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Sample records for al azar rapd

  1. Risk factors for Indian kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Alok; Sur, Dipika; Singh, Vijay P; Siddique, Niyamat A; Manna, Byomkesh; Lal, Chandra S; Sinha, Prabhat K; Kishore, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Sujit K

    2005-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to understand the risk factors associated with kala-azar in disease-endemic areas of Bihar, India. A total of 134 kala-azar cases treated at the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Patna and 406 healthy controls selected randomly from the neighborhoods of cases in their native villages were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that education, a history of other diseases in the previous year, a history of kala-azar in the family, type of walls in houses, presence of a granary inside houses, presence of vegetation around houses, bamboo trees near houses, and irregular spraying around houses with DDT were risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of other diseases in the previous year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, P = 0.002), a history of kala-azar in the family (OR = 1.8, P = 0.03), mud-plastered walls in houses, (OR = 2.4, P = 0.0001], a granary inside houses (OR = 4.3, P = 0.0001), presence of bamboo trees around houses (OR = 2.3, P = 0.001), and houses not sprayed with DDT in the past six months (OR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) were significant risk factors for kala-azar. These results will be useful in developing kala-azar control programs for identifying intervention strategies such as better housing, regular and proper insecticide spraying, and promoting health awareness to the community residing in disease-endemic areas for reducing transmission and incidence of this disease.

  2. Elimination of Kala-Azar from the Southeast Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2017-01-23

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), popularly known as kala-azar, is essentially a disease of poverty. Kala-azar is caused by a parasite, Leishmania donovani Recent review indicates that worldwide 98 countries are endemic for kala-azar. Approximately 0.2-0.4 million new VL cases occur each year worldwide. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. This trend is slowly changing due to the progress in kala-azar elimination in southeast Asia, where Bangladesh has reported an average of some 600 new cases in 2014-2015. With the advancement in our knowledge about the disease and development of tools to diagnose and treat VL, it was considered that elimination of kala-azar was possible from India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The three countries signed a memorandum of understanding in 2005 for collaboration. Miltefosine is the first ever oral drug developed to treat VL, which was later replaced by lipid amphotericin B. The main components of the strategy are early diagnosis using rK39 strip test and complete treatment utilizing miltefosine for 28 days. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or pyrethroids were deployed for vector control. There was much to be desired for better performance of the vector control activity. Pharmacovigilance and monitoring of drug resistance were the weakest part of the program. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance reinforced by active case finding will of a crucial factor for sustainability of the elimination. A strong political will is required to ensure elimination of kala-azar from the Indian subcontinent and its sustainability in the post-elimination phase.

  3. Kala-azar epidemic in Varanasi district, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Kumar, P.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Pai, K.; Mishra, C. P.; Kumar, K.; Pandey, H. P.; Singh, V. P.; Sundar, S.

    1999-01-01

    Reports at the Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, of a large number of kala-azar cases from one particular village in Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the situation using standard techniques. The overall prevalence and case fatality of the disease were 12.9% and 10.5%, respectively. A history of fever and hepatosplenomegaly was noted for all the cases. The case definition was the presence of parasites in bone marrow or splenic aspirate smears. The disease was more prevalent among adults, but occurred also among children. However, there was no clear linear relationship between the prevalence of the disease and age group. Kala-azar occurred among males and females, and its prevalence did not correlate significantly with income. Since the disease vector continues to be present in the study area, the health authorities should take strong steps to control the disease. PMID:10361752

  4. Edward E. Azar’s Early Warning Model - Does It Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    EARLY WARNING MODEL - DOES IT WORK? THESIS Donald E. Childre, Jr. Captain, USAF AFIT/GLM/LSM...Avaii ):id/or A-iA AFIT/GLM/LSM/90S-10 EDWARD E. AZAR’S EARLY WARNING MODEL - DOES IT WORK? THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems... Early Warning Model of International Hostilities .... 18 Overview of Azar’s Early Warning Model. 22 Assumptions Considered for Azar’s Model 28

  5. Ambisome plus miltefosine for Indian patients with kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shyam; Sinha, Prabhat Kumar; Verma, Deepak K; Kumar, Nawin; Alam, Shahnawaj; Pandey, Krishna; Kumari, Poonam; Ravidas, Vidyanand; Chakravarty, Jaya; Verma, Neena; Berman, Jonathan; Ghalib, Hashim; Arana, Byron

    2011-02-01

    The combination of one intravenous administration of 5mg/kg Ambisome and oral administration of miltefosine, 2.5mg/kg/day for 14 days, was evaluated in 135 Indian patients with kala-azar. The Intent-to-Treat cure rate at 6 months was 124 of the 135 enrolled patients (91.9%: 95% CI = 86-96%), and the per protocol cure rate was 124 of 127 evaluable patients (97.6%: 95% CI = 93-100%). Side effects could be attributed to each drug separately: fevers, rigors and back pain due to Ambisome; gastrointestinal side effects due to miltefosine. This combination is attractive for reasons of efficacy, tolerance, and feasibility of administration, although the gastrointestinal side effects of miltefosine require medical vigilance. Clinical Trials.gov identification number: NCT00371995.

  6. RAPD profile variation amongst provenances of neem.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, N; Ranade, S A; Sane, P V

    1998-08-01

    Neem, described as a tree for solving global problems, is an evergreen, long-lived, multipurpose tree of the tropics with a wide distribution range in India. It is believed to be highly cross-pollinated. Inter-provenance variations have been reported in neem in case of morphological and physiological characters. Yet no reports about the genetic determinism for these variations are available to our knowledge. In order to have an idea about the extent and/or nature of genetic (DNA) variation in neem, the powerful RAPD technique has been employed. RAPD profiles of 34 accessions/provenances of neem were generated with 200 decamer random primers, of which the data from the 49 primers, that resulted in reproducible amplification products, were considered for analysis. Based on the presence/absence of bands, a similarity matrix was computed. Dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA method based on the pairwise similarities amongst the RAPD profiles. The similarities in RAPD profiles amongst the different DNAs was more than that expected due to the cross-pollinated nature of the tree and furthermore, these more-than-expected similarities were not due to random chance. These results suggest that neem may have a narrow genetic base.

  7. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Paskewitz & Collins. 1990; approaches to overcome these are suggested. J. Scott , W. Brogden and F. Collins, pers. comm.). Even though this is an...characterized, yet morphologically cryptic, mosquito Bowditch et al (1993). Total reaction volumes of 25 11l were used species portend that RAPD analysis...Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Mary- Acknowledgements land, USA. The identities of the species were confirmed using PCR primers supplied by J. Scott , W

  8. DNA fingerprinting of jute germplasm by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Belayat; Haque, Samiul; Khan, Haseena

    2002-07-31

    The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore, we generated RAPD markers, which are species-specific. These primers can distinguish between C. olitorius and C. capsularis. From the dendrogram that we generated between the various members of these two species, we found the existing genetic classification that agrees with our molecular marking data. A different dendrogram showed that jute accessions could be clustered into three groups. These data will be invaluable in the conservation and utilization of the genetic pool in the germplasm collection.

  9. Treatment of Brazilian kala-azar with a short course of amphocil (amphotericin B cholesterol dispersion).

    PubMed

    Dietze, R; Milan, E P; Berman, J D; Grogl, M; Falqueto, A; Feitosa, T F; Luz, K G; Suassuna, F A; Marinho, L A; Ksionski, G

    1993-12-01

    Amphotericin B is an effective but toxic antileishmanial agent. Lipid-encapsulated amphotericin B should have a high therapeutic index for visceral leishmaniasis because reticuloendothelial cells, the sole site in which Leishmania is found, will phagocytize and concentrate the complex. Amphotericin B cholesterol dispersion (Amphocil; 2 mg/[kg.d] intravenously) was administered to 10 Brazilians with kala-azar for 10 days (cohort 1) and to 10 Brazilians with kala-azar for 7 days (cohort 2). All patients were successfully treated: 19 of the 20 patients were without visible parasites in the bone marrow; the mean time to afebrility was 4.2 days; spleen size regressed by a mean of 79% 2 months after therapy; and no patient had clinical or laboratory abnormalities by the end of 6-12 months of follow-up. Side effects were fever and chills accompanied by respiratory distress, but not nephrotoxicity, in children < 3 years of age.

  10. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another. PMID:23554714

  11. Serum cytokines associated with severity and complications of kala-azar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Dorcas L; Rocha, Regina L; Carvalho, Rayssa M A; Lima-Neto, Adelino S; Harhay, Michael O; Costa, Carlos Henrique N; Barral-Neto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent clinical data suggest that severe kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis) is an exaggerated innate immune response mediated by inflammatory cytokines, leading to a systemic inflammatory syndrome similar to what is observed in malaria, sepsis and other diseases. We tested this hypothesis by measuring serum cytokines in individuals with kala-azar. Methods We compared patients with severe kala-azar (i.e. hemorrhagic manifestations, n = 38) with patients without evidence of hemorrhage (n = 96). We conducted a detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation, measuring serum IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-gamma, and TNF-alpha, and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Results Infants had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, while HIV-infected patients had lower concentrations of IL-10 and interferon-gamma. Higher levels of IL-6, interferon-gamma, and IL-8 were found among deceased patients. IL-8 and interferon-gamma were independently associated with bleeding. Several cytokines were associated with different signs of severe clinical and laboratory manifestations, including DIC. IL-6 was highly positively and independently associated with IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-10, and negatively associated with TNF-alpha. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also highly independently associated with disease severity. Conclusion In its severe form, kala-azar, a neglected tropical disease, initiates a systemic inflammatory response that leads to DIC and other manifestations. Children may have higher risk of death due to the more intense cytokine release. The data supports the notion that IL-6 is the central cytokine that is associated with lethal disease, but interferon-gamma, IL1beta, IL-8, and TNF-alpha are also involved with disease severity. Inhibition of IL-6 is a potential target of adjuvant therapy for severe or pediatric forms of this disease. PMID:23683334

  12. RFLPs of ITS, ITS1 and hsp70 amplicons and sequencing of ITS1 of recent clinical isolates of Kala-azar from India and Bangladesh confirms the association of L. tropica with the disease.

    PubMed

    Khanra, Supriya; Datta, Sanchita; Mondal, Dinesh; Saha, Partha; Bandopadhyay, Subir K; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2012-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar (KA) is a serious health concern in India. In the present study, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of three genetic markers viz., Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), ITS1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) have been employed for typing the clinical isolates [n=15] of KA and post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniosis (PKDL) collected from India and Bangladesh in the period of 2006-2010. Experimentally, ITS, ITS1 and hsp70 regions of genomes of all the clinical isolates were separately amplified by PCR and then digested with restriction enzymes: ITS with Alu1, EcoR1 and Msp1, ITS1 with Hae III and Rsa1 and hsp70 with Hae III. The resultant fragments were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the RFLP profiles of the clinical isolates were compared with that of the WHO reference strains for Leishmania donovani (DD8) and Leishmania tropica (K27), respectively. Also, the ITS1 regions of all the clinical isolates along with the two WHO reference strains were sequenced and a phylogram was constructed to ascertain the extent of similarity or dissimilarity. Interestingly, the RFLP profiles of one of the isolates showed a significant homology with K27 and the phylogram revealed its closeness with the same putting credence to our earlier typing of isolates by RAPD method. This observation also supported an earlier report claiming that both the species are responsible for KA in India and thus, emphasizes urgent need for thorough systematic characterization of the clinical isolates of Indian KA as appropriate treatment regime relies primarily on proper diagnosis.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar), India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I) statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d) was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P <0.01). The results revealed spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of kala-azar diffusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and

  14. Genetic diversity analysis in Piper species (Piperaceae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sandeep; Skaria, Reby; Abdul Muneer, P M

    2010-09-01

    The genetic diversity of eight species of Piper (Piperaceae) viz., P. nigrum, P. longum, P. betle, P. chaba, P. argyrophyllum, P. trichostachyon, P. galeatum, and P. hymenophyllum from Kerala state, India were analyzed by Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Out of 22 10-mer RAPD primers screened, 11 were selected for comparative analysis of different species of Piper. High genetic variations were found among different Piper species studied. Among the total of 149 RAPD fragments amplified, 12 bands (8.05%) were found monomorphic in eight species. The remaining 137 fragments were found polymorphic (91.95%). Species-specific bands were found in all eight species studied. The average gene diversity or heterozygosity (H) was 0.33 across all the species, genetic distances ranged from 0.21 to 0.69. The results of this study will facilitate germplasm identification, management, and conservation.

  15. Development of RAPD-SCAR markers for Lonicera japonica (Caprifolicaceae) variety authentication by improved RAPD and DNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luquan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Mei, Zhiqiang; Yang, Manman; Zhang, Tiandan; Wei, Chunli; Yang, Weichan; Zhu, Li; Long, Yan; Fu, Junjiang

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diversity within a species is a common feature, which plays a vital role in its survival and adaptability, and is important for the identification and authentication of a species. Lonicera japonica is a traditionally used medicinal plant, which have been recently genetically characterized by an improved ran- dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In this study, the molecular markers on the basis of these RAPD fragments have been developed to identify specific L. japonica variety. The DNAs were extracted from fresh young leaves of different samples of L. japonica collected from Shenzhen, Yichang, Leshan, Emei and Loudi, China. The DNA materials were amplified using improved RAPD PCR. Different RAPD bands were excised, cloned and developed for stable sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with differ- ent species. Two SCAR markers, JYH3-3 and JYH4-3, have been successfully cloned from improved.RAPD fragments. The SCAR marker JYH3-3 was found specific for all of the L. japonica samples collected from the different regions, and another marker JYH 4-3 was strictly specific to the Shenzhen sample from Guangdong province, which is geographically distant from Hubei, Sichuan and Hunan Provinces (source of other L. japonica samples). The marker JYH3-3 was found as specific molecular marker for the identification of L. japonica, while JYH4-3 was found as molecular marker strictly specific for the Shenzhen sample. The developed SCAR markers might serve as more specific molecular markers for L. japonica variety authentication. The combination of improved RAPD analysis and SCAR marker development have resulted useful tools to study the genetic variety of any organism, which we have successfully applied here in L. japonica.

  16. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in Azar cohort population in Northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Sousan; Khabbazi, Alireza; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Ghasembaglou, Amid; Ghasembaglou, Arezoo; Aminisani, Nayyereh; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Heidari, Fariba

    2017-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are considered as major public health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSDs in Azar cohort population in northwest of Iran. Azar cohort study is a state level of a national cohort project (PERSIAN) which began in 2014. All adults over 35 years old in Khamene city in East Azarbaijan province were recruited for the pilot phase of the Azar cohort. For the purpose of the current study, a total of 952 subjects age range of 35-70 who completed the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic Disease (COPCORD) questionnaire as supplementary were included. 299 subjects had MSDs and were introduced to the rheumatologist, only 237 of them referred for further assessment. 33.4% of subjects had MSDs within the past 7 days. The most frequent complaint was pain and the most common sites of complaints were knee, lumbar spine, and shoulder, respectively. Osteoarthritis was the most common rheumatic disease (53.2%) and the knee was the most common region affected (47.7%) followed by low back pain (28.2%). Osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis were present in 56.1 and 51.8% of females and 46.6 and 38.4% of males, respectively. Furthermore, low back pain was present in 32.9% of males and 26.2% of females. Peri-arthritis was more prevalent in males (12.3%), whilst fibromyalgia, psychologic pain, and heel spur were prevalent among females (9.1, 5.1, and 1.2%, respectively). Rheumatoid arthritis was observed in 1.4% of males and 1.8% of females, respectively. Prevalence of MSDs is very high in this area. Therefore, it calls for action by heath officials and professionals to plan for appropriate programs of prevention and management of MSDs in society.

  17. Efficacy of prolonged therapy with stibogluconate in post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Kumar, K

    1990-03-01

    Fifty three (30 male and 23 female), previously untreated, patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) were treated with sodium stibogluconate, at the dose of 20 mg/kg/bw/d/im/(with a maximum of 8.5 ml) for 120 days (or more, if necessary). All the patients were followed up for 12 months. The patients were assessed after 40 days and thereafter at an interval of 20 days. The mean age of onset was 24 yr, maximum number of patients developed the disease within 3 yr of apparent cure of kala-azar. Maximum number of patients sought treatment within 5 yr of the onset of PKDL. The disease affected the face (98%), trunk (83%), upper limb (72%), lower limb (40%), genetalia (6%), and mucus membrane of the tongue 40%. The lesions observed were nodules (19%), papules (30%), and hypopigmented (45%) and reddish macules (7%). The parasites could be demonstrated in the nodules (100%), papules (69%) and macules (59%). The response to treatment started in 72 per cent of patients in the first 20 days and in 40 days in all patients. All the nodules and papules disappeared in 120 days, and the macules within 200 days. The side effects of treatment noted were changes in S T and T in electrocardiogram (7%), arthralgia (11%), allergic rash (7%), swelling at the site of injection (5%), neuralgia (4%) and metalic taste (6%). The S T and T changes reverted to normal when the drug was discontinued for 20 days. Arthralgia improved with indomethacin. The higher dosages and longer course of treatment were well tolerated and resulted in a cure in all patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Screening and Characterization of RAPD Markers in Viscerotropic Leishmania Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Mkada–Driss, Imen; Talbi, Chiraz; Guerbouj, Souheila; Driss, Mehdi; Elamine, Elwaleed M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Mukhtar, Moawia M.; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is mainly due to the Leishmania donovani complex. VL is endemic in many countries worldwide including East Africa and the Mediterranean region where the epidemiology is complex. Taxonomy of these pathogens is under controversy but there is a correlation between their genetic diversity and geographical origin. With steady increase in genome knowledge, RAPD is still a useful approach to identify and characterize novel DNA markers. Our aim was to identify and characterize polymorphic DNA markers in VL Leishmania parasites in diverse geographic regions using RAPD in order to constitute a pool of PCR targets having the potential to differentiate among the VL parasites. 100 different oligonucleotide decamers having arbitrary DNA sequences were screened for reproducible amplification and a selection of 28 was used to amplify DNA from 12 L. donovani, L. archibaldi and L. infantum strains having diverse origins. A total of 155 bands were amplified of which 60.65% appeared polymorphic. 7 out of 28 primers provided monomorphic patterns. Phenetic analysis allowed clustering the parasites according to their geographical origin. Differentially amplified bands were selected, among them 22 RAPD products were successfully cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis allowed mapping of the markers and sequences and priming sites analysis. This study was complemented with Southern-blot to confirm assignment of markers to the kDNA. The bioinformatic analysis identified 16 nuclear and 3 minicircle markers. Analysis of these markers highlighted polymorphisms at RAPD priming sites with mainly 5′ end transversions, and presence of inter– and intra– taxonomic complex sequence and microsatellites variations; a bias in transitions over transversions and indels between the different sequences compared is observed, which is however less marked between L. infantum and L. donovani. The study delivers a pool of well-documented polymorphic DNA markers, to develop

  19. Analysis of annual Medicago species using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Brummer, E C; Bouton, J H; Kochert, G

    1995-04-01

    Annual species of the genus Medicago have attracted interest as green manure and temporary forage crops. This study was conducted to determine if randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers could be used to assess the variability within and among species. Several accessions of each six species (M. scutellata Mill., M. disciformis DC., M. murex Willd., M. truncatula Gaertn., M. polymorpha L., and M. rugosa Desr.) were studied. A phylogeny reconstructed with the computer program Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) showed the same relationships as traditional taxonomy. Variation was present among accessions of all species. Several accessions were considerably different from others within the species (one of each M. scutellata and M. polymorpha) and four accessions of M. murex were differentiated by both morphology and RAPD banding patterns from the other accessions. These accessions may be useful to include in a core collection. Variation within accessions was present. Although the species are autogamous, the original seed collections may have been made from a number of plants in the same area. Also, some outcrossing or seed mixing may have occurred. Finally, at least 10 RAPD primers appear to be necessary in order to develop reliable estimates of relatedness among annual Medicago accessions.

  20. Genetic relationships among Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) species based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Marouelli, L P; Inglis, P W; Ferreira, M A; Buso, G S C

    2010-07-13

    The family Heliconiaceae contains a single genus, Heliconia, with approximately 180 species of Neotropical origin. This genus was formerly allocated to the family Musaceae, but today forms its own family, in the order Zingiberales. The combination of inverted flowers, a single staminode and drupe fruits is an exclusive characteristic of Heliconia. Heliconias are cultivated as ornamental garden plants, and are of increasing importance as cut flowers. However, there are taxonomic confusions and uncertainties about the number of species and the relationships among them. Molecular studies are therefore necessary for better understanding of the species boundaries of these plants. We examined the genetic variability and the phylogenetic relationships of 124 accessions of the genus Heliconia based on RAPD markers. Phenetic and cladistic analyses, using 231 polymorphic RAPD markers, demonstrated that the genus Heliconia is monophyletic. Groupings corresponding to currently recognized species and some subgenera were found, and cultivars and hybrids were found to cluster with their parents. RAPD analysis generally agreed with morphological species classification, except for the position of the subgenus Stenochlamys, which was found to be polyphyletic.

  1. DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

  2. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  3. Reevaluation of RAPD markers involved in a case of stingray misidentification (Dasyatidae: Dasyatis).

    PubMed

    Faria, V V; Rolim, L S; Vaz, L A L; Furtado-Neto, M A A

    2012-10-25

    We investigated a reported case of stingray Dasyatis americana misidentification not detected in a published study using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. If the referred specimen (landed by fisheries in Ceará, northeastern Brazil) was misidentified (as Dasyatis centroura) in the field, why did its RAPD data fail to clarify the mistake? Was it due to limitations of RAPD markers or perhaps to a taxonomic issue? Contrary to our initial expectations, neither of these hindered the detection of the misidentification. After reanalyzing the primary genetic data associated with the misidentified specimen (PCR gel photographs and/or matrices of presence/absence of markers for six RAPD primers), we found that the RAPD markers were sufficient to correctly assign the misidentified specimen to its proper species identity. In the original study, the specimen misidentification was neither noticed by the authors nor apparent in the published article due to how their results were interpreted and presented.

  4. Immunochemotherapy of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a novel approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Musa, Ahmed Mudawi; Khalil, Eltahir Awad Gasim; Mahgoub, Fawzi Abd Elrahim; Elgawi, Sara Hamad Hassab; Modabber, Farroukh; Elkadaru, Abd Elgadir Mohamed Yousif; Aboud, Mona Hussein; Noazin, Sassan; Ghalib, Hashim Warsama; El-Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a recognized dermatosis that follows successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan. This randomized and double-blind study aimed to assess safety, immunogenicity and curative potentials of a novel immunochemotherapy regimen in patients with persistent PKDL. Following informed consent, 30 patients were randomized to receive alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum/ALM) vaccine+Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or vaccine diluent and SSG. The SSG+Alum/ALM+BCG proved safe with minimal local adverse events. In the SSG+vaccine group, 87% of the patients were cured by day 60 compared with 53% in the SSG alone group (SSG+vaccine efficacy=71%, 95% CI for risk ratio 0.7-1.16). On day 90 of follow-up there were two relapses in the SSG alone arm and none in the SSG+vaccine arm. Pre-treatment cytokines showed high IFN-gamma or high IFN-gamma/IL-10 levels and leishmanin skin test (LST) non-reactivity, while healing/clinical improvement were associated with LST reactivity and low IFN-gamma levels in both study groups (P=0.004). In conclusion, SSG+Alum/ALM+BCG is safe and immunogenic with significant healing potentials in persistent PKDL lesions. Immunochemotherapy probably augmented IFN-gamma production, which induced healing. Leishmanin skin reactivity is a good surrogate marker of cure in persistent PKDL lesions.

  5. An historical review of malaria, kala-azar and filariasis in Bangladesh in relation to the Flood Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Birley, M H

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence of a link between flood control and vector-borne disease in Bengal/Bangladesh. Malaria is historically associated with reduced flooding and embankment construction in the flood plains of Bengal. The land west and south of the Jamuna river was highly malarious in 1916 but is not so today. The lands east of the Jamuna now have a higher, though still small, risk. The reduction in health risk can be attributed to the intensification of land use and human population density. Although there are many mosquito species, the abundance of the former malaria vector appears to have declined as environmental change removed its breeding sites. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is a serious disease which is fatal if left untreated. It occurs in irregular, periodic epidemics and is currently increasing in Bangladesh. In the past, malaria and kala-azar were confused and the prevalence of both may have been increased by embankment programmes. Both diseases are unstable and there is insufficient historical information to predict, with certainty, the consequences of environmental change. Reduced flooding accompanied by increased pollution will probably control the malaria vector. More information is needed about the response of the kala-azar vector to flooding. Bancroftian filariasis is non-fatal but causes chronic morbidity. It has had a widespread but usually low prevalence in Bangladesh, with both rural and urban foci. There are few recent data. Increasing organic pollution and drainage obstruction are expected to favour the vector and increase transmission.

  6. Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Niyamat A.; Rabidas, Vidya N.; Sinha, Sanjay K.; Verma, Rakesh B.; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Vijay P.; Ranjan, Alok; Topno, Roshan K.; Lal, Chandra S.; Kumar, Vijay; Sahoo, Ganesh C.; Sridhar, Srikantaih; Pandey, Arvind; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Methodology/Principal findings A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar’s χ² statistics (64; p<0.0001) for house-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission. Conclusion/Significance Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball

  7. Molecular characterization and RAPD analysis of Juniperus species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, J; Behravan, J; Hassany, M; Emami, S A; Shahriari, F; Khayyat, M H

    2011-06-07

    The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), an aromatic evergreen plant, consists of up to 68 species around the world. We classified five species of Juniperus found in Iran using molecular markers to provide a means for molecular identification of Iranian species. Plants were collected (three samples of each species) from two different provinces of Iran (Golestan and East Azarbayejan). The DNA was extracted from the leaves using a Qiagen Dneasy Plant Mini Kit. Amplification was performed using 18 ten-mer RAPD primers. Genetic distances were estimated based on 187 RAPD bands to construct a dendrogram by means of unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. It was found that J. communis and J. oblonga were differentiated from the other species. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.19 (J. communis and J. oblonga) to 0.68 (J. communis and J. excelsa). Juniperus foetidissima was found to be most similar to J. sabina. Juniperus excelsa subspecies excelsa and J. excelsa subspecies polycarpos formed a distinct group.

  8. Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202

  9. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains using random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs).

    PubMed

    Momol, M T; Momol, E A; Lamboy, W F; Norelli, J L; Beer, S V; Aldwinckle, H S

    1997-03-01

    The genetic diversity among 16 strains of Erwinia amylovora, chosen to represent different host plant origins and geographical regions, was investigated by RAPD analysis. One strain of Erwinia herbicola and one of Agrobacterium vitis were used as outgroups. Ninety-eight different RAPD fragments were produced by polymerase chain reaction amplification with six different 10-mer primers. RAPD banding profiles were found that enabled the Erw. amylovora strains to be distinguished from one another. Cluster analysis based on the number of RAPD fragments shared between strains showed that strains of Erw. amylovora isolated from subfamily Pomoideae formed a single group, whereas two strains from Rubus (subfamily Rosoideae) formed a second group. Two strains isolated from Asian pear on Hokkaido, Japan, formed a third group. Sets of RAPD fragments were identified that enabled each of the two host-range groups and one geographical region (Hokkaido) of Erw. amylovora strains to be unambiguously distinguished from one another and from the outgroups. This study shows that strains of Erw. amylovora exhibit genetic diversity detectable by RAPD analysis, and that molecular and statistical analysis of RAPD fragments can be used both to distinguish between strains and to determine relatedness between them.

  10. Development of RAPD-SCAR markers for different Ganoderma species authentication by improved RAPD amplification and molecular cloning.

    PubMed

    Fu, J J; Mei, Z Q; Tania, M; Yang, L Q; Cheng, J L; Khan, M A

    2015-05-25

    The sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) is a valuable molecular technique for the genetic identification of any species. This method is mainly derived from the molecular cloning of the amplified DNA fragments achieved from the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In this study, we collected DNA from 10 species of Ganoderma mushroom and amplified the DNA using an improved RAPD technique. The amplified fragments were then cloned into a T-vector, and positive clones were screened, indentified, and sequenced for the development of SCAR markers. After designing PCR primers and optimizing PCR conditions, 4 SCAR markers, named LZ1-4, LZ2-2, LZ8-2, and LZ9-15, were developed, which were specific to Ganoderma gibbosum (LZ1-4 and LZ8-2), Ganoderma sinense (LZ2-2 and LZ8-2), Ganoderma tropicum (LZ8-2), and Ganoderma lucidum HG (LZ9-15). These 4 novel SCAR markers were deposited into GenBank with the accession Nos. KM391935, KM391936, KM391937, and KM391938, respectively. Thus, in this study we developed specific SCAR markers for the identification and authentication of different Ganoderma species.

  11. Genetic differentiation within Eriochoir sinensis (milne, edwards) revealed by allozyme and RAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhao-Xia; Xiang, Jian-Hai; Song, Lin-Sheng; Zhou, Ling-Hua; Shi, Wei-Liang

    2000-09-01

    We analyzed 17 allozymes, and 20 primers in order to detect the genetic differentiation between commercial populations (Changjiang River, Liaohe River) of Eriochoir sinensis. Ten allozymes (LDH, MDH, ME, IDH, EST, ALP, AAT, CTL, POD, SOD) showed 21 loci by vertically discontinuos buffer system polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RAPD profiles generated by 12 ten-base primers showed 63 loci. The percentage of polymorphic loci and the expected heterozygosity obtained by using allozyme analysis were lower than those obtained by RAPD. The index of similarity between these two populations were 0.955 and 0.932 as revealed by allozyme analysis and RAPD technology. There was gene flow between the above populations.

  12. RAPD and phytochemical analysis of Thymus moroderi plantlets after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Marco-Medina, Ana; Casas, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation is at present the most reliable strategy to preserve plant germplasm. When aromatic plants are the object of conservation it is necessary to assess not only the genetic but also the phytochemical stability to ensure that plant material maintains its qualities after storage. In this work we present molecular and phytochemical stability data related to a previously described vitrification-based cryopreservation protocol for Thymus moroderi Pau ex Martínez. RAPD markers have been used to assess the genetic stability of T. moroderi explants and revealed 0.34 percent of variation in the cryopreserved material studied. Phytochemical data collected from GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts from cryopreserved plantlets rendered a profile in which 1,8-cineole (14.5 percent), camphor (5.9 percent) and borneol (5.2 percent) were the major components. Both data confirmed the suitability of the cryopreservation protocol applied.

  13. [RAPD and SCAR molecular markers linked to the sexuality of cycads (Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang)].

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian-Zhou; Jin, Hong; Li, Dong-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Yong

    2007-11-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA fragment, aiming at finding markers linked to the sex trait in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang. A total number of 160 random primers were screened in the RAPD-PCR and more than 2500 RAPD fragments were generated from the male or the female plants. One fragment of about 500 bp was amplified steadily and repeatedly by the S0465 (CCCCGGTAAC) primer only from female plants but not male plants. The RAPD marker was then converted into female-linked dominant SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) marker named STQC-S465-483. The development of this sex-linked SCAR marker provides a possibility of identifying the sex of Cycas tanqingii before sexual maturation, which is very important to in situ or ex situ conservation.

  14. Use of RAPD to detect sodium arsenite-induced DNA damage in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yang, Vivian C; Wang, Tsu-Shing

    2007-09-24

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous study showed that arsenite significantly induces oxidative DNA adducts and DNA-protein cross-links in several mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to evaluate the possible target in the genomic DNA of human lymphoblastoid cells that were exposed to sodium arsenite. Treatment with both 10 and 80 microM arsenite for 4h induced significant changes in RAPD profiles compared with the control pattern. Two 10-mer RAPD primers (D11 and F1) produced the most distinguishable banding profiles between arsenite-treated and control genomic DNA. The sequencing of four arsenite-sensitive RAPD bands showed that the RB1CC1 and PACE4 genes might be the DNA targets of sodium arsenite treatment. We propose that arsenite may induce sequence- or gene-specific damage and then change the RAPD profile in human lymphoblastoid cells. The results of our study also show that RAPD combined with other techniques is a good tool for detecting alterations in genomic DNA and for the direct screening of new molecular markers related to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of a self-reported physical activity questionnarie used in the pilot phase of the AZAR Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Amini-Sani, Nayyreh; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a self-reported physical activity (PA) questionnaire based on data from the pilot phase of the AZAR Cohort Study. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all 35-70 years old people living in Khameneh, a city in East Azarbaijan, Iran were invited to take part in the pilot phase of the AZAR Cohort Study. A total of 952 people completed the self-reported PA questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Spearman’s correlation coefficient between the scores of the two instruments was used to examine the concurrent validity. Reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results: In EFA applying principal component analysis with varimax rotation, four factors were identified including recreational leisure time (variance = 52.73%), sedentary leisure time (variance = 38.68%), household/gardening work (variance = 38.66%), and occupation work (variance = 12.67%). The extracted factors were also supported by the CFA (CFI = 0.98, GFI =0.936, RMSEA=0.057). The results indicated moderate concurrent validity (ρ = 0.62, P < 0.001). ICC and Cronbach’s alpha were 0.59 and 0.7, respectively. Conclusion: These results showed acceptable and moderate psychometric properties for the self-reported PA questionnaire to assess PA in this population-based study. PMID:27579259

  16. Comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers for assessment of genetic diversity among endangered rare Dalbergia oliveri (Fabaceae) genotypes in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phong, D T; Hien, V T T; Thanh, T T V; Tang, D V

    2011-10-06

    Dalbergia oliveri is a leguminous tree of the Fabaceae family. This species is popular and valuable in Vietnam and is currently listed on the Vietnam Red List and on the IUCN Red List as endangered. Two PCR techniques using RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to make a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in this species. Fifty-six polymorphic primers (29 RAPD and 27 ISSR) were used. The RAPD primers produced 63 bands across 35 genotypes, of which 24 were polymorphic. The number of amplified bands varied from one to four, with a size range from 250 to 1400 bp. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 0 to 75. Amplification of genomic DNA of the 35 genotypes, using ISSR analysis, yielded 104 fragments, of which 63 were polymorphic. The number of amplified fragments using ISSR primers ranged from one to nine and varied in size from 250 to 1500 bp. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 0 to 100. ISSR markers were relatively more efficient than RAPDs. The mental test between two Jaccard's similarity matrices gave r ≥0.802, showing good fit correlation between ISSRs and RAPDs. Clustering of isolates remained more or less the same for RAPDs compared to combined RAPD and ISSR data. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.785 to 1.000, 0.698 to 0.956 and 0.752 to 0.964 with RAPD, ISSR, and the combined RAPD-ISSR dendrogram, respectively.

  17. Development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in AmBisome treated visceral leishmaniasis: a possible challenge to elimination program in India.

    PubMed

    Das, V N R; Pandey, K; Singh, D; Forwood, C; Lal, C S; Das, P

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases, one male (33 years) and a female (14 years), that developed Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) after successful treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-azar with AmBisome, the lipid complex of Amphotericin B. Both cases presented with hypo-pigmented macular lesions all over the body. The patients responded well to AmBisome after treatment with three courses. This first ever case report from India indicates that possibly there is no effective drug for VL until date, which can prevent post-treatment development of PKDL.

  18. Use of Conserved Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Fragments and RAPD Pattern for Characterization of Lactobacillus fermentum in Ghanaian Fermented Maize Dough

    PubMed Central

    Hayford, Alice E.; Petersen, Anne; Vogensen, Finn K.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    The present work describes the use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for the characterization of 172 dominant Lactobacillus isolates from present and previous studies of Ghanaian maize fermentation. Heterofermentative lactobacilli dominate the fermentation flora, since approximately 85% of the isolates belong to this group. Cluster analysis of the RAPD profiles obtained showed the presence of two main clusters. Cluster 1 included Lactobacillus fermentum, whereas cluster 2 comprised the remaining Lactobacillus spp. The two distinct clusters emerged at the similarity level of <50%. All isolates in cluster 1 showed similarity in their RAPD profile to the reference strains of L. fermentum included in the study. These isolates, yielding two distinct bands of approximately 695 and 773 bp with the primers used, were divided into four subclusters, indicating that several strains are involved in the fermentation and remain dominant throughout the process. The two distinct RAPD fragments were cloned, sequenced, and used as probes in Southern hybridization experiments. With one exception, Lactobacillus reuteri LMG 13045, the probes hybridized only to fragments of different sizes in EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA of L. fermentum strains, thus indicating the specificity of the probes and variation within the L. fermentum isolates. PMID:10388723

  19. Unfolding of the RAP-D3 helical bundle facilitates dissociation of RAP-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Kristine; Fisher, Carl; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2008-02-12

    The receptor-associated protein (RAP) functions as an escort protein for receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family by preventing premature intracellular binding of ligands and assisting with delivery of mature receptors to the cell surface. The modulation of affinity by pH is believed to play an important role in the escort function of RAP, because RAP binds tightly to proteins of the LDLR family at near-neutral pH early in the secretory pathway where its high affinity precludes premature binding of ligands but then dissociates from bound receptors at the lower pH of the Golgi compartment. The third domain of RAP (RAP-D3), which forms a three-helix bundle, is sufficient to reconstitute the escort activity. Here, we test the hypothesis that low-pH induced unfolding of the RAP-D3 helical bundle facilitates dissociation of RAP-receptor complexes. First, variants of RAP-D3 resistant to low pH-induced unfolding were constructed by replacing interior histidine residues with phenylalanines. In contrast to native RAP-D3, which exhibits an unfolding pKa of 6.3 and a Tm of 42 degrees C, the most hyperstable variant of RAP-D3, in which four histidine residues are replaced with phenylalanine, has an unfolding pKa of 4.8, and a Tm of 58 degrees C. The phenylalanine substitutions in RAP-D3 confer increased stability to pH-induced dissociation of complexes formed between RAP-D3 and a two-repeat fragment of the LDLR (LA3-4). When introduced into full-length RAP, the four mutations that confer hyperstability on RAP-D3 interfere with transport of endogenous LRP-1 to the cell surface in a dominant negative fashion under conditions where expression of normal RAP has no effect on LRP-1 transport. Our studies support a model in which low pH-dependent unfolding of RAP-D3 facilitates dissociation of RAP from the LA repeats of LDLR family proteins in the mildly acidic pH of the Golgi.

  20. Genetic diversity of Pleurotus pulmonarius revealed by RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yonggang; Liu, Yu; Li, Huamin; Zhao, Shuang; Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Ying; Wu, Di; Xu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius is one of the most widely cultivated and popular edible fungi in the genus Pleurotus. Three molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 15 Chinese P. pulmonarius cultivars. In total, 21 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and 20 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) primers or primer pairs were selected for generating data based on their clear banding profiles produced. With the use of these RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP primers or primer pairs, a total of 361 RAPD, 283 ISSR, and 131 SRAP fragments were detected, of which 287 (79.5 %) RAPD, 211 (74.6 %) ISSR, and 98 (74.8 %) SRAP fragments were polymorphic. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) trees of these three methods were structured similarly, grouping the 15 tested strains into four clades. Subsequently, visual DNA fingerprinting and cluster analysis were performed to evaluate the resolving power of the combined RAPD, ISSR, and SRAP markers in the differentiation among these strains. The results of this study demonstrated that each method above could efficiently differentiate P. pulmonarius cultivars and could thus be considered an efficient tool for surveying genetic diversity of P. pulmonarius.

  1. Molecular genetic differentiation of avian Escherichia coli by RAPD-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Madani, Seyed Ahmad; Karimi, Vahid; Khazaeli, Fatemeh Arab

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most important bacterial avian pathogens and a common inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Most pathogenic E. coli can not be differentiated biochemically or by classic microbiologic methods. Molecular typing methods, particularly PCR, facilitated epidemiological and ecological studies of bacteria. Here we describe the application of a random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) for molecular genetic differentiation of E. coli isolates in Iran. In this study 58 E. coli isolates including 4 standard strains, 3 food originated isolates, 33 avian isolates, 8 isolates form diarrheic calves and 10 isolates from unweaned diarrheic lambs were analyzed by RAPD-PCR using primer 1247(5/-AAG AGC CCG T-3/). The RAPD analysis showed that these isolates could be grouped into 33 RAPD types and avian isolates were discriminated into 29 genotypes. It was shown that the primer could not differentiate E. coli isolated from lambs. Discriminatory index for entire isolates was 0.912 and for avian isolates was 0.990. We concluded that RAPD-PCR can be used as a method for molecular differentiation of E. coli isolates. PMID:24031252

  2. Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique.

    PubMed

    Toral Ibañez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M

    2009-02-01

    A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin.

  3. Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique*

    PubMed Central

    Toral Ibañez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A.; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M.; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin. PMID:19235269

  4. Development of an RAPD-based SCAR marker for smut disease resistance in commercial sugarcane cultivars of Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of RAPD-derived Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker in order to select Sporisorium scitamineum resistant and susceptible commercial cultivars of sugarcane from Pakistan was achieved. Bulked segregant and RAPD-analysis were conducted using 480 random decamers in initial ...

  5. Selection of Unique Escherichia coli Clones by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD): Evaluation by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Godfrey, Paul A.; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S.; Feldgarden, Michael; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing clonal diversity is important when analysing fecal flora. We evaluated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, applied for selection of Escherichia coli isolates, by whole genome sequencing. RAPD was fast, and reproducible as screening method for selection of distinct E. coli clones in fecal swabs. PMID:24912108

  6. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa

    2015-01-01

    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  7. Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis similar to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a Brazilian AIDS patient infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carnaúba, Dimas; Konishi, Cassiana Tami; Petri, Valéria; Martinez, Isabel Cristina Pedro; Shimizu, Laura; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of an atypical disseminated leishmaniasis with similar clinical characteristics to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, an uncommon disease in South America. This occurred in a Brazilian patient with AIDS, 3 years after the first episode of American visceral leishmaniasis.

  8. Identification of metalliferous ecotypes of Cistus ladanifer L. using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino; Kidd, Petra S; Fraga, María Isabel

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cistus ladanifer ssp. ladanifer (Cistaceae) growing on ultramafic and non-ultramafic (basic and schists) soils in the NE of Portugal was studied in order to identify molecular markers that could distinguish the metal-tolerant ecotypes of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used in order to estimate genetic variation and differences between populations. The RAPD dataset was analysed by means of a cluster analysis and an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Our results indicate a significant partitioning of molecular variance between ultramafic and non-ultramafic populations of Cistus ladanifer, although the highest percentage of this variance was found at the intra-population level. Mantel's test showed no relationship between inter-population genetic and geographic distances. A series of RAPD bands that could be related to heavy metal tolerance were observed. The identification of such markers will enable the use of Cistus ladanifer in phytoremediation procedures.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd; Mallick, N

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard's similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program.

  10. Molecular characterization of shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes strains (higher Basidiomycetes) using RAPD and ITS sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Shammi

    2014-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny in seven strains of Lentinus edodes was studied based on RAPD and their internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions. The strains were analyzed by RAPD with 20 arbitrary primers. Fifteen primers were found efficient for the amplification of the genomic DNA. The size of the polymorphic bands were in the range of 100-1000 bp. However, the size of ITS1-2 and ITS1-4 regions varied among the strains from 278 to 575 bp and from 410 to 616 bp, respectively. The higher alignment score of the ITS 1-2 region indicated more variability in the ITS 1-4 region. Thus, on the basis of RAPD-PCR and ITS sequencing it was found that strains LeC and LeI showed a high degree of divergence from all other strains.

  11. Genome relationship among nine species of Millettieae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Panda, Pratap Chandra

    2004-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker was used to establish intergeneric classification and phylogeny of the tribe Millettieae sensu Geesink (1984) (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) and to assess genetic relationship between 9 constituent species belonging to 5 traditionally recognized genera under the tribe. DNA from pooled leaf samples was isolated and RAPD analysis performed using 25 decamer primers. The genetic similarities were derived from the dendrogram constructed by the pooled RAPD data using a similarity index, which supported clear grouping of species under their respective genera, inter- and intra-generic classification and phylogeny and also merger of Pongamia with Millettia. Elevation of Tephrosia purpurea var. pumila to the rank of a species (T. pumila) based on morphological characteristics is also supported through this study of molecular markers.

  12. Biogeographic pattern of genetic diversity detected by RAPD and ISSR analysis in Gypsophila (Caryophyllaceae) species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, M; Dogan, N Y

    2015-08-03

    Gypsophila L. is the 3rd-largest genus of Caryophyllaceae in Turkey, a country that includes 60 taxa belonging to 56 species of the 126 recognized in the genus. A total of 35 taxa are endemic to Turkey, with an approximately 60% endemism ratio. In this study, the genetic diversity of 14 Gypsophila species from Turkey was analyzed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Sixteen RAPD and 6 ISSR primers produced 132 polymorphic bands. RAPD, ISSR, and RAPD + ISSR primers for the 14 species showed 92.7, 93.8, and 92.9% polymorphism, respectively. Our results indicate that RAPD and ISSR markers are reliable and effective for assessing the genetic diversity of Gypsophila species. Gypsophila species studied were separated into 2 clusters. Our analysis shows that the clusters correlated with geographic and phytogeographic regions.

  13. Variation in Salmonella enteritidis RAPD-PCR patterns may not be due to genetic differences.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Demetrius L; Berghaus, Roy D; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2011-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a leading cause of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs. Because pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has limited utility in distinguishing between clonal Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR has been recommended as an alternative molecular fingerprinting tool. This study's objective was to determine whether increasing PCR stringency would improve the repeatability of RAPD DNA patterns based on assessment of target sites within the genome. An in silico PCR was performed to predict amplification products from an Salmonella Enteritidis genome sequence for three different RAPD primers (1247, 1283, and OPA4) and to determine whether any primer would be more likely to amplify variable regions within the genome. A comparison of within- and between-isolate similarities in RAPD patterns was performed using primer 1247, which was predicted by in silico analysis to yield a variable size range of amplicons. In order to reduce artifactual variability associated with the method, three different methods for template preparation were evaluated. All were found to provide comparable results with respect to the similarities observed with repeated analyses of the same Salmonella Enteritidis isolates (n = 18, P = 0.91). Although the median within-isolate similarity (76.0%) was significantly greater than the median between-isolate similarity (66.7%; P = 0.001), duplicate RAPD-PCR runs of the same Salmonella Enteritidis isolates produced DNA patterns that ranged in similarity between 61.5 and 100%. These results indicate that the repeatability of RAPD-PCR is insufficient to distinguish genetic differences among related and unrelated Salmonella Enteritidis isolates.

  14. Studies on the vector of kala-azar in Kenya, VIII. The outbreak in Machakos District; epidemiological features and a possible way of control.

    PubMed

    Wijers, D J; Kiilu, G

    1984-12-01

    The epidemiology of kala-azar was studied in East Katangini, the area in Machakos District where the incidence of the disease had been highest during the epidemic years 1977-1979. A house-to-house survey showed that 19.3% of the homesteads had harboured kala-azar patients in the period 1977-1980, while 3.2% of the people had suffered from the disease. Significantly more males had had the disease than females and more children than adults, while the male patients came mainly from poorer homesteads. Significantly more kala-azar occurred in homesteads within 200 metres of a termite hill, while kala-azar seemed to occur particularly in homesteads near dry river beds. During a period of one year, sandflies were caught in a small focus of infection. They were still common in rock fissures, but were rare in other resting sites such as termite hills and huts. Particularly, the man-biting Phlebotomus martini was rare, as were other man-biting insects such as Anopheles gambiae. Very recently the farmers had begun to grow cotton which was sprayed regularly with insecticides stored mostly in the farmers' homes. As a result, the number of new patients in 1980 fell to four, and the longer the people had stored insecticides in their compounds, the lower was the recent kala-azar incidence in these homesteads. Presumably the insecticide treatments killed many sandflies and other insects, while the storing of insecticides protected the people inside their huts, although some patients probably became infected outside, probably near termite hills.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Characterization of Echinacea species and detection of possible adulterations by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, H T; Zündorf, I; Winckler, T; Bauer, R; Dingermann, T

    1999-12-01

    In this report we describe the discrimination of all three pharmaceutically relevant Echinacea species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Genomic DNA prepared from either fresh root material or dried roots was probed in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using several arbitrary primers. Distinct banding patterns were obtained for E. purpurea, E. angustifolia var. angustifolia, and E. pallida, respectively. Individual Echinacea drugs could be identified within mixtures containing variable amounts of individual drugs. We propose to use RAPD analysis as a rapid and reliable test for proving the identity of Echinacea root drugs.

  16. RAPD based genetic variability among cultivated varieties of Aonla (Indian Gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica L.).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, A K; Subramaniam, V R; Krishna, Bal; Sane, P V

    2009-04-01

    Aonla, the Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) is widely grown in India due to its neutraceutical properties. Investigations on the use of RAPD markers enabled us to estimate genetic variability among commercially cultivated varieties. This study also enabled us to distinguish these varieties using a set of four decamer primers, which was otherwise difficult by using morphological markers. Cluster analysis revealed three different groups of varieties directly associated to their place of origin. RAPD markers were also able to differentiate varieties of same origin or even selection from same parents. This information can be used for identification of varieties and further crop improvement programme.

  17. Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN.

    PubMed

    Dnyaneshwar, Warude; Preeti, Chavan; Kalpana, Joshi; Bhushan, Patwardhan

    2006-11-01

    Correct genotype identification of medicinal plant material remains important for botanical drug industry. Limitations of chemical and morphological approaches for authentication have generated need for newer methods in quality control of botanicals. The present study was carried out to develop DNA based marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN. A putative marker (1.1 kb) specific for P. emblica was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed from the RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was found useful for identification of P. emblica in its commercial samples and Triphalachurna, a multi-component Ayurvedic formulation.

  18. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis for high-resolution identification of Monascus strains.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Tamaki, Yasutomo; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Matsui, Toru

    2009-04-01

    Monascus fungi are commonly used for a variety of food products in Asia, and are also known to produce some biologically active compounds. Since the use of Monascus is expected to increase in food industries, strain-level identification and management of Monascus will be needed in the near future. In the present study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis coupled with microchip electrophoresis was applied for this purpose. Evaluations of the analysis stability revealed that reproducible results could be obtained, although template DNA fragmentation could influence the resulting RAPD pattern. RAPD analysis using 15 Monascus strains consisting of four species, M. ruber, M. pilosus, M. purpureus, and M. kaoliang showed that each strain generated a unique RAPD pattern, which allows strain-level identification of Monascus. In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed from RAPD patterns reflected M. ruber-M. pilosus and M. purpureus-M. kaoliang clusters inferred from both ITS and beta-tubulin gene sequences, which indicated that the RAPD pattern could reflect their phylogenetic traits to a certain extent. On the other hand, RAPD analysis did not support the monophyletic clustering of the four Monascus species used in this study, which suggests the necessity of reexamination of species boundaries in Monascus.

  19. Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Bianca W; de C Telles, Mariana P; Malosso, Milena G; Torres, Simone C Z; Pereira, José O; Lourenço, Mirian V; de C França, Suzelei; Pereira, Ana M S

    2010-07-01

    Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Cyclamen Species Collected from Different Parts of Turkey by RAPD and SRAP Markers.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Ozhan; Curuk, Pembe; Aslan, Fatma; Bayramoglu, Melda; Izgu, Tolga; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2017-02-01

    The genus Cyclamen (family Myrsinaceae) contains about 20 species, most of which occur in the Mediterranean region. Turkey has critically important Cyclamen genetic resources. Molecular characterization of plant materials collected from different regions of Turkey in which Cyclamen species grow naturally, namely Adana, Antalya, Aydın, Muğla, İzmir, Denizli, Kahramanmaraş, Osmaniye, Eskişehir, Trabzon, and Rize provinces, was performed using RAPD and SRAP markers. DNA was successfully amplified by 30 RAPD primers and 14 SRAP primer pairs. Among the 470 bands generated by the RAPD primers, 467 were polymorphic. The number of bands detected by a single primer set ranged from 11 to 22 (average of 15.6). The percentage polymorphism was 99.3 % based on the RAPD data. In the SRAP analysis, a total of 216 bands were generated, showing 100 % polymorphism. The number of bands detected by a single primer set ranged from 9 to 22 (average of 15.4). All data were scored and UPGMA dendrograms were constructed with similar results in both marker systems, i.e., different species from nine provinces of Turkey were separated from each other in the dendrograms with the same species being clustered together.

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceaea) using RAPD, ISSR and RAMP markers.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Noor Zafirah; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohammed Razip; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Hamdan, Mohammad Razak

    2016-10-01

    Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared to analyse the genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans eight populations in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The PCR techniques were random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acids (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). Leaf genomic DNA was PCR amplified using 17 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 136 RAMP primers . However, only 10 RAPD primers, 5 ISSR primers and 37 RAMP primers produced reproducible bands. The results were evaluated for polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP). The RAMP marker was the most useful marker compared to RAPD and ISSR markers because it showed the highest average value of PIC (0.25), MI (11.36) and RP (2.86). The genetic diversity showed a high percentage of polymorphism at the species level compared to the population level. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic diversity was higher within populations, as compared to among populations of C. nutans. From the results, the RAMP technique was recommended for the analysis of genetic diversity of C. nutans.

  2. Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado. PMID:21637428

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF SEX CHROMOSOME MOLECULAR MARKERS USING RAPDS AND FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this work is to identify molecular markers associated with the sex chromosomes in rainbow trout to study the mode of sex determination mechanisms in this species. Using the RAPD assay and bulked segregant analysis, two markers were identified that generated polymorphi...

  4. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.

  5. Use of RAPD-PCR to isolate a species specific DNA probe for Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, M P; O'Brien, P A

    1993-10-01

    The products of RAPD-PCR amplification of Phytophthora cinnamomi DNA were separated by electrophoresis in agarose. Parallel Southern blots of the gels were hybridized with nick translated DNA from different species of Phytophthora. Fragments that hybridized specifically to P. cinnamomi DNA were identified. These fragments were purified and cloned into pUC18. Their specificity for P. cinnamomi was confirmed.

  6. Characterization of Specific RAPD Markers of Virulence in Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    FRAGA, Jorge; ROJAS, Lázara; SARIEGO, Idalia; FERNÁNDEZ-CALIENES, Aymé

    2015-01-01

    Background: As for human trichomoniasis the host-parasite relationship is very complex, and the broad ranges of clinical symptoms are unlikely be attributable to a single pathogenic mechanism. Specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers of 490 bp, 720 bp and 460 bp using the primers Tv-5, OPA-6 and OPA-11, respectively, were reported. This was the first description of possible genetic virulence markers of the infection by T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to characterize the specific RAPD markers in order to elucidate their importance on virulence of this illness. Methods: The selected specific RAPD fragments were cloned and sequenced. The obtained sequences were compared by the BLAST algorithm. Results: The nucleotide sequence of the Tv-5490 RAPD marker exhibited significant similarity to T. vaginalis hypothetical G3 leucine rich repeat (LRR) family protein (e-value: 6e-14) and Giardia lamblia leucine rich repeat protein 1 virus receptor protein (e-value: 6e-14 and 2e-12) ; however, the OPA-6720 and OPA-11460 showed no significant similarity with any coding published sequence. All the evaluated strains showed the presence of the LRR gene. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a possible role of this gene in the virulence of T. vaginalis and in the parasite infection with Trichomonas virus as a possible virus receptor. Further analysis of this gene and encoded protein will allow determining the role that they play in the isolates virus susceptible or resistant phenotypes. PMID:26622300

  7. Implication of vector characteristics of Phlebotomus argentipes in the kala-azar elimination programme in the Indian sub-continent

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Vijay; Mondal, Dinesh; Das, Murari Lal; Das, Pradeep; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar in the Indian sub-continent (ISC), is a major public health concern in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, where it is caused by Leishmania donovani transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Various ecological parameters including air temperature, rainfall, wind speed, relative humidity, soil moisture, pH, and organic carbon are known to influence the oviposition of female sand flies, as well as the survival and development of larvae. However, more detailed knowledge on vector behavior, such as biting times, breeding places, and preferred hosts are needed to design optimal evidence-based vector control interventions. Methods In order to facilitate rational decisions regarding VL vector control, a systematic review was conducted to identify the prevailing practice and knowledge gaps in relation to vector bionomics and behavior. Search terms included ‘sand fly bionomics’, ‘habitat’, and ‘visceral leishmaniasis/kala-azar vector control’ using the Boolean operator AND to identify the country of interest, namely: Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Both PubMed and Google search engines were used. Additional unpublished documents in the three countries were also analyzed. Results Information on the life cycle of VL vectors, their breeding behavior, infection rate with L. donovani, feeding behavior, and seasonal variation are useful for designing vector control operations. Unfortunately, none of the studies on the life cycle of P. argentipes was conducted in field settings of the ISC, so the publications from other locations had to be used for determining the duration of life cycle and development from egg to adult. However, information about breeding places, seasonal variation of vector densities, and 47 out of the selected 51 papers are available from the ISC and can be used for intelligent design of control operations. Conclusion Vector control services should undertake routine insecticide

  8. Genetic diversity in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces from Zimbabwe revealed by RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mujaju, C; Sehic, J; Werlemark, G; Garkava-Gustavsson, L; Fatih, M; Nybom, H

    2010-08-01

    Low polymorphism in cultivated watermelon has been reported in previous studies, based mainly on US Plant Introductions and watermelon cultivars, most of which were linked to breeding programmes associated with disease resistance. Since germplasm sampled in a putative centre of origin in southern Africa may harbour considerably higher variability, DNA marker-based diversity was estimated among 81 seedlings from eight accessions of watermelon collected in Zimbabwe; five accessions of cow-melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and three of sweet watermelons (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Two molecular marker methods were used, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) also known as microsatellite DNA. Ten RAPD primers produced 138 markers of which 122 were polymorphic. Nine SSR primer pairs detected a total of 43 alleles with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 for the RAPD primers and from 0.39 to 0.97 for the SSR loci. Similarity matrices obtained with SSR and RAPD, respectively, were highly correlated but only RAPD was able to provide each sample with an individual-specific DNA profile. Dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS) produced two major clusters; one with the five cow-melon accessions and the other with the three sweet watermelon accessions. One of the most variable cow-melon accessions took an intermediate position in the MDS analysis, indicating the occurrence of gene flow between the two subspecies. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) attributed most of the variability to within-accessions, and contrary to previous reports, sweet watermelon accessions apparently contain diversity of the same magnitude as the cow-melons.

  9. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbacher, Shawn A; Brown, Rebecca N; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bassil, Nahla V; Kubisiak, Thomas L

    2006-02-01

    A linkage map for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the 2-way pseudotestcross approach. A full-sib population of 144 seedlings from the cross OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062 was used. RAPD markers in testcross configuration, segregating 1:1, were used to construct separate maps for each parent. Fifty additional RAPD loci were assigned to linkage groups as accessory markers whose exact location could not be determined. Markers in intercross configuration, segregating 3:1, were used to pair groups in one parent with their homologues in the other. Eleven groups were identified for each parent, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of hazelnut (n = x = 11). Thirty of the 31 SSR loci were able to be assigned to a linkage group. The maternal map included 249 RAPD and 20 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 661 cM. The paternal map included 271 RAPD and 28 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 812 cM. The maps are quite dense, with an average of 2.6 cM between adjacent markers. The S-locus, which controls pollen-stigma incompatibility, was placed on chromosome 5S where 6 markers linked within a distance of 10 cM were identified. A locus for resistance to eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala, was placed on chromosome 6R for which two additional markers tightly linked to the dominant allele were identified and sequenced. These maps will serve as a starting point for future studies of the hazelnut genome, including map-based cloning of important genes. The inclusion of SSR loci on the map will make it useful in other populations.

  10. RAPD and SSR Polymorphisms in Mutant Lines of Transgenic Wheat Mediated by Low Energy Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiegu; Huang, Qunce; Feng, Weisen

    2007-10-01

    Two types of markers-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat DNA (SSR)-have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among nine mutant lines of transgenic wheat intermediated by low energy ion beam and their four receptor cultivars. The objectives of this study were to analyze RAPD-based and SSR-based genetic variance among transgenic wheat lines and with their receptors, and to find specific genetic markers of special traits of transgenic wheat lines. 170 RAPD primers were amplified to 733 fragments in all the experimental materials. There were 121 polymorphic fragments out of the 733 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 16.5%. 29 SSR primer pairs were amplified to 83 fragments in all the experiment materials. There were 57 polymorphic fragments out of the 83 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 68.7%. The dendrograms were prepared based on a genetic distance matrix using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic averaging) algorithm, which corresponded well to the results of the wheat pedigree analysis and separated the 13 genotypes into four groups. Association analysis between RAPD and SSR markers with the special traits of transgenic wheat mutant lines discovered that three RAPD markers, s1, opt-16, and f14, were significantly associated with the muticate trait, while three SSR markers, Rht8 (Xgwm261), Rht-B1b, and Rht-D1b, highly associated with the dwarf trait. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning.

  11. The FML (Fucose Mannose Ligand) of Leishmania donovani. a new tool in diagnosis, prognosis, transfusional control and vaccination against human kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Palatnik de Sousa, C B; Gomes, E M; de Souza, E P; dos Santos, W R; de Macedo, S R; de Medeiros, L V; Luz, K

    1996-01-01

    The Fucose-Mannose Ligand (FML) of Leishmania donovani is a complex glycoproteic fraction. Its potential use as a tool for diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis was tested with human sera from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The FML-ELISA test, showed 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity, identifying patients with overt kala-azar (p < 0.001, when compared to normal sera), and subjects with subclinical infection. More than 20% apparently healthy subjects with positive reaction to FML developed overt kala-azar during the following 10 months. In the screening of human blood donnors, a prevalence of 5% of sororeactive subjects was detected, attaining 17% in a single day. The GP36 glycoprotein of FHL is specifically reconized by human kala-azar sera. The immunoprotective effect of FML on experimental L. donovani infection was tested in swiss albino mice. The protection scheemes included three weekly doses of FML, supplemented or not with saponin by the subcutaneous or intraperitoneal routes and challenge with 2 x 10(7) amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. An enhancement of 80.0% in antibody response (p < 0.001) and reduction of 85.5% parasite liver burden (p < 0.001) was detected in animals immunized with FML saponin, unrespectively of the immunization route.

  12. [Analysis of DNA polymorphism in a relict Uralian species, yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill.), using RAPD and ISSR markers].

    PubMed

    Boronnikova, S V; Kokaeva, Z G; Gostimskiĭ, S A; Dribnokhodova, O P; Tikhomirova, N N

    2007-05-01

    Genetic polymorphism of the Uralian relict plant species, yellow foxglove Digitalis grandiflora Mill. (family Scrophulariaceae), was examined using RAPD and ISSR techniques. A total of 149 RAPD and 74 ISSR markers were tested. The indices characterizing polymorphism and genetic diversity were calculated. The data obtained pointed to a high level of genetic variation of D. grandiflora (P95 = 65%). The cenopopulation examined was weakly differentiated with most of genetic diversity accounted by within-population differentiation.

  13. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  14. Genetic relationships between selected Turkish mulberry genotypes (Morus spp) based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Orhan, E; Ercisli, S

    2010-11-03

    Mulberry (Morus spp, Moraceae) is an important horticultural crop in Turkey, which is one of the main world producers of mulberry fruit. We evaluated the genetic relationships among 26 mulberry genotypes selected for agronomic characteristics, using RAPD markers. A total of 367 DNA markers were generated with 34 random primers. The highest genetic similarity (0.80) was observed between Oltu58 (M. nigra) and Olur90 (M. nigra) genotypes. The genotypes Oltu3 (M. alba) and Oltu18 (M. rubra) were the most distant (0.36). We found that the RAPD technique is a useful tool to discriminate mulberry genotypes at both the intra- and interspecific level. This type of information will aid in accurate identification of useful genotypes for breeding programs.

  15. Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.

    PubMed

    Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

    2000-05-01

    In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther.

  16. RAPD and pedigree-based genetic diversity estimates in cultivated diploid potato hybrids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Genlou; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Mayich, Michael; Jong, Hielke

    2003-06-01

    In this study, RAPD and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationships in a group of 45 diploid hybrid potato clones used in the breeding and genetics program of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Potato Research Centre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, and used for the potato after-cooking darkness program at the Nova Scotia Agricultural College. These hybrids were derived from crossing primitive cultivated South American diploid species such as Solanum phureja or Solanum stenotomum and wild diploid species such as Solanum chacoense and other wild Argentine species with haploids of Solanum tuberosum. These hybrids have subsequently undergone up to 30 years of breeding and selection, for adaptation to local growing and storage conditions, processing traits and pest resistances. The objectives of this study were to estimate the level of genetic similarity (GS) among these sets of clones and to investigate the correlation between RAPD-based GS and f, based on pedigree information. Genetic similarity coefficients varied from 0.29 to 0.90 with a mean of 0.65 when based on the RAPD data, whereas the coefficient of parentage varied from zero to 0.75 with a mean of 0.11. The degree of relationship between the similarity matrices based on RAPD and pedigree was measured by comparing the similarity matrices with the normalized Mantel test. A low positive correlation (R = 0.104, p = 0.999) between the two matrices was observed. Cluster analysis using GS divided the clones into many subgroups that did not correspond well with the grouping based on pedigree. The level of genetic variation present in this set of potato clones is very high. Rigorous selection pressure aimed at different breeding purposes may result in the genetic differentiation of the clones from the same origin.

  17. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of three Norwegian Gyrodactylus salaris populations (Monogenea:Gyrodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C O; Mo, T A

    1997-04-01

    Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr in 3 Norwegian rivers have been compared genetically by the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two primers revealed polymorphism between different populations of G. salaris. This variation has probably arisen since the introduction of G. salaris to Norway in the 1970s and complements results showing morphological variation between G. salaris from different geographical areas.

  18. Use of RAPD and AFLP markers to identify inter- and intraspecific hybrids of Mentha.

    PubMed

    Shasany, A K; Darokar, M P; Dhawan, S; Gupta, A K; Gupta, S; Shukla, A K; Patra, N K; Khanuja, S P S

    2005-01-01

    Three controlled crosses were carried out involving Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata [M. spicata CIMAP/C30 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33 (cv. Neera); M. arvensis CIMAP/C18 x CIMAP/C17 (cv. Kalka); and M. arvensis CIMAP/C17 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33]. The parents were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with 80 primers, and polymorphic primers were tested for detecting coinherited RAPD profiles among the progeny of these crosses. Of 50 seedlings tested from each intraspecific cross, all demonstrated dominant profiles with the selected RAPD primers except the detected hybrid from respective crosses. Coinherited markers could be detected with the primers OPJ 01, MAP 06, OPT 08, and OPO 20 for M. arvensis; OPJ 05, OPJ 14, OPO 19, and OPT 09 for M. spicata; and OPJ 07, OPJ 10, OPJ 11, OPJ 14, and OPO 02 for the cross M. arvensis x M. spicata. In our amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, 40 coinherited marker fragments were identified for the cross involving M. arvensis, 32 for the cross involving M. spicata, and 41 for the interspecific cross between M. arvensis and M. spicata. In all crosses, similarity values between the parents were less than those between the parents and the hybrids. Although RAPD markers are generally considered dominant, it is possible to identify a few codominant markers that behave like restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. This molecular marker system may be helpful in rapidly screening out hybrids in crops where cross-pollination is a problem.

  19. Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Sharaf-Eldin, M A; Al-Tamimi, A; Alam, P; Elkholy, S F; Jordan, J R

    2015-12-28

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an important food and medicinal crop that is cultivated in Mediterranean countries. Morphological characteristics, such as head shape and diameter, leaf shape, and bract shape, are mainly affected by environmental conditions. A molecular marker approach was used to analyze the degree of polymorphism between artichoke hybrid lines. The degree of genetic difference among three artichoke hybrids was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). In this study, the DNA fingerprints of three artichoke lines (A13-010, A11-018, and A12-179) were generated, and a total of 10 decamer primers were applied for RAPD-PCR analyses. Polymorphism  (16.66 to 62.50%) was identified using eight arbitrary decamers and total genomic DNA extracted from the hybrids. Of the 59 loci detected, there were 25 polymorphic and 34 monomorphic loci. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged between 1.0 and 0.84. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity matrix and dendrogram, the results indicated that two hybrids (A13-010 and A11-018) were closely related to each other, and the A12-179 line showed more divergence. When identifying correct accessions, consideration of the genetic variation and genetic relationships among the genotypes are required. The RAPD-PCR fingerprinting of artichoke lines clearly showed that it is possible to analyze the RAPD patterns for correlation between genetic means and differences or resemblance between close accessions (A13-010 and A11- 018) at the genomic level.

  20. Typing of bacteriophages by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to assess genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Rodríguez, Ana; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; García, Pilar; Martínez, Beatriz

    2011-09-01

    The recent boom in phage therapy and phage biocontrol requires the design of suitable cocktails of genetically different bacteriophages. The current methods for typing phages need significant quantities of purified DNA, may require a priori genetic information and are cost and time consuming. We have evaluated the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique to produce unique and reproducible band patterns from 26 different bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus casei bacterial strains. Initially, purified DNA and phage suspensions of seven selected phages were used as a template. The conditions that were found to be optimal 8 μM of 10-mer primers, 3 μM magnesium oxalacetate and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. The RAPD genomic fingerprints using a phage titer suspension higher than 10(9) PFU mL(-1) were highly reproducible. Clustering by the Pearson correlation coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages clustering algorithm correlated largely with genetically different phages infecting the same bacterial species, although closely related phages with a similar DNA restriction pattern were indistinguishable. The results support the use of RAPD-PCR for quick typing of phage isolates and preliminary assessment of their genetic diversity bypassing tedious DNA purification protocols and previous knowledge of their sequence.

  1. Differentiation of beauveria bassiana isolates from the darkling beetle, alphitobius diaperinus, using isozyme and RAPD analyses

    PubMed

    Castrillo; Brooks

    1998-11-01

    Two natural genetic markers, isozymes and RAPD, were utilized to differentiate 24 strains of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) collected from the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), from poultry houses in North Carolina and West Virginia. Nine enzyme systems were screened, of which alkaline phosphatase, alpha- and beta-esterase, and glucose phosphate isomerase gave well-resolved, scorable bands. A total of 26 isozyme bands was generated by these four enzymes which partitioned the 24 strains into 14 classes. Three classes were shared by two or more strains while the rest of the strains had distinct electrophoretic profiles. Ten RAPD primers, selected from 72 that were screened, produced 141 bands from the 24 strains and separated each as a unique class. While both systems were able to detect variation present among the 24 strains from different regions in North Carolina and West Virginia, RAPD markers provided better resolution of the differences between strains. Variation was detected not only within and among strains from different regions but also among strains collected from a given insect host. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Taxonomic relationship among seven species of groupers (genus Epinephelus; family Serranidae) as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, G S; Jayasankar, P

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic identification of groupers of the genus Epinephelus is based on color patterns and a suite of morphologic characters. However, these characters often show intraspecific variations and differences between juveniles and adults of the same species. The present work is an attempt to study and ratify the status of Epinephelus spp. using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on samples drawn from southeast and southwest coasts of India. The RAPD fingerprints generated in Epinephelus diacanthus, E. areolatus, E. chlorostigma, E. bleekeri, E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus with 4 primers (OPA 01, OPA 07, OPF 08, and OPF 10) were consistent, reproducible, and yielded species-specific diagnostic markers in all the species. A total of 59 RAPD loci in the size range of 70 to 4500 bp were produced from all 4 arbitrary primers. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendogram was constructed based on genetic distance values to show the genetic relationships among the 7 species. All the individuals of each species formed monophyletic species clusters. The mean intraspecies genetic distance value (0.305) was significantly lower than the interspecies value (0.365). Epinephelus malabaricus was most distantly related to E. diacanthus and E. bleekeri. The genetic relationship was very close among E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus and also between E. chlorostigma and E. bleekeri. Within-species genetic polymorphism was highest in E. chlorostigma (49.15%) and lowest in E. tauvina (25.42%).

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity in Larix gmelinii (Pinaceae) with RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, H G; Li, X F

    2013-01-24

    Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii), a deciduous conifer, is the northernmost tree, native to eastern Siberia and nearby regions of China. We used growth traits and molecular markers to assess genetic variation in different L. gmelinii growing regions; 105 individual samples were collected from seven regions of the Qingshan Forestry Centre, Heilongjiang Province, China. The greatest genetic regional variation was seen in the Youhao area, based on coefficients of variation for tree height, diameter and volume (14.73, 28.25, and 55.27%, respectively). Analysis using molecular markers showed rich genetic diversity. The RAPD and ISSR methods both indicated that most variation came from within populations. The seven regions were divided into two groups (Daxing'an and Xiaoxing'an Mountain ranges) by RAPD cluster analysis: Tianchi, Xiaojiuya, Yuanjiang, and Taiping regions were placed in the first group at a genetic distance of 0.08; while the other regions were in the second group. The correlation between RAPD markers and geographical distance was significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.752.

  4. Genome relationships among Lotus species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Campos, L P; Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1994-06-01

    The ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to distinguish among different taxa of Lotus was evaluated for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. tennis Waldst. et Kit, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, and L. uliginosus Schkuhr and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether RAPD data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of the tetraploid L. corniculatus. Clear bands and several polymorphisms were obtained for 20 primers used for each species/accession. The evolutionary pathways among the species/accessions presented in a cladogram were expressed in terms of treelengths giving the most parsimonious reconstructions. Accessions within the same species grouped closely together. It is considered that L. uliginosus which is most distantly related to L. corniculatus, may be excluded as a direct progenitor of L. corniculatus, confirming previous results from isoenzyme studies. Lotus alpinus is grouped with accessions of L. corniculatus, which differs from previous studies. With this exception, these findings are in agreement with previous experimental studies in the L. corniculatus group. The value of the RAPD data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus is discussed.

  5. Leishmania donovani: genetic diversity of isolates from Sudan characterized by PCR-based RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hamad, S H; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M; Ibrahim, M E; Younis, B M; Elfaki, M E E; El-Hassan, A M

    2010-08-01

    Drug unresponsiveness in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a problem in many endemic areas. This study aimed to determine genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani isolates from a VL endemic area in Sudan as a possible explanation for drug unresponsiveness in some patients. Thirty clinically stibogluconate (SSG)-sensitive isolates were made SSG-unresponsive in vitro by gradually increasing SSG concentrations. The sensitive isolates and their SSG-unresponsive counterparts were typed using mini-circle kDNA and categorized using PCR-RAPD. All the isolates were typed as L. donovani, the resulting PCR-RAPD characterization of the SSG-sensitive isolates gave three distinct primary genotypes while, the SSG-unresponsive isolates showed only a single band. L. donovani isolates from eastern Sudan are diverse; this probably resulted from emergence of new L. donovani strains during epidemics due to the pressure of widespread use of antimonials. In this communication the possible role of isolates diversity in antimonial unresponsiveness and the in vitro changing PCR-RAPD band pattern in SSG-unresponsive strains were discussed.

  6. Biotypes and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of subgingival Candida albicans isolates in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Giammanco, Giovanni M; Pecorella, Sonia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Mammina, Caterina; D'Angelo, Matteo

    2005-01-01

    A group of subgingival isolates of C. albicans recovered from Italian HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects were characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Phenotyping of the isolates was carried out by a biotyping method based on the enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts. Genotyping was performed through randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Five biotypes were found among the 29 subgingival C. albicans strains examined. The predominant biotypes were A1R (55.17%), A1S (24.14%), and A2R (13.79%), while the biotypes A11R and A13R were represented by a single isolate each. RAPD profiles identified 15 genotypes among the 29 isolates. Almost every individual harboured his/her own specific isolate and in three out of the six subjects with multiple isolates (two to six each) more than one genotype (two to six) was found. The biotype distribution we found is consistent with previous reports on C. albicans isolates from other oral sources, whereas the resistance to boric acid was highly frequent in subgingival strains. RAPD analysis showed high genetic heterogeneity within subgingival isolates, also when isolates were phenotypically identical. These findings, obtained from HIV+ subjects living in Southern Italy, may be useful as baseline information on subgingival C. albicans colonization in the Mediterranean area.

  7. Impact of gamma rays on the Phaffia rhodozyma genome revealed by RAPD-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, N; Hosseini, Ramin; Ahmadi, AR

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Phaffia rhodozyma is a red yeast which produces astaxanthin as the major carotenoid pigment. Astaxanthin is thought to reduce the incidence of cancer and degenerative diseases in man. It also enhances the immune response and acts as a free-radical quencher, a precursor of vitamin A, or a pigment involved in the visual attraction of animals as mating partners. The impact of gamma irradiation was studied on the Phaffia rhodozyma genome. Materials and Methods Ten mutant strains, designated Gam1-Gam10, were obtained using gamma irradiation. Ten decamer random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were employed to assess genetic changes. Results Nine primers revealed scorable polymorphisms and a total of 95 band positions were scored; amongst which 38 bands (37.5%) were polymorphic. Primer F with 3 bands and primer J20 with 13 bands produced the lowest and the highest number of bands, respectively. Primer A16 produced the highest number of polymorphic bands (70% polymorphism) and primer F showed the lowest number of polymorphic bands (0% polymorphism). Genetic distances were calculated using Jaccard's coefficient and the UPGMA method. A dendrogram was created using SPSS (version 11.5) and the strains were clustered into four groups. Conclusion RAPD markers could distinguish between the parental and the mutant strains of P. rhodozyma. RAPD technique showed that some changes had occurred in the genome of the mutated strains. This technique demonstrated the capability to differentiate between the parental and the mutant strains. PMID:22530091

  8. Genetic relationship between cultured populations of Pacific oyster revealed by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Aranishi, Futoshi; Okimoto, Takane

    2004-01-01

    We developed random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for the assessment of the genetic relationship between cultured populations of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg in Hiroshima and Goseong, the largest oyster farming areas in Japan and Korea, respectively. Of 25 arbitrary primers comprising decamer nucleotides of random sequences, polymerase chain reaction amplifications with 5 different primers gave reproducible electrophoretic patterns. A total of 49 RAPD markers were clearly identified for the Hiroshima and Goseong populations, and 46 markers were polymorphic presenting mean polymorphism rates of the respective populations at 92.29% and 93.32%. Pairwise genetic distances of each 20 individuals from these populations served to produce a UPGMA dendrogram. The dendrogram comprised two main clusters, one of which was a nested cluster including all individuals of the Hiroshima population along with 12 individuals of the Goseong population, and the other cluster included the remaining individuals of the Goseong population. Results indicate that RAPD markers are useful for the assessment of the genetic relationships between populations of the Pacific oyster and further that a significant portion of oysters imported from Korea could be genetically related to the Hiroshima population.

  9. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  10. Varietal Discrimination and Genetic Variability Analysis of Cymbopogon Using RAPD and ISSR Markers Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Anjali; Kavane, Aarti; Geetha, K A

    2016-06-01

    Cymbopogon is an important genus of family Poaceae, cultivated mainly for its essential oils which possess high medicinal and economical value. Several cultivars of Cymbopogon species are available for commercial cultivation in India and identification of these cultivars was conceded by means of morphological markers and essential oil constitution. Since these parameters are highly influenced by environmental factors, in most of the cases, it is difficult to identify Cymbopogon cultivars. In the present study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to discriminate nine leading varieties of Cymbopogon since prior genomic information is lacking or very little in the genus. Ninety RAPD and 70 ISSR primers were used which generated 63 and 69 % polymorphic amplicons, respectively. Similarity in the pattern of UPGMA-derived dendrogram of RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed the reliability of the markers chosen for the study. Varietal/cultivar-specific markers generated from the study could be utilised for varietal/cultivar authentication, thus monitoring the quality of the essential oil production in Cymbopogon. These markers can also be utilised for the IPR protection of the cultivars. Moreover, the study provides molecular marker tool kit in both random and simple sequence repeats for diverse molecular research in the same or related genera.

  11. RAPD-based genetic diversities and correlation with morphological traits in Camellia (Theaceae) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Zheng, H Y; Zheng, W H; Ao, C Q; Jin, H Y; Zhao, L H; Li, N; Jia, L R

    2011-05-10

    Camellia is an economically important ornamental plant that has many uses, such as in beverages, foods and medicines. We examined 15 Camellia cultivars in Wenzhou, China, using RAPD markers and measurements of three traits (petal color, flower diameter, blooming period). PCR amplification with 15 random primers produced 1935 bands, observed at 88 amplification loci; 77% of the amplified loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 4.5 polymorphic loci per primer. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.5419 to 0.7933 among the 15 samples; the lowest value was between Manao (C. reticulata) and Feibai FR (C. japonica), and the largest value was between Chidan (C. japonica) and Yuanyang FG (C. japonica). Cluster analysis divided the 15 cultivars into two groups at the similarity coefficient of 0.65. A correlation was found between RAPD markers and petal color in the first group. No correlation was found between RAPD markers and the other traits (flower diameter, blooming period). This study provides information useful for the identification, classification, phylogenesis, and breeding of Camellia cultivars.

  12. Evaluation of genetic variability and distances among five Iranian native chicken populations using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, H; Mirhoseini, S Z; Romanov, M N; Ghorbani, A

    2009-06-01

    Genetic variability was studied on five Iranian native chicken populations using Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) markers. The purpose of this study was for the analysis of variation within and between Iranian native chicken populations and for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree for these populations using the RAPD marker assay. The populations surveyed were from five provinces including Mazandaran (MZD), Isfahan (ISF), Yazd (YZD), Fars (FRS) and West Azerbaijan (WAZ). On the base of results of this study, the FRS and MZD populations had the highest genetic distance (0.182) and the FRS and ISF populations the lowest one (0.066). The YZD and MZD populations had the highest (0.208) and lowest (0.156) within-population genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed on UPGMA method and showed two main separated groups. The ISF and FRS populations were first clustered into one group and, then, were clustered into a larger group with YZD and WAZ. Another consists MZD population was clustered separately from this group. This study showed that RAPD technique is an useful tool for evaluation of genetic variation among domesticated animals.

  13. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for differentiation between Thai and Myanmar strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Junpee, Alisa; Poovorawan, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by mosquito-transmitted filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Thailand has reduced the prevalence of nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (Thai strain), mainly transmitted by the Ochlerotatus (Aedes) niveus group in Thailand to 0.57/100,000 population. However, it is estimated that more than one million Myanmar migrants with high prevalence of bancroftian filariasis have settled in the large urban cities of Thailand. These infected migrants carry the nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti (Myanmar strain) which has Culex quinquefasciatus as the main mosquito vector. Although transmissions of the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti by the Thai Cx. quinquefasciatus has never been reported, previous study showed that Cx. quinquefasciatus could nurture the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti to the infective stage. Thus, the potential now exists for a re-emergence of bancroftian filariasis in Thailand. The present study was undertaken in an attempt to differentiate between the Thai and Myanmar strains of W. bancrofti. Methods The microfilarial periodicity of Thai and the Myanmar strains of W. bancrofti were determined. Comparative morphology and morphometry of microfilariae and a study of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed. The Nei's genetic distance was calculated, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Results The Thai strain of W. bancrofti was nocturnally subperiodic, and the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti was nocturnally periodic. The body length, cephalic space length, and cephalic space width of the Thai strain of W. bancrofti were significantly larger than those of the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti (p < 0.05). However, an overlapping mean of these parameters made it impractical for field application. RAPD-PCR profiles showed specific

  14. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Development in India: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Mandal, Rakesh; Rabidas, Vidya Nand; Verma, Neena; Pandey, Krishna; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar; Kesari, Sreekant; Kumar, Ashish; Purkait, Bidyut; Lal, Chandra Sekhar; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with the squeal of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), is a global threat for health. Studies have shown sodium stibogluconate (SSG) resistance in VL patients with chronic arsenic exposure. Here, we assessed the association between arsenic exposure and risk of developing PKDL in treated VL patients. Methods In this retrospective study, PKDL patients (n = 139), earlier treated with SSG or any other drug during VL, were selected from the study cohort. Trained physicians, unaware of arsenic exposure, interviewed them and collected relevant data in a questionnaire format. All probable water sources were identified around the patient’s house and water was collected for evaluation of arsenic concentration. A GIS-based village-level digital database of PKDL cases and arsenic concentration in groundwater was developed and individual point location of PKDL cases were overlaid on an integrated GIS map. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess odds ratios (ORs) for association between arsenic exposure and PKDL development. Results Out of the 429 water samples tested, 403 had arsenic content of over 10 μg/L, with highest level of 432 μg/L among the seven study villages. Multivariate adjusted ORs for risk of PKDL development in comparison of arsenic concentrations of 10.1–200 μg/L and 200.1–432.0 μg/L were 1.85 (1.13–3.03) and 2.31 (1.39–3.8) respectively. Interestingly, similar results were found for daily dose of arsenic and total arsenic concentration in urine sample of the individual. The multivariate-adjusted OR for comparison of high baseline arsenic exposure to low baseline arsenic exposure of the individuals in the study cohort was 1.66 (95% CI 1.02–2.7; p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings indicate the need to consider environmental factors, like long time arsenic exposure, as an additional influence on treated VL patients towards risk of PKDL development in Bihar. PMID:27776123

  15. Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in the treatment of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL).

    PubMed

    Musa, A M; Khalil, E A G; Mahgoub, F A; Hamad, S; Elkadaru, A M Y; El Hassan, A M

    2005-09-01

    A dermatosis commonly known as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) may develop following the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In about 15% of PKDL cases the disfiguring lesions persist, sometimes for many years. Such persistent lesions currently require daily injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) for 2-4 months and even then treatment may not be successful. Alternative, quicker and cheaper treatment options that cause less toxicity are being explored. Immuno-chemotherapeutic regimens (based on leishmaniasis candidate vaccines/BCG with SSG) are still experimental but treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) has already been found effective, albeit in a small number of patients. AmBisome is considered less nephrotoxic than non-liposomal amphotericin B because it specifically targets the macrophages in which the Leishmania parasites develop. The aim of the present study was to evaluate further the usefulness of AmBisome in the treatment of persistent PKDL, in Sudan. The 12 subjects, all of whom gave their informed consent, had each had PKDL lesions for >6 months and shown no improvement after repeated injections of SSG. During the study period, they were hospitalized and regularly screened, haematologically and biochemically, for adverse effects. The AmBisome, given intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg.day for 20 days, completely cleared the skin rash of 10 (83%) of the patients and caused no detectable adverse effects. In the 10 patients who responded well to the treatment, the papular lesions regressed and became flat while the hypopigmented lesions darkened (continuing to do so even after the last AmBisome injections). Treatment outcome appeared to be unaffected by the age or gender of the patient (P = 0.7 for each) but the time taken for the PKDL lesions to heal was correlated with the age of the lesions (P = 0.009). The macular lesions healed more slowly than the papular (P = 0.02). In conclusion, Ambisome appears suitable for the

  16. Applicability of RAPD markers on silver-stained polyacrylamide gels to ascertain genetic diversity in Peripatus acacioi (Peripatidae; Onychophora).

    PubMed

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Lovato, Maria Bernadete; Acedo, Maria Dolores Porto; da Fonseca, Cleusa Graça

    2005-12-30

    RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) molecular markers can be utilized for analyzing genetic variability in populations for which only a few or no molecular markers are available. They were used in a study of an endangered species, Peripatus acacioi, found in the Tripuí Ecological Station, in Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. The ecological station was specifically created to protect this velvet worm species, the first of this group found in Brazil. For an initial evaluation of the genetic diversity of this species, DNA samples from the lobopods of four individuals, collected at random, were analyzed using RAPD. Each reaction was run with a different primer (Operon RAPD 10-mer Kits), totaling 13 primers (OPC2, OPC3, OPC4, OPC6, OPC8, OPC10, OPC11, OPL2, OPL7, OPL11, OPL13, OPL18, and OPL19). Due to the low amplification yield, RAPD fragments were separated in polyacrylamide gels and stained with silver nitrate. Numerous bands were observed. Fifty-five of the amplified bands proved to be reproducible, both in terms of presence and intensity. Among these, 27 were variable and 28 were constant. The average number of bands per gel was 4.2. Nine of the 13 primers tested allowed the identification of constant and variable bands among these four individuals. RAPD analysis of genetic variation using silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis provided measures of band sharing among the individuals, and therefore could be used in population genetics studies of P. acacioi.

  17. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect genotoxic effect of trifluralin on maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Bozari, Sedat; Aksakal, Ozkan

    2013-04-01

    Trifluralin is a widely used dinitroaniline herbicide throughout the world. However, limited efforts have been made to study its genotoxic effects on different plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the herbicide's genotoxic potential on maize (Zea mays) by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. For this purpose, maize seedlings were treated with aqueous solutions of trifluralin at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3 ppm for 7 days. In the RAPD analyses, 15 primers were used and 91 bands were obtained, with an average of 6.06 bands per primer in the control seedlings. After trifluralin treatment, significant changes were observed in RAPD profiles. These changes included loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands, in comparison to the control group, and they were dose dependent. In addition, root growth and total soluble protein level in trifluralin-treated seedlings were analyzed and compared for genomic template stability (GTS), which was performed for the qualitative measurement of changes in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles. The results showed that GTS, root growth, and total soluble protein content of the seedlings gradually decreased with an increase in trifluralin concentration. These findings suggest that the RAPD technique is a useful biomarker assay to evaluate the genotoxic effects of herbicides on plants.

  18. Molecular determination of genotoxic effects of cobalt and nickel on maize (Zea mays L.) by RAPD and protein analyses.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Ay, Hilal; Nardemir, Gokce; Agar, Guleray

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of DNA damages stemming from toxic chemicals is an important issue in terms of genotoxicology. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were used for screening the genotoxic effects of cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) treatments at various concentrations (5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM). For this purpose, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to genomic DNA extracted from metal-exposed and unexposed plant materials. Besides, changes in total protein contents were screened by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. For RAPD analysis, 16 RAPD primers were found to produce unique polymorphic band profiles on different concentrations of Co-/Ni-treated maize seedlings. Increased polymorphism resulting from the appearance of new bands or disappearance of normal bands was observed with increasing concentration of Co and Ni treatments. Genomic template stability, a qualitative measurement of changes in RAPD patterns of genomic DNA, decreased with increasing metal concentration. In SDS-PAGE analysis, it was observed that the total soluble protein content decreased by Co treatment, while it increased by Ni treatment. The results obtained from this study revealed that RAPD profiles and total soluble protein levels can be applied to detect genotoxicity, and these analyses can offer useful biomarker assays for the evaluation of genotoxic effects on Co- and Ni-polluted plants.

  19. Datziinae as a new subfamily name for the unavailable name Protopsychodinae Stebner et al., 2015, (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Stebner, Frauke; Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper a new subfamily of Psychodidae was inadequately named Protopsychodinae. This nomenclatural act cannot be considered as a valid name under ICZN regulations because the subfamily name is not based on the type genus Datzia Stebner et al., 2015, and furthermore the fossil genus Protopsychoda Azar et al., 1999 was originally described under the subfamily Psychodinae. Therefore, the new family-group name Datziinae is herein proposed.

  20. Datziinae as a new subfamily name for the unavailable name Protopsychodinae Stebner et al., 2015, (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper a new subfamily of Psychodidae was inadequately named Protopsychodinae. This nomenclatural act cannot be considered as a valid name under ICZN regulations because the subfamily name is not based on the type genus Datzia Stebner et al., 2015, and furthermore the fossil genus Protopsychoda Azar et al., 1999 was originally described under the subfamily Psychodinae. Therefore, the new family-group name Datziinae is herein proposed. PMID:26623188

  1. Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J

    1999-02-01

    The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.

  2. Appraisal of Phlebotomus argentipes habitat suitability using a remotely sensed index in the kala-azar endemic focus of Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Chatterjee, Nandini; Kumar, Vijay; Mandal, Rakesh; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is recognised as a serious emerging public health problem in India. In this study, environmental parameters, such as land surface temperature (LST) and renormalised difference vegetation indices (RDVI), were used to delineate the association between environmental variables and Phlebotomus argentipes abundance in a representative endemic region of Bihar, India. The adult P. argentipes were collected between September 2009-February 2010 using the hand-held aspirator technique. The distribution of P. argentipes was analysed with the LST and RDVI of the peak and lean seasons. The association between environmental covariates and P. argentipes density was analysed a multivariate linear regression model. The sandfly density at its maximum in September, whereas the minimum density was recorded in January. The regression model indicated that the season, minimum LST, mean LST and mean RDVI were the best environmental covariates for the P. argentipes distribution. The final model indicated that nearly 74% of the variance of sandfly density could be explained by these environmental covariates. This approach might be useful for mapping and predicting the distribution of P. argentipes, which may help the health agencies that are involved in the kala-azar control programme focus on high-risk areas. PMID:23579800

  3. SCAR, RAPD and RFLP markers linked to a dominant gene (Are) conferring resistance to anthracnose in common bean.

    PubMed

    Adam-Blondon, A F; Sévignac, M; Bannerot, H; Dron, M

    1994-08-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungusColletotrichum lindemuthianum, is a severe disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) controlled, in Europe, by a single dominant gene,Are. Four pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were constructed, in which theAre gene was introgressed into different genetic backgrounds. These pairs of NILs were used to search for DNA markers linked to the resistance gene. Nine molecular markers, five RAPDs and four RFLPs, were found to discriminate between the resistant and the susceptible members of these NILs. A backcross progeny of 120 individuals was analysed to map these markers in relation to theAre locus. Five out of the nine markers were shown to be linked to theAre gene within a distance of 12.0 cM. The most tightly linked, a RAPD marker, was used to generate a pair of primers that specifically amplify this RAPD (sequence characterized amplified region, SCAR).

  4. Genetic variation among South Brazilian accessions of Lippia alba Mill. (Verbenaceae) detected by ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Manica-Cattani, M F; Zacaria, J; Pauletti, G; Atti-Serafini, L; Echeverrigaray, S

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-seven accessions of Lippia alba Mill. collected in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were analysed by ISSR and RAPD markers to evaluate their genetic variability and relationships. Six ISSR primers and four RAPD primers generated 120 amplified fragments, most of which were polymorphics. The overall genetic variability among accessions was very high when compared with other plant species. The hierarchical analysis of molecular data (UPGMA) showed low relationship between accessions, and no grouping between accessions of the same chemotype. Canonical functions allowed identifying some variables related with the chemical characteristics of the essential oils. Both ISSR and RAPD markers were efficient to address the genetic diversity of L. alba, and may contribute to the conservation and breeding of this increasingly important aromatic and medicinal species.

  5. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of two closely related northeast China Vicia species revealed with RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Wang, Hao-You

    2010-06-01

    RAPD and ISSR analyses revealed genetic diversity and relationships among 11 populations of two closely related northeast China Vicia species, Vicia ramuliflora and V. unijuga. Both methods yielded similar and complementary results, showing high genetic diversity. Vicia ramuliflora had 100% polymorphic loci in both RAPD and ISSR, and V. unijuga had 100% polymorphic loci for RAPD and 98.96% for ISSR. Genetic differentiation was moderate among populations of each species. Genetic variation was distributed mainly within populations for the two species. The high level of gene flow was important for the allocation of genetic variation. The UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis at the level of individuals and populations showed that V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga were more closely related than either of them was to the outgroup species, V. cracca. The small molecular variance of V. ramuliflora and V. unijuga supports the conclusion that these two species had a common ancestor.

  6. Genetic characterization of populations of a de novo arisen sugar beet pest, Aubeonymus mariaefranciscae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Taberner, A; Dopazo, J; Castañera, P

    1997-07-01

    The weevil Aubeonymus mariaefranciscae is an important pest of sugar beet crops in southern Spain that was first described as a new species in 1979. We have studied the genetic variability of this insect by RAPD analysis of 122 individuals using eight primers. The high resolution provided by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), in combination with efficient genetic distance estimators, allowed a very detailed description of the ecology and evolution of the populations of this insect in the south of Spain. The results are compatible with a unique event of colonization, followed by the spreading of the weevil across the surrounding areas. A comparison of the results obtained with different genetic distance estimators is presented. RAPD is shown to be a powerful technique for reconstructing the phylogenetic history of insect populations, even if they have diverged recently, which seems to be the case for A. mariaefranciscae.

  7. Genotyping by RAPD-PCR analyses of Malassezia furfur strains from pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Gandra, Rinaldo F; Simão, Rita C G; Matsumoto, Flávia E; da Silva, Bosco C M; Ruiz, Luciana S; da Silva, Eriques G; Gambale, Walderez; Paula, Claudete R

    2006-10-01

    Malassezia furfur is lypophilic yeast commonly associate with dermatological disorders. In the present work, we described the isolation of 47 M. furfur strains from three groups of patients: pityriasis versicolor (21 isolates), seborrhoeic dermatitis (15 isolates) and seborrhoeic dermatitis of the HIV positive patients (11 isolates). To investigate the identity of the strains at molecular level, DNA genomic of M. furfur strains were prepared and used to RAPD-PCR analyses. RAPD assay were carried out using two decamer primers and bands pattern generated were analyzed by an Unweighted Pair-Group Method (UPGMA). Dendrogram established a distinct differentiation between M. furfur isolates from pityriasis versicolor and seborrhoeic dermatitis patients with or without AIDS. We concluded that RAPD typing presented a high discriminatory power between strains studied in this work and can be applied in epidemiological investigation of skin disease causing by M. furfur.

  8. Genetic polymorphism by RAPD-PCR and phenotypic characteristics of isolated thermotolerant Bacillus strains from hot spring sources.

    PubMed

    Hazem, A; Manar, A

    2003-07-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay, morphological, physiological, biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility test methods have been evaluated for use in the taxonomy of isolated thermotolerant Bacillus from Jordanian hot springs, with specific reference to strains Geobacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC 12980), Bacillus circulans (ATCC 4513) and Bacillus sphaericus (ATCC 14577). A RAPD assay has been optimized and is able to discriminate between numerous thermotolerant Bacillus strains. RAPD-PCR was found to give reproducible thermotolerant Bacillus strains classification of DNA fingerprints for 14 strains including 3 reference strains. A study of 14 isolates and 3 reference strains, analyzing 53 phenotypic characters, resulted in their allocation to five major clusters at 60% similarity. Whereas at 80% similarity, twelve taxonomically distinct groups were evident.

  9. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-09-03

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine.

  10. Distinction between wild and cultivated enset (Ensete ventricosum) gene pools in Ethiopia using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Birmeta, Genet; Nybom, Hilde; Bekele, Endashaw

    2004-01-01

    In southwest Ethiopia, the cultivation area of Ensete ventricosum (enset) overlaps with the natural distribution area of this species. Analyses of genetic diversity were undertaken using RAPD to provide information for conservation strategies as well as evidence of possible gene flow between the different gene pools, which can be of interest for future improvement of cultivated enset. The extent of RAPD variation in wild enset was investigated in 5 populations in the Bonga area (Kefficho administrative region) and 9 cultivated clones. Comparisons were also made with some Musa samples of potential relevance for crop improvement. Nine oligonucleotide primers amplified 72 polymorphic loci. Population differentiation was estimated with the Shannon index (G'(ST)=0.10), Nei's G(ST) (0.12) and AMOVA (Phi(ST)=0.12), and appears to be relatively low when compared with outbreeding, perennial species in general. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) similarly indicated low population differentiation, and also demonstrated that cultivated clones essentially clustered distinctly from wild enset samples, suggesting that the present-day cultivated enset clones have been introduced to domestication from a limited number of wild progenitors. In addition, subsequent gene flow between wild and cultivated enset may have been prohibited by differences between modes of propagation and harvesting time; cultivated enset is propagated vegetatively through sucker production and the plant is generally harvested before maturity or flower set, thereby hindering pollination by wild enset or vice versa. A significant correlation was not found between genetic and geographical distances. The relatively high total RAPD diversity suggests that wild enset populations in the Bonga area harbour genetic variability which could potentially act as a source for useful or rare genes in the improvement of cultivated enset. As expected, E. ventricosum was clearly differentiated from

  11. Genetic variation detected by RAPD markers in natural populations of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa Mart.).

    PubMed

    Santos, M F; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Carvalhaes, M A; Lima, P S C

    2015-06-10

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of management on the genetic structure of natural populations of Attalea speciosa in the State of Piauí, Brazil, using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Three babassu populations under different management systems were selected. Polymerase chain reactions were performed for 20 RAPD primers. A total of 146 bands were generated, 141 of which were polymorphic (96.58%), with a variation of 4 and 12 loci and an average of 7 bands per primer. A dendrogram revealed a clear separation between the three populations (0.57). Data reliability and node consistency were verified by bootstrap values and the cophenetic correlation coefficient (88.15%). Coefficients of similarity between pairs of genotypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86, with a mean of 0.57. Nei's genetic diversity index (HE) value of the population sampled in Teresina was 0.212, of Esperantina it was 0.195, and of José de Freitas it was 0.207. After the HE was decomposed, the complete diversity was found to be 0.3213. Genetic differentiation between populations was 0.362, and the estimation of gene flow between populations was low (0.879). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 59.52% of the variation was contained within populations, and 40.48% was between populations. RAPD markers were effective for genetic diversity analysis within and between natural babassu populations, and exhibited a high level of polymorphism. Genetic diversity was the highest within populations; variability was lower in the managed populations than in the undisturbed populations.

  12. A phase III trial of efficacy of the FML-vaccine against canine kala-azar in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amaranto, RN).

    PubMed

    da Silva, V O; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Correia Pontes, N N; de Souza, E P; Luz, K G; Palatnik, M; Palatnik de Sousa, C B

    2000-12-08

    Protection against canine kala-azar was investigated in naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area, vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine of Leishmania donovani. A total of 97% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and 100% showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 7 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls (ANOVA, P<0.0001). After 2 years, 92% (chi(2)=6.996; P<0.0025) protection was achieved: only 8% of vaccinees showed mild signs of kala-azar with no deaths while 33% of controls developed clinical or fatal disease. The FML-vaccine induced a significant, long-lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.

  13. Unraveling the efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers in diversity analysis and population structure estimation in common bean

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Farhat, Sufia; Mahajan, Reetika; Bhakhri, Ayushi; Sharma, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Increase in food production viz-a-viz quality of food is important to feed the growing human population to attain food as well as nutritional security. The availability of diverse germplasm of any crop is an important genetic resource to mine the genes that may assist in attaining food as well as nutritional security. Here we used 15 RAPD and 23 SSR markers to elucidate diversity among 51 common bean genotypes mostly landraces collected from the Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. We observed that both the markers are highly polymorphic. The discriminatory power of these markers was determined using various parameters like; percent polymorphism, PIC, resolving power and marker index. 15 RAPDs produced 171 polymorphic bands, while 23 SSRs produced 268 polymorphic bands. SSRs showed a higher PIC value (0.300) compared to RAPDs (0.243). Further the resolving power of SSRs was 5.241 compared to 3.86 for RAPDs. However, RAPDs showed a higher marker index (2.69) compared to SSRs (1.279) that may be attributed to their higher multiplex ratio. The dendrograms generated with hierarchical UPGMA cluster analysis grouped genotypes into two main clusters with various degrees of sub clustering within the cluster. Here we observed that both the marker systems showed comparable accuracy in grouping genotypes of common bean according to their area of cultivation. The model based STRUCTURE analysis using 15 RAPD and 23 SSR markers identified a population with 3 sub-populations which corresponds to distance based groupings. High level of genetic diversity was observed within the population. These findings have further implications in common bean breeding as well as conservation programs. PMID:26858551

  14. Linkage map of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, based on RAPD markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.J.; Page, R.E. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkage groups. We estimate the total genome size to be {approximately}3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. 71 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Morphological characterization and molecular fingerprinting of Nostoc strains by multiplex RAPD.

    PubMed

    Hillol, Chakdar; Pabbi, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Morphological parameters studied for the twenty selected Nostoc strains were mostly found to be consistent with the earlier reports. But the shape of akinetes observed in this study was a little deviation from the existing descriptions and heterocyst frequency was also found to be different in different strains in spite of growing in the same nitrogen free media. Multiplex RAPD produced reproducible and completely polymorphic amplification profiles for all the strains including some strain specific unique bands which are intended to be useful for identification of those strains. At least one to a maximum of two unique bands was produced by different dual primer combinations. For ten strains out of twenty, strain specific bands were found to be generated. Cluster analysis revealed a vast heterogeneity among these Nostoc strains and no specific clustering based on geographical origin was found except a few strains. It was also observed that morphological data may not necessarily correspond to the genetic data in most of the cases. CCC92 (Nostoc muscorum) and CCC48 (Nostoc punctiforme) showed a high degree of similarity which was well supported by high bootstrap value. The level of similarity of the strains ranged from 0.15 to 0.94. Cluster analysis based on multiplex RAPD showed a good fit revealing the discriminatory power of this technique.

  16. Genetic and alkaloid analysis of Menispermum dauricum DC. by RAPD and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan; Nan, Rui

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether dauricine could be used as a taxonomic marker for Menispermum dauricum DC., and to explore the correlation among RAPD, ecological markers and chemical markers. To this end, the chemical and genetic differences of 173 individual samples of M. dauricum from nine different sources were studied based on the relevant ecological factors including longitude, latitude, annual precipitation, mean temperature, annual accumulated temperature and mean sea level. The contents of dauricine in the sample rhizomes were assayed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. The leaves from the same sample were assayed using randomly amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD). The genetic distances were then compared. Hierarchical cluster analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. The results indicated that the contents of dauricine were respectively correlated with the genetic distance (r = 1.000), longitude (r = 0.849), latitude (r = 0.861), annual precipitation (r = 0.903), mean temperature(r = 0.912), annual accumulated temperature (r = 0.919) and mean sea level (r = 0.925). It is concluded that the content of dauricine in M. dauricum is significantly correlated with genetic distance and ecological factors, and may be used as the taxonomic marker.

  17. Photodynamic Treatment versus Antibiotic Treatment on Helicobacter pylori Using RAPD-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Batanouny, M. H.; Amin, R. M.; Ibrahium, M. K.; El Gohary, S.; Naga, M. I.; Salama, M. S.

    2009-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infections in humans and is important in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease, such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, Gastric adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. Gastric adenocarcinoma remains one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of photodynamic treatment and medication treatment of Helicobacter pylori using RAPD-PCR. The lethal photosensitization effect was determined by mixing suspensions of H.pylori with Toluidine blue O (TBO) and plating out on blood agar before irradiation with Helium neon (He-Ne) 632.8 nm. The susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to metronidazole and azithromycin were examined by E-test. Nine random primers were used to screen genetic polymorphism in DNA of different H.pylori groups. Six of them produced RAPD products while three failed to generate any product. The resulting data showed that, although the overall genetic differences between control groups and laser treated groups was higher than that between control groups and azithromycin treated groups yet it still law genetic variability. The main cause of cell death of PDT using TBO as a photosensitizer was mainly cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane.

  18. Stem fasciation in cacti and succulent species--tissue anatomy, protein pattern and RAPD polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, A N; El-Nady, M F; Dewir, Y H; El-Mahrouk, M E

    2013-09-01

    Fasciated and normal stem segments of Opuntia microdasys, Opuntia cylindrica, Huernia primulina and Euphorbia lactea were collected from the same plant and compared for their anatomy, water relations and genetic variations. Anatomical differences in terms of thickness of cuticle, vascular bundle, xylem and phloem were analyzed in both normal and fasciated stems. The mucilage cells were higher in the fasciated form of Opuntia microdasys than that in the normal form. Water status in terms of total water content (TWC), water deficit and relative water content (RWC) was influenced by fasciation. Genetic variations were tested in normal and fasciated stems using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints and SDS-PAGE of soluble protein extracts. SDS-PAGE protein and RAPD analysis confirmed that normal and fasciated tissues were genetically different. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yielded different polymorphic banding patterns that were unique to each primer and distinguishable over all samples. The PCR results of normal and fasciated samples were significantly different in cases of primers P1, P2 and P3. These results indicate that occurrence of fasciation in Opuntia microdasys, Opuntia cylindrica, Huernia primulina and Euphorbia lactea is an epigenetic mutation of tissues.

  19. Assessment of hybridization and introgression in lava-colonizing Hawaiian Dubautia (Asteraceae: Madiinae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Caraway, V; Carr, G D; Morden, C W

    2001-09-01

    Hybridization between Dubautia ciliolata and D. scabra occurring on a mosaic of lava flows of 1855 and 1935 on the island of Hawai'i was examined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The RAPD data indicate that D. ciliolata plants, nearly restricted to the 1855 lava flow, contain higher levels of genetic variation than do D. scabra plants occurring on the 1935 lava flow. Seventy-one markers were specific to D. ciliolata and 60 to D. scabra; 40 of these were "constant" (found in all individuals) in one or the other species. Hybrids sampled were determined to represent F(1), filial hybrids beyond the F(1), and backcross progeny. All backcrosses were unidirectional with D. ciliolata acting as the recurrent parent. No hybrid, including an artificially produced F(1), had all 40 constant markers, suggesting that at least some loci for these markers were heterozygous in the parents. However, several hybrids exhibited a loss of many of the species markers, suggesting that they were later filial hybrid generation plants. The apparent occurrence of unidirectional introgression at the study site may be providing D. ciliolata plants with genetic plasticity to colonize the new lava flow previously occupied only by D. scabra.

  20. The linkage maps of Dendrobium species based on RAPD and SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dawei; Feng, Shangguo; Zhao, Hongyan; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Bo; Shi, Nongnong; Lu, Jiangjie; Liu, Junjun; Wang, Huizhong

    2010-03-01

    Dendrobium plants are used commonly as tonic herbs and health food in many Asian countries, especially in China. Here we report the genetic map construction of two Dendrobium species with a double pseudo-testcross strategy using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A F(1) mapping population of 90 individuals was developed from a cross between D. officinale and D. hercoglossum. A total of 307 markers, including 209 RAPD and 98 SRAP, were identified and used for genetic linkage group (LG) analysis. The D. officinale linkage map consisted of 11 major linkage groups and 3 doublets, which covered 629.4 cM by a total of 62 markers with an average locus distance of 11.2 cM between two adjacent markers. The D. hercoglossum linkage map contained 112 markers mapped on 15 major and 4 minor linkage groups, spanning a total length of 1,304.6 cM with an average distance of 11.6 cM between two adjacent markers. The maps constructed in this study covered 92.7% and 82.7% of the D. hercoglossum and D. officinale genomes respectively, providing an important basis for the mapping of horticultural and medicinal traits and for the application of marker-assisted selection in Dendrobium breeding program.

  1. Genetic variability of Brazilian isolates of Alternaria alternata detected by AFLP and RAPD techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pietrobon, Vivian Cristina; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Romão, Aline Silva; Spósito, Marcel Bellato; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens). The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control. PMID:24031413

  2. Evaluation of genetic variation in the clown Knifefish, Chitala chitala, using allozymes, RAPD, and microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Punia, Peyush; Chauhan, U K; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-seven enzyme systems, six random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, and two microsatellite loci were tested to determine intraspecific divergence in the natural population of the endangered Indian featherback fish, Chitala chitala, for the first time. The 262 samples of C. chitala were collected from six riverine locations in India: the Satluj, Ganga (Ghagra, Bhagirathi, and Brahmaputra), Mahanadi, and Narmada river systems. The analysis revealed population subdivisions, with an F(ST) value from 0.1235 (95% confidence 0.0868-0.1621) for RAPD and a combined F(ST) of 0.0344 (95% confidence 0.0340-0.0350) for microsatellite loci. An analysis of 38 allozyme loci did not reveal any polymorphism in the samples from any of the riverine localities; a possible explanation for this could be that the ancestors of Chitala could have faced a population reduction in prehistoric periods, as low allozyme variation is also reported for other species of Chitala from south Asia.

  3. Genetic diversity in mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A C; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J; Newton, A C; Hernández, M; Wilson, J; Cornelius, J P

    1999-12-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King, a timber species native to tropical America, is threatened by selective logging and deforestation. To quantify genetic diversity within the species and monitor the impact of selective logging, populations were sampled across Mesoamerica, from Mexico to Panama, and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Ten decamer primers generated 102 polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and interpopulation variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). Populations from Mexico clustered closely together in the dendrogram and were distinct from the rest of the populations. Those from Belize also clustered closely together. Populations from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, however, did not cluster closely by country but were more widely scattered throughout the dendrogram. This result was also reflected by an autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographical distance. Genetic diversity estimates indicated that 80% of detected variation was maintained within populations and regression analysis demonstrated that logging significantly decreased population diversity (P = 0.034). This study represents one of the most wide-ranging surveys of molecular variation within a tropical tree species to date. It offers practical information for the future conservation of mahogany and highlights some factors that may have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species across Mesoamerica.

  4. Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

    2013-12-04

    The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation.

  5. Genetic diversity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) germplasm from Turkey assessed by SSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Demir, K; Bakir, M; Sarikamiş, G; Acunalp, S

    2010-08-10

    Eggplant is a major crop in Turkey, which produces more of this crop than all of Europe; consequently, germplasm resources are of concern for the country. Molecular characterization of eggplant genotypes collected from different geographical regions of Turkey was carried out using SSR and RAPD markers. With amplification of five SSR loci, the number of alleles per microsatellite locus ranged from 2 to 10, with a total of 24 alleles. The greatest number of alleles was found at the emf21H22 locus (10 alleles); followed by emh11O01 and emf21C11 as five and four alleles, respectively. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.8. Using 11 decamer RAPD primers, 100 bands were amplified, among which 29 were polymorphic. The number of bands per primer ranged from seven (OPH10, OPH19, OPH20, OPH03) to 14 (OPB07). Primer OPB07 was the most polymorphic, generating 64% polymorphic bands; the rest of the primers gave less than 50% polymorphism. UPGMA dendrograms were used to examine the genetic relatedness of the genotypes.

  6. Linkage Map of the Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera, Based on Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G. J.; Page-Jr, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    A linkage map was constructed for the honey bee based on the segregation of 365 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in haploid male progeny of a single female bee. The X locus for sex determination and genes for black body color and malate dehydrogenase were mapped to separate linkage groups. RAPD markers were very efficient for mapping, with an average of about 2.8 loci mapped for each 10-nucleotide primer that was used in polymerase chain reactions. The mean interval size between markers on the map was 9.1 cM. The map covered 3110 cM of linked markers on 26 linkage groups. We estimate the total genome size to be ~3450 cM. The size of the map indicated a very high recombination rate for the honey bee. The relationship of physical to genetic distance was estimated at 52 kb/cM, suggesting that map-based cloning of genes will be feasible for this species. PMID:7768445

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity among selected grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Durga P; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Mukherjee, Arup K; Chand, Pradeep K

    2007-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to assess the genetic variability among five selected genotypes of grasspea. Out of 30 random decamer primers tested for the present investigation 20 showed reproducible DNA amplification. A total of 257 loci were amplified of which 159 were polymorphic including 57 genotype-specific unique bands. Amplicons had molecular weights ranging from 3.0 kb to 0.1 kb. Majority amplicons were shared by most of the genotypes which indicated a very narrow genetic gap between them. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of RAPD data showed two clusters. The local genotype collected from Nayagarh was grouped along with IC-120451 and IC-120453, sharing a common node at an 82% similarity level. The other genotypes, IC-120478 and IC-120487, were located in the second clade having a common node at 84% similarity level. The investigation showed that though all the genotypes of grasspea were of apparently similar morphology there exists polymorphism at the molecular level, which can be exploited in breeding programmes aimed at crop improvement.

  8. Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

  9. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  10. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  11. Molecular characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from poultry, ruminant, cats and dogs using RAPD and REP-PCR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shirzad-Aski, Hesamaddin; Tabatabaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic sequence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (REP- PCR) were used to characterize 131 isolates of Pasteurella multocida, originating from different healthy and diseased animal species obtained from several geographical regions of Iran. The RAPD and REP-PCR generated amplified products in the range of 300 to 3400 bp and 200 to 2850 bp, respectively. Among all of the P. multocida isolates, cluster analysis revealed that 63 clusters and nine untypable isolates and 81 clusters and six untypable isolates were produced with RAPD and REP-PCR methods, respectively. The results indicated that the REP-PCR method showed a slightly higher level of discrimination power in differentiating of P. multocida isolates as compared with RAPD. The results showed that a considerable level of genetic diversity exists among P. multocida isolates even in the isolates with the same animal or geographical origins. There was no host- and region-specific pattern. In addition, the isolates obtained from the healthy and diseased animal did not reveal any correlation genotypic profiles, which could be supported by the hypothesis that P. multocida is a strictly opportunistic pathogen. In conclusion, because of a large amount of genetic heterogeneity in the P. multocida isolates, Pasteurellosis may be caused by different clones in the same herd or animal. PMID:28097166

  12. Insight into the genomic diversity and relationship of Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts by RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda; Oleńska, Ewa; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Kalita, Michał; Wójcik, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the genomic diversity and genomic relationship of 28 Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts by three methodologies based on PCR reaction, i.e., RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP. The AFLP method with one PstI restriction enzyme and selective PstI-GC primer pair had a comparable discriminatory power as ERIC-PCR one and these fingerprinting techniques distinguished among the studied 28 A. glycyphyllos symbionts 18 and 17 genomotypes, respectively. RAPD method was less discriminatory in the genomotyping of rhizobia analyzed and it efficiently resolved nine genomotypes. The cluster analysis of RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP profiles resulted in a generally similar grouping of the test strains on generated dendrograms supporting a great potential of these DNA fingerprinting techniques for study of genomic polymorphism and evolutionary relationship of A. glycyphyllos nodulators. The RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP pattern similarity coefficients between A. glycyphyllos symbionts studied was in the ranges 8-100, 18-100, and 23-100%, respectively.

  13. [Kohonen network study of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses of genomic polymorphism in the genus Capsicum L].

    PubMed

    Ruanet, V V; Kochieva, E Z; Ryzhova, N N

    2005-02-01

    The results of studies based on multilocus molecular analyses, including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, are usually presented in the form of images (electrophoregrams, photographs, etc.). The interpretation of this information is complicated, labor-consuming, and subjective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are ideal "image processors," may be useful when solving such tasks. The possibility of using ANNs for the treatment of the results of RAPD and ISSR analyses has been studied. The RAPD and ISSR spectra have been studied in fragments of DNA of plants from the genus Capsicum L. (peppers). The results of clustering the accessions studied by means of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), which is often used for phylogenetic constructions based on RAPD and ISSR data, serve as expert estimates. Fundamentally new methods of genetic polymorphism estimation using ANN technologies, namely, self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) have been developed. The results show that the clusters obtained with the use of UPGMA and SOFM coincide by more than 90%; taking into account that ANNs can deal with high noise levels and incomplete or contradictory data, the approach proposed may prove to be efficient.

  14. Genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudo-testcross: mapping strategy and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Sederoff, R

    1994-08-01

    We have used a "two-way pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of Eucalyptus. In the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose RAPD markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their F1 progeny following a testcross configuration. Meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and efficiently analyzed using RAPD markers. We screened 305 primers of arbitrary sequence, and selected 151 to amplify a total of 558 markers. These markers were grouped at LOD 5.0, theta = 0.25, resulting in the maternal Eucalyptus grandis map having a total of 240 markers into 14 linkage groups (1552 cM) and the paternal Eucalyptus urophylla map with 251 markers in 11 linkage groups (1101 cM) (n = 11 in Eucalyptus). Framework maps ordered with a likelihood support > or = 1000:1 were assembled covering 95% of the estimated genome size in both individuals. Characterization of genome complexity of a sample of 48 mapped random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicate that 53% amplify from low copy regions. These are the first reported high coverage linkage maps for any species of Eucalyptus and among the first for any hardwood tree species. We propose the combined use of RAPD markers and the pseudo-testcross configuration as a general strategy for the construction of single individual genetic linkage maps in outbred forest trees as well as in any highly heterozygous sexually reproducing living organisms. A survey of the occurrence of RAPD markers in different individuals suggests that the pseudo-testcross/RAPD mapping strategy should also be efficient at the intraspecific level and increasingly so with crosses of genetically divergent individuals. The ability to quickly construct single-tree genetic linkage maps in any forest species opens the way for a shift from the

  15. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  16. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K; Kundu, Pratip K; Bera, Dilip K; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period.

  17. Comparison of RAPD, ISSR, and AFLP Molecular Markers to Reveal and Classify Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) Germplasm Variations

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rita; Pereira, Graça; Garrido, Inmaculada; Tavares-de-Sousa, Manuel María; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Three different DNA-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, were used for fingerprinting Dactylis glomerata genotypes and for detecting genetic variation between the three different subspecies. In this study, RAPD assays produced 97 bands, of which 40 were polymorphic (41.2%). The ISSR primers amplified 91 bands, and 54 showed polymorphism (59.3%). Finally, the AFLP showed 100 bands, of which 92 were polymorphic (92%). The fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0), and those readings were entered in a computer file as a binary matrix (one for each marker). Three cluster analyses were performed to express–in the form of dendrograms–the relationships among the genotypes and the genetic variability detected. All DNA-based techniques used were able to amplify all of the genotypes. There were highly significant correlation coefficients between cophenetic matrices based on the genetic distance for the RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, and combined RAPD-ISSR-AFLP data (0.68, 0.78, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively). Two hypotheses were formulated to explain these results; both of them are in agreement with the results obtained using these three types of molecular markers. We conclude that when we study genotypes close related, the analysis of variability could require more than one DNA-based technique; in fact, the genetic variation present in different sources could interfere or combine with the more or less polymorphic ability, as our results showed for RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationship among genotypes of Dactylis glomerata. PMID:27070939

  18. RAPD and internal transcribed spacer sequence analyses reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a section Luxuriantes species close to Zea luxurians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-04-15

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species.

  19. Comparison of RAPD, ISSR, and AFLP Molecular Markers to Reveal and Classify Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) Germplasm Variations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rita; Pereira, Graça; Garrido, Inmaculada; Tavares-de-Sousa, Manuel María; Espinosa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Three different DNA-based techniques, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, were used for fingerprinting Dactylis glomerata genotypes and for detecting genetic variation between the three different subspecies. In this study, RAPD assays produced 97 bands, of which 40 were polymorphic (41.2%). The ISSR primers amplified 91 bands, and 54 showed polymorphism (59.3%). Finally, the AFLP showed 100 bands, of which 92 were polymorphic (92%). The fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0), and those readings were entered in a computer file as a binary matrix (one for each marker). Three cluster analyses were performed to express--in the form of dendrograms--the relationships among the genotypes and the genetic variability detected. All DNA-based techniques used were able to amplify all of the genotypes. There were highly significant correlation coefficients between cophenetic matrices based on the genetic distance for the RAPD, ISSR, AFLP, and combined RAPD-ISSR-AFLP data (0.68, 0.78, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively). Two hypotheses were formulated to explain these results; both of them are in agreement with the results obtained using these three types of molecular markers. We conclude that when we study genotypes close related, the analysis of variability could require more than one DNA-based technique; in fact, the genetic variation present in different sources could interfere or combine with the more or less polymorphic ability, as our results showed for RAPD, ISSR and AFLP markers. Our results indicate that AFLP seemed to be the best-suited molecular assay for fingerprinting and assessing genetic relationship among genotypes of Dactylis glomerata.

  20. Comparison of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ATB ID 32C system for identification of clinical isolates of different Candida species.

    PubMed

    Baires-Varguez, Laura; Cruz-García, Alejandro; Villa-Tanaka, Lourdes; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Quindós, Guillermo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the usefulness of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to that of the ATB ID32C kit (bioMérieux, France) for identification of different species of Candida isolated from clinical specimens. The RAPD-PCR patterns obtained with OPE-18 primer for identification of clinical isolates were consistent, and the different independent assays revealed reproduction of the band patterns. RAPD with the OPE-18 primer is a very specific and sensitive method for identification of Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida tropicalis, Candida pelliculosa, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida lusitaniae.

  1. [Genetic variation and differentiation in striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius inferred from RAPD-PCR analysis].

    PubMed

    Atopkin, D M; Bogdanov, A S; Chelomina, G N

    2007-06-01

    Genetic variation and differentiation of the trans-Palearctic species Apodemus agrarius (striped field mouse), whose range consists of two large isolates-European-Siberian and Far Eastern-Chinese, were examined using RAPD-PCR analysis. The material from the both parts of the range was examined (41 individual of A. agrarius from 18 localities of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Kazakhstan); the Far-Eastern part was represented by samples from the Amur region, Khabarovsk krai, and Primorye (Russia). Differences in frequencies of polymorphic RAPD loci were found between the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of striped field mouse. No "fixed" differences between them in RAPD spectra were found, and none of the used statistical methods permitted to distinguish with absolute certainty animals from the two range parts. Thus, genetic isolation of the European-Siberian and the Far Eastern population groups of A. agrarius is not strict. These results support the hypothesis on recent dispersal of striped field mouse from East to West Palearctics (during the Holocene climatic optimum, 7000 to 4500 years ago) and subsequent disjunction of the species range (not earlier than 4000-4500 years ago). The Far Eastern population group is more polymorphic than the European-Siberian one, while genetic heterogeneity is more uniformly distributed within it. This is probably explained by both historical events that happened during the species dispersal in the past, and different environmental conditions for the species in different parts of its range. The Far Eastern population group inhabits the area close to the distribution center of A. agrarius. It is likely that this group preserved genetic variation of the formerly integral ancestral form, while some amount of genetic polymorphism could be lost during the species colonization of the Siberian and European areas. To date, the settlement density and population number in general are higher than within the European

  2. Genetic diversity of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum using a RAPD marker.

    PubMed

    Nishat, Sayeda; Hamim, Islam; Khalil, M Ibrahim; Ali, Md Ayub; Hossain, Muhammed Ali; Meah, M Bahadur; Islam, Md Rashidul

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a destructive disease of many economically important crop species. A significant variation in wilt incidence and severity in eggplant and potato was observed among the growing areas surveyed. R. solanacearum isolates obtained both from eggplant and potato belong to biovar III, while isolates from eggplant belong to race 1 and isolates obtained from potato belong to race 3. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used as a tool for assessing genetic variation and relationship among seven isolate groups of R. solanacearum viz., RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3, RsP-1, RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4, consisting in a total of 28 isolates. Out of the RAPD markers used, amplification with four decamer primers produced 70 bands with sizes ranging from 100 to 1400 bp. Out of 70 bands, 68 bands (97.06%) were polymorphic and two bands (2.94%) were monomorphic amongst the seven R. solanacearum isolates group. The Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) dendrogram constructed from Nei's genetic distance produced two main clusters of the seven isolates of R. solanacearum. The isolates RsB-1, RsB-2, RsB-3 and R-4 grouped in cluster І, while RsP-2, RsP-3 and RsP-4 grouped in cluster ІІ. The highest intra-variety similarity index (Si) was found in RsB-1 isolate (86.35%) and the lowest one in RsP-2 (56.59%). The results indicated that relatively higher and lower levels of genetic variation were found in RsP-3 and RsB-3, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (G(st)) was 0.5487, reflecting the existence of a high level of genetic variations among seven isolates of R. solanacearum. Comparatively higher genetic distance (0.4293) and lower genetic identity (0.6510) were observed between RsB-2 and RsP-4 combinations. The lowest genetic distance (0.0357) and highest genetic identity (0.9650) were found in RsB-1 vs. RsB-2 pair. Thus, RAPD offers a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate

  3. RAPD profiles distinguish Paracentrotus lividus populations living in a stressing environment (Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece).

    PubMed

    Rizzo, C; Cammarata, M; Di Carlo, M; Pancucci, A; Parrinello, N

    2009-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to assess genetic markers of Paracentrotus lividus populations living in stressing environment in the Amvrakikos Gulf (Western Greece, Ionian Sea) where two populations distinguishable in body size, smaller than the open sea ones, were detected. The UPGMA dendrogram, constructed from pairwise. Phi(st) values among population nuclear DNA markers, revealed that the small and medium-sized populations living inside the Amvrakikos presented a lower polymorphism, and form a cluster that shows the genetic distance with normal-sized populations (Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas) living in open sea. AMOVA analysis indicated a genetic distance among the sea urchin populations from the Tyrrhenian sea and Ionian sea.

  4. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  5. Analysis of the genetic diversity of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. accessions using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Rafii, M Y; Shabanimofrad, M; Puteri Edaroyati, M W; Latif, M A

    2012-06-01

    A sum of 48 accessions of physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity and association between geographical origin using RAPD-PCR markers. Eight primers generated a total of 92 fragments with an average of 11.5 amplicons per primer. Polymorphism percentages of J. curcas accessions for Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu states were 80.4, 50.0, and 58.7%, respectively, with an average of 63.04%. Jaccard's genetic similarity co-efficient indicated the high level of genetic variation among the accessions which ranged between 0.06 and 0.81. According to UPGMA dendrogram, 48 J. curcas accessions were grouped into four major clusters at coefficient level 0.3 and accessions from same and near states or regions were found to be grouped together according to their geographical origin. Coefficient of genetic differentiation (G(st)) value of J. curcas revealed that it is an outcrossing species.

  6. Use of RAPD fingerprinting for delineating populations of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Brahmane, M P; Das, M K; Sinha, M R; Sugunan, V V; Mukherjee, A; Singh, S N; Prakash, S; Maurye, P; Hajra, A

    2006-10-31

    RAPD was used to delineate the hilsa populations sampled from the Ganga, Yamuna, Hooghly, and Narmada Rivers at six different locations. Six degenerate primers were used to generate the fragment patterns from the samples collected. All primers were highly polymorphic and generated high numbers of amplification products. Nei's genetic distances were calculated between locations. The overall average genetic distance among all the six locations was 0.295. The Fst value within the Ganga was 0.469 and within the Hooghly it was 0.546. The overall Fst value for the six populations analyzed was 0.590. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered the hilsa into two distinct clusters: Ganga and Yamuna populations and the Hooghly and Narmada populations.

  7. Genetic structuring of boll weevil populations in the US based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Sappington, T W

    2004-06-01

    Abstract Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among boll weevil populations from eighteen locations across eight US states and north-east Mexico. Sixty-seven reproducible bands from six random primers were analysed for genetic variation within and between weevil populations. Genetic and geographical distances among all populations were positively correlated, reflecting a pattern of isolation by distance within a larger metapopulation. Gene flow between south-central, western and eastern regions is limited, but migration between locations within regions appears to be relatively frequent up to distances of approximately 300-400 km. However, estimates of effective migration were much lower than those estimated from mtDNA-RFLP data reported previously.

  8. [Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific variation of D-genome Aegilops L. as revealed by RAPD analysis].

    PubMed

    Goriunova, S V; Kochieva, E Z; Chikida, N N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2004-05-01

    RAPD analysis was carried out to study the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of polyploid Aegilops species, which contain the D genome as a component of the alloploid genome, and diploid Aegilops tauschii, which is a putative donor of the D genome for common wheat. In total, 74 accessions of six D-genome Aegilops species were examined. The highest intraspecific variation (0.03-0.21) was observed for Ae. tauschii. Intraspecific distances between accessions ranged 0.007-0.067 in Ae. cylindrica, 0.017-0.047 in Ae. vavilovii, and 0.00-0.053 in Ae. juvenalis. Likewise, Ae. ventricosa and Ae. crassa showed low intraspecific polymorphism. The among-accession difference in alloploid Ae. ventricosa (genome DvNv) was similar to that of one parental species, Ae. uniaristata (N), and substantially lower than in the other parent, Ae. tauschii (D). The among-accession difference in Ae. cylindrica (CcDc) was considerably lower than in either parent, Ae. tauschii (D) or Ae. caudata (C). With the exception of Ae. cylindrica, all D-genome species--Ae. tauschii (D), Ae. ventricosa (DvNv), Ae. crassa (XcrDcrl and XcrDcrlDcr2), Ae. juvenalis (XjDjUj), and Ae. vavilovii (XvaDvaSva)--formed a single polymorphic cluster, which was distinct from clusters of other species. The only exception, Ae. cylindrica, did not group with the other D-genome species, but clustered with Ae. caudata (C), a donor of the C genome. The cluster of these two species was clearly distinct from the cluster of the other D-genome species and close to a cluster of Ae. umbellulata (genome U) and Ae. ovata (genome UgMg). Thus, RAPD analysis for the first time was used to estimate and to compare the interpopulation polymorphism and to establish the phylogenetic relationships of all diploid and alloploid D-genome Aegilops species.

  9. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  10. A first linkage map of pecan cultivars based on RAPD and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Beedanagari, Sudheer R; Dove, Sue K; Wood, Bruce W; Conner, Patrick J

    2005-04-01

    We report here the first genetic linkage maps of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch], using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Independent maps were constructed for the cultivars 'Pawnee' and 'Elliot' using the double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and 120 F1 seedlings from a full-sib family. A total of 477 markers, including 217 RAPD, 258 AFLP, and two morphological markers were used in linkage analysis. The 'Pawnee' linkage map has 218 markers, comprising 176 testcross and 42 intercross markers placed in 16 major and 13 minor (doublets and triplets) linkage groups. The 'Pawnee' linkage map covered 2,227 cM with an average map distance of 12.7 cM between adjacent markers. The 'Elliot' linkage map has 174 markers comprising 150 testcross and 22 intercross markers placed in 17 major and nine minor linkage groups. The 'Elliot' map covered 1,698 cM with an average map distance of 11.2 cM between adjacent markers. Segregation ratios for dichogamy type and stigma color were not significantly different from 1:1, suggesting that both traits are controlled by single loci with protogyny and green stigmas dominant to protandry and red stigmas. These loci were tightly linked (1.9 cM) and were placed in 'Elliot' linkage group 16. These linkage maps are an important first step towards the detection of genes controlling horticulturally important traits such as nut size, nut maturity date, kernel quality, and disease resistance.

  11. Genetic variation of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.) from Iran using RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Farkhari, M; Naghavi, M R; Pyghambari, S A; Sabokdast

    2007-09-01

    Genetic variation of 28 populations of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host.), collected from different parts of Iran, were evaluated using both RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins. The diversity within and between populations for the three-band High Molecular Weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin pattern were extremely low. Out of 15 screened primers of RAPD, 14 primers generated 133 reproducible fragments which among them 92 fragments were polymorphic (69%). Genetic similarity calculated from the RAPD data ranged from 0.64 to 0.98. A dendrogram was prepared on the basis of a similarity matrix using the UPGMA algorithm and separated the 28 populations into two groups. Confusion can happen between populations with the same origin as well as between populations of very diverse geographical origins. Our results show that compare to seed storage protein, RAPD is suitable for genetic diversity assessment in Ae. cylindrica populations.

  12. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for studies of genetic variation in populations of Coccinella septempunctata in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Haubruge, Eric; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie; Collignon, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    The movement and dispersion of Coccinella septempunctata and its efficacy as aphid control agent over large areas is not really understood because of the difficulty in identifying the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled from Belgium and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Twenty decamer primers generated more than hundred polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). This study shows that while a number of factors can complicate the use and interpretation of RAPD fragments as genetic markers, RAPD analysis can be a valuable technique for studies of intra-specific genetic variation in C. septempunctata.

  13. Intraspecific genetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria from malolactic fermentation of Cencibel wines as derived from combined analysis of RAPD-PCR and PFGE patterns.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Seseña, Susana; Palop, M Llanos

    2008-10-01

    Three molecular techniques, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) have been used to assess the intraspecific diversity of the lactic microbiota responsible for spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) in Cencibel wines made at a cellar in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). The results indicate that RAPD-PCR and PFGE are of value in typing this microbiota. Better discrimination was achieved by RAPD-PCR. Reproducibility using DD-PCR was not good, which makes this method unsuitable. Combined numerical analysis of the patterns obtained from RAPD-PCR and PFGE allowed a better discrimination; this would therefore be a suitable tool to discriminate the diversity of bacterial communities like those found in MLF of wines. Genetic diversity data from combined numerical analysis suggest that there is considerable microbial diversity within MLF of Cencibel wines, with some genotypes coinciding in the two vinifications analysed.

  14. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Lobo, Esther; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2002-02-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for the specific identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. Using two different reaction primers (S1 and L1), RAPD analysis produced clear fingerprints from which the three fish species could be easily identified. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis.

  15. RAPD and ISSR Marker-Based Comparative Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Among Indian Germplasms of Euryale ferox: an Aquatic Food Plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hemant; Priya, Priti; Singh, Nena; Kumar, Mukesh; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Lokendra; Singh, Indu Shekhar; Kumar, Nitish

    2016-12-01

    Euryale ferox Salisbury is an important aquatic food plant cultivated largely in eastern India. E. ferox is a monotypic genus, and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability present in the primary gene pool. Knowledge of the genetic structure of the population is limited, and there are very few reports available on the genetic diversity of E. ferox. In this study, comprehensive research on the genetic diversity of 16 germplasms of E. ferox was carried out using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 320 RAPD and 95 ISSR primers screened initially, 61 primers (40 RAPD and 21 ISSR) gave reproducible bands and were selected for further work. Amplification of the 40 RAPD primers gave 533 polymorphic bands with an average of 13.32 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 37.5 to 100, with an average of 88.3 %. The 21 ISSR primers produced 259 bands, of which 214 were polymorphic, with an average of 10.19 polymorphic bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphism using ISSR primers ranged from 50 to 100, with a mean of 82.6 %. Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.45 to 0.69 (RAPD), 0.50 to 0.77 (ISSR) and 0.48 to 0.71 (RAPD and ISSR). Molecular characterization of different germplasms of E. ferox not only is essential for its conservation but also can be used in further breeding programmes.

  16. RAPD & FINS (mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene sequence) in analysis of food contamination: detection of food poisoning by Lizard.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, P; Guha, S

    2005-04-01

    In poisoning, detection of the nature of causative agent is important for management of trauma and forensic investigation. Most of the methods in clinical toxicology are developed for detection of toxins and poisons. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based method has been described for detection of species of animal from its morphologically unrecognizable fragments, recovered from food substances, consumption of which caused even death. Pre-mixed RAPD reaction beads and six RAPD primers were used in polymerase chain reaction analysis. Among six RAPD primers used, any one of them was sufficient in resolving this practical forensic situation. To enhance the probability values for matching in the present study of fixing identity of an animal, six set of market available RAPD primers were used. This is the first report of a forensic application of RAPD DNA typing in identification of charred skeleton remnants of Lizard species in food material. Furthermore unique amplicons were generated for different reptilian species, which can be used as species specific markers for species identification in forensic situation, however, no variations among individuals of same species were observed.

  17. [Reticulate evolution of parthenogenetic species of the Lacertidae rock lizards: inheritance of CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers].

    PubMed

    Chobanu, D; Rudykh, I A; Riabinina, N L; Grechko, V V; Kramerov, D A; Darevskiĭ, I S

    2002-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of several bisexual and of four unisexual "Lacerta saxicola complex" lizards was studied, using monomer sequences of the complex-specific CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers. Genomes of parthenospecies were shown to include different satellite monomers. The structure of each such monomer is specific for a certain pair of bisexual species. This fact might be interpreted in favor of co-dominant inheritance of these markers in bisexual species hybridogenesis. This idea is supported by the results obtained with RAPD markers; i.e., unisexual species genomes include only the loci characteristic of certain bisexual species. At the same time, in neither case parthenospecies possess specific, autoapomorphic loci that were not present in this or that bisexual species.

  18. Efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD markers in assessment of genetic variability and population structure of wild Musa acuminata colla.

    PubMed

    Lamare, Animos; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2015-07-01

    North east India is considered as one of the major biodiversity hotspots worldwide and centre of origin of several plant species including Musa. Musa acuminata Colla is known to be one of the wild progenitors of cultivated bananas and plantains. Three single primer based DNA marker techniques viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and directed amplification of minisatellites DNA (DAMD) were used for diversity diagnostics among 25 genotypes of wild M. acuminata collected from Meghalaya province of north east India. A total of 58 primers (26-RAPD, 21-ISSR, and11-DAMD) yielded 451 DNA fragments, of which 395 (87.58 %) were found to be polymorphic in nature. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values were almost identical for each marker system. The resolving power of the marker system was found to be highest in RAPD (3.96) whereas ISSR resolved highest marker index (16.39) in the study. Selected amplicon data obtained through single primer amplification reactions were utilized for determination of diversity within and among the populations of M. acuminata. Nei's genetic differentiation (Gst) value (0.451) indicated higher proportion of the genetic variation within the populations which is supported by the AMOVA analysis (88 %). The study provides insight into the efficacy of RAPD, ISSR and DAMD to analyse the genetic variation existing in the wild Musa germplasm, which can further be exploited for quality trait improvement and domestication of such important horticultural crops. The genetic diversity based population structure may shed light on the genetic basis of speciation and evolution of various species within the genus Musa.

  19. Correlation of RAPD-PCR Profiles with ESBL Production in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae, particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are often responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment in nosocomial infections. Employing molecular methods to distinguish between ESBL and non-ESBL producing isolates can help quick identification of these multidrug resistant pathogens and thereby initiating appropriate antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to employ RAPD-PCR to distinguish the genetic fingerprints of ESBL producing clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae from ESBL negative strains. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial susceptibility of 104 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates was determined to 13 antibacterial agents by disc diffusion. ESBL production was measured by the double disc synergy test followed by phenotypic confirmatory tests. Genetic fingerprinting was carried out by RAPD-PCR. Results: All isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Antibiotic resistance rates were: piperacillin (100%), ceftazidime (62.5%), cefotaxime (57.6%), aztreonam (52.8%), cefepime (51.9%), kanamycin (50.9%), gentamicin (41.3%), ciprofloxacin (37.5%), nitrofurantoin (30.6%), nalidixic acid (22.1%), piperacillin/tazobactam (21.1%) and amikacin (9.6%). ESBL production was observed in 14 isolates (13.4%). Genetic fingerprinting performed on 43 isolates (14 ESBL positive and 29 ESBL negative) by RAPD-PCR, showed that 46.5% of the isolates belonged to a single profile (genotype 1), of which, the majority (62.1%) were non-ESBL producers. Conclusion: RAPD-PCR results showed heterogeneity among the isolates. There was no association between ESBL production with any specific genetic fingerprint. PMID:25737983

  20. Identification of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) in Kharve, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saadabadi, Fatemeh; Mohajery, Masoud; Poostchi, Elham; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is considered an important health problem in many parts of Iran including Kharve, Khorasan Razavi province. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by various species of Leishmania, each having a different secondary host. Thus, identifying the parasites’ specie is of paramount importance for containment strategy planning. The morphological differentiation of Leishmania species is not possible, rendering the molecular methods as the sole means to this purpose. Therefore, to identify the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) was used. Methods: The disease was first confirmed by direct smears. Samples were gathered from 22 patients with established cutaneous leishmaniasis. The samples were immediately cultured in NNN medium, followed by sub-culture in RPMI-1640. Afterwards, DNA was extracted and amplified using RAPD-PCR. Electrophoresis patterns from each isolate were compared with reference strains of Leishmania major (L. major) and Leishmania tropica (L. tropica). Results: The results of this study indicated that the parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve is L. tropica. Conclusion: It seems that L. tropica is the only causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kharve, and RAPD-PCR is a suitable tool for Leishmania characterization in epidemiological studies. PMID:26989711

  1. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

    PubMed Central

    Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J. B.; Puteh, A.; Pourdad, S. S.; Nasehi, A.; Soleimani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5–19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

  2. Biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility and RAPD genotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains isolated from single centre intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Vaněrková, Martina; Mališová, Barbora; Kotásková, Iva; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains, including the clonal dissemination of particular strains throughout various intensive care units in one medical centre. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) and P. aeruginosa antisera, 22 different genotypes and 8 serotypes were defined among 103 isolates from 48 patients. No direct association between P. aeruginosa strain genotypes and serotypes was observed. RAPD typing in strains with the same serotype revealed different genotypes and, on the contrary, most strains with a different serotype displayed the same amplification pattern. The resulting banding patterns showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity among all isolates from the patients examined, suggesting a non-clonal relationship between isolates from these patients. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance and stronger biofilm production in common genotypes compared to rare ones and genetic homogeneity of the most resistant strains indicated the role of antibiotic pressure in acquiring resistant and more virulent strains in our hospital. In conclusion, genetic characterisation of P. aeruginosa strains using RAPD method was shown to be more accurate in epidemiological analyses than phenotyping.

  3. Consistency of population genetics parameters estimated from isozyme and RAPDs dataset in species of genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Laura Inés; Bessega, Cecilia; Vilardi, Juan C; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability, population structure and differentiation among 17 populations of 5 species and 2 natural interspecific hybrids of section Algarobia of genus Prosopis were analyzed from data of 23 isozyme and 28 RAPD loci. Both markers indicated that the studied populations are highly variable. P. alba populations in average showed lower values of genetic variability estimates from isozyme data, but this trend was not observed for RAPD markers. The hierarchical analyses of the distribution of genetic variability showed that the highest proportion of variation occurred within populations, the differentiation among species was intermediate and the lowest component was observed among populations within species. The consistency between results from both dataset implies that they are not biased and reflect the actual genetic structure of the populations analyzed. The matrices of Euclidean distances obtained from the two sets of markers were highly correlated according to Mantel test. In both cases the corresponding phenogram and MDS plot tended to cluster conspecific populations while hybrid populations were not intermediate between putative parents. Some disagreements between isozyme and RAPD phenograms were observed mainly in the affinities of hybrid populations. Such inconsistencies might result from reticular rather than dichotomic evolutionary relationships. The phenetic associations retrieved gave no support to the division of the section Algarobia into series.

  4. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  5. The comparison between allozyme and RAPD makers for the population genetic structure analysis of scallop Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baozhong; You, Feng; Dong, Bo; Xiang, Jianhai

    2006-09-01

    To compare genetic markers for population genetics analysis, allozyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to detect the genetic structure of scallop Chlamys farreri population. Thirteen enzymes (MDH, ME, IDH, GPI, PGM, PEP-LG, PEP-PP, ACP, AK, PK, AAT, SOD, EST) in three buffer systems (TC, Ph6.9; TMME, Ph 7.4; and EBT, pH8.9) were selected and 22 loci were used for the analysis, among them 7 loci (Gpi, Pgm, Pep-LG-1, Pep-PP Aat-2, Est-2, Est-3) were polymorphic which attributed 31.82% to the total. The average of heterozygosity was 0.113 and most of the studied loci showed heterozygote deficiencies. The same specimens were investigated using 10 arbitrarily selected primers (10-base). Twenty two of 54 RAPD fragments were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.194. The result indicated that the two types of markers reflected a consistent trend in the parameter values of genetic diversity of the population, but RAPD revealed more information of genetic variation than allozyme electrophoresis.

  6. Comparing FTIR and RAPD techniques in the typing of C. albicans in a clinical set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandt, Christophe L.; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Toubas, Dominique; Aubert, Dominique; Lepan, Herve; Lepouse, Claire; Jaussaud, Maryse; Leon, Alain; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Manfait, Michel

    2002-03-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, generally though to be of endogenous origin, with however reported outbreaks. Epidemilogy of C. albicans has been studied so far by genotypic methods mainly, including the classical RAPD analysis. Albeit powerful, genotypic techniques are expensive, time consuming and complex to implement. FTIR spectroscopy is simple, rapid, inexpensive and an increasingly used technique for the identification of microorganisms. As a phenotypic method, it provides rapid whole cells 'fingerprinting' using few consumables and can detect very subtle differences between strains of the same species. In this study, C. albicans strains isolated from 50 patients from six hospital units were collected and studied by FTIR spectroscopy and RAPD-PCR. Discrimination of strains was computed using classification algorithms on selected features of the spectral data. Results from 10 patients, for whom iterative sampling was possible, are presented and discussed. Emphasis was laid on the reproducibility of dat for strain-level identification. FTIR analysis shows that (a) the C. albicans spectra were different from one patient to another, (b) seven patients exhibit each a homogeneous group while three patients display each two groups of strains. RAPD-PCR and FTIR analyses correlate quite well showing that FTIR spectroscopy could be a potential epidemiological tool in the control of nosocomial fungal infections.

  7. Comparative studies on the diversity of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii: ITS sequence analysis, RAPD fingerprinting, and physiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Sung Soon; Ryu, Jae San; Jeon, Che-Ok; Lee, Tae Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2007-06-01

    Verification of Pleurotus eryngii strains was assessed using ITS sequence analysis and RAPD fingerprinting. Sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region of 24 strains of Pleurotus sp., which consisted of 22 strains of P. eryngii and the control strains P. ostreatus and P. ferulae, demonstrated that the DNA regions share mostly 99% sequence identity, indicating that sequence-based analysis is not applicable for the verification of closely related mushroom strains. To verify the mushroom strains using RAPD, we amplified DNA fragments from the total cellular DNA of 24 mushroom strains with 18 different random primers, yielding 538 distinct DNA fragments ranging from 200-4000bp. Analysis of the DNA fragment pattern showed that the 22 P. eryngii strains were clearly distinguished from the control strains P. ostreatus and P. ferulae, and could be categorized into five subgroups. Subsequent physiological studies on the development of fruiting bodies demonstrated the close correlation of the RAPD-based grouping with the phenotypical characteristics of mushroom fruiting bodies.

  8. RAPD cluster analysis and chlorate sensitivity of some Indian isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina from sorghum and their relationships with pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Das, I K; Fakrudin, B; Arora, D K

    2008-01-01

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is an economically important disease in sorghum grown during the post rainy season in India. Variations in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymorphisms, chlorate sensitivity and pathogenicity were studied among sorghum isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different parts of India. RAPD data based on 14 random primers of Kit A and C (OPA and OPC) on 20 isolates showed a high degree of polymorphism (98.1%) in different isolates. UPGMA dendrogram on RAPD data produced 7 clusters at the level of 37% similarity. Isolates from the same locations showed a tendency to group closer, substantiating closer genetic relatedness. Sorghum infecting Macrophomina isolates showed a mixed response for sensitivity to potassium chlorate (120 mM). Chlorate-resistant isolates were predominant (>65% of the isolates) over sensitive isolates. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were found to be genetically closer among them than the resistant ones. For the first time it was shown that chlorate sensitivity in Macrophomina had some relations with charcoal rot severity in sorghum.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR.

    PubMed

    Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J B; Puteh, A; Pourdad, S S; Nasehi, A; Soleimani, N

    2014-03-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5-19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  10. Genetic population differentiation of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (Portunidae) in Thai waters revealed by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, S; Yuvanatemiya, V; Wongphayak, S; Khetpu, K; Menasveta, P; Khamnamtong, B

    2010-08-17

    Genetic diversity and population differentiation of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, in Thailand were analyzed by RAPD analysis. One hundred and twelve RAPD fragments were generated from 109 individuals of P. pelagicus using OPA02, OPA14, OPB10, UBC122, and UBC158 primers. The percentage of polymorphic bands in each geographic sample and that of each primer across overall samples were 72.7-85.0 and 92.0-100%, respectively. Large numbers of polymorphic bands found in the RAPD analysis suggested high genetic diversity of Thai P. pelagicus. The mean genetic distance between samples across all primers was 0.0929-0.2471. Significant geographic heterogeneity was observed across samples overall and between all pairs of geographic samples (P < 0.01 for theta and P < 0.0001 for the exact test), indicating strong genetic differentiation of P. pelagicus in Thai waters, despite its high potential of dispersal. Limited gene flow levels (0.44-1.19 individuals per generation) of Thai P. pelagicus were also observed. A fine scale level of differentiation suggested that P. pelagicus from each geographic sample in Thai waters should be regarded as a separate genetic population and treated as a different exploited stock.

  11. Comparative biochemical and RAPD analysis in two varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) under arsenic stress by using various biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohd Anwar; Gaur, Rashmi; Gupta, Meetu

    2012-05-30

    Multiple biomarker systems have been frequently used to measure the genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants (including heavy metals) on living organisms. In this study, we used leaves of hydroponically grown 14 days old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) varieties (PB1 and IR64) treated with 50, 150 and 300 μM arsenite (As(III)) for 24 and 96 h duration. Reduction in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll and protein were observed with increasing As(III) concentration and duration in both varieties, being more in IR64. Increase/decrease of antioxidant enzymes and stress related parameters showed much changes at higher concentration for 24 and 96 h duration in both varieties. Eleven primers were found in RAPD analysis to produce polymorphic band pattern and produced a total of 51 (control), 79 (treated) and 42 (control) and 29 (treated) bands in PB1 and IR64 varieties, respectively. These results indicated that genomic template stability (GTS, changes in RAPD profile) was significantly affected at all tested As(III) concentration, when compared with other parameters. Differential response was observed in both varieties with PB1 being more tolerant. We concluded that DNA polymorphism detected by RAPD analysis in conjunction with other biochemical parameters could be a powerful eco-toxicological tool in bio-monitoring arsenic pollution.

  12. Multilocus microsatellite typing revealed high genetic variability of Leishmania donovani strains isolated during and after a Kala-azar epidemic in Libo Kemkem district, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Cruz, Israel; Kuhls, Katrin; Alvar, Jorge; Cañavate, Carmen; Hailu, Asrat; Schönian, Gabriele

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, an outbreak of kala-azar (KA) occurred for the first time in Libo Kemkem district, in the highland area of northwest Ethiopia. In order to track the possible origins of the outbreak parasites, we have investigated 19 strains of Leishmania donovani that were collected during (n = 6) and after (n = 13) the outbreak by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Unique microsatellite profiles were obtained for all strains from Libo Kemkem. When compared to those of L. donovani strains from different Ethiopian, Kenyan and Sudanese foci, by genetic distance and Bayesian clustering model analyses, most strains from Libo Kemkem grouped with strains from: (i) Humera and Metema in the lowlands and Belessa in the highland of Ethiopia, and (ii) Sudan, at different hierarchal levels. The strains from Libo Kemkem district were assigned at least to three genetically distinct clusters (A, B1 and B2) of which only one, cluster B2, consisted exclusively of strains from Libo Kemkem. The fact that most of the outbreak strains were found to be related to strains from well-known KA foci in northwest Ethiopia and Sudan might suggest multiple introductions of L. donovani strains from these foci into Libo Kemkem district.

  13. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL.

  14. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

  15. Comparison of optical microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for estimating parasitaemia in patients with kala-azar and modelling infectiousness to the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jailthon C; Zacarias, Danielle A; Silva, Vladimir C; Rolão, Nuno; Costa, Dorcas L; Costa, Carlos HN

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the only method for identifying infective hosts with Leishmania infantum to the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis is xenodiagnosis. More recently, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been used to model human reservoir competence by assuming that detection of parasite DNA indicates the presence of viable parasites for infecting vectors. Since this assumption has not been proven, this study aimed to verify this hypothesis. The concentration of amastigotes in the peripheral blood of 30 patients with kala-azar was microscopically verified by leukoconcentration and was compared to qPCR estimates. Parasites were identified in 4.8 mL of peripheral blood from 67% of the patients, at a very low concentration (average 0.3 parasites/mL). However, qPCR showed 93% sensitivity and the estimated parasitaemia was over a thousand times greater, both in blood and plasma, with higher levels in plasma than in blood. Furthermore, the microscopic count of circulating parasites and the qPCR parasitaemia estimates were not mathematically compatible with the published proportions of infected sandflies in xenodiagnostic studies. These findings suggest that qPCR does not measure the concentration of circulating parasites, but rather measures DNA from other sites, and that blood might not be the main source of infection for vectors. PMID:27439033

  16. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  17. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep; Avishek, Kumar; Sharma, Vanila; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Salotra, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is at the forefront in the search for innovative diagnostics for rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions. We have applied LAMP assay using SYBR Green for clear-cut naked eye detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in 200 clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The assay was positive in 53/55 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.7-99%), 15/15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI, 79.6-100%), 60/62 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 96.8%; 95% CI, 88.9-99.1%), and 1/68 control samples (specificity, 98.5%; 95% CI, 92.1-99.7%). The assay was specific for L. (L.) donovani, the causative species for VL and negative for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) tropica, and L. (L.) major. This is the first comprehensive clinical study demonstrating the applicability of the LAMP assay for a rapid and reliable molecular diagnosis of VL and PKDL.

  18. Monitoring hydrilla using two RAPD procedures and the nonindigenous aquatic species database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madeira, Paul T.; Jacono, C.C.; Van, Thai K.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle), an invasive aquatic weed, continues to spread to new regions in the United States. Two biotypes, one a female dioecious and the other monoecious have been identified. Management of the spread of hydrilla requires understanding the mechanisms of introduction and transport, an ability to map and make available information on distribution, and tools to distinguish the known U.S. biotypes as well as potential new introductions. Review of the literature and discussions with aquatic scientists and resource managers point to the aquarium and water garden plant trades as the primary past mechanism for the regional dispersal of hydrilla while local dispersal is primarily carried out by other mechanisms such as boat traffic, intentional introductions, and waterfowl. The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database is presented as a tool for assembling, geo-referencing, and making available information on the distribution of hydrilla. A map of the current range of dioecious and monoecious hydrilla by drainage is presented. Four hydrilla samples, taken from three discrete, non-contiguous regions (Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Washington State) were examined using two RAPD assays. The first, generated using primer Operon G17, and capable of distinguishing the dioecious and monoecious U.S. biotypes, indicated all four samples were of the monoecious biotype. Results of the second assay using the Stoffel fragment and 5 primers, produced 111 markers, indicated that these samples do not represent new foreign introductions. The differences in the monoecious and dioecious growth habits and management are discussed.

  19. Lack of Genetic Variation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal Revealed by RAPD-PCR Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Paulo; Burgermeister, Wolfgang; Mota, Manuel; Metge, Kai; Silva, Gonçalo

    2007-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) technique was used to assess the level of genetic variability and genetic relationships among 24 Portuguese isolates of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The isolates represent the main infested areas of Portugal. Two additional isolates of B. xylophilus representing North America and East Asia were included, and B. mucronatus was used as out-group. Twenty-eight random primers generated a total of 640 DNA fragments. The Nei and Li similarity index revealed a high genetic similarity among the Portuguese isolates (above 90%). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to illustrate the relatedness among the isolates. No indication for separate groups among the Portuguese isolates was obtained, and the low level of genetic diversity strongly suggests that they were dispersed recently from a single introduction. The lack of apparent relationship between the genetic and the geographic matrices of the Portuguese isolates limits the use of this technique for following recent pathways of distribution. Genetic distance of the Portuguese isolates towards an isolate from China was much lower as compared to an isolate from the USA. This confirmed previous results suggesting an East Asian origin of the Portuguese B. xylophilus. PMID:19259480

  20. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-10-22

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry.

  1. Identification of a major gene and RAPD markers for yellow seed coat colour in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Somers, D J; Rakow, G; Prabhu, V K; Friesen, K R

    2001-12-01

    The development of yellow-seeded Brassica napus for improving the canola-meal quality characteristics of lower fibre content and higher protein content has been restricted because no yellow-seeded forms of B. napus exist, and their conventional development requires interspecific introgression of yellow seed coat colour genes from related species. A doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from the F1 generation of the cross 'Apollo' (black-seeded) x YN90-1016 (yellow-seeded) B. napus was analysed via bulked segregant analysis to identify molecular markers associated with the yellow-seed trait in B. napus for future implementation in marker-assisted breeding. A single major gene (pigment 1) flanked by eight RAPD markers was identified co-segregating with the yellow seed coat colour trait in the population. This gene explained over 72% of the phenotypic variation in seed coat colour. Further analysis of the yellow-seeded portion of this DH population revealed two additional genes favouring 'Apollo' alleles, explaining 11 and 8.5%, respectively, of the yellow seed coat colour variation. The data suggested that there is a dominant, epistatic interaction between the pigment I locus and the two additional genes. The potential of the markers to be implemented in plant breeding for the yellow-seed trait in B. napus is discussed.

  2. Dispersal of the cotton boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in South America: evidence of RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Scataglini, M A; Confalonieri, V A; Lanteri, A A

    2000-01-01

    RAPD technique provides useful information on the geographic origin and dispersal of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis in South America. Nine populations from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico and USA were analyzed. Weevils were captured on native plants (Misiones province, Argentina) and on cotton cultures, except the sample from the United States (USDA laboratory-reared colony). A sample of the 'Peruvian square weevil', A. vestitus, from Ecuador, was included in the analysis in order to compare interspecific variation. The four primers used in the analysis revealed 41 'anonymous loci'. The neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's distances and values of Nm (migrants per generation), indicate that genetic similarity between samples from Tecomán (Mexico) and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina), is higher than among remaining South American populations. This result supports an hypothesis of natural occurrence of the boll weevil in South America, prior to extensive cotton cultivation. Population outbreaks of the species would be associated with increase of agricultural lands.

  3. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  4. Inferences on the role of insertion in a mutation accumulation experiment with Drosophila melanogaster using RAPDs.

    PubMed

    Salgado, C; Nieto, B; Toro, M A; López-Fanjul, C; García-Dorado, A

    2005-01-01

    The genetic variability for RAPDs band pattern was studied in a set of 157 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Drosophila melanogaster. These MA lines were derived from the same isogenic base population and subsequently maintained by full-sib mating during 132 generations. The ancestral pattern of the original isogenic base can be unambiguously established as the consensus pattern of the MA lines and, because these lines are expected to be homozygous, dominance for band pattern is not a concern. Only repeatable changes in band pattern were considered. The number of ancestral bands detected implies that nine-nucleotide targets are enough for repeatable PCR amplification. Compared with the ancestral pattern, one MA line lost one band and two MA lines gained a new one. These results can be accounted for by the insertion of transposable elements occurring at a rate 0.07 < i < 0.21 per whole haploid genome and generation. This range is typical for Drosophila and consistent with the previously observed mobility for the roo family, supporting the generality of previous estimates of spontaneous mutation rates for morphological and fitness traits based on these MA lines. The sequence of one of the new bands suggests that the Idefix family is also active in the lines.

  5. Detection and Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains by Multiplex PCR Using RAPD-Derived Primers

    PubMed Central

    Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C.; Chorianopoulos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum 2035 and Lactobacillus plantarum ACA-DC 2640 are two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that have been isolated from Feta cheese. Both display significant potential for the production of novel probiotic food products. The aim of the present study was the development of an accurate and efficient method for the molecular detection and identification of the above strains in a single reaction. A multiplex PCR assay was designed for each strain, based on specific primers derived from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) analysis. The specificity of the assay was tested with a total of 23 different LAB strains, for L. plantarum 2035 and L. plantarum ACA-DC 2640. The multiplex PCR assay was also successfully applied for the detection of the above cultures in yogurt samples prepared in our lab. The proposed methodology may be applied for monitoring the presence of these strains in food products, thus evaluating their probiotic character. Moreover, our strategy may be adapted for other novel LAB strains with probiotic potential, thus providing a powerful tool for molecular discrimination that could be invaluable to the food industry. PMID:26506345

  6. Genetic variation and population structure of endemic yellow catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Bagridae) among three populations of Western Ghat region using RAPD and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Muneer, P M; Gopalakrishnan, A; Musammilu, K K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Lal, K K; Basheer, V S; Lakra, W S

    2009-09-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite markers were applied to evaluate the genetic variation in endemic and endangered yellow catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma sampled from three geographic locations of Western Ghat, South India river systems. In RAPD, of 32 10-mer RAPD primers screened initially, 10 were chosen and used in a comparative analysis of H. brachysoma collected from Meenachil, Chalakkudy and Nethravathi River systems. Of the 124 total RAPD fragments amplified, 49 (39.51%) were found to be shared by individuals of all 3 populations. The remaining 75 fragments were found to be polymorphic (60.48%). In microsatellites, six polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified by using primers developed for Pangasius hypophthalmus, Clarias macrocephalus and Clarias gariepinus. The identified loci were confirmed as microsatellite by sequencing after making a clone. The nucleotide sequences of 6 loci were published in NCBI genbank. The number of alleles across the six loci ranged from 4 to 7 and heterozygosities ranged from 0.07 to 0.93. The mean number of alleles and effective number of alleles per locus were 5.00 and 3.314, respectively. The average heterozygosity across all investigated samples was 0.72, indicating a significant deficiency of heterozygotes in this species. RAPD and microsatellite methods reported a high degree of gene diversity and genetic distances depicted by UPGMA dendrograms among the populations of H. brachysoma.

  7. To evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses in the treatment of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)

    PubMed Central

    Rabi Das, Vidya Nand; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Pal, Biplab; Lal, Chandra Shekhar; Verma, Neena; Kumar, Ashish; Verma, Rakesh Bihari; Kumar, Dhirendra; Das, Pradeep; Pandey, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Background Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses (0.5mg/kg vs 1mg/kg) in a prospective randomized trial in 50 PKDL patients. Methods In this open label study 50 patients with PKDL, aged between 5–60 years were randomized in two groups. Group A received amphotericin B in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in 5% dextrose, daily for 20 infusions for 3 courses at an interval of 15 days between each course and Group B received amphotericin B in the dose of 1mg/kg in 5% dextrose on alternate days, 20 infusions for 3 courses an interval of 15 days between each course and followed up for one year. Results A total of 50 patients were enrolled, 25 in each of group A and group B. Two patients lost to follow up and three patients withdrew consent due to adverse events. The initial cure rate was 92% in group A and 88% in group B by intention to treat analysis and final cure rate by per protocol analysis was 95.65% and 95.45% in group A and group B respectively. Two patients each from either group relapsed. Nephrotoxicity was the most common adverse event occurring in both the groups. Conclusion The lower dose appears to have fewer adverse events however, nephrotoxicity remains a problem in both regimens. The 0.5mg/kg regimen may be considered instead of the higher dosage however safer treatments remain critical for PKDL treatment. PMID:28355259

  8. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  9. Use of genetic polymorphisms detected by the random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) for differentiation and identification of Aedes aegypti subspecies and populations.

    PubMed

    Ballinger-Crabtree, M E; Black, W C; Miller, B R

    1992-12-01

    Amplification of random regions of genomic DNA using 10-base primers in the random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to differentiate and identify mosquito populations based on genetic variation. Genomic DNA was extracted from individual mosquitoes from 11 geographic populations of Aedes aegypti and amplified in PCR reactions using single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Discriminant analysis of the population frequencies of RAPD fragments produced using three different primers allowed accurate discrimination between the geographic populations in 89% of individuals and between subspecies (Ae. aegypti aegypti versus Ae. aegypti formosus) in 100% of mosquitoes tested. The genetic relatedness of the populations was estimated using three different statistical methods, and unknown populations were correctly classified in a blind test. These results indicate that the RAPD-PCR technique will be useful in studies of arthropod molecular taxonomy and in epidemiologic studies of the relatedness of geographic populations and vector movement.

  10. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    PubMed

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  11. Molecular fingerprinting of Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser growing on five different hosts by RAPD

    PubMed Central

    Sunil Kumar, K.N.; Maruthi, K.R.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Rajakrishnan, R.; Thomas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic plants growing on aerial parts of other host trees. Many of the mistletoes are reported to be medicinally important. The hemiparasitic nature of these plants makes their chemical composition dependent on the host on which it grows. They are shown to exhibit morphological dissimilarities also when growing on different hosts. Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (mango mistletoe) is one such less explored medicinal mistletoe found on almost every mango tree in India. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are used for checking abortion and for removing stones in the kidney and urinary bladder while significant antioxidant and antimicrobial properties are also attributed to this species of mistletoe. The current study was undertaken to evaluate molecular differences in the genomic DNA of the plant while growing on five different host trees using four random markers employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) followed by similarity matrix by Jaccard’s coefficient and distance matrix by hierarchal clustering analysis. Similarity and distance matrix data employing just 4 random markers, separately and the pooled data as well, revealed significant difference in the genomic DNA of H. elastica growing on five different hosts. Pooled data of similarity from all the 4 primers cumulatively showed similarity between 0.256 and 0.311. Distance matrix ranged from of 0.256 to 0.281 on pooling the data from all the four primers. The result employing a minimum number of primers could conclude that genomic DNA of H. elastica differs depending upon the host on which it grows, hence the host must be considered while studying or utilizing this mistletoe for medicinal purposes. PMID:27081357

  12. Genetic variability and differentiation of Caragana microphylla populations as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, X H; Gao, Y B

    2011-09-01

    Genetic variability in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was studied in 90 individuals of Caragana microphylla, an outcrossing perennial shrub species, from five natural populations sampled in Inner Mongolia steppe of China on a small scale. Nineteen selected primers were used to amplify DNA samples, and totally 225 bands were detected. The percentage of polymorphic bands within populations ranged form 58.22% to 63.56%, with an average of 60% at the population level and 71.11% at the species level, indicating relatively high genetic variations in C. microphylla species. Shannon's information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity (h) showed the similar trend with each other. According to the analysis of Nei's gene diversity, the percentage of genetic variation among populations was 7.13%, indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among populations. There existed a strong gene flow (Nm = 3.26) among populations. Although AMOVA analysis also revealed most variation was within populations (phi(ST) = 4.1%), a significant proportion was observed among populations (P<0.001) in the present study, suggesting genetic differentiation occurred among populations at a certain extent. Based on Mantel's tests and the results of previous studies, the genetic structure pattern of C. microphylla accorded with the isolation-by-distance model on a very large scale, however, on a small scale, the significant genetic differentiation among populations might be enhanced by the micro-environmental divergence among the sampling sites, rather than by geographic factors. Analysis of the genetic variations of C. microphylla populations provided useful information for the adaptive strategy of Caragana species.

  13. Development of AFLP and RAPD markers linked to a locus associated with twisted growth in corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa').

    PubMed

    Lin, Juan; Gunter, Lee E; Harding, Scott A; Kopp, Richard F; McCord, Rachel P; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Tuskan, Gerald A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2007-11-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew willow) is characterized by extensive stem bending and curling of leaves. To investigate the genetic basis of this trait, controlled crosses were made between a corkscrew female (S. matsudana 'Tortuosa') and a straight-stemmed, wild-type male (Salix alba L. Clone 99010). Seventy-seven seedlings from this family (ID 99270) were grown in the field for phenotypic observation. Among the progeny, 39 had straight stems and leaves and 38 had bent stems and curled leaves, suggesting that a dominant allele at a single locus controls this phenotype. As a first step in characterizing the locus, we searched for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the tortuosa allele using bulked segregant analysis. Samples of DNA from 10 corkscrew individuals were combined to produce a corkscrew pool, and DNA from 10 straight progeny was combined to make a wild-type pool. Sixty-four AFLP primer combinations and 640 RAPD primers were screened to identify marker bands amplified from the corkscrew parent and progeny pool, but not from the wild-type parent or progeny pool. An AFLP marker and a RAPD marker linked to and flanking the tortuosa locus were placed on a preliminary linkage map constructed based on segregation among the 77 progeny. Sectioning and analysis of shoot tips revealed that the corkscrew phenotype is associated with vascular cell collapse, smaller cell size in regions near the cambium and less developed phloem fibers than in wild-type progeny. Identification of a gene associated with this trait could lead to greater understanding of the control of normal stem development in woody plants.

  14. RAPD analysis of diploid and tetraploid populations of Aronia points to different reproductive strategies within the genus.

    PubMed

    Hovmalm, Helena A Persson; Jeppsson, Niklas; Bartish, Igor V; Nybom, Hilde

    2004-01-01

    Plant breeding in black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is based mainly on seedlings derived from domesticated Russian plants. Previous studies have, however, demonstrated very low levels of phenotypic variation within this gene pool. The present investigation was undertaken in order to study the genetic structure in native populations growing in North America. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker variation was analysed in eight populations (three or five mother plants/population and five seedlings/mother plant) and compared with the variation in four cultivars and 15 seedlings derived from a Russian plantation. The four cultivars and all the Russian seedlings turned out to have identical RAPD profiles. In the native plant material, there were two types of mother plants: diploid plants that produced very heterogeneous offspring and tetraploid plants that produced homogeneous offspring. Partitioning of variability based on Shannon's diversity index attributed approx. 22% of the variation to the among-population level in diploids, compared to approx. 55% in the tetraploids. However, the diploid populations and the tetraploid populations did not differ significantly in within-population variation. These results prompted a second set of RAPD analyses, which were carried out on offspring obtained through open pollination of the initially examined material when growing in an experimental field. The analyses showed that tetraploid plants produced tetraploid offspring that, with few exceptions, were identical, indicating apomixis, whereas offspring of diploid plants were diploid or triploid, and highly heterogeneous, indicating outcrossing. Presumably, the tetraploid form of Aronia is an allopolyploid, with A. melanocarpa as one of the parents.

  15. Risk Zone Modelling and Early Warning System for Visceral Leishmaniasis Kala-Azar Disease in Bihar, India Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaram, A.; Kesari, S.; Bajpai, A.; Bhunia, G. S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2012-07-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) commonly known as Kala-azar is one of the most neglected tropical disease affecting approximately 200 million poorest populations 'at risk in 109 districts of three endemic countries namely Bangladesh, India and Nepal at different levels. This tropical disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. The analysis of disease dynamics indicate the periodicity at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scale which forms the basis for development of advanced early warning system. Study area of highly endemic Vaishali district, Bihar, India has been taken for model development. A Systematic study of geo-environmental parameters derived from satellite data in conjunction with ground intelligence enabled modelling of infectious disease and risk villages. High resolution Indian satellites data of IRS LISS IV (multi-spectral) and Cartosat-1 (Pan) have been used for studying environmentally risk parameters viz. peri-domestic vegetation, dwelling condition, wetland ecosystem, cropping pattern, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), detailed land use etc towards risk assessment. Univariate analysis of the relationship between vector density and various land cover categories and climatic variables suggested that all the variables are significantly correlated. Using the significantly correlated variables with vector density, a seasonal multivariate regression model has been carried out incorporating geo-environmental parameters, climate variables and seasonal time series disease parameters. Linear and non-linear models have been applied for periodicity and interannual temporal scale to predict Man-hour-density (MHD) and 'out-of-fit' data set used for validating the model with reasonable accuracy. To improve the MHD predictive approach, fuzzy model has also been incorporated in GIS environment combining spatial geo-environmental and climatic variables using fuzzy membership

  16. Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

    2004-03-01

    The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual

  17. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  18. Identification of a novel Getah virus by Virus-Discovery-cDNA random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of new virus strains is important for the study of infectious disease, but current (or existing) molecular biology methods are limited since the target sequence must be known to design genome-specific PCR primers. Thus, we developed a new method for the discovery of unknown viruses based on the cDNA - random amplified polymorphic DNA (cDNA-RAPD) technique. Getah virus, belonging to the family Togaviridae in the genus Alphavirus, is a mosquito-borne enveloped RNA virus that was identified using the Virus-Discovery-cDNA RAPD (VIDISCR) method. Results A novel Getah virus was identified by VIDISCR from suckling mice exposed to mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) collected in Yunnan Province, China. The non-structural protein gene, nsP3, the structural protein gene, the capsid protein gene, and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the novel Getah virus isolate were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence identities of each gene were determined to be 97.1–99.3%, 94.9–99.4%, and 93.6–99.9%, respectively, when compared with the genomes of 10 other representative strains of Getah virus. Conclusions The VIDISCR method was able to identify known virus isolates and a novel isolate of Getah virus from infected mice. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the YN08 isolate was more closely related to the Hebei HB0234 strain than the YN0540 strain, and more genetically distinct from the MM2021 Malaysia primitive strain. PMID:23268691

  19. Comparison of primers for RAPD-PCR from environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii complex.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Pedroso, Reginaldo; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; da Costa, Karen Regina Carim; Candido, Regina Celia

    2012-07-01

    Various organisms have been characterized by molecular methods, including fungi of the genus Cryptococcus. The purposes of this study were: to determine the discriminatory potential of the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers, the pattern of similarity of the Cryptococcus species, and discuss their useful application in epidemiological studies. We analyzed 10 isolates of each specie/group: C. albidus, C. laurentii complex, C. neoformans var. grubii, all from environmental source, and two ATCC strains, C. neoformans var. grubii ATCC 90112, and C. neoformans var. neoformans ATCC 28957 by RAPD-PCR using the primers CAV1, CAV2, ZAP19, ZAP20, OPB11 and SEQ6. The primers showed a good discriminatory power, revealing important differences between them and between species; the SEQ6 primer discriminated a larger number of isolates of three species. Isolates of C. laurentii showed greater genetic diversity than other species revealed by all six primers. Isolates of C. neoformans were more homogeneous. Only the primer CAV2 showed no amplification of DNA bands for C. albidus. It was concluded that the use of limited number of carefully selected primers allowed the discrimination of different isolates, and some primers (e.g., CAV2 for C. albidus) may not to be applied to some species.

  20. Comparison of primers for RAPD-PCR from environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii complex

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Pedroso, Reginaldo; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; da Costa, Karen Regina Carim; Candido, Regina Celia

    2012-01-01

    Various organisms have been characterized by molecular methods, including fungi of the genus Cryptococcus. The purposes of this study were: to determine the discriminatory potential of the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers, the pattern of similarity of the Cryptococcus species, and discuss their useful application in epidemiological studies. We analyzed 10 isolates of each specie/group: C. albidus, C. laurentii complex, C. neoformans var. grubii, all from environmental source, and two ATCC strains, C. neoformans var. grubii ATCC 90112, and C. neoformans var. neoformans ATCC 28957 by RAPD-PCR using the primers CAV1, CAV2, ZAP19, ZAP20, OPB11 and SEQ6. The primers showed a good discriminatory power, revealing important differences between them and between species; the SEQ6 primer discriminated a larger number of isolates of three species. Isolates of C. laurentii showed greater genetic diversity than other species revealed by all six primers. Isolates of C. neoformans were more homogeneous. Only the primer CAV2 showed no amplification of DNA bands for C. albidus. It was concluded that the use of limited number of carefully selected primers allowed the discrimination of different isolates, and some primers (e.g., CAV2 for C. albidus) may not to be applied to some species. PMID:24031912

  1. Comparative analysis of DNA polymorphisms and phylogenetic relationships among Syzygium cumini Skeels based on phenotypic characters and RAPD technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitendra P; Singh, Ak; Bajpai, Anju; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2014-01-01

    The Indian black berry (Syzygium cumini Skeels) has a great nutraceutical and medicinal properties. As in other fruit crops, the fruit characteristics are important attributes for differentiation were also determined for different accessions of S. cumini. The fruit weight, length, breadth, length: breadth ratio, pulp weight, pulp content, seed weight and pulp: seed ratio significantly varied in different accessions. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR based RAPD technique. Out of 80 RAPD primers, only 18 primers produced stable polymorphisms that were used to examine the phylogenetic relationship. A sum of 207 loci were generated out of which 201 loci found polymorphic. The average genetic dissimilarity was 97 per cent among jamun accessions. The phylogenetic relationship was also determined by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) that explained 46.95 per cent cumulative variance. The two-dimensional PCoA analysis showed grouping of the different accessions that were plotted into four sub-plots, representing clustering of accessions. The UPGMA (r = 0.967) and NJ (r = 0.987) dendrogram constructed based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed a good degree of fit with the cophenetic correlation value. The dendrogram grouped the accessions into three main clusters according to their eco-geographical regions which given useful insight into their phylogenetic relationships.

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) breeding populations as revealed by RAPD genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Odeth; Ortega, Fernando; Campos, Hugo

    2003-08-01

    Red clover is an important forage legume species for temperate regions and very little is known about the genetic organization of its breeding populations. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers to address the genetic diversity and the distribution of variation in 20 breeding populations and cultivars from Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Switzerland. Genetic distances were calculated for all possible pairwise combinations. A high level of polymorphism was found and the proportion of polymorphic loci across populations was 74.2%. A population derived from a non-certified seedlot displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci than its respective certified seedlot. Gene diversity values and population genetics parameters suggest that the populations analyzed are diverse. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of variation (80.4%) resides at the within population level. RAPD markers are a useful tool for red clover breeding programs. A dendrogram based on genetic distances divided the breeding populations analyzed into three distinct groups. The amount and partition of diversity observed can be of value in identifying the populations that parents of synthetic cultivars are derived from and to exploit the variation available in the populations analyzed.

  3. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-15

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  4. Morphological and RAPD analysis of hybridization between Quercus affinis and Q. laurina (fagaceae), two Mexican red oaks.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Arias, Dulce M; Valencia, Susana; Oyama, Ken

    2004-03-01

    Quercus affinis and Q. laurina are two closely related Mexican red oaks with partially overlapping distributions. Within the area of overlap, there are localities where morphological intergradation occurs. A previous hypothesis explained this pattern as a result of secondary contact between the two species, followed by hybridization and introgression. This possibility was analyzed here by examining foliar and genetic variation in 16 localities situated along a macrogeographic gradient, which included morphologically representative populations of both species and populations from within the area of overlap. Maximum-likelihood hybrid index scores calculated from nine semi-diagnostic RAPD markers indicated a shift in the genetic composition of populations from one species to the other along the macrogeographic gradient, with genetically intermediate populations situated in the area of overlap. Foliar variation followed a partially congruent pattern, but Q. laurina-like morphology predominated in some of the genetically intermediate populations. There were several instances of correlated frequency changeovers of single RAPD markers and morphological characters along the macrogeographic gradient and a few cases of markedly parallel patterns between markers. The results were interpreted as consistent with a hypothesis of secondary contact between the two oak species that has resulted in some differential introgression among markers.

  5. Transmission trials, ITS2-PCR and RAPD-PCR show identity of Toxocara canis isolates from red fox and dog.

    PubMed

    Epe, C; Meuwissen, M; Stoye, M; Schnieder, T

    1999-07-01

    Toxocara canis isolates from dog and from red fox were compared in transmission trials and with molecular analysis using RAPD-PCR technique and comparison of the ITS2 sequence. After oral infection of bitches with 20,000 embryonated T. canis eggs of vulpine and canine origin, the vertical transmission to pup's was examined. All animals of both groups developed typical clinical symptoms of toxocarosis. The haematological, serological, parasitological and post mortem results showed no differences between both isolates except for the infectivity of T. canis stages in mice where the fox isolate showed a significant higher infectivity than the dog isolate. The RAPD-PCR showed a similarity coefficient of 0.95, similar to the range of intraspecific variation in Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina specimens as outgroups. The ITS2 comparison showed a 100% identity between both isolates with no intraspecific variations. Therefore, the study shows that the fox and the dog isolate of T. canis were identical in infectivity, transmission and molecular structure; a host adaptation could not be found and the fox has to be seen as a reservoir for T. canis infections in dogs. Considering the increasing number of foxes in urban areas the importance of helminth control in dogs is stressed.

  6. [The application of RAPD technology in genetic diversity detection of Jute].

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-Min; Zhou, Dong-Xin; Wu, Wei-Ren; Lin, Li-Hui; Fang, Ping-Ping; Wu, Jian-Mei

    2003-10-01

    The fingerprints of 10 species including 27 accessions in genus Corchorus were investigated with the technique of RAPD. Twenty-five primers were screened from 119 random primers, and a total of 329 DNA fragments were amplified ranging from 0.3-3.0 kb, 253 (87.78%), which were polymorphic. The average number of DNA band produced by each primer was 13.16. UPGMA cluster analysis and Nei's similarity coefficients were carried out and a dendrogram was constructed using software Biol D++. The results showed as follows: (1) There were abundant genetic diversities among 15 wild species and 12 cultivated species in Corchorus with genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 0.49-0.98. (2) The accessions could be clustered into three groups at cultivated species, and their close wild species were obviously different from wild species genetically. (3) At the level of D = 0.850, 27 accessions of Jute could be classified into ten groups, including C. sestuans, C. tridens, C. fascicularis, C. psendo-olitorius, C. psendo-capsularis, C. tilacutaris, Tian Jute (untitled), C. capsularis, C. olitorius and C. uriticifolius. Among which C. capsularis presented closer relationship with C. olitorius and further relationship with C. uriticifolius. The results matched well with that of the morphologic classification. (4) According to the molecular cluster tree, C. uritifolius, Chinese Tina Jute (untitled) and C. aestuans were at the basic level, revealing that these three species could be the primary wild species of Jute. (5) The tree also showed that C. tilacularis 21C from Africa could be a ecological subspecies of C. tilacularis, whilst niannian cai, ma cai and zhu cai collected different ecological types of C. aestuans, C. capsularis from Hainan was a close wild species of round fruit Jute cultivated species, and three species of C. olitorius collected from zhangpu, Henan and Mali were close wild species of long fruit Jute cultivated species. (6) within two cultivated species, the

  7. Inbreeding, outbreeding and RAPD markers studies of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) crop

    PubMed Central

    Obiadalla-Ali, Hazem A.; Mohamed, Naheif E.M.; Khaled, Abdelsabour G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Five faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.) were selfed for two cycles to produce S1 and S2 generations. A half-diallel cross was carried out among them in each level of inbreeding (S0, S1 and S2) to obtain 10 F1 hybrids. Parental materials as well as their respective F1s were evaluated during the winter season of 2012. All studied traits except total dry seed yield showed significant inbreeding depression after the first generation of selfing (S1). No further decrease was noticed at the S2 generation. In the S1 generation the degree of inbreeding depression was highest for No. of branches/plant (−14.0%) and the least for weight of 100-seeds (−2.7). Some parents showed inbreeding vigor i.e. positive difference between S2 and S1 for some traits in S2 generation. Most studied traits showed significant positive heterosis values over mid-parent. The highest value of heterosis over the mid-parent was detected for total dry seed yield (128.8) and the lowest value of hybrid vigor was shown by weight of 100-seeds (1.2%). Specific combination among the 5 parental genotypes showed the highest value for heterosis for example cross Misr 2 × Giza 429 was the best cross for total dry seed yield, cross Giza 429 × Misr 1 for No. of branches/plant. Giza 429 is the best general combiner for most traits. Some crosses showed heterosis depression i.e. negative heterosis value in some traits. Hybridization among parental genotypes is recommended to be at the S1 or S2 generation. Twelve arbitrary primers produced different degrees of genetic polymorphism among the parental genotypes. A total of 65 amplification products were scored polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands detected ranged from 33% to 100% with an average of 66.47%. The average of amplified bands was 5.42 polymorphic bands per primer. A positive, but non-significant, correlation (r = 0.085) between Euclidean distance and RAPD distance was observed. PMID:26644923

  8. Assessment of DNA damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus embryos exposed to amniotic fluid from residents living close to waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Guida, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; De Felice, Bruna; Santafede, Daniela; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scognamiglio, Marianna; Ferrara, Cinzia; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites.

  9. A comparison of UP-PCR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity of Fusicladium effusum (G. Winter, cause of pecan scab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusicladium effusum is a plant pathogenic fungus that infects pecan causing yield loss. There is no information on the population genetics or genetic diversity of F. effusum, or the applicability of available molecular tools to study these aspects. The usefulness of RAPDs and Universally Primed (UP)...

  10. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Maurizio; Guida, Marco; De Felice, Bruna; Santafede, Daniela; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Scognamiglio, Marianna; Ferrara, Cinzia; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites. PMID:20706694

  11. Studies on the genetic variation of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) obtained from different geographical locations using ISSR and RAPD molecular marker.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Noroozi; Omar, Hishamuddin; Tan, Soon Guan; Napis, Suhaimi

    2011-03-22

    Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow) is a unicellular green alga, which is considered to be the best astaxanthin-producing organism. Molecular markers are suitable tools for the purpose of finding out genetic variations in organisms; however there have been no studies conducted on ISSR or RAPD molecular markers for this organism. The DNA of 10 different strains of H. pluvialis (four strains from Iran, two strains from Finland, one strain from Switzerland and three strains from the USA) was extracted. A genetic similarity study was carried out using 14 ISSR and 12 RAPD primers. Moreover, the molecular weights of the bands produced ranged from 0.14 to 3.4 Kb. The PCA and dendrogram clustered the H. pluvialis strains into various groups according to their geographical origin. The lowest genetic similarity was between the Iran2 and USA2 strains (0.08) and the highest genetic similarity was between Finland1 and Finland2 (0.64). The maximum numbers of bands produced by the ISSR and RAPD primers were 35 and 6 bands, respectively. The results showed that ISSR and RAPD markers are useful for genetic diversity studies of Haematococcus as they showed geographical discrimination.

  12. Identification of Bacillus Probiotics Isolated from Soil Rhizosphere Using 16S rRNA, recA, rpoB Gene Sequencing and RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Mohkam, Milad; Nezafat, Navid; Berenjian, Aydin; Mobasher, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    Some Bacillus species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus groups, have highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, which are hard to identify based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To conquer this drawback, rpoB, recA sequence analysis along with randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) fingerprinting was examined as an alternative method for differentiating Bacillus species. The 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA genes were amplified via a polymerase chain reaction using their specific primers. The resulted PCR amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was employed by MEGA 6 software. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing was underpinned by rpoB and recA gene sequencing as well as RAPD-PCR technique. Subsequently, concatenation and phylogenetic analysis showed that extent of diversity and similarity were better obtained by rpoB and recA primers, which are also reinforced by RAPD-PCR methods. However, in one case, these approaches failed to identify one isolate, which in combination with the phenotypical method offsets this issue. Overall, RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA along with concatenated genes sequence analysis discriminated closely related Bacillus species, which highlights the significance of the multigenic method in more precisely distinguishing Bacillus strains. This research emphasizes the benefit of RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA sequence analysis superior to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for suitable and effective identification of Bacillus species as recommended for probiotic products.

  13. Genetic population structure of the prosobranch snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) in Denmark using PCR-RAPD fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, R; Forbes, V E; Skovgaard, O

    1996-08-22

    Parthenogenetic species are often more widely distributed geographically than their sexual relatives. This success in colonizing can be explained either by dispersal of one or a few clones of wide physiological tolerance or by the distribution of many locally adapted clones. Here we test the hypothesis that successfully invading clones of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) are composed of a few broadly adapted genotypes by using polymerase chain reaction random amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) fingerprinting on six different populations of P. antipodarum from Denmark and three morphotypes of P. antipodarum from Britain. We detected two genotypes of P. antipodarum in six populations examined across Denmark using four decamer primers. The two genotypes were found to be morphologically and genetically indistinguishable from British P. antipodarum. In five of the six Danish populations only one genotype was found; at the remaining site, the two genotypes occurred sympatrically. The present study suggests that P. antipodarum successfully invaded Europe by the proliferation of very few clones.

  14. Analysis of evolutionary relationship between Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis by using RAPD Technique and cladistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Xin; Shi, Zhi-Xin; Gan, Xiao-Ni; Xie, Shu-Lian

    2001-03-01

    Although both Astasia longa and Euglena gracilis belong to different genera, they share many morphological characters except that A. longa has no chloroplast. In the 1940's, on the basis of the finding that in darkness or upon addition of some chemicals, E. gracilis would fade reversibly or irreversibly, some scholars hypothesised that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis by losing chloroplast. The author's use of RAPD and cladistic analyses in a study on the evolutionary relationship between A. longa and E. gracilis showed that the A. longa's relationship with E. gracilis was closer than that with other green euglenoids. This proves the hypothesis that A. longa evolved from E. gracilis is reasonable. The results of this study suggest that saprophytic colorless euglenoids were transformed from green euglenoids by losing their choroplasts.

  15. Genetic variability analysis of Giant river catfish (Sperata seenghala) populations from Indus river system by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Saini, A; Dua, A; Mohindra, V

    2010-08-01

    The Giant river catfish, Sperata seenghala (Sykes) is commercially very important fish species of South Asia. Genetic variability between its populations collected from two rivers i.e. river Sutlej and river Beas of Indus river system in India were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Total 38 fish samples were collected from river Sutlej whereas 46 fish samples were collected from river Beas. Total 40 primers were screened, out of these 7 were selected for studying polymorphism which produced a total of 64 RAPD loci in two populations. Percentage polymorphic loci calculated following 95% criterion was 89.06% for Beas population as compared to 95.31% for Sutlej population. Moderate level of genetic divergence (genetic distance of 0.0486) between both the populations suggests distinct population substructure of giant river catfish in both the rivers.

  16. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  17. A clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani with ITS1 sequence polymorphism as a cause of para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in an Ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, T; Amogne, W; Abebe, T; Kuhls, K; Hailu, A; Schönian, G

    2010-10-01

    The diagnosis of para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL/VL), either as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-associated syndrome or as a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in patients with or without highly active antiretroviral therapy, represents a challenge for prompt treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the causative Leishmania species and to clarify whether the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)-like lesions appeared as a result of IRIS or not. A 31-year-old Ethiopian male patient, with stage IV HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), was clinically diagnosed with PKDL/VL. He had developed a generalized maculopapular rash on his face after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The Leishmania isolate obtained from the skin lesions was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and partial coding sequences of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70). Restriction analysis of the ITS1 PCR product gave a unique RFLP pattern not seen before for any Leishmania isolate. Sequencing of both the ITS1 and hsp70 PCR products identified the causative species as Leishmania donovani, and further revealed the existence of five different sequence variants of the ITS1 among the 10 clones sequenced. The results indicate that PKDL/VL resulted from an infection by L. donovani. The sequence variants of ITS1 might be due to the presence of multiple strains/clones or the existence of intragenomic variations in the multicopy ITS1, or a combination of both.

  18. Efficiency of mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and RAPD-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham at the different geographic areas of ripening.

    PubMed

    Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Casado, Eva; Córdoba, Juan J

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to characterize yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham was evaluated. Besides, the distribution of the main species and biotypes of yeasts in the different ripening areas of this product was investigated. MtDNA restriction analysis allowed yeast characterization at species and strain level. RAPD-PCR with the primers (GACA)(4) and (GAC)(5) was inappropriate for characterization at species level. Most of the mtDNA restriction patterns detected in dry-cured Iberian ham were consistent with Debaryomyces hansenii. Several yeasts biotypes were associated to specific geographic areas of dry-cured Iberian ham ripening.

  19. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry.

  20. Analysis of the genetic polymorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides cerebriformis "Moore" by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 28S ribosomal DNA sequencing--Paracoccidioides cerebriformis revisited.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Levi, José Eduardo; Dantas, Kátia Cristina; Martins, José Eduardo Costa

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the genetic polymorphism of six samples of P. brasiliensis (113, 339, BAT, T1F1, T3B6, T5LN1), with four samples of P. cerebriformis (735, 741, 750, 361) from the Mycological Laboratory of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis (RAPD). RAPD profiles clearly segregated P. brasiliensis and P. cerebriformis isolates. However, the variation on band patterns among P. cerebriformis isolates was high. Sequencing of the 28S rDNA gene showed nucleotide conservancy among P. cerebriformis isolates, providing basis for taxonomical grouping, and disclosing high divergence to P. brasiliensis supporting that they are in fact two distinct species. Moreover, DNA sequence suggests that P. cerebriformis belongs in fact to the Aspergillus genus.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Two Populations of the Brittle Star Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) with Different Life History Strategies Using RAPD Markers.

    PubMed

    McCormack; Powell; Keegan

    2000-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to individuals of Amphiura filiformis sampled from two geographic locations that have previously been reported to have different life history strategies. Of thirty-one 10-mer RAPD primers screened initially, four were chosen and used in a comparative analysis of A. filiformis individuals collected from Galway Bay (Ireland) and Concarneau Bay (France). The results show much variation within A. filiformis populations. Although there are some rare alleles particular to each population, overall the populations were not genetically differentiated with the methods employed. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that a minimum of 93% of genotypic variance occurred among individuals within populations. The statistical significance of this pattern was supported by permutation tests. F(ST) values were not significantly different from and UPGMA cluster analyses based on three distance metrics did not separate the two populations.

  2. A report on extensive lateral genetic reciprocation between arsenic resistant Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains analyzed using RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Khowal, Sapna; Siddiqui, Md Zulquarnain; Ali, Shadab; Khan, Mohd Taha; Khan, Mather Ali; Naqvi, Samar Husain; Wajid, Saima

    2017-02-01

    The study involves isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from soil samples. The characterization of bacteria isolates was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic consanguinity among isolates was studied employing rpoB and gltX gene sequence. RAPD-PCR technique was used to analyze genetic similarity between arsenic resistant isolates. In accordance with the results Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains may exhibit extensive horizontal gene transfer. Arsenic resistant potency in Bacillus sonorensis and high arsenite tolerance in Bacillus pumilus strains was identified. The RAPD-PCR primer OPO-02 amplified a 0.5kb DNA band specific to B. pumilus 3ZZZ strain and 0.75kb DNA band specific to B. subtilis 3PP. These unique DNA bands may have potential use as SCAR (Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region) molecular markers for identification of arsenic resistant B. pumilus and B. subtilis strains.

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  4. The extent of clonality and genetic diversity in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) revealed by RAPDs and leaf-shape analysis.

    PubMed

    Persson, H A; Gustavsson, B A

    2001-06-01

    Numerous plant species reproduce mainly by clonal growth, implying that levels of genetic variation may be comparatively low. In this study we describe the genetic and genotypic diversity within and between four Swedish populations of the clonal shrub lingonberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Two approaches were used to assess the amount and partitioning of variation: automated image analysis of leaf shape and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Morphometric analyses, using moment invariants and elliptic Fourier coefficients, revealed that most of the variation could be attributed to within-population variation. With the use of 43 polymorphic RAPD markers, we were able to identify 29 different genotypes (i.e. putative clones) among 129 plants from two populations. The genotypic diversity (D: mean 0.84) and evenness (E: mean 0.81) were higher than the average for clonal plant species. Within-population gene diversity was similar to values reported in nonclonal plants, suggesting that sexual reproduction has played a significant role in these populations despite low levels of seedling recruitment in present-day populations. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (89.2%) resided within populations. Comparisons between the different suites of characters indicated a congruent pattern of partitions of diversity, particularly when comparing moment invariants and RAPDs. When comparing the ability of the two descriptor suites to assign the plants to the RAPD-defined clones, elliptic Fourier coefficients yielded the best result; a classification test correctly reassigned 96.9% and 98.1% of the plant material in the two respective populations.

  5. Differentiation of yeasts growing on dry-cured Iberian ham by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR and their volatile compounds production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, M J; Rodríguez, M; Casado, E M; Bermúdez, E; Córdoba, J J

    2009-09-01

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR and volatile compounds analysis to differentiate yeast biotypes involved in flavour development of dry-cured Iberian ham throughout the ripening process is evaluated. For this purpose, 86 yeasts isolated from Iberian hams in the main ripening stages at different industries of the four Protected Designations of Origin of this product, were used. The combination of mtDNA restriction analysis and RAPD-PCR using the primer (GACA)4 showed a higher variability in the yeast species detected than obtained using only mtDNA restriction analysis. Only two species, Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides, were identified throughout the whole ripening process and a wide diversity of biotypes was found in these two species, with those of D. hansenii predominating. Clear differences between biotypes were detected in the generation of volatile compounds, with the biotype C2-2 of D. hansenii showing the highest concentrations of volatiles. The combined use of mtDNA restriction analysis and RAPD-PCR distinguishes yeast biotypes with different production of volatile compounds. In addition, analysis of the production profile of volatile compounds is needed to differentiate yeast strains of the same biotype recovered at different stages of ripening. Thus, the combination of these three methods could be very useful to select or monitor yeasts as starter cultures in dry-cured meat products.

  6. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry.

  7. Trypanosoma rangeli: RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR analyses of isolates from southeast Brazil and Colombia and their relation with KPI minicircles.

    PubMed

    Marquez, D S; Ramírez, L E; Moreno, J; Pedrosa, A L; Lages-Silva, E

    2007-09-01

    This study presents the first genetic characterization of five Trypanosoma rangeli isolates from Minas Gerais, in the southeast of Brazil and their comparison with Colombian populations by minicircle classification, RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR analyses. Our results demonstrated a homogenous T. rangeli population circulating among Didelphis albiventris as reservoir host in Brazil while heterogeneous populations were found in different regions of Colombia. KP1(+) minicircles were found in 100% isolates from Brazil and in 36.4% of the Colombian samples, whereas the KP2 and KP3 minicircles were detected in both groups. RAPD-PCR and LSSP-PCR profiles revealed a polymorphism within KP1(+) and KP1(-) T. rangeli populations and allowed the division of T. rangeli in two branches. The Brazilian KP1(+) isolates were more homogenous than the KP1(+) isolates from Colombia. The RAPD-PCR were entirely consistent with the distribution of KP1 minicircles while those obtained by LSSP-PCR were associated in 88.9% and 71.4% with KP1(+) and KP1(-) populations, respectively.

  8. Conservation and multiplication of encapsulated micro shoots of Rauvolfia vomitoria--an endangered medicinal tree: ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic fidelity of converted plantlets.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Rahman, Liaq Ur; Mishra, Jahnvi; Kukreja, Arun K

    2012-12-01

    The in vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Rauvolfia vomitoria were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 +/- 2 degrees C the regrowth of encapsulated micro shoots, reached 95.2% within 40 days of incubation on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA. Among the responding encapsulated explants 69.6% showed emergence of multiple shoots. The developing shoots showed rhizogenesis in two weeks following their transfer to rooting medium. Healthy plants were established in a glass house with 95% survival. Of the 50 RAPD primers tested, 10 produced 23 clear and reproducible amplicons, with an average of 2.3 bands per primer. Eleven ISSR primers produced a total of 42 bands, with a size range of 0.1-1.9 kb. The number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 2 to 6, with an average of 3.81. The similarity matrix, calculated individually from the results obtained from ISSR and RAPD analysis, showed similarity coefficients ranging from 1.0 for RAPD and 0.85 to 1.0 for ISSR.

  9. Molecular characterization of the pathogenic plant fungus Rhizoctonia solani (Ceratobasidiaceae) isolated from Egypt based on protein and PCR-RAPD profiles.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, M A; Al-Sohaibani, S A; Abdelbacki, A M M; Al-Othman, M R; Abd El-Aziz, A R M; Kasem, K K; Mikhail, M S; Sabet, K K; Omar, M R; Hussein, E M

    2012-10-04

    Twenty-one isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were categorized into three anastomosis groups consisting of AG-4-HG-I (eight isolates), AG-2-2 (nine isolates) and AG-5 (four isolates). Their pathogenic capacities were tested on cotton cultivar Giza 86. Pre-emergence damping-off varied in response to the different isolates; however, the differences were not significant. Soluble proteins of the fungal isolates were electrophoresed using SDS-PAGE and gel electrophoreses. A dendrogram of the protein banding patterns by the UPGMA of arithmetic means placed the fungal isolates into distinct groups. There was no evidence of a relationship between protein dendrogram, anastomosis grouping or level of virulence or geographic origin. The dendrogram generated from these isolates based on PCR analysis with five RAPD-PCR primers showed high levels of genetic similarity among the isolates from the same geographical locations. There was partially relationship between the genetic similarity and AGs or level of virulence or geographic origin based on RAPD dendrogram. These results demonstrate that RAPD technique is a useful tool in determining the genetic characterization among isolates of R. solani.

  10. Standardization and validation of simple PCR, duplex PCR and RAPD in comparison to blood smear examination for diagnosing bovine tropical theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit; Singh, Amit; Pandey, Vijay

    2017-03-01

    Bovine Tropical Theileriosis (BTT) is an important vector-borne protozoan disease that imposing serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle. It is matter of common fact that following recovery from primary infection, cattle become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby, playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes the comparative diagnostic efficiency of simplex PCR, duplex PCR and RAPD assays for detection of Theileria annulata in cattle. An optimized simple PCR and duplex PCR assay were established using TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for 721 bp amplicon alongside a RAPD with arbitrary primer coding for 963 bp product of T. annulata. The simple PCR and duplex PCR detected pathogen with almost same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen without nonspecific amplifications. RAPD failed to give comparable results and suffered from limitations of sensitivity as well as specificity. The developed assays may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of chronic infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions.

  11. Development and significance of SCAR marker QG12-5 for Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch by molecular cloning from improved RAPD amplification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Yin, Z C; Mei, Z Q; Wei, C L; Chen, H C; Wu, X S; Fu, J J

    2016-08-26

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) is a valuable molecular marker for the genetic identification of any species. This marker is mainly derived from molecular cloning of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We have previously reported the use of an improved RAPD technique for the genetic characterization of different samples of Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch (C. album). In this study, DNA fragments were amplified using improved RAPD amplified from different samples of C. album. The amplified DNA fragment was excised, purified from an agarose gel and cloned into a pGM-T vector; subsequently, a positive clone, called QG12-5 was identified by PCR amplification and enzymatic digestion and sequenced by Sanger di-deoxy sequencing method. This clone was revealed consisting of 510 nucleotides of C. album. The SCAR marker QG12-5 was developed using specifically designed PCR primers and optimized PCR conditions. This SCAR marker expressed seven continuous "TATG" [(TATG)n] tandem repeats, which was found to characterize C. album. Subsequently, this novel SCAR marker was deposited in GenBank with accession No. KT359568. Therefore, we successfully developed a C. album-specific SCAR marker for the identification and authentication of different C. album species in this study.

  12. Development of two novel specific SCAR markers by cloning improved RAPD fragments from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (Leysser: Fr) Karst.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Cheng, J L; Mei, Z Q; Wei, C L; Fu, J J

    2016-08-19

    Development of sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers from random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments is a valuable molecular approach for the genetic identification of different species. By using SCAR markers, molecular analysis is reduced to a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using primers designed from the amplicon sequence of RAPD. In this study, the DNA fragments from an improved RAPD amplification of Ganoderma species were cloned into a pGM-T vector; positive clones were identified by PCR amplification and enzymatic digestion, and finally, DNA fragments were sequenced using the Sanger sequencing method for developing the SCAR markers. Two SCAR markers, named LZ4-1 with 534 nucleotides, and LZ5-2 with 337 nucleotides were identified, which are specific to Ganoderma lucidium (Leysser: Fr) Karst species. BLAST of these two nucleotide sequences in the GenBank database showed no identity to other species. We deposited these sequences into the GenBank database (LZ4-1 accession No. KM391933, LZ5-2 accession No. KM391934). PCR assays confirmed them as novel molecular markers for G. lucidium (Leysser: Fr) Karst, which might be used for genetic authentication of adulterant samples. Thus, our study developed two specific SCAR markers for identifying and distinguishing the medicinal mushroom G. lucidium (Leysser: Fr) Karst from other Ganoderma species.

  13. [The experience of implementation of REP-u RAPD-polymerase chain reaction in epidemiologic characteristic of nosocomial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, M V; Maksimova, A V; Karpunina, T I

    2015-03-01

    The article presents comparative evaluation of diagnostic value of technique REP- u RAPD-polymerase chain reaction applied under genetic typing of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. The strains are isolated in different hospital departments of medical institutions in adult (8 medical institutions; n = 145) and children (5 medical institutions; n = 151) medical networks. The results of study demonstrated different boundary capacity of three reactions. The Simpson discrimination index made up to 0.993, 0.875 and 0.639 for RAPD-, ERIC- and BOX-polymerase chain reaction correspondingly. The RAPD-polymerase chain reaction makes it possible to detect individual characteristics of strains. Out of two alternatives the REP-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated its advantage, besides only with one primer ERIC2. The BOX-polymerase chain reaction has a least discriminating capacity under typing of isolates P. aeruginosa, detecting only species' characteristics. The clinical strains P. aeruginosa are distributed on 24 genome groups and 52 isolates had individual genotypes. The evaluation of results of genetic typing permitted to point out both similarity of tendencies in propagation of strains of P. aeruginosa among hospitalized adults and adolescents and specificity of detection in neonatal clinics. It is obvious that hospitals of different profiles, including departments of reanimation and intensive therapy represent specific ecological environment significantly different in its level of endogenous and exogenous infection.

  14. Development of a novel and efficient strategy for practical identification of Pyrus spp (Rosaceae) cultivars using RAPD fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Wang, X C; Chang, Y H; Fang, J G

    2011-05-24

    Accurate and reliable cultivar identification of crop species is essential to guarantee plant material identity for purposes of registration, cultivar protection and production. To facilitate identification of plant cultivars, we developed a novel strategy for efficient recording of DNA molecular fingerprints in genotyped plant individuals. These fingerprints can be used as efficient referential information for quick plant identification. We made a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker analysis of 68 pear cultivars. All pear genotypes could be distinguished by a combination of eight 11-mer primers. The efficiency of the method was further verified by correct identification of four cultivars randomly chosen from the initial 68. The advantages of this identification include use of fewer primers and ease of cultivar separation by the corresponding primers marked on the cultivar identification diagram. The cultivar identification diagram can efficiently serve for pear cultivar identification by readily providing the information needed to separate cultivars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient strategy for identification of plant varieties using DNA markers; it could be employed for the development of the pear industry and for the utilization of DNA markers to identify other plant species.

  15. Molecular Markers for Identification of Stellantchasmus falcatus and a Phylogenic Study using the HAT-RAPD Method

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawad, Pheravut

    2010-01-01

    Stellantchasmus falcatus is a minute intestinal fluke in the family Heterophyidae. Metacercariae, the infective stage, were reported in a marine fish, mullet Liza subviridis, and a fresh water fish, Dermogenus pusillus, in Thailand. Adults were found in chicks, rats, cats, and humans. Morphological studies were done for comparing Stellantchasmus sp. worms found in 2 different fish hosts; their shapes and organ arrangements were very similar except for the prepharynx length. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare their DNA fingerprints using the HAT-RAPD method for both types of Stellantchasmus and several other related species. Ten arbitrarily selected primers (OPA-04, OPA-09, OPN-02, OPN-03, OPN-09, OPN-12, OPP-11, OPR-15, OPX-13, and OPAD-01) were used. It was found that OPA-09, OPN-03, and OPAD-01 were able to generate S. falcatus specific fragments in mullets which consisted of 200, 760, and 280 bp, respectively. In addition, the results of morphologic, DNA fingerprinting, and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the fresh water and marine specimens of Stellantchamus may be different species. PMID:21234232

  16. Genetic-relatedness of peri-implants and buccal Candida albicans isolates determined by RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Adriana M; Rosa, Alcira C; Nastri, Natalia; Santillán, Hector D; Ariza, Yamila; Iovannitti, Cristina A; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia M

    2016-12-01

    Molecular techniques have been used in recent studies to identify a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens in periimplant pockets of the oral cavity. However, the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of yeasts and species distribution related to periimplantitis are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of yeasts in periimplant biofilm and to study genetic relatedness of Candida albicans. Yeasts recovered from periimplant biofilm samples (n=89) and buccal samples (n=120) were studied in 40 immunocompetent nonsmoking patients who visited the dental clinic of the Asociación Implantodontológica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and had received oral rehabilitation with implants for more than five years. Yeasts recovered from samples were studied by typing assays using RAPDPCR. The prevalence of yeasts in the periimplant sulcus was 73% (n=29). C. albicans was the most prevalent species identified in this study population. The RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes in most C. albicans spp. from the two different sampling sites: buccal and periimplant. These findings suggest that periimplant biofilm is an ecological niche that favors the growth of yeast species. Most C. albicans found in periimplant biofilm originate from the endogenous infection caused by commensal strains.

  17. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae): Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; Yorkson, Mitsuko; Morden, Clifford W.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis), endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis) is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested. PMID:27537876

  18. Induced of plastid mutations in soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merrill) with gamma radiation and determination with RAPD.

    PubMed

    Atak, Cimen; Alikamanoğlu, Sema; Açik, Leyla; Canbolat, Yasemin

    2004-11-22

    The aim of our study was to induce with radiation of atrazine resistant and tolerated mutants in Coles, Amsoy-71 and 1937 soybean varieties. Atrazine that is photosynthetic inhibitor is the most important herbicide of S-triazin group, and shows toxic effect on soybean plant. For the improvement of the atrazine resistant plants with mutation breeding, the seeds belonging to the three varieties were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma radiation dose. The irradiated seeds were sown in the field and at the end of harvesting season, every pod at node situated on the main stem was picked up separately and M2 generations were obtained. At the plants, which were obtained from M2 generation, chlorophyll mutants were determined and atrazine selection was made. The percentage of chlorophyll mutants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were found as 1.07, 1.48 and 1.32, respectively. At the end of atrazine selection, the percentages of atrazine resistant plants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were 0.80, 0.60 and 0.53, respectively. The percentages of atrazine tolerated plants were 1.07, 1.18 and 1.05, respectively as well. In our research; the differences among the mutants replying to atrazine in various concentrations were examined by using RAPD procedure as the molecular marker techniques in comparison with polymorphism. In the study done by using 14 primers; according to the amplification results, the differences between atrazine resistant plants were shown.

  19. Allozyme and RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity and geographic variation in wild populations of the American chestnut (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Dane, F; Kubisiak, T

    1998-07-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity was relatively low for the population collected in the Black Rock Mountain State Park, Georgia (He = 0.096 +/- 0.035), and high for the population in east central Alabama (He = 0.196 +/- 0.048). Partitioning of the genetic diversity based on 18 isozyme loci showed that ~10% of the allozyme diversity resided among populations. Cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method using arithmetric averages of Rogers' genetic distance and principal components analysis based on allele frequencies of both isozyme and RAPD loci revealed four groups: the southernmost population, south-central Appalachian populations, north-central Appalachian populations, and northern Appalachian populations. Based on results presented in this study, a conservation strategy and several recommendations related to the backcross breeding aimed at restoring C. dentata are discussed.

  20. Effect of in vitro culture conditions on somaclonal variation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Rajesh, S; Gnanam, R; Manickam, A

    2011-03-01

    We report a high frequency regeneration protocol in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. var. C 152) via somatic embryogenesis from 10-d-old primary leaf explants. A study was conducted to examine the effect of somaclonal variations in in vitro derived cowpea plants under field conditions. The regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to field after hardening in vitro and grown for collecting R0, R1 and R2 seeds. The seeds of R1 and R2 generations were subsequently, grown under field conditions and their various biometrical traits were compared and evaluated with non-tissue cultured cowpea plants as check. There was no detectable somaclonal variation induced in R0-R2 in any of the biometrical traits. The results indicate that the inclusion of different plant growth promoters at specified concentrations and duration in our earlier tissue culture work did not induce any detectable mutation. The RAPD analysis also shows that there is no genetic variation among R2 cowpea plants. The somatic embryogenesis protocol we report could thus be safely applied for high frequency true-to-type regeneration and transformations protocols without any somaclonal variation.

  1. Population structure of the banana weevil, an introduced pest in the Canary Islands, studied by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Magaña, C; Beroiz, B; Hernández-Crespo, P; Montes de Oca, M; Carnero, A; Ortego, F; Castañera, P

    2007-12-01

    The banana weevil (BW), Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important insect pests of bananas and plantains. The mobility and the origin of BW infestations at the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma) have been analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as molecular markers. Populations from Costa Rica, Colombia, Uganda and Madeira were also included for comparison. One hundred and fifteen reproducible bands from eight primers were obtained. The level of polymorphism in the populations from the Canary Islands (40-62%) was in the range of those found in other populations. Nei's genetic distances, pair-wise fixation index (FST) values indicate that the closest populations are Tenerife populations among themselves (Nei's genetic distance=0.054-0.100; FST=0.091-0.157) and Costa Rica and Colombia populations (Nei's genetic distance=0.049; FST=0.113). Our results indicate the existence of BW local biotypes with limited gene flow and affected by genetic drift. These results are compatible with a unique event of colonization at Tenerife; whereas, the outbreaks in La Gomera and La Palma may come from independent introductions. The Madeira population is phylogenetically and geographically closer to the Canary Islands populations, suggesting that it is the most likely source of the insects introduced in the Canary Islands.

  2. Conflicting results obtained by RAPD-PCR and large-subunit rDNA sequences in determining and comparing yeast strains isolated from flowers: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Michael; Fischer, Reinhard; Titze, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    Sixty-six yeast strains isolated from the nectar of various plant species in Central Europe were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) and by sequencing of the variable D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (26S) rDNA. The usefulness of both methods for the determination and comparison of unknown ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeast strains was compared and evaluated. The reproducibility of RAPD-PCR was shown to be low and the information obtained by this method was clearly not as precise as that obtained from sequence analysis. Numerous imponderables make RAPD-PCR analysis unreliable, at least as a means of identifying yeasts in ecological studies. The lack of standard protocols for RAPD-PCR analysis and the absence of a general database of banding patterns made it impossible to identify unknown yeast strains or to recognize new species. In contrast to RAPD-PCR, sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain was found to be a fast and reliable method for the rapid identification of yeast species and was also shown to be an invaluable tool for the discovery of new species.

  3. Identification of novel random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) on the W chromosome of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the wild silkworm, B. mandarina, and their retrotransposable element-related nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Abe, H; Kanehara, M; Terada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Suzuki, M; Sugasaki, T; Oshiki, T

    1998-08-01

    Genomic DNAs were compared between males and females of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, strains C108, C137, J137, p50, and WILD-W (constructed by crossing a wild silkworm, B. mandarina, female with a male of strain C108) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 700 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Four female-specific RAPDs (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai, W-Kamikaze, and W-Yamato) were found. The sex chromosome formulas of B. mori and B. mandarina are ZW (XY) for the female and ZZ (XX) for the male. The four female-specific RAPDs are assumed to be derived from the W chromosome because the other chromosomes are shared by both sexes. A computer search for deduced amino acid sequences of these four RAPDs revealed that all of them showed homology to previously reported amino acid sequences encoded in known retrotransposable elements from various organisms.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance, RAPD- PCR Typing of Multiple Drug Resistant Strains of Escherichia Coli From Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    PubMed Central

    Marialouis, Xavier Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. Aim The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. Materials and Methods In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Results Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Conclusion Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin. PMID:27134870

  5. Genetic Analysis of Aedes aegypti Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers from Dengue Outbreaks in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Nasir, Shabab; Majeed, Humara Naz; Zahoor, Sarwat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Keeping in view the havoc situation of dengue fever in Pakistan, the current study was designed to demonstrate the genetic variations, gene flow and rate of migration from Lahore and Faisalabad. Methods: The larvae were collected from both natural and artificial breeding places from each collection site. The adult mosquitoes were collected by means of sweep net and battery-operated aspirator. DNA extraction was performed using TNE buffer method. Ten GeneLink-A series RAPD primers were used for PCR amplification and the data was analyzed through POPGENE. Results: The number of amplification products produced per primer varied from 8–12, ranging from 200 to 2000 bp with an average of 10.0 bands per primer. The percentage of polymorphic loci amplified by each primer varied from 22.5 to 51%. The UPGMA dendrogram demonstrates two distinct groups from Faisalabad and Lahore populations. The genetic diversity ranged from 0.260 in Faisalabad to 0.294 in Lahore with a total heterozygosity of 0.379. The GST value for nine populations within Lahore was 0.131 (Nm= 3.317), whereas for nine populations in Faisalabad GST value was 0.117 (Nm= 3.773). The overall genetic variation among eighteen populations showed GST= 0.341 and Nm= 1.966. Conclusion: The genetic relatedness and Nm value show that Ae. aegypti populations exhibit intra-population gene flow both in Faisalabad and Lahore. Although, both cities show a distinct pattern of genetic structure; however, few areas from both the cities show genetic similarity. The gene flow and the genetic relatedness in few populations of Lahore and Faisalabad cities need further investigation. PMID:28032107

  6. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  7. The population genetic structure of Littorina littorea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along a pollution gradient in the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands) using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Hans; Blust, Ronny; Backeljau, Thierry

    2004-06-05

    The population genetic structure of the periwinkle Littorina littorea was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Three primers, coding for six putative polymorphic loci were surveyed to infer the genetic structure of seven populations located along the heavily polluted Western (i.e. in order of decreasing pollution load W1, W2, W3 and R1) and the relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (E1, E2 and E3) estuary (The Netherlands). A genetic distance based UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) dendrogram revealed an estuary-related structuring, as Eastern and Western Scheldt sites formed two separate clusters. The Western Scheldt cluster was, however, much more heterogeneous, with three RAPD loci revealing a significant genetic heterogeneity compared to none when the Eastern Scheldt sites were compared. Overall mean heterozygosity levels were high, but did not reveal a difference between the estuaries. The current data (1) confirm the patterns of variation previously observed with electrophoretic analyses of esterases and (2) strongly support that these patterns of variation have a genetic basis, in the presence of intense gene flow. In addition, it is suggested that selection, rather than bottleneck effects, induced by the less favourable living conditions at W1, W2 and W3 are responsible for the genetic patterning.

  8. Evaluation of genetic variability in micropropagated propagules of ornamental pineapple [Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Lindley) Coppens and Leal] using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, M D M; Buso, G C S; Torres, A C

    2008-10-21

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic variability in micropropagated plantlets of ornamental pineapple, after the fourth period of subculture. The basal culture medium consisted of MS salts, vitamins, 3% sucrose, liquid formulation, supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L. The addition of BAP influenced the occurrence of genetic variation revealed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Of a total of 520 primers tested, 44 were selected and amplified; 402 monomorphic bands (97.2%) and 18 polymorphic bands (2.8%) resulted among regenerated plantlets. The polymorphic fragments were produced by 12 primers (OPA-01, OPA-20, OPB-01, OPB-19, OPC-19, OPF-13, OPL-17, OPM-13, OPP-16, OPT-07, OPV-19, and OPX-03). Among the primers that identified polymorphism, OPA-01, OPA-20, OPB-19, OPC-19, OPL-17, OPP-16, and OPX-3 each showed, one polymorphic band and OPF-13 amplified a maximum of three bands. In this study, the RAPD technique was effective in showing the occurrence of somaclonal variations that occur during the micropropagation process of ornamental pineapple cultivation in BAP-supplemented medium, and it is possible to detect the presence of genetic variation in early stages of plant development.

  9. A genetic map of cucumber composed of RAPDs, RFLPs, AFLPs, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.

    PubMed

    Park, Y H; Sensoy, S; Wye, C; Antonise, R; Peleman, J; Havey, M J

    2000-12-01

    The watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. Resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. To select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to PRSV-W and ZYMV resistances in cucumber. We generated F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between Cucumis sativus L. 'Straight 8' and a line from 'Taichung Mou Gua', TMG1 (susceptible and resistant, respectively, to both viruses), and studied the segregations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV. A 353-point map of cucumber was generated, delineating 12 linkage groups at LOD 3.5. Linkage arrangements among RFLPs were consistent with previously published maps; however linkages among RAPDs in our map did not agree with a previously published map. Resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV were tightly linked (2.2 cM) and mapped to the end of one linkage group. One AFLP cosegregated with resistance to ZYMV.

  10. Utility of RAPD marker for genetic diversity analysis in gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS)-treated Jatropha curcas plants.

    PubMed

    Dhakshanamoorthy, Dharman; Selvaraj, Radhakrishnan; Chidambaram, Alagappan

    2015-02-01

    The presence of important chemical and physical properties in Jatropha curcas makes it a valuable raw material for numerous industrial applications, including the production of biofuel. Hence, the researcher's interest is diversified to develop more and better varieties with outstanding agronomic characteristics using conventional breeding. Among these, mutation breeding is one of the best approaches to bring genetic changes in plant species. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationship among J. curcas mutants, which were obtained from different doses of gamma rays (control, 5 Kr, 10 Kr, 15 Kr, 20 Kr and 25 Kr) and EMS (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%), using RAPD marker. Among the 21 random primers, 20 produced polymorphic bands. The primers, OPM-14 and OPAW-13, produced a minimum number of bands (3) each across the ten mutants, while the primer OPF-13 produced the maximum number of bands (10), followed by the primers OPU-13, OPAM-06, OPAW-09 and OPD-05, which produced 9 bands each. The number of amplicons varied from 3 to 10, with an average of 7 bands, out of which 4.57 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0.00 to 100 with an average of 57%. In the present study, RAPD markers were found most polymorphic, with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.347, effective multiplex ratio (EMR) of 35.14, marker index (MI) of 14.19, resolution power (Rp) of 11.19, effective marker index (EMI) of 8.21 and genotype index (GI) of 0.36, indicating that random primers are useful in studies of genetic characterization in J. curcas mutant plants. In a dendrogram constructed based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients, the mutants were grouped into three main clusters viz., (a) control, 10 Kr, 15 Kr, 20 Kr, 2% EMS, and 3% EMS, (b) 5 Kr and 1% EMS, and (c) 25 Kr and 4% EMS mutants. Based on the attributes of the random primers and polymorphism studied, it is concluded that RAPD analysis offers a useful molecular marker

  11. Development of SCAR Markers Based on Improved RAPD Amplification Fragments and Molecular Cloning for Authentication of Herbal Medicines Angelica sinensis, Angelica acutiloba and Levisticum officinale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Mei, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jingliang; He, Yin; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Luo, Peiyi; Imani, Saber; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-10-01

    Molecular cloning from DNA fragments of improved RAPD amplification of Angelica sinensis, Angelica acutiloba and Levisticum officinale, provided novel sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers A13, A23, A1-34 and A1-0 whose sequences were deposited in the GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641315, KP641316, KP641317 and KP641318, respectively. By optional PCR amplification, the SCAR markers A13 and A23 are Levisticum officinale-specific, whereas the SCAR marker A1-34 is Angelica acutiloba-specific, and the SCAR marker A1-0 is Angelica sinensis-specific. These diagnostic SCAR markers may be useful for genetic authentications, for ecological conservation of all three medicinal plants and as a helpful tool for the genetic authentication of adulterant samples.

  12. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from tissues of mature oak trees: true-to-type conformity of plantlets by RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Valladares, S; Sánchez, C; Martínez, M T; Ballester, A; Vieitez, A M

    2006-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis was induced in expanding leaf explants excised from epicormic shoots forced from branch segments taken at four different times of year from a mature oak (Quercus robur L.). Branch segments 2-4 cm in diameter produced most shoots when collected in March. Somatic embryos were induced on explants derived from branches of all collection dates, although collection in November seemed to afford the best results. Germination and conversion ability of embryos of embryogenic lines derived from six oak trees depended heavily on genotype, conversion rates ranging from 0 to 70%. RAPD analyses found no evidence of genetic variation either within or between the embryogenic lines established from three of these trees, or between these lines and the trees of origin, or between somatic embryo derived plantlets and the trees of origin. The embryogenic system used in this study appears to be suitable for true-to-type clonal propagation of mature oak genotypes.

  13. Assessment of air pollution genotoxicity by RAPD in Evernia prunastri L. Ach. from around iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Atakol, Orhan; Aras, Sümer

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are widely used in biomonitoring studies of air pollution, either as bioindicators of air quality or as bioaccumulators of atmospheric deposition. Over the past decade, several molecular techniques have been developed to provide information on diversity, genotoxicology, genetic relationships, etc. The heavy metal contents of Evernia prunastri samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) method was used to describe the pattern of DNA band variation in the samples influenced by the environmental pollution. The study was designed to describe the level of pollution in an area contaminated with smoke and waste from an iron-steel factory, and to reveal the level of potential genotoxic agents around this source of pollution. The study also examined the suitability of the lichen samples for the detection of genotoxicity.

  14. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L; Pandey, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations.

  15. In vitro assessment of DNA damage after short- and long-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene using RAPD and the RTG-2 fish cell line.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Becerril, Concepción

    2004-08-18

    Genotoxins present in the aquatic environment are often associated with the decline or disappearance of many wild populations. The hazard assessment of chemicals requires sensitive and specific tests to study the genotoxic effects in order to establish the maximum allowable chemical concentrations prior to the release to the environment. We have previously shown that an established fish cell line (RTG-2) together with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, can be used to detect alterations in the DNA caused by direct acting genotoxins. The current study takes this a step further and examines in the same system the effect of a pro-mutagen benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/ml) and at different exposure periods (1, 2, 3, 15, and 30 days). After comparing DNA fingerprints from control and exposed cells, both qualitative and quantitative analysis show an increase in the instability in the DNA fingerprint of exposed cells over a time- and concentration-dependent manner. At the higher concentration (0.5 microg/ml) three out the four primers showed altered bands after 1 day of exposure, while after 3 days all used primers showed an altered pattern. At the lower concentration of B(a)P (0.05 microg/ml) the appearance of new bands was observed with a 100% level of reproducibility after 30 days of exposure suggesting an inheritance of the altered DNA. We conclude that this in vitro system is useful to evaluate genotoxic effects, both after acute and chronic exposures and of direct and non-direct acting genotoxins. Cultured cells can be considered as genetically homogenous populations. Therefore, in vitro systems permits us to undertake mechanistic studies avoiding the interference of polymorphisms inherent in the in vivo systems. Furthermore, the RTG-2 fish cell line combined with a RAPD assay could be used in studies of hazard identification in risk assessment protocols of chemicals.

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Sodium Stibogluconate Monotherapy to Sodium Stibogluconate and Paromomycin Combination for the Treatment of Severe Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in South Sudan – A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abongomera, Charles; Gatluak, Francis; Buyze, Jozefine; Ritmeijer, Koert

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common dermatological complication following successful treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. PKDL presents as macular, papular, nodular or mixed skin rash on sun-exposed body parts. Patients are not ill unless there are complications due to mucosal involvement or ulceration. As PKDL in East Africa is typically self-healing, and treatment is long and with significant adverse events, only severe and complicated cases are treated. Studies to determine optimal treatment of PKDL are rare and based on small cohorts. Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières is treating severe PKDL within VL treatment programmes in South Sudan. Treatment was initially with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) monotherapy and since 2002 with a combination of SSG and paromomycin (PM). SSG monotherapy (20 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 30 days) was provided in primary health units, and the combination of PM (15 mg sulphate/kg/day for 17 days) plus SSG (30 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 17 days) was provided in secondary health facilities. Methodology/Principal Findings By retrospective analysis of routinely collected programme data we compared the effectiveness (outcome and treatment duration) of both regimens. Between 2002 and 2008, 422 patients with severe PKDL were treated; 343 received SSG and 79 SSG/PM combination. The cure rate was significantly better with combination treatment when compared to monotherapy (97% vs. 90%; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; p = 0.02), treatment duration was shorter (mean 34 days vs. 42 days; p = 0.005), and defaulter rate was lower (3% vs. 9%; OR, 0.3; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in death rate (0% vs. 1%; p = 0.5). Conclusions/Significance We found that SSG/PM combination therapy resulted in more favourable outcomes than SSG monotherapy. An additional advantage is the lower cost of the combination therapy, due to the shorter treatment duration. A combination of SSG and PM is

  17. RAPD analysis and sequencing of ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 and Fe-hydrogenase as tools for genetic classification of potentially pathogenic isolates of Trichomonas gallinae.

    PubMed

    Sansano-Maestre, José; Martínez-Herrero, María Del Carmen; Garijo-Toledo, María Magdalena; Gómez-Muñoz, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a worldwide parasite that causes oropharyngeal avian trichomonosis. During eight years, 60 axenic isolates were obtained from different bird species and characterized by three molecular methods: RAPD analysis and PCR-sequencing of ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 fragment and Fe-hydrogenase gene. We have found two genotypes of ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 widely distributed among bird populations, a new variant and also two sequences with mixed pattern. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was associated with the presence of gross lesions in birds. We have found eight genotypes of the Fe-hydrogenase (A1, A2, C2, C2.1, C4, C5, C6 and C7), three of them are new reports (C5, C6 and C7), and also three sequences with mixed pattern. Subtype A1 of the Fe-hydrogenase was also related with the presence of lesions. RAPD analyses included most of the strains isolated from animals with lesions in one of the sub-clusters. Potentially pathogenic isolates of T. gallinae obtained in this study fulfill the following criteria with one exception: isolated from lesions+ITS-OBT-Tg-1 genotype+FeHyd A1+RAPD sub-cluster I2.

  18. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  19. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Introduction In the tradition of post-9/11 senior Arab militant figures operating in Khurasan (the Afghanistan-Pakistan region), there is little doubt as to...the standing of Libyan jihadi commander Abu al-Layth al-Libi. If Usama bin Ladin and Ayman al-Zawahiri came to be the most prominent Arab -Afghan...Libi, a longtime leader of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), who rapidly established himself as the champion of the Arab -Afghan milieu after

  20. Shoot organogenesis from root-derived callus of Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz. and assessment of clonal fidelity of micropropagted plants using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheruvathur, Meena K; Thomas, T Dennis

    2014-02-01

    An efficient regeneration system was established for an ethnomedicinal shrub Rhinacanthus nasutus from root-derived callus organogenesis. The root segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of Kn (1.0-4.0 μM) alone or in combination with IBA (0.2-0.6 μM) or 2, 4-D (0.5-1.5 μM). The optimum frequency (94%) of callus induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 μM Kn and 0.4 μM IBA. For shoot regeneration from callus, MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (1.0-7.0 μM) of BA or TDZ alone or in combination with NAA (0.2-1.0 μm) was employed. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (91%) and mean number of shoots (28.3) were observed on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 μM BA and 0.7 μM NAA. The shoots were excised and cultured on MS medium with 4.0 μM IBA produced 3.4 roots per shoot in 88% cultures. Of the 65 plants transferred to soil 54 survived (83%). The plants were transferred to field after successful hardening. RAPD analysis of the regenerated plants showed high similarity with the mother plant.

  1. Patterns of genetic variation detected by RAPDs suggest a single origin with subsequent mutations and long-distance dispersal in the apomictic fern Dryopteris remota (Dryopteridaceae).

    PubMed

    Schneller, J; Holderegger, R; Gugerli, F; Eichenberger, K; Lutz, E

    1998-07-01

    Debates on speciation processes in pteridophytes have revived. In order to study the evolutionary origin of an apomictic fern species, we investigated the genetic variation in the strictly agamosporous Dryopteris remota. We determined the genotypes of 22 individuals from many different locations within the species' European distribution and of 20 individuals from a Swiss population. A previous study on isozyme variation showed no intraspecific genetic variation in a similar sample set (Schneller and Holderegger, 1994, American Fern Journal 84: 94-98). In contrast to this, four out of 12 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers tested revealed low genetic diversity among individuals of D. remota from different locations. Intrapopulational genetic variation was also very low, but in the single population studied, a unique multiband genotype could be detected. The geographic distribution of genetic variation found in D. remota was best explained by the assumption of a single origin, the accumulation of somatic mutations during spread, and occasional, but effective, events of dispersal over large distances. The present study thus stresses the importance of long-distance dispersal in evolutionary processes and biogeography of ferns.

  2. Study of individual and sex genetic diversity among each genus and between two genera of Chrysopa and Chrysoperla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) based on RAPD-PCR polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mirmoayedi, Alinaghi; Kahrizi, Danial; Ebadi, Ali Akbar; Yari, Kheirollah; Mohammadi, Mehdi

    2012-09-01

    RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) was used to distinguish the genetic diversities between two genera of Chrysopa and Chrysoperla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Sixty specimens were collected in different places in Kermanshah, west of Iran. The wing venation was used for identification of each type of two genera, and the gender was determined by study of external genitalia. 20 random primers were used for polymerase chain reaction. Then, the electrophoresis was used for separation of the PCR products on agarose gel. 294 bands were amplified, which 235 bands were polymorph and others (59s) determined as monomorph. The electrophoresis results showed that the primers OPA02 with 19 bands and OPA03 with 8 bands successively amplified the maximum and minimum of bands among the applied primers. The results showed that there are maximum of genetic diversity and minimum of genetic similarity between Chrysopa male (Chrysopa-M) and Chrysoperla female)Chrysoperla-F) population, in contrast, there are maximum of genetic similarity and minimum of genetic diversity between Chrysoperla-M and Chrysoperla-F, and Chrysopa-M and Chrysopa-F. There are also more genetic similarities, between males and females of Chrysopa and Chrysoperla, than between male of Chrysopa with female of Chrysoperla or vice versa.

  3. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  4. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  5. Use of AFLP and RAPD molecular genetic markers and cytogenetic analysis to explore relationships among taxa of the Patagonian Bromus setifolius complex

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bromus setifolius var. pictus (Hook) Skottsb., B. setifolius var. setifolius Presl. and B.setifolius var. brevifolius Ness are three native Patagonian taxa in the section Pnigma Dumort of the genus Bromus L. AFLP and RAPD analysis, in conjunction with genetic distance measurements and statistical techniques, revealed variation within this group and indicated that B. setifolius var. brevifolius was closely related to B. setifolius var. pictus, with both taxa being more distantly related to B. setifolius var. setifolius. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the chromosomal number of B. setifolius var. pictus (2n = 70) and B. setifolius var. setifolius (2n = 28) and showed for the first time that B. setifolius var. brevifolius had 2n = 70. The combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic evidence supported a species status for two of the three taxa and suggested hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of these complex taxa. Species status was also indicated for B. setifolius var. setifolius. Based on these findings, we suggest that B. setifolius var. pictus be referred to as B. pictus Hook var. pictus, and B. setifolius var brevifolius as B. pictus Hook var brevifolius. The correlation between AFLP diversity and variation in ecological parameters suggested that this marker system could be used to assess breeding progress and to monitor the domestication of Patagonian Bromus species for agronomic use. PMID:21637686

  6. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  7. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  8. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1930s. People in England and Australia call ALS motor neurone disease (MND). The French refer to it ... about ALS in 1869. Lou Gehrig's disease damages motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Motor ...

  9. [Genetic diversity of Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using RAPD].

    PubMed

    Rampelotti, Fátima T; Ferreira, Anderson; Tcacenco, Fernando A; Martins, José F da S; Grützmacher, Anderson D; Prando, Honório F

    2008-01-01

    The work was carried out to test DNA extraction protocols and to characterize populations of Tibraca limbativentris Stål, an important rice insect-pest. Insects were collected in Joinville, Rio do Oeste and Turvo, in Santa Catarina State, and Agudo, Uruguaiana, Pelotas and Palmares do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul State, and six literature-referenced protocols, besides a new one, were tested. DNA from ten individuals of each population was extracted using the best protocol and RAPD reactions were carried out with ten initiators. The new protocol showed the best results and was used in the PCR reactions, that generated 151 polymorphic bands, allowing to access genetic differences among all the populations; no individuals from one population were clustered with individuals from another. The largest intrapopulacional similarity was found in Uruguaiana (22%), and the smallest in Palmares do Sul (50%), which was also the most divergent population in relation to the others. The Gst was 0.5215, and the Nm was 0.4588; these values reflect the low similarity between the populations. The smallest genic flow was obtained when Palmares do Sul and Pelotas were included in the comparisons, in accordance with the largest divergence of these two populations in relation to the others. There was no significant relation between geographic distance and genetic similarity, which can reflect unknown model of dispersion of T. limbativentris. New studies exploring the species dispersion strategies may help to understand the insect distribution and to unveil the main factors linked to the genetic variability within and between populations.

  10. Genetic diversity of two Portuguese populations of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis, based on RAPD markers: contribution to a sustainable restocking program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquim, Sandra; Pereira, Jorge; Leitão, Alexandra; Matias, Domitília; Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Chícharo, Luís; Gaspar, Miguel

    2010-12-01

    The pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (= V. pullastra) is a commercially important species in Portugal, Spain, France, and Italy. In Portugal, this species was once abundant in the Ria Formosa (southern Portugal). However, in the early 1980s, its abundance declined dramatically due to overfishing. In order to reverse this negative trend, the genetic sustainable management of the wild stocks of V. senegalensis should be performed by promoting successful restocking actions and the development of an aquaculture commercial production program of this species. In order to find the best broodstock for aquaculture purposes and therefore minimize the deleterious effects of hatchery practices, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the natural population to be restocked (Ria Formosa) but also of another potential genetically close population (Ria de Aveiro) by RAPD. Similar and substantive percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, Nei’s gene diversity, and Shannon’s diversity index was found within both populations. This high genetic variability within populations suggests that they might have a gene pool with sufficient genetic plasticity to support changes in the environmental conditions. Analyses of population genetic structure also revealed a small genetic differentiation between the two populations. The high genetic variability of the natural population to be restocked makes it the preferential broodstock for aquaculture purposes. However, the Ria de Aveiro population could also be a viable alternative, due to its genetic plasticity and the genetic similarity of both populations. The results of this study can be useful to the sustainable management of wild stocks as well as in promoting successful restocking actions based on aquaculture production.

  11. Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui: development of a multiplex PCR assay for their detection and differentiation using specific primers derived from HAT-RAPD.

    PubMed

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut

    2012-10-01

    Specific primers for the detection of Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui were investigated by using the HAT-RAPD PCR method. Fourteen arbitrary primers (Operon Technologies) were performed for the generation of polymorphic DNA profiles. The results showed that a 319 bp fragment generated from the OPA-04 primer was expected to be O. viverrini-specific while a 256 bp fragment generated from the OPP-11 primer was considered to be H. taichui-specific. Based on each sequence data, two pairs of specific primers were designed and sequences of each primer were as follows; H. taichui; Hapt_F5'-GGCCAACGCAATCGTCATCC-3'and Hapt_R1 5'-CTCTCGACCTCCTCTAGAAT-3' which yielded a 170 bp PCR product. For O. viverrini, OpV-1F: 5'-AATCGGGCTGCATATTGACCGAT-3' and OpV-1R: 5'-CGGTGTTGCTTATTTTGCAGACAA-3' which generated a 319 bp PCR product. These specific primers were tested for efficacy and specific detection for all parasites DNA samples. The results showed that 170 and 319 bp specific PCR products were generated as equivalent to positive result in H. taichui and O. viverrini, respectively by having no cross-reaction with any parasites tested. PCR conditions are recommended at 68°C annealing temperature and with 0.5 mM magnesium chloride (Mg Cl(2)). Additionally, specific primers developed in this study were effective to determine the presence of both parasites in fish and snail intermediate hosts, which the DNA of O. viverrini was artificially spiked since it is rarely found in northern Thailand. The H. taichui and O. viverrini-specific primers successfully developed in this study can be use for epidemiological monitoring, preventing management and control programs.

  12. Food assimilated by two sympatric populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Delphacidae) feeding on different host plants contaminates insect DNA detected by RAPD-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Omar, M Y; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Ali, M E; Rafii, M Y

    2012-01-09

    Contamination of insect DNA for RAPD-PCR analysis can be a problem because many primers are non-specific and DNA from parasites or gut contents may be simultaneously extracted along with that of the insect. We measured the quantity of food ingested and assimilated by two sympatric populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, one from rice and the other from Leersia hexandra (Poaceae), a wetland forage grass, and we also investigated whether host plant DNA contaminates that of herbivore insects in extractions of whole insects. Ingestion and assimilation of food were reduced significantly when individuals derived from one host plant were caged on the other species. The bands, OPA3 (1.25), OPD3 (1.10), OPD3 (0.80), OPD3 (0.60), pUC/M13F (0.35), pUC/M13F (0.20), BOXAIR (0.50), peh#3 (0.50), and peh#3 (0.17) were found in both rice-infesting populations of brown planthopper and its host plant (rice). Similarly, the bands, OPA4 (1.00), OPB10 (0.70), OPD3 (0.90), OPD3 (0.80), OPD3 (0.60), pUC/ M13F (0.35), pUC/M13F (0.20), and BOXAIR (0.50) were found in both Leersia-infesting populations of brown planthopper and the host plant. So, it is clear that the DNA bands amplified in the host plants were also found in the extracts from the insects feeding on them.

  13. Genotoxic effects of heavy metal cadmium on growth, biochemical, cyto-physiological parameters and detection of DNA polymorphism by RAPD in Capsicum annuum L. – An important spice crop of India

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Rumana; Ansari, M.Y.K.; Choudhary, Sana; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Jahan, Nusrat

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) on biochemical, physiological and cytological parameters of Capsicum annuum L. treated with five different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm) of the metal. Shoot–root length, pigment and protein content showed a continuous decrease with increasing Cd concentrations and the maximal decline was observed at the higher concentration. Proline content was found to be increased upto 60 ppm while at higher concentrations it gradually decreased. MDA content and chromosomal aberrations increased as the concentration increased. Additionally Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used for the detection of genotoxicity induced by Cd. A total of 184 bands (62 polymorphic and 122 monomorphic) were generated in 5 different concentrations with 10 primers where primer OPA-02 generated the highest percentage of polymorphism (52.63%). Dendrogram showed that control, R1 and R2 showed similar cluster and R4 and R5 grouped with R3 into one cluster, which showed that plants from higher doses showed much difference than the plants selected at mild doses which resemble control at the DNA level. This investigation showed that RAPD marker is a useful tool for evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship among different metal concentrations. PMID:25313282

  14. Development of SCAR markers for the discrimination of three species of medicinal plants, Angelica decursiva (Peucedanum decursivum), Peucedanum praeruptorum and Anthricus sylvestris, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Choo, Byung Kil; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Ji, Yunui; Kim, Bo Bae; Choi, Goya; Yoon, Taesook; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    Angelicae decursivae radix ('Jeonho' in Korean) is prescribed as the root of Angelica decursiva (= Peucedanum decursivum) and Peucedanum praeruptorum in Korean pharmacopoeia. However, Anthricus sylvestris has been usually distributed on the market because it is identical to the Korean plant name 'Jeonho'. Furthermore, due to the morphological similarity of the aerial parts and herbal medicines, the correct identification of these roots is difficult. Therefore, to develop a reliable method for discriminating among A. decursiva (= P. decursivum), P. praeruptorum and A. sylvestris, we applied the tools of molecular genetics, such as the analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In the comparison of rDNA-ITS sequences, we found a specific primer region for the identification of A. sylvestris among three varieties of the herb that produced a 273 bp strand of DNA specific to A. sylvestris. As the result of RAPD analysis, we developed one sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for A. decursiva and P. praeruptorum that amplified a 363 bp DNA fragment specific to both A. decursiva and P. praeruptorum and two markers for P. praeruptorum that amplified 145 bp and 305 bp DNA fragments specific to P. praeruptorum. Furthermore, we established the SCAR markers for the simultaneous discrimination of the three species by applying a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a combination of primers. This method of discrimination would be useful in preventing the distribution of adulterates because it can identify each herb and distinguish it from inauthentic substitutions.

  15. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling vegetative propagation in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla using a pseudo-testcross strategy and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Bertolucci, F L; Sederoff, R R

    1995-06-01

    We have extended the combined use of the "pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy and RAPD markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling traits related to vegetative propagation in Eucalyptus. QTL analyses were performed using two different interval mapping approaches, MAPMAKER-QTL (maximum likelihood) and QTL-STAT (non-linear least squares). A total of ten QTLs were detected for micropropagation response (measured as fresh weight of shoots, FWS), six for stump sprouting ability (measured as # stump sprout cuttings, #Cutt) and four for rooting ability (measured as % rooting of cuttings, %Root). With the exception of three QTLs, both interval-mapping methods yielded similar results in terms of QTL detection. Discrepancies in the most likely QTL location were observed between the two methods. In 75% of the cases the most likely position was in the same, or in an adjacent, interval. Standardized gene substitution effects for the QTLs detected were typically between 0.46 and 2.1 phenotypic standard deviations (σp), while differences between the family mean and the favorable QTL genotype were between 0.25 and 1.07 (σp). Multipoint estimates of the total genetic variation explained by the QTLs (89.0% for FWS, 67.1 % for#Cutt, 62.7% for %Root) indicate that a large proportion of the variation in these traits is controlled by a relatively small number of major-effect QTLs. In this cross, E. grandis is responsible for most of the inherited variation in the ability to form shoots, while E. urophylla contributes most of the ability in rooting. QTL mapping in the pseudo-testcross configuration relies on withinfamily linkage disequilibrium to establish marker/trait associations. With this approach QTL analysis is possible in any available full-sib family generated from undomesticated and highly heterozygous organisms such as forest trees. QTL mapping on two-generation pedigrees opens the possibility of using already existing families in retrospective QTL analyses to

  16. Genetic testing in ALS

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Russell L.; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. Methods: ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Results: Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. Conclusions: There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. PMID:28159885

  17. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to “fight back” via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  18. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  19. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it becomes necessary. For instance, a power wheelchair can enable a paralyzed person with ALS to ... done these things despite being confined to a wheelchair for many years, being able to move only ...

  20. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic ... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person ...

  1. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  2. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. References Sorensen HT, et al. Statins and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The level of evidence for an association. Journal ...

  3. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  4. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  5. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  6. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  7. Al Partitioning Patterns and Root Growth as Related to Al Sensitivity and Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, T. D.; Kucukakyuz, K.; Rincon-Zachary, M.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of Al partitioning and accumulation and of the effect of Al on the growth of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots of cultivars that show differential Al sensitivity were conducted. The effects of various Al concentrations on root growth and Al accumulation in the tissue were followed for 24 h. At low external Al concentrations, Al accumulation in the root tips was low and root growth was either unaffected or stimulated. Calculations based on regression analysis of growth and Al accumulation in the root tips predicted that 50% root growth inhibition in the Al-tolerant cv Atlas 66 would be attained when the Al concentrations were 105 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 376.7 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. In contrast, in the Al-sensitive cv Tam 105, 50% root growth inhibition would be attained when the Al concentrations were 11 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 546.2 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. The data support the hypotheses that differential Al sensitivity correlates with differential Al accumulation in the growing root tissue, and that mechanisms of Al tolerance may be based on strategies to exclude Al from the root meristems. PMID:12223623

  8. Al Sumelat Water Network. Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION AL SUMELAT WATER NETWORK VILLAGE OF AL SUMELAT, IRAQ...Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Al Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq Synopsis Introduction. This report was previously provided on a limited distribution basis

  9. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ...

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)--the Bihar (India) perspective.

    PubMed

    Sinha, P K; Ranjan, A; Singh, V P; Das, V N R; Pandey, K; Kumar, N; Verma, N; Lal, C S; Sur, D; Manna, B; Bhattacharya, S K

    2006-07-01

    From a hospital-based surveillance carried out in Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India, the socio-economic, demographic and treatment response information of 737 patients admitted with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) during January 2001-December 2003, were analysed. The disease was two times higher in males than in females because of several factors including clothing pattern, sleeping habits and occupation. In Bihar, the second poorest state in India, poverty plays a major role in perpetuation of the disease, contributing to malnutrition, illiteracy (60%), and poor housing (82%). Further, presences of peri-domestic animal shelters around houses (63%) and vegetations (77%) facilitate breeding of sand fly vector. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were similar in the age groups <12 years and >12 years. The increasing unresponsiveness of VL patients to conventional anti-leishmanial drugs, e.g. sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and pentamidine, has definitely posed a major therapeutic challenge in combating the disease. Amphotericin B, though costly, is highly effective. Miltefosine is a highly promising new oral drug for VL.

  12. Hormonal disturbances in visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar).

    PubMed

    Verde, Frederico Araujo Lima; Verde, Francisco Agenor Araujo Lima; Neto, Augusto Saboia; Almeida, Paulo César; Verde, Emir Mendonça Lima

    2011-05-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional analysis of the hormonal alterations of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established by the bone marrow aspiration and polymerase chain reaction test. Primary adrenal insufficiency was observed in 45.8% of patients; low aldosterone/renin plasma ratio in 69.4%; low daily urinary aldosterone excretion in 61.1%; and low transtubular potassium gradient in 68.0%. All patients had normal plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations, hyponatremia, and high urinary osmolality. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low in 63%; hypomagnesemia was present in 46.4%, and increased Mg(++)(EF) in 100%. Primary thyroid insufficiency was observed in 24.6%, and secondary thyroid insufficiency in 14.1%. Normal follicle-stimulating hormone plasma levels were present in 81.4%; high luteinizing hormone and low testosterone plasma levels in 58.2% of men. There are evidences of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities, inappropriate aldosterone and ADH secretions, and presence of hypoparathyroidism, magnesium depletion, thyroid and testicular insufficiencies.

  13. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  15. Al Qaeda as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    either as welcome guests or parasites . As welcome guests, Al Qaeda members take sanctuary in sponsor states. Sponsor states provide Al Qaeda with...sponsorship, Al Qaeda takes sanctuary as parasites either overtly or covertly. They take overt sanctuary in countries that publicly claim a policy...39 Yehudit Barsky, “Al Qa’ida, Iran, and Hezbollah: A Continuing Symbiosis ,” The American Jewish Committee Series on Terrorism , February 2004, 2-3

  16. AFLP-PCR and RAPD-PCR evidences of the transmission of the pathogen Aphanomyces astaci (Oomycetes) to wild populations of European crayfish from the invasive crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Rezinciuc, Svetlana; Galindo, Javier; Montserrat, Joan; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-07-01

    Aphanomyces astaci (Oomycetes) is responsible for the crayfish plague disease. This species is endemic of North America and five genotypes have been described using RAPD-PCR. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is one of the most widely spread North American species and invasive in the world. However, no outbreaks on its specific genotype, i.e., genotype D, have ever been described in nature. We investigated three major series of crayfish plague outbreaks in indigenous crayfish populations of Austropotamobius pallipes, located in the areas of influence of P. clarkii. All samples collected tested positive for A. astaci using a rnDNA ITS-PCR test. We also performed an AFLP-PCR analysis on 19 isolates, and found that all isolates belong to genotype D. These isolates exhibited similar properties, i.e., adaptation to warm temperatures. We demonstrate, for the first time, the transmission of A. astaci genotype D to indigenous European populations of crayfish, and confirm that the properties of adaptation to warm water temperatures seem to be a specific character of genotype D. The results of this work emphasize once more the need of controlling invasive species and its trade, since they can carry harmful pathogens with specific adaptations or increased virulence in new environments.

  17. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (λ<340nm) has applications in bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (λ< 280 nm) Al rich AlGaN based quantum wells (QWs) are required. We report here the growth of AlN/AlxGa1-xNQWs (x>0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x ˜ 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  18. Studies of 27Al NMR in SrAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, Haruo; Higa, Nonoka; Kuroshima, Hiroko; Toji, Tatsuki; Morishima, Mach; Minei, Motofumi; Yogi, Mamoru; Nakamura, Ai; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Harima, Hisatomo

    A charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW = 243 K and a structural phase (SP) transition at approximately 100 K occur in SrAl4 with the BaAl4-type body center tetragonal structure, which is the divalent and non-4f electron reference compound of EuAl4. To understand the behaviors of the CDW and SP transitions, the 27Al NMR measurements using a single crystal and a powder sample of SrAl4 have been carried out. The line width below TCDW is modulated by an electrical quadruple interaction between 27Al nucleus and CDW charge modulation. The incommensurate CDW state below TCDW changes into a different structure below TSP. The temperature dependences of Knight shifts of 27Al(I) and 27Al(II) show the different behaviors. The temperature variation of 27Al(I) Knight shift shows anomalies at the CDW and SP transition temperatures, revealing the shift to negative side below TCDW, which is attributable to the core polarization of the d-electrons. However, 27Al(II) Knight shift keeps almost constant except for the small shift due to the SP transition. The 1/T1T of 27Al(I) indicates the obvious changes due to the CDW and SP transitions, while that of 27Al(II) takes a constant value. The density of state at the Fermi level at Al(I) site below 60 K would be about 0.9 times less than that above TCDW.

  19. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Morton et al. Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  1. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  2. Is there a paraneoplastic ALS?

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Gordon, Paul H; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to examine the strength of evidence in support of the paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) as one cause of ALS and, if the association appears more likely than chance, determine which features of ALS imply concurrent malignancy. We reviewed the literature on concurrent ALS and neoplasia assessing the strength of evidence for the association. Most accounts of ALS and neoplasm are case reports or small uncontrolled series. In order of strength of evidence, three clinical situations that support a paraneoplastic aetiology for ALS are: 1) laboratory evidence of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies, most often anti-Hu, anti-Yo or anti-Ri; 2) co-occurrence of ALS and a neoplasm known to cause PNS, usually lymphoma or cancer of the breast; and 3) combined ALS and a neoplasm not classically associated with PNS, without detectable onconeuronal antibodies. Clinical features that warrant evaluation of neoplasm include upper motor neuron disease in elderly females, rapid progression, non-motor signs, and young onset. In conclusion, most examples of ALS and neoplasm do not constitute a classically established PNS. Rare instances of elevated onconeuronal antibody titres or typical neoplasm, implies that, albeit rare, the PNS is one of a multitude of causes of ALS.

  3. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  4. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  5. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  6. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology is...evolution. Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology...75 Finance

  7. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Nevirkovets, I.P.; Chernyashevskyy, O.; Hu, R.; Ketterson, J.B.; Sarma, B.K.

    2009-03-03

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Nb and CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn{sub 5} crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  8. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  9. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  10. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  11. Al-Co-Fe (030)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Co-Fe (030)' with the content:

  12. Al-La-Nb (068)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Nb (068)' with the content:

  13. Al-Cu-Zr (050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Cu-Zr (050)' with the content:

  14. Al-La-Ni (069)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Ni (069)' with the content:

  15. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  16. Al-Ce-V (029)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Ce-V (029)' with the content:

  17. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  18. Modeling of the ALS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.

    1996-08-01

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible.

  19. Superconductivity in Al/Al2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Metastable superconductivity at Tc ≈ 65 K has been observed in Al foil subjected to special oxidation process, according to the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed during the oxidation process between metallic aluminum and its oxide.

  20. Baumard et al.'s moral markets lack market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Market models are indeed indispensable to understanding the evolution of cooperation and its emotional substrates. Unfortunately, Baumard et al. eschew market thinking in stressing the supposed invariance of moral/cooperative behavior across circumstances. To the contrary, humans display contingent morality/cooperation, and these shifts are best accounted for by market models of partner choice for mutually beneficial collaboration.

  1. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    PubMed

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

  2. ALS - A unique design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Roger A.

    1990-09-01

    An advanced launch system (ALS), which is intended to be flexible and to deliver a wide range of payloads at a reduced cost, is discussed. The ALS concept also features total quality management, modular subsystems, standardized interfaces, standardized missions, and off-line payload encapsulation. The technological improvements include manufacturing of dry structures, use of composite materials, adaptive guidance and control systems, and laser-initiated radar systems. The operational improvements range from paperless management, to rocket engine leak detection devices and automated ground operations.

  3. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  4. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  5. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices. PMID:26387967

  6. AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

  7. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  8. Relativity and Al^+ Optical Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chin-Wen; Hume, David B.; Wineland, David J.; Rosenband, Till

    2010-03-01

    We have constructed an optical clock based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion that has a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10-18. The frequency of the ^1S0<->^3P0 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al^+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10-15&-1/2circ;, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock. By comparing the frequencies of the clocks, we have observed relativistic effects, such as time dilation due to velocities less than 10 m/s and the gravitational red shift from a 0.33 m height change of one of the clocks.

  9. [Coagulation behavior of Al13 species].

    PubMed

    Hu, Cheng-zhi; Liu, Hui-juan; Qu, Jiu-hui

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation behavior of Al13 species was examined in synthetic water with high alkalinity and high humic acid concentration from viewpoint of the transformation of Al hydrolysis products during the coagulation process. The results indicated that coagulation efficiency of Al coagulants positively correlated with the content of Al13 in the coagulation process. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was more effective than polyaluminum chloride (PACI) in removing turbidity and dissolved organic matter in the synthetic water because AlCl3 could not only generate Al13 species but also function as pH control agent in the coagulation process. During coagulation process pH control can improve coagulation process through regulating Al speciation, and AlCl3 benefited most from pH control.

  10. Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, A. B.; Kulkarni, N. V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A. M.; Abdallah, S. B.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  12. Al-Al2O3-Pd junction hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, K.; Takinami, N.; Chiba, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Kambe, S.

    1994-07-01

    Al-Al2O3-Pd MIM (metal insulator metal) junctions fabricated on a glass substrate were tested as hydrogen sensors. The I-V (current versus voltage) characteristics of the junctions were measured at room temperature in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr and in H2 gas of 10-2-100 Torr. A significant increase in the current was observed upon introduction of H2 gas. This phenomenon is believed to occur due to the work function lowering of the hydrogen-absorbed Pd top electrode. The rise time was on the order of minutes, while the recovery time when hydrogen was purged was more than 20 h. However, when the junction was placed in an oxidizing ambient such as air, the recovery time was drastically reduced to the order of minutes, indicating that the device is operative as a hydrogen sensor in the atmospheric ambient. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption behavior of the Pd film was also investigated using a Pd coated quartz microbalance, and the results explained the current response of the Pd MIM junction to hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

  13. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, S. K.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2016-06-13

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. Furthermore, the formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamicallymore » driven process.« less

  14. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  15. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocate Get Involved Donate Military Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to ... and Caregivers Newly Diagnosed Clinical Trials Familial ALS Military Veterans For Caregivers Resources Read stories ... Site ...

  16. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  17. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y; He, Y H; Xu, N P; Zou, J; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  18. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  19. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites.

  20. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can

  1. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  2. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  3. Wear behavior of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite manufactured by a centrifugal method

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamanaka, Noboru; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a wear-resistant, light Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite material. An Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite specimen was machined from a thick-walled tube of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material (FGM) manufactured by the centrifugal method from a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was heated to a temperature where solid Al{sub 3}Ti particles resided in a liquid Al matrix, and then the centrifugal method was carried out. Al{sub 3}Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot exist as platelets, and this shape was maintained through the casting. Three kinds of wear specimens were prepared, taking into account the morphology of the Al{sub 3}Ti particles in the thick-walled FGM tube; the Al{sub 3}Ti particles were arranged with their platelet planes nearly normal to the radial direction as a result of the applied centrifugal force. The wear resistance of the Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite was significantly higher than that of pure Al. Wear-resistance anisotropy and dissolution of the Al{sub 3}Ti into the Al matrix at the near-surface region, around 100 {micro}m in depth, were also observed. The mechanism of the supersaturated-layer formation and the origin of the anisotropic wear resistance are discussed.

  4. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  5. Reply to Vance et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P.

    1996-07-01

    In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et al. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.

  6. Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende AlN Layers in Al-AlN-TiN Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit

    2015-01-01

    AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN. PMID:26681109

  7. Growth and stress-induced transformation of zinc blende AlN layers in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; ...

    2015-12-18

    We report that AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  8. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  9. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: selective etching of Al11(-) and Al12(-).

    PubMed

    Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J; Martinez, Ana

    2009-11-14

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al(13)(-), were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was accompanied by concurrent production of Al(11)NH(3)(-) and Al(12)NH(3)(-) species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al(11)NH(3)(-) showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al(12)NH(3)(-), dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al(n)(-) + NH(3) (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-), we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al(n)(-)(NH(3)) to chemisorbed Al(n)NH(3)(-) species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  10. First-principles study of the Al(001)-Al3Nb(001) interfacial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanhong; Xu, Rui

    2017-03-01

    The adhesion, interfacial energy and bonding on fcc-Al(001)/D022-Al3Nb(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of Al3Nb(001) (Al+Nb-terminated and Al-terminated) and stacking sites (top-, bridge- and center-sites), six Al(001)/Al3Nb(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, Al+Nb-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the Al-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion increases, and the interface energy decreases as the order of center-sited, bridge-sited and top-sited. Al+Nb-terminated-center-sited and Al-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from Al-Nb covalent bonds and Al-Al metallic interactions.

  11. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  12. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-04

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  13. Spin-dependent tunneling junctions with AlN and AlON barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Nickel, Janice H.; Anthony, Thomas C.; Wang, Shan X.

    2000-10-01

    We report on ferromagnetic spin-dependent tunneling (SDT) junctions with NiFe/AlN/NiFe and NiFe/AlON/NiFe structures. Good barriers were formed by plasma nitridation and oxy-nitridation of Al films. Tunneling magnetoresistance ratios (TMR) up to 18% were observed at room temperature. The devices exhibit lower resistance-area products than those seen in reference junctions with Al2O3 barriers. The degradation in TMR at higher bias voltages is found to be less than that found in standard alumina junctions. AlN and AlON could thus be alternate materials for the tunnel barrier in SDT junctions.

  14. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  15. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  16. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-12

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  17. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  18. Effects of renal impairment on aluminum (Al) kinetics and Al-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; McNamara, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Al-induced toxicity most commonly occurs in the renally impaired. To study the influence of renal impairment on Al kinetics and toxicity, renally impaired rabbits were prepared by the remnant kidney procedure. Six weeks after partial nephrectomy creatinine clearance was 21% of controls and serum creatinine, BUN, Ca, and PO/sub 4/ were 222, 248, 122, and 50% of presurgery levels respectively. Serum Al kinetics after i.v. Al were: Al clearance 27%, initial and steady state volumes of distribution 50 and 80%, half life 362% and mean residence time 300% of controls (renally intact rabbits). Beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy, rabbits received 145 to 160 ..mu..mole Al/kg s.c. daily, 5 x weekly x 4 weeks. Acquisition of a classically conditioned reflex (nictitating membrane extension) was impaired comparable to that produced by 100-200 ..mu..mole Al in controls but retention and extinction deficits were greater than those seen after 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Tissue Al concentrations were less than those seen after 200 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Body weight was comparable to that produced by 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. These results suggest that renal impairment alters Al serum distribution, impairs its clearance, and increases the Al-induced impairment of memory and body weight gain.

  19. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  20. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  1. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  2. Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-04-01

    Genetic discoveries in ALS have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of ALS led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of ALS research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of ALS pathology added valuable pieces to the ALS puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic ALS remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase ALS risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

  3. Energetics of Al13 Keggin cluster compounds

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Casey, William H.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The ϵ-Al13 Keggin aluminum hydroxide clusters are essential models in establishing molecular pathways for geochemical reactions. Enthalpies of formation are reported for two salts of aluminum centered ϵ-Keggin clusters, Al13 selenate, (Na(AlO4)Al12(OH)24(SeO4)4•12H2O) and Al13 sulfate, (NaAlO4Al12(OH)24(SO4)4•12H2O). The measured enthalpies of solution, ΔHsol, at 28 °C in 5 N HCl for the ε-Al13 selenate and sulfate are −924.57 (± 3.83) and −944.30 ( ± 5.66) kJ·mol-1, respectively. The enthalpies of formation from the elements, ΔHf,el, for Al13 selenate and sulfate are −19,656.35 ( ± 67.30) kJ·mol-1, and −20,892.39 ( ± 70.01) kJ·mol-1, respectively. In addition, ΔHf,el for sodium selenate decahydrate was calculated using data from high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements: −4,006.39 ( ± 11.91) kJ·mol-1. The formation of both ε-Al13 Keggin cluster compounds is exothermic from oxide-based components but energetically unfavorable with respect to a gibbsite-based assemblage. To understand the relative affinity of the ϵ-Keggin clusters for selenate and sulfate, the enthalpy associated with two S-Se exchange reactions was calculated. In the solid state, selenium is favored in the Al13 compound relative to the binary chalcogenate, while in 5 N HCl, sulfur is energetically favored in the cluster compound compared to the aqueous solution. This contribution represents the first thermodynamic study of ε-Al13 cluster compounds and establishes a method for other such molecules, including the substituted versions that have been created for kinetic studies. Underscoring the importance of ε-Al13 clusters in natural and anthropogenic systems, these data provide conclusive thermodynamic evidence that the Al13 Keggin cluster is a crucial intermediate species in the formation pathway from aqueous aluminum monomers to aluminum hydroxide precipitates. PMID:21852572

  4. Dose-enhancement effects in TaSi/Al- and Al-gate MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Beutler, D.E.; Draper, B.L.; Knott, D.; Brown, D.B.; Rosenstock, H.

    1988-01-01

    The response of MOS capacitors with TaSi/Al and Al electrodes to medium- and low-energy x-irradiation is investigated. Experimentally measured dose-enhancement effects are compared with computer simulations for these structures.

  5. Phase stability in binary Ti-Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. D.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Binary Ti-Al samples containing from 46 to 54 at. pct Al were solidified while undercooled by various amounts using electromagnetic levitation techniques. A detailed thermal history of these samples was obtained with sampling rates as high as 500 KHz during recalescence. This very high sampling rate was essential to resolve the thermal events. Primary alpha solidification was observed in samples containing from 51 to 54 at. pct Al that were undercooled less than about 100 K at solidification. Primary beta solidification was found for all undercoolings tested in samples containing less than 51 at. pct Al and for undercoolings greater than about 100 K in samples containing 51 to 54 at. pct Al.

  6. The neuropathology of FTD associated With ALS.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of a clinical overlap between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent advances in our understanding of the neuropathologic, biochemical, and genetic basis of these conditions provides evidence for a common underlying pathogenesis. The neuropathology in most cases of FTD with ALS is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, characterized by neuronal inclusions that are immunoreactive for ubiquitin but not tau (frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions). These cases show significant pathologic overlap with clinically pure FTD and those with classic ALS. Moreover, the ubiquitinated pathologic protein in all these conditions has recently been identified as TDP-43. A number of families have been reported with autosomal dominant FTD-ALS linked to chromosome 9p and these also have TDP-43-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions pathology. Together, these findings suggest that FTD-ALS is part of a clinicopathologic spectrum of disease, now identified as TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  7. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  8. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2}(Al)

    SciTech Connect

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2} (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO{sub 6}-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs. - Graphical abstract: The photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water of two Al based MOFs were investigated. A new photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on electron tunneling according to the results of both theoretical calculation and steady state, time resolved fluorescence spectra. The electron tunneling process not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  9. Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Macrocomposites for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ceramics (high hardness, high stiffness, low thermal expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were...expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were fabricated by different processing approaches...the different MMCs. The matrix alloy, alumina volume fraction, densities, mechanical properties , and thermal properties are summarized in Table 2

  10. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  11. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  12. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients.

  13. Alanes formation on the Al(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Sylvie; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Chabal, Yves J.; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Muckerman, James T.

    2008-03-01

    Alane clusters (AlxHy) are believed to be the ubiquitous intermediates in hydrogen storage reactions for a wide variety of alanates (LiAlH4, NaAlH4) currently considered for hydrogen storage. The formation and behavior of alanes at surfaces appear to control and limit the efficiency of hydrogen storage. In particular, hydrogen adsorption on the Al(111) surface leads to the coexistence of several adsorbed species, the concentration of which is affected by the step density, the surface coverage and the temperature. We combine density functional theory (DFT) and surface infra-red (IR) absorption spectroscopy to uncover the mechanisms for alane formation on Al(111) surfaces. At low coverage, DFT predicts a two-fold bridge site adsorption for atomic hydrogen, consistent with previous Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements. At higher coverage, the formation of small chemisorbed AlH3 occurs at the step edges. With increasing coverage AlH3 is extracted from the step edge and becomes highly mobile on the terraces in a weakly bound state. This mobility is the key factor leading to the growth of larger alanes through AlH3 oligomerization. For these large alanes, previous Thermal Programmed Desorption studies are discussed and compared to the thermal stability observed in IR.

  14. Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNiAl and UNiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Bordallo, H.N.; Nakotte, H.; Schultz, A.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Havela, L.; Andreev, A.V.

    1998-12-31

    Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNiAl and UNiAl have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNiAlD{sub 1.28}, TbNiAlD{sub 0.8}a nd UNiAlD{sub 2.23}.

  15. Phase diagrams of Al-Si and Al-Ge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagaya, Hiroko-Matsuo; Imazawa, Kazumoto; Sato, Mayumi; Soma, Toshinobu

    1998-03-01

    Considering the contributions from the band and local mode frequencies, the temperature- and pressure-dependent mean-square displacement for Al-Si and Al-Ge solid solutions is quantitatively calculated to be similar to that for matrix Al. Then, the concentration-dependence of the Debye temperature at higher and lower temperatures is estimated, the pressure effect on the solidus curve is presented by applying Lindeman's melting law to the Al-Si and Al-Ge alloy systems. The solidus curve obtained increases as a function of the pressure, and is in good agreement with the observed tendency for these solid solutions.

  16. A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: Al+AlB{sub 2} flakes

    SciTech Connect

    HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.

    2000-06-08

    Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the Al-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio AlB{sub 2} from an Al-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of AlB{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the Al-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.

  17. Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

  18. Decoding ALS: from genes to mechanism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Paul; Brown, Robert H; Cleveland, Don W

    2016-11-10

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors have been identified that drive the degeneration of motor neurons in ALS, increase susceptibility to the disease or influence the rate of its progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, the induction of stress at the endoplasmic reticulum and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new reasons for optimism that meaningful therapies will be identified.

  19. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  20. Arsenate uptake by Al nanoclusters and other Al-based sorbents during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different Al-based sorbents, including Al nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all Al-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale Al oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-Al agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to Al nanoclusters as strongly as to Al oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of Al nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of Al clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient Al-based sorbents for arsenic removal were Al nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate.

  1. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  2. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  3. Elimination of AlGaN epilayer cracking by spatially patterned AlN mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzyński, Marcin; Kryśko, Marcin; Targowski, Grzegorz; Czernecki, Robert; Sarzyńska, Agnieszka; Libura, Adam; Krupczyński, Wiktor; Perlin, Piotr; Leszczyński, Michał

    2006-03-01

    The inherent problem in III-nitride technology is the cracking of AlGaN layers that results from lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN. In case of thin substrates (30-90μm), such as, bulk GaN grown by the high-pressure/high-temperature method, the bowing of AlGaN /GaN strained structures becomes an additional problem. To eliminate cracking and bowing, AlGaN layers were grown on GaN substrates with an AlN mask patterned to form 3-15μm wide windows. In the 3μm window, the AlGaN layer was not cracked, although its thickness and Al composition exceeded critical values for growth on nonpatterned substrates. Dislocation density in the windows was of 5×106/cm2.

  4. Diffusion at the Al/Al oxide interface during electromigration in wide lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augur, R. A.; Wolters, R. A. M.; Schmidt, W.; Dirks, A. G.; Kordić, S.

    1996-03-01

    Significant large-scale modification of the surface of Al-Si conductors was observed, due to electromigration in wide lines and under low stress conditions. After electromigration stressing the Al layers showed local thickness variations, i.e., damage by thinning. The mechanism underlying this damage causes substantial metal transport. Nevertheless, damage by thinning has received little attention in the past. Thinning was observed: (1) in a number of different alloys (Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Si-V, and Al-Si-V-Pd), (2) with a number of different underlayers [SiO2, W-Ti (no vacuum break after Al deposition) and W-Ti (oxidized surface before Al deposition)], (3) over an extended temperature range, (4) over a range of current density, and (5) in structures with and without passivation. The results show that thinning is a general phenomenon. An activation energy of approximately 0.5 eV was determined for the temperature dependence of a combined mechanism of concurrent thinning plus voiding in Al99Si1. Several alternatives are examined to explain the observations, namely mass movement along dislocations, Al bulk diffusion, and diffusion at the interface between the Al and its oxide. It is shown that diffusion at the Al/Al oxide interface most probably plays an important role in the damage mechanism, even under stress conditions where grain boundary diffusion is traditionally thought to dominate. Results also showed that alloying of Al with Pd can reduce the effects of damage by thinning.

  5. Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

  6. On Dobbert et al, 'Cultural Transmission...'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Frederick

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dobbert et al's model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)

  7. Pike International, LLC et al. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pike International LLC, et al. (the Company) is located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Complaint involves the lease of, and renovation activities conducted at, property constructed prior to 1978, located in New Haven, Connecticut.

  8. ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. PMID:24367722

  9. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

  10. Half life of /sup 26/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

  11. Al Qaeda: A Modern Day Lernaean Hydra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    insurgency. Still others have referred to it as a netwar organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks. A few authors have...organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks. A few authors have characterized it as a religious movement. Like the Hydra, Al...Al Qaeda as an insurgency. Still others have referred to it as a Netwar organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks.1 A

  12. Patterns of inheritance in familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Marcus; Bradley, Lloyd; de Belleroche, Jackie; Orrell, Richard W

    2005-05-10

    We investigated 185 families with ALS for evidence of anticipation and mitochondrial inheritance. Although initial analysis demonstrated significant anticipation of age at death between generations in patients with familial ALS, further analysis demonstrated features of regression to the mean, suggesting that the perceived differences are the result of bias. In addition, there was no evidence of an effect of preferential maternal inheritance, which would have supported transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations.

  13. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  14. Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1996-10-01

    Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

  15. Theoretics-directed effect of copper or aluminum content on the ductility characteristics of Al-based (Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, AlTiCu2) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Qi-Jun; Kong, Ge-Xing; Ma, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wen-Peng; Wang, Yi-Gao; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2016-11-01

    First-principle simulations have been applied to investigate the effect of copper (Cu) or aluminum (Al) content on the ductility of Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 alloys. The mechanical stable and elastic properties of Al-based intermetallic compounds are researched by density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). The calculated lattice constants are in conformity with the previous experimental and theoretical data. The deduced elastic constants show that the investigated Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 structures are mechanically stable. Shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the ratio B/G have also been figured out by using reckoned elastic constants. A further analysis of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio reveals that the third added element copper content has significant effects on the Al-Ti-based ICs ductile character. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41674088, 11574254, 11272296, and 11547311), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808201), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014ZT30 and 2682014ZT31), and the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in Northwestern Polytechnical University, China (Grant No. SKLSP201511).

  16. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  17. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of anodized Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependence of capacitance, CM, and conductance, GM, of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors with Cu, Ag, and Au electrodes has been measured between 100 and 340 K at seven frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz. Al2O3 films between 15 and 64 nm thick were formed by anodizing evaporated Al films in borate-glycol or borate-H2O electrolyte. The interface capacitance at the Al2O3-metal interface, CI, which is in series with the capacitance CD due to the Al2O3 dielectric, is determined from plots of 1/CM versus insulator thickness. CI is not fixed for a given metal-insulator interface but depends on the vacuum system used to deposit the metal electrode. CI is nearly temperature independent. When CI is taken into account the dielectric constant of Al2O3 determined from capacitance measurements is ˜8.3 at 295 K. The dielectric constant does not depend on anodizing electrolyte, insulator thickness, metal electrode, deposition conditions for the metal electrode or measurement frequency. By contrast, GM of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors depends on both the deposition conditions of the metal and on the metal. For Al-Al2O3-Cu capacitors, GM is larger for capacitors with large values of 1/CI that result when Cu is evaporated in an oil-pumped vacuum system. For Al-Al2O3-Ag capacitors, GM does not depend on the Ag deposition conditions.

  18. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  19. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  20. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  1. Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

  2. Magnetic behavior of CoPt-AlN granular structure laminated with AlN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youxing; Shi, Ji; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic behavior of CoPt-AlN granular structure laminated with AlN layers has been studied. Ultrathin multilayer structure, [CoPt0.5 nm/AlN0.5nm]4, is used as the precursor of the magnetic layers, which are separated by 5-nm-thick AlN layers. Upon thermal annealing, the ultrathin multilayer transforms into CoPt-AlN granular structure, and the thick AlN layers remain to be spacers. When the film was annealed at 400 °C, the out-of-plane direction becomes the easy axis of magnetization, although the coercivity remains small. TEM observation has proved that CoPt shows disklike shape at such an annealing temperature. When increasing the annealing temperature to 600 °C and above, the films show "isotropic" magnetic behavior due to the formation of equiaxial CoPt particles in the magnetic layers.

  3. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    PubMed

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-03-25

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  4. Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  5. Relative importance of hydrolyzed Al(III) species (Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c)) during coagulation with polyaluminum chloride: a case study with the typical micro-polluted source waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; He, Wenjie; Chow, Christopher W K

    2007-12-15

    The relative importance of three different Al species, Al(a) (monomeric species, instantaneous reacted species), Al(b) (medium polymer species, reacted less than 120 min), and Al(c) (colloidal or solid species, no reaction), defined by timed complexation reaction rate measured by using ferron reagent in polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated in terms of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), UV(254), and turbidity removal efficiencies. Micro-polluted, typical North China, source waters were used to conduct the experiments. The results show that DOC removal is correlated well to the content of Al(b). Removal of UV(254) is determined by the content of Al(b) and Al(c), particularly Al(c). Turbidity removal is primarily related to the content of Al(c); however, Al(b) could destabilize particles efficiently, and the flocs formed by Al(b) are not as large as those formed by Al(c), which affected the settling efficiency. Unlike the preformed Al(b), the in situ formed Al(b) could remove turbidity more efficiently since Al(c) is the dominant final species formed during coagulation. Al(a) shows a strong ability to react with some unsatisfied coordinate bonds of organic matter to facilitate particle and DOC removal. The distinct coagulation feature of Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c) can be applied to develop tailor-made PACl (with the correct distribution of Al species) to match the characteristics of raw water for optimized coagulation.

  6. The lowest ionization potentials of Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

  7. Influence of RCS on Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhovi, Prabhakar M.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-02-01

    An influence of repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) was studied on Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys up to eight passes. Each pass consist of a corrugation and followed by straightening. This has resulted in introducing large plastic strain in sample, and thus led to formation of sub-micron grain sizes with high angle grain boundaries. These sub grain formation was eventually resulted in improved mechanical properties. The average grain size of Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after 8 passes yielded to ∼0.6pm. Microhardness, strength properties were evaluated and it suggests that RCS was responsible for high hardness values as compared to the as cast samples. The microhardness values after RCS were 105 HV and 130 HV for Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys, respectively. Similarly, ∼ 40% improvement in tensile strength from 240 MPa to 370 MPa was observed for Al- 3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after RCS process.Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Scalloys exhibited maximum strength of 220 MPa and 370 MPa, respectively. It is concluded that RCS process has a strong influence on Al- 3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys for obtaining improved mechanical properties and grain refinement. In addition to RCS process and presence of AESc precipitates in Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy had a significant role in grain refinement and improved mechanical properties as compared to Al-3Mg alloy.

  8. Stabilization of itinerant (band) magnetism in FeAl by Ga substitution for Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mazin, I. I.; Hathaway, K. B.

    2001-06-01

    Band structure calculations of FeGa1-xAlx have been performed, to further investigate the stability of ferromagnetism in FeAl. The Stoner parameter increases by about 20% at the FeGa end. This is also confirmed by our spin-polarized calculations. We conclude that Ga substitution for Al is likely to stabilize the elusive (or illusive) ferromagnetic state in FeAl.

  9. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  10. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  11. Small Al clusters. II - Structure and binding in Al(n) (n = 2-6, 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Halicioglu, Timur

    1987-01-01

    The structure and stability of aluminum clusters containing up to six atoms have been studied using correlated wave functions and extended basis sets. The lowest energy structure is planar for Al4 and Al5, but three dimensional for Al6. The icosahedral, hcp, fcc, and two planar structures of Al13 were considered at the SCF level. The lowest energy structure is the icosahedron, but the planar structures are fairly low lying even in this case. A simplified description using two- and three-body interaction potentials is found to agree well with the ab initio structures and binding energies.

  12. The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

  13. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  14. Possible Involvement of Al-Induced Electrical Signals in Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Papernik, L. A.; Kochian, L. V.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between Al-induced depolarization of root-cell transmembrane electrical potentials (Em) and Al tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated. Al exposure induced depolarizations of Em in the Al-tolerant wheat cultivars Atlas and ET3, but not in the Al-sensitive wheat cultivars Scout and ES3. The depolarizations of Em occured in root cap cells and as far back as 10 mm from the root tip. The depolarization was specific to Al3+; no depolarization was observed when roots were exposed to the rhizotoxic trivalent cation La3+. The Al-induced depolarization occurred in the presence of anion-channel antagonists that blocked the release of malate, indicating that the depolarization is not due to the electrogenic efflux of malate2-. K+-induced depolarizations in the root cap were of the same magnitude as Al-induced depolarizations, but did not trigger malate release, indicating that Al-induced depolarization of root cap cell membrane potentials is probably linked to, but is not sufficient to trigger, malate release. PMID:12223834

  15. High temperature deformation of NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that NiAl and CoAl are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of NiAl and CoAl are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.

  16. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Lauritzen, T.; Thur, W.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET`` and STAR*NET`` software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS``). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S&A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper.

  17. 78 FR 76054 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chatom, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On September 4, 2013, the... Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO AL E5 Chatom, AL Roy Wilcox Airport, AL (Lat. 31 27'06''...

  18. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  19. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: An Education and Training Resource Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Mamoun Sami Rashid , Al Anbar Governor during 2005–06 described it best as a sequence of actions and events throughout Al Anbar: When we started... Rashid , Al Anbar Governor 2005 to 2006, interview with Dr. William Knarr, Colonel Dale Alford, USMC, and Lieutenant Colonel David Graves, USMC...1 . Who’s Who Appendix A Interviewees Abd al-Hakim Muhammad Rashid Muhammad al-Jughayfi, Mayor of Hadithah Abdul Qadir Mohammed Jassim Obeidi al

  20. A Comment on Eerland et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Hart, William

    2016-03-01

    People imagine criminal behavior in greater detail and ascribe more blame to criminals when a description of a crime is written using the imperfective verb aspect (Hart & Albarracín, 2011, Experiment 3). An initiative to reproduce these findings conducted by Eerland et al. (2016) yielded a lack of replication. Eerland et al. have suggested that the original effect was likely driven by a Type I error produced by methodological aspects of the experiment, including low sample size. Recent conceptual replications of Hart and Albarracín's effect (Sherrill, Eerland, Zwaan, & Magliano, 2015), however, might imply the effect could be contingent on sample characteristics.

  1. Vibrations on Al surfaces covered by sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Borisova, S. D.; Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of a comparative study of vibrational and structural properties of the ordered (√{3}×√{3})R30∘ and c(2 × 2) phases formed by Na adatoms at room temperature on the Al(1 1 1) and Al(1 0 0) surfaces, respectively. The surface relaxation, surface phonon dispersion, and polarization of vibrational modes are calculated using the embedded-atom method. Our calculated structural parameters are in agreement with experimental and ab initio results. The obtained vibrational frequencies compare fairly well with available experimental data.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  3. The Future of Al Qa’ida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-24

    commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies. C O R P O R A T I O N For More Information Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore RAND...affiliated groups and its leadership. A range of senior officials, including Saif al-Adel and Abu Miqad al-Masri, continue to play key roles. Finally, there...20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Turkey Egypt Jordan Lebanon Indonesia Pakistan Pe rc te nt ag e  of   R es po nd en ts  w it h  Co

  4. Heterogeneity of Mg Isotopes and Variable ^26Al/^27Al Ratio in FUN CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Krot, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    We report high-precision Mg-isotope data of individual minerals from the Axtell 2271, BG82DH8, EK1-4-1, C1, TE, and CG14 FUN CAIs, which shows variations in both Mg-isotope ratio and ^26Al/^27Al ratio.

  5. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  6. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  7. An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et al.'s (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et al.'s main experiment via a…

  8. Transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengji; Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming; Guan, He; Wu, Lifan; Lu, Bin; Liu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An Al2O3 layer is inserted between the InAlAs layer and the metal gate in InAs/AlSb HEMTs to suppress the leakage current. The transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at both positive and negative biases at different temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 70 °C are investigated. For positive bias, the leakage current is dominated by Schottky emission. Based on the fitted straight lines, the relative dielectric constant of Al2O3 and the barrier height between Al2O3 and InAlAs are extracted. However, for negative bias, the leakage current is dominated by Frenkel-Poole (F-P) emission and the depth of the trap energy level from the conduction band (ϕt) is extracted. Furthermore, authors explain the reason why the dominating mechanisms at positive and negative biases are different.

  9. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  10. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  11. Fundamental Influence of C on Adhesion of the Al2O3/Al Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Evans, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al2O3/Al interface is relatively weak—weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  12. CVD Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.

  13. Temperature dependence of the activity of Al in dilute Ni(Al) solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yong; Smith, J. R.; Evans, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    Activities of dilute Al solid solutions in Ni are determined from a first-principles approach. Both thermal lattice vibration and electronic contributions to free energies are considered and compared. Vibrational contributions tend to dominate the temperature dependencies of the free energies, though electron thermal effects are significant. Calculations show opposing temperature trends for the formation enthalpies and entropies, leading to a partial cancellation of their role in the overall energetics. Nevertheless, their remaining temperature effects are strong. Over the temperature range, 400 KAl activity coefficient varies by 15 orders of magnitude, due to the relative strength of Al-Ni and Al-Al bonds. The Ni activity coefficient only varies less than 4% over the same range. Calculational results compare well with available experimental data. The thermodynamic principles elucidated from the calculations are used to provide a fundamental interpretation.

  14. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  15. 1300 K compressive properties of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    When B2 crystal-structure nickel aluminide is subjected to high-intensity mechanical ball milling in a liquid nitrogen bath, or 'cryomilling', an NiAl composite is obtained which contains about 10 vol pct AlN particles. This composition arises from the incorporation of N during cryomilling; during subsequent thermomechanical processing, the N reacts with Al. While compressive testing of extruded or isostatically pressed specimens at 1300 K indicated that strength at relatively fast strain rates is slightly dependent on consolidation method, slower strain rates indicate no clear dependency on densification technique: four different consolidation methods were found to yield similar creep strengths. The creep properties of NiAl-AlN are similar to those of the single-crystal Ni-base superalloy NASAIR 100.

  16. Bonding characters of Al-containing bulk metallic glasses studied by 27Al NMR.

    PubMed

    Xi, X K; Sandor, M T; Wang, H J; Wang, J Q; Wang, W H; Wu, Y

    2011-03-23

    We report very small (27)Al metallic shifts in a series of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses. This observation and the Korringa type of spin-lattice relaxation behavior suggest that s-character wavefunctions weakly participate in bonding and opens the possibility of enhanced covalency (pd hybridization) with increasing Al concentration, in good agreement with elastic constants and hardness measurements. Moreover, ab initio calculations show that this bonding character originates from the strong Al 3p band and Zr 4d band hybridization since their atomic energy levels are closer to each other while the Al 3s band is localized far below the Fermi level. This study might provide a chemical view for understanding flow and fracture mechanisms of these bulk glass-forming alloys.

  17. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  18. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  19. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  20. Electron impact exctation of Al X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti; Keenan, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Emission lines of Al ions, including Al X, are important for the modeling and diagnostics of lasing, fusion and astrophysical plasmas, for which atomic data are required for a variety of parameters, such as energy levels, radiative rates (A- values), and excitation rates or equivalently the effective collision strengths (Υ), which are obtained from the electron impact collision strengths (Ω). Experimentally, energy levels are available for Al X on the NIST website, but there is paucity for accurate collisional atomic data. Therefore, here we report a complete set of results (namely energy levels, radiative rates, and effective collision strengths) for all transitions among the lowest 98 levels of Al X. These levels belong to the (1s2) 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2, 2s3 l, 2p3 l, 2s4 l, and 2p4 l configurations. Finally, we also report the A- values for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2), because these are also required for plasma modeling. For our calculations of wavefunctions, we have adopted the fully relativistic GRASP code, and for the calculations of Ω, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) of PH Norrington and IP Grant. Additionally, parallel ca

  1. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  2. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  3. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  4. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated...

  5. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  6. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 2 (Tuesday, January 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 474-475] [FR Doc No: E9-31259] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 11988 and 11989] Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice...

  7. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  8. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  9. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  10. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26814-26815] [FR Doc No: 2010-11201] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12157 and 12158] Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice...

  11. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  12. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26813-26814] [FR Doc No: 2010-11199] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12155 and 12156] Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  13. 76 FR 35938 - The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as Al Umairah al-Ghamdi, Also Known as Uthman al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 118 (Monday, June 20, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 35938] [FR Doc No: 2011-15290] DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7505] The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as... the Federal Register. Dated: May 11, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State. [FR Doc....

  14. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  15. Hughes et al.: Science or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, L. Anthony; Siegel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hughes et al. paper is critiqued generally and in specific areas. The weak nature of the authors' empirical work is discussed along with their enigmatic writing and vague and incorrect use of references, and their simultaneous use of sweeping statements of opinion and narrow analytical focus. This review examines the authors' errors…

  16. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  17. Al-Qaida: Terrorist Selection and Recruitment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    like them, not alien outsiders. 9. Surrounding potential recruits with peers who are already established recruits. 10. E. Goffman , Behavior in Public...Cultic Studies Journal 1:2 (1984): 167–177. 88 SECTION 1 Al-Qaida and Global Jihad Goffman , E., Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social

  18. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  19. Bierman {ital et al.}Reply:

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1997-05-01

    reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  1. Unresponsiveness to AmBisome in some Sudanese patients with kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Marius; Ritmeijer, Koert; Balasegaram, Manica; Koummuki, Youssif; Santana, Muriel Ramirez; Davidson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In Sudan, two treatments are currently registered for visceral leishmaniasis: sodium stibogluconate (SSG) as first line and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) as second line. We present 64 patients (52 relapse cases to SSG, 12 new but complicated cases) treated with AmBisome in eastern Sudan. AmBisome was administered at 2.5-8.2mg/kg (15-49mg/kg in total) per dose six times (days 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15) as an intravenous infusion. We measured outcome according to clinical response and parasitological clearance (lymph node aspiration). Patient outcomes fell into three groups: group 1, clinical responders (cured) with a negative test of cure (n=35); group 2, clinical responders with a positive test of cure (n=19); group 3, clinical non-responders (failures) with a positive test of cure (n=10). Of the 10 failures, six were already relapse cases. All of group 3, and 15 from group 2, were also treated with additional SSG (20mg/kg intramuscularly daily for 30-50 d) with resulting clinical and parasitological improvement. Parasite persistence and clinical failure were associated with a higher parasite density on admission (P<0.002) and underlying immunosuppressive disease: tuberculosis (three cases) or HIV (two cases). Because AmBisome monotherapy may fail in Sudan, a combination of AmBisome and SSG is recommended for relapse cases.

  2. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Michelle J. C.; Silva Júnior, Geraldo B.; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia S.; Rocha, Natália A.; Garcia, Ana Valeska V.; Franco, Luiz F. L. G.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Libório, Alexandre B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The study patients had a diagnosis of VL and were admitted to a tertiary hospital. A multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the risk factors for AKI. A total of 224 patients were included. The mean age was 36 ± 15 years. AKI was observed in 33.9% of cases. Risk factors associated with AKI were male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; P = 0.03), advanced age (OR = 1.05; P < 0.001), and jaundice (OR = 2.9; P = 0.002). There was an association between amphotericin B use and AKI (OR = 18.4; P < 0.0001), whereas glucantime use was associated with lower incidence of AKI compared with amphotericin B use (OR = 0.05; P < 0.0001). Mortality was 13.3%, and it was higher in AKI patients (30.2%). Therefore, factors associated with AKI were male gender, advanced age, and jaundice. Amphotericin B was an important cause of AKI in VL. PMID:20207871

  3. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  4. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  5. AlGaN/AlN integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet and visible spectral range.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohammad; Soref, Richard; Palacios, Tomas; Englund, Dirk

    2016-10-31

    We analyze a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform comprised of a crystalline AlxGa1-xN optical guiding layer on an AlN substrate for the ultraviolet to visible (UV-vis) wavelength range. An Al composition of x~0.65 provides a refractive index difference of ~0.1 between AlxGa1-xN and AlN, and a small lattice mismatch (< 1%) that minimizes crystal dislocations at the AlxGa1-xN/AlN interface. This small refractive index difference is beneficial at shorter wavelengths to avoid extra-small waveguide dimensions. The platform enables compact waveguides and bends with high field confinement in the wavelength range from 700 nm down to 300 nm (and potentially lower) with waveguide cross-section dimensions comparable to those used for telecom PICs such as silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, allowing for well-established optical lithography. This platform can potentially enable cost-effective, manufacturable, monolithic UV-vis photonic integrated circuits.

  6. A novel Al matrix composite reinforced by nano-AlNp network

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X.; Zhao, Y. F.; Tian, W. J.; Qian, Z.; Chen, H. W.; Wu, Y. Y.; Liu, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of lightweighting of automobiles and low emission of transportation, the efforts to develop high-strength, heat-resistant and fatigue-resistant Al alloys and/or composites have been ongoing. Here we report a novel Al matrix composite with ultrahigh strength reinforced by a three dimensional network of nano-AlN particles for the first time. The in-situ synthesized AlN particles are connected by twinning bonding chains and built up a three dimensional network strengthening Al matrix enormously like the skeleton to human body. The composite containing 16.4wt.% AlN particles shows excellent properties: the ultimate tensile strengths can be up to 518MPa at room temperature and 190MPa at 350 °C. This peculiar performance results from the novel spatial distribution of nano-scale AlN particles. Our findings in this work would help to develop a potential candidate for high-performance heat resistance light-metal based materials. PMID:27721417

  7. Effect of speciation transformation on the coagulation behavior of Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Changqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Ge, Xiaopeng; Tang, Hongxiao

    2009-01-01

    Flocculation of kaolin suspension with aluminium fractal polycations was investigated as a function of aluminium concentration and pH. Aluminium flocculants included Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates with OH/Al ratio of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively. The flocculation kinetics and floc size distribution were monitored by light scattering. The characterization of flocculants showed that the tridecatmer Al(13) and bridged [Al(13)](n) with out-sphere structure were the dominant species for all flocculants in a wide pH range. The coagulation results indicated that the pre and in situ-formed [Al(13)](n) play a key role in removing particles. With the increasing concentration of [Al(13)](n), coagulation mechanisms were transformed from charge-neutralization, electro-patch coagulation to bridge-aggregation. Moreover, sweep-flocculation was involved at higher dosage besides other three mechanisms when amorphous aluminium oxides formed. Hence, chemical interaction between particles and flocculants evolved from surface adsorption to surface precipitation for aluminium polycations by virtue of species transformation.

  8. Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan

    2014-10-01

    The wetting of α-SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the Al-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of Al4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten Al on the polycrystalline α-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90̊ provided that the oxide films covering the Al and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid Al weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.

  9. Investigation of water assisted phase transformation process from AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Zhi; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-01

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  10. Aluminum matrix texture in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sequeira, Paulo D.; Sato, Hisashi; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Al matrix functionally graded materials (FGMs) with oriented Al3Ti platelets were fabricated by a centrifugal solid-particle method. The applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60, and 120G (units of gravity). The orientation and volume fraction gradients of the Al3Ti platelets within the samples were measured. Since a good lattice correspondence was reported for the close-packed directions and the close-packed planes between Al and Al3Ti, the Al matrix in the Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method should have some texture. Al matrix texture was, therefore, analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Analysis of the resulting pole figures indicates a preferred orientation along the (200) plane for the Al matrix crystals. Furthermore, increasing the applied centrifugal force enhances the orientation effect. A correlation appears to exist between platelet orientation and the preferred texture of the Al matrix.

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624

  12. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  13. Aberrant distributions of nuclear pore complex proteins in ALS mice and ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jingwei; Yamashita, Toru; Nakano, Yumiko; Morihara, Ryuta; Li, Xianghong; Feng, Tian; Liu, Xia; Huang, Yong; Fukui, Yusuke; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Abe, Koji

    2017-03-24

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play important roles in traffic of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, aberrant distributions of components of NPCs were demonstrated in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS) patients, but it is elusive whether such abnormities are also the case with other cause of ALS disease. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of RanGAP1 and 4 representative nucleoporins (GP210, NUP205, NUP107 and NUP50) of NPCs in human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 mutation transgenic (SOD1-Tg) mice and sporadic ALS patients. Compared with wild type (WT), these proteins displayed age-dependent and progressive nuclear precipitations, and cytoplasmic aberrant expressions in motor neurons of lumbar cord in SOD1-Tg mice from 10 to 18weeks (W). Double immunofluorescent analysis showed abnormal nuclear retention and apparent co-localizations of RanGAPl with NUP205 and NUP205 with NUPl07, meanwhile, GP210 with NUP205 mainly co-localized in the nuclear envelope (NE) of motor neurons. Furthermore, RanGAP1, GP210 and NUP50 showed similarly abnormal nuclear precipitations and cytoplasmic upregulations in SOD1-Tg mice and ALS patients, moreover, aberrant co-localizations of RanGAP1 with TDP-43 and NUP205 with TDP-43 were also observed in motor neurons. The present study indicated that the mislocalization of these proteins of NPCs may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS both in SOD1-Tg mice and human sporadic ALS patients, and these dysfunctions may be a fundamental pathway for ALS that is not specific only in C9-ALS but also in SOD1-ALS, which may be amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

  14. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  15. Metal clusters with hidden ground states: Melting and structural transitions in Al115(+), Al116(+), and Al117(+).

    PubMed

    Cao, Baopeng; Starace, Anne K; Judd, Oscar H; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Jarrold, Martin F

    2009-09-28

    Heat capacities measured as a function of temperature for Al(115)(+), Al(116)(+), and Al(117)(+) show two well-resolved peaks, at around 450 and 600 K. After being annealed to 523 K (a temperature between the two peaks) or to 773 K (well above both peaks), the high temperature peak remains unchanged but the low temperature peak disappears. After considering the possible explanations, the low temperature peak is attributed to a structural transition and the high temperature peak to the melting of the higher enthalpy structure generated by the structural transition. The annealing results show that the liquid clusters freeze exclusively into the higher enthalpy structure and that the lower enthalpy structure is not accessible from the higher enthalpy one on the timescale of the experiments. We suggest that the low enthalpy structure observed before annealing results from epitaxy, where the smaller clusters act as a nucleus and follow a growth pattern that provides access to the low enthalpy structure. The solid-to-solid transition that leads to the low temperature peak in the heat capacity does not occur under equilibrium but requires a superheated solid.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis and crystal structure of alpha'-AlD3 and alpha-AlD3.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Hendrik W; Istad-Lem, Andreas; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2006-12-28

    AlD3 AlD3 was synthesized by ball milling of 3LiAlD4 + AlCl3. Planetary ball milling at room temperature resulted in a mixture of AlD3 (alpha and alpha') and Al in addition to LiCl, whereas cryomilling at 77 K resulted in only AlD3 and LiCl. The AlD3 obtained was a mixture of about 2/3alpha and 1/3alpha'. Alpha' was determined by powder neutron diffraction to take the beta-AlF3 structure with space group Cmcm and a = 6.470(3), b = 11.117(5), and c = 6.562(2) A. It is built up of corner-sharing AlD6 octahedra in an open structure with hexagonal holes of radius 3.9 A. Alpha' slowly decomposes during storage at 40 degrees C. Alpha-AlD3 is also described by a corner-sharing AlD6 network but in a more dense ReO3-type arrangement. Both AlD3 modifications have slightly shorter Al-D distances compared to Na3AlD6, Na2LiAlD6, and K2NaAlH6.

  17. Ferromagnetic ordering in NpAl2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound NpAl2. We used magnetization measurements and 27Al NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27Al nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.

  18. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating < the stainless steel with Al-Si coating < the stainless steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  19. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Shakhrai, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    A mixture of Al and α -Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≃ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  20. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Al and Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≈ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  1. Revisiting Deng et al.'s Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming

    2011-09-01

    The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et al. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et al.'s protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.

  2. Mechanical properties and electronic structures of Fe-Al intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YaHui; Chong, XiaoYu; Jiang, YeHua; Zhou, Rong; Feng, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, the elastic properties, anisotropy properties, electronic structures, Debye temperature and stability of Fe-Al (Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl2, Fe2Al5 and FeAl3) binary compounds were calculated. The formation enthalpy and cohesive energy of these Fe-Al compounds are negative, and show they are thermodynamically stable structures. Fe2Al5 has the lowest formation enthalpy, which shows the Fe2Al5 is the most stable of Fe-Al binary compounds. These Fe-Al compounds display disparate anisotropy due to the calculated different shape of the 3D curved surface of the Young's modulus and anisotropic index. Fe3Al has the biggest bulk modulus with the value 233.2 GPa. FeAl has the biggest Yong's modulus and shear modulus with the value 296.2 GPa and 119.8 GPa, respectively. The partial density of states, total density of states and electron density distribution maps of the binary Fe-Al binary compounds are analyzed. The bonding characteristics of these Fe-Al binary compounds are mainly combination by covalent bond and metallic bonds. Meanwhile, also exist anti-bond effect. Moreover, the Debye temperatures and sound velocity of these Fe-Al compounds are explored.

  3. Oral Care for the Patient with ALS: A Guide for the Caregiver

    MedlinePlus

    ... with ALS and Caregivers Newly Diagnosed ALS Registry Military Veterans Caregivers Resources Order Materials Medicare Information ALS Insight Newsletter Living with ALS Resource Guides Families and ALS Resource Guide Medical Information Packet ALS ...

  4. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2016-06-13

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. Furthermore, the formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamically driven process.

  5. The β-decay of 22Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achouri, N. L.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Lewitowicz, M.; Blank, B.; Äystö, J.; Canchel, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Dendooven, P.; Emsallem, A.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guillet, N.; Jokinen, A.; Laird, A. M.; Longour, C.; Peräjärvi, K.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2006-03-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A β-decay half-life of T 1/2 = 91.1±0.5ms was measured. The β-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as β-α and β-delayed γ-decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of I π = 4+ for the ground state of 22Al.

  6. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic test specimens in which the major phase was either Si3N4 or a solid solution having the beta Si3N4 structure. Additional components were incorporated to promote liquid phase sintering. Glass and/or crystalline phase were consequently retained in boundaries between Si3N4 grains which largely determined the physical properties of the bodies. Systems investigated most extensively included R-Si-Al-O-N (R = rare earth element) Zr-Si-Al-O-N, Y-Si-Be-O-N, and R1-R2-Si-O-N. Room temperature and 1370 C modulus of ruptured, 1370 C creep, and oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of phase relationships in a parent quinery, and relavent oxide systems.

  7. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  8. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  9. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher L; Young, Patrick A; Ellinger, Carola I; Arnett, William D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  10. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  11. Developing Wide-Spectrum Antiproteotoxicity Agents to Treat ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    phenotypes in C. elegans and mouse models of ALS. Progress Report Wang, Jiou 5 Overview: In this Aim, we hypothesize that increased HSF -1...2009a; Wang et al., 2009b). In a related finding, a reduction in HSF -1 activity dramatically precipitated neuronal toxicity in TDP-43 transgenic C...Fiesel et al., 2010; Sephton et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2010). Previously, we made an observation of genetic interaction between TDP-43 and HSF -1

  12. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  13. Fabrication of Fe-Al nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Pyungwoo; Shin, Seungchan; Jung, Chip-Sup; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Seomoon, Kyu

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%Al films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-Al films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-Al films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-Al films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation.

  14. Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (Al3Mg2) Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, Al is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and Al. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.

  15. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  16. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    SciTech Connect

    Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G. Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.; Cherkashin, N.

    2014-07-28

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  17. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  18. Response to de la Iglesia et al.

    PubMed

    Yetish, Gandhi; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Wood, Brian; Pontzer, Herman; Manger, Paul R; Wilson, Charles; McGregor, Ronald; Siegel, Jerome M

    2016-04-04

    We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light, delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial light on sleep was not a goal of our study.

  19. Hypermetabolism as a Risk Factor for ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    4 Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor...Gonzalez de Aguilar JL, & Loeffler JP: Evidence for defective energy homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : benefit of a high-energy diet in a...and supplements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6:631- 43, 2002. 8. Lagier

  20. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.