 'The diatomic dication CuZn{sup 2+} in the gas phase' [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, Jiri; Diez, Reinaldo Pis; Franzreb, Klaus; Alonso, Julio A.

    2013-02-21

    In this Comment, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out by Diez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)] are revised within the framework of the coupled-cluster single double triple method. These more sophisticated calculations allow us to show that the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} electronic ground state of CuZn{sup 2+}, characterized as the metastable ground state by DFT calculations, is a repulsive state instead. The {sup 2}{Delta} and {sup 2}{Pi} metastable states of CuZn{sup 2+}, on the other hand, should be responsible for the formation mechanism of the dication through the near-resonant electron transfer CuZn{sup +}+ Ar{sup +}{yields} CuZn{sup 2+}+ Ar reaction.

  12. Real-time Aerosol Forecasting over North America using RAP-Chem and the GSI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    RAP-Chem is an implementation of WRF-Chem meteorology-chemistry model that is run daily at NOAA/ESRL over continental domain for air-quality forecasting. The chemical forecasts are combined with observations of species using three-dimensional variational data assimilation procedure implemented in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). In the presentation we detail the method of the assimilation and show verification statistics of the model performance.

  13. Cost considerations in the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, Giuseppe; Bianco, Giuseppe; Silvestrini, Nicola; Maria, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Anal fissure is a split in the lining of the distal anal canal. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment of anal fissure. Although technique is simple and effective, a drawback of this surgical procedure is its potential to cause minor but some times permanent alteration in rectal continence. Conservative approaches (such as topical application of ointment or botulinum toxin injections) have been proposed in order to treat this condition without any risk of permanent injury of the internal anal sphincter. These treatments are effective in a large number of patients. Furthermore, with the ready availability of medical therapies to induce healing of anal fissure, the risk of a first-line surgical approach is difficult to justify. The conservative treatments have a lower cost than surgery. Moreover, evaluation of the actual costs of each therapeutic option is important especially in times of economic crisis and downsizing of health spending. PMID:24867398

  14. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  15. Comment on "Study of dielectric relaxations of anhydrous trehalose and maltose glasses" [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014508 (2011)].

    PubMed

    Kaminski, K; Wlodarczyk, P; Paluch, M

    2011-10-28

    Very recently Kwon et al. [H.-J. Kwon, J.-A. Seo, H. K. Kim, and Y. H. Hwang, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014508 (2011)] published an article on the study of dielectric relaxation in trehalose and maltose glasses. They carried out broadband dielectric measurements at very wide range of temperatures covering supercooled liquid as well as glassy state of both saccharides. It is worth to mention that authors have also applied a new method for obtaining anhydrous glasses of trehalose and maltose that enables avoiding their caramelization. Four relaxation processes were identified in dielectric spectra of both saccharides. The slower one was identified as structural relaxation process the next one, not observed by the others, was assigned as Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, while the last two secondary modes were of the same nature as found by Kaminski et al. [K. Kaminski, E. Kaminska, P. Wlodarczyk, S. Pawlus, D. Kimla, A. Kasprzycka, M. Paluch, J. Ziolo, W. Szeja, and K. L. Ngai, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 12816 (2008)]. In this comment we show that the authors mistakenly assigned the slowest relaxation process as structural mode of disaccharides. We have proven that this relaxation process is an effect of formation of thin layer of air or water between plate of capacitor and sample. The same effect can be observed if plates of capacitor are oxidized. Thus, we concluded that their slowest mode is connected to the dc conduction process while their β JG process is primary relaxation of trehalose and maltose. PMID:22047271

  16. Global Oceanic Basalt Geochemistry From EarthChem Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.; Jochum, K. P.; Stracke, A.

    2004-12-01

    metadata are inadequate or absent, and a significant fraction of the primary data and metadata contain errors, either in the original publication or in the transfer to the database. Therefore, analysis of these databases must be performed by experienced geochemists, who are best qualified to recognize erroneous or low-quality data. Even so, elimination of such erroneous or poor data frequently requires subjective judgment. Such evaluations should then produce "expert data sets", which can subsequently be used by non-experts, including non-specialist geochemists, geophysicists, and geologists. A partial expert evaluation of global MORB geochemistry has been prepared by Su [2], who gives segment-by-segment MORB averages. We are preparing an expert data set for global trace element and isotope geochemistry of ocean island basalts. On the basis of these data, we reevaluate global compatibility relationships. At this stage, these relationships are remarkably similar to those summarized by Hofmann [3], and by Sun and McDonough [4], using extremely limited data. This validates the original methodology used by these authors. At the same time, basalt suites containing geochemical anomalies can now be more clearly delineated. Thus, EarthChem databases allow us to develop a comprehensive view of global chemical differentiation of the Earth. [1] Hofmann, A.W. (2003) in Treatise on Geochemistry, ed. R.W. Carlson, Vol.2, 61-101. [2] Su,, Y.J. (2002) PhD Thesis, Columbia University, 472p. [3] Hofmann, A.W. (1988) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 90, 297-314. [4] Sun, S.-S. & McDonough, W.F. (1989) Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 42 (eds. A.D. Saunders & M.J. Norry), 313-345.

  17. Comparing MSL ChemCam Analyses to Shergottite and Terrestrial Rock Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J.; Edwards, P.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M. R.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on Mars Science Laboratory determines the elemental composition of target areas at ≤6m range, and has acquired over 145000 spectra. Here we use the individual shots and averaged targets with the PLS1 dataset on both outcrops and float rocks. Various localities were sampled, including Rocknest, Sheepbed, Shaler, Cooperstown, Darwin and Kimberley. Rocknest and Sheepbed shots have quite homogeneous, basaltic compositions with Gini factors of 0.66 and 0.67 respectively (a Gini factor of 0 indicates a completely homogeneous dataset). Shaler is similarly homogeneous with a Gini factor 0.62 but is more felsic in composition. Darwin and Kimberley both follow a basaltic mixing trend between pyroxene and alkali feldspars. They have a heterogeneous spread with factors of 0.77 and 0.74. Kimberley and Darwin are the most alkaline outcrops, and then Shaler, finally Sheepbed and Rocknest are the least alkaline. The Na2O and K2O contents are controlled by variable abundances of alkaline feldspars. Many float rocks were also analysed. They include samples with mm-sized, visible feldspar grains, which are probable phenocrysts and cumulate grains. These rocks likely come from different sources as their compositions are quite heterogeneous e.g. the Gini factor for the whole set of feldspar-rich float rocks is 0.76 (using an average composition for each target). We compare these compositions with data from the MER APXS, and from this we can see that the float rocks sampled by MSL are closer to the alkaline feldspar end of the basaltic mixing trend than the more FeO+MgO-rich MER basalts (e.g. Rieder et al. 2004 10.1126/science.1104358) The basaltic shergottite meteorites also have higher FeO+MgO contents and lower Al2O3 than the MSL rocks. When compared on Al2O3-(FeOMgO)-(Na2OK2O)-CaO and other plots, the float rocks have compositions similar to a spread between terrestrial diorite and gabbro, though some have high Na2O+K2O contents.

  18. Comparison of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Martian Meteorite NWA 7034 to ChemCam Observations at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Agee, C. B.; Santos, A. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze rock and soil targets on Mars from up to 7 m away. The Nd:KGW laser can shoot up to 1000 shots at one location and profile up to 1 mm depth into a rock. Identical LIBS instrumentation is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory and was used to analyze martian meteorite NWA 7034, a non-SNC basaltic breccia whose bulk composition matches the martian surface. Initial LIBS analysis of NWA 7034 included observations on two basaltic clasts in the meteorite. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) was performed on the two clasts for comparison with elemental compositions measured using LIBS. The two instruments give similar compositions of major oxides within the error of both techniques. EPMA analysis was also completed on three light-toned clasts and a dark-toned clast in the meteorite. The light-toned clasts have Al/Si vs. (Fe+Mg)/Si compositions ranging from felsic to mafic, and the dark-toned clast shows a mafic composition. A Sammon's map was created to compare LIBS data for NWA 7034 and ChemCam targets Stark, Crestaurum, Link, Portage, Jake_M, Mara, Thor_Lake, Coronation, Pearson, and Prebble. This nonlinear statistical mapping technique is used for clustering assessment of LIBS data in two dimensions. The map shows NWA 7034 clustering in its own location, and the closest similar ChemCam rock targets are La_Reine and Ashuamipi, which are both coarse grained targets that have a mafic component consistent with augite. The most similar ChemCam soil targets are the Crestaurum and Portage. Creation of maps with a greater number of targets will show more of the similarities between NWA 7034 and ChemCam target rocks and soils. Further analysis will compare NWA 7034 LIBS data, data from the paired meteorite NWA 7533, and a variety of ChemCam targets that are similar in morphology and texture.

  19. Overview of 3 years of ChemCam' chemical compositions along the Curiosity's traverse at Gale Crater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Agnès; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Curiosity rover has been in Gale crater for more than3 years now. It drove ~12 km from its landing point up to the Bagnold Dunes. The ChemCam instrument is widely used to assess the chemistry of rocks and soils at the submillimeter scale. As of sol 1200, ChemCam sampled >1000 targets, corresponding to >300000 laser shots, >6000 images, and many passive spectra. The Bradbury landing site, a plain located at a distal portion of the alluvial fan from Peace Vallis, exposed several float rocks presenting igneous compositions ranging from mafic up to a trachytic end-member. These observations provided an important clue concerning the diversity of early Mars magmatism that was not previously recognized. More igneous float rocks have been observed all along the traverse, being more felsic closer to the landing site, and more mafic near the cratered unit, after the Kimberley formation. The Sheepbed area is essentially composed of mudstones that show a very homogeneous composition, close to the average Martian crust, providing evidence of aqueous episodes with little alteration in this area. ChemCam showed that the bedrock host experienced other diagenetic events with Mg- and Fe-rich clays in erosion-resistant raised ridges on one hand, and calcium sulfate veins on the other hand. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop, the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds, shows K enrichment. This enrichment is also observed at the Kimberley formation (another drill site flanked by foreset beds), located 7 km SW of Shaler, with up to 5.3 wt % at the Mount Remarkable member. Conglomerates have been analyzed in detail all along the traverse as they represent a link between the source rocks and the finer-grained sediments such as the sandstones and mudstones. They have shown an average composition that is enriched in alkalis, Al, and Si compared to the average Martian crust, with a clear enrichment in K2O in the vicinity of the Kimberley formation. Enrichment in K2O at

  20. Evaluation of the DWPF Cold Chem Dissolution Method with Tank 7 and Tank 51 Radioactive Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.R.

    2004-03-11

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on radioactive sludge from Tank 7, before transfer of the contents of Tank 7 to Tank 51, and the subsequent sludge in Tank 51 to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem Method. The DWPF Cold Chem Method is a room temperature dissolution method (DWPF Cold Chem Method) used in the DWPF on the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) samples in preparation for instrumental analysis. Four types of dissolutions experiments were carried out, the DWPF Cold Chem Method, hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and hot HF-HNO3. The hot HF-HNO3 digestion is modified version of the DWPF method that incorporates a heating step. The hot aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion digestions were included as reference digestions. The resulting solutions from all the sludge digestions were analyzed by ICP-ES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy). Visual observations and ICP-ES results were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the DWPF Cold Chem by comparison to the hot aqua regia, sodium peroxide fusion and the hot HF-HNO3 digestions. The data and experimental observations support the following conclusions: The DWPF Cold Chem Method seemed to be effective at dissolving initial species of radioactive sludge, but concurrent precipitation of insoluble mixed-metal fluoride salts was observed in both the Tank 7 and Tank 51 Cold Chem digestion solutions. Complete dissolution, by visual observation, was achieved with a modified hot HF-HNO3 digestion. This was done as an alternative to the DWPF room-temperature acid dissolution.

  1. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  2. Research on a novel artificial anal sphincter for human incontinence.

    PubMed

    Zan, P; Yang, B; Zhang, J Y; Shao, Y

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel artificial anal sphincter with sensor feedback for controlling anal incontinence. The artificial anal sphincter system is a novel hydraulic-electric muscle which mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter, a wireless power supply subsystem, and a communication subsystem. High integration of all functional components and no wire linking to the outer device make surgical implantation easier and lower risk. The wireless power supply subsystem employs a Class-E power amplifier based on adaptive control technique, and the electromagnetic compatibility in biological tissue is analysed. With the goal of designing a reliable and safe instrument, the models of human colonic blood flow and rectum motion are developed, the biomechanical material properties of human rectum and tissue ischaemia are analysed. The results show that the deformation of the artificial anal sphincter can be controlled by the press of reservoir below the upper limit of human tissue ischaemia. In vitro experiments demonstrate the artificial anal sphincter system is a good cure for human anal incontinence problems. PMID:20653341

  3. Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

    2012-01-01

    Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques. Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1950 to February 2010) and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity. PMID:22374273

  4. Advances in the Management of Anal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Julie, Diana R; Goodman, Karyn A

    2016-03-01

    Although anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon malignancy, its incidence has been increasing markedly in recent decades due to its association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The well-established standard of care for localized ASCC consists of the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin (MMC) chemotherapy, concurrent with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). However, newer techniques are being actively pursued, including the use of newer radiation therapy (RT) technologies, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The areas of debate and development include the dosing and timing of MMC delivery, the role of cisplatin chemotherapy as an alternative to MMC, the replacement of the standard 96-h infusion of 5FU with oral capecitabine, the use of targeted chemotherapy agents, and the duration and dose of RT. PMID:26905274

  5. Chemo-stratigraphy in the Murray Formation Using ChemCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Anderson, R. B.; Bridges, N.; Bridges, J.; Calef, F. J., III; Clegg, S. M.; Le Deit, L.; Fisk, M. R.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Milliken, R.; Ming, D. W.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H. E.; Rapin, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity has completed a detailed chemo-stratigraphy analysis at the Pahrump exposure of the Murray formation. In total >570 chemical measurements and supporting remote micro images to classify texturally were collected. Chemical trends with both stratigraphic position and with texture were evaluated. From these data emerges a complex aqueous history where sediments have interacted with fluids with variable chemistry in distinct episodes. The ChemCam data collected at the nearby "Garden City" (GC) vein complex provides constraints on the chemical evolution of the Pahrump. GC is thought be stratigraphically above the Pahrump outcrop. Fluids producing the veins likely also migrated through the Pahrump sediments. Multiple episodes of fluids are evident at GC, forming distinct Ca sulfate, F-rich, enhanced MgO, and FeO-rich veins. These different fluid chemistries could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through the section from a distance with a pre-established chemical signature, fluids locally evolved from water rock interactions, or both. Texturally rocks have been classified into two distinct categories: fine grained or as cross-bedded sandstones. The sandstones have significantly lower SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O and higher FeO, and CaO. Fine grained rocks have further been sub-classified as resistant and recessive with other textural features such as laminations and pits noted.The strongest chemical trend in the fine-grained sandstones shows enhancements in MgO and FeO in erosion-resistant materials compared to fine grained recessive units, suggesting that increased abundance of Mg- and/or iron-rich cements may provide additional strength. The MgO and FeO variations with texture are independent of stratigraphic locations (e.g resistant material at both the bottom and top of the outcrop both are enhanced in MgO and FeO). The presence of the GC MgO and FeO rich veins provides additional evidence for fluids rich in these elements were present in the outcrop. Other

  6. ChemBank: a small-molecule screening and cheminformatics resource database

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Kathleen Petri; George, Gregory A.; Happ, Mary Pat; Bodycombe, Nicole E.; Carrinski, Hyman A.; Norton, Stephanie; Brudz, Steve; Sullivan, John P.; Muhlich, Jeremy; Serrano, Martin; Ferraiolo, Paul; Tolliday, Nicola J.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Clemons, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    ChemBank (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) is a public, web-based informatics environment developed through a collaboration between the Chemical Biology Program and Platform at the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. This knowledge environment includes freely available data derived from small molecules and small-molecule screens and resources for studying these data. ChemBank is unique among small-molecule databases in its dedication to the storage of raw screening data, its rigorous definition of screening experiments in terms of statistical hypothesis testing, and its metadata-based organization of screening experiments into projects involving collections of related assays. ChemBank stores an increasingly varied set of measurements derived from cells and other biological assay systems treated with small molecules. Analysis tools are available and are continuously being developed that allow the relationships between small molecules, cell measurements, and cell states to be studied. Currently, ChemBank stores information on hundreds of thousands of small molecules and hundreds of biomedically relevant assays that have been performed at the Broad Institute by collaborators from the worldwide research community. The goal of ChemBank is to provide life scientists unfettered access to biomedically relevant data and tools heretofore available primarily in the private sector. PMID:17947324

  7. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, H. E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J. J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M. J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-09-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  8. Interactions between volatile organic compounds and reactive halogen in the tropical marine atmosphere using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badia, Alba; Reeves, Claire E.; Baker, Alex; Volkamer, Rainer; von Glasow, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species (chlorine, bromine and iodine) are known to play an important role in the chemistry and oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, particularly in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Reactive halogens cause ozone (O3) destruction, change the HOx and NOX partitioning, affect the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury, reduce the lifetime of methane, and take part in new particle formation. Numerical models predicted that reactive halogen compounds account for 30% of O3 destruction in the MBL and 5-20% globally. There are indications that the chemistry of reactive halogens and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) in the tropics are inter-related. Moreover, the presence of aldehydes, such as glyoxal (CHOCHO), has a potential impact on radical cycling and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the MBL and free troposphere (FT). Model calculations suggest aldehydes to be an important sink for bromine atoms and hence competition for their reaction with O3 forming BrO and so illustrating a link between the cycles of halogens and OVOCs in the marine atmosphere. The main objective of this contribution is to investigate the atmospheric chemistry in the tropical East Pacific with a focus on reactive halogens and OVOCs and their links using the latest version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and field data from the TORERO campaign. WRF-Chem is a highly flexible community model for atmospheric research where aerosol-radiation-cloud feedback processes are taken into account. Our current reaction mechanism in WRF-Chem is based on the MOZART mechanism and has been extended to include bromine, chlorine and iodine chemistry. The MOZART mechanism includes detailed gas-phase chemistry of CHOCHO formation as well as state-of-the-science pathways to form SOA. Oceanic emissions of aldehydes, including CHOCHO, and of organic halogens based on measurements from the TORERO campaign have been added into the model. Sea

  9. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols over East China inferred by merged visibility-GEOS-Chem aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Long-term visibility measurements offer useful information for aerosol and climate change studies. Recently, a new technique to converting visibility measurements to aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been developed on a station-to-station basis (Lin et al., 2014). However, factors such as human observation differences and local meteorological conditions often impair the spatial consistency of the visibility converted AOD dataset. Here we further adopt AOD spatial information from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, and merge visibility inferred and modeled early-afternoon AOD over East China on a 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat. grid for 2005-2012. Comparisons with MODIS/Aqua retrieved AOD and subsequent spectral decomposition analyses show that the merged dataset successfully corrects the low bias in the model while preserving its spatial pattern, resulting in very good agreement with MODIS in both magnitude and spatio-temporal variability. The low bias is reduced from 0.10 in GEOS-Chem AOD to 0.04 in the merged data averaged over East China, and the correlation in the seasonal and interannual variability between MODIS and merged AOD is well above 0.75 for most regions. Comparisons between the merged and AERONET data also show an overall small bias and high correlation. The merged dataset reveals four major pollution hot spots in China, including the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with previous works. AOD peaks in spring-summer over the North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta and in spring over the Pearl River Delta, with no distinct seasonal cycle over the Sichuan Basin. The merged AOD has the largest difference from MODIS over the Sichuan Basin. We also discuss possible benefits of visibility based AOD data that correct the sampling bias in MODIS retrievals related to cloud-free sampling and misclassified heavy haze conditions.

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols over East China inferred by merged visibility-GEOS-Chem aerosol optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Long-term visibility measurements offer useful information for aerosol and climate change studies. Recently, a new technique to converting visibility measurements to aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been developed on a station-to-station basis (Lin et al., 2014). However, factors such as human observation differences and local meteorological conditions often impair the spatial consistency of the visibility converted AOD dataset. Here we further adopt AOD spatial information from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, and merge visibility inferred and modeled early-afternoon AOD over East China on a 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat. grid for 2005-2012. Comparisons with MODIS/Aqua retrieved AOD and subsequent spectral decomposition analyses show that the merged dataset successfully corrects the low bias in the model while preserving its spatial pattern, resulting in very good agreement with MODIS in both magnitude and spatio-temporal variability. The low bias is reduced from 0.10 in GEOS-Chem AOD to 0.04 in the merged data averaged over East China, and the correlation in the seasonal and interannual variability between MODIS and merged AOD is well above 0.75 for most regions. Comparisons between the merged and AERONET data also show an overall small bias and high correlation. The merged dataset reveals four major pollution hot spots in China, including the North China Plain, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Sichuan Basin, consistent with previous works. AOD peaks in spring-summer over the North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta and in spring over the Pearl River Delta, with no distinct seasonal cycle over the Sichuan Basin. The merged AOD has the largest difference from MODIS over the Sichuan Basin. We also discuss possible benefits of visibility based AOD data that correct the sampling bias in MODIS retrievals related to cloud-free sampling and misclassified heavy haze conditions.

  12. Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S. M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T. H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J. G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M. B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M. A.; Moores, J. E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Mauchien, Patrick; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Schieber, Juergen; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Cros, Alain; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Toplis, Mike; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Nolan, Thomas; Radziemski, Leon; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Lewis, Kevin; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  13. MTCI/ThermoChem steam reforming process for solid fuels for combined cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, M.N.; Voelker, G.; Dural-Swamy, K.

    1995-12-31

    Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc. (MTCI) has developed a novel technology to convert solid fuels including biomass, coal, municipal solid waste (MSW) and wastewater sludges into usable syngas by steam reforming in an indirectly heated, fluid-bed reactor. MTCI has licensed and patented the technology to ThermoChem, Inc. Both MTCI and ThermoChem have built two modular commercial-scale demonstration units: one for recycle paper mill rejects (similar to refuse-derived fuel [RDF]), and another for chemical recovery of black liquor. ThermoChem has entered into an agreement with Ajinkyatara Cooperative Sugar Factory, India, for building a 10 MW combined cycle power generation facility based on bagasse and agro-residue gasification.

  14. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schroder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.L.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, Ryan Bradley; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Leveille; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M. R.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  15. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars.

    PubMed

    Meslin, P-Y; Gasnault, O; Forni, O; Schröder, S; Cousin, A; Berger, G; Clegg, S M; Lasue, J; Maurice, S; Sautter, V; Le Mouélic, S; Wiens, R C; Fabre, C; Goetz, W; Bish, D; Mangold, N; Ehlmann, B; Lanza, N; Harri, A-M; Anderson, R; Rampe, E; McConnochie, T H; Pinet, P; Blaney, D; Léveillé, R; Archer, D; Barraclough, B; Bender, S; Blake, D; Blank, J G; Bridges, N; Clark, B C; DeFlores, L; Delapp, D; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Fisk, M; Gondet, B; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Johnson, J; Lacour, J-L; Langevin, Y; Leshin, L; Lewin, E; Madsen, M B; Melikechi, N; Mezzacappa, A; Mischna, M A; Moores, J E; Newsom, H; Ollila, A; Perez, R; Renno, N; Sirven, J-B; Tokar, R; de la Torre, M; d'Uston, L; Vaniman, D; Yingst, A

    2013-09-27

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration. PMID:24072924

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  17. ChemCam on MSL 2009: first laser induced breakdown spectrometer for space science

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    ChemCam is one of the 10 instrument suites on the Mars Science Laboratory, a martian rover being built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for the next NASA mission to Mars (MSL 2009). ChemCam is an instrument package consisting of two remote sensing instruments: a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). LIBS provides elemental compositions of rocks and soils, while the RMI places the LIBS analyses in their geomorphologic context. Both instruments rely on an autofocus capability to precisely focus on the chosen target, located at distances from the rover comprised between 1 and 9 m for LIBS, and 2 m and infinity for RMI. ChemCam will help determine which samples, within the vicinity of the MSL rover, are of sufficient interest to use the contact and in-situ instruments for further characterization. It will provide valuable analyses of samples that are inaccessible to contact and in-situ instruments, and of a much larger number of samples than can be done with this kind of instrument. ChemCam also has a capability to provide passive spectroscopy data of rocks and soils on Mars. ChemCam hardware consists of a Mast Unit (MU), provided by France, and a Body Unit (BU) built and tested in the USA. The Flight Model of the MU is assembled, tested and now available in the USA, while the BU is currently being assembled and tested. Both will be connected by the end of year '08 for end-to-end functional and performance tests, before delivery to JPL and assembly on the MSL rover. Launch is scheduled for October 09. After describing the concept of ChemCam, this presentation focuses on its French part, Mast Unit. The results presented show that Mast Unit is able to generate a plasma and collect its light, over the full applicable ranges of distances and temperatures on Mars.

  18. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  19. Calcium Sulfate Characterized by ChemCam/Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachon, M.; Clegg, S. N.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Ollila, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Oehler, D. Z.; Bridges, J. C.; LeMouelic, S.; Forni, O.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Anderson, R. B.; Blaney, D. L.; Bell, J. F. , III; Clark, B.; Cousin, A.; Dyar, M. D.; Ehlmann, B.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Lasue, J.; Lewin, E.; Leveille, R.; McLennan, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Rice, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Wellington, D.

    2014-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of :(1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of the targets [1;2] and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), for the imaging context of laser analysis [3]. Within the Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing through the Rocknest region and into Yellowknife Bay (YB). In the latter, abundant light-toned fracture-fill material were seen [4;5]. ChemCam analysis demonstrate that those fracture fills consist of calcium sulfates [6].

  20. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Clegg, Samuel M; Ollila, Ann M; Barefield, James E; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  1. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  2. EarthChem: International Collaboration for Solid Earth Geochemistry in Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Lehnert, K. A.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    The current on-line information systems for igneous rock geochemistry - PetDB, GEOROC, and NAVDAT - convincingly demonstrate the value of rigorous scientific data management of geochemical data for research and education. The next generation of hypothesis formulation and testing can be vastly facilitated by enhancing these electronic resources through integration of available datasets, expansion of data coverage in location, time, and tectonic setting, timely updates with new data, and through intuitive and efficient access and data analysis tools for the broader geosciences community. PetDB, GEOROC, and NAVDAT have therefore formed the EarthChem consortium (www.earthchem.org) as a international collaborative effort to address these needs and serve the larger earth science community by facilitating the compilation, communication, serving, and visualization of geochemical data, and their integration with other geological, geochronological, geophysical, and geodetic information to maximize their scientific application. We report on the status of and future plans for EarthChem activities. EarthChem's development plan includes: (1) expanding the functionality of the web portal to become a `one-stop shop for geochemical data' with search capability across databases, standardized and integrated data output, generally applicable tools for data quality assessment, and data analysis/visualization including plotting methods and an information-rich map interface; and (2) expanding data holdings by generating new datasets as identified and prioritized through community outreach, and facilitating data contributions from the community by offering web-based data submission capability and technical assistance for design, implementation, and population of new databases and their integration with all EarthChem data holdings. Such federated databases and datasets will retain their identity within the EarthChem system. We also plan on working with publishers to ease the assimilation

  3. Calibrating the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Humphries, Seth D.; Newsom, Horton E.; Barefield, James E.

    2010-05-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite onboard the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover includes the first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment to better understand the LIBS signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between different types of carbonate materials on Mars.

  4. Current management of anal fistulas in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Piotr; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Matysiak, Konrad; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Anal fistulas occurring in Crohn's disease (CD) comprise a risk factor of severe course of inflammation. They are frequently intractable due to various factors such as penetration of the anal canal or rectal wall, impaired wound healing, and immunosuppression, among others. Anal fistulas typical to CD develop from fissures or ulcers of the anal canal or rectum. Accurate identification of the type of fistula, such as low and simple or high and complex, is crucial for prognosis as well as for the choice of treatment. If fistulotomy remains the gold standard in the surgical treatment of the former, it is contraindicated in high and complex fistulas due to possible risk of damage to the anal sphincter with subsequent faecal incontinence. Therefore, the latter require a conservative and palliative approach, such as an incision and drainage of abscesses accompanying fistulas or prolonged non-cutting seton placement. Currently, conservative, sphincter-preserving, and definitive procedures such as mucosal advancement or dermal island flaps, the use of plugs or glue, video assisted anal fistula treatment, ligation of the intersphincteric track, and vacuum assisted closure are gaining a great deal of interest. Attempting to close the internal opening without injuring the sphincter is a major advantage of those methods. However, both the palliative and the definitive procedures require adjuvant therapy with medical measures. PMID:26557938

  5. Comment on ``Unified explanation of the anomalous dynamic properties of highly asymmetric polymer blends'' [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054903 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenero, J.

    2013-05-01

    In a recent paper by Ngai and Capaccioli ["Unified explanation of the anomalous dynamic properties of highly asymmetric polymer blends," J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054903 (2013), 10.1063/1.4789585] the authors claimed that the so-called coupling model (CM) provides a unified explanation of all dynamical anomalies that have been reported for dynamically asymmetric blends over last ten years. Approximately half of the paper is devoted to chain-dynamic properties involving un-entangled polymers. According to the authors, the application of the CM to these results is based on the existence of a crossover at a time tc ≈ 1-2 ns of the magnitudes describing chain-dynamics. Ngai and Capaccioli claimed that the existence of such a crossover is supported by the neutron scattering and MD-simulation results, corresponding to the blend poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide), by Niedzwiedz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 168301 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.168301] and Brodeck et al. [Macromolecules 43, 3036 (2010), 10.1021/ma902820a], respectively. Being one of the authors of these two papers, I will demonstrate here that there is no evidence supporting such a crossover in the data reported in these papers.

  6. A Rare Case of Granular Cell Tumor of the Anal Region: Diagnostic Difficulty to Masses in the Anal Area

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumor may be located anywhere in the body; however, the gastrointestinal tract is infrequently involved and anal granular cell tumors are extremely rare. We report herein a rare case of granular cell tumor in the anal region. In the current case, a 66-year-old Japanese woman was found to have a polypoid lesion in the anus with hemorrhoids. The mass detected as an anal polypoid lesion with ulceration was resected and diagnosed as granular cell tumor by histologic examination. Granular cell tumor of the anal region is rare, and benign perianal polypoid lesions are relatively uncommon clinical findings. They might present diagnostic challenges to surgeons and pathologists. Awareness of the differential diagnosis of granular cell tumor and careful microscopic examination might allow proper management and diagnosis. PMID:24444268

  7. A rare case of granular cell tumor of the anal region: diagnostic difficulty to masses in the anal area.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumor may be located anywhere in the body; however, the gastrointestinal tract is infrequently involved and anal granular cell tumors are extremely rare. We report herein a rare case of granular cell tumor in the anal region. In the current case, a 66-year-old Japanese woman was found to have a polypoid lesion in the anus with hemorrhoids. The mass detected as an anal polypoid lesion with ulceration was resected and diagnosed as granular cell tumor by histologic examination. Granular cell tumor of the anal region is rare, and benign perianal polypoid lesions are relatively uncommon clinical findings. They might present diagnostic challenges to surgeons and pathologists. Awareness of the differential diagnosis of granular cell tumor and careful microscopic examination might allow proper management and diagnosis. PMID:24444268

  8. High prevalence of high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women screened for anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, June Y; Smotkin, David; Grossberg, Robert; Suhrland, Mark; Levine, Rebecca; Smith, Harriet O; Negassa, Abdissa; McAndrew, Thomas C; Einstein, Mark H

    2012-06-01

    There is no consensus on optimal screening for anal cancer (AC) in HIV+ women. Seven hundred fifteen unique asymptomatic women in a high-prevalence HIV+ community were screened for AC with anal cytology and triage to high-resolution anoscopy after routine screening was implemented in a large urban hospital system. Of these, 75 (10.5%) had an abnormal anal cytology and 29 (38.7%) of those with an abnormality had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Women with poorly controlled HIV were significantly more likely to have high-grade AIN (P = 0.03). Given the high rate of AIN in screened HIV-infected women, routine AC screening in all HIV-infected women should be strongly considered. PMID:22466085

  9. Compositions of Sub-Millimeter-Size Clasts seen by ChemCam in Martian Soils at Gale : A Window Into the Production processes of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, A.; Meslin, P.; Forni, O.; Rapin, W.; Tokar, R. L.; Fabre, C.; Wiens, R. C.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.; Clegg, S. M.; Le Mouélic, S.; Dromart, G.; Mangold, N.; Berger, G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Curiosity landed the August 6, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars. With its 80 kg payload, this rover possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument allows shallow (mm to cm) soil depth profile analysis, thanks to shot-to-shot spectra acquisition (usually 30 laser shots are performed, but many more can be done). This instrument gives for the first time a good opportunity to carry out large numbers of analyses on soil chemistry and its homogeneity at fine spatial scales (from 360 to 550 μm [Maurice et al, 2012]). This study is focused on the geochemical diversity observed between different soil separates, in particular between fine sand and coarse sand particles, whose mobility and geographical origin are likely to be different. Previous missions have shown that the soils have a uniform composition planet-wide [Yen et al., 2005]. Analyses performed by the APXS and by ChemCam in an aeolian sand shadow and in its vicinity extend this result to the fine-grained soils encountered in Gale Crater [Blake et al., 2013; Meslin et al., 2013]. However, ChemCam has sampled more than 170 soils during the first 250 sols, and has revealed the presence of three kinds of soils in Gale: i) mm-sized grains of felsic composition, usually encountered in the hummocky unit, ii) mafic, fine-grained soils found at Rocknest and throughout the rover traverse, and iii) soils with an intermediate composition, possibly as a result of mechanical mixing between the two former categories, or possibly chemically distinct [Meslin et al, 2013]. To follow up with this analysis, the composition of coarse sand grains was investigated using the spectra acquired shot by shot. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) [Forni et al., 2013] shows that there are two principal groups of clasts. Spectral analysis confirms that a first group is enriched in Na, Si, Ca and Al, whereas the

  10. MicroChemLab, A Novel Approach for Handheld Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Patrick

    2003-03-01

    In 1996, Sandia National Laboratories began development of a chemical sensing platform based on microfabricated components. The goal of the project was to develop a handheld system for the detection of chemical warfare (CW) agent vapors in air. The components developed for this project are analogous to devices used in analytical laboratories. The benefit of microfabrication is that the resulting components are small and require little power to operate. The key elements of MicroChemLab are a sample collector - preconcentrator, a GC column and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) array detector. The preconcentrator is a thermally isolated silicon nitride membrane with a resistive heater patterned on one side and a sorptive sol gel film deposited on the other. Since the membrane has a very small mass, the resistive heater can ballistically elevate the temperature of the sorptive film to 200° C in approximately 10 ms. The sol gel film collects target compounds efficiently, but rejects volatile industrial solvents like alcohols, ketones, etc. The GC column is a one-meter high aspect ratio spiral channel etched in silicon with an anodically bonded pyrex lid completing the channel. A heater patterned on the silicon allows the column to be temperature ramped. Analytes injected from the preconcentrator are separated in this stage. The SAW array detector contains 3 delay lines used for sensing and 1 reference delay line. Each delay line is driven by an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) at 500 MHz. Instead of counting frequency, additional ASICs incorporate a phase comparator that delivers a DC signal proportional to the amount of phase change. The three sensing elements of the detector provide a pattern that is indicative of the class of compound detected i.e. nerve agents or blister agents. Combined, these components provide a selective and sensitive handheld solution for the detection of chemical warfare agents. We will present lab data showing the performance of

  11. Igneous composition vaiations determined by ChemCam along Curiosity's traverse from Bradbury to Rocknest area at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater (-4.59, 137,44°) the rover Curiosity, has driven during the first 90 sols, 420 meter east descending ∼ 20m from the Bradbury Landing site towards Glenelg. From sols 13 on, the ChemCam instrument suite performed compositional and imaging analyses of rocks and soils along the route. Each Chem- Cam LIBS observations covers a spot between 350 and 550 μm dia thus individual observations generally do not represent the whole rock composition but rather represent individual grains or a mixture thereof. Most of observations consist of a linear 5-point raster or a 3 x 3 grid. All major elements were regularly reported together with minor and trace elements. During the traverse, two distinct zones have been characterized: Zone I, from sol 0 to sol 47 (i.e. 280 meter traverse), belongs to the Humocky terrains supposed to be a part of the alluvial fan below Peace Vallis, which descends from the crater rim to the Northwest. It is defined by abundant gravels and igneous float rocks and isolated conglomerate outcrops. Rock textures indicate a high ratio of intrusive over extrusive: plutonic rocks vary from homogenous grain size either coarse (1-3mm grains Mara) or fine grained (less than 300 m Coronation) to variable grain size within a given rock (Jake-M). Some contain abundant laths of whitish minerals. ChemCam analyses are Si-rich (up to 60% wt.% or more) together with high Al (more than 15%) and high alkali (Na > K) in a range expected for alkali feldspar compositions. The lowest Si content correlates with low Al and high Fe consistent with ferromagnesian composition. The highest Si content (Stark a white vesicular rock) could indicate the presence of quartz. Clasts analyzed in one conglomerate (Link) had a range of compositions dominated by feldspathic material consistent with loose pebbles in the area and igneous porphyroblast. Beyond Anton soil (sol48), Curiosity entered zone II, transitional to a more distal unit with respect to the fan

  12. Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury.

    PubMed

    Terrosu, G; Rossetto, A; Kocjancic, E; Rossitti, P; Bresadola, V

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations. An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The mobilization of the patient revealed a deep gap, about 8 × 8 cm, in the perineum, with the anus and rectum displaced from their original site. Anal reimplantation was performed, suturing the median raphe, inserting two pelvic drainage tubes, and fashioning a loop transverse colostomy. Closed rectal traumas account for only 4-11% of all rectal traumas. Crushing of the pelvis causes a sudden reduction in its anteroposterior diameter and a corresponding increase in its latero-lateral diameter, together with an abrupt rise in intra-abdominal pressure. The anus is pushed out of the perineal plane due to the divarication of the levator muscles. As suggested in the literature, the standard treatment is wound debridement with immediate or deferred repair, fashioning a diversion colostomy, and repair of the rectum, wherever possible. PMID:21556880

  13. ChemSource SourceBook, Version 2.0: Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    ChemSource is designed as a strategy to help preservice and inservice high school chemistry teachers promote student learning more effectively. Its major premise is that well-designed laboratory investigations are an important avenue for cultivating student interest, engagement, and meaningful learning in chemistry. The SourceBook component of…

  14. a Spectroscopy Based P-Chem Lab, Including a Detailed Text and Lab Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenter, John

    2015-06-01

    Rochester's second semester physical chemistry lab course is based on spectroscopy experiments and follows a full semester of quantum mechanics lectures. The laboratory course is fully separate from the traditional physical chemistry course and has its own lectures. The lab course is constructed to achieve three major goals: provide a detailed knowledge of the instrumentation that acquires data, establish a good understanding of how that data is analyzed, and give students a familiarity with spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical models. Instrumentation is emphasized by using common components to construct different experiments. Microwave, modulation and detection components are used for both OCS pure rotation and ESR experiments. Optical components, a monochromator, and PMT detectors are used in a HeNe laser induced fluorescence experiment on I2 {(J. Chem. Ed. 73, 576 (1996)) and a photoluminescence experiment on pyrene {(J. Chem. Ed. 73, 580 (1996)). OCS is studied in both the microwave and infrared regions, and the C=S stretching vibration is identified through microwave intensity measurements. Lecture notes and laboratory instructions are combined in an exhaustive text of more than 400 pages, containing 325 figures, 285 equations and numerous MathCad data analysis programs. This text can be downloaded as a 10 Mbyte pdf file at chem.rochester.edu/˜muenter/CHEM232Manual.

  15. ChemSource SourceBook, Version 2.0: Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    ChemSource is designed as a strategy to help preservice and inservice high school chemistry teachers promote student learning more effectively. Its major premise is that well-designed laboratory investigations are an important avenue for cultivating student interest, engagement, and meaningful learning in chemistry. The SourceBook component of…

  16. Chemistry Provision for Primary Pupils: The Experiences of 10 Years of Bristol ChemLabs Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2016-01-01

    Bristol ChemLabS, the UK's Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in practical chemistry, delivers numerous outreach activity days per year for thousands of primary school pupils annually. These mainly comprise demonstration assemblies and hands on workshops for pupils in the main. The activities support the UK's Key Stage 2 science…

  17. Introduction to the Spring 2014 ConfChem on the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Chris; Muzyka, Jennifer; Belford, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Students' active engagement is one of the most critical challenges to any successful learning environment. The blending of active engagement along with rich, meaningful content is necessary for chemical educators to re-examine the purpose of the chemistry classroom. The Spring 2014 ConfChem conference, Flipped Classroom, was held from May 9 to…

  18. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Bodily, Greg; Allen, Rob

    2004-01-01

    Virtual ChemLab project is an instructional laboratory involved in providing a practical experience by connecting the theory and laboratory practicals, teaching laboratory techniques and teaching the cognitive processes. This lab provides the students with the freedom to explore, repeat the procedures again, focuses on the underlying principles of…

  19. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Using a Blog to Flip a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, January D.

    2015-01-01

    This communication summarizes one of the invited papers to the Flipped Classroom ACS Division of Chemical Education Committee on Computers in Chemical Education online ConfChem held from May 18 to June 24, 2014. Just in Time Teaching is a technique in which students read the material before class and respond to a few questions. In a first-year…

  20. Industrial capability to chem-mill aluminum alloy 2219 in T-37 and T-87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milewski, C., Jr.; Chen, K. C. S.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and chemical baths were developed for chem-milling aluminum alloy 2219. Using a series of sample etchings, it was found that good etching results could be obtained by using 'white plastic for porcelain repair (toluol, xylol, and petroleum distillates)' on top of cellosolve acetate as resist coatings and ferric chloride as on etchant.

  1. The ChemViz Project: Using a Supercomputer To Illustrate Abstract Concepts in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, E. Kenneth; Nelson, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Chemistry Visualization (ChemViz) Project, a Web venture maintained by the University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) that enables high school students to use computational chemistry as a technique for understanding abstract concepts. Discusses the evolution of computational chemistry and provides a…

  2. ChemSource SourceBook, Version 2.0: Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    ChemSource is designed as a strategy to help preservice and inservice high school chemistry teachers promote student learning more effectively. Its major premise is that well-designed laboratory investigations are an important avenue for cultivating student interest, engagement, and meaningful learning in chemistry. The SourceBook component of…

  3. ChemSource SourceBook, Version 2.0: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    ChemSource is designed as a strategy to help preservice and inservice high school chemistry teachers promote student learning more effectively. Its major premise is that well-designed laboratory investigations are an important avenue for cultivating student interest, engagement, and meaningful learning in chemistry. The SourceBook component of…

  4. WebChem Viewer: a tool for the easy dissemination of chemical and structural data sets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sharing sets of chemical data (e.g., chemical properties, docking scores, etc.) among collaborators with diverse skill sets is a common task in computer-aided drug design and medicinal chemistry. The ability to associate this data with images of the relevant molecular structures greatly facilitates scientific communication. There is a need for a simple, free, open-source program that can automatically export aggregated reports of entire chemical data sets to files viewable on any computer, regardless of the operating system and without requiring the installation of additional software. Results We here present a program called WebChem Viewer that automatically generates these types of highly portable reports. Furthermore, in designing WebChem Viewer we have also created a useful online web application for remotely generating molecular structures from SMILES strings. We encourage the direct use of this online application as well as its incorporation into other software packages. Conclusions With these features, WebChem Viewer enables interdisciplinary collaborations that require the sharing and visualization of small molecule structures and associated sets of heterogeneous chemical data. The program is released under the FreeBSD license and can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/WebChemViewer. The associated web application (called “Smiley2png 1.0”) can be accessed through freely available web services provided by the National Biomedical Computation Resource at http://nbcr.ucsd.edu. PMID:24886360

  5. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  6. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  7. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  8. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2010-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and the local atmospheric stability. This study compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3-5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE). Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors. Results show that the FLAMBE pre-processor produces more realistic injection heights than does prep_chem_sources. The plume rise model using FLAMBE provides the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3-5 km AGL layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights. Results indicate that differences in injection heights produce different transport pathways. These

  9. Transport Simulations of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols from Boreal Wildfires during ARCTAS using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Winker, D. M.; Chu, A. D.; Kahn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) was developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research as the next generation of mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA’s Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) during 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. We identified fires using the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and thermal hotspot detections from MODIS sensors onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The fires on both continents produced plumes large enough to affect the atmospheric chemical composition of downwind population centers as well as the Arctic. Atmospheric steering currents vary greatly with altitude, making plume injection height one of the most important aspects of accurately modeling the transport of burning emissions. WRF-Chem integrates a one-dimensional plume model at grid cells containing fires to explicitly resolve the upper and lower limits of injection height. The early July fires provide multiple cases to satellite remotely sense the horizontal and vertical evolution of carbon monoxide (AIRS/MISR) and aerosols (CALIPSO) downwind of the fires. Lidar and in situ measurements from the NASA DC-8 and B-200 aircraft permit further validation of results from WRF-Chem. Using these various data sources, this paper will evaluate the ability of WRF-Chem to properly model the biomass injection heights and the downwind transport of fire plumes. Model-derived plume characteristics also will be compared with those observed by the satellites and in situ data. Finally, forecast sensitivities to varying WRF-Chem grid resolutions and plume rise mechanics will be presented.

  10. Treating anal fistula with the anal fistula plug: case series report of 12 patients

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Reza Bagherzadeh; Tizmaghz, Adnan; Ajeka, Somar; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent and complex high fistulas remain a surgical challenge. This paper reports our experience with the anal fistula plug in patients with complex fistulas. Methods Data were collected prospectively and analyzed from consecutive patients undergoing insertion of a fistula plug from January 2011 through April 2014 at Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. We ensured that sepsis had been eradicated in all patients prior to placement of the plug. During surgery, a conical shaped collagen plug was pulled through the fistula tract. Results Twelve patients were included in this case study. All patients had previously undergone failed surgical therapy to cure their fistula and had previously-placed Setons. There were eight males and four females with an average age of 44 who were treated for complex fistulas. At a median time of follow-up of 22.7 months, 10 of the 12 patients had healed (83.3%). One patient developed an abscess that was noted on the sixth postoperative day, and there was one recurrence during follow-up. Conclusions Fistula plugs are effective for the long-term closure of complex anal fistulas. Success of treatment with the fistula plug depends on the eradication of sepsis prior to plug placement. PMID:27280009

  11. WRF/Chem-MADRID: Incorporation of an Improved Aerosol Module into WRF/Chem and Its Initial Application to the TexAQS2000 Episode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Ying; Wang, K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Grell, G. A.

    2010-09-17

    The Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (MADRID) with three improved gas/particle mass transfer approaches (i.e., bulk equilibrium (EQUI), hybrid (HYBR), and kinetic (KINE)) has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecast/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID) and evaluated with a 5-day episode from the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS2000). WRF/Chem-MADRID demonstrates an overall good skill in simulating surface/aloft meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations, tropospheric O3 residuals, and aerosol optical depths. The discrepancies can be attributed to inaccuracies in meteorological predictions (e.g., overprediction in mid-day boundary layer height), inaccurate total emissions or their hourly variations (e.g., HCHO, olefins, other inorganic aerosols), and uncertainties in initial and boundary conditions for some species (e.g., other inorganic aerosols and O3) at surface and aloft. Major differences in the results among the three gas/particle mass transfer approaches occur over coastal areas, where EQUI predicts higher PM2.5 than HYBR and KINE due to improperly redistributing condensed nitrate from chloride depletion process to fine PM mode. The net direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects of PM2.5 decreased domain wide shortwave radiation by 11.2-14.4 W m-2 (or 4.1-5.6%), decreased near-surface temperature by 0.06-0.14 °C (or 0.2-0.4%), led to 125 to 796 cm-3 cloud condensation nuclei at a supersaturation of 0.1%, produced cloud droplet numbers as high as 2064 cm-3, and reduced domain wide mean precipitation by 0.22-0.59 mm day-1.

  12. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; Yasuda, Koji; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for tumor cells. Six years later, an elevated lesion, macroscopically five millimeters in size, was detected in the left wall of the anal canal in a follow-up colonoscopy. Local excision of the tumor was performed, and the lesion was pathologically confirmed to be tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia limited to the mucosa. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence for six months after surgery. Although she had a past history of cervical cancer, the multiple tumors arising in the anal canal were unlikely to be related to human papilloma virus infection. Our case report underscores the importance of careful observations throughout colonoscopy to detect precancerous lesions, particularly in anatomically narrow segments. PMID:26249723

  13. Nicorandil associated anal ulcers: an estimate of incidence

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, HS; Barakat, T; Moussa, O; Babu, H; Slaughter, T; Palmer, JG; Hinson, FL

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Nicorandil is a commonly prescribed antianginal medication that has been found to be associated with painful anal ulceration. The incidence of this complication is unknown. We have used the best data available to us to make an estimate of this figure in a health district with a remarkably stable population of approximately 200,000 people. METHODS Using an electronic search of all letters generated from colorectal and gastroenterology clinics as well as endoscopy reports from January 2004 to November 2010, patients with anal ulceration who were taking nicorandil were identified. Other causes of ulceration were excluded by biopsy in the majority of cases. The central hospital and community pharmacy database was interrogated to estimate the number of patients who were prescribed nicorandil over a six-year period (2004-2010). RESULTS A total of 30 patients (24 men, 6 women) with a median age of 79.5 years were identified who fulfilled the criteria of: taking nicorandil; having no other identified cause for anal ulceration; and achieving eventual healing after withdrawal of nicorandil. In the six-year period an estimated mean of 1,379 patients were prescribed nicorandil each year. The mean annual incidence of anal ulcers among nicorandil users is therefore calculated to be in the region of 0.37%. CONCLUSIONS Anal ulceration appears to occur in approximately four in every thousand patients prescribed nicorandil each year. Prescribing physicians should explain the risk of this unpleasant complication to their patients. PMID:22507720

  14. HIV infection connected to rising anal cancer rates in men in the U.S.

    Cancer.gov

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population

  15. Calcium Sulfate Vein Observations at Yellowknife Bay using ChemCam on the Curiosity Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Mangold, N.; Nachon, M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Ollila, A.; Vaniman, D. T.; Kah, L. C.; Dromart, G.; Bridges, J.; Rice, M. S.; Wellington, D. F.; Bell, J. F.; Anderson, R. B.; Clark, B. C.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.; Dyar, M. D.; Blaney, D. L.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover completed its traverse from the Bradbury landing site into Yellowknife Bay (YKB) on sol 125, where it spent ~175 sols. The YKB region is characterized as a fluvio-lacustrine depositional environment. The entire Curiosity payload was used to thoroughly investigate parts of YKB from which significant geochemical observations were made, including the identification of anhydrite and hydrated calcium sulfate. The Curiosity ChemCam package consists of a remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). LIBS is essentially an elemental analysis micro-probe capable of 300 - 550 μm spatial resolution from 1.5 - 7.0 m standoff distance from the Curiosity mast. The RMI records context images that have a resolution of 40 μrad, which corresponds to 120 μm at 3 meters. The ChemCam instrument recorded many calcium rich geochemical features as it descended ~18 m into YKB. Many light-toned veins became apparent with the ChemCam RMI and Mastcam once Curiosity entered YKB. The ChemCam LIBS instrument is uniquely capable of distinctly probing the elemental composition of these vein structures separately from the host rock. LIBS demonstrated that the white vein material was dominated by CaSO4, while the host rock had relatively low SO3 compositions. The ChemCam instrument can also qualitatively detect H, presumably due to H2O, in many samples. While some of these veins contained no H signature beyond the ubiquitous small amount of H on rock surfaces and in soils, some of the veins contained various amounts of H as a function of depth indicating that some of the samples were either bassanite or gypsum. Mastcam spectral hydration surveys detect evidence of hydration that is consistent with (but not a unique indicator of) the presence of gypsum in some, but not all, of the veins. The CheMin X-ray diffraction instrument identified both anhydrite and bassanite in the matrix of a mudstone unit but did not detect

  16. Anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh for rectal prolapse and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sainio, A P; Halme, L E; Husa, A I

    1991-10-01

    Seventeen selected patients (mean age, 74 years)--14 with rectal prolapse and 3 with persisting anal incontinence after previous operations--underwent high anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh. There was no operative mortality. Prolapse recurred in 2 (15 percent) of the 13 patients followed up for 6 months or more (mean, 3.5 years). Three (27 percent) of the 11 patients with associated anal incontinence improved functionally, as did the three operated on for persisting incontinence, but only one patient regained normal continence. No breakage, cutting out, or infection related to the mesh was observed. Because of the risk of fecal impaction encountered in three of our patients, the procedure is not advocated for severely constipated patients. Despite the somewhat disappointing results regarding restoration of continence, we find this method useful in patients with rectal prolapse who are unfit for more extensive surgery, in controlling the prolapse to an acceptable degree. PMID:1914725

  17. Disseminated neonatal herpetic infection simulating abusive anal trauma.

    PubMed

    Panella, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Potential simulators of premortem trauma present problems of misinterpretation and possible false accusations of caregivers. A case of unsuspected neonatal herpes is reported with associated perianal ecchymosis that raises the possibility of sexual abuse. The decedent was an 8-day-old newborn infant who was born by Cesarean section and treated for 5 days postdelivery for sepsis. The newborn infant was discharged home but returned 2 days later with probable sepsis and new onset of perianal hemorrhage. She died 1 day later with autopsy, revealing neonatal disseminated herpetic infection with early anal involvement consisting of microscopic ulcerations with leukocytoclastic-like vasculitis and rare viral cytopathic changes. These histological changes produced grossly appearing anal ecchymosis with an absence of typical herpetic vesiculopapular lesions, which simulated abusive trauma. This case highlights the importance of considering occult neonatal herpes with associated perianal ecchymosis when presented with possible abusive anal trauma in a newborn infant. PMID:21496019

  18. Anal Cancer debuting as Cancer of Unknown Primary

    PubMed Central

    Sveistrup, Joen; Loft, Annika; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2011-01-01

    Anal cancer usually presents with a visible or palpable tumour. In this case we describe a 54-year old man diagnosed with Cancer of Unknown Primary (CUP) with a single inguinal node as the only finding. Thorough examination failed to identify any primary tumour. The patient was treated with lymph node dissection and not until nearly two years after initial diagnosis, was the primary tumour found, and the patient was diagnosed with anal cancer. The patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy and 45 months after initial diagnosis there is still no sign of relapse. This case illustrates, that anal cancer can metastasise before the primary tumour is detectable. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up after treatment of CUP since the primary tumour was found later. Finally this is a case of a long-term survivor following treatment for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes from an initially unknown primary cancer. PMID:21769317

  19. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? PMID:24139082

  20. Anal Cancer Screening Behaviors and Intentions in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L.; Ostrow, David; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M.; Wiley, Dorothy; Silvestre, Tony

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals. There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM. Objectives To determine whether current anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern differ by HIV serostatus and to identify characteristics of men who intend to seek anal cancer screening. Design and Participants Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 901 HIV-infected and 1,016 HIV-uninfected MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) in 2005–2006. Measurements Self-reported anal cancer screening history, attitudes, and intentions. Results A history of anal warts was relatively common in these men (39%), whereas having a recent anal Pap test (5%), intention to seek anal cancer screening in the next 6 months (12%), and concern about anal cancer (8.5%) were less common. Intention to seek anal cancer screening was associated with enabling factors (screening availability, health insurance), need factors (HIV-infection, history of anal warts), concern about anal cancer, and recent sexual risk taking. Among four large US cities, there was significant regional variability in anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern (all p<0.001). Most MSM (76%) indicated they would go to their primary care physician for an anal health problem or question. Conclusions This study demonstrates a low rate of anal cancer screening and intention to screen among MSM. As more evidence emerges regarding screening, primary care physicians should be prepared to discuss anal cancer screening with their patients. PMID:18618198

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in metastatic anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jane E; Ohinata, Aki; Silva, Ninoska N; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Eng, Cathy

    2016-09-01

    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) anal cancer is relatively rare. With limited data, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil has traditionally been utilized in the first-line setting. Treatment beyond front-line cisplatin progression is not well defined. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly overexpressed in SCCA anal cancer and EGFR inhibition may represent a potential treatment target for this population in need. Our case series evaluated metastatic SCCA anal cancer patients who received an EGFR monoclonal antibody as second-line or third-line therapy. Data collected consisted of demographics, previous treatment, metastatic disease sites, localized therapy received, regimen received, first radiographic result, progression-free survival, and overall survival. A total of 17 patients were included, with most (76%) patients receiving an EGFR monoclonal antibody in the second-line setting. Common regimens identified combined cetuximab or panitumumab with a fluoropyrimidine plus platinum (35%), carboplatin plus paclitaxel (29%), or cisplatin plus vinorelbine (18%). Thirty-five percent of patients achieved a response and 24% had stable disease. The overall median progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.3 and 24.7 months, respectively. Compared with our large retrospective study in the front-line metastatic anal cancer setting, our study suggests that anti-EGFR therapy in combination with certain chemotherapy derived additional benefit in the refractory setting. In the metastatic setting, there is a need to discover effective therapies. We present a diverse metastatic SCCA anal cancer patient population who received cetuximab or panitumumab with chemotherapy in the second-line or third-line setting. Our case series strengthens the concept of EGFR inhibition in metastatic SCCA anal cancer. PMID:27272412

  2. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-12-15

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 147–53) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dose–volume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  3. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Gandra, Sumanth; Azar, Aline; Wessolossky, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Background Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+) among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women). Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013. Results Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48%) of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28%) of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34%) of women. Among 117 (53%) individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above), 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM). HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49) and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=−0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09). Conclusion Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM. PMID:25670914

  4. Steinert's syndrome presenting as anal incontinence: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Myotonic dystrophy (MD) or Steinert's syndrome is a rare cause of chronic diarrhea and anal incontinence. In the presence of chronic diarrhea and fecal incontinence with muscle weakness, neuromuscular disorders such as myotonic dystrophy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Case Presentation We present the case of a 45-year-old Turkish man with Steinert's syndrome, who was not diagnosed until the age of 45. Conclusions In clinical practice, the persistence of diarrhea and fecal incontinence with muscle weakness should suggest that the physician perform an anal manometric study and electromyography. Neuromuscular disorders such as myotonic dystrophy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:21838873

  5. Anal lesions presenting in a cohort of child gastroenterological examinations. Implications for sexual traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Houdu, Sora; Darviot, Estelle; Buchaillet, Céline; Baron, Céline

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the anal lesions found in children during a pediatric gastroenterology consultation when the reason for the complaint was related to a digestive disease. This prospective descriptive study included 100 children under 15 years of age over a 13-month period, consulting due to digestive symptoms. The children were under 8 years old (90%) and 25% were under 3.1 years old. Constipation was the most frequent reason for consultation (69%). Fifty-one anal lesions were observed, of which 58.8% were anal fissures, 15.7% were skin tags and 5.8% were venous congestions related to straining. Anal fissures and skin tags were located at the median line, according to the clock-face method in supine position. No child had more than two anal lesions. No anal dilatation, sphincter hypotonia, anal scars, anal lacerations or bruises were found. The two most common anal lesions were anal fissures and skin tags. These anal lesions were mainly observed at the median line and were due to constipation. No cases of multiple anal lesions were found in terms of common digestive diseases. PMID:25882145

  6. Diagenetic Features Analyzed by ChemCam/Curiosity at Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R. B.; Blank, J. G.; Calef, F.; Clegg, S.; Fabre, C.; Fisk, M.; Gasnault, O.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R.; Lasue, J.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maurice, S.; Oehler, D. Z.; Payre, V.; Rapin, W.; Sumner, D.; Stack, K.; Schroeder, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of : (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of targets and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), which provides imaging context for the LIBS. The LIBS/ChemCam performs analysis typically of spot sizes 350-550 micrometers in diameter, up to 7 meters from the rover. Within Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing toward the base of Mount Sharp, reaching Pahrump Hills outcrop circa sol 750. This region, as seen from orbit, represents the first exposures of lower Mount Sharp. In this abstract we focus on two types of features present within the Pahrump Hills outcrop: concretion features and light-toned veins.

  7. Managing the computational chemistry big data problem: the ioChem-BD platform.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Moreno, M; de Graaf, C; López, N; Maseras, F; Poblet, J M; Bo, C

    2015-01-26

    We present the ioChem-BD platform ( www.iochem-bd.org ) as a multiheaded tool aimed to manage large volumes of quantum chemistry results from a diverse group of already common simulation packages. The platform has an extensible structure. The key modules managing the main tasks are to (i) upload of output files from common computational chemistry packages, (ii) extract meaningful data from the results, and (iii) generate output summaries in user-friendly formats. A heavy use of the Chemical Mark-up Language (CML) is made in the intermediate files used by ioChem-BD. From them and using XSL techniques, we manipulate and transform such chemical data sets to fulfill researchers' needs in the form of HTML5 reports, supporting information, and other research media. PMID:25469626

  8. Comment on ``Hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume'' [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094509 (2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    It is pointed out that the results obtained by Imai and Hirata [ J. Chem. Phys.122, 094509 (2005)] for the partial molar volume of benzene in a detailed model of water and in a hypothetical nonpolar water model should be interpreted with care. By turning off the electrostatic interactions among water molecules, keeping fixed the molar volume and so the liquid number density, in order to produce the hypothetical nonpolar water without H bonds, the size of water molecules increases from about 2.8 to about 3.2Å. This fact is due to the bunching-up effect of H bonds. The consequences of this fact are clarified by means of calculations performed using the analytical expression of the partial molar volume derived by Lee [J. Phys. Chem.87, 112 (1983)] from the scaled particle theory equation of state for hard-sphere mixtures.

  9. Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W. T.; Bela, M. M.; Pereira, G.; Trembath, J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-03-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign took detailed in situ flight measurements of aerosol during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. Developments have been made to the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to improve the representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region, by coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume-rise parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM) fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (5-20 μg sm-3) of particulate organic matter at high altitude (6-8 km) over tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp decrease above 2-4 km altitude. This difference was attributed to the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical depths (AODs). The smaller fire size lowered the injection height of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol loadings between 4-5 km altitude. Over eastern cerrado (savannah-like) regions, both modelled and measured aerosol loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented AOD magnitude well (between 0.3-1.5) over western tropical forest fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more significant. Over eastern cerrado regions, WRF-Chem

  10. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML) for computational chemistry : CompChem

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a subdomain chemistry format for storing computational chemistry data called CompChem. It has been developed based on the design, concepts and methodologies of Chemical Markup Language (CML) by adding computational chemistry semantics on top of the CML Schema. The format allows a wide range of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of individual molecules to be stored. These calculations include, for example, single point energy calculation, molecular geometry optimization, and vibrational frequency analysis. The paper also describes the supporting infrastructure, such as processing software, dictionaries, validation tools and database repositories. In addition, some of the challenges and difficulties in developing common computational chemistry dictionaries are discussed. The uses of CompChem are illustrated by two practical applications. PMID:22870956

  11. ChemCam for Mars Science Laboratory rover, undergoing pre-flight testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-08-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and partners developed a laser instrument, ChemCam, that will ride on the elevated mast of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The system allows Curiosity to "zap" rocks from a distance, reading their chemical composition through spectroscopic analysis. In this video, laboratory shaker-table testing of the instrument ensures that all of its components are solidly attached and resistant to damage from the rigors of launch, travel and landing.

  12. ChemCam for Mars Science Laboratory rover, undergoing pre-flight testing

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and partners developed a laser instrument, ChemCam, that will ride on the elevated mast of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The system allows Curiosity to "zap" rocks from a distance, reading their chemical composition through spectroscopic analysis. In this video, laboratory shaker-table testing of the instrument ensures that all of its components are solidly attached and resistant to damage from the rigors of launch, travel and landing.

  13. HIV Structural Database using Chem BLAST for all classes of AIDS inhibitors

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 155 HIV Structural Database using Chem BLAST for all classes of AIDS inhibitors (Web, free access)   The HIV structural database (HIVSDB) is a comprehensive collection of the structures of HIV protease, both of unliganded enzyme and of its inhibitor complexes. It contains abstracts and crystallographic data such as inhibitor and protein coordinates for 248 data sets, of which only 141 are from the Protein Data Bank (PDB).

  14. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  15. WRF/Chem-MADRID: Incorporation of an aerosol module into WRF/Chem and its initial application to the TexAQS2000 episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Fast, Jerome D.; Grell, Georg A.

    2010-09-01

    The Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (MADRID) with three improved gas/particle mass transfer approaches (i.e., bulk equilibrium (EQUI), hybrid (HYBR), and kinetic (KINE)) has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecast/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID) and evaluated with a 5-day episode from the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS2000). WRF/Chem-MADRID demonstrates an overall good skill in simulating surface/aloft meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations of O3 and PM2.5, tropospheric O3 residuals, and aerosol optical depths. The discrepancies can be attributed to inaccuracies in meteorological predictions (e.g., overprediction in mid-day boundary layer height), sensitivity to meteorological schemes used (e.g., boundary layer and land-surface schemes), inaccurate total emissions or their hourly variations (e.g., HCHO, olefins, other inorganic aerosols) or uncounted wildfire emissions, uncertainties in initial and boundary conditions for some species (e.g., other inorganic aerosols, CO, and O3) at surface and aloft, and some missing/inactivated model treatments for this application (e.g., chlorine chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation). Major differences in the results among the three gas/particle mass transfer approaches occur over coastal areas, where EQUI predicts higher PM2.5 than HYBR and KINE due to improperly redistributing condensed nitrate from chloride depletion process to fine PM mode. The net direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects of PM2.5 decrease domainwide shortwave radiation by 11.2-14.4 W m-2 (or 4.1-5.6%) and near-surface temperature by 0.06-0.14°C (or 0.2-0.4%), lead to 125 to 796 cm-3 cloud condensation nuclei at a supersaturation of 0.1%, produce cloud droplet numbers as high as 2064 cm-3, and reduce domainwide mean precipitation by 0.22-0.59 mm day-1.

  16. Effectiveness analysis of ACOS-Xco2 bias correction method with GEOS-Chem model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Lei, Liping; Liu, Min; Guo, Lijie; Wang, Qian; Bie, Nian

    2015-08-01

    Satellite observations and model simulations are of two important data sources to study atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. For analyzing and evaluating the bias correction method of ACOS dry-air column averaged CO2 (Xco2) product, the GEOS-Chem Xco2 simulations are selected according to observing time and locations of the ACOS product. The GEOS-Chem simulations of CO2 profiles are transformed to Xco2 data by convolving with satellite averaging kernels and pressure weighting functions. The GEOS-Chem Xco2 data are then compared with both bias uncorrected and bias corrected satellite retrievals of ACOS. The comparisons show that the bias uncorrected ACOS retrievals are on average 1.12ppm higher than the model Xco2 data, while the corrected ACOS retrievals are only on average 0.06ppm lower than the model Xco2 data. By assuming consistency between model Xco2 simulations and true atmospheric Xco2, this study indicates that the bias can be obvious decreased through the bias correction method, and the correction is effective and necessary for satellite Xco2 retrievals.

  17. ChemProt-3.0: a global chemical biology diseases mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kringelum, Jens; Kjaerulff, Sonny Kim; Brunak, Søren; Lund, Ole; Oprea, Tudor I.; Taboureau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ChemProt is a publicly available compilation of chemical-protein-disease annotation resources that enables the study of systems pharmacology for a small molecule across multiple layers of complexity from molecular to clinical levels. In this third version, ChemProt has been updated to more than 1.7 million compounds with 7.8 million bioactivity measurements for 19 504 proteins. Here, we report the implementation of global pharmacological heatmap, supporting a user-friendly navigation of chemogenomics space. This facilitates the visualization and selection of chemicals that share similar structural properties. In addition, the user has the possibility to search by compound, target, pathway, disease and clinical effect. Genetic variations associated to target proteins were integrated, making it possible to plan pharmacogenetic studies and to suggest human response variability to drug. Finally, Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship models for 850 proteins having sufficient data were implemented, enabling secondary pharmacological profiling predictions from molecular structure. Database URL: http://potentia.cbs.dtu.dk/ChemProt/ PMID:26876982

  18. ChemMine tools: an online service for analyzing and clustering small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Tyler W. H.; Cao, Yiqun; Girke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ChemMine Tools is an online service for small molecule data analysis. It provides a web interface to a set of cheminformatics and data mining tools that are useful for various analysis routines performed in chemical genomics and drug discovery. The service also offers programmable access options via the R library ChemmineR. The primary functionalities of ChemMine Tools fall into five major application areas: data visualization, structure comparisons, similarity searching, compound clustering and prediction of chemical properties. First, users can upload compound data sets to the online Compound Workbench. Numerous utilities are provided for compound viewing, structure drawing and format interconversion. Second, pairwise structural similarities among compounds can be quantified. Third, interfaces to ultra-fast structure similarity search algorithms are available to efficiently mine the chemical space in the public domain. These include fingerprint and embedding/indexing algorithms. Fourth, the service includes a Clustering Toolbox that integrates cheminformatic algorithms with data mining utilities to enable systematic structure and activity based analyses of custom compound sets. Fifth, physicochemical property descriptors of custom compound sets can be calculated. These descriptors are important for assessing the bioactivity profile of compounds in silico and quantitative structure—activity relationship (QSAR) analyses. ChemMine Tools is available at: http://chemmine.ucr.edu. PMID:21576229

  19. Benchmarking Ligand-Based Virtual High-Throughput Screening with the PubChem Database

    PubMed Central

    Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Lowe, Edward W.; Mueller, Ralf; Mendenhall, Jeffrey L.; Teixeira, Pedro L.; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing availability of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) data in the public domain, such as the PubChem database, methods for ligand-based computer-aided drug discovery (LB-CADD) have the potential to accelerate and reduce the cost of probe development and drug discovery efforts in academia. We assemble nine data sets from realistic HTS campaigns representing major families of drug target proteins for benchmarking LB-CADD methods. Each data set is public domain through PubChem and carefully collated through confirmation screens validating active compounds. These data sets provide the foundation for benchmarking a new cheminformatics framework BCL::ChemInfo, which is freely available for non-commercial use. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models are built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Decision Trees (DTs), and Kohonen networks (KNs). Problem-specific descriptor optimization protocols are assessed including Sequential Feature Forward Selection (SFFS) and various information content measures. Measures of predictive power and confidence are evaluated through cross-validation, and a consensus prediction scheme is tested that combines orthogonal machine learning algorithms into a single predictor. Enrichments ranging from 15 to 101 for a TPR cutoff of 25% are observed. PMID:23299552

  20. Effective fragment potential method in Q-CHEM: a guide for users and developers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashree; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Flick, Joanna; Kaliman, Ilya; Shao, Yihan; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Krylov, Anna I; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

    2013-05-01

    A detailed description of the implementation of the effective fragment potential (EFP) method in the Q-CHEM electronic structure package is presented. The Q-CHEM implementation interfaces EFP with standard quantum mechanical (QM) methods such as Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster methods, as well as with methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, for example, configuration interaction, time-dependent density functional theory, and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster models. In addition to the QM/EFP functionality, a "fragment-only" feature is also available (when the system is described by effective fragments only). To aid further developments of the EFP methodology, a detailed description of the C++ classes and EFP module's workflow is presented. The EFP input structure and EFP job options are described. To assist setting up and performing EFP calculations, a collection of Perl service scripts is provided. The precomputed EFP parameters for standard fragments such as common solvents are stored in Q-CHEM's auxiliary library; they can be easily invoked, similar to specifying standard basis sets. The instructions for generating user-defined EFP parameters are given. Fragments positions can be specified by their center of mass coordinates and Euler angles. The interface with the IQMOL and WEBMO software is also described. PMID:23319180

  1. Optimizing global CO concentrations and emissions based on DART/CAM-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubert, B.; Arellano, A. F.; Barre, J.; Worden, H. M.; Emmons, L. K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Anderson, J. L.; Deeter, M. N.; Mizzi, A. P.; Edwards, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry through its impact on the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, as precursor of ozone, and as a good tracer of combustion from both anthropogenic sources and wildfires. We will investigate the potential of the assimilation of TERRA/MOPITT observations to constrain the regional to global CO budget using DART (Data assimilation Research Testbed) together with the global Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-Chem). DART/CAM-Chem is based on an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF) framework which facilitates statistical estimation of error correlations between chemical states (CO and related species) and parameters (including sources) in the model using the ensemble statistics derived from dynamical and chemical perturbations in the model. Here, we estimate CO emissions within DART/CAM-Chem using a state augmentation approach where CO emissions are added to the CO state vector being analyzed. We compare these optimized emissions to estimates derived from a traditional Bayesian synthesis inversion using the CO analyses (assimilated CO states) as observational constraints. The spatio-temporal distribution of CO and other chemical species will be compared to profile measurements from aircraft and other satellite instruments (e.g., INTEX-B, ARCTAS).

  2. A CNES remote operations center for the MSL ChemCam instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorgny, Eric; Baroukh, Julien; Gaboriaud, Alain; Saccoccio, Muriel; Perez, Rene; Gasnault, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, a CNES remote operations center in Toulouse will be involved in the tactical operations of a Martian rover in order to operate the ChemCam science instrument in the framework of the NASA MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) mission in 2012. CNES/CESR and LANL have developed and delivered to JPL the ChemCam (Chemistry Camera) instrument located on the top of mast and in the body of the rover. This instrument incorporates a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) for determining elemental compositions of rock targets or soil samples at remote distances from the rover (2-7 m). An agreement has been achieved for operating ChemCam, alternatively, from Toulouse (FR) and Los Alamos (NM, USA), through the JPL ground data system in Pasadena (CA, USA) for a complete Martian year (2 years on Earth). After a brief overview of the MSL mission, this paper presents the instrument, the mission operational system and JPL organization requirements for the scientific investigators (PI and Co-Is). This paper emphasizes innovations applied on the ground segment components and on the operational approach to satisfy the requirements and constraints due to these shared and distributed operations over the world.

  3. Health assessment for Thermo Chem, Inc. , Muskegon, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID044567162. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-28

    Thermo-Chem, Inc. is listed on the National Priorities List. The Thermo-Chem, Inc. site is located in Muskegon County, Michigan. Thermo-Chem, Inc. was involved in solvent reprocessing and liquid-waste disposal, beginning operations in 1969 and continuing until August 1980. The company received paint waste, antifreeze waste, and spent halogenated and nonhalogenated solvents. A soil-gas and soil-sampling survey detected: trichloroethene (TCE), 24,000 ppb; tetrachloroethene (PCE), 400,000 ppb; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 16,000 ppb; 1,2-dichloroethylene, 4,500 ppb; toluene, 92,000 ppb; ethyl benzene, 450,000 ppb; and xylene, 2,100,000 ppb. The following contaminants and their respective concentrations in ppb were detected in the monitoring wells in 1986 as part of the hydrogeologic investigation: TCE, 67,000; PCE, 54,000; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 26,000; 1,2-dichloroethene, 7,200; toluene, 100,000; ethyl benzene, 2,000; benzene, 5,000; methylene chloride, 1,800 and xylene, 17,000. No contamination has been detected in nearby residential wells. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health that could result from possible exposure to hazardous substances at levels that may result in adverse health effects over time. Human exposure to several organic contaminants may occur via contact with soil, surface water, or ground water contamination.

  4. ChemScreener: A Distributed Computing Tool for Scaffold based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present ChemScreener, a Java-based application to perform virtual library generation combined with virtual screening in a platform-independent distributed computing environment. ChemScreener comprises a scaffold identifier, a distinct scaffold extractor, an interactive virtual library generator as well as a virtual screening module for subsequently selecting putative bioactive molecules. The virtual libraries are annotated with chemophore-, pharmacophore- and toxicophore-based information for compound prioritization. The hits selected can then be further processed using QSAR, docking and other in silico approaches which can all be interfaced within the ChemScreener framework. As a sample application, in this work scaffold selectivity, diversity, connectivity and promiscuity towards six important therapeutic classes have been studied. In order to illustrate the computational power of the application, 55 scaffolds extracted from 161 anti-psychotic compounds were enumerated to produce a virtual library comprising 118 million compounds (17 GB) and annotated with chemophore, pharmacophore and toxicophore based features in a single step which would be non-trivial to perform with many standard software tools today on libraries of this size. PMID:26138574

  5. CHEM-PATH-TRACKER: An automated tool to analyze chemical motifs in molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João V; Cerqueira, N M F S A; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we propose a method for locating functionally relevant chemical motifs in protein structures. The chemical motifs can be a small group of residues or structure protein fragments with highly conserved properties that have important biological functions. However, the detection of chemical motifs is rather difficult because they often consist of a set of amino acid residues separated by long, variable regions, and they only come together to form a functional group when the protein is folded into its three-dimensional structure. Furthermore, the assemblage of these residues is often dependent on non-covalent interactions among the constituent amino acids that are difficult to detect or visualize. To simplify the analysis of these chemical motifs and give access to a generalized use for all users, we developed chem-path-tracker. This software is a VMD plug-in that allows the user to highlight and reveal potential chemical motifs requiring only a few selections. The analysis is based on atoms/residues pair distances applying a modified version of Dijkstra's algorithm, and it makes possible to monitor the distances of a large pathway, even during a molecular dynamics simulation. This tool turned out to be very useful, fast, and user-friendly in the performed tests. The chem-path-tracker package is distributed as an independent platform and can be found at http://www.fc.up.pt/PortoBioComp/database/doku.php?id=chem-path-tracker. PMID:24775806

  6. ChemProt-3.0: a global chemical biology diseases mapping.

    PubMed

    Kringelum, Jens; Kjaerulff, Sonny Kim; Brunak, Søren; Lund, Ole; Oprea, Tudor I; Taboureau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ChemProt is a publicly available compilation of chemical-protein-disease annotation resources that enables the study of systems pharmacology for a small molecule across multiple layers of complexity from molecular to clinical levels. In this third version, ChemProt has been updated to more than 1.7 million compounds with 7.8 million bioactivity measurements for 19,504 proteins. Here, we report the implementation of global pharmacological heatmap, supporting a user-friendly navigation of chemogenomics space. This facilitates the visualization and selection of chemicals that share similar structural properties. In addition, the user has the possibility to search by compound, target, pathway, disease and clinical effect. Genetic variations associated to target proteins were integrated, making it possible to plan pharmacogenetic studies and to suggest human response variability to drug. Finally, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship models for 850 proteins having sufficient data were implemented, enabling secondary pharmacological profiling predictions from molecular structure. Database URL: http://potentia.cbs.dtu.dk/ChemProt/. PMID:26876982

  7. Investigation of variation of precipitation by the cloud seeding using WRF-CHEM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, C.; Ahn, K.; Choi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Resent observational and numerical studies demonstrate a significant effect of aerosols on the amount of precipitation and its spatial distribution. Airborne cloud seeding experiments using the AgI particles have been carried out in Korea. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with chemistry mechanism and aerosol modules (WRF-CHEM) is used to investigate the effects of the airborne cloud seeding on precipitation. The sensitivity tests (EXP 1, 2, and 3) of the WRF-CHEM were performed on the airborne cloud seeding experiments. EXP 1 is a control run from the original WRF model which has no aerosol effect. EXP 2 and EXP 3 are the WRF-CHEM simulations coupled with RADM2/MADE-SORGAM modules and CBMZ/MOSAIC modules, respectively. The AgI seeding was considered as an emission of primary PM2.5 in the simulations. The unspeciated primary PM2.5 are of 10000 μg/(m2s) at 0.5 km about the ground level to simulate the cloud seeding in both cases. The results of sensitivity experiments with the chemistry mechanism and aerosol schemes showed that for the six hours after the seeding, the accumulated amounts of precipitation increased about 14% for EXP 2 and 45% for EXP3, compared to EXP 1. Also, the simulations showed that the seeding brought initial precipitation time forward aerosol by 10 minutes.

  8. Development of a Uniform Classification Tool for Peridotites Through the use of Geochemical Data From the EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Stern, R. J.; Bavoso, M. T.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemical data management projects such as PetDB, GEOROC, SedDB, and EarthChem provide access to disciplinary solid earth data widely used for domain research. The complexity of geochemical data often poses challenges to cross-disciplinary researchers who need simple tools to bridge gaps in specialized domain knowledge. Geophysical measurements collected through EarthScope require correlation with mantle xenolith geochemical and physical sample characteristics derived from modal mineralogy and rock classification. For many samples from the literature, information relevant for properly classifying a rock is often incomplete, incorrect, or altogether missing. However, major oxide data are commonly reported for deep crustal and mantle xenoliths and provide a viable means for classification, similar to the TAS (Total Alkali Silica) classification used for igneous rocks. In partnership with EarthScope researchers, an analogous approach for the classification of peridotites is being developed based on SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO (SCAM) whole rock data and mineral composition obtained from analyses served and archived in the EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset. We present a comparison of results of peridotite classifications based on the bulk chemical classification and observed and calculated modal data as well as a visualization scheme that can be implemented as a database query tool to facilitate the acquisition of data based on a uniform classification scheme.

  9. Anatomical Disruption & Length-Tension Dysfunction of Anal Sphincter Complex Muscles in Women with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sun; Weinstein, Milena; Raizada, Varuna; Jiang, Yanfen; Bhargava, Valmik; Rajasekaran, M. Raj; Mittal, Ravinder K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anal sphincter complex muscles; internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, play important role in the anal continence mechanism. Patients with symptoms of fecal incontinence have weak anal sphincter complex muscles; however, their length-tension properties and relationship to anatomical disruption have never been studied. OBJECTIVE To assess the anatomy of anal sphincter complex muscles using 3D-ultrasound imaging system and determine the relationship between anatomical defects and length-tension property of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles in women with incontinence symptoms and control subjects. DESIGN Severity of anal sphincter muscle damage was determined by static and dynamic 3Dimensional-ultrasound imaging. Length-tension property was determined by anal and vaginal pressure respectively using custom designed probes. PATIENTS 44 asymptomatic controls and 24 incontinent patients participated in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEAUSURES Anatomical defects and length-tension dysfunction of anal sphincter complex muscles in FI patients were evaluated. RESULT Prevalence of injury to sphincter muscles are significantly higher in the incontinent patients compared to controls. 85% of patients but only 9% controls reveal damage to ≥2 of the 3 muscles of anal sphincter complex. Anal and vaginal squeeze pressure increased with increase in the probe size (length-tension curve) in majority of controls. In patients, the increase in anal and vaginal squeeze pressures was either significantly smaller than controls or it decreased with the increasing probe size (abnormal length-tension). CONCLUSIONS Length-tension property of the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles is significantly impaired in incontinent patients. Our findings have therapeutic implication in the treatment of anal incontinence. PMID:24105004

  10. ODM2 (Observation Data Model): The EarthChem Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Song, Lulin; Hsu, Leslie; Horsburgh, Jeffrey S.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Mayorga, Emilio; Tarboton, David; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    PetDB is an online data system that was created in the late 1990's to serve online a synthesis of published geochemical and petrological data of igneous and metamorphic rocks. PetDB has today reached a volume of 2.5 million analytical values for nearly 70,000 rock samples. PetDB's data model (Lehnert et al., G-Cubed 2000) was designed to store sample-based observational data generated by the analysis of rocks, together with a wide range of metadata documenting provenance of the samples, analytical procedures, data quality, and data source. Attempts to store additional types of geochemical data such as time-series data of seafloor hydrothermal springs and volcanic gases, depth-series data for marine sediments and soils, and mineral or mineral inclusion data revealed the limitations of the schema: the inability to properly record sample hierarchies (for example, a garnet that is included in a diamond that is included in a xenolith that is included in a kimberlite rock sample), inability to properly store time-series data, inability to accommodate classification schemes other than rock lithologies, deficiencies of identifying and documenting datasets that are not part of publications. In order to overcome these deficiencies, PetDB has been developing a new data schema using the ODM2 information model (ODM=Observation Data Model). The development of ODM2 is a collaborative project that leverages the experience of several existing information representations, including PetDB and EarthChem, and the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), as well as the general specification for encoding observational data called Observations and Measurements (O&M) to develop a uniform information model that seamlessly manages spatially discrete, feature-based earth observations from environmental samples and sample fractions as well as in-situ sensors, and to test its initial implementation in a variety of user scenarios. The O&M model, adopted as an international standard by the Open

  11. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, W. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Winker, D. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3-5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE). Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors. When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3-5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less agreement with observed plume heights

  12. Impact of improved soil climatology and intialization on WRF-chem dust simulations over West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omid Nabavi, Seyed; Haimberger, Leopold; Samimi, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    Meteorological forecast models such as WRF-chem are designed to forecast not only standard atmospheric parameters but also aerosol, particularly mineral dust concentrations. It has therefore become an important tool for the prediction of dust storms in West Asia where dust storms have the considerable impact on living conditions. However, verification of forecasts against satellite data indicates only moderate skill in prediction of such events. Earlier studies have already indicated that the erosion factor, land use classification, soil moisture, and temperature initializations play a critical role in the accuracy of WRF-chem dust simulations. In the standard setting the erosion factor and land use classification are based on topographic variations and post-processed images of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) during the period April 1992-March 1993. Furthermore, WRF-chem is normally initialized by the soil moisture and temperature of Final Analysis (FNL) model on 1.0x1.0 degree grids. In this study, we have changed boundary initial conditions so that they better represent current changing environmental conditions. To do so, land use (only bare soil class) and the erosion factor were both modified using information from MODIS deep blue AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth). In this method, bare soils are where the relative frequency of dust occurrence (deep blue AOD > 0.5) is more than one-third of a given month. Subsequently, the erosion factor, limited within the bare soil class, is determined by the monthly frequency of dust occurrence ranging from 0.3 to 1. It is worth to mention, that 50 percent of calculated erosion factor is afterward assigned to sand class while silt and clay classes each gain 25 percent of it. Soil moisture and temperature from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were utilized to provide these initializations in higher resolution of 0.25 degree than in the standard setting. Modified and control simulations were

  13. EarthChem and SESAR: Data Resources and Interoperability for EarthScope Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, D.; Block, K.; Vinay, S.; Ash, J.

    2008-12-01

    Data management within the EarthScope Cyberinfrastructure needs to pursue two goals in order to advance and maximize the broad scientific application and impact of the large volumes of observational data acquired by EarthScope facilities: (a) to provide access to all data acquired by EarthScope facilities, and to promote their use by broad audiences, and (b) to facilitate discovery of, access to, and integration of multi-disciplinary data sets that complement EarthScope data in support of EarthScope science. EarthChem and SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration, are two projects within the Geoinformatics for Geochemistry program that offer resources for EarthScope CI. EarthChem operates a data portal that currently provides access to >13 million analytical values for >600,000 samples, more than half of which are from North America, including data from the USGS and all data from the NAVDAT database, a web-accessible repository for age, chemical and isotopic data from Mesozoic and younger igneous rocks in western North America. The new EarthChem GEOCHRON database will house data collected in association with GeoEarthScope, storing and serving geochronological data submitted by participating facilities. The EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset is a compilation of petrological data for mantle xenoliths, initiated in collaboration with GeoFrame to complement geophysical endeavors within EarthScope science. The EarthChem Geochemical Resource Library provides a home for geochemical and petrological data products and data sets. Parts of the digital data in EarthScope CI refer to physical samples such as drill cores, igneous rocks, or water and gas samples, collected, for example, by SAFOD or by EarthScope science projects and acquired through lab-based analysis. Management of sample-based data requires the use of global unique identifiers for samples, so that distributed data for individual samples generated in different labs and published in different papers can be

  14. Comment on: ``The hindered rotor density-of-states interpolation function'' [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 6675 (1997)] and ``The hindered rotor density- of-states'' [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 2314 (1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClurg, Richard B.

    1999-10-01

    There has been some confusion regarding the various approximations for the hindered rotor partition function and its associated thermodynamic functions and density of states. This comment seeks to clarify the situation by comparing and contrasting the various functions, particularly with regard to the consistent use of reference energies. Only the tabular data of Pitzer and Gwinn [J. Chem. Phys. 10, 428 (1942)] and our analytic function [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 6675 (1997)] have consistent reference energies. The main contribution of our publication is the set of simple, asymptotically correct expressions for the thermodynamic functions. There are similar, but different approximations to the density of states given by Knyazev and co-workers [J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 3916 (1998)] and by me [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1748 (1998)].

  15. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management. PMID:24898408

  16. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE STRICTURE OF ANAL CHANNELL].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, I M; Sadoviy, I Ya; Novytskiy, O V

    2015-09-01

    The results of treatment of 50 patients, suffering postoperative stricture of anal channell (SACH), who were treated in Proctology Department of Ivano-Frankivskiy Rural Clinical Hospital in 2006-2014 yrs, were analyzed. After conduction of hemorrhoidectomy in accordance to Milligan-Morgan method for chronic hemorrhoids grades III-IV a SACH have occurred in 46 (92%) patients, excision of a chronic anal fissura was performed in 3 (6%) and excision of perianal pointed condylomas--in 1 patient. In 2006-2007 yrs 11 (22%) patients were operated in accordance to approaches, which were conventional at that time (comparison group). In 2008 - 2014 yrs 39 (78%) patients were admitted to hospital (main group), in whom new approaches for diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment were applied, 30 (76.9%) of them were operated. The proposed method on isolated roentgen contrast investigation of anal channell have permitted to determine objectively a form, diameter and grade of the anal channel stricture, and it may be applied as a screening procedure, as additional objective criterion while choosing a surgical tactic. Application of the improved operative technique for SACH have permitted to lower its occurrence rate from 45.4 to 6.7%. PMID:26817078

  17. Carcinoma of the anal canal and flow cytometric DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, N. A.; Beart, R. W.; Weiland, L. H.; Cha, S. S.; Lieber, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Using flow cytometric DNA analysis of paraffin embedded tissue, DNA histograms were successfully obtained from the anal cancers of 117 patients. DNA diploid patterns were given by 82 cancers (70%) and DNA non-diploid patterns by 35 cancers (30%): 15 DNA aneuploid, 20 DNA tetraploid. Well differentiated squamous cell cancers were mainly DNA diploid, while a larger proportion of poorly differentiated and small cell cancers were DNA non-diploid. The large majority of stage A cancers were DNA diploid. A greater proportion of tumours that had invaded through the anal sphincter or had lymph node metastases or distant spread were DNA non-diploid. Prognosis was slightly poorer for patients with DNA non-diploid cancers when compared to patients with DNA diploid tumours (P = 0.08) and significantly poorer for individuals with DNA aneuploid anal cancers (P = 0.037). However, in a multivariate analysis model, the DNA ploidy pattern of an anal cancer was not of independent prognostic significance alongside tumour histology and tumour stage. PMID:2803916

  18. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  19. Histo-topographic study of the longitudinal anal muscle.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and

  20. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  1. Human papillomavirus, anal cancer, and screening considerations among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, William Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Invasive anal cancer has become an important cause of non AIDS-related cancer among HIV-infected individuals. Human papillomavirus is the main etiological agent. This review explains the pathophysiologic role of human papillomavirus in the development of invasive anal cancer, summarizes recent epidemiological trends of invasive anal cancer, and reviews the evidence to address common clinical questions posed when screening for anal cancer in HIV-infected patients. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus oncogenesis is still unclear, but given the increased clinical burden of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients, many clinics have implemented screening programs for anal cancer and its precursors. Despite the availability of several modalities for treatment of precursors of anal cancer, evidence that current treatment modalities favorably alter the natural history of human papillomavirus oncogenesis in the anal and perianal regions is still inconclusive. However, there is sufficient evidence to state that the accuracy of anal cancer screening procedures (cytology and high-resolution anoscopy directed biopsy) is comparable to the accuracy of those used in screening for cervical cancer precursors. Studies that systematically assess the efficacy of these anal cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of and morbidity and mortality from invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients are needed. PMID:23681437

  2. Science-Technology-Society (STS) and ChemCom Courses versus College Chemistry Courses: Is There a Mismatch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This opinion paper discusses several issues surrounding questions of ChemCom and STS courses taken by science majors. Explores the basis for a potential mismatch students having an STS-based course may experience. Discusses objectivism and constructivism. (MKR)

  3. Incidence and Predictors of Anal Incontinence after Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury in Primiparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Holly E; Nager, Charles W; Burgio, Kathryn L; Whitworth, Ryan; Weidner, Alison C; Schaffer, Joseph; Zyczynski, Halina M; Norton, Peggy; Jelovsek, J Eric; Meikle, Susan F; Spino, Cathie; Gantz, Marie; Graziano, Scott; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the incidence of fecal incontinence (FI) at 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum, anal incontinence (AI) and fecal urgency at 24 weeks and identify predictors of AI in women with obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI). Methods Primiparous women sustaining OASIs were identified at 8 clinical sites. Third degree OASIs were characterized using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 3a (<50%) or 3b (>50%) tear through the sphincter. FI was defined as leakage of liquid/solid stool and/or mucus in the past month; AI was defined as leakage of liquid/solid stool and/or mucus and/or gas in the past month and was assessed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum using the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index. Logistic regression identified variables associated with AI. Results 343 women participated: 297 subjects sustained a third degree OASI, 168 type 3a, 98 type 3b and 31 indeterminant; 45 had a fourth degree OASI. Overall FI incidence at 6, 12 and 24 weeks was 7% (23/326, 95% CI: 4%,10%), 4% (6/145, 95% CI: 2%,9%) and 9% (13/138, 95% CI: 5%,16%), respectively. At 24 weeks AI incidence was 24% (95% CI: 17%,32%) and fecal urgency 21% (95% CI: 15%,29%). No significant differences in FI and AI rates were noted by 3rd degree type or between groups with 3rd and 4th OASI. Flatal incontinence was greater in women sustaining a 4th degree tear (35% vs 16%, p=0.04). Caucasian race (AOR 4.64, 95% CI: 1.35-16.02) and shorter duration of second stage (AOR 1.47 per 30 minute decrease, 95% CI: 1.12-1.92) were associated with AI at 24 weeks. Conclusions Overall 24-week incidence of FI is 9% (95% CI: 5%,16%) and AI is 24% (95% CI: 17%,32%). In women with OASI, Caucasian race and shorter second stage labor were associated with postpartum AI. PMID:25679358

  4. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W. )

    1992-08-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer.

  5. Tumors and Tumorlike Conditions of the Anal Canal and Perianal Region: MR Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Menias, Christine O; Amer, Ahmed M; Elshikh, Mohamed; Katabathina, Venkata S; Hara, Amy K; Baughman, William C; Kielar, Ania; Elsayes, Khaled M; Siegel, Cary L

    2016-01-01

    Tumors and tumorlike conditions of the anus and perianal region originate from the anal canal and anal margin or result from direct extension of tumors from adjacent organs. The anatomy of the anal canal is complex, and its different histologic characteristics can lead to diverse pathologic conditions. The anal canal extends from the anorectal junction to the anal verge. The World Health Organization classification of anal canal tumors includes (a) anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the precursor of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and (b) invasive tumors. Invasive tumors are further classified on the basis of cell type as epithelial tumors (SCC, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma), nonepithelial tumors, carcinoid tumors, melanoma, and secondary tumors (direct spread from rectal, cervical, or prostate carcinoma). The anal margin, or perianal skin, lies outside the anal verge and encompasses a radius of 5 cm from the anal verge. Tumors in the anal margin are classified according to the World Health Organization classification of skin tumors. Anal margin tumors include SCC, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also known as Bowen disease, adenocarcinoma and its precursor Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma (Buschke-Löwenstein tumor), which is a rare variant of SCC. Imaging plays an important role in the evaluation, staging, and follow-up of patients with anal and perianal tumors. However, because of the overlap in imaging features among these diverse entities, a definitive diagnosis is best established at histopathologic examination. Nevertheless, familiarity with the pathogenesis, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate patient treatment. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27618320

  6. Comment on: ``Disentangling density and temperature effects in the viscous slowing down of glass forming liquids'' [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6135 (2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, C. M.; Casalini, R.

    2004-12-01

    Recently, Tarjus et al. [G. Tarjus, D. Kivelson, S. Mossa, and C. Alba-Simionesco, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6135 (2004)] concluded from a review of data for a variety of glass formers that the supercooled dynamics are almost invariably dominated by temperature T, rather than by density ρ. By including additional published data into such a compilation, we show that for van der Waals molecular liquids, the dynamics near Tg are in fact governed as much by density as by temperature. Moreover, relaxation times measured at various temperatures and pressures can be superimposed by plotting as a function ργ/T. This scaling form can arise from an assumed inverse power law for the intermolecular repulsive potential, with γ a material constant.

  7. Science-Technology-Society (STS) and ChemCom Courses Versus College Chemistry Courses: Is There a Mismatch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1996-06-01

    This opinion paper poses questions for the chemical education community to consider about the nature of college chemistry courses and the expected student prerequisites. It also explores the basis for a potential mismatch that may exist for students enrolled in a traditional college chemistry course who have had Science-Technology-Society (STS) or ChemCom courses as their only prior high school chemistry courses. Even though ChemCom and STS courses are not designed to prepare students for traditional college chemistry courses for science and engineering majors, there has been an increase in the number of ChemCom and STS students enrolling in these courses. As background, the general teaching approach of ChemCom and STS courses is discussed in terms of the behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories. This article addresses the advantages and disadvantages of high school chemistry courses based on ChemCom and reviews the chemical education research comparing the effectiveness of ChemCom courses to traditional high school chemistry courses. The authors concluded that more research comparing the effect of these instructional methods on both traditional and alternative assessments is warranted.

  8. Modeling of Lightning-Related Plumes into the Chemistry and Transport GEOS-Chem Global Model: Impact on the Upper Tropospheric Chemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressent, A.

    2014-12-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the lightning-related plumes in terms of origin, quantification of the plumes trace gas, and impact on the budget of ozone in particular in the upper troposphere (critical region regarding the greenhouse effect). Recently, Gressent et al., 2014, demonstrated that the majority (74%) of large scale plumes (>300km) from lightning emissions (LNOx) is related to warm conveyor belts and extra-tropical cyclones originating from North America and entering the intercontinental pathway between North America and Europe, leading to a negative (positive) west to east NOy (O3) zonal gradient with -0.4 (+18) ppb difference during spring and -0.6 (+14) ppb difference in summer. In order to better constraint lightning emissions impact in global models, a plume parameterization has been implemented in the 3D chemistry and transport GEOS-Chem global model (Harvard University). Such parameterization was successfully developed for aircraft exhausts application (Cariolle et al., 2009). It allows reproducing sub-grid processes related to lightning NOx chemistry and the chemical evolution during transport in the atmosphere. The issue is here based on the evaluation of parameters such as the plume lifetime and the effective reaction rate constant within the plume. The Dynamically Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC) is used to determine such critical values and to better understand the chemical interactions between NOx and O3 species within the undiluted fraction of the plume. Additionally high-resolved simulations of the French meso-scale Meso-NH model are applied over specific case studies of thunderstorms in order to consider the dynamical conditions necessary to represent the plume dilution to the background atmosphere. Finally, sensitivity tests are carried out with the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the impact of this plume-in-grid model on the ozone and nitrogen species budget.

  9. Hydrogen in soils and dust as observed in ChemCam spectra at Gale Crater, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Susanne; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Cousin, Agnès; Ollila, Ann; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Ehlmann, Bethany; Dyar, Darby; Lasue, Jérémie; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Wiens, Roger; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity includes the ChemCam instrument to provide elemental analysis of soils and rocks, with the first Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument ever used on a planetary mission. It is combined with a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI), enabling pre- and post-LIBS context images of the target. For LIBS, radiation from a high power laser (Nd:KGW with 1067 nm, 8 - 14 mJ on the target) is focused onto the sample where material is ablated and a luminous plasma is produced. Information on the elemental composition is obtained from relaxation of excited atoms and ions due to specific transitions coming along with characteristic spectral lines. Moreover, bremsstrahlung and recombination from unbound states result in a continuous spectrum superimposed upon the characteristic emission. At the edge of the visible to NIR wavelength range, where the most intense hydrogen peak (Hα at 656.5 nm) is found, this continuous emission can prevent the detection of less intense emission lines and has to be carefully taken into account. In ChemCam data, the H emission feature is usually overlapped by a C peak at 658.0 nm that is present with almost constant intensity in all the LIBS data due to the CO2-dominated atmosphere on Mars. To investigate variations of the H signal, univariate analysis was used to compare the abundance of each element to the area of these peaks. In this study, the H emission signal in LIBS spectra of martian soils and dust on rocks is investigated. The focus will be on ChemCam data taken on Sol 74 of a fine-grained soil named Crestaurum, where spectra were obtained as usual during day and for comparison additionally during early martian day before dawn. Intense H lines were observed in the spectra, slightly decreasing in intensity with shot number and featuring enhanced values for some single shot spectra The H signal remains more intense than the nonvarying C peak for the daytime data as well as for the pre

  10. Igneous mineralogy at Bradbury Rise: The first ChemCam campaign at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Toplis, M. J.; Cousin, A.; Ollila, A. M.; Meslin, P. Y.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Baratoux, D.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Berger, G.; Lasue, J.; Anderson, R. A.; Lewin, E.; Schmidt, M.; Dyar, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Bridges, J.; Clark, B.; Pinet, P.

    2014-01-01

    and compositional analyses using Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) remote microimager and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) have been performed on five float rocks and coarse gravels along the first 100 m of the Curiosity traverse at Bradbury Rise. ChemCam, the first LIBS instrument sent to another planet, offers the opportunity to assess mineralogic diversity at grain-size scales (~ 100 µm) and, from this, lithologic diversity. Depth profiling indicates that targets are relatively free of surface coatings. One type of igneous rock is volcanic and includes both aphanitic (Coronation) and porphyritic (Mara) samples. The porphyritic sample shows dark grains that are likely pyroxene megacrysts in a fine-grained mesostasis containing andesine needles. Both types have magnesium-poor basaltic compositions and in this respect are similar to the evolved Jake Matijevic rock analyzed further along the Curiosity traverse both with Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer and ChemCam instruments. The second rock type encountered is a coarse-grained intrusive rock (Thor Lake) showing equigranular texture with millimeter size crystals of feldspars and Fe-Ti oxides. Such a rock is not unique at Gale as the surrounding coarse gravels (such as Beaulieu) and the conglomerate Link are dominated by feldspathic (andesine-bytownite) clasts. Finally, alkali feldspar compositions associated with a silica polymorph have been analyzed in fractured filling material of Preble rock and in Stark, a putative pumice or an impact melt. These observations document magmatic diversity at Gale and describe the first fragments of feldspar-rich lithologies (possibly an anorthosite) that may be ancient crust transported from the crater rim and now forming float rocks, coarse gravel, or conglomerate clasts.

  11. Incorporation of a Chemical Equilibrium Equation of State into LOCI-Chem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Carey F.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in development of advanced high-speed transport, reentry vehicles and propulsion systems has led to a resurgence of research into high speed aerodynamics. As this flow regime is typically dominated by hot reacting gaseous flow, efficient models for the characteristic chemical activity are necessary for accurate and cost effective analysis and design of aerodynamic vehicles that transit this regime. The LOCI-Chem code recently developed by Ed Luke at Mississippi State University for NASA/MSFC and used by NASA/MSFC and SSC represents an important step in providing an accurate, efficient computational tool for the simulation of reacting flows through the use of finite-rate kinetics [3]. Finite rate chemistry however, requires the solution of an additional N-1 species mass conservation equations with source terms involving reaction kinetics that are not fully understood. In the equilibrium limit, where the reaction rates approach infinity, these equations become very stiff. Through the use of the assumption of local chemical equilibrium the set of governing equations is reduced back to the usual gas dynamic equations, and thus requires less computation, while still allowing for the inclusion of reacting flow phenomenology. The incorporation of a chemical equilibrium equation of state module into the LOCI-Chem code was the primary objective of the current research. The major goals of the project were: (1) the development of a chemical equilibrium composition solver, and (2) the incorporation of chemical equilibrium solver into LOCI-Chem. Due to time and resource constraints, code optimization was not considered unless it was important to the proper functioning of the code.

  12. New Development of the Online Integrated Climate-Chemistry model framwork (RegCM-CHEM4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakey, A. S.; Shalaby, A. K.; Solmon, F.; Giorgi, F.; Tawfik, A. B.; Steiner, A. L.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online integrated climate-chemistry model based on the regional climate model (RegCM4). The RegCM4 developed at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), is a hydrostatic, sigma coordinate model. Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism CBM-Z with lumped species that represent broad categories of organics based on carbon bond structure. The computationally rapid radical balance method RBM is coupled as a chemical solver to the gas-phase mechanism. Photolysis rates are determined as a function of meteorological and chemical inputs and interpolated from an array of pre-determined values based on the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible Model (TUV) with cloud cover corrections. Cloud optical depths and cloud altitudes from RegCM-CHEM4 are used in the photolysis calculations, thereby directly coupling the photolysis rates and chemical reactions to meteorological conditions at each model time step. In this study, we evaluate the model over Europe for two different time scales: (1) an event-based analysis of the ozone episode associated with the heat wave of August 2003 and (2) a climatological analysis of a six-year simulation (2000-2005). For the episode analysis, model simulations show a good agreement with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) observations of hourly ozone over different regions in Europe and capture ozone concentrations during and after the summer 2003 heat wave event. Analysis of the full six years of simulation indicates that the coupled chemistry-climate model can reproduce the seasonal cycle of ozone, with an overestimation of ozone in the non-event years of 5-15 ppb depending on the geographic region. Overall, the ozone and ozone precursor evaluation shows the feasibility of using RegCM-CHEM4 for decadal-length simulations of chemistry-climate interactions.

  13. Evaluation of a regional assimilation system coupled with the WRF-chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-an; Gao, Wei; Huang, Hung-lung; Strabala, Kathleen; Liu, Chaoshun; Shi, Runhe

    2013-09-01

    Air quality has become a social issue that is causing great concern to humankind across the globe, but particularly in developing countries. Even though the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model has been applied in many regions, the resolution for inputting meteorology field analysis still impacts the accuracy of forecast. This article describes the application of the CIMSS Regional Assimilation System (CRAS) in East China, and its capability to assimilate the direct broadcast (DB) satellite data for obtaining more detailed meteorological information, including cloud top pressure (CTP) and total precipitation water (TPW) from MODIS. Performance evaluation of CRAS is based on qualitative and quantitative analyses. Compared with data collected from ERA-Interim, Radiosonde, and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation measurements using bias and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), CRAS has a systematic error due to the impact of topography and other factors; however, the forecast accuracy of all elements in the model center area is higher at various levels. The bias computed with Radiosonde reveals that the temperature and geopotential height of CRAS are better than ERA-Interim at first guess. Moreover, the location of the 24 h accumulated precipitation forecast are highly consistent with the TRMM retrieval precipitation, which means that the performance of CRAS is excellent. In summation, the newly built Vtable can realize the function of inputting the meteorology field from CRAS output into WRF, which couples the CRAS with WRF-Chem. Therefore, this study not only provides for forecast accuracy of CRAS, but also increases the capability of running the WRF-Chem model at higher resolutions in the future.

  14. Toward Regional Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Verification Using WRF-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Monache, L.; Kosoviæ, B.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Grant, K.; Guilderson, T.

    2008-12-01

    As efforts to reduce emissions of green house gases take shape it is becoming obvious that an essential component of a viable solution will involve emission verification. While detailed inventories of green house gas sources will represent important component of the solution additional verification methodologies will be necessary to reduce uncertainties in emission estimates especially for distributed sources and CO2 offsets. We developed tools for solving inverse dispersion problem for distributed emissions of green house gases. For that purpose we combine probabilistic inverse methodology based on Bayesian inversion with stochastic sampling and weather forecasting and air quality model WRF-CHEM. We demonstrate estimation of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel burning in California over two one-week periods in 2006. We use WRF- CHEM in tracer simulation mode to solve forward dispersion problem for emissions over eleven air basins. We first use direct inversion approach to determine optimal location for a limited number of CO2 - C14 isotope sensors. We then use Bayesian inference with stochastic sampling to determine probability distributions for emissions from California air basins. Moreover, we vary the number of sensors and frequency of measurements to study their effect on the accuracy and uncertainty level of the emission estimation. Finally, to take into account uncertainties associated with forward modeling, we combine Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling with ensemble modeling. The ensemble is created by running WRF-CHEM with different initial and boundary conditions as well as different boundary layer and surface model options. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-406901-DRAFT). The project 07-ERD- 064 was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL.

  15. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, Gregory; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Qing; Howell, S. G.; Leon, Dolislager; Snider, Jefferson R.; Bandy, Alan R.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S.; Hawkins, Lisa; Allen, Grant; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.; Springston, S. R.

    2012-03-30

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without wet (NW) deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, including the reliability required for policy analysis and geo-engineering applications.

  16. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Saide P. E.; Springston S.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Q.; Howell, S.; Leon, D. C.; Snider, J. R.; Bandy, A. R.; Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S. P.; Hawkins, L. N.; Allen, G.; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.

    2012-03-29

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and three aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without (NW) wet deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, especially in the activation parameterization, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions, and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, and may do so with the reliability required for policy analysis.

  17. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  18. Chemical Response of CESM/CAM-Chem to MOPITT CO Ensemble-based Chemical Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubert, B.; Arellano, A. F.; Barré, J.; Worden, H. M.; Emmons, L. K.; Tilmes, S.; Buchholz, R. R.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Vitt, F.; Anderson, J. L.; Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide is a key component in tropospheric chemistry. It plays an important role by affecting the oxidative capacity through its reaction with OH and being a precursor of tropospheric ozone. One year of multispectral retrievals of CO partial columns obtained from the MOPITT instrument have been assimilated into the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem). The assimilation is carried out using an Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter algorithm within the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) package. Two assimilation experiments have been performed: 1) assimilation of meteorological observations and 2) joint assimilation of meteorological observations and MOPITT CO. We first evaluate the assimilation performance by investigating skill scores and other statistics for the two experiments, and comparing to independent CO datasets such as surface (WDCGG), aircraft (MOZAIC-IAGOS), and FTS (NDACC). Our results clearly demonstrate an overall improvement for spatio-temporal magnitude and variability in representing CO abundance in CAM-Chem. We then investigate the response of CAM-Chem to changes in CO fields (via CO assimilation) focusing mainly on the oxidative capacity (i.e., OH distribution, methane lifetime) and CO chemical production and loss (i.e., regional to global budget). This is carried out by analyzing the mean 6-hourly forecast adjustments as reflected between the two experiments. We show that changes in CO directly impact OH abundance, with subsequent non-linear responses in CO chemical production (CO from methane and VOCs) and CO loss. This is clearly evident in NOx-limited regions (e.g., Southern Hemisphere, remote sites). Such analysis has direct implications on the consistencies in inverse modeling estimates of CO sources through improved representation of chemical response (including full chemistry) in atmospheric chemistry models and through multi-species constraints.

  19. Sensitivity of Urbanization Impact over China by Using WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Carmichael, G.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization in China is an inevitable process coming along with economic development and population boost, which brings two impacts on air quality modeling. One is land-cover change and the other one is the additional stream of anthropogenic heat. In this study, we employed Weather Research Forecasting -Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate the sensitivity of meteorology and ozone concentrations in response to urbanization, by two cases, Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, indicating Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) areas. The first impact was achieved by updating the default land-cover data in WRF/Chem. Preliminary results showed an increase in 2-m temperature and PBL heights, and a decrease in wind-speed and dew points. For ozone concentrations, after updating land-cover data there was a corresponding rise in the surface level. The maximum increase was as much as 20 ppb for JJJ and 14 ppb for YRD area. The second impact was evaluated by adding anthropogenic heat stream into simulations. This heat stream was developed by considering both urban expansion and peak value at city centers. Test results showed a comparative 2-m temperature increase when compared to the first impact. While for PBL heights and dew points, the difference is negligible. Ozone concentrations within surface layer were also enhanced. The maximum increase was 7 ppb for JJJ area. Taking urbanization into consideration is a significant improvement for air quality modeling over China. After including both 1st and 2nd impact into WRF/Chem, the mean error was reduced by 35.6% for urban locations. One of our ongoing studies is focusing on further improvement of updating more recent land-cover data and anthropogenic heat. Ozone difference after including 1st impact Temporal plots for PKU(urban location)

  20. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Howell, S.; Leon, D. C.; Snider, J. R.; Bandy, A. R.; Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S. P.; Hawkins, L. N.; Allen, G.; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.; Springston, S. R.

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without wet (NW) deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, including the reliability required for policy analysis and geo-engineering applications.

  1. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  2. Comment on ``Quasirelativistic theory equivalent to fully relativistic theory'' [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 241102 (2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The connection between the exact quasirelativistic approach developed in the title reference [W. Kutzelnigg and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 241102 (2005)] and the method of elimination of the small component in matrix form developed previously by Dyall is explicitly worked out. An equation that links Hermitian and non-Hermitian formulations of the exact quasirelativistic theory is derived. Besides establishing a kinship between the existing formulations, the proposed equation can be employed for the derivation of new formulations of the exact quasirelativistic theory.

  3. A highly sensitive, integrable, multimode, interferometric, evanescent-wave chem/bio sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Jeffrey J.

    A fully integrated optical chem/bio sensor complete with integrated source, chemically sensitive waveguide, detector arrays, and associated signal processing electronics on a Si-CMOS chip is a challenging, but highly desirable goal. An evanescent-wave multimode interferometric sensing element is a sensitive method for sensing, which is easily integrated on Si-CMOS. This work is concerned with the design, analysis, and demonstration of a planar multimode interferometric chem/bio sensor that is compatible with the fabrication constraints of Si-CMOS. A 4000-micron-long interferometric that can be adapted for different agents by a particular sensing layer has been fabricated on silicon using silicon dioxide and silicon oxynitride. Hexaflouro-isopropanol substituted polynorbornene is the sensing layer. This sensor has also been fabricated on a Si-CMOS circuit with embedded photodetectors. A sensor on silicon was demonstrated with a minimum detectable index change of 2.0x10 -6 using an accurate gas delivery system and a custom hermetic waveguide test chamber. A modal pattern analysis strategy has also been developed to extract the optimal SNR from the measured modal patterns. An understanding of the noise processes and spatial bandwidth effects has enabled an experimentally-based prediction of the index sensitivity of a fully integrated multimode chem/bio sensor on Si-CMOS at 9.2x10-7. Theoretically, the sensitivity enhancement of high over low index sensing layers and transverse-magnetic over transverse electric modes is described. Also, the sensitivity enhancement of higher-order-transverse modes has been quantified. The wide-angle beam propagation method has been used to simulate the sensor. This simulation showed the relation between the modal pattern repetition period and sensor sensitivity. Further, the modal coupling properties of the multimode y-junction have been described. A second multimode y-junction has been designed to change the modal excitation under the

  4. Torsional Angle Driver (TorAD) System for HyperChem/Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Ronald

    1999-02-01

    The torsional angle driver system for HyperChem/Excel is a package of several Excel spreadsheets and macro programs to be used with HyperChem to obtain and plot information, such as total energy, for the conformations that result from a 360° rotation about a torsional angle system in a molecule. The TorAD system also includes several HyperChem scripts to facilitate its use. TorAD was developed for use in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. The results obtained with TorAD could be obtained manually with HyperChem, but it would take considerable time and would not be instructive to the students. Use of the TorAD system allows students to spend their time on the more important aspect of conformation analysisinterpretation of results. The Excel spreadsheet/macro programs in TorAD include:

    · Tor_xl_a and tor_xl obtain and plot the total energy at 5° torsional-angle intervals. The calculation method, the torsional-angle restraint, and the structure to be used at each angle can be set by the user. The advanced version, tor_xl_a, which requires HyperChem 4.5 or later, also allows torsional-angle structures to be saved for later recall as individual structures or, using a HyperChem script, in a movie format. It also provides a rapid scan of the 360° rotation where only single-point calculations, rather than geometry optimizations, are performed. The tor_xl system will perform routine tasks in a manner suitable for most instructional settings. · Tor_Comp performs molecular mechanics optimizations at 5° intervals and obtains and plots four energy parameters (total, torsional, nonbonded, and bond [bend plus stretch] energy) as a function of torsional angle. The calculation method and the restraint can be specified. · TorDipol produces a plot of the total energy and the calculated dipole moment at 5° steps of the torsional angle. The default calculation is the semi-empirical AM

  5. ChemCam passive reflectance spectroscopy of surface materials at the Curiosity landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, J. F.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Cloutis, E.; DeFlores, L.; Ehlmann, B.; Gasnault, O.; Gondet, B.; Kinch, K.; Lemmon, M.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; Rice, M.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-03-01

    The spectrometers on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ChemCam instrument were used in passive mode to record visible/near-infrared (400-840 nm) radiance from the martian surface. Using the onboard ChemCam calibration targets' housing as a reflectance standard, we developed methods to collect, calibrate, and reduce radiance observations to relative reflectance. Such measurements accurately reproduce the known reflectance spectra of other calibration targets on the rover, and represent the highest spatial resolution (0.65 mrad) and spectral sampling (<1 nm) visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra from a landed platform on Mars. Relative reflectance spectra of surface rocks and soils match those from orbital observations and multispectral data from the MSL Mastcam camera. Preliminary analyses of the band depths, spectral slopes, and reflectance ratios of the more than 2000 spectra taken during the first year of MSL operations demonstrate at least six spectral classes of materials distinguished by variations in ferrous and ferric components. Initial comparisons of ChemCam spectra to laboratory spectra of minerals and Mars analog materials demonstrate similarities with palagonitic soils and indications of orthopyroxene in some dark rocks. Magnesium-rich "raised ridges" tend to exhibit distinct near-infrared slopes. The ferric absorption downturn typically found for martian materials at <600 nm is greatly subdued in brushed rocks and drill tailings, consistent with their more ferrous nature. Calcium-sulfate veins exhibit the highest relative reflectances observed, but are still relatively red owing to the effects of residual dust. Such dust is overall less prominent on rocks sampled within the "blast zone" immediately surrounding the landing site. These samples were likely affected by the landing thrusters, which partially removed the ubiquitous dust coatings. Increased dust coatings on the calibration targets during the first year of the mission were documented by

  6. ChemCam First Discovery of High Silica Sediments in Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydenvang, J.; Gasda, P. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Newsom, H. E.; Bridges, J.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Payré, V.; Anderson, R. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Jun, I.; Rice, M. S.; Milliken, R.; Edwards, P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Thompson, L. M.; Clark, B. C.; Hurowitz, J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fraeman, A.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Calef, F.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    On sol 991, The Curiosity rover ascended a steep slope to Marias Pass in Gale Crater. Close to the top, ChemCam analyzed the rock target Elk from an apparent bright unit. Utilizing the new elemental calibration implemented for ChemCam in the summer of 2015, four of five points on Elk were measured to contain 76-82 wt% SiO2 and >3 wt% TiO2, whereas the last point showed elevated CaSO4. The Elk target is identified to be part of the Murray formation, and hence related to the Pahrump area mudstones that were subjected to intensive studies by the Curiosity rover team over the sols 758-948. While the Murray formation west of Elk did show elevated SiO2 (~65 wt%) compared to the Pahrump area, no targets with similarly high SiO2 wt% as Elk were observed, thus prompting - together with detection of anomalously high DAN H signals in the same area - the Curiosity rover to return to the Elk target area for additional analyses. This return led to numerous additional high Si observations (targets Pistol, Mary, Shepard, Dublin Gulch and Frog) that all corroborated the initial high Si observation at Elk. Additionally, the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) analyzed the target Lamoose and found SiO2 content in excess of 72 wt% and moderately elevated TiO2. Considering the difference in footprint (1.7 cm for APXS vs ~400μm for ChemCam) and the fact that the target couldn't be brushed, this is considered a good corroboration of the very high Si observed with ChemCam. These targets suggest that the Elk-area targets represent an end-member of the Murray formation, but there are multiple working hypotheses for the origin of the high SiO2 and TiO2 in these: 1. primary precipitates from the water column of a lake, 2. a post-depositional leaching/weathering front and 3. a hydrothermal silica precipitate.

  7. Application of the Loci-Based CFD Code Chem at MSFC: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff S.; Rothermel, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Objectives. Concentrate on determining the qualitative accuracy, performance and robustness of the Chen code. 2. What is the Loci-Chem CFD code? Density-based, finite volume, generalized unstructured grid, Navier-Stokes solver. The algorithm was implemented using the Loci framework, which allows implementation issues such as parallel processing to be handled transparently to the coding of the CFD algorithm. 3. Application to Bifurcating Duct problem. Flow splits from single duct to two ducts. 4. Application to single element injector. 5. Application to PSU RBCC rig. 6. 90 degree elbow benchmark problem. 7. Future work.

  8. Estimates of black carbon emissions in the western United States using the GEOS-Chem adjoint model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y. H.; Li, Q. B.; Henze, D. K.; Jiang, Z.; Jones, D. B. A.; Kopacz, M.; He, C.; Qi, L.; Gao, M.; Hao, W.-M.; Liou, K.-N.

    2015-07-01

    We estimate black carbon (BC) emissions in the western United States for July-September 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint. Our best estimate of the BC emissions is 49.9 Gg at 2° × 2.5° (a factor of 2.1 increase) and 47.3 Gg at 0.5° × 0.667° (1.9 times increase). Model results now capture the observed major fire episodes with substantial bias reductions ( 35 % at 2° × 2.5° and 15 % at 0.5° × 0.667°). The emissions are 20-50 % larger than those from our earlier analytical inversions (Mao et al., 2014). The discrepancy is especially drastic in the partitioning of anthropogenic versus biomass burning emissions. The August biomass burning BC emissions are 4.6-6.5 Gg and anthropogenic BC emissions 8.6-12.8 Gg, varying with the model resolution, error specifications, and subsets of observations used. On average both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions in the adjoint inversions increase 2-fold relative to the respective {a priori} emissions, in distinct contrast to the halving of the anthropogenic and tripling of the biomass burning emissions in the analytical inversions. We attribute these discrepancies to the inability of the adjoint inversion system, with limited spatiotemporal coverage of the IMPROVE observations, to effectively distinguish collocated anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions on model grid scales. This calls for concurrent measurements of other tracers of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion (e.g., carbon monoxide and carbon isotopes). We find that the adjoint inversion system as is has sufficient information content to constrain the total emissions of BC on the model grid scales.

  9. Increased HIV-1 activity in anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with unaffected anal mucosa in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Pollakis, Georgios; Richel, Olivier; Vis, Joost D; Prins, Jan M; Paxton, William A; de Vries, Henry J C

    2014-06-01

    We studied 3 patients with focal intra-anal tissue high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). All had increased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in lesions compared with that in healthy mucosa. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 episomal DNA were indicative of ongoing viral replication, more so in anal HSILs. PMID:24604897

  10. Translabial ultrasound assessment of the anal sphincter complex: normal measurements of the internal and external anal sphincters at the proximal, mid-, and distal levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rebecca J; Rogers, Rebecca G; Saiz, Lori; Qualls, C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the internal and external anal sphincters using translabial ultrasound (TLU) at the proximal, mid, and distal levels of the anal sphincter complex. The human review committee approval was obtained and all women gave written informed consent. Sixty women presenting for gynecologic ultrasound for symptoms other than pelvic organ prolapse or urinary or anal incontinence underwent TLU. Thirty-six (60%) were asymptomatic and intact, 13 symptomatic and intact, and 11 disrupted. Anterior-posterior diameters of the internal anal sphincter at all levels and the external anal sphincter at the distal level were measured in four quadrants. Mean sphincter measurements are given for symptomatic and asymptomatic intact women and are comparable to previously reported endoanal MRI and ultrasound measurements. PMID:17221149

  11. A Very Rare Cause of Anal Atresia: Currarino Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Parmaksiz, Mehmet Ergun; Cabalar, Esra; Karapur, Ali; Kaya, Cihat

    2016-05-01

    Currarino syndrome (triad) is an extremely rare condition characterized by presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and sacral bone deformation. The complete form of this syndrome displays all three irregularities. Herein, we report a male case who was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of urinary system infection and persistent constipation 2 years after colostomy operation performed with the indication of rectovestibular fistula and anal atresia, diagnosed as Currarino syndrome based on imaging modalities. In a patient who was admitted because of the presence of anal atresia, in order to preclude potential complications, probable concomitancy of this syndrome should not be forgotten. Early diagnosis is important for the prevention of meningitis, urinary tract infections, and malignant change. PMID:27081429

  12. A Very Rare Cause of Anal Atresia: Currarino Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Parmaksiz, Mehmet Ergun; Cabalar, Esra; Karapur, Ali; Kaya, Cihat

    2016-01-01

    Currarino syndrome (triad) is an extremely rare condition characterized by presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and sacral bone deformation. The complete form of this syndrome displays all three irregularities. Herein, we report a male case who was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of urinary system infection and persistent constipation 2 years after colostomy operation performed with the indication of rectovestibular fistula and anal atresia, diagnosed as Currarino syndrome based on imaging modalities. In a patient who was admitted because of the presence of anal atresia, in order to preclude potential complications, probable concomitancy of this syndrome should not be forgotten. Early diagnosis is important for the prevention of meningitis, urinary tract infections, and malignant change. PMID:27081429

  13. Anal cancer treatment: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ghosn, Marwan; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Abdayem, Pamela; Antoun, Joelle; Nasr, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancers (AC) are relatively rare tumors. Their incidence is increasing, particularly among men who have sex with other men due to widespread infection by human papilloma virus. The majority of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, and they are treated according to stage. In local and locally advanced AC, concomitant chemoradiation therapy based on mitomycin C and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the current best treatment, while metastatic AC, chemotherapy with 5-FU and cisplatin remains the gold standard. There are no indications for induction or maintenance therapies in locally advanced tumors. Many novel strategies, such as targeted therapies, vaccination, immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy are in clinical trials for the treatment of AC, with promising results in some indications. PMID:25741135

  14. Dietary habits after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chartrand-Lefebvre, C; Heppell, J; Davignon, I; Dubé, S; Pomp, A

    1990-04-01

    Dietary habits of patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were assessed and correlated with bowel function. Twenty-four well-adapted patients (11 women, 13 men; mean age 32 years) voluntarily entered the study 30 +/- 4 months after closure of the diverting ileostomy. A standardized questionnaire on 108 food items and a 3-day food journal were used in the assessment. Twenty-one patients had no difficulty in selecting an appropriate diet. Caloric intake was adequate. Specific symptoms associated with several foods were as follows: increased stool frequency (beer, spirits, chinese food), decreased stool consistency (beer, wine, fried fish), perianal irritation (spicy foods), undigested particles (grapefruit, lettuce), odours (eggs). Pasta and bananas were associated with increased stool consistency. The authors believe that these observations may help in dietary counselling after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. PMID:2268807

  15. Challenges faced in the clinical application of artificial anal sphincters*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-hui; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Shuang; Luo, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is an unresolved problem, which has a serious effect on patients, both physically and psychologically. For patients with severe symptoms, treatment with an artificial anal sphincter could be a potential option to restore continence. Currently, the Acticon Neosphincter is the only device certified by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, the clinical safety and efficacy of the Acticon Neosphincter are evaluated and discussed. Furthermore, some other key studies on artificial anal sphincters are presented and summarized. In particular, this paper highlights that the crucial problem in this technology is to maintain long-term biomechanical compatibility between implants and surrounding tissues. Compatibility is affected by changes in both the morphology and mechanical properties of the tissues surrounding the implants. A new approach for enhancing the long-term biomechanical compatibility of implantable artificial sphincters is proposed based on the use of smart materials. PMID:26365115

  16. Nanoplatforms for Detection, Remediation and Protection Against Chem-Bio Warfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkbaş, E. B.; Bayram, C.; Kavaz, D.; Çirak, T.; Demirbilek, M.

    Chemical and biological substances have been used as warfare agents by terrorists by varying degree of sophistication. It is critical that these agents be detected in real-time with high level of sensitively, specificity, and accuracy. Many different types of techniques and systems have been developed to detect these agents. But there are some limitations in these conventional techniques and systems. Limitations include the collection, handling and sampling procedures, detection limits, sample transfer, expensive equipment, personnel training, and detection materials. Due to the unique properties such as quantum effect, very high surface/volume ratio, enhanced surface reactivity, conductivity, electrical and magnetic properties of the nanomaterials offer great opportunity to develop very fast, sensitive, accurate and cost effective detection techniques and systems to detect chemical and biological (chem.-bio) warfare agents. Furthermore, surface modification of the materials is very easy and effective way to get functional or smart surfaces to be used as nano-biosensor platform. In that respect many different types of nanomaterials have been developed and used for the detection, remediation and protection, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, Nano chips and arrays, fluorescent polymeric and magnetic nanoparticles, fiber optic and cantilever based nanobiosensors, nanofibrillar nanostructures etc. This study summarizes preparation and characterization of nanotechnology based approaches for the detection of and remediation and protection against chem.-bio warfare agents.

  17. Recent Highlights of ChemCam’s exploration of Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, Roger C.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Clegg, Samuel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Johnson, Jeffry R.; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie A.; Mangold, Nicholas; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton; Pilleri , Agnes; Sautter, Violaine

    2014-11-01

    ChemCam has been exploring Gale Crater and documenting the chemistry along our traverse to Mount Sharp. More than 160,000 LIBS spectra and 2,000 images have been returned to Earth from locations along the 9 km route. Key discoveries documented by ChemCam along the traverse since leaving the Yellow Knife Bay drilling location include: 1) abundant alkali feldspar present in conglomerates and float rocks; 2) MnO present at up to several wt. % in specific coatings and in the Kimberly outcrop; its presence suggests highly oxidized fluids existed during emplacement; 3) fluorine present in key lithologies; the associated chemistry indicates the occurrence of fluor-apatites in igneous rocks and micas in conglomerates; 4) Cap rocks showing a wide range of compositions that span the compositions of outcrops seen at previous locations (e.g. “Shaler”, “Point Lake”) 5) a pair of iron meteorites, “Lebanon” and “Littleton”, 6) Chlorine-bearing soils in “Hidden Valley” and corresponding light toned outcrops and 7) an assessment of coatings in Gale that indicate alteration rates are generally slower than rates of aeolian abrasion. The talk will also include discussion of most recent results and their implications for fluvial processes at Gale.

  18. Statistical Downscaling of WRF-Chem Model: An Air Quality Analysis over Bogota, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anikender; Rojas, Nestor

    2015-04-01

    Statistical downscaling is a technique that is used to extract high-resolution information from regional scale variables produced by coarse resolution models such as Chemical Transport Models (CTMs). The fully coupled WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model is used to simulate air quality over Bogota. Bogota is a tropical Andean megacity located over a high-altitude plateau in the middle of very complex terrain. The WRF-Chem model was adopted for simulating the hourly ozone concentrations. The computational domains were chosen of 120x120x32, 121x121x32 and 121x121x32 grid points with horizontal resolutions of 27, 9 and 3 km respectively. The model was initialized with real boundary conditions using NCAR-NCEP's Final Analysis (FNL) and a 1ox1o (~111 km x 111 km) resolution. Boundary conditions were updated every 6 hours using reanalysis data. The emission rates were obtained from global inventories, namely the REanalysis of the TROpospheric (RETRO) chemical composition and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR). Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network techniques are used to downscale the model output at each monitoring stations. The results confirm that the statistically downscaled outputs reduce simulated errors by up to 25%. This study provides a general overview of statistical downscaling of chemical transport models and can constitute a reference for future air quality modeling exercises over Bogota and other Colombian cities.

  19. Using Combustion Tracers to Estimate Surface Black Carbon Distributions in WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, A.; Arellano, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) emissions significantly affect the global and regional climate, air quality, and human health. However, BC observations are currently limited in space and time; leading to considerable uncertainties in the estimates of BC distribution from regional and global models. Here, we investigate the usefulness of carbon monoxide (CO) in quantifying BC across continental United States (CONUS). We use high resolution EPA AQS observations of CO and IMPROVE BC to estimate BC/CO ratios. We model the BC and CO distribution using the community Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We configured WRF-Chem using MOZART chemistry, NEI 2005, MEGAN, and FINNv1.5 for anthropogenic, biogenic and fire emissions, respectively. In this work, we address the following three key questions: 1) What are the discrepancies in the estimates of BC and CO distributions across CONUS during summer and winter periods?, 2) How do BC/CO ratios change for different spatial and temporal regimes?, 3) Can we get better estimates of BC from WRF-Chem if we use BC/CO ratios along with optimizing CO concentrations? We compare ratios derived from the model and observations and develop characteristic ratios for several geographical and temporal regimes. We use an independent set of measurements of BC and CO to evaluate these ratios. Finally, we use a Bayesian synthesis inversion to optimize CO from WRF-Chem using regionally tagged CO tracers. We multiply the characteristic ratios we derived with the optimized CO to obtain BC distributions. Our initial results suggest that the maximum ratios of BC versus CO occur in the western US during the summer (average: 4 ng/m3/ppbv) and in the southeast during the winter (average: 5 ng/m3/ppbv). However, we find that these relationships vary in space and time and are highly dependent on fuel usage and meteorology. We find that optimizing CO using EPA-AQS provides improvements in BC but only over areas where BC/CO ratios are close

  20. Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: Impact of wildfires on weather forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, G. A.; Freitas, Saulo; Stuefer, Martin; Fast, Jerome D.

    2011-06-06

    A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather forecasts using model resolutions of 10km and 2km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense wildfires of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) had a strong impact on clouds and microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 hours of the integration, but significantly stronger storms during the afternoon hours.

  1. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Role of ChemR23 Signaling in Pollutant-Induced Inflammatory Lung Responses.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Sharen; De Grove, Katrien C; Fraser, Graeme L; Lannoy, Vincent J; Tournoy, Kurt G; Brusselle, Guy G; Maes, Tania; Joos, Guy F

    2016-02-15

    Inhalation of traffic-related particulate matter (e.g., diesel exhaust particles [DEPs]) is associated with acute inflammatory responses in the lung, and it promotes the development and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. We previously demonstrated that exposure to DEP was associated with increased recruitment and maturation of monocytes and conventional dendritic cells (DCs), resulting in TH2 polarization. Monocytes and immature DCs express the G-protein coupled receptor chemR23, which binds the chemoattractant chemerin. Using chemR23 knockout (KO) and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice, we determined the role of chemR23 signaling in response to acute exposure to DEPs and in response to DEP-enhanced house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. Exposure to DEP alone, as well as combined exposure to DEP plus HDM, elevated the levels of chemerin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice. In response to acute exposure to DEPs, monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs accumulated in the lungs of WT mice, but this response was significantly attenuated in chemR23 KO mice. Concomitant exposure to DEP plus HDM resulted in allergic airway inflammation with increased eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, and TH2 cytokine production in WT mice, which was further enhanced in chemR23 KO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated an opposing role for chemR23 signaling depending on the context of DEP-induced inflammation. The chemR23 axis showed proinflammatory properties in a model of DEP-induced acute lung inflammation, in contrast to anti-inflammatory effects in a model of DEP-enhanced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26773141

  2. Progression of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Berry, J Michael; Jay, Naomi; Cranston, Ross D; Darragh, Teresa M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Welton, Mark L; Palefsky, Joel M

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) compared to the general population. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are common in HIV-infected MSM and the presumed precursors to anal squamous cell cancer; however, direct progression of HSIL to anal cancer has not been previously demonstrated. The medical records were reviewed of 138 HIV-infected MSM followed up at the University of California, San Francisco, who developed anal canal or perianal squamous cancer between 1997 and 2011. Men were followed up regularly with digital anorectal examination (DARE), high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and HRA-guided biopsy. Although treatment for HSIL and follow-up were recommended, not all were treated and some were lost to follow-up. Prevalent cancer was found in 66 men. Seventy-two HIV-infected MSM developed anal cancer while under observation. In 27 men, anal cancer developed at a previously biopsied site of HSIL. An additional 45 men were not analyzed in this analysis due to inadequate documentation of HSIL in relation to cancer location. Of the 27 men with documented progression to cancer at the site of biopsy-proven HSIL, 20 men progressed from prevalent HSIL identified when first examined and seven men from incident HSIL. Prevalent HSIL progressed to cancer over an average of 57 months compared to 64 months for incident HSIL. Most men were asymptomatic, and cancers were detected by DARE. Anal HSIL has clear potential to progress to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM. Early diagnosis is facilitated by careful follow-up. Carefully controlled studies evaluating efficacy of screening for and treatment of HSIL to prevent anal cancer are needed. PMID:23934991

  3. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, S; Stasi, E; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2015-12-01

    Perianal disease is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It includes different conditions from more severe and potentially disabling ones, such as abscesses and fistulas, to more benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, skin tags and fissures. Most literature has been focused on anal sepsis and fistulae, as they carry the majority of disease burden and often alter the natural course of the disease. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with IBD have been overlooked, although they can represent a challenging problem. The management of hemorrhoids and fissures in IBD patients may be difficult and may significantly differ compared to the non-affected population. Historically surgery was firmly obstructed, and hemorrhoidectomy or sphincterotomy in patients with associated diagnosis of IBD was considered harmful, although literature data is scant and based on small series. Various authors reported an incidence of postoperative complications higher in IBD than in the general populations, with potential severe events. Considering that a spontaneous healing is possible, the first line management should be a medical therapy. In patients non-responding to conservative measures it is possible a judicious choice of surgical options on a highly selective basis; this can lead to acceptable results, but the risk of possible complications needs to be considered. In this review it is analyzed the current literature on the incidence, symptoms and treatment options of hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:26446683

  4. Management of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Archer, R; Forrest, A; Barrington, J

    2014-08-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are common and may greatly affect a patient's quality of life. There is very little information regarding optimum management in future pregnancies. Based upon anecdotal experience, this study describes the recommendations of a cohort of consultant obstetricians in the UK, in this clinical situation. There is limited adherence to the available national guidelines due to the absence of available equipment and expertise to perform endo-anal ultrasound and manometry. Elective episiotomy is still recommended by a small number of obstetricians but the majority of patients are routinely followed-up. Caesarean section is only advised for asymptomatic patients with a previous stage 4 tear, and for any symptomatic patient with a previous stage 3 or 4 tear, irrespective of subgrade. A request for elective caesarean section is likely to be granted, irrespective of OASIS grade. The use of postpartum endo-anal ultrasound would help identify those women in whom a further vaginal delivery is unlikely to exacerbate any symptoms of faecal incontinence. PMID:24800795

  5. Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

  6. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. PMID:24999229

  7. Obstetrics anal sphincter injury and repair technique: a review.

    PubMed

    Temtanakitpaisan, Teerayut; Bunyacejchevin, Suvit; Koyama, Masayasu

    2015-03-01

    The Urogynecology Committee of the Asia and Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (AOFOG) has held seminars and workshops on various urogynecological problems in each country in the Asia-Oceania area in order to encourage young obstetricians and gynecologists. In 2013, we organized the operative seminar for obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in which we prepared porcine models to educate young physicians in a hands-on workshop at the 23rd Asian and Oceanic Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Bangkok, Thailand. Laceration of the anal sphincter mostly occurs during vaginal delivery and it can develop into anal sphincter deficiency, which causes fecal incontinence, if an appropriate suture is not performed. OASIS has become an important issue, especially in developing countries. The prevalence of OASIS of more than the third degree is around 5% in primary parous women and the frequency is higher when detected by ultrasonographic evaluation. Several risk factors, such as macrosomia, instrumental labor, perineal episiotomy and high maternal age, have been recognized. In a society where pregnant women are getting older, OASIS is becoming a more serious issue. An intrapartum primary appropriate stitch is important, but the 1-year outcome of a delayed operation after 2 weeks postpartum is similar. A randomized controlled study showed that overlapping suture of the external sphincter is better than that of end-to-end surgical repair. The Urogynecology Committee of the AOFOG would like to continue with educative programs about the appropriate therapy for OASIS. PMID:25545893

  8. Screening, Surveillance, and Treatment of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Long, Kevin C; Menon, Raman; Bastawrous, Amir; Billingham, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia has been increasing, especially in high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, and those who are immunosuppressed. Several studies with long-term follow-up have suggested that rate of progression from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer is ∼ 5%. This number is considerably higher for those at high risk. Anal cytology has been used to attempt to screen high-risk patients for disease; however, it has been shown to have very little correlation to actual histology. Patients with lesions should undergo history and physical exam including digital rectal exam and standard anoscopy. High-resolution anoscopy can be considered as well, although it is of questionable time and cost-effectiveness. Nonoperative treatments include expectant surveillance and topical imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil. Operative therapies include wide local excision and targeted ablation with electrocautery, infrared coagulation, or cryotherapy. Recurrence rates remain high regardless of treatment delivered and surveillance is paramount, although optimal surveillance regimens have yet to be established. PMID:26929753

  9. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia--is treatment better than observation?

    PubMed

    Orchard, M; Roman, A; Parvaiz, A C

    2013-01-01

    Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is an increasingly common condition for which the best treatment has not been well established. Traditional management was based on a 'watch and wait' strategy, but as the natural history of AIN and its progression to anal cancer is becoming better understood, more active treatment strategies are warranted. A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol to address the question whether treatment is indicated in patients with AIN. A total of 169 papers were identified using the defined search criteria. This included only one randomised controlled trial. Case series were therefore also included to help answer the question. The details of the papers were tabulated including relevant outcomes and study weaknesses. We conclude that treatment of high grade AIN, particularly in high risk groups is recommended to try to avoid progression to anal cancer. Treatment options that have shown some benefit include topical use of imiquimod cream or ablation directed by high resolution anoscopy. PMID:23643642

  10. Heterosexual anal intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565

  11. Gender Differences in Factors Associated With Anal Intercourse Among Heterosexual Adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy K W; Sen, Priya; Chio, Martin T W; Koh, David

    2015-08-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined the gender differences in prevalence of and factors associated with anal sex among adolescents attending the only public STI clinic in Singapore. Data were collected from 1035 sexually active adolescents aged 14 to 19 and analyzed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of anal intercourse was 28%, with significantly more females (32%) than males (23%) ever engaged in it. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with anal intercourse for both genders were oral sex and the nonuse of contraception at last sex. For males, anal intercourse was associated with younger age of sexual debut and greater perceived external control. Among females, it was associated with higher rebellious scores and lack of confidence to resist peer pressure to engage in sex. Consistent condom use for anal sex was 22% and 8% for males and females, respectively. STI prevention programs for adolescents should address anal sex, be gender-specific, and take into consideration individual personality characteristics. PMID:26241386

  12. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Ferreira, Aliana Meneses; Bueno, Camila Caroline Tremel

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy. PMID:22230855

  13. PUG-SOAP and PUG-REST: web services for programmatic access to chemical information in PubChem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-07-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, developed and maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem contains more than 180 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures and 225 million bioactivity assay results, covering more than 9000 unique protein target sequences. As an information resource for the chemical biology research community, it routinely receives more than 1 million requests per day from an estimated more than 1 million unique users per month. Programmatic access to this vast amount of data is provided by several different systems, including the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Entrez Utilities (E-Utilities or E-Utils) and the PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)-a common gateway interface (CGI) that exchanges data through eXtended Markup Language (XML). Further simplifying programmatic access, PubChem provides two additional general purpose web services: PUG-SOAP, which uses the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and PUG-REST, which is a Representational State Transfer (REST)-style interface. These interfaces can be harnessed in combination to access the data contained in PubChem, which is integrated with the more than thirty databases available within the NCBI Entrez system. PMID:25934803

  14. PUG-SOAP and PUG-REST: web services for programmatic access to chemical information in PubChem

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A.; Bolton, Evan E.; Bryant, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    PubChem (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a public repository for information on chemical substances and their biological activities, developed and maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem contains more than 180 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures and 225 million bioactivity assay results, covering more than 9000 unique protein target sequences. As an information resource for the chemical biology research community, it routinely receives more than 1 million requests per day from an estimated more than 1 million unique users per month. Programmatic access to this vast amount of data is provided by several different systems, including the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Entrez Utilities (E-Utilities or E-Utils) and the PubChem Power User Gateway (PUG)—a common gateway interface (CGI) that exchanges data through eXtended Markup Language (XML). Further simplifying programmatic access, PubChem provides two additional general purpose web services: PUG-SOAP, which uses the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and PUG-REST, which is a Representational State Transfer (REST)-style interface. These interfaces can be harnessed in combination to access the data contained in PubChem, which is integrated with the more than thirty databases available within the NCBI Entrez system. PMID:25934803

  15. Functional Morphology of Anal Sphincter Complex Unveiled by High Definition Manometery & 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Varuna; Bhargava, Valmik; Karsten, Anna; Mittal, Ravinder K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Anal sphincter complex consists of anatomically overlapping internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS) & puborectalis muscle (PRM). We determined the functional morphology of anal sphincter muscles using high definition manometery (HDAM), 3D-ultrasound (US) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Patients We studied 15 nulliparous women. Interventions HDAM probe equipped with 256 pressure transducers was used to measure the anal canal pressures at rest and squeeze. Lengths of IAS, PRM and EAS were determined from the 3D-US images and superimposed on the HDAM plots. Movements of anorectal angle with squeeze were determined from the dynamic MR images. Results HDAM plots reveal that anal canal pressures are highly asymmetric in the axial and circumferential direction. Anal canal length determined by the 3D-US images is slightly smaller than measured by HDAM. The EAS (1.9 ± 0.5 cm long) and PRM (1.7 ± 0.4 cm long) surround distal and proximal parts of the anal canal respectively. With voluntary contraction, anal canal pressures increase in the proximal (PRM) and distal (EAS zone) parts of anal canal. Posterior peak pressure in the anal canal moves cranially in relationship to the anterior peak pressure, with squeeze. Similar to the movement of peak posterior pressure, MR images show cranial movement of anorectal angle with squeeze. Conclusion Our study proves that the PRM is responsible for the closure of the cranial part of anal canal. HDAM, in addition to measuring constrictor function can also record the elevator function of levator ani/pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21951657

  16. Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Li, Xiuhong; Chmiel, Joan S.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Cranston, Ross D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of HIV-positive and negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (MACS). Methods Prospective analysis using Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazard models, and a nested case-control study using conditional logistic regression. Results There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated. The incidence rate was significantly higher in HIV-positive men than in HIV-negative men (IR= 69 vs. 14 per 100,000 person-years). Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the HAART era than the pre-HAART era (IR=137 vs. 30 per 100,000 person-years). In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (RH=4.7, 95%CI=1.3–17), and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first three study visits (p-trend=0.03). Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk. Conclusion HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer. Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals following HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus (HPV) associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era. PMID:18614927

  17. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    PubMed

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26427364

  18. Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Lasue, J. A.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary calibrations were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final calibrations occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS calibration and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing

  19. Evaluation and comparison of O3 forecasts of ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandorfer, Claudia; Hirtl, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    ZAMG runs two models for Air-Quality forecasts operationally: ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem. ALARO-CAMx is a combination of the meteorological model ALARO and the photochemical dispersion model CAMx and is operated at ZAMG by order of the regional governments since 2005. The emphasis of this modeling system is on predicting ozone peaks in the north-east Austrian flatlands. Two modeling domains are used with the highest resolution (5 km) in the alpine region. Various extensions with external data sources have been conducted in the past to improve the daily forecasts of the model, e.g. data assimilation of O3- and PM10 observations from the Austrian measurement network (with optimum interpolation technique); MACC-II boundary conditions; combination of high resolved emission inventories for Austria with TNO and EMEP data. The biogenic emissions are provided by the SMOKE model. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 48 hours. The second model which is operational is the on-line coupled model WRF-Chem. Meteorology is simulated simultaneously with the emission, turbulent mixing, transport, transformation, and fate of trace gases and aerosols. 2 domains are used for the simulations. The mother domain covers Europe with a resolution of 12 km. The inner domain includes the alpine region with a horizontal resolution of 4km. 45 model levels are used in the vertical. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 72 hours and is initialized with ECMWF forecasts. The evaluation of both models is conducted for summer 2014 with the main focus on the forecasts of ozone. The measurements of the Air-Quality stations are compared with the punctual forecasts at the sites of the stations and with the area forecasts for every province of Austria. Beside the evaluation a comparison of the forecasts of ALARO-CAMx and WRF-Chem is done. The summer 2014 was the coldest and the dullest in the last 9 years. Due to this only two exceedances of the information threshold were measured (June

  20. The impact of anaemia on treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal and anal margin

    PubMed Central

    Cesnjevar, Monika; Anzic, Mitja; Hadzic, Jasna But; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; Jeromen, Ana; Korosec, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiochemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Anaemia is reported to have adverse effect on survival in cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of anaemia on radiochemotherapy treatment outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Patients and methods One hundred consecutive patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal were treated radically with 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy boost and with concurrent mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil. The influence on survival of pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations was studied. Results The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival, disease specific survival and overall survival rates for all patients were 72%, 71%, 77% and 62%, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with pre-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb > 120 g/L survived statistically significantly better compared to patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. Patients with mean on-treatment Hb > 120 g/L only had statistically significant better locoregional control and overall survival than patients with Hb ≤ 120 g/L. In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were pre-treatment Hb (> 120 g/L vs. ≤ 120 g/L) for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.419, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.190–0.927, p = 0.032) and stage (I & II vs. III) for disease specific (HR = 3.523, 95% CI = 1.375–9.026, p = 0.009) and overall survival (HR = 2.230, 95% CI = 1.167–4.264, p = 0.015). Conclusions The pre-treatment, mean on-treatment and end-of-treatment Hb concentration > 120 g/L carried better prognosis for patients for with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. The pre-treatment Hb > 120 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for overall

  1. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. PMID:24768744

  2. Assessments of Potential Rock Coatings at Rocknest, Gale Crater with ChemCam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Anderson, R.; Berger, G.; Bridges, J.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Ehlman, B.; Goetz, W.; King, P.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many locations on Mars have low color contrast between the rocks and soils due to the rocks being "dusty"--basically having a surface that is spectrally similar to Martian soil. In general this has been interpreted as soil and/or dust clinging to the rock though either mechanical or electrostic processes. However, given the apparent mobility of thin films of water forming cemented soils on Mars and at Gale Crater, the possibility exists that some of these "dusty" surfaces may actually be coatings formed by thin films of water locally mobilizing soil/air fall material at the rock interface. This type of coating was observed by Spirit during an investigation of the rock Mazatzal which showed enhanced salts above "normal soil" and an enhancement of nano phase iron oxide that was 10 micronmeters thick. We decided to use ChemCam to investigate the possibility of similar rock coatings forming at the Rocknest site at Gale Crater.

  3. Aerosol impact on seasonal prediction using FIM-Chem-iHYCOM coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sun, shan; Grell, Georg; Bleck, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    A coupled model consisting of the weather model FIM and the ocean model iHYCOM, both operating on an icosahedral horizontal grid, is being developed for subseasonal to seasonal prediction. Initial results indicate that the model skill is comparable to that of the operational model CFSv2 used by NCEP. In addition, an online atmospheric chemistry module is coupled to FIM. The purpose of onging experiments with the FIM-Chem-iHYCOM combination is to investigate the aerosol impact on the atmospheric and oceanic circulation at the seasonal scale. We compare the model sensitivity with various chemistry emissions, including aerosols, fire and anthropogenic emissions. Additional emphasis of this work is on the effect of aerosols on cloudiness and precipitation, either directly or indirectly through changes in SST. To isolate the latter effect, we conduct parallel experiments with observed SST.

  4. Application of iChemExplorer in pharmaceutical pH stress testing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Fenghe; Du, Lily; Soman, Ashish; Jankovsky, Corinne; Li, Chan

    2013-03-25

    pH stress testing is an integral part of pharmaceutical stress testing and is a regulatory requirement for validating a stability indicating analytical method and elucidating degradation products and degradation pathways. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of iChemExplorer (ICE) for drug substance and drug product pH stress testing in comparison with the conventional (manual) approach. ICE is a simple and inexpensive technology, and through real case studies it was demonstrated that ICE is an efficient and "fit-for-purpose" alternative in conducting pharmaceutical pH stress testing. In addition, when using a non-isothermal ICE protocol, it is feasible to estimate the pH degradation kinetics (e.g., E(a)) using the ICE software. PMID:23339989

  5. The PubChemQC project: A large chemical database from the first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maho, Nakata

    2015-12-01

    In this research, we have been constructing a large database of molecules by ab initio calculations. Currently, we have over 1.53 million entries of 6-31G* B3LYP optimized geometries and ten excited states by 6-31+G* TDDFT calculations. To calculate molecules, we only refer the InChI (International Chemical Identifier) representation of chemical formula by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), thus, no reference to experimental data. These results are open to public at http://pubchemqc.riken.jp/. The molecular data have been taken from the PubChem Project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) which is one of the largest in the world (approximately 63 million molecules are listed) and free (public domain) database. Our final goal is, using these data, to develop a molecular search engine or molecular expert system to find molecules which have desired properties.

  6. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they

  7. Viral vectors for gene modification of plants as chem/bio sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, Monica; Harper, Jason C.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Dolan, Patricia L.

    2006-11-01

    Chemical or biological sensors that are specific, sensitive, and robust allowing intelligence gathering for verification of nuclear non-proliferation treaty compliance and detouring production of weapons of mass destruction are sorely needed. Although much progress has been made in the area of biosensors, improvements in sensor lifetime, robustness, and device packaging are required before these devices become widely used. Current chemical and biological detection and identification techniques require less-than-covert sample collection followed by transport to a laboratory for analysis. In addition to being expensive and time consuming, results can often be inconclusive due to compromised sample integrity during collection and transport. We report here a demonstration of a plant based sensor technology which utilizes mature and seedling plants as chemical sensors. One can envision genetically modifying native plants at a site of interest that can report the presence of specific toxins or chemicals. In this one year project we used a developed inducible expression system to show the feasibility of plant sensors. The vector was designed as a safe, non-infectious vector which could be used to invade, replicate, and introduce foreign genes into mature host plants that then allow the plant to sense chem/bio agents. The genes introduced through the vector included a reporter gene that encodes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a gene that encodes for a mammalian receptor that recognizes a chemical agent. Specifically, GFP was induced by the presence of 17-{beta}-Estradiol (estrogen). Detection of fluorescence indicated the presence of the target chemical agent. Since the sensor is a plant, costly device packaging development or manufacturing of the sensor were not required. Additionally, the biological recognition and reporting elements are maintained in a living, natural environment and therefore do not suffer from lifetime disadvantages typical of most biosensing

  8. Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

  9. Aerosol Radiative Forcing over North India during Pre-Monsoon Season using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A.; Kumar, K.; Michael, M.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    Study of aerosols is important for a fair understanding of the Earth climate system. This requires knowledge of the physical, chemical, optical, and morphological properties of aerosols. Aerosol radiative forcing provides information on the effect of aerosols on the Earth radiation budget. Radiative forcing estimates using model data provide an opportunity to examine the contribution of individual aerosol species to overall radiative forcing. We have used Weather Research and Forecast with Online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) derived aerosol concentration data to compute aerosol radiative forcing over north India during pre-monsoon season of 2008, 2009, and 2010. WRF-Chem derived mass concentrations are converted to number concentrations using standard procedure. Optical Properties of Aerosol and Cloud (OPAC) software package is used to compute extinction and scattering coefficients, and asymmetry parameter. Computations are performed at different altitudes and the obtained values are integrated to get the column optical properties. Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at surface and top-of-atmosphere. Higher values of aerosol radiative forcing are observed over desert region in western Indian state of Rajasthan, and Punjab of Pakistan. Contribution of individual aerosol species to atmospheric radiative forcing is also assessed. Dust radiative forcing is high over western India. Radiative forcing due to BC and water-soluble (WASO) aerosols are higher over north-west Indian states of Punjab and Haryana, and the Indo-Gangetic Basin. A pool of high WASO optical depth and radiative forcing is observed over the Indo-Bangladesh border. The findings of aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing are consistent with the geography and prevailing aerosol climatology of various regions. Heating rate profiles due to total aerosols and only due to BC have been evaluated at selected stations in north India. They show

  10. Analysis of modified MYJ and YSU boundary layer schemes in WRF-Chem with respect to simulated boundary layer heights and pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Renate; Foreman, Richard; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    To improve the performance of boundary layer schemes currently applied within WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005), the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) model (Mellor and Yamada 1982) and the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme (Hong et al. 2006) have been updated using data from a 100 m high offshore measurement tower called FINO1. The turbulence intensity in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic model has been enhanced as described in Foreman and Emeis (2012). An alternative to the exchange coefficient for stable stratification in the YSU scheme is described in Foreman et al. (2014). These modifications to the two schemes have been applied and are compared with the existing schemes. For example, the updated MYJ scheme results in an improved representation of the turbulent kinetic energy throughout the boundary layer as compared with the measurements at FINO1. The modified MYJ and YSU schemes, which have been originally developed for wind energy applications, have been implemented into version 3.5 of the WRF model. Simulations with WRF-Chem were carried out for Europe and the region of Augsburg in order to evaluate the effect of the modified PBL schemes on simulated PBL heights, gas phase pollutant and aerosol concentrations. Foreman, R.J. and S. Emeis, 2012. A method for increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer parametrization. Boundary Layer Meteorology 145:329-349. Foreman, R.J. S. Emeis and B. Canadillas, 2014. Stable boundary layer parametrization without eddy viscosity or turbulent kinetic energy equation approaches. Submitted to Boundary Layer Meteorology 2014. Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock,W. C., and Eder, B., 2005. Fully Coupled Online Chemistry within the WRF Model. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6957-6975. Hong S, Noh Y, Dudhia J 2006. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon Wea Rev 124:2322-2339. Mellor GL, Yamada T 1982. Development of a turbulence

  11. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  12. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ALS. Find Out How Our Mission Leading the fight to treat and cure ALS through global research ... you participate, advocate, and donate, you advance the fight to find the cure and lead us toward ...

  13. Investigation of anal motor characteristics of the sensorimotor response (SMR) using 3-D anorectal pressure topography

    PubMed Central

    Cheeney, Gregory; Remes-Troche, Jose M.; Attaluri, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Desire to defecate is associated with a unique anal contractile response, the sensorimotor response (SMR). However, the precise muscle(s) involved is not known. We aimed to examine the role of external and internal anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle in the genesis of SMR. Anorectal 3-D pressure topography was performed in 10 healthy subjects during graded rectal balloon distention using a novel high-definition manometry system consisting of a probe with 256 pressure sensors arranged circumferentially. The anal pressure changes before, during, and after the onset of SMR were measured at every millimeter along the length of anal canal and in 3-D by dividing the anal canal into 4 × 2.1-mm grids. Pressures were assessed in the longitudinal and anterior-posterior axis. Anal ultrasound was performed to assess puborectalis morphology. 3-D topography demonstrated that rectal distention produced an SMR coinciding with desire to defecate and predominantly induced by contraction of puborectalis. Anal ultrasound showed that the puborectalis was located at mean distance of 3.5 cm from anal verge, which corresponded with peak pressure difference between the anterior and posterior vectors observed at 3.4 cm with 3-D topography (r = 0.77). The highest absolute and percentage increases in pressure during SMR were seen in the superior-posterior portion of anal canal, reaffirming the role of puborectalis. The SMR anal pressure profile showed a peak pressure at 1.6 cm from anal verge in the anterior and posterior vectors and distinct increase in pressure only posteriorly at 3.2 cm corresponding to puborectalis. We concluded that SMR is primarily induced by the activation and contraction of the puborectalis muscle in response to a sensation of a desire to defecate. PMID:21109594

  14. A rare case of leiomyoma of the internal anal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Sturiale, Alessandro; Fabiani, Bernardina; Naldini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leiomyoma is a benign tumour which derives from the smooth muscle fibres and it may occurs in every site in which this type of muscle is present. Among all benign soft tissue tumours it represents almost 3.8% and its pathogenesis remains still unknown. Presentation of case The present case is about a 62 year old woman referred to our centre complaining anal and perineal pain which increase after defecation in association with the appearance of a nodule in the perianal region fixed to the anal sphincter. A 360° tridimensional transanal ultrasound was performed and it showed an anterior nodular thickening of the internal anal sphincter. After an inconclusive preoperative biopsy and a counselling with the patient, the surgeons decided to proceed with the surgical excision. The immunohistochemical examination confirmed the preoperative suspicion of leiomyoma. At 1 year follow-up the patient had not tumour-related symptoms or fecal incontinence and any signs of local recurrence at ultrasound imaging were demonstrated. Discussion Leiomyomas are relatively insensitive to chemotherapy whereby surgery is the treatment of choice and it should be adequate to the site and dimension of the lesion achieving a complete resection with free margins. A further close follow-up is needed too. Conclusion Nowadays there is not a gold standard technique to treat such kind of lesions and the decision of the best surgical approach should depend on the dimension and site. In fact, surgery aims to the oncological outcome trying also to minimize the possible post-operative functional complications. PMID:27078867

  15. Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Rebecca A.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Smith, David D.; Lai, Lily L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Persistent human papillomavirus infection is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA). With changing sexual behaviors, SCCA incidence and patient demographics may also have changed in recent years. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results public-use data set from 1973 to 2009 was analyzed to determine incidence trends for and demographic factors characterizing SCCA. Joinpoint analyses identified time points when incidence rates changed. For comparison, similar analyses were conducted for anal adenocarcinoma. Results Joinpoint analyses identified 1997 as the single inflection point among 11,231 patients with SCCA, at which the slope of incidence rates statistically increased (1997 to 2009 v 1973 to 1996: risk ratio [RR], 2.2; 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.3). Annual percent change (APC) increased for all SCCA stages and was the greatest for anal carcinoma in situ (CIS; APC, 14.2; 95% CI, 10.2 to 18.4). Demographic changes characterizing later versus earlier time period included younger age at diagnosis and rising incidence rates in all stage, sex, and racial groups. During 1997 to 2009, women were less likely to present with CIS (RR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.3) but more likely to present with localized (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3) and regional SCCA (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 1.7). In contrast, adenocarcinoma APCs among 1,791 patients remained stable during this time period. Conclusion CIS and SCCA incidence increased dramatically after 1997 for men and women, although men were more likely to be diagnosed with CIS. These changes likely resulted from available screening in men and argue for efforts to identify high-risk individuals who may benefit from screening. PMID:23509304

  16. Ileo-anal pouch procedure: experience in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lau, P W; Boey, J; Lorentz, T G

    1991-11-01

    The ileo-anal pouch procedure is now a well-established method for dealing with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis in many centres in the West. Experience in the Chinese population is not well documented, mainly due to the rarity of inflammatory bowel disease. This report documents the experience of a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Despite being a small series, the low complication rates and good functional results show that the pelvic pouch procedure has now evolved to a stage where it can be performed safely even in centres with infrequent experience. PMID:1661110

  17. Biomaterials in the Treatment of Anal Fistula: Hope or Hype?

    PubMed Central

    Scoglio, Daniele; Walker, Avery S.; Fichera, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Anal fistula (AF) presents a chronic problem for patients and colorectal surgeons alike. Surgical treatment may result in impairment of continence and long-term risk of recurrence. Treatment options for AFs vary according to their location and complexity. The ideal approach should result in low recurrence rates and minimal impact on continence. New technical approaches involving biologically derived products such as biological mesh, fibrin glue, fistula plug, and stem cells have been applied in the treatment of AF to improve outcomes and decrease recurrence rates and the risk of fecal incontinence. In this review, we will highlight the current evidence and describe our personal experience with these novel approaches. PMID:25435826

  18. [The time of proctectomy during ileo-anal anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Hautefeuille, P

    1993-01-01

    Proctectomy is one of the most important operative phases of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. It allows complete resection of the rectal mucosa and determines the quality of the postoperative course and the functional results. Two procedures are described, either with a distal rectal mucosectomy or complete resection of the rectal wall as far as the pectinate line. Functional results are identical. The second procedure leads to a complete resection of the rectal mucosa and therefore will be indicated in cases of low rectal cancer of dysplasia when the anus can be preserved. PMID:8161140

  19. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barišić, Goran; Krivokapić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  20. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were sought.…

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland—Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Konishi, Fumio; Yoshida, Takayoshi; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Lefor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is extremely rare. Most anal canal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma is infrequently diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria and the standard treatment for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been clearly defined, in part because of the rarity of this lesion. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 84-year-old man who presented with a piece of tissue prolapsing from the anus. An incisional biopsy showed adenocarcinoma, and an abdomino-perineal resection was then performed. Cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 19 (CK19) stained positive in the specimen, suggesting that the tumor developed from an anal gland. The patient was discharged after surgery without any complications. DISCUSSION Exact diagnostic criteria for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been previously described. In the present case, CK7 and CK19 were stained, and the tumor showed positivity for both of these markers, which is compatible with the staining patterns of anal gland origin cancer. Radical resection is recommended rather than local resection, because of the tumor's high recurrence rate. Some authors recommend combined modality treatment with preoperative or postoperative chemoradiotherapy because of the high rate of distant recurrence. CONCLUSION The preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is not easily established. However, it may be possible to suspect an anal glandular adenocarcinoma based on a meticulous physical examination, appropriate diagnostic studies and pathological findings on biopsy. PMID:24705191

  2. Anal Intercourse and Sexual Risk Factors among College Women, 1993-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Diana; Ellingson, Lyndall; Votaw, Karen S.; Schaefer, Elizabeth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends and sexual risk behaviors associated with anal intercourse among college women over an 8-year period. Methods: A sexual activity questionnaire was used to collect data from 813 students enrolled in a women's health course. Results: Thirty-two percent of the women had engaged in anal intercourse, and this measure was…

  3. Using WRF-Chem to investigate the impact of night time nitrate radical chemistry and N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry on the chemical composition of the UK troposphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Utembe, S.; McFiggans, G.

    2012-04-01

    It is believed that NO3 is the primary oxidant at night time, significantly impacting ozone formation, rain acidification and the formation and transformation of aerosols, particularly through the formation of the ammonium nitrate particulate (Allan et. al., 2000). However, many of the basic chemical processes controlling the formation and removal of NO3, in particular, the N2O5 heterogeneous reactions, are often not represented in models, although general parameterisations have been developed (c.f. Bertram & Thornton, 2009). The ROle of Night time chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the atmOsphere (RONOCO) campaign is a project being funded by NERC and being carried out by a collaboration of UK Universities. It aims to better understand the role of the NO3 radical on the chemistry of the night time atmosphere, its oxidation capacity and thus its overall effects on the composition of the troposphere. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is a state of the art regional climate model with fully coupled online air quality and meteorological components allowing for better resolution of aerosol and gas-phase chemistry (Grell et. al., 2005). It has been extended to include the Common Representative Intermediates scheme (CRIv2-R5) (Watson et. al., 2008), a reduced chemical scheme designed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of 220 species of hydrocarbons and VOCs. The MOSAIC aerosol scheme (Zaveri et. al., 2008), has been extended to include a reduced complexity condensed organic phase consisting of 13 semi-volatile and 2 involatile species (Topping et. al., 2012), as well as the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction scheme of Bertram & Thornton (2009). We aim to use WRF-Chem to compare the oxidation capacity of nighttime NO3 chemistry with that of daytime OH chemistry. The model was run using two nested grids: a 15km resolution domain over western Europe, containing a 5km resolution domain over the UK. The RONOCO campaign consisted

  4. ChemEd Bridges: Building Bridges between Two-Year College Chemistry Faculty and the National Chemical Education Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Harry; Brown, David R.

    2010-01-01

    ChemEd Bridges is an NSF-funded project that provides career and professional development opportunities for chemistry faculty members who teach at two-year colleges (2YCs). We broaden the interests and the horizons of these faculty members by building bridges between them and the broader community of chemical educators. In particular, we have…

  5. ChemVoyage: A Web-Based, Simulated Learning Environment with Scaffolding and Linking Visualization to Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Christopher; Karuso, Peter; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The Web is now a standard tool for information access and dissemination in higher education. The prospect of Web-based, simulated learning platforms and technologies, however, remains underexplored. We have developed a Web-based tutorial program (ChemVoyage) for a third-year organic chemistry class on the topic of pericyclic reactions to…

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Open-Access ChemWiki Resource as a Replacement for Traditional General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gregory; Guzman-Alvarez, Alberto; Smith, Amy; Gamage, Alan; Molinaro, Marco; Larsen, Delmar S.

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OERs) provide a potential alternative to costly textbooks and can allow content to be edited and adapted to a variety of classroom environments. At the University of California, Davis, the OER "ChemWiki" project, as part of the greater STEMWiki Hyperlibrary, was developed to supplant traditional post-secondary…

  7. The "Virtual ChemLab" Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations is created for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called 'Virtual ChemLab'. A detailed assessment of student responses is provided and the simulation's pedagogical utility is described using the organic simulation.

  8. Chemistry Outreach Project to High Schools Using a Mobile Chemistry Laboratory, ChemKits, and Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary L.; Bailey, Carol A.; Bunn, Barbara B.; Slebodnick, Carla; Johnson, Michael R.; Derozier, Shad

    2012-01-01

    The Chemistry Outreach Program (ChOP) of Virginia Tech was a university-based outreach program that addressed the needs of high school chemistry classes in underfunded rural and inner-city school districts. The primary features of ChOP were a mobile chemistry laboratory (MCL), a shipping-based outreach program (ChemKits), and teacher workshops.…

  9. Rotational Analysis of FTIR Spectra from Cigarette Smoke: An Application of Chem Spec II Software in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Alan R.; Burns, William A.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2004-01-01

    A version of the classic gas phase infrared experiment was developed for students at Arkansas State University based on the shortcomings of the rotationally resolved infrared experiment. Chem Spec II is a noncommercial Windows-based software package developed to aid in the potentially complicated problem of assigning quantum numbers to observed…

  10. New method for assessment of anal sensation in various anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Roe, A M; Bartolo, D C; Mortensen, N J

    1986-04-01

    A new technique for quantifying anal sensation utilizing mucosal electrosensitivity is described and has been tested in 97 patients. Normal subjects (n = 20) have a sensory threshold varying from 2 to 7.3 mA being most acute in the region of the anal valves. Sensory awareness also extends into the upper anal canal. Patients with neuropathic incontinence (n = 17) have a sensory deficit (P less than 0.002) whilst patients with haemorrhoids (n = 28) have less sensitive mucosa displaced into the upper anal canal (P less than 0.0001). Patients with acute fissure-in-ano (n = 10) have lower thresholds of sensation at the site of the fissure and slow transit constipation patients (n = 22) have normal anal sensation. The technique is reproducible and should prove useful in the investigation of anorectal disorders. PMID:3697665

  11. [Japanese HIV-infected men who have sex with men screened for anal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Itoda, Ichiro; Kitamura, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of and the risk factors for abnormal anal cytology among Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM) who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have not been fully investigated up to now. We conducted a nested case-control study of 81 HIV-infected Japanese MSM treated with antiretroviral therapy at a sexuality minority affirmative clinic between April 2010 and March 2011. Results showed that 41 (50.6%) of the 81 had normal anal cytology, 13 (16.0%) atypical squamous cells, 24 (29.6%) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 3 (3.7%) high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. No carcinoma cases were seen. Multivariate analysis showed abnormal anal cytology to be associated with a history of genital condyloma (OR 4.19, p = .021). We concluded that abnormal anal cytology was common among HIV-infected Japanese MSM. Effective screening and management should be planned for precancerous anal lesions. PMID:22250457

  12. The magnetic anal sphincter: a new device in the management of severe fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mantoo, Surendra; Meurette, Guillaume; Podevin, Juliette; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2012-09-01

    The authors aim to report the concept and technique of implantation and the first results of the clinical use of the magnetic anal sphincter (MAS) in the management of fecal incontinence (FI). The MAS device is designed to augment the native anal sphincter. The implant is a series of titanium beads with magnetic cores linked together with independent titanium wires. To defecate, the force generated by straining separates the beads to open up the anal canal. The technique of implantation is simple with no requirement of adjustments. The MAS has a role in the management of severe FI. The device has acceptable and comparable adverse effects to other therapies. FI and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scores are significantly improved in the short term. The MAS offers a simple and less invasive option of anal reinforcement. It is one step further in the quest for an ideal artificial anal sphincter device. PMID:23116075

  13. [Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk patients].

    PubMed

    Sendagorta, E; Herranz, P; Guadalajara, H; Zamora, F X

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has increased alarmingly, particularly in high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men and immunosuppressed patients. Infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus in the anal canal or perianal skin leads to anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN), progressive dysplastic intraepithelial lesions that are the precursors of anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN can be diagnosed through cytological screening and biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy and can be treated using a range of procedures in an effort to prevent progression to invasive anal carcinoma. Given the recent advances in the understanding of this disease, and the increasing calls from experts for the establishment of screening programs to identify AIN, we review current knowledge on the condition, its diagnosis, and treatment from the point of view of dermatology. PMID:21764027

  14. Peri-anal implantation of bioengineered human internal anal sphincter constructs intrinsically innervated with human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Gilmont, Robert R.; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to anal canal pressure and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, like generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the peri-anal region of athymic rodents. Methods Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. Upon maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted surgically into the perianal region of athymic rats. Growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks post-implantation. Results Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. Upon harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue, and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Conclusions Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. PMID:24582493

  15. Interpreting aerosol lifetimes using the GEOS-Chem model and constraints from radionuclide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, B.; Pierce, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol removal processes control global aerosol abundance, but the rate of that removal remains uncertain. A recent study of aerosol-bound radionuclide measurements after the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident documents 137Cs removal (e-folding) times of 10.0 to 13.9 days, suggesting that mean aerosol lifetimes in the range of 3-7 days in global models might be too short by a factor of two. In this study, we attribute this discrepancy to differences between the e-folding and mean aerosol lifetimes. We implement a~simulation of 137Cs and 133Xe into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and examine the removal rates for the Fukushima case. We find a~general consistency between modelled and measured e-folding times. The simulated 137Cs global burden e-folding time is about 14 days. However, the simulated mean lifetime of aerosol-bound 137Cs over a 6 month post-accident period is only 1.8 days. We find that the mean lifetime depends strongly on the removal rates in the first few days after emissions, before the aerosols leave the boundary layer and are transported to altitudes and latitudes where lifetimes with respect to wet removal are longer by a few orders of magnitude. We present sensitivity simulations that demonstrate the influence of differences in altitude and location of the radionuclides on the mean lifetime. Global mean lifetimes are shown to strongly depend on the altitude of injection. The global mean 137Cs lifetime is more than one order of magnitude greater for the injection at 7 km than into the boundary layer above the Fukushima site. Instantaneous removal rates are slower during the first few days after the emissions for a free tropospheric vs. boundary layer injection and this strongly controls the mean lifetimes. Global mean aerosol lifetimes for the GEOS-Chem model are 3-6 days, which is longer than for the 137Cs injected at the Fukushima site (likely due to precipitation shortly after Fukushima emissions), but about the same as the

  16. Interpreting aerosol lifetimes using the GEOS-Chem model and constraints from radionuclide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, B.; Pierce, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    Aerosol removal processes control global aerosol abundance, but the rate of that removal remains uncertain. A recent study of aerosol-bound radionuclide measurements after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident documents 137Cs removal (e-folding) times of 10.0-13.9 days, suggesting that mean aerosol lifetimes in the range of 3-7 days in global models might be too short by a factor of two. In this study, we attribute this discrepancy to differences between the e-folding and mean aerosol lifetimes. We implement a simulation of 137Cs and 133Xe into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and examine the removal rates for the Fukushima case. We find a general consistency between modelled and measured e-folding times. The simulated 137Cs global burden e-folding time is about 14 days. However, the simulated mean lifetime of aerosol-bound 137Cs over a 6-month post-accident period is only 1.8 days. We find that the mean lifetime depends strongly on the removal rates in the first few days after emissions, before the aerosols leave the boundary layer and are transported to altitudes and latitudes where lifetimes with respect to wet removal are longer by a few orders of magnitude. We present sensitivity simulations that demonstrate the influence of differences in altitude and location of the radionuclides on the mean lifetime. Global mean lifetimes are shown to strongly depend on the altitude of injection. The global mean 137Cs lifetime is more than one order of magnitude greater for the injection at 7 km than into the boundary layer above the Fukushima site. Instantaneous removal rates are slower during the first few days after the emissions for a free tropospheric versus boundary layer injection and this strongly controls the mean lifetimes. Global mean aerosol lifetimes for the GEOS-Chem model are 3-6 days, which is longer than that for the 137Cs injected at the Fukushima site (likely due to precipitation shortly after Fukushima emissions), but similar to the

  17. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP. PMID:22529447

  18. Evaluation of WRF-CHEM Model: A case study of Air Pollution Episode in Istanbul Metropolitan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydınöz, Esra; Gürer, Kemal; Toros, Hüseyin

    2014-05-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Europe with a population of about 14 million and nearly 3.2 million registered vehicles. Considering that the city is at the junction of major transportation routes on both land and sea, emissions from all motor vehicles operating in the city and those that are in transit is the major source of pollution. The natural gas is used as the major heat source and the impact of other heating sources on the pollution episodes is not clearly known. During 19-29 December 2013 İstanbul metropolitan area experienced a severe PM10 episode with average episode concentration of 127µgm-3 . The episode was associated with a high pressure system with center pressure of 1030 mb residing over Balkans and north of Black Sea and thereby influencing Istanbul. We carried out simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-CHEM) v3.5 to examine the meteorological conditions and to produce estimates of PM10 over Istanbul for 17-31 December 2013. The three nested domains was setup using 18, 6 and 2 km horizontal grid spacing with (90x90), (115x115) and (130x130) grid points in 1st, 2nd and 3rd domains, respectively. The each domain was run using one way nesting option after preparing the results from the mother domain as an input to subsequent inner domain. 34 vertical levels were used with the lowest layer depth of 15 m above the surface and extending to 15 km at the model top. The model was configured using the model options after many tests to find optimal model parameters and was initialized using global emissions data available publicly. The local emissions database is still in works and is not available to use in the model instead of global data. The estimated PM10 concentrations were compared against the observed conditions. This work shows the first attempt of using WRF-CHEM in Turkey to estimate the pollutant concentrations instead of using other air pollution models such as WRF/CMAQ combination. At the time of

  19. Iodine's impact on tropospheric oxidants: a global model study in GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, T.; Evans, M. J.; Carpenter, L. J.; Andrews, S. J.; Lidster, R. T.; Dix, B.; Koenig, T. K.; Sinreich, R.; Ortega, I.; Volkamer, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Prados-Roman, C.; Mahajan, A. S.; Ordóñez, C.

    2016-02-01

    We present a global simulation of tropospheric iodine chemistry within the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. This includes organic and inorganic iodine sources, standard gas-phase iodine chemistry, and simplified higher iodine oxide (I2OX, X = 2, 3, 4) chemistry, photolysis, deposition, and parametrized heterogeneous reactions. In comparisons with recent iodine oxide (IO) observations, the simulation shows an average bias of ˜ +90 % with available surface observations in the marine boundary layer (outside of polar regions), and of ˜ +73 % within the free troposphere (350 hPa < p < 900 hPa) over the eastern Pacific. Iodine emissions (3.8 Tg yr-1) are overwhelmingly dominated by the inorganic ocean source, with 76 % of this emission from hypoiodous acid (HOI). HOI is also found to be the dominant iodine species in terms of global tropospheric IY burden (contributing up to 70 %). The iodine chemistry leads to a significant global tropospheric O3 burden decrease (9.0 %) compared to standard GEOS-Chem (v9-2). The iodine-driven OX loss rate1 (748 Tg OX yr-1) is due to photolysis of HOI (78 %), photolysis of OIO (21 %), and reaction between IO and BrO (1 %). Increases in global mean OH concentrations (1.8 %) by increased conversion of hydroperoxy radicals exceeds the decrease in OH primary production from the reduced O3 concentration. We perform sensitivity studies on a range of parameters and conclude that the simulation is sensitive to choices in parametrization of heterogeneous uptake, ocean surface iodide, and I2OX (X = 2, 3, 4) photolysis. The new iodine chemistry combines with previously implemented bromine chemistry to yield a total bromine- and iodine-driven tropospheric O3 burden decrease of 14.4 % compared to a simulation without iodine and bromine chemistry in the model, and a small increase in OH (1.8 %). This is a significant impact and so halogen chemistry needs to be considered in both climate and air quality models. 1 Here OX is defined as O3 + NO2 + 2

  20. ChemCam results from the Shaler outcrop in Gale crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bridges, J.C.; Williams, A.; Edgar, L.; Ollila, A.; Williams, J.; Nachon, Marion; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Schieber, J.; Gupta, S.; Dromart, G.; Wiens, R.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Forni, O.; Lanza, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Sautter, V.; Blaney, D.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin, E.; Lewis, K.W.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H.; Schwenzer, S.P.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ChemCam campaign at the fluvial sedimentary outcrop “Shaler” resulted in observations of 28 non-soil targets, 26 of which included active laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and all of which included Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) images. The Shaler outcrop can be divided into seven facies based on grain size, texture, color, resistance to erosion, and sedimentary structures. The ChemCam observations cover Facies 3 through 7. For all targets, the majority of the grains were below the limit of the RMI resolution, but many targets had a portion of resolvable grains coarser than ∼0.5 mm. The Shaler facies show significant scatter in LIBS spectra and compositions from point to point, but several key compositional trends are apparent, most notably in the average K2O content of the observed facies. Facies 3 is lower in K2O than the other facies and is similar in composition to the “snake,” a clastic dike that occurs lower in the Yellowknife Bay stratigraphic section. Facies 7 is enriched in K2O relative to the other facies and shows some compositional and textural similarities to float rocks near Yellowknife Bay. The remaining facies (4, 5, and 6) are similar in composition to the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members, although the Shaler facies have slightly elevated K2O and FeOT. Several analysis points within Shaler suggest the presence of feldspars, though these points have excess FeOT which suggests the presence of Fe oxide cement or inclusions. The majority of LIBS analyses have compositions which indicate that they are mixtures of pyroxene and feldspar. The Shaler feldspathic compositions are more alkaline than typical feldspars from shergottites, suggesting an alkaline basaltic source region, particularly for the K2O-enriched Facies 7. Apart from possible iron-oxide cement, there is little evidence for chemical alteration at Shaler, although calcium-sulfate veins comparable to those observed lower in the stratigraphic section are present. The

  1. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can

  2. ChemCam results from the Shaler outcrop in Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, J. C.; Williams, A.; Edgar, L.; Ollila, A.; Williams, J.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Schieber, J.; Gupta, S.; Dromart, G.; Wiens, R.; Le Mouélic, S.; Forni, O.; Lanza, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Sautter, V.; Blaney, D.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Léveillé, R.; Lewin, E.; Lewis, K. W.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-03-01

    The ChemCam campaign at the fluvial sedimentary outcrop "Shaler" resulted in observations of 28 non-soil targets, 26 of which included active laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and all of which included Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) images. The Shaler outcrop can be divided into seven facies based on grain size, texture, color, resistance to erosion, and sedimentary structures. The ChemCam observations cover Facies 3 through 7. For all targets, the majority of the grains were below the limit of the RMI resolution, but many targets had a portion of resolvable grains coarser than ∼0.5 mm. The Shaler facies show significant scatter in LIBS spectra and compositions from point to point, but several key compositional trends are apparent, most notably in the average K2O content of the observed facies. Facies 3 is lower in K2O than the other facies and is similar in composition to the "snake," a clastic dike that occurs lower in the Yellowknife Bay stratigraphic section. Facies 7 is enriched in K2O relative to the other facies and shows some compositional and textural similarities to float rocks near Yellowknife Bay. The remaining facies (4, 5, and 6) are similar in composition to the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members, although the Shaler facies have slightly elevated K2O and FeOT. Several analysis points within Shaler suggest the presence of feldspars, though these points have excess FeOT which suggests the presence of Fe oxide cement or inclusions. The majority of LIBS analyses have compositions which indicate that they are mixtures of pyroxene and feldspar. The Shaler feldspathic compositions are more alkaline than typical feldspars from shergottites, suggesting an alkaline basaltic source region, particularly for the K2O-enriched Facies 7. Apart from possible iron-oxide cement, there is little evidence for chemical alteration at Shaler, although calcium-sulfate veins comparable to those observed lower in the stratigraphic section are present. The differing

  3. WRF-Chem model sensitivity to chemical mechanisms choice in reconstructing aerosol optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, A.; Pirovano, G.; Honzak, L.; Žabkar, R.; Curci, G.; Forkel, R.; Hirtl, M.; San José, R.; Tuccella, P.; Grell, G. A.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the AQMEII initiative WRF-Chem has been applied over Europe adopting two chemical configurations for the calendar year 2010. The first one employed the RADM2 gas-phase chemistry and MADE/SORGAM aerosol module, while the second one implemented the CBM-Z gaseous parameterization and MOSAIC aerosol chemistry. Configurations shared the same domain, meteorological setups and input data. The Comparison demonstrated that CBM-Z has a more efficient ozone-NO titration than RADM2 in regions with sufficiently high levels of NOx and VOCs. At the same time, CBM-Z is found to have a more effective NO2 + OH reaction. The parameterization of the relative humidity of deliquescence point has a strong impact on HNO3 and NO3 concentrations over Europe, particularly over the sea. The MADE approach showed to be more efficient than MOSAIC. Differently, particulate sulfate and SO2 ground concentrations proved to be more influenced by the heterogeneous SO2 cloud oxidation. PM10 and PM2.5 have shown similar results for MOSAIC and MADE/SORGAM, even though some differences were found in the dust and sea salt size partitioning between modes and bins. Indeed, in MADE the sea salt was distributed only in the coarse fraction, while the dust emissions were distributed mainly in the fine fraction. Finally, different chemical mechanisms give different Aerosol Optical Depths (AOD). WRF-Chem is found to under predict the AODs in both configurations because of the misrepresentation of the dust coarse particle, as shown by the analysis of the relationship between the Angström exponent and the AOD bias. Differently, when the AOD is dominated by fine particles, the differences in model performance are more evident, with MADE/SORGAM generally performing better than MOSAIC. Indeed the higher availability of both sulfate and nitrate has a significant influence on reconstruction of the AOD estimations. This paper shows the great importance of chemical mechanisms in both gaseous and

  4. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  5. The hero, the anima and the claustrum: anality and idealization.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2012-04-01

    Joe Redfearn's (1979) classic paper 'The captive, the treasure, the hero and the anal stage of development' is recognized as seminal to the development of Jungian thought about anality, particularly its integration with mainstream (Freudian, Kleinian) psychoanalytic perspectives. This paper develops such an approach through drawing on contributions from Meltzer, Green, Bion, Chasseguet-Smirgel and Kernberg. More specifically, it is argued that over-investment in hero and anima archetypal configurations may represent an attempt to replace the resource of the internal parental couple that, at the level of unconscious phantasy, has been destroyed by the aggrieved child's attack on the primal scene. Unless this usually dissociated sadism can be integrated, the creative epistemophilic instinct may remain blunted, giving rise, through projective identification, to the adoption of a pseudo-adult identity based on appropriation or assertion. This in turn may lead to manic attempts to reach authentic ('animating') experience through the (often erotized) excitement of heroic endeavour. Consideration of both Redfearn's and the author's own clinical material demonstrates how close attention to process as well as content is fundamental to revealing and addressing such likely-to-be dissociated scenarios. PMID:22444354

  6. A case of syphilitic anal condylomata lata mimicking malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tayal, Sarup; Shaban, Fadlo; Dasgupta, Kaushik; Tabaqchali, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Condylata lata in secondary syphilis is well known presentation and needs to be considered in differential diagnosis of perianal lesions. In England between 2013 and 2014 the overall incidence of infectious syphilis increased by 33% and is mainly seen in men who have sex with men. Presentation of case We report the management of a 49-years-old Caucasian homosexual man with perianal lesions that were suspicious of malignancy. After biopsies, colonoscopy, staging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and syphilis serology anal cancer was excluded and a diagnosis of syphilis was confirmed. He was referred to the sexual health clinic for the appropriate investigations and treatment. Discussion This case highlights the consideration of treatable infectious syphilis pathology. The main differential diagnosis of perianal growths to consider is condylomata acuminata (warts caused by human papillomavirus), anal cancer, syphilis, chancroid, haemorrhoids, tuberculosis and lymphogranuloma venereum. To differentiate a biopsy is needed for histopathological examination. A dense plasma cell infiltrate and numerous spirochetes visualised by immunostaining confirms condylomata lata. Conclusion In UK, it is important for colorectal surgeons to be aware of syphilitic condylomata lata and consider this when dealing with perianal lesions. It is advisable to refer patients suspected of or diagnosed with syphilis to sexual health clinics to help improve outcome. In sexual health clinics additional investigations and treatment are available in addition to partner notification and follow-up can be offered. PMID:26555060

  7. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  8. Development by Genetic Immunization of Monovalent Antibodies (Nanobodies) Behaving as Antagonists of the Human ChemR23 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Peyrassol, Xavier; Laeremans, Toon; Gouwy, Mieke; Lahura, Vannessa; Debulpaep, Maja; Van Damme, Jo; Steyaert, Jan; Parmentier, Marc; Langer, Ingrid

    2016-03-15

    The generation of Abs that recognize the native conformation of G protein-coupled receptors can be a challenging task because, like most multimembrane-spanning proteins, they are extremely difficult to purify as native protein. By combining genetic immunization, phage display, and biopanning, we identified two functional monovalent Abs (nanobodies) targeting ChemR23. The two nanobodies (CA4910 and CA5183) were highly specific for the human receptor and bind ChemR23 with moderate affinity. Binding studies also showed that they share a common binding site that overlaps with that of chemerin, the natural ligand of ChemR23. Consistent with these results, we found that the nanobodies were able to antagonize chemerin-induced intracellular calcium increase. The inhibition was partial when chemerin was used as agonist and complete when the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide was used as agonist. Engineering of a bivalent CA4910 nanobody resulted in a relatively modest increase in affinity but a marked enhancement of efficacy as an antagonist of chemerin induced intracellular calcium mobilization and a much higher potency against the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide-induced response. We also demonstrated that the fluorescently labeled nanobodies detect ChemR23 on the surface of human primary cell populations as efficiently as a reference mouse mAb and that the bivalent CA4910 nanobody behaves as an efficient antagonist of chemerin-induced chemotaxis of human primary cells. Thus, these nanobodies constitute new tools to study the role of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26864035

  9. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  10. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

  11. AMPTE/CCE CHEM observations of the energetic ion population at geosynchronous altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents results of a statistical study of average characteristics of the energetic ion population at geosynchronous altitudes, using energetic-ion (1-300 keV/e) measurements from the CHEM spectrometer aboard the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer between January 1985 and June 1987. Data were sorted into four MLT groups and two extreme geomagnetic activity levels ('very quiet' for AE less than 30 nT and 'very active' for AE greater than 700 nT). A clear quiet-time dayside feature found in the measurements was a dip in H(+) and He(2+) spectra, at 6.6 keV/e in the prenoon sector and at 3.5 keV/e in the postnoon sector. During active times, the ion fluxes increased (except for He(+)), and the O(+) contribution to the total energy density increased dramatically. The pitch angle distributions were normal during quiet times and isotropic or field-aligned during active times.

  12. Modeling Transport in Gas Chromatography Columns for the Micro-ChemLab

    SciTech Connect

    ADKINS,DOUGLAS R.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HUDSON,MARY L.; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; SHADID,JOHN N.; WONG, CHUNGNIN CHANN

    1999-09-01

    The gas chromatography (GC) column is a critical component in the microsystem for chemical detection ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) being developed at Sandia. The goal is to etch a meter-long GC column onto a 1-cm{sup 2} silicon chip while maintaining good chromatographic performance. Our design strategy is to use a modeling and simulation approach. We have developed an analytical tool that models the transport and surface interaction process to achieve an optimized design of the GC column. This analytical tool has a flow module and a separation module. The flow module considers both the compressibility and slip flow effects that may significantly influence the gas transport in a long and narrow column. The separation module models analyte transport and physico-chemical interaction with the coated surface in the GC column. It predicts the column efficiency and performance. Results of our analysis will be presented in this paper. In addition to the analytical tool, we have also developed a time-dependent adsorption/desorption model and incorporated this model into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate analyte transport and separation process in GC columns. CFD simulations can capture the complex three-dimensional flow and transport dynamics, whereas the analytical tool cannot. Different column geometries have been studied, and results will be presented in this paper. Overall we have demonstrated that the modeling and simulation approach can guide the design of the GC column and will reduce the number of iterations in the device development.

  13. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Soot Emissions on Precipitation over Western CONUS Using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, H. L. R.; Liou, K. N.; Gu, Y.; Wu, L.; Fovell, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    The current Exceptional Drought (US Drought Monitor) over the Western Continental United States (CONUS) warrants an in-depth investigation of possible causes of decreased precipitation. Soot, a mixture of black carbon and organic carbon, can increase in its hygroscopicity by two-fold (at relative humidity of 80%) when coated with sulfuric acid, rendering smaller, although quantitatively more, cloud particles. This has the potential to exacerbate the aridity in the western states. In this study, we examined the role of soot and its possible effect on reducing precipitation west of and over the Rocky Mountains from an online and coupled meteorological and chemical perspective. In particular, we utilized the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model at the horizontal resolution of 30 km, employing the Fu-Liou-Gu plane-parallel radiation scheme and a three dimensional parametrization over mountainous areas to account for direct and indirect feedback of soot and cloud particles, including ice crystals, to understand precipitation patterns based on simulation results. Identifying factors that can mediate drought severity will improve hydrological prediction, and subsequent resource usage and allocation.

  15. CAM-chem: description and evaluation of interactive atmospheric chemistry in the Community Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Emmons, L.; Hess, Peter; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Tilmes, S.; Vitt, Francis; Heald, C. L.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Neu, J.; Orlando, J. J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2012-03-27

    We discuss and evaluate the representation of atmospheric chemistry in the global Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 4, the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We present a variety of configurations for the representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, wet removal, and online and offline meteorology. Results from simulations illustrating these configurations are compared with surface, aircraft and satellite observations. Major biases include a negative bias in the high-latitude CO distribution, a positive bias in upper-tropospheric/lower-stratospheric ozone, and a positive bias in summertime surface ozone (over the United States and Europe). The tropospheric net chemical ozone production varies significantly between configurations, partly related to variations in stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Aerosol optical depth tends to be underestimated over most regions, while comparison with aerosol surface measurements over the United States indicate reasonable results for sulfate, especially in the online simulation. Other aerosol species exhibit significant biases. Overall, the model-data comparison indicates that the offline simulation driven by GEOS5 meteorological analyses provides the best simulation, possibly due in part to the increased vertical resolution (52 levels instead of 26 for online dynamics). The CAM-chem code as described in this paper, along with all the necessary datasets needed to perform the simulations described here, are available for download at www.cesm.ucar.edu.

  16. Identification of "Known Unknowns" Utilizing Accurate Mass Data and ChemSpider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, James L.; Williams, Antony J.; Pshenichnov, Alexey; Tkachenko, Valery

    2012-01-01

    In many cases, an unknown to an investigator is actually known in the chemical literature, a reference database, or an internet resource. We refer to these types of compounds as "known unknowns." ChemSpider is a very valuable internet database of known compounds useful in the identification of these types of compounds in commercial, environmental, forensic, and natural product samples. The database contains over 26 million entries from hundreds of data sources and is provided as a free resource to the community. Accurate mass mass spectrometry data is used to query the database by either elemental composition or a monoisotopic mass. Searching by elemental composition is the preferred approach. However, it is often difficult to determine a unique elemental composition for compounds with molecular weights greater than 600 Da. In these cases, searching by the monoisotopic mass is advantageous. In either case, the search results are refined by sorting the number of references associated with each compound in descending order. This raises the most useful candidates to the top of the list for further evaluation. These approaches were shown to be successful in identifying "known unknowns" noted in our laboratory and for compounds of interest to others.

  17. Preliminary performance assessment of biotoxin detection for UWS applications using a MicroChemLab device.

    SciTech Connect

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2010-03-01

    In a multiyear research agreement with Tenix Investments Pty. Ltd., Sandia has been developing field deployable technologies for detection of biotoxins in water supply systems. The unattended water sensor or UWS employs microfluidic chip based gel electrophoresis for monitoring biological analytes in a small integrated sensor platform. This instrument collects, prepares, and analyzes water samples in an automated manner. Sample analysis is done using the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} analysis module. This report uses analysis results of two datasets collected using the UWS to estimate performance of the device. The first dataset is made up of samples containing ricin at varying concentrations and is used for assessing instrument response and detection probability. The second dataset is comprised of analyses of water samples collected at a water utility which are used to assess the false positive probability. The analyses of the two sets are used to estimate the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC curves for the device at one set of operational and detection algorithm parameters. For these parameters and based on a statistical estimate, the ricin probability of detection is about 0.9 at a concentration of 5 nM for a false positive probability of 1 x 10{sup -6}.

  18. ChemScan—an on-line ultraviolet spectral process analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beemster, Bernard J.; Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1996-03-01

    ChemScan is a product line of ultraviolet, on-line process analyzers that grew out of a NASA SBIR program targeted at on-line monitoring of plant nutrient solutions as part of the NASA CELSS program. The original goal for NASA was to provide on-line measurement of all the hydroponic plant nutrients necessary to develop and maintain a plant growth facility in space. Two different spectrometric techniques were applied to provide on-line measurements of all plant nutrients. One technology, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry, provided on-line measurements of nitrate, iron, and some of the transition metal nutrients. This technology not only demonstrated a capability to meet these CELSS needs but has now been incorporated into a family of commercial analytical instruments used for environmental process monitoring and control applications. A second technology, Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES), also originated in this same NASA SBIR, is still at an earlier stage of development and is expected to reach the market in the next 18-24 months.

  19. Background error statistics for aerosol variables from WRF/Chem predictions in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Zengliang; Hao, Zilong; Pan, Xiaobin; Li, Zhijin; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Li; Li, Qinbin

    2015-05-01

    Background error covariance (BEC) is crucial in data assimilation. This paper addresses the multivariate BEC associated with black carbon, organic carbon, nitrates, sulfates, and other constituents of aerosol species. These aerosol species are modeled and predicted using the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry scheme (MOSAIC) in the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model at a resolution of 4 km in Southern California. The BEC is estimated from the differences between the 36-hour and 12-hour forecasts using the NMC method. The results indicated that the maximum background error standard deviation is associated with nitrate and is larger than that of black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate. The horizontal and vertical scale of the correlation of nitrate is much smaller than that of other species. A significant cross-correlation is found between the species of black carbon and organic carbon. The cross-correlations between nitrate and other variables are relatively smaller and exhibit a relatively smaller length scale. Single observation data assimilation experiments are performed to illustrate the effect of the BEC on analysis increments.

  20. Recent advancements in the gas-phase MicroChemLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Wheeler, David; Sokolowski, Sara; Trudell, Dan; Byrnes, Joy; Okandan, Murat; Bauer, Joseph M.; Manley, Robert G.

    2004-12-01

    Sandia's hand-held MicroChemLabTM system uses a micromachined preconcentrator (PC), a gas chromatography channel (GC) and a quartz surface acoustic wave array (SAW) detector for sensitive/selective detection of gas-phase chemical analytes. Requisite system size, performance, power budget and time response mandate microfabrication of the key analytical system components. In the fielded system hybrid integration has been employed, permitting optimization of the individual components. Recent improvements in the hybrid-integrated system, using plastic, metal or silicon/glass manifolds, is described, as is system performance against semivolatile compounds and toxic industrial chemicals. The design and performance of a new three-dimensional micropreconcentrator is also introduced. To further reduce system dead volume, eliminate unheated transfer lines and simplify assembly, there is an effort to monolithically integrate the silicon PC and GC with a suitable silicon-based detector, such as a magnetically-actuated flexural plate wave sensor (magFPW) or a magnetically-actuated pivot plate resonator (PPR).

  1. Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) Spectroscopy of Altered Basalts with Application to the ChemCam Library for Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadnott, B.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of Fe, Mg, and Al clays on Mars using VNIR spectroscopy from orbit indicates past low temperature/pressure hydrothermal and weathering environments. Laboratory analysis of Mars-analog rocks from these settings on Earth was used to build the ChemCam sample library for Mars Science Laboratory, permitting for more accurate compositional analysis of Martian samples, improved linkages between VNIR's mineralogic and ChemCam's elemental data, and improved recognition of different environmental settings for aqueous alteration. VNIR spectroscopy was used to analyze 4 suites of altered basaltic rocks—one from San Carlos, AZ and three from various locations in Iceland. Continuum shape and absorption features were found to vary, depending on the environment and extent of alteration. Relatively unaltered rocks had electronic absorptions related to ferrous iron. The strength of the 1.9- μm (μm = microns) H2O absorption correlated with the degree of aqueous alteration. Samples with strong 1.9- μm absorptions often exhibited absorption bands at 1.4, 2.2, and 2.3 μm indicating the presence of clay minerals and/or features at 0.5-0.8 μm indicative of ferric iron oxides. Diagnostic absorption features and continuum slopes have been used to identify a representative subset of rocks from each suite for further analysis for the ChemCam library. Noteworthy spectral features for all suites included variation of absorption bands from 2.0-2.5 μm. Most samples contained an absorption band near 2.21 μm, indicating the presence of Si-OH or Al-OH; a 2.3 μm band is also present in some samples, indicating the presence of Mg-OH and Fe-OH, with subtle shifts between 2.29 and 2.35 μm indicating the major cation and constituent phase (e.g. amorphous phase, smectite or chlorite). Overall continuum slope correlated with the degree of alteration. Flat slopes contained weak 1.9 μm bands (little alteration) and sometimes ferrous iron absorptions of primary minerals. Negative

  2. Development of a grid-independent GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (v9-02) as an atmospheric chemistry module for Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. S.; Yantosca, R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Keller, C. A.; da Silva, A.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Pawson, S.; Jacob, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (CTM), used by a large atmospheric chemistry research community, has been re-engineered to also serve as an atmospheric chemistry module for Earth system models (ESMs). This was done using an Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) interface that operates independently of the GEOS-Chem scientific code, permitting the exact same GEOS-Chem code to be used as an ESM module or as a stand-alone CTM. In this manner, the continual stream of updates contributed by the CTM user community is automatically passed on to the ESM module, which remains state of science and referenced to the latest version of the standard GEOS-Chem CTM. A major step in this re-engineering was to make GEOS-Chem grid independent, i.e., capable of using any geophysical grid specified at run time. GEOS-Chem data sockets were also created for communication between modules and with external ESM code. The grid-independent, ESMF-compatible GEOS-Chem is now the standard version of the GEOS-Chem CTM. It has been implemented as an atmospheric chemistry module into the NASA GEOS-5 ESM. The coupled GEOS-5-GEOS-Chem system was tested for scalability and performance with a tropospheric oxidant-aerosol simulation (120 coupled species, 66 transported tracers) using 48-240 cores and message-passing interface (MPI) distributed-memory parallelization. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the GEOS-Chem chemistry module scales efficiently for the number of cores tested, with no degradation as the number of cores increases. Although inclusion of atmospheric chemistry in ESMs is computationally expensive, the excellent scalability of the chemistry module means that the relative cost goes down with increasing number of cores in a massively parallel environment.

  3. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Barbosa, Tânia Wanderley Paes; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher's test), particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001) and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. PMID:24339460

  4. The epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Machalek, Dorothy A; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Templeton, David J; Poynten, I Mary

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are essential to understand the significance of this virus in the aetiology of anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM). This paper presents a review of studies on anal HPV in MSM. For this review, a Medline search was performed to identify English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals on the epidemiology, natural history and risk factors for anal HPV infection in MSM. Anal HPV prevalence is high in MSM and infection with multiple HPV types is common. The available prospective data suggest detection of new anal HPV infections may also be common. However, with limited epidemiological data available on infection dynamics and associated behavioural risk factors, it is difficult to draw conclusions on how persistent anal HPV infection is in this population. PMID:23380235

  5. Anal signs of child sexual abuse: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty about the nature and specificity of physical signs following anal child sexual abuse. The study investigates the extent to which physical findings discriminate between children with and without a history of anal abuse. Methods Retrospective case note review in a paediatric forensic unit. Cases: all eligible cases from1990 to 2007 alleging anal abuse. Controls: all children examined anally from 1998 to 2007 with possible physical abuse or neglect with no identified concern regarding sexual abuse. Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed) was performed to ascertain the significance of differences for individual signs between cases and controls. To explore the potential role of confounding, logistic regression was used to produce odds ratios adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 184 cases (105 boys, 79 girls), average age 98.5 months (range 26 to 179) were compared with 179 controls (94 boys, 85 girls) average age 83.7 months (range 35–193). Of the cases 136 (74%) had one or more signs described in anal abuse, compared to 29 (16%) controls. 79 (43%) cases and 2 (1.1%) controls had >1 sign. Reflex anal dilatation (RAD) and venous congestion were seen in 22% and 36% of cases but <1% of controls (likelihood ratios (LR) 40, 60 respectively), anal fissure in 14% cases and 1.1% controls (LR 13), anal laxity in 27% cases and 3% controls (LR 10). Novel signs seen significantly more commonly in cases were anal fold changes, swelling and twitching. Erythema, swelling and fold changes were seen most commonly within 7 days of last reported contact; RAD, laxity, venous congestion, fissure and twitching were observed up to 6 months after the alleged assault. Conclusions Anal findings are more common in children alleging anal abuse than in those presenting with physical abuse or neglect with no concern about sexual abuse. Multiple signs are rare in controls and support disclosed anal abuse. PMID:24884914

  6. Complex rectal and anal canal injuries secondary to unusual blunt perineal trauma.

    PubMed

    El Lakis, Mustapha A; Rida, Khaled; Nakhle, Ram; Abi Saad, George

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman sustained a trauma to her perineal area when she was ejected from a jet ski while riding on water at high speed. The patient presented to the emergency department with blood streaking from her anal canal. Imaging revealed pneumoperitoneum. Surgical intervention showed complex anal canal and rectal injuries. Primary repair of the injuries was performed. Postoperatively the patient did well and was followed up with no evidence of residual symptoms and with a continent anal sphincter. PMID:25352384

  7. Retrospective Audit of the Management of Anal Insertion of Foreign Bodies: A Holistic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, Ahmed; Chukwuma, Jude

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with voluntary anal insertion of a foreign body (IFB) present to the emergency department and are then managed by the surgical team. This report reviews the medical literature on IFB and includes results of a chart review of operative logged interventions and clinically coded procedures for anal IFBs at a single acute hospital in the United Kingdom between May 2009 and September 2013. The objective was to establish the current practice in the management of anal IFB and update a framework for the initial workup, surgical procedure, and appropriate mental health intervention. PMID:27247831

  8. Anal sphincter injury. Management and results of Parks sphincter repair.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G G; Motson, R W

    1984-01-01

    The surgical management of a consecutive series of 97 patients with complete division of the anal sphincter musculature is reported. The sphincter damage followed operative, traumatic, or obstetric injury and resulted in frank fecal incontinence or the urgent necessity of a defunctioning colostomy. All patients were treated by delayed sphincter repair using an overlapping technique; in 93 the repair was protected by a temporary defunctioning stoma. There were no deaths. The repair was completely successful in 65 (78%) and partially successful in 11 (13%) of the 83 patients assessed from 4 to 116 months after surgery. Complications occurred in 27 patients but did not usually affect the eventual clinical outcome. Provided there has been no major neurological damage to the sphincter complex, surgical reconstruction can be expected to restore continence in most patients. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6703796

  9. Planar spin-transfer device with dynamical polarizer and analizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazaliy, Yaroslaw; Kravchenko, Anton

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of the planar spin-transfer devices with monodomain magnetic layers can be described by the macrospin Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation with spin-transfer terms. The LLG description of a device with two layers is simplified after applying the overdamped, large easy-plane anisotropy approximation. A decrease of the magnetic layer thickness asymmetry creates a transition from the conventional polarizer-analizer (``fixed layer -- free layer'') operation regime to the regime of the nearly identical magnets. Here electric current leads to a ``Slonczewski windmill'' dynamic state, rather than producing the magnetic switching. The ``windmill'' precession state of a device with two free layers was investigated by numerical solution of the LLG equation.

  10. The epidemiology of anal incontinence and symptom severity scoring

    PubMed Central

    Nevler, Avinoam

    2014-01-01

    For many patients, anal incontinence (AI) is a devastating condition that can lead to social isolation and loss of independence, contributing to a substantial economic health burden, not only for the individual but also for the allocation of healthcare resources. Its prevalence is underestimated because of poor patient reporting, with many unrecorded but symptomatic cases residing in nursing homes. Endosonography has improved our understanding of the incidence of post-obstetric sphincter tears that are potentially suitable for repair and those cases resulting from anorectal surgery, most notably after fistula and hemorrhoid operations. The clinical scoring systems assessing the severity of AI are discussed in this review, along with their limitations. Improvements in the standardization of these scales will advance our understanding of treatment response in an era where the therapeutic options have multiplied and will permit a better comparison between specific therapies. PMID:24759339

  11. Technical aspects of radiation therapy for anal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Eli D.; Ahmed, Inaya; Yue, Ning J.

    2014-01-01

    Historically treated with surgery, current practice recommends anal carcinoma to be treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. This review will examine the anatomy, modes of disease spread and recurrence, and evaluate the existing evidence for treatment options for these tumors. An in-depth examination of specific radiation therapy (RT) techniques—such as conventional 3D-conformal RT and intensity-modulated RT—will be discussed along with modern dose constraints. RT field arrangement, patient setup, and recommended gross and clinical target volume (CTV) contours will be considered. Areas in need of further investigation, such as the role in treatment for positron emission tomography (PET) will be explored. PMID:24982768

  12. [Preservation of the anal sphincter in low rectal lesions].

    PubMed

    Arthur, K E; Guerra, M

    1997-01-01

    We have discussed the surgical options to save the anorectal sphincter in lesions within the lower 2/3 of the rectum. We presented four clinical cases: two villous adenomas, one adenocarcinoma and one benign tumor, probably of embryonic origin. We discussed the surgical options in order to avoid a permanent colostomy. There is not a single surgical procedure that we can count on to preserve the anal sphincter, either in benign or malignant lesions. The surgeons treating this pathology should consider all options and be able to select the most adequate, the less complicated and yet be able to preserve continence. The surgeons should remember that in treating malignant lesions "a curative resection is worth a colostomy". PMID:9805095

  13. Operational on-line coupled chemical weather forecasts for Europe with WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Mantovani, Simone; Krüger, Bernd C.; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Air quality is a key element for the well-being and quality of life of European citizens. Air pollution measurements and modeling tools are essential for the assessment of air quality according to EU legislation. The responsibilities of ZAMG as the national weather service of Austria include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. Meteorology is simulated simultaneously with the emissions, turbulent mixing, transport, transformation, and fate of trace gases and aerosols. The emphasis of the application is on predicting pollutants over Austria. Two domains are used for the simulations: the mother domain covers Europe with a resolution of 12 km, the inner domain includes the alpine region with a horizontal resolution of 4 km; 45 model levels are used in the vertical direction. The model runs 2 times per day for a period of 72 hours and is initialized with ECMWF forecasts. On-line coupled models allow considering two-way interactions between different atmospheric processes including chemistry (both gases and aerosols), clouds, radiation, boundary layer, emissions, meteorology and climate. In the operational set-up direct-, indirect and semi-direct effects between meteorology and air chemistry are enabled. The model is running on the HPCF (High Performance Computing Facility) of the ZAMG. In the current set-up 1248 CPUs are used. As the simulations need a big amount of computing resources, a method to safe I/O-time was implemented. Every MPI task writes all its output into the shared memory filesystem of the compute nodes. Once the WRF/Chem integration is finished, all split NetCDF-files are merged and saved on the global file system. The merge-routine is based on parallel-NetCDF. With this method the model runs about 30% faster on the SGI

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma for decontamination of chem/bio warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, H.W.; Selwyn, G.S.; Henins, I.; Park, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) is a unique, capacitively-coupled rf, nonthermal, uniform discharge operating at atmospheric pressure with a high flow of He/O{sub 2} feedgas. The APPJ generates highly reactive atomic and metastable species of oxygen and directs them onto a contaminated surface at high velocity. This may provide a much needed method of decontamination of CBW agents which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment. The reactive effluent of the APPJ at 175 C has been shown to kill Bacillus globigii spores, a surrogate for Anthrax, with a D value (time to reduce viability by a factor of 10) of 4.5 sec at a standoff distance of 0.5 cm. This is 10 times faster than hot gas at the same temperature and requires 80% less energy input to achieve the same level of kill. This D value is also an order of magnitude better than achieved by other nonthermal plasma discharges, and unlike these other discharges, the APPJ provides a downstream process which can be applied to all accessible surfaces with no need for the contaminated object to fit within a chamber. Through active cooling of the electrodes, the authors have also achieved a D value of 15 sec at an effluent temperature of just 75 C, making the decontamination of personnel a definite possibility. The APPJ has also been shown to oxidize surrogates of the CW agents, Mustard and VX, and a collaborative effort is now proceeding with the actual agents at the Edgewood Chem/Bio Center (ECBC, formerly ERDEC). Efforts are now being directed towards reducing the consumption of He and increasing the working stand-off distance.

  15. Performance of WRF-Chem over Indian region: Comparison with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govardhan, Gaurav; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-06-01

    The aerosol mass concentrations over several Indian regions have been simulated using the online chemistry transport model, WRF-Chem, for two distinct seasons of 2011, representing the pre-monsoon (May) and post-monsoon (October) periods during the Indo-US joint experiment `Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)'. The simulated values were compared with concurrent measurements. It is found that the model systematically underestimates near-surface BC mass concentrations as well as columnar Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) from the measurements. Examining this in the light of the model-simulated meteorological parameters, we notice the model overestimates both planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and surface wind speeds, leading to deeper mixing and dispersion and hence lower surface concentrations of aerosols. Shortcoming in simulating rainfall pattern also has an impact through the scavenging effect. It also appears that the columnar AODs are influenced by the unrealistic emission scenarios in the model. Comparison with vertical profiles of BC obtained from aircraft-based measurements also shows a systematic underestimation by the model at all levels. It is seen that concentration of other aerosols, viz., dust and sea-salt are closely linked with meteorological conditions prevailing over the region. Dust is higher during pre-monsoon periods due to the prevalence of north-westerly winds that advect dust from deserts of west Asia into the Indo-Gangetic plain. Winds and rainfall influence sea-salt concentrations. Thus, the unrealistic simulation of wind and rainfall leads to model simulated dust and sea-salt also to deviate from the real values; which together with BC also causes underperformance of the model with regard to columnar AOD. It appears that for better simulations of aerosols over Indian region, the model needs an improvement in the simulation of the meteorology.

  16. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchynka, D.

    1995-12-31

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. Versatility of the treatment technology, volume reduction and containment of the radioactive component of the mixed waste streams are three criteria to be considered when evaluating potential treatment technologies. The ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process being developed under this R and D contract is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of a mixed waste stream to an energy-rich synthesis gas while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganic species (metals and acid gases) on a macroporous, carbon-based char. The latter is mixed with the waste stream prior to entering the reactor. Substoichiometric amounts of oxidant are fed into the top portion of the cylindrical reactor generating a thin, radial thermochemical reaction zone. This zone generates all the necessary heat to promote the highly endothermic reduction of the organic components in the waste in the lower portion of the reactor, producing, principally, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The solid by-product is a regenerated carbon char that, depending on the inorganic loading, is capable for reuse. The in situ scrubbing of contaminants by the char within the reactor coupled with a char filter for final polishing produce an exceptionally clean synthesis gas effluent suitable for on-site generation of heat, steam or electricity. Despite the elevated temperatures in the thermochemical reaction zone, the reductive nature of the process precludes formation of nitrogen oxides and halogenated organic compound by-products.

  17. How wild is your model fire? Constraining WRF-Chem wildfire smoke simulations with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pierce, J. R.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Magzamen, S.; Gan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) present during acute pollution events is associated with adverse health effects. While many anthropogenic pollution sources are regulated in the United States, emissions from wildfires are difficult to characterize and control. With wildfire frequency and intensity in the western U.S. projected to increase, it is important to more precisely determine the effect that wildfire emissions have on human health, and whether improved forecasts of these air pollution events can mitigate the health risks associated with wildfires. One of the challenges associated with determining health risks associated with wildfire emissions is that the low spatial resolution of surface monitors means that surface measurements may not be representative of a population's exposure, due to steep concentration gradients. To obtain better estimates of ambient exposure levels for health studies, a chemical transport model (CTM) can be used to simulate the evolution of a wildfire plume as it travels over populated regions downwind. Improving the performance of a CTM would allow the development of a new forecasting framework that could better help decision makers estimate and potentially mitigate future health impacts. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate wildfire plume evolution. By varying the model resolution, meteorology reanalysis initial conditions, and biomass burning inventories, we are able to explore the sensitivity of model simulations to these various parameters. Satellite observations are used first to evaluate model skill, and then to constrain the model results. These data are then used to estimate population-level exposure, with the aim of better characterizing the effects that wildfire emissions have on human health.

  18. Modeling of SO2 dispersion from the 2014 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arnason, Gylfi; Palsson, Thorgeir; Eliasson, Jonas; Weber, Konradin; Böhlke, Christoph; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Tirpitz, Lukas; Platt, Ulrich; Smith, Paul D.; Jones, Roderic L.

    2015-04-01

    The fissure eruption in Holuhraun in central Iceland is the country's largest lava and gas eruption since 1783 but has produced very little volcanic ash. The eruption started in late August 2014 and is still ongoing as of January 2015. The main threat from this event has been atmospheric pollution of SO2 that is carried by wind to all parts of the country and produces elevated concentrations of SO2 that have frequently violated National Air Quality Standards (NAQS) in many population centers. The Volcanic Ash Research (VAR) group in Iceland is focused on airborne measurement of ash contamination to support safe air travel, as well as various gas concentrations. In relation to the Holuhraun eruption the VAR group has organized an investigation campaign including 10 measurement flights and performed measurements of both the source emissions and the plume distribution. SO2 concentrations measured at the source showed clear potential for creating pollution events in the toxic range and contamination of surface waters. The data obtained in the measurement campaign was used for calibration of the WRF-chem model of the dispersion of SO2 and volcanic ash concentration. The model has both been run in operational forecast mode (since mid October) as well as in a dynamical downscaling mode, to estimate the dispersion and fallout of SO2 from the plume. The model results indicate that a large part of the sulphur was precipitated in the Icelandic highlands. The first melt waters during the spring thaw are likely to contain acid sulphur compounds that can be harmful for vegetation, with the highland vegetation being the most vulnerable. These results will be helpful to estimate the pollution load on farmlands and pastures of farmers.

  19. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  20. Feldspars Detected by ChemCam in Gale Crater with Implications for Future Martian Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, P. J.; Carlson, E.; Wiens, R. C.; Bridges, J.; Sautter, V.; Cousin, A.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Clegg, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Feldspar is a common igneous mineral that can shed light on parent magma temperatures, pressures, and compositions. During the first 801 sols of the NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission, we have detected 125 possible feldspar grains using the ChemCam LIBS instrument. We analyzed spectra from successive laser shots at the same location and approximate whole rock compositions for each target. Feldspar-containing targets range from tephrite-basanite to trachyandesite. The most common feldspar type is andesine; no targets are >An60. Over 30% are anorthoclase, and ~10% have potassium contents up to Or60. Individual shot measurements in a single spot suggest some feldspars are zoned. Most of these rocks are either float or incorporated into conglomerates, and thus we do not know their provenance. Many of the samples may originate from the Gale crater walls, indicative of Southern Highland ancient crust. Some may also be flung from further away (e.g., emplaced by impact processes). Hence, these rocks may give us a general clue to the variety of evolved igneous materials on Mars. The ubiquity of feldspars at Gale suggests that they have been significantly underestimated for the Southern Highlands, if not for the whole of Mars. For example, significant abundance of andesitic feldspars in both the southern highland and northern lowlands of Mars would imply that Martian volcanism has produced a greater extent of evolved igneous materials to a greater degree than previously thought. Remote sensing instruments are insensitive to plagioclase due to dust cover, lack of exposures, or low feldspar FeO content. However, the Mars 2020 rover will be equipped with 3 new instruments, the arm-mounted SHERLOC Raman, PIXL μXRF, and the mast-mounted SuperCam combined Raman-LIBS instruments, which should help characterize Martian feldspars. Additionally, the SuperCam instrument plans to include three feldspars in its suite of 20+ onboard standards to improve feldspar chemical analysis.

  1. Comment on ``Model of saturated lithium ammonia as a single-component liquid metal'' [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 074702 (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuev, Gennady N.; Quémerais, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate in this Comment that the theory of simple metals applied to the saturated Li -NH3 solution in the titled paper [U. Pinsook and S. Hannongbua, J. Chem. Phys.124, 074702 (2006)] should account for the peculiarities of the solution, namely, the high solvent polarizability and different energy scales for ion-ion and electron-electron interactions. Calculations not taking into account these peculiarities contradict the experimental phase diagram of the Li -NH3 solution.

  2. 77 FR 47427 - Accreditation and Approval of Chem Gas International LLC, as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ...Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Chem Gas International LLC, 12002 Highway 146, Dickinson, TX 77539, has been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13. Anyone wishing to employ this entity to......

  3. Data mining PubChem using a support vector machine with the Signature molecular descriptor: classification of factor XIa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weis, Derick C; Visco, Donald P; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2008-11-01

    The amount of high-throughput screening (HTS) data readily available has significantly increased because of the PubChem project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). There is considerable opportunity for data mining of small molecules for a variety of biological systems using cheminformatic tools and the resources available through PubChem. In this work, we trained a support vector machine (SVM) classifier using the Signature molecular descriptor on factor XIa inhibitor HTS data. The optimal number of Signatures was selected by implementing a feature selection algorithm of highly correlated clusters. Our method included an improvement that allowed clusters to work together for accuracy improvement, where previous methods have scored clusters on an individual basis. The resulting model had a 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 89%, and additional validation was provided by two independent test sets. We applied the SVM to rapidly predict activity for approximately 12 million compounds also deposited in PubChem. Confidence in these predictions was assessed by considering the number of Signatures within the training set range for a given compound, defined as the overlap metric. To further evaluate compounds identified as active by the SVM, docking studies were performed using AutoDock. A focused database of compounds predicted to be active was obtained with several of the compounds appreciably dissimilar to those used in training the SVM. This focused database is suitable for further study. The data mining technique presented here is not specific to factor XIa inhibitors, and could be applied to other bioassays in PubChem where one is looking to expand the search for small molecules as chemical probes. PMID:18829357

  4. Classification/Quantification of non-homogeneous basalts using Multivariate Analysis for MSL/ChemCam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.

    2011-10-01

    ChemCam is part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - Curiosity - rover payload, which is scheduled for launch at the end of November 2011. This instrument is the first one using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for planetary exploration. Chemcam will investigate the geochemistry of the Martian surface [1, 2] at remote distances (1 to 7 m). It is composed of two physical parts: the Body Unit, located in the core of the rover, which includes three spectrometers and their electronics, and the Mast Unit, on top of the mast, which includes the laser, the telescope, the Remote Micro Imaging (RMI) and their electronics. ChemCam performs a small-footprint measurement (0,2 to 0,6 mm in diameter) : the LIBS technique creates a plasma of ablated material in electronically excited states, and then analyses the light with its spectrometers to obtain emission spectra and therefore analyze the composition of the sample. The Flight Model underwent several calibrations before delivery, with a wide range of samples and conditions [3]. Several tools are developed to analyze the data, like the peak identification tool with its ChemCam specific table, and statistical tools to determine the elemental composition of analyzed sample using "Partial Least Square" method (PLS) [4], and also to classify rocks using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) [5, 6, 7]. The objective of this work is to show the capability of ChemCam to classify phyric textured basalts with porphyrocrysts of variable compositions set in fine-grained mesostasis.

  5. Analysis of the WRF-Chem simulations contributing to the AQMEII-Phase II exercise with respect to aerosol impact on precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werhahn, Johannes; Balzarini, Allessandra; Baró, Roccio; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Langer, Matthias; Lorenz, Christof; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Tuccella, Paolo; Žabkar, Rahela

    2014-05-01

    Simulated feedback effects between aerosol concentrations and meteorological variables and on pollutant distributions are expected to depend on model configuration and the meteorological situation. In order to quantity these effects the second phase of the AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative; http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) model inter-comparison exercise focused on online coupled meteorology-chemistry models. Among others, seven of the participating groups contributed simulations with WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005) for Europe. According to the common simulation strategy for AQMEII phase 2, the entire year 2010 was simulated as a sequence of 2-day time slices. For better comparability, the seven groups using WRF-Chem applied the same grid spacing of 23 km and shared common processing of initial and boundary conditions as well as anthropogenic and fire emissions. The simulations differ by the chosen chemistry option, aerosol module, cloud microphysics, and by the degree of aerosol-meteorology feedback that was considered. Results from this small ensemble are analyzed with respect to the effect of the different degrees of aerosol-meteorology feedback, i.e. no aerosol feedback, direct aerosol effect, and direct plus indirect aerosol effect, on large scale precipitation. Simulated precipitation fields were compared against daily precipitation observations as given by E-OBS 25 km resolution gridded dataset from the EU-FP6 project ENSEMBLES (http://ensembles-eu.metoffice.com) and the data providers in the ECA&D project (http://www.ecad.eu). As expected, a first analysis confirms that the average impact of aerosol feedback is only very small on the considered spatial and temporal scale, i.e. due to the fact that initial meteorological conditions were taken every 3rd day from a one day non-feedback spin-up run. However, the analysis of the correlations between simulation and observations for the first and the second day indicates for some

  6. Air quality modeling for the urban Jackson, Mississippi Region using a high resolution WRF/Chem model.

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Dodla, Venkata B; Desamsetti, Srinivas; Challa, Srinivas V; Young, John H; Patrick, Chuck; Baham, Julius M; Hughes, Robert L; Yerramilli, Sudha; Tuluri, Francis; Hardy, Mark G; Swanier, Shelton J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to simulate the air quality with reference to ozone over the Jackson (Mississippi) region using an online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model. The WRF/Chem model has the advantages of the integration of the meteorological and chemistry modules with the same computational grid and same physical parameterizations and includes the feedback between the atmospheric chemistry and physical processes. The model was designed to have three nested domains with the inner-most domain covering the study region with a resolution of 1 km. The model was integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 0000 UTC of 6 June 2006 and the evolution of surface ozone and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. The model simulated atmospheric flow fields and distributions of NO2 and O3 were evaluated for each of the three different time periods. The GIS based spatial distribution maps for ozone, its precursors NO, NO2, CO and HONO and the back trajectories indicate that all the mobile sources in Jackson, Ridgeland and Madison contributing significantly for their formation. The present study demonstrates the applicability of WRF/Chem model to generate quantitative information at high spatial and temporal resolution for the development of decision support systems for air quality regulatory agencies and health administrators. PMID:21776240

  7. The ChemCam Remote Micro-Imager at Gale crater: Review of the first year of operations on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, S.; Gasnault, O.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, N. T.; Langevin, Y.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Pinet, P.; Newsom, H. E.; Deen, R. G.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Rapin, W.; Barraclough, B.; Blaney, D. L.; Deflores, L.; Maki, J.; Malin, M. C.; Pérez, R.; Saccoccio, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, "Curiosity" landed near the base of a 5 km-high mound of layered material in Gale crater. Mounted on the rover mast, the ChemCam instrument is designed to remotely determine the composition of soils and rocks located a few meters from the rover, using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) coupled to a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). We provide an overview of the diverse imaging investigations that were carried out by ChemCam's RMI during the first year of operation on Mars. 1182 individual panchromatic RMI images were acquired from Sol 10 to Sol 360 to document the ChemCam LIBS measurements and to characterize soils, rocks and rover hardware. We show several types of derived imaging products, including mosaics of images taken before and after laser shots, difference images to enhance the most subtle laser pits, merges with color Mastcam-100 images, micro-topography using the Z-stack technique, and time lapse movies. The very high spatial resolution of RMI is able to resolve rock textures at sub-mm scales, which provides clues regarding the origin (igneous versus sedimentary) of rocks, and to reveal information about their diagenetic and weathering evolution. In addition to its scientific value over the range accessible by LIBS (1-7 m), we also show that RMI can also serve as a powerful long distance reconnaissance tool to characterize the landscape at distances up to several kilometers from the rover.

  8. Air Quality Modeling for the Urban Jackson, Mississippi Region Using a High Resolution WRF/Chem Model

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Dodla, Venkata B.; Desamsetti, Srinivas; Challa, Srinivas V.; Young, John H.; Patrick, Chuck; Baham, Julius M.; Hughes, Robert L.; Yerramilli, Sudha; Tuluri, Francis; Hardy, Mark G.; Swanier, Shelton J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to simulate the air quality with reference to ozone over the Jackson (Mississippi) region using an online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting–Chemistry) model. The WRF/Chem model has the advantages of the integration of the meteorological and chemistry modules with the same computational grid and same physical parameterizations and includes the feedback between the atmospheric chemistry and physical processes. The model was designed to have three nested domains with the inner-most domain covering the study region with a resolution of 1 km. The model was integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 0000 UTC of 6 June 2006 and the evolution of surface ozone and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. The model simulated atmospheric flow fields and distributions of NO2 and O3 were evaluated for each of the three different time periods. The GIS based spatial distribution maps for ozone, its precursors NO, NO2, CO and HONO and the back trajectories indicate that all the mobile sources in Jackson, Ridgeland and Madison contributing significantly for their formation. The present study demonstrates the applicability of WRF/Chem model to generate quantitative information at high spatial and temporal resolution for the development of decision support systems for air quality regulatory agencies and health administrators. PMID:21776240

  9. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association between chronic diseases and diets characterized by rich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary components may act directly or indirectly on the human genome and modulate multiple processes involved in disease risk and disease progression. However, there is currently no exhaustive resource on the health benefits associated to specific dietary interventions, or a resource covering the broad molecular content of food. Here we present the first release of NutriChem, available at http://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts for information that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human disease phenotypes. NutriChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of 1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals, and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751 diseases. In addition, it includes predicted associations for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. To the best of our knowledge this database is the only resource linking the chemical space of plant-based foods with human disease phenotypes and provides a foundation for understanding mechanistically the consequences of eating behaviors on health. PMID:25106869

  10. Gaseous chemistry and aerosol mechanism developments for version 3.5.1 of the online regional model, WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Utembe, S.; Allan, J.; Zaveri, R. A.; Fast, J. D.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Denier van der Gon, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2014-11-01

    We have made a number of developments to the Weather, Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), with the aim of improving model prediction of trace atmospheric gas-phase chemical and aerosol composition, and of interactions between air quality and weather. A reduced form of the Common Reactive Intermediates gas-phase chemical mechanism (CRIv2-R5) has been added, using the Kinetic Pre-Processor (KPP) interface, to enable more explicit simulation of VOC degradation. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has been added to the existing sectional MOSAIC aerosol module, and coupled to both the CRIv2-R5 and existing CBM-Z gas-phase schemes. Modifications have also been made to the sea-spray aerosol emission representation, allowing the inclusion of primary organic material in sea-spray aerosol. We have worked on the European domain, with a particular focus on making the model suitable for the study of nighttime chemistry and oxidation by the nitrate radical in the UK atmosphere. Driven by appropriate emissions, wind fields and chemical boundary conditions, implementation of the different developments are illustrated, using a modified version of WRF-Chem 3.4.1, in order to demonstrate the impact that these changes have in the Northwest European domain. These developments are publicly available in WRF-Chem from version 3.5.1 onwards.

  11. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una

  12. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Cancer.gov

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  13. A wide field-of-view scanning endoscope for whole anal canal imaging.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Lai, Lily L; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-02-01

    We report a novel wide field-of-view (FOV) scanning endoscope, the AnCam, which is based on contact image sensor (CIS) technology used in commercialized business card scanners. The AnCam can capture the whole image of the anal canal within 10 seconds with a resolution of 89 μm, a maximum FOV of 100 mm × 120 mm, and a depth-of-field (DOF) of 0.65 mm at 5.9 line pairs per mm (lp/mm). We demonstrate the performance of the AnCam by imaging the entire anal canal of pigs and tracking the dynamics of acetowhite testing. We believe the AnCam can potentially be a simple and convenient solution for screening of the anal canal for dysplasia and for surveillance in patients following treatment for anal cancer. PMID:25780750

  14. [A Case of Anal Canal Carcinoma with Inguinal Lymph Node Metastasis Treated with Laparoscopic Abdominoperineal Resection].

    PubMed

    Tonooka, Toru; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kainuma, Osamu; Soda, Hiroaki; Cho, Akihiro; Saito, Hiroshige; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Yanagibashi, Hiroo; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Chibana, Tomofumi; Tokoro, Yukinari; Nagata, Matsuo

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of anal canal cancer with inguinal lymph node metastasis treated with laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection combined with inguinal lymph node dissection. A 52-year-old woman was diagnosed with anal squamous carcinoma after excision of an anal canal tumor. Further examination revealed right inguinal lymph node metastasis. Chemoradiotherapy was administered but was discontinued because of serious adverse events. We therefore performed laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection combined with inguinal lymph node dissection. The pathological findings revealed residual squamous cell carcinoma at the lymphatic vessels in the rectal wall and lymph nodes, including the right inguinal region. Therapeutic effect of Grade 1a was achieved in spite of interruption of the chemoradiotherapy. She was discharged 17 days after the operation, and no recurrence was observed for 11 months. Radical resection was performed for the anal canal squamous cell carcinoma with the metastasis to the right inguinal lymph node, even after interruption of the chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26805350

  15. Histochemical properties of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in canine anal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nara, T.; Yasui, T.; Fujimori, O.; Meyer, W.; Tsukise, A.

    2011-01-01

    The functional properties of sialic acids appear to be manifold. Additionally, antimicrobial substances serve as a non-specific defense against microorganisms. In this study, therefore, the localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in the anal glands of dog was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium, luminal secretions and excretory ducts exhibited high levels of sialoglycoconjugates that terminated in Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc or Siaα2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc. Additionally, O-acetylated sialic acids were detectable in these glandular structures. Antimicrobial substances, such as lysozyme, immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and the peptide group of β-defensins, were also demonstrated as products of the anal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the anal glands. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion at the anal mucosa. PMID:22073376

  16. [The usefulness of manometry in the determination of the morphology of the anal canal].

    PubMed

    Gil-Vernet, J M; Asensio, M; Marhuenda, C; Broto, J; Lloret, J; Boix-Ochoa, J

    1997-07-01

    The appearance of the new lecture systems for the manometry studies by computer, like the Polygram by Synectics (vector volume), offer the possibility to see the circumferential pressure forces, that even in rest conditions as in voluntary contraction, they keep coaptation of the anal canal, and this will act as a continent closure system in the most distal part of the G.I. tract. The study is with the normal parameters obtained in 14 individuals, considered as normal, getting the mean +/- sd pressure of the anal canal convey in mm Hg, from de anal canal profile in rest as in voluntary contraction, and the maximum variability that could exist between the six profile waves, that are obtained in the same individual to develop an image of the anal canal. This valves will allow the author's to get to the bottom of fecal incontinence derivative from anorectal malformations, defining the pressure valves of muscular hypoplasia or surgical outcomes of the malformations. PMID:9376242

  17. Rare Case of Anal Canal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Associated with Perianal and Vulvar Pagetoid Spread

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Cho, Hyun Yee; Baek, Jeong-Heum; Jeong, Juhyeon; Ha, Seung Yeon; Seok, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Won; Sym, Sun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chung, Dong Hae

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman was referred to surgery for incidentally found colonic polyps during a health examination. Physical examination revealed widespread eczematous skin lesion without pruritus in the perianal and vulvar area. Abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an approximately 4-cm-sized, soft tissue lesion in the right perianal area. Inguinal lymph node dissection and Mils’ operation extended to perianal and perivulvar skin was performed. Histologically, the anal canal lesion was composed of mucin-containing signet ring cells, which were similar to those found in Pagetoid skin lesions. It was diagnosed as an anal canal signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) with perianal and vulvar Pagetoid spread and bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis. Anal canal SRCC is rare, and the current case is the third reported case in the English literature. Seven additional cases were retrieved from the world literature. Here, we describe this rare case of anal canal SRCC with perianal Pagetoid spread and provide a literature review. PMID:26447133

  18. Anal Papilloma: An Exceptional Presentation of Fibrocystic Disease in Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands

    PubMed Central

    Subashchandrabose, Priya; Esakkai, Muthuvel; Venugopal, Palani; Kannaiyan, Ilavarasan; Srinivasan, Chitra; Reddy, Punuru Tejashwini; Ebenezer, Evelyn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previously ectopic breast tissue was thought to be derived from the caudal remnants of the primitive embryonic milk ridges; anogenital mammary-like glands are presently considered as normal constituents of the anogenital region. We report a case of young female, who presented with an anal papilloma. Histopathological examination revealed extensive fibrocystic changes in anogenital mammary-like glands. To date, a lot of benign changes and a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported in these glands. However, extensive fibrocystic change of these glands in anal region is very rare. In addition, fibrocystic disease of anal mammary glands, masquerading clinically as an anal papilloma, has not been reported in literature. Hence, it is essential for clinicians and the pathologists to be aware of such a rare presentation. The features of fibrocystic disease in perianal region are also discussed. PMID:26495147

  19. Human papillomavirus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal with papillary features

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Marino E; Shamekh, Rania; Coppola, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involving the anal canal is a well-known carcinoma associated with high-risk types of HPV. HPV-related SCC with papillary morphology (papillary SCC) has been described in the oropharynx. We describe, for the first time, a case of anal HPV-related squamous carcinoma with papillary morphology. The tumor arose from the anal mucosa. The biopsies revealed a superficially invasive SCC with prominent papillary features and associated in situ carcinoma. The tumor cells were positive for p16 and were also positive for high-risk types of HPV using chromogenic in situ hybridization. The findings are consistent with a HPV-related SCC of the anal canal with papillary features. This tumor shows histologic features similar to a papillary HPV-related SCC of the oropharynx. Additional studies are needed to characterize these lesions. PMID:25717259

  20. A wide field-of-view scanning endoscope for whole anal canal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Lai, Lily L.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel wide field-of-view (FOV) scanning endoscope, the AnCam, which is based on contact image sensor (CIS) technology used in commercialized business card scanners. The AnCam can capture the whole image of the anal canal within 10 seconds with a resolution of 89 μm, a maximum FOV of 100 mm × 120 mm, and a depth-of-field (DOF) of 0.65 mm at 5.9 line pairs per mm (lp/mm). We demonstrate the performance of the AnCam by imaging the entire anal canal of pigs and tracking the dynamics of acetowhite testing. We believe the AnCam can potentially be a simple and convenient solution for screening of the anal canal for dysplasia and for surveillance in patients following treatment for anal cancer. PMID:25780750

  1. Anal human papillomavirus infection: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of related lesions.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, Maria; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Ravenda, Paola Simona; Chiocca, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is mostly asymptomatic, but may also have many diverse clinical signs encompassing benign ano-genital lesions, and carcinomas. Recently, interest has also particularly focused on anal cancer since, over the last decades, its incidence has been greatly increasing in developed countries, both in women and men and is drastically higher in specific risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 infected individuals. Approximately 88% of anal cancer cases worldwide are associated with HPV infection. This review summarizes our current understanding of anal HPV infection, discussing its epidemiology and risk factors in various populations, and the state of the art in the detection of anal HPV infection and its related lesions through both cytology and histology. Finally, we discuss the clinical management and therapy for these lesions. PMID:27050294

  2. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in Anal Swab Samples

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Michelle I.; Brown, Brandon J.; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Woo, Yin Ling

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ2 tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  3. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche human papillomavirus (HPV) linear array for HPV genotyping in anal swab samples.

    PubMed

    Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I; Brown, Brandon J; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; Gravitt, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  4. Modeling of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter: Development and performance assessment of EASYWRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, M.; Lebègue, P.; Visez, N.; Fèvre-Nollet, V.; Crenn, V.; Riffault, V.; Petitprez, D.

    2016-03-01

    The European emission Adaptation SYstem for the WRF-Chem model (EASYWRF-Chem) has been developed to generate chemical information supporting the WRF-Chem requirements from any emission inventory based on the CORINAIR methodology. Using RADM2 and RACM2 mechanisms, "emission species" are converted into "model species" thanks to the SAPRC methodology for gas phase pollutant and the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions. Furthermore, by adapting US EPA PM2.5 profiles, the processing of aerosol chemical speciation profiles separates the unspeciated PM2.5 emission into five chemical families: sulfates, nitrates, elemental carbon, organic aerosol and unspeciated aerosol. The evaluation of the model has been performed by separately comparing model outcomes with (i) meteorological measurements; (ii) NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations from the regional air quality monitoring network; (iii) hourly-resolved data from four field campaign measurements, in winter and in summer, on two sites in the French northern region. In the latter, a High Resolution - Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) provided non-refractory PM1 concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions as well as organic matter (OM), while an aethalometer provided black carbon (BC) concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction. Meteorological data (temperature, wind, relative humidity) are well simulated for all the time series data except for specific events as wind direction changes or rainfall. For particulate matter, results are presented by considering firstly the total mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10. EASYWRF-Chem simulations overestimated the PM10 mass concentrations by + 22% and + 4% for summer and winter periods respectively, whereas for the finer PM2.5 fraction, mass concentrations were overestimated by + 20% in summer and underestimated by - 13% in winter. Simulated sulfate concentrations were underestimated and nitrate concentrations were overestimated but hourly variations were well

  5. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Sautter, V.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  6. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning. PMID:25887064

  7. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  8. Five-year cumulative incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients according to baseline anal cytology results: an inception cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cachay, E.; Agmas, W.; Mathews, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of, and rates of progression to, invasive anal cancer (IAC) according to baseline anal cytology screening category in an unselected HIV clinical care cohort in the antiretroviral era. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-infected patients under care at the University of California at San Diego Owen Clinic was carried out. Patients were eligible for this analysis if they had at least two anal cytohistological results available for longitudinal analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of IAC over time according to baseline cytology category [less than high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) versus HSIL]. Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for the following covariates: antiretroviral use, level of HIV viraemia, smoking status and infrared photocoagulation (IRC) ablation therapy. Results Between 2000 and 2012, we followed 2804 HIV-infected patients for a median of 4 years under a clinic protocol requiring baseline anal cytology screening. Incident IAC was diagnosed in 23 patients. Patients with a baseline HSIL anal cytology had an estimated 5-year probability of progression to IAC of 1.7% and an estimated annual progression risk of 1 in 263. None of the examined covariates was significantly associated with IAC incidence when examined in separate unadjusted Cox models. Conclusions HIV-infected patients with a baseline HSIL anal cytology had a 5-year cumulative incidence of IAC of 1.65%, with an upper 95% confidence bound of 4.5%. This population-based study provides quantitative risk estimates that may be used for counselling patients regarding management options for abnormal cytology results. PMID:25197003

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the microphysics scheme in WRF-Chem contributions to AQMEII phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baró, Rocio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Balzarini, Alessandra; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Grell, Georg; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Langer, Matthias; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Žabkar, Rahela

    2015-08-01

    The parameterization of cloud microphysics is a crucial part of fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry models, since microphysics governs the formation, growth and dissipation of hydrometeors and also aerosol cloud interactions. The main objective of this study, which is based on two simulations for Europe contributing to Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) is to assess the sensitivity of WRF-Chem to the selection of the microphysics scheme. Two one-year simulations including aerosol cloud interactions with identical physical-chemical parameterizations except for the microphysics scheme (Morrison -MORRAT vs Lin -LINES) are compared. The study covers the difference between the simulations for two three-month periods (cold and a warm) during the year 2010, allowing thus a seasonal analysis. Overall, when comparing to observational data, no significant benefits from the selection of the microphysical schemes can be derived from the results. However, these results highlight a marked north-south pattern of differences, as well as a decisive impact of the aerosol pollution on the results. The MORRAT simulation resulted in higher cloud water mixing ratios over remote areas with low CCN concentrations, whereas the LINES simulation yields higher cloud water mixing ratios over the more polluted areas. Regarding the droplet number mixing ratio, the Morrison scheme was found to yield higher values both during winter and summer for nearly the entire model domain. As smaller and more numerous cloud droplets are more effective in scattering shortwave radiation, the downwelling shortwave radiation flux at surface was found to be up to 30 W m-2 lower for central Europe for the MORRAT simulation as compared to the simulation using the LINES simulation during wintertime. Finally, less convective precipitation is simulated over land with MORRAT during summertime, while no almost difference was found for the winter. On the other hand, non

  10. Overview of the diagenetic features analyzed by ChemCam onboard Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Blaney, D. L.; Wiens, R. C.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Le Deit, L.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maurice, S.; Meslin, P. Y.; Rapin, W.; Newsom, H. E.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Curiosity rover has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks with significant variations in both texture and composition. Most of the sandstones and mudstones are interpreted as having been deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, as analyzed in details in the waypoints named Yellowknife Bay, Kimberley and Pahrump. All of these sediments have been crossed by diagenetic features of different composition. Light-toned Ca-sulfate veins observed initially at Yellowknife Bay were observed along the traverse, and in high density at the Pahrump location. As they appear in all sediments and show straight fractures, they correspond to late-stage diagenetic features, due to fluid circulation, with fractures probably due to hydraulic stress at depth. In contrast to light-toned veins, earlier-stage diagenetic features have shown variable composition in the three areas. At Yellowknife Bay, raised ridges display enriched Mg proportion, probably linked to Mg-clay whereas outcrops at Kimberley display fracture fills enriched in Mn and Zn. Pahrump displays a large variety of diagenetic features distinct from these previous examples. Mg-enriched concretions contain S and abundant Ni. Mg enrichments have also been observed in resistant zones along fractures and in resistant layers. Locally concretions also display high Fe, S-bearing material interpreted as Fe-sulfate, probably jarosite. A special location named Garden City at the top of the Parhump sequence displays a complex area with light-toned veins surrounded by darker veins. The latter display strong Ca signatures correlated with F, interpreted as fluorite. No C or S emissions were observed that could alternatively explain the high Ca abundance by carbonates or sulfates. The dark tone of the F-bearing minerals may be due to the presence of Fe. These specific dark veins could derive from the leaching of F-apatite, a mineral that has been observed both in the sandstones and in some of the igneous clasts analyzed by Chem

  11. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4

  12. Anal malignant proliferative trichilemmoma: report of a rare case with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ang; Mei, Zubing; Cui, Long

    2015-01-01

    Trichilemmoma is a rare type of benign cutaneous neoplasm, which derives from outer sheath of hair follicle. It barely develops malignant progression and has rarely been reported in anal cancer. In this article, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented to the outer-patient department with complaints of a ruptured and longstanding anal phyma. All the appearances were atypical. Blood routine examination showed that neutrophilic granulocyte percentage was elevated and suggest it was a simple inflammation response. No evidence of malignancy was detected upon the laboratory examinations. Then we performed an abscess incision drainage for the patient. A few days later, the biopsy pathological report suggested the specimen is a malignant proliferative trichilemmoma. We decided to perform a wide local excision instead of an extended radical operation in order to preserve anus. After the surgery, we chose not to give chemoradio-treatment for fear of side effects and complications. Careful follow-up indicates that peri-anal malignant proliferative trichilemmoma may have a good prognosis and our treatment is a good choice for the patients with this tumor. Because of the low occurrence rate of anal cancer, especially malignant trichilemmoma, any clinical manifestation and experience are valuable. On one hand, our case may help to take the consideration of the diagnosis of malignant trichilemmoma in case of longtime-suffered peri-anal mass, on the other hand it propose a different treatment method from other anal cancers for clinical doctors. PMID:26045866

  13. Successful Treatment of Metastatic Anal Canal Adenocarcinoma with mFOLFOX6 + Bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Mototsugu; Miwa, Keisuke; Oka, Yosuke; Nagasu, Sachiko; Sakaue, Takahiko; Fukahori, Masaru; Ushijima, Tomoyuki; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Anal canal adenocarcinoma is a relatively rare malignancy without established diagnostic and treatment criteria. Case reports of chemotherapy for anal canal adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis are limited, and there is no convincing evidence for treatment effectiveness. A 62-year-old man complained of difficulty in defecation, anal pain, and bleeding during bowel movement. He was diagnosed with moderately differentiated primary anal canal adenocarcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple metastases in the lung and liver. The patient was treated with abdominoperineal resection to control local tumor growth and then with chemotherapy consisting of mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab. Because he had an activating KRAS mutation, anti-EGFR therapy was not considered. A reduction in the size of lung and liver metastases was observed after 4 courses of mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab, and after 22 courses, maximum reduction in the metastatic lesions was achieved. The patient demonstrated tolerable levels of oxaliplatin-related peripheral neurotoxicity (grades 1–2) and was considered as having partial response to treatment. He is currently at the partial response state for 1 year. We plan to continue the treatment unless the patient develops progressive disease or intolerable adverse reactions. This case demonstrates that anal canal adenocarcinoma with distant metastases could be successfully treated with mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab therapy according to the guidelines for rectal carcinoma. However, as anal canal carcinoma has multiple histological subtypes, it is important to establish subtype-specific treatment strategies.

  14. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I.; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai‘i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger’s focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being “on the radar” of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through “real talk” (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai‘i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  15. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  16. Human papillomavirus in anal squamous cell carcinoma: an angel rather than a devil?

    PubMed

    Ravenda, Paola Simona; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Barberis, Massimo; Bottiglieri, Luca; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer is a rare disease with an increasing incidence worldwide but, unfortunately, even today the scientific community still has a limited knowledge and limited options of treatment. More than 50% of patients with anal cancer presenting at diagnosis with locoregional disease have good chances of cure with chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT). However, once patients develop metastatic spread, the prognosis is very poor. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in more than 80% of anal cancers and while multiple etiologic connections between HPV infection and anal cancer have already been well elucidated, its prognostic and/or predictive role is currently under investigation, especially among immunocompetent patients affected by this disease. In a single-institutional set, we have retrospectively analysed clinical data of 50 consecutive cases homogeneously treated with CT-RT for stage I-III anal squamous cell carcinoma. We found that HPV-positive anal cancers had a statistically significant improved five-year disease-free survival (DFS) compared to HPV-negative group. These findings could be explained by an increased chemo/radiosensitivity of HPV-positive tumours. Further efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of HPV-related oncogenesis and towards designing novel tailored strategies for the management of this disease both in terms of prevention and treatment. PMID:25987898

  17. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an “app” created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  18. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  19. Purse-string morphology of external anal sphincter revealed by novel imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Valmik; Sheean, Geoff; Ledgerwood, Melissa; Sinha, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    The external anal sphincter (EAS) may be injured in 25–35% of women during the first and subsequent vaginal childbirths and is likely the most common cause of anal incontinence. Since its first description almost 300 years ago, the EAS was believed to be a circular or a “donut-shaped” structure. Using three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound imaging, MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and muscle fiber tracking, we delineated various components of the EAS and their muscle fiber directions. These novel imaging techniques suggest “purse-string” morphology, with “EAS muscles” crossing contralaterally in the perineal body to the contralateral transverse perineal (TP) and bulbospongiosus (BS) muscles, thus attaching the EAS to the pubic rami. Spin-tag MRI demonstrated purse-string action of the EAS muscle. Electromyography of TP/BS and EAS muscles revealed their simultaneous contraction and relaxation. Lidocaine injection into the TP/BS muscle significantly reduced anal canal pressure. These studies support purse-string morphology of the EAS to constrict/close the anal canal opening. Our findings have implications for the effect of episiotomy on anal closure function and the currently used surgical technique (overlapping sphincteroplasty) for EAS reconstructive surgery to treat anal incontinence. PMID:24458022

  20. Anal malignant proliferative trichilemmoma: report of a rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ang; Mei, Zubing; Cui, Long

    2015-01-01

    Trichilemmoma is a rare type of benign cutaneous neoplasm, which derives from outer sheath of hair follicle. It barely develops malignant progression and has rarely been reported in anal cancer. In this article, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented to the outer-patient department with complaints of a ruptured and longstanding anal phyma. All the appearances were atypical. Blood routine examination showed that neutrophilic granulocyte percentage was elevated and suggest it was a simple inflammation response. No evidence of malignancy was detected upon the laboratory examinations. Then we performed an abscess incision drainage for the patient. A few days later, the biopsy pathological report suggested the specimen is a malignant proliferative trichilemmoma. We decided to perform a wide local excision instead of an extended radical operation in order to preserve anus. After the surgery, we chose not to give chemoradio-treatment for fear of side effects and complications. Careful follow-up indicates that peri-anal malignant proliferative trichilemmoma may have a good prognosis and our treatment is a good choice for the patients with this tumor. Because of the low occurrence rate of anal cancer, especially malignant trichilemmoma, any clinical manifestation and experience are valuable. On one hand, our case may help to take the consideration of the diagnosis of malignant trichilemmoma in case of longtime-suffered peri-anal mass, on the other hand it propose a different treatment method from other anal cancers for clinical doctors. PMID:26045866

  1. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review.

    PubMed

    Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Mooij, Sofie H; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J C; Prins, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor for ASCC, is present in about 30 % of HIV+ MSM, but neither the progression rate to ASCC nor the regression rate are known. The incidence rate of ASCC among HIV-infected people has risen in the first decade after cART became available, but appears to be plateauing recently. Anal cytology has poor sensitivity and specificity. High resolution anoscopy (HRA) is advocated by some as a screening tool in high-risk groups, but is cumbersome and time-consuming and it is unknown whether HRA followed by treatment of HGAIN prevents ASCC. More research is needed on progression and regression rates of HGAIN, on effective therapy of HGAIN, and on biomarkers that predict HGAIN or anal cancer. HPV vaccination and earlier start of cART may prevent most anal cancers in the long run. PMID:24990810

  2. Al-doping influence on crystal growth of Ni-Al alloy: Experimental testing of a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xi-Ming; Chen, Jun; Li, Jing-Tian; Zhuang, Jun; Ning, Xi-Jing

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a condensing potential model was developed to evaluate the crystallization ability of bulk materials [Ye X X, Ming C, Hu Y C and Ning X J 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 164711 and Peng K, Ming C, Ye X X, Zhang W X, Zhuang J and Ning X J 2011 Chem. Phys. Lett. 501 330], showing that the best temperature for single crystal growth is about 0.6Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature, and for Ni-Al alloy, more than 6 wt% of Al-doping will badly reduce the crystallization ability. In order to verify these predictions, we fabricated Ni-Al films with different concentrations of Al on Si substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition, and post-annealed the films at 833, 933, 1033 (˜ 0.6Tm), 1133, and 1233 K in vacuum furnace, respectively. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that annealing at 0.6Tm is indeed best for larger crystal grain formation, and the film crystallization ability remarkably declines with more than 6-wt% Al doping. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20130071110018) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274073).

  3. [The current place of abdomino-anal pull-through resection of the rectum in the modern rectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Nechaĭ, I A

    2014-01-01

    It was discussed abdomino-anal resection of rectum with relegation of colon excess in anal canal in case of cancer. It was presented the data about state of colo-anal functions in patients after such operations. The reasons of unsatisfactory functional results are analyzed in the article. Also it was described the factors influencing on violation of tank, evacuation and obturator functions. PMID:24874224

  4. Anal adenocarcinoma complicating chronic Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Papaconstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzos, Dionysios S.; Kondi-Pafiti, Agathi; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal adenocarcinoma and Crohn’s disease are known to be associated entities. However, a carcinoma arising within a chronic perianal fistulous tract in a patient with Crohn’s disease is a rare complication. Presentation of case We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient with a long-standing perianal Crohn’s disease who developed an anal mucinous adenocarcinoma within the fistulous tracts. Discussion Although, Crohn’s disease and colorectal carcinoma association is well established, few cases have been reported where the cancer has originated within a perianal fistula. Constant mucosal regeneration occurring within a fistula seems to be the predominant pathogenetic mechanism, while immunosuppressants and anti-TNF agents may also contribute to the malignant transformation. Unfortunately, the lack of suspicion and the inadequate physical examination or colonoscopy due to exacerbation of the perianal symptoms could lead to delayed diagnosis; and thus, a poor prognosis. Conclusion Albeit a rare complication, clinicians should maintain a high degree of vigilance about the possible development of adenocarcinoma in patients with long-standing perianal Crohn’s disease. Thus, these patients should be kept under regular surveillance with examination under anaesthesia and biopsies or curettage of the tracts. PMID:25884608

  5. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part I. Model evaluation and intercomparison with MM5/CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the application of the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.3.1 is evaluated over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2005 and compared with results from a previous application of an offline model system, i.e., the Mesoscale Model and Community Multiple Air Quality modeling system (MM5/CMAQ). The evaluation of WRF/Chem is performed using multiple observational datasets from satellites and surface networks in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. WRF/Chem simulates well specific humidity (Q2) and downward longwave and shortwave radiation (GLW and GSW) with normalized mean biases (NMBs) within 24%, but shows moderate to large biases for temperature at 2-m (T2) (NMBs of -9.8% to 75.6%) and precipitation (NMBs of 11.4-92.7%) for some months, and wind speed at 10-m (WS10) (NMBs of 66.5-101%), for all months, indicating some limitations in the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme, the Purdue Lin cloud microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme. WRF/Chem can simulate the column abundances of gases reasonably well with NMBs within 30% for most months but moderately to significantly underpredicts the surface concentrations of major species at all sites in nearly all months with NMBs of -72% to -53.8% for CO, -99.4% to -61.7% for NOx, -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9% to 33.3% for PM10, and aerosol optical depth in all months except for October with NMBs of -38.7% to -16.2%. The model significantly overpredicts surface concentrations of O3 at most sites in nearly all months with NMBs of up to 160.3% and NO3- at the Tsinghua site in all months. Possible reasons for large underpredictions include underestimations in the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SO2, and primary aerosol, inappropriate vertical distributions of emissions of SO2 and NO2, uncertainties in upper boundary conditions (e.g., for O3 and CO), missing or inaccurate model representations (e

  6. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part II. Model improvement and sensitivity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    .5, and -64.0% to 7.2% for PM10, comparing to -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -88.1% to -44.0% for NO2, -11.0%-160.3% for O3, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9%-33.3% for PM10 from the original simulation. The improved WRF/Chem is applied to estimate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate and air quality in East Asia. Anthropogenic aerosols can increase cloud condensation nuclei, aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. They can decrease surface net radiation, temperature at 2-m, wind speed at 10-m, planetary boundary layer height, and precipitation through various direct and indirect effects. These changes in turn lead to changes in chemical predictions in a variety of ways.

  7. Rectal atresia and anal stenosis: the difference in the operative technique for these two distinct congenital anorectal malformations.

    PubMed

    Lane, V A; Wood, R J; Reck, C; Skerritt, C; Levitt, M A

    2016-04-01

    Rectal atresia and anal stenosis are rare forms of anorectal malformations. The aim of the definitive surgical repair in such cases is to preserve the anal canal, the dentate line, and the sphincter complex. We present a case of rectal atresia and anal stenosis to demonstrate the differences in the operative repair. The techniques described leave the anterior wall of the very distal anal canal untouched in both rectal stenosis and anal atresia; however, the dissection of the rectum differs. The atretic rectum in rectal atresia is mobilized and sutured to the anal canal circumferentially. In anal stenosis, the posterior rectum is mobilized in the form of rectal advancement, and the posterior 180° is anastomosed directly to the skin (as in a standard PSARP) with preservation of the anal canal as the anterior 180° of the final anoplasty. These patients have an excellent prognosis for bowel control and fecal continence, and therefore, complete mobilization and resection of the anal canal must be avoided. PMID:26902368

  8. Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus in men having sex with women: A cross–national study

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Smith, Dan’elle; Villa, Luisa; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Background While the primary cause of anal cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the anal canal, little attention has been paid to the epidemiology of anal HPV in men having sex with women (MSW). Methods Anal canal exfoliated cells from 903 MSW in Brazil (São Paulo), Mexico (Cuernavaca) and the United States (Tampa) were tested for HPV DNA. Results HPV prevalence in the anal canal (12.0%) was similar in MSW in each city (P=0.77) while 7.0% had oncogenic types. Men in Tampa had a four–fold higher prevalence of HPV 16 than men in São Paulo or Cuernavaca (P<0.001). Duration of relationship with a primary sex partner and ever having oral or anal sex with a man was associated with any HPV type and any oncogenic type while lifetime number of female sex partners was associated with any HPV type. Conclusions Anal canal HPV is commonly found in MSW and the prevalence of HPV 16 may differ substantially by geography. Men with a larger number of female sex partners, in a sexual relationship of <1 year duration, and with a history of oral or anal sex with men were most likely to have an anal HPV infection. PMID:20367457

  9. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Young Healthy Women in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe A.; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; DelVecchio, Corey; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John; Solomon, Diane; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), yet little is known about anal HPV infection among healthy young women. Methods. A total of 2017 sexually active women in the control arm of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial had a single anal specimen collected by a clinician at the 4-year study visit. Samples were tested for HPV by SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25, version 1. Results. A total of 4% of women had HPV-16, 22% had oncogenic HPV, and 31% had any HPV detected in an anal specimen. The prevalence of anal HPV was higher among women who reported anal intercourse, compared with those who did not (43.4% vs 28.4%; P < .001). Among women who reported anal intercourse, cervical HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.4–8.2]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1–4.6] for ≥4 partners), and number of anal intercourse partners (aOR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1–3.3] for ≥2 partners) were independent risk factors for anal HPV detection. Among women who reported no anal intercourse, cervical HPV (aOR, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.7–5.9]), number of sex partners (aOR, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.7–3.4] for ≥4 partners), and report of anal fissures (aOR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1–4.8]) were associated with an increased odds of anal HPV detection. Conclusion. Anal HPV is common among young women, even those who report no anal sex, and was associated with cervical HPV infection. Anal fissures in women who report never having had anal intercourse may facilitate HPV exposure. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128661. PMID:22850119

  10. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID for real-time air quality forecasting over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Zhang, Yang; Kang, Daiwen

    2011-11-01

    A Real-Time Air Quality Forecast (RT-AQF) system that is based on a three-dimensional air quality model provides a powerful tool to forecast air quality and advise the public with proper preventive actions. In this work, a new RT-AQF system is developed based on the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID) and deployed in the southeastern U.S. during May-September, 2009. Max 1-h and 8-h average ozone (O 3) and 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are evaluated against surface observations from the AIRNow database in terms of spatial distribution, temporal variation, and domain-wide and region-specific discrete and categorical performance statistics. WRF/Chem-MADRID demonstrates good forecasting skill that is consistent with current RT-AQF models. The overpredictions of O 3 and underprediction of PM 2.5 are likely due to uncertainties in emissions such as those of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and ammonia, inaccuracies in simulated meteorological variables such as 2-m temperature, 10-m wind speed, and precipitation, and uncertainties in the boundary conditions. Sensitivity simulations show that the use of the online BVOC emissions can improve PM 2.5 forecast in areas with high BVOC emissions and adjusting lateral boundaries can improve domain-wide O 3 and PM 2.5 predictions. Several limitations and uncertainties are identified to further improve the model's forecasting skill.

  11. Simulations of the Holuhraun eruption 2014 with WRF-Chem and evaluation with satellite and ground based SO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Arnold-Arias, Delia; Flandorfer, Claudia; Maurer, Christian; Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions, with gas or/and particle emissions, directly influence our environment, with special significance when they either occur near inhabited regions or are transported towards them. In addition to the well-known affectation of air traffic, with large economic impacts, the ground touching plumes can lead directly to an influence of soil, water and even to a decrease of air quality. The eruption of Holuhraun in August 2014 in central Iceland is the country's largest lava and gas eruption since the Lakagígar eruption in 1783. Nevertheless, very little volcanic ash was produced. The main atmospheric threat from this event was the SO2 pollution that frequently violated the Icelandic National Air Quality Standards in many population centers. However, the SO2 affectation was not limited to Iceland but extended to mainland Europe. The on-line coupled model WRF-Chem is used to simulate the dispersion of SO2 for this event that affected the central European regions. The volcanic emissions are considered in addition to the anthropogenic and biogenic ground sources at European scale. A modified version of WRF-Chem version 4.1 is used in order to use time depending injection heights and mass fluxes which were obtained from in situ observations. WRF-Chem uses complex gas- (RADM2) and aerosol- (MADE-SORGAM) chemistry and is operated on a European domain (12 km resolution), and a nested grid covering the Alpine region (4 km resolution). The study is showing the evaluation of the model simulations with satellite and ground based measurement data of SO2. The analysis is conducted on a data management platform, which is currently developed in the frame of the ESA-funded project TAMP "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform": it provides comprehensive functionalities to visualize and numerically compare data from different sources (model, satellite and ground-measurements).

  12. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more » and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  13. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore » annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  14. Simulation of the Dust Aerosol and its Climatic Effect over East Asia using WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Huang, J.; Zhao, C.; Qian, Y.; Ruby, L.

    2015-12-01

    WRF-Chem model is used to investigate the seasonal and inter-annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and its direct radiative forcing and climatic impact. A variety of in-situ measurements and satellite observations have been used to evaluate the simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reasonably reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions. In addition, the dust lifecycle and processes that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance are investigated in seven sub-regions. Dust direct radiative forcing in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 9 and 2 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2, respectively. The ability of WRF-Chem to capture the measured features of dust optical and radiative properties and dust mass balance over East Asian provides confidence for future investigation of East Asia dust impact on regional or global climate. Over the Tibetan Plateau, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties, leading to a decrease of snowfall and hence snow coverage on the ground. These results are from a reduction of surface albedo and increased surface temperature, further accelerating snowmelt. This impact is smallest in summer, when the snow coverage is relative low. Over the East China-Korea-Japan regions, dust modifies the atmospheric heating profiles and cloud properties. Dust induces significant changes in the magnitudes and diurnal variations of surface temperature. Cloud liquid water content is also significantly impacted, as reflected in changes of cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) with a maximum in summer. The dust impacts on spatial distribution of precipitation and wind circulation are also investigated, showing distinct seasonality of dust impact on the regional climate over East Asia.

  15. Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data.

    PubMed

    Lasue, J; Wiens, R C; Stepinski, T F; Forni, O; Clegg, S M; Maurice, S

    2011-07-01

    ChemCam is a remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument that will arrive on Mars in 2012, on-board the Mars Science Laboratory Rover. The LIBS technique is crucial to accurately identify samples and quantify elemental abundances at various distances from the rover. In this study, we compare different linear and nonlinear multivariate techniques to visualize and discriminate clusters in two dimensions (2D) from the data obtained with ChemCam. We have used principal components analysis (PCA) and independent components analysis (ICA) for the linear tools and compared them with the nonlinear Sammon's map projection technique. We demonstrate that the Sammon's map gives the best 2D representation of the data set, with optimization values from 2.8% to 4.3% (0% is a perfect representation), together with an entropy value of 0.81 for the purity of the clustering analysis. The linear 2D projections result in three (ICA) and five times (PCA) more stress, and their clustering purity is more than twice higher with entropy values about 1.8. We show that the Sammon's map algorithm is faster and gives a slightly better representation of the data set if the initial conditions are taken from the ICA projection rather than the PCA projection. We conclude that the nonlinear Sammon's map projection is the best technique for combining data visualization and clustering assessment of the ChemCam LIBS data in 2D. PCA and ICA projections on more dimensions would improve on these numbers at the cost of the intuitive interpretation of the 2D projection by a human operator. PMID:21331488

  16. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of -1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = -110%) and organic carbon (MFB = -29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  17. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of -1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = -110%) and organic carbon (MFB = -65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  18. Validation of WRF/Chem model and sensitivity of chemical mechanisms to ozone simulation over megacity Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Medhavi; Mohan, Manju

    2015-12-01

    Regional Chemical transport models (CTM) are used extensively for modeling of Ozone concentration. WRF/Chem is one such CTM that includes various chemical mechanisms and is used for simulation of Ozone and other pollutant concentration at desired time step. This study focuses on the robustness of WRF/Chem simulated Ozone concentrations over a sub tropical urban airshed of megacity Delhi. Detailed analysis has been presented for the veracity of two different chemical mechanisms namely; Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBMZ) and Regional Atmospheric Chemical Model (RACM). It was observed that simulated Ozone concentrations are better predicted with CBMZ mechanism and is highly sensitive to the rate constants. The Ozone concentrations are analyzed for precursors such as Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Carbon-monoxide (CO) as well as temperature considering their strong dependence on Ozone formation. A consistent positive correlation between Ozone concentration and temperature is noted whereas; NOx and CO show inverse relationship with Ozone. Further, Ozone concentration range vis-à-vis model performance is scrutinized. A poor model for low Ozone concentration levels is observed and a highly satisfactory for moderate Ozone concentration levels while satisfactory for higher Ozone levels. Despite of the limitations observed during model evaluation of Ozone predictions for low Ozone levels, it is concluded that WRF/Chem could effectively be applied for understanding its trends, tropospheric chemistry and air quality assessment for regulatory purposes at moderate Ozone concentration levels. Further, it is recommended that model implementation shall be made for policy decisions cautiously with due consideration to the magnitudes of Ozone levels present in the study domain and the performance measures in the specific concentration range.

  19. Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence. PMID:21953679

  20. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.

  1. ChemCam at Gale Crater: Highlights and Discoveries from Three Years of Chemical Measurements on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Clegg, Samuel; Clark, Benton; Ehlmann, Bethany; Dyar, Melinda D.; Fisk, Martin; Francis, Raymond; Fabre, Cecile; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Johnson, Jeffery; Lanza, Nina; Leveille, Richard; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicholas; Melikechi, Noureddine; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Sautter, Violane; Vaniman, David; Grotzinger, John; Vasavad, Ashwin; Crisp, Joy

    2015-11-01

    ChemCam has undertaken a detailed chemical investigation of the rocks and soils at Gale crater over the last three years with over six thousand separate geochemical measurements. Recent recalibration of the ChemCam data using a new library of >350 geochemical standards has enabled increased elemental accuracies over a wider compositional range. The increased accuracy combined with ChemCam’s small spot size allows for the chemistry of mineral end members including feldspars, high silica, oxide rich grains to be identified. ChemCam has observed both sedimentary and igneous compositions. Igneous compositions are generally present in conglomerates and in float rocks. Compositions show a wide range of igneous chemistry ranging from basaltic to feldspar rich assemblages.Sedimentary rocks have a wide range of compositions reflecting both differences in chemical source regions and in depositional and diagenetic histories. The “Sheepbed” mudstones cluster around Martian average crustal compositions. The “Kimberley” outcrop showed enhanced potassium reaching concentrations up to ~6 wt% K2O. More recent observations in the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp reveal mudstones that are lower in magnesium and higher in silica and aluminum than the more basaltic mudstones previously investigated. Extremely high silica (75-85 wt%) deposits have also been identified. The high silica observations were associated with increased TiO2, While the Murray mudstones are generally low in magnesium, local enhancements in magnesium have also been noted associated with resistant facies in the outcrop. Chemical trends also indicate that iron oxide phases may also be present as cements. Sandstone facies with a mafic composition are also present. Veins in the unit also show a wide range of compositions indicating fluid chemistries rich in calcium sulfate, fluorine, magnesium and iron were present. Vein chemistry could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through from a

  2. Comment on ``Free energy simulations of single and double ion occupancy in gramicidin A'' [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 105103 (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Benoît; Andersen, Olaf S.; Allen, Toby W.

    2008-06-01

    In a recent article published by Bastug and Kuyucak [J. Chem. Phys.126, 105103 (2007)] investigated the microscopic factors affecting double ion occupancy in the gramicidin channel. The analysis relied largely on the one-dimensional potential of mean force of ions along the axis of the channel (the so-called free energy profile of the ion along the channel axis), as well as on the calculation of the equilibrium association constant of the ions in the channel binding sites. It is the purpose of this communication to clarify this issue.

  3. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applications : development of laboratory-scale powder processing operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Ted V.; Moore, Roger Howard; Spindle, Thomas Lewis Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical synthesis methods are being developed as a future source of PZT 95/5 powder for neutron generator voltage bar applications. Laboratory-scale powder processes were established to produce PZT billets from these powders. The interactions between calcining temperature, sintering temperature, and pore former content were studied to identify the conditions necessary to produce PZT billets of the desired density and grain size. Several binder systems and pressing aids were evaluated for producing uniform sintered billets with low open porosity. The development of these processes supported the powder synthesis efforts and enabled comparisons between different chem-prep routes.

  4. Comment on ``Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIII. Microwave heating in slow motion'' [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194509 (2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.

    2012-07-01

    Critical reading of the dielectric method and data in the paper [W. Huang and R. Richert, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194509 (2009)], 10.1063/1.3139519 showed that (i) the large inter-electrode area of the Teflon spacer used in the dielectric cell affected the spectral data and (ii) the measured Δɛ of propylene carbonate after making the spacer area correction is 1.8-times the known value, indicating errors from unknown sources. This puts into question their support for the dynamic heterogeneity view, and their inference on the magnitude of configurational heat capacity.

  5. Assessment of particulate accumulation climatology under inversions in Glacier Bay for the 2008 tourist season using WRF/Chem data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirhalla, Michael A.

    Each summer, roughly one million tourists come to Southeast Alaska aboard cruise ships to see the pristine landscape and wildlife. Tourism is an integral component in the economy for most of the towns and villages on the Alaska Panhandle. With ship emissions only modestly regulated, there have been some concerns regarding the potential environmental impacts that cruise ships have on air quality, wildlife, and visitor experience. Cruise ships travel to remote regions, and are frequently the only anthropogenic emissions source in federally protected parks, such as Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. In the absence of winds and synoptic scale storm systems common in the Gulf of Alaska, temperature inversions frequently develop inside Glacier Bay due to radiative cooling influenced by the complex topography inside the park. Inversions act as a lid, and may trap pollutants from cruise-ship emissions depending on the meteorological conditions present. Since meteorological observations are sparse and frequently skewed to easily accessible locations, data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled with a chemistry package (WRF/Chem), were used to examine the physical and chemical processes that are impossible to determine through direct observations. Model simulation data for 124 days during the 2008 tourist season (May 15 to September 15), including a cruise-ship emission inventory for all 225 cruise ship entries in Glacier Bay, was analyzed. Evaluation of WRF/Chem through meteorological observations reveals that the model accurately captures the synoptic conditions for most of the summer, despite problems with complex topography. WRF/Chem simulated quasi-multi-day inversion events, with strengths as high as 6.7 K (100 m)-1. Inversions were present in all grid-cell locations in Glacier Bay, with inversions occurring on average of 42% of the days during the tourist season. WRF/Chem was able to model PM 10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10

  6. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02

    In the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model, we have coupled the Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme with interactive aerosols so that full two-way aerosol-cloud interactions are included in simulations. We have used this new WRF-Chem functionality in a study focused on assessing predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus clouds, and their interactions over the Southeast Pacific using measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals. This study also serves as a detailed analysis of our WRF-Chem simulations contributed to the VOCALS model Assessment (VOCA) project. The WRF-Chem 31-day (October 15-November 16, 2008) simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations assumed by the default in Morrison microphysics scheme with no interactive aerosols. The well-predicted aerosol properties such as number, mass composition, and optical depth lead to significant improvements in many features of the predicted stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness, and cloud macrostructure such as cloud depth and cloud base height. These improvements in addition to the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, in turn, feed back to the prediction of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengths temperature and humidity gradients within capping inversion layer and lowers the MBL depth by 150 m from that of the MET simulation. Mean top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated

  7. Anthropogenic contribution to cloud condensation nuclei and the first aerosol indirect climate effect modelled by GEOS-Chem/APM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particles influence climate indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud properties (albedo, lifetime, etc.) and precipitation. The first aerosol indirect radiative forcing (FAIRF) (i.e., cloud albedo effect) constitutes the largest uncertainty among the various radiative forcings quantified by the latest IPCC assessment report (IPCC2007). In order to confidently interpret climate change over the past century and project future change, it is essential to reduce the FAIRF uncertainty. One of the large sources of the uncertainty is the poor knowledge of the number concentrations and spatial distributions of pre-industrial and present-day aerosols. All previous and recent FAIRF studies are based on global models with simplified chemistry and aerosol microphysics, which may lead to large uncertainties in predicted aerosol properties and FAIRF values. Here, we investigate the anthropogenic contribution to CCN and associated FAIRF using a state-of-the-art global chemical transport and aerosol model (GEOS-Chem/APM) that contains a number of advanced features (including size-resolved sectional particle microphysics, online comprehensive SOx-NOx-Ox-VOCs chemistry, consideration of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols, online aerosol-cloud-radiation calculation, usage of more accurate assimilated meteorology, etc.). As far as we know, this is the first time that a global model with full chemistry and size-resolved (sectional) particle microphysics is employed to study FAIRF. Key aerosol properties predicted by GEOS-Chem/APM for the present-day case have been evaluated against a large set of land-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite- based aerosol measurements including total particle number concentrations, CCN concentrations, AODs, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients. The GEOS-Chem/APM model, with its advanced features and ability to reproduce observed aerosol properties (including CCN) around the globe, is expected to

  8. Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 μm were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  9. Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I)

    PubMed Central

    Northover, J; Glynne-Jones, R; Sebag-Montefiore, D; James, R; Meadows, H; Wan, S; Jitlal, M; Ledermann, J

    2010-01-01

    Background: The first UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (1996) demonstrated the benefit of chemoradiation over radiotherapy (RT) alone for treating epidermoid anal cancer, and it became the standard treatment. Patients in this trial have now been followed up for a median of 13 years. Methods: A total of 577 patients were randomised to receive RT alone or combined modality therapy using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. All patients were scheduled to receive 45 Gy by external beam irradiation. Patients who responded to treatment were recommended to have boost RT, with either an iridium implant or external beam irradiation. Data on relapse and deaths were obtained until October 2007. Results: Twelve years after treatment, for every 100 patients treated with chemoradiation, there are an expected 25.3 fewer patients with locoregional relapse (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5–32.0 fewer) and 12.5 fewer anal cancer deaths (95% CI: 4.3–19.7 fewer), compared with 100 patients given RT alone. There was a 9.1% increase in non-anal cancer deaths in the first 5 years of chemoradiation (95% CI +3.6 to +14.6), which disappeared by 10 years. Conclusions: The clear benefit of chemoradiation outweighs an early excess risk of non-anal cancer deaths, and can still be seen 12 years after treatment. Only 11 patients suffered a locoregional relapse as a first event after 5 years, which may influence the choice of end points in future studies. PMID:20354531

  10. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  11. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. Results A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Conclusion Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age. PMID:27548632

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy in a patient with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Aya; Nakazuru, Shoichi; Sakakibara, Yuko; Nishio, Kumiko; Yamada, Takuya; Ishida, Hisashi; Yajima, Keishiro; Uehira, Tomoko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mita, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy has increased for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been associated with reductions in the incidences of some AIDS-defining malignancies, such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but has coincided with an increased incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as anal cancer. However, anal cancers are rare in patients with HIV in Japan. We report the case of an HIV-infected patient with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. A 37-year-old man receiving ART for HIV infection presented with a 1-month history of left inguinal lymphadenopathy and anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a 56-mm mass, left inguinal lymphadenopathy, and left external iliac lymphadenopathy. The mass had infiltrated from the anal canal to the right levator ani and corpus spongiosum. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor with an ulcer in the anal canal. Histological examination of the tumor biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with anal cancer (T4N2M1 stage IV), and he received 5-fluorouracil (1000mg/m(2) on days 1-4 and 29-32) plus mitomycin C (10mg/m(2) on days 1 and 29) and concurrent radiotherapy (total dose, 59.4Gy in 33 fractions) along with ART. The treatment-related adverse events were grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, grade 3 thrombocytopenia, and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. Moreover, CD4 suppression was observed:the CD4 count decreased from 190 cells/μl before chemoradiotherapy to 138 cells/μl after 3 months, but increased to 210 cells/μl after 1 year. Because of the grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, the dose of 5-fluorouracil was reduced to 800mg/m(2) on days 29-32. A complete response was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, and colonoscopy confirmed the disappearance of the anal cancer. The patient is living with no signs of recurrence at 2 years

  13. Persistent orocutaneous and anal fistulae induced by nicorandil: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Although nicorandil is prescribed widely, awareness of its potential to cause serious complications to the gastrointestinal tract mucosa is limited. Whilst nicorandil-induced oral and anal ulceration is well documented in the literature, nicorandil-induced fistulation is not. This is the first report in the literature of a single patient demonstrating simultaneous orocutaneous and anal fistulae during nicorandil therapy. Two separate cases of orocutaneous and anal fistulae associated nicorandil usage have previously been documented in specialist journals. Case presentation A 71-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 3-year history of concurrent orocutaneous and anal fistulae. He had been exposed to 30 mg twice-daily nicorandil therapy for 4 years. Both fistulae responded poorly to intensive and prolonged conventional treatment but healed promptly on reduction and eventual withdrawal of nicorandil therapy. Conclusion Management of resistant cases of orocutaneous and anal fistulae in patients on high-dose nicorandil therapy may be impossible without reduction or even withdrawal of nicorandil. PMID:19946537

  14. Anal heterosex among young people and implications for health promotion: a qualitative study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Marston, C; Lewis, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore expectations, experiences and circumstances of anal sex among young people. Design Qualitative, longitudinal study using individual and group interviews. Participants 130 men and women aged 16–18 from diverse social backgrounds. Setting 3 contrasting sites in England (London, a northern industrial city, rural southwest). Results Anal heterosex often appeared to be painful, risky and coercive, particularly for women. Interviewees frequently cited pornography as the ‘explanation’ for anal sex, yet their accounts revealed a complex context with availability of pornography being only one element. Other key elements included competition between men; the claim that ‘people must like it if they do it’ (made alongside the seemingly contradictory expectation that it will be painful for women); and, crucially, normalisation of coercion and ‘accidental’ penetration. It seemed that men were expected to persuade or coerce reluctant partners. Conclusions Young people's narratives normalised coercive, painful and unsafe anal heterosex. This study suggests an urgent need for harm reduction efforts targeting anal sex to help encourage discussion about mutuality and consent, reduce risky and painful techniques and challenge views that normalise coercion. PMID:25122073

  15. Properties of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, G R; Lu, Q L; Love, S B; Talbot, I C; Northover, J M

    1996-12-01

    Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) can be found in up to 85 per cent of anal carcinomas. In the vulva, a discrete subset of HPV-positive carcinomas which show koilocytic morphology and distinct clinical features has recently been identified (warty carcinoma). The morphological and prognostic features of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas were compared in this study of the tumour distribution of HPV DNA. Vulval and anal neoplasia are similar in many ways and we have also looked to see if their similarity extends to 'warty' morphology in relation to HPV status. Thirty-five resection specimens of anal carcinoma were examined with biotin-labelled probes for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA, using a non-isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. No tumour was found to contain HPV 6, 11, or 18. Twenty-four (72 per cent) showed positivity for HPV 16 DNA. Staining was homogeneous and independent of local squamous, basaloid, or ductal differentiation. The majority of tumours showed staining suggestive of episomal, non-productive HPV infection. HPV-positive tumours were more likely to occur in the anal canal than perianally and to show a mixed squamous and basaloid appearance. No difference between the two groups was found in patient age, presence of adjacent dysplasia, ductal differentiation, or prognosis. There was no correlation between condylomatous tumour morphology and HPV 16 DNA positivity; thus, a subset equivalent to vulval warty carcinoma could not be identified. PMID:9014857

  16. Size of anal squamous cell carcinomas at diagnosis: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Read, T R H; Huson, K L; Millar, J L; Haydon, A; Porter, I W T; Grulich, A E; Hocking, J S; Chen, M Y; Bradshaw, C S; Fairley, C K

    2013-11-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is more common in HIV-positive homosexual men than in the general population and prognosis worsens with increasing tumour size. To identify opportunities for earlier diagnosis, we aimed to determine size and visibility of anal squamous cell carcinoma at diagnosis. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records between 1992 and 2010 from one hospital radiotherapy centre, a major centre for HIV care, in Melbourne, Australia. Of 128 cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma, 24 (19%) were in HIV-positive men. At diagnosis, half (52%) of the tumours were externally visible and mean estimated tumour size was 36 mm (29 mm in HIV-positive and 38 mm in HIV-negative patients; p = 0.04) and 114/121 (94%) tumours were 1 cm or larger. The most frequent symptoms were bleeding (43%) and pain (36%) and mean duration of symptoms was 22 weeks. This suggests most anal squamous cell carcinoma were visible or palpable for some time before diagnosis, meaning that screening high-risk groups by anal inspection and palpation is plausible. PMID:23970608

  17. Anal Cancer Screening in an Urban HIV Clinic: Provider Perceptions and Practice.

    PubMed

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Riedel, David J; Gilliam, Bruce L; Khambaty, Mariam; Fantry, Lori; Spencer, Derek E; Weaver, Jeffery; Taylor, Gregory; Skoglund, Mary; Amoroso, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we sought to understand the perceptions and practice of providers on anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients. Providers in an academic outpatient HIV practice were surveyed. Data were analyzed to determine the acceptability and perceptions of providers on anal Papanicolaou tests. Survey response rate was 55.3% (60.7% among male and 47.4% among female providers). One-third of the providers had received screening requests from patients. Female providers had higher self-rated comfort with anal Papanicolaou tests, with a mean score of 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-9.5) compared to 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-5.7) for male providers, P = .02. Sixty-seven percent of male providers and 37.5% of female providers would like to refer their patients for screening rather than perform the test themselves. Only 54.2% of our providers have ever performed anal cytology examination. Our survey revealed that not all providers were comfortable performing anal cancer screening for their patients. PMID:26307210

  18. High resolution anoscopy may be useful in achieving reductions in anal cancer local disease failure rates.

    PubMed

    Goon, P; Morrison, V; Fearnhead, N; Davies, J; Wilson, C; Jephcott, C; Sterling, J; Crawford, R

    2015-05-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon, with an incidence rate of 0.5-1.0 per 100,000 of the population but incidence rates have been steadily increasing over the last 3 decades. Biological and epidemiological evidence have been mounting and demonstrate that anal cancer has many similarities to cervical cancer, especially in regard to its aetiology. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) of the anal region – analogous to colposcopy of the cervix, is a technique that is not well-known in the medical and surgical fraternity. Evidence to support the use of HRA for detection and treatment in the surveillance of AIN exists and strongly suggests that it is beneficial, resulting in reduced rates of cancer progression. Pilot data from our study showed a local disease failure rate of 1.73 per 1000 patient-months compared with a published rate of 9.89 per 1000 patient-months. This demonstrates a 5.72-fold reduction in local disease failure rates of patients with T1-T3 tumours; the data therefore suggests that use of HRA for detection and treatment in surveillance of anal cancer patients will help prevent local regional relapse at the anal site. There is an urgent need for a large, randomised controlled clinical trial to definitively test this hypothesis. PMID:24373061

  19. Investigating marine stratocumulus with a fully coupled cloud-aerosol scheme in a WRF/Chem Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazil, J.; Wang, H.; Feingold, G.

    2009-12-01

    Drizzle in stratocumulus clouds is triggered by low concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and concurrently acts as a sink of CCN. The progression of this cloud-aerosol feedback may result in a transition in marine boundary layer dynamics and cloud structure; Closed cell circulation, characterized by a solid stratocumulus layer, may transition into an open cellular mode featuring low cloud fraction. Aerosol sources may balance the loss of CCN from drizzle, and delay or prevent the emergence of open cell circulation. Such sources include particle emissions from the sea surface, entrainment of aerosol from the free troposphere into the cloud deck, advection from land sources, and aerosol nucleation. In order to investigate the role of aerosol sources and processes in the transition between these two states, we have coupled in detail aerosol processes, cloud microphysics, and gas and aqueous chemistry in the WRF/Chem model. We operate WRF/Chem in Large Eddy Simulation mode. Aerosol nucleation is described with a sulfuric acid/water scheme based on laboratory measurements of the nucleation process. Here we present first results on the role of aerosol nucleation for cloud properties and drizzle formation in pristine conditions of the South-East Pacific region, and in polluted conditions.

  20. Chem2Bio2RDF: a semantic framework for linking and data mining chemogenomic and systems chemical biology data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently there has been an explosion of new data sources about genes, proteins, genetic variations, chemical compounds, diseases and drugs. Integration of these data sources and the identification of patterns that go across them is of critical interest. Initiatives such as Bio2RDF and LODD have tackled the problem of linking biological data and drug data respectively using RDF. Thus far, the inclusion of chemogenomic and systems chemical biology information that crosses the domains of chemistry and biology has been very limited Results We have created a single repository called Chem2Bio2RDF by aggregating data from multiple chemogenomics repositories that is cross-linked into Bio2RDF and LODD. We have also created a linked-path generation tool to facilitate SPARQL query generation, and have created extended SPARQL functions to address specific chemical/biological search needs. We demonstrate the utility of Chem2Bio2RDF in investigating polypharmacology, identification of potential multiple pathway inhibitors, and the association of pathways with adverse drug reactions. Conclusions We have created a new semantic systems chemical biology resource, and have demonstrated its potential usefulness in specific examples of polypharmacology, multiple pathway inhibition and adverse drug reaction - pathway mapping. We have also demonstrated the usefulness of extending SPARQL with cheminformatics and bioinformatics functionality. PMID:20478034