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Sample records for al bull seismol

  1. Exploring Essential Conditions: A Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene; Hansen, Randall; Gray, Lucy; Ziemann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The editorial by Bull et al. (2008) on connections between informal and formal learning made explicit one element of solving what Koehler and Mishra (2008) termed a "wicked problem." This wicked (complex, ill-structured) problem involves working with teachers for effective integration of technology in support of student learning. The…

  2. Seismo-Live: Training in Seismology with Jupyter Notebooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, Lion; Tape, Carl; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    Seismological training tends to occur within the isolation of a particular institution with a limited set of tools (codes, libraries) that are often not transferrable outside. Here, we propose to overcome these limitations with a community-driven library of Jupyter notebooks dedicated to training on any aspect of seismology for purposes of education and outreach, on-site or archived tutorials for codes, classroom instruction, and research. A Jupyter notebook (jupyter.org) is an open-source interactive computational environment that allows combining code execution, rich text, mathematics, and plotting. It can be considered a platform that supports reproducible research, as all inputs and outputs may be stored. Text, external graphics, equations can be handled using Markdown (incl. LaTeX) format. Jupyter notebooks are driven by standard web browsers, can be easily exchanged in text format, or converted to other documents (e.g. PDF, slide shows). They provide an ideal format for practical training in seismology. A pilot-platform was setup with a dedicated server such that the Jupyter notebooks can be run in any browser (PC, notepad, smartphone). We show the functionalities of the Seismo-Live platform with examples from computational seismology, seismic data access and processing using the ObsPy library, seismic inverse problems, and others. The current examples are all using the Python programming language but any free language can be used. Potentially, such community platforms could be integrated with the EPOS-IT infrastructure and extended to other fields of Earth sciences.

  3. MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MALLEABLE IRON BULL LADLE, HOLDS IRON AFTER IT IS TAPPED OUT OF THE CUPOLA UNTIL IT NEEDED BY POURERS ON THE CONVEYOR LINES WHO FILL MOBILE LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAIL SYSTEMS AS THE BULL LADLE TIPS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  5. POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO FILL MOLDS ON CONVEYOR LINES AFTER FERRO-SILICON IS ADDED TO ENHANCE DUCTILITY AND FLUIDITY. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  12. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo bulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo bulls. (a) A rodeo bull that is test... date of being tested, may be moved interstate only if the bull meets the requirements for cattle...

  13. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo bulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo bulls. (a) A rodeo bull that is test... date of being tested, may be moved interstate only if the bull meets the requirements for cattle...

  14. 14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP OF PIER III, GRANITE COPING, AND PLAIN CONCRETE PIER BELOW. DETAILS OF WEST PIER PROTECTION FRAMING AT PIER. WILLBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. Performance, growth, and maturity of Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Zanetti, Diego; Villadiego, Faider Alberto Castaño; Pellizzoni, Samantha Gusmão; Pereira, Rafael Moura Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), microbial efficiency, empty body weight (EBW) gain, and body composition of Nellore bulls. Additionally, Nellore bull maturity was estimated, and the prediction equation for DMI, suggested by the Brazilian nutrient requirements system (BR CORTE; Azevêdo et al. 2010), was evaluated. Thirty-three Nellore bulls, with a mean initial weight of 259 ± 25 kg and age of 14 ± 1 months, were used in this study. Five animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (control group), and the remaining 28 were divided into 4 groups, each slaughtered at 42-day intervals. Their diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate (55:45). The power model was used to estimate muscle tissue, bone tissue, crude protein (CP), mineral matter (MM), and water present in the empty body, while the exponential model was used to estimate adipose tissue and ether extract (EE) present in the empty body. When expressed in kilograms per day, differences were observed (P < 0.05) only for the intake of EE and neutral detergent fiber as a function of feedlot time periods. Although there was a difference in relation to nutrient intake, it did not affect (P > 0.05) digestibility, with the exception of EE digestibility. The equation suggested by BR CORTE correctly estimates the DMI of Nellore bulls. ADG was not affected (P > 0.05) by time spent in the feedlot. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) for microbial efficiency; a mean value of 142 g microbial crude protein/kg total digestible nutrients was achieved. The muscle and bone tissues, CP, MM, and water present in the empty body increased as the animal grew, although at a lower rate. The adipose tissue and EE present in the empty body increased their deposition rate when the animal reached its mature weight. Maturity is defined as when an animal reaches 22 % EE in the empty body, which

  16. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  17. Effects of bull elk demographics on age categories of harem bulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Many management strategies for elk (Cervus elaphus) emphasize increasing numbers of mature bulls in the population. These strategies are usually assumed to enhance productivity via increased breeding by mature bulls. I compared age classes of harem bulls during the peak of the rut under 4 bull harvest strategies that resulted in different bull:cow ratios, mature bull:cow ratios, bull mortality rates, and proportions of mature bulls in the autumn (pre-hunting season) population. Proportions of harems held by differing age classes of bulls [mature (P84% of harems only in populations where mature bull:cow ratios exceeded 21:100 in the autumn population. Interaction of mature bull ratios in the autumn population, harem size, and bull selectivity in the harvest strategy must be considered if increased breeding by mature harem bulls is a management goal.

  18. View of 200ton derrick interior support beneath it's bull wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of 200-ton derrick interior support beneath it's bull wheel and mast centerline from from southeast. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Protocol for determining bull trout presence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James; Dunham, Jason B.; Howell, Philip; Thurow, Russell; Bonar, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The Western Division of the American Fisheries Society was requested to develop protocols for determining presence/absence and potential habitat suitability for bull trout. The general approach adopted is similar to the process for the marbled murrelet, whereby interim guidelines are initially used, and the protocols are subsequently refined as data are collected. Current data were considered inadequate to precisely identify suitable habitat but could be useful in stratifying sampling units for presence/absence surveys. The presence/absence protocol builds on previous approaches (Hillman and Platts 1993; Bonar et al. 1997), except it uses the variation in observed bull trout densities instead of a minimum threshold density and adjusts for measured differences in sampling efficiency due to gear types and habitat characteristics. The protocol consists of: 1. recommended sample sizes with 80% and 95% detection probabilities for juvenile and resident adult bull trout for day and night snorkeling and electrofishing adjusted for varying habitat characteristics for 50m and 100m sampling units, 2. sampling design considerations, including possible habitat characteristics for stratification, 3. habitat variables to be measured in the sampling units, and 3. guidelines for training sampling crews. Criteria for habitat strata consist of coarse, watershed-scale characteristics (e.g., mean annual air temperature) and fine-scale, reach and habitat-specific features (e.g., water temperature, channel width). The protocols will be revised in the future using data from ongoing presence/absence surveys, additional research on sampling efficiencies, and development of models of habitat/species occurrence.

  20. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  1. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  2. Fertility of yearling beef bulls during mating.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R W; Rupp, G P; Chenoweth, P J; Cundiff, L V; Lunstra, D D

    2005-08-01

    Crossbred (Bos taurus) yearling beef bulls were assessed for breeding soundness and physical traits prior to multi-sire natural mating at pasture. Bulls (n = 60) were assigned to six groups of nine or 10 bulls and two bull-groups were rotated on 14-day intervals during a 63-day mating season in each breeding herd (n = 3) of 191-196 cows. The remaining bulls (n = 14) were maintained under similar environmental conditions without mating exposure. Bulls were observed during mating and assessed for breeding soundness and changes following mating. Bulls used for breeding (UFB) lost 77 kg of body weight and declined from body condition scores of 6 to 4.5, whereas bulls not used for breeding (NUB) maintained body condition scores of 6 and gained 27 kg. The UFB bulls incurred a 75% total injury rate with 63% incidence of lameness and 12% incidence of reproductive injuries, resulting in a 22% attrition rate. Only 45% were physically sound at the end of mating. Scrotal circumference declined in UFB bulls (-4.58%) and increased in NUB bulls (2.49%). From the 98% BSE-satisfactory rate (UFB) prior to breeding, only 61% were BSE-satisfactory post-breeding. The NUB bulls declined from 57 to 36% satisfactory. The BSE classification was influenced by significant increases in abnormal spermatozoa (primary and secondary), which was significantly associated with injuries incurred during mating. Group and breed differences in injury rates and BSE-status following mating were evident. Environmental conditions and mating activity influenced bull seminal quality and physical condition. Pregnancy rates in all three breeding herds (91-96%) were similar, with insignificant differences between bull-groups; the effects of physical and reproductive changes on individual bull fertility were immeasurable.

  3. The 1000 bull genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  4. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the third year (2000) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, genetics, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species declined from 1999 observations. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout increased while brook trout abundance was similar to 1999 observations in eight index reaches. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the second year. Mean relative densities of both species, within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in a 2.4 km control reach. Mill Creek was surveyed for the presence of juvenile bull trout. The American Fisheries Society ''Interim protocol for determining bull trout presence'' methodology was field tested. No bull trout were found in the 2 km survey area.

  5. The development of beef breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Engelken, T J

    2008-08-01

    Management of the bull battery will have a dramatic impact on profitability of the cow/calf enterprise. It is critical that young bulls be selected and developed to maximize longevity and productivity for the eventual buyer. Bulls must be structurally sound, healthy, and have adequate libido in order to service the required number of females. Once bulls complete their first breeding season, special care must be taken in order to ensure that they recover and regain needed body condition and pass a bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE). Mature bulls that have reached their genetic potential for growth require less intensive management, but the health program and annual BBSE cannot be overlooked. Mature bulls are also more likely to carry venereal disease and should be screened according to local disease incidence and state regulations. All bulls, regardless of age, should be observed early during the breeding season to ensure that they are physically capable of mounting and servicing females. The establishment of a complete management program, especially for young bulls, is essential to ensure that ranch resources are used efficiently, including maintenance of a high level of reproductive performance of the cow herd.

  6. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo bulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo bulls. (a) A rodeo bull that is test... classified as brucellosis negative based upon an official test conducted less than 365 days before the...

  7. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  8. Yearling Bull Breeding Soundness Examination: Special Considerations.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Nora; Larson, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessment of yearling bulls is important for the bottom line of all interested parties: the buyer, the seller, and the veterinarian performing the BSE. Special considerations and current research are highlighted and their application to the evaluation of yearling bulls is discussed.

  9. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  10. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  11. Effects of open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull harvesting on elk composition in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Fowler, P.E.; Bernatowicz, J.A.; Musser, J.L.; Stream, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented an open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull elk (Cervus elaphus) harvest strategy in the Blue Mountains (1989), Yakima (1994), and Colockum (1994) herd areas of Washington state with goals of increasing numbers of adult bulls to increase breeding efficiency and possibly calf recruitment. Numbers of total bulls/100 cows (x??=5.4) and branched bulls/100 cows (x??=5.3) increased with the change in harvest strategy, while yearling bulls/100 cows remained unchanged; calves/100 cows declined (x??=-8.6). Calves/100 cows were always negatively correlated with both total bulls/100 cows and branched bulls/100 cows in each area; correlations were significant in 5 of 9 comparisons with total-bull ratios and 5 of 9 comparisons with branched-bull ratios. Open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull harvesting can be used to increase total-bull and branched-bulls ratios in hunted elk populations. However, the increased ratios of bulls and branched bulls were unimportant in influencing calf recruitment, likely because of the importance of female condition on production and survival of young.

  12. Bull breeding soundness evaluation in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Irons, P C; Nöthling, J O; Bertschinger, H J

    2007-10-01

    The motivation for and process leading up to the publication of a new bull breeding soundness certification standard endorsed by the South African Veterinary Association is described. The veterinary certificate of bull breeding soundness and explanatory notes and minimum standards are shown. The first component of the certificate is a declaration by the veterinarian that the bull complies with the minimum standards set for examinations for the selected purpose, these being for use as a natural service sire, as a donor of semen for distribution, and for insurance purposes. This is followed by the details of the bull and owner, and a list of the recommended examinations and tests for the bull with provision for which were performed. Certificates are available in book form with the explanatory notes and minimum standards on the reverse, and a carbon copy which remains in the book. The clarity and ease of completion of the document are regarded as being positive features. Bulls are either classified as breeding sound or not, with no actual parameters indicated on the document and no certificate issued for those which do not meet the set criteria. Contact details of the parties involved are shown on the certificate to allow for communication as a means of avoiding disputes.

  13. An assessment of dairy herd bulls in southern Australia: 1. Management practices and bull breeding soundness evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hancock, A S; Younis, P J; Beggs, D S; Mansell, P D; Stevenson, M A; Pyman, M F

    2016-12-01

    In the pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BBSE) were performed on 256 bulls from 32 dairy herds in southwest Victoria, using guidelines produced by the Australian Cattle Veterinarians, before and immediately after a single natural mating period. At the same time, herd managers were questioned regarding the management of the bulls. The objectives of this study were to describe the management practices of dairy herd bulls; to describe the causes of increased risk of reduced fertility in dairy herd bulls, as measured by a standard BBSE; and to describe the reasons for bull removal by herd managers during mating. At the premating BBSE, 19.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities and reduced semen quality. At the postmating BBSE, 36.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities, primarily lameness. Of the bulls used, 15.9% were removed from normal mating use by the herd manager, predominantly due to lameness and injuries. A premating BBSE is recommended in dairy herd bulls to identify bulls at risk of reduced fertility. Lameness is the most common problem in dairy herd bulls during the natural mating period, and risk factors associated with lameness in these bulls should be identified to better manage herd bulls.

  14. Next Generation Waveform Based Three-Dimensional Models and Metrics to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring in the Middle East (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-30

    166 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Helmberger, 1994), teleseismic (Kikuchi and Kanamori , 1982) and a CMT inversion (Liu et al...Earth model, Phys. Earth. Planet. Int. 25: 297–356. Kikuchi, M., and H. Kanamori (1982). Inversion of complex body waves, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 72

  15. Critical swimming speeds of wild bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Zydlewski, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) of wild bull trout at 6??, 11??, and 15??C in laboratory experiments. At 11??C, 5 fish ranging from 11 to 19 cm in length had a mean Ucrit of 48.24 cm/s or 3.22 body lengths per second (BL/s). Also at 11??C , 6 fish from 32 to 42 cm had a mean Ucrit of 73.99 cm/s or 2.05 BL/s. At 15??C, 5 fish from 14 to 23 cm had a mean Ucrit of 54.66 cm/s or 2.88 BL/s. No fish successfully swam at 6??C. Swim speed was significantly influenced by fish length. Many bull trout performed poorly in our enclosed respirometers: of 71 Ucrit tests we attempted, only the 16 described above were successful. Bull trout that refused to swim held station within tunnels by using their pectoral fins as depressors, or they rested and later became impinged against a downstream screen. Several common techniques did not stimulate consistent swimming activity in these fish. Our estimates of U crit for bull trout provide an understanding of their performance capacity and will be useful in modeling efforts aimed at improving fish passage structures. We recommend that fishway or culvert designers concerned with bull trout passage maintain velocities within their structures at or below our estimates of Ucrit, thus taking a conservative approach to ensuring that these fish can ascend migratory obstacles safely.

  16. 4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy from James H. Bull, Records of the Descendants of John and Elizabeth Bull, 1919 WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS - Mount Pleasant, Bulltown Road (East Nantmeal Township), East Nantmeal, Chester County, PA

  17. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Initial analysis of sperm DNA methylome in Holstein bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been associated with abnormal semen parameters, idiopathic male infertility and early embryonic loss in mammals. Using Holstein bulls with high (Bull1) or low (Bull2) fertility rates, we created two representative sperm DNA methylomes at a single-base resolutio...

  19. Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history, habitat needs, and limiting factors for

  20. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  1. Mauling by pit bull terriers: case report.

    PubMed

    Baack, B R; Kucan, J O; Demarest, G; Smoot, E C

    1989-04-01

    A child with extensive soft-tissue defects following an attack by four pit bull terriers is presented. Some future procedures are required and she will have a permanent gait disability. The multidisciplinary management of this patient is described. The escalating problem of dog attacks in the United States is discussed. It is hoped that increased physician and public awareness will expedite the enactment and enforcement of effective vicious-dog legislation.

  2. Bull heading to kill live gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oudeman, P.; Avest, D. ter; Grodal, E.O.; Asheim, H.A.; Meissner, R.J.H.

    1994-12-31

    To kill a live closed-in gas well by bull heading down the tubing, the selected pump rate should be high enough to ensure efficient displacement of the gas into the formation (i.e., to avoid the kill fluid bypassing the gas). On the other hand, the pressures that develop during bull heading at high rate must not exceed wellhead pressure rating, tubing or casing burst pressures or the formation breakdown gradient, since this will lead, at best, to a very inefficient kill job. Given these constraints, the optimum kill rate, requited hydraulic horsepower, density and type of kill fluids have to be selected. For this purpose a numerical simulator has been developed, which predicts the sequence of events during bull heading. Pressures and flow rates in the well during the kill job are calculated, taking to account slip between the gas and kill fluid, hydrostatic and friction pressure drop, wellbore gas compression and leak-off to the formation. Comparison with the results of a dedicated field test demonstrates that these parameters can be estimated accurately. Example calculations will be presented to show how the simulator can be used to identify an optimum kill scenario.

  3. Weekly bull exchange shortens postpartum anestrus in suckled beef cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Ungerfeld, R

    2008-05-01

    The duration of anestrus in cattle was usually shortened when cows were exposed to bulls. The objective of the present experiment was to determine if weekly bull exchange accelerated the resumption of cyclicity in postpartum suckled beef cows. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of postpartum, anestrous, suckled beef cows (extensively managed) to weekly exchange of bulls, accelerates the resumption of cyclicity, compared to continuous exposure to the same bulls. Ninety-one multiparous suckled Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows, <60d postpartum, were assigned to two homogeneous groups. Beginning on December 1st (late spring), the control group (C, n=45) remained with one pair of bulls throughout the breeding period (7 weeks), whereas in the "exchanged" (E, n=46) group two pairs of bulls were exchanged weekly. Based on weekly ultrasonographic examinations of all cows, none had a CL at the start of the experiment and for 2 weeks after the start of bull exposure. However, the accumulated frequency of cows with a CL was greater in group E than in group C cows on week 4 (P=0.024), as well as on weeks 5-7 (P<0.001) after the start of bull exposure. Furthermore, in group E versus group C, there was a higher pregnancy rate 30d after the end of bull exposure (26 of 46, 56.2% vs. 16 of 45, 35.6%; P=0.045). In conclusion, weekly exchange of two pairs of bulls shortened postpartum anestrus in suckled multiparous cows, compared to continuous exposure to a single pair of bulls.

  4. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs.

  5. Short communication: Use of young bulls in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has resulted in many changes to dairy cattle breeding programs. One such change has been the increased contribution of young bulls (0.8 to 3.9 yr old) to those programs. The increased use of young bulls was investigated using pedigree data and b...

  6. Sire conception rate: New national AI bull fertility evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull fertility evaluations called Estimated Relative Conception Rate (ERCR) were provided to the industry by Dairy Records Management Systems (DRMS) from 1986 to November 2005. In May 2006, AIPL assumed responsibility for evaluation of U.S. bull fertility. As an initial step, AIPL implemented the ER...

  7. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.

    2002-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  8. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Reservation : 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah

    2003-03-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be healthy in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings to date from this multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance has been assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek since 1999. In the Warm Springs R. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .003 fish/m{sup 2} and .001 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. These densities were the lowest recorded in the Warm Springs River during the period of study. In Shitike Cr. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .025 fish/m{sup 2} and .01 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance in the Warm Springs R. has been assessed since 1999. During 2002 the mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the 2.4 km study area was higher than what was observed in four index reaches. However, the mean relative densities of brook trout was slightly higher in the index reaches than what was observed in the 2.4 km study area. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout were most abundant in pools and glides. However pools and glides comprised less than 20% of the available habitat

  9. Semen and reproductive profiles of genetically identical cloned bulls.

    PubMed

    Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Cooney, Melissa A; Korfiatis, Natasha A; Hodgson, Renee; Williamson, Mark; Downie, Shara; Galloway, David B; French, Andrew J

    2006-06-01

    In this comparative study, reproductive parameters and semen characteristics of cloned bulls (n = 3) derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were compared to their original cell donor Holstein-Friesian (n = 2) bulls from the same enterprise to assess the differences in reproductive potential between a donor bull and its clones. The parameters evaluated included motility of fresh, frozen-thawed and Percoll-treated frozen-thawed spermatozoa, as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability, embryo quality, birth and survival of calves following IVF and embryo transfer with frozen-thawed semen. With fresh semen, spermatozoa from one cloned bull had lower motility than its donor. Cloned bulls had higher velocity parameters in fresh semen, but those effects were not obvious in frozen-thawed or frozen-thawed semen selected with a Percoll gradient. Semen collected from cloned bulls had significantly higher IVF rates compared to donors; however, embryo development per cleaved embryo or quality of blastocysts did not differ between donors and cloned bulls. Pregnancy and live offspring rates from one donor and its cloned bull did not differ between fresh (40%, 16/40 versus 46%, 17/37) and vitrified/thawed (13%, 2/16 versus 25%, 4/16) embryo transfer following IVF. A total of 26 calves were obtained from genotypically identical donor and cloned bulls with no signs of phenotypical abnormalities. These preliminary results suggested that the physiology of surviving postpubertal cloned bulls and quality of collected semen had equivalent reproductive potential to their original cell donor, with no evidence of any deleterious effects in their progeny.

  10. Associations of adiponectin and fertility estimates in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Kastelic, John P; Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2013-03-15

    Adiponectin is a pleiotropic regulator of numerous biological functions, including gonadal steroidogenesis and might play a role in sperm structures and functions. The objectives were to: (1) determine associations among serum concentrations of adiponectin, testosterone, and prolactin, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index; (2) associate sperm adiponectin mRNA abundance with estimates of fertility (sire conception rate); and (3) determine sperm protein expression of adiponectin and its receptor in pre- and postcapacitated sperm from Holstein bulls. In experiment 1, biweekly serum concentrations of adiponectin, prolactin, and testosterone were greater (P < 0.05) for high fertility bulls compared with average and low fertility bulls. Furthermore, sperm DNA fragmentation index was greater (P < 0.05) for low fertility compared with both average and high fertility bulls. In experiment 2, samples of sperm from a single collection from commercial Holstein bulls (N = 34) were used to evaluate relative sperm mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in pre- and postcapacitation sperm. The mRNA abundance of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, were greater for high fertility bulls (>2 to ≤4 sire conception rate) compared with average (≥2 to ≤2) and low (>-2 to ≤-4) fertility bulls. Based on the sperm capacitation assay, average fertility bulls had a greater percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm at 5 hours than high and low fertility bulls, whereas high fertility bulls had a greater percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm than low fertility bulls. After capacitation, levels of adiponectin protein were lower in average fertility bulls, AdipoR1 was lower in all fertility groups, and AdipoR2 was lower in average and high fertility bulls. In conclusion, adiponectin and its receptors had vital roles in sperm structural and functional traits and consequently

  11. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark; Perkins, Raymond R.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  12. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  13. Increase in average testis size of Canadian beef bulls.

    PubMed

    García Guerra, Alvaro; Hendrick, Steve; Barth, Albert D

    2013-05-01

    Selection for adequate testis size in beef bulls is an important part of bull breeding soundness evaluation. Scrotal circumference (SC) is highly correlated with paired testis weight and is a practical method for estimating testis weight in the live animal. Most bulls presented for sale in Canada have SC included in the presale information. Scrotal circumference varies by age and breed, and may change over time due to selection for larger testis size. Therefore, it is important to periodically review the mean SC of various cattle breeds to provide valid bull selection criteria. Scrotal circumference data were obtained from bulls sold in western Canada from 2008 to 2011 and in Quebec from 2006 to 2010. Average scrotal circumferences for the most common beef breeds in Canada have increased significantly in the last 25 years. Differences between breeds have remained unchanged and Simmental bulls still have the largest SC at 1 year of age. Data provided here could aid in the establishment of new suggested minimum SC measurements for beef bulls.

  14. Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood.

  15. Effect of Dursban 44 on semen output of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Everett, R W

    1982-09-01

    Dursban 44, an insecticide for lice control, was applied to 185 Holstein bulls 9 to 52 mo of age. These sires were in various stages of progeny testing at an artificial insemination center. Application of this product killed 7 bulls, and the remaining bulls exhibited varying severity of illness with 6 classified as very sick. This study evaluated the effect of this illness on semen production. Semen output on 40,950 ejaculates from 583 Holstein bulls collected from July 1, 1975, through March 31, 1981, was analyzed to establish normal semen production and to estimate the effect of illness caused by Dursban 44 treatment. Ejaculate number, days between collections by previous number of ejaculates, calendar months, years, and ages of bulls affected the semen output characteristics, original volume, sperm concentration, percent motile sperm, total sperm per ejaculate, percent prefreeze discards, percent postthaw sperm motility, and percent postthaw discards. Ejaculate volume, motility, total percent prefreeze discards, and percent postthaw discards were influenced negatively on the 6 very sick bulls. Percent postthaw discards were higher on all bulls treated with Dursban 44 for up to 6 mo post-treatment.

  16. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  17. Nutritional composition analysis of meat from human lactoferrin transgenic bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Jianxiang; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic technology has many potential advantages in food production. However, the transgenic technology process may influence the composition of food products derived from genetically engineered (GE) animals, which may be adverse to human health. Therefore, it is very important to research the compositions of GE animal products. Here, we analyzed the compositions of meat from the offspring of human lactoferrin (hLF) transgenic cows, which can express human lactoferrin proteins in their mammary gland. Six hLF transgenic bulls and three wide-type (WT) bulls, 10 months of age, were slaughtered for meat composition analysis. To determine the comparative health of hLF bulls for meat analysis, hematological analyses, organ/body weight analyses and pathology analyses were conducted. Results of the meat analysis show that there were no significant differences in the hematological parameters, organ/body weight ratios of hLF and WT bulls (P>0.05), and histopathological examination of the main organs of hLF bulls revealed no abnormalities. Nutrient parameters of meat compositions of hLF and WT bulls did not show any significant differences (P>0.05). All of these results suggest that the hLF transgene did not have an impact on the meat nutrient compositions of hLF bulls.

  18. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    Prior to 1978, bull trout were commonly known as dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) and were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) described the interior form as a distinct species, classifying it as Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1994). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from latitude 41{sup o}N to 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette subbasins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is likely that bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. McKenzie River bull trout were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls prior to 1963. Three populations were isolated following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs which include the mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir, mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls, and the South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. On June 10, 1998 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act and Buchanan et al. (1997) listed the bull trout population in the mainstem McKenzie as ''of special concern'', the South Fork McKenzie population as ''high risk of extinction,'' and the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as ''high risk of extinction.'' Bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette

  19. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma Panhandle, USA

    PubMed Central

    Bement, Leland C.; Madden, Andrew S.; Carter, Brian J.; Simms, Alexander R.; Swindle, Andrew L.; Alexander, Hanna M.; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-01-01

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016–16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity. PMID:24449875

  20. 28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ADJUSTING MACHINERY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus, discovered in Germany in late 2011. It mainly infects cattle, sheep and goats and could lead to congenital infection, causing abortion and fetal abnormalities. SBV is transmitted by biting midges from the Culicoides genus and there is no evidence that natural infection occurs directly between ruminants. Here, we could detect SBV RNA in infected bull semen using qRT-PCR (three bulls out of seven tested positive; 29 positive semen batches out of 136). We also found that highly positive semen batches from SBV infected bulls can provoke an acute infection in IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting the potential presence of infectious virus in the semen of SBV infected bulls. PMID:24708245

  2. 26. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HENRY STREET SCHOOL, 1300 BLOCK BULL STREET, DETAIL OF NORTH ELEVATION - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE TRACTION CABLE BULL WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE TRACTION CABLE BULL WHEEL AND DEPARTING BUCKET "12," STILL ON RAIL AND JUST PRIOR TO ENGAGING TRACTION CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  5. 13. Bull Wheel Core Showing Name of Manufacturer (National Supply ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bull Wheel Core Showing Name of Manufacturer (National Supply Co.), Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  6. 17. View of disassembled reduction gear parts including bull and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of disassembled reduction gear parts including bull and intermediate gears and pedestal bearing. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  7. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Tritrichomonas foetus: prevalence study in naturally mating bulls in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Ch; Bodmer, M; Doherr, M G; Janett, F; Thomann, A; Spycher, C; Iten, C; Hentrich, B; Gottstein, B; Müller, N; Frey, C F

    2014-03-01

    Switzerland is officially free from bovine Tritrichomonas foetus. While bulls used for artificial insemination (AI) are routinely examined for this pathogen, bulls engaged in natural mating, as well as aborted fetuses, are only very sporadically investigated, indicating that the disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis is low. Natural mating in cattle is becoming increasingly popular in Switzerland. Accordingly, a re-introduction/re-occurrence of T. foetus in cattle seems possible either via resurgence from a yet unknown bovine reservoir, or via importation of infected cattle. The low disease awareness for bovine tritrichomoniasis might favor an unnoticed re-establishment of T. foetus in the Swiss cattle population. The aim of our study was thus to search for the parasite, and if found, to assess the prevalence of bovine T. foetus in Switzerland. We included (1) bulls over two years of age used in natural mating and sent to slaughter, (2) bulls used for natural service in herds with or without fertility problems and (3) aborted fetuses. Furthermore, the routinely examined bulls used for AI (4) were included in this study. In total, 1362 preputial samples from bulls and 60 abomasal fluid samples of aborted fetuses were analyzed for the presence of T. foetus by both in vitro cultivation and molecular analyses. The parasite could not be detected in any of the samples, indicating that the maximal prevalence possibly missed was about 0.3% (95% confidence). Interestingly, in preputial samples of three bulls of category 1, apathogenic Tetratrichomonas sp. was identified, documenting a proof-of-principle for the methodology used in this study.

  9. Regional Seismograms: Attenuation and Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-06

    chosen because it can produce a full solution to the elastodynamic equation of motion, and unlike high frequency approximations (such as raytracing ...Lechniques such as raytracing are valid only when the size of the scatterer is large compared to a wavelength (e.g., ka > 10) (Cervenk, et al., 1982...crustal structure in southern Norway, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 61, 457-471, 1971. Skolnik, M. I., Radar Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1970

  10. Short communication: Use of young bulls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, J L; Cole, J B; Bickhart, D M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has resulted in many changes to dairy cattle breeding programs. One such change has been the increased contribution of young bulls (0.8 to 3.9 yr old) to those programs. The increased use of young bulls was investigated using pedigree data and breeding records obtained from the US national dairy database (Beltsville, MD). The adoption of genotyping was so rapid that by 2009, >90% of all Holstein artificial insemination (AI) service sires and 86% of Jersey AI service sires were genotyped, regardless of age. The percentage of sons sired by young bulls increased by 49 percentage points (10% in 2008 compared with 59% in 2012) due to the onset of genomic evaluations for Holsteins and by 46 percentage points for Jerseys (11 and 57%, respectively). When limiting these data to sons retained for breeding purposes through AI, the increase was even more dramatic, increasing approximately 80 percentage points from 2008 to 2012 for both Holsteins and Jerseys (1, 5, 28, 52, and 81% for Holsteins and 3, 4, 43, 46, and 82% for Jerseys from 2008 through 2012). From US breeding records from 2007 through 2012, 24,580,793 Holstein and 1,494,095 Jersey breedings were examined. Young bulls accounted for 28% and 25% of Holstein and Jersey breedings in 2007, respectively. These percentages increased to 51% of Holstein and 52% of Jersey breedings in 2012, representing 23- and 27-percentage-unit increases, respectively. Matings to genotyped young bulls have rapidly increased while the use of nongenotyped bulls has diminished since the onset of genomics. Mean sire age for Holstein male progeny born in 2012 was 2.7 yr younger than males born in 2006, and 1.3 yr younger for females; corresponding values for Jerseys were 2.3 and 0.9 yr. Holstein male offspring had an increase of 281 kg between 2006 and 2012, compared with 197 kg between 2000 and 2006 for parent averages (PA) for milk, an increase of 84 kg between the 2 periods. Jersey male

  11. The sequential appearance of sperm abnormalities after scrotal insulation or dexamethasone treatment in bulls.

    PubMed Central

    Barth, A D; Bowman, P A

    1994-01-01

    Scrotal insulation and dexamethasone treatment were used as a model to compare the effect of testicular heating and stress on spermatogenesis. Insulation was applied to the scrotum of eight bulls (insulated) for a period of four days, eight bulls were treated daily for seven days with 20 mg dexamethasone injected intramuscularly, and four bulls were untreated controls. Semen from four bulls in each group was collected and evaluated over a six-week period after treatment. Blood samples for testosterone analysis were taken hourly for eight hours at the beginning and the end of the six-week period from the control bulls and before and after treatment from the four insulated and four dexamethasone-treated bulls that were not used for semen collection. At the end of the last blood sampling period, the four bulls in each group were castrated for the collection of testicular tissue for the determination of testosterone concentrations. Basal, peak episodic, and mean serum testosterone concentrations among control bulls, pre and postinsulated bulls, and pretreatment samples of dexamethasone-treated bulls were not different (p > 0.05); however, bulls that had received dexamethasone treatments had significantly lower basal, peak episodic, and mean testosterone concentrations (p < 0.05). Tissue concentrations of testosterone in control, insulated, and dexamethasone-treated bulls were not significantly different but tended to be lower in dexamethasone-treated bulls (p > 0.13). The spermiograms of the control bulls varied insignificantly over the six-week sampling period; however, there was a marked increase in sperm defects in insulated and dexamethasone-treated bulls. The types of sperm defects and the temporal relationships of rises and declines of sperm defects were quite similar for both treatments. All bulls recovered to approximately pretreatment levels of sperm defects by six weeks after the initiation of treatment. Results indicate that two of the most common types of

  12. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  13. The relationship of bull fertility to sperm nuclear shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostermeier, G.C.; Sargeant, G.A.; Yandell, B.S.; Parrish, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    group had a linear relationship (r .89, P .05) with fertility. To construct a plot of mean sperm shapes, a novel technique to automatically orient and identify the anterior tip of the sperm head was developed. The mean nuclear shape of high-fertility sperm was more elongated and tapered than those of lower fertility. A discriminant function (P .05) was also constructed that separated the 6 bulls into 2 groups based only on the harmonic amplitudes or sperm nuclear shape. The bulls were correctly classified into the 2 fertility groups. A comparison of sperm chromatin structure analysis (SCSA) and harmonic amplitudes found that overall size variance, anterior roundness, and posterior taperedness of sperm nuclei were related to chromatin stability (P .05). Some of the differences observed in sperm nuclear shape between the high- and lower-fertility bulls may be explained by varying levels of chromatin stability. However, sperm nuclear shape appears to contain additional information from chromatin stability alone. In this particular study, with 6 bulls, all with good chromatin quality, sperm nuclear shape was a better predictor of bull fertility.

  14. Behavioral aspects of electronic bull separation and mate allocation in multiple-sire mating paddocks.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Prayaga, K C; Fisher, A D; Henshall, J M

    2008-07-01

    Controlling spatial positioning of cattle through use of electronic collars could provide new ways to farm under extensive conditions. This study examined the potential for bulls to be controlled during mating using mild electric shocks delivered through radio-controlled collars. Eighteen Belmont Red bulls were fitted with collars containing the Global Positioning System and that were able to emit a mild electric shock (500 mW) at the top of the neck behind the poll. Eighteen Belmont Red cows were fitted with Global Positioning System collars only. The experiment was replicated 3 times in 3 paddocks. Each paddock contained 2 bulls and 1 cow in induced estrus. On d 1, the bulls were either assigned to the cow or not assigned to the cow, and on d 2, the assignments were reversed, and bulls received the other treatment using a new cow. Treatments were applied for 2 h on each day. The nonassigned bull received a mild electric shock on approach to either the cow or to a bull, whereas the assigned bull received a mild electric shock on approach to the other bull only. The electric shock was applied when the bulls were within approximately 10 m and moving toward the nonallowed animal. The electric shock was terminated when the animal responded by stopping movement toward the nonallowed animal. In the first 10 min, nonassigned bulls spent less time within 5 m of the cow (P = 0.03) than assigned bulls. Assigned bulls spent more time close to the cow during the entire 120 min on d 1 than on d 2 (P = 0.014). On d 1, the assigned bulls moved more toward the cow and the nonassigned bull than they did on d 2 (P = 0.02). Assigned bulls displayed more sexual behaviors than nonassigned bulls (P = 0.004). Nonassigned bulls were sometimes observed not to approach the cow despite a change in its location. This suggests that the bull associated the electric shock with the cow and not with the location in which it received the electric shock. Instances were observed in which the cow

  15. Uroperitoneum attributable to ruptured urachus in a yearling bull.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G M; Zamos, D T; Mueller, P O

    1992-02-15

    Ruptured urachus was found to result in uroperitoneum in a yearling Beefmaster bull. The uroperitoneum was initially believed to be attributable to ruptured bladder secondary to urolithiasis; however, catheter decompression of the bladder through an ischiatic urethrotomy did not resolve the uroperitoneum. The persistent urachus was diagnosed and removed through caudal right flank laparotomy with the bull standing. The urachus was attached to the umbilicus, communicated with the lumen of the bladder, and had a mucosal lining. Ruptured urachus is an unusual cause of uroperitoneum, but can cause clinical signs identical to those of ruptured bladder. Persistent urachus is a congenital abnormality in many species, but may be hereditary in Beefmaster cattle. In addition, the bull in this report developed hyperkalemia, which is considered an unusual finding in cattle with uroperitoneum.

  16. Perineal Bull Gore with Urinary Bladder Perforation and Pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    R, Santhosh; Barad, Arun Kumar; Ghalige, Hemanth Sureshwara; K, Sridartha; Sharma M, Birkumar

    2013-01-01

    Animal related injuries are frequently reported in India and other countries, where bulls are used for sporting events as well as in places where farming and livestock rearing is practised. The presentation is, many times, atypical and misleading as well. They have unique mechanics of injury. The patterns of the injury are reviewed. An intra-peritoneal urinary bladder injury which is caused by a perineal bull gore with a pneumoperitoneum is unusual and it has not been reported in the literature which was reviewed. We are reporting a successfully treated 25 years old male patient from the slopes of the southern district of Manipur, India, who had presented 40 hours after he was injured. The identification and prompt exploration, keeping in mind the mechanics of bull goring, helps the surgeons to adequately deal such atypical injuries, for optimal outcomes. PMID:23814738

  17. Zinc and magnesium in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Arver, S; Eliasson, R

    1980-11-01

    Mean +/- s.e.m. concentrations (nmol/10(8) cells) of zinc and magnesium in bull spermatozoa were 30.6 +/- 6.6 and 119 +/- 28.8, respectively. Corresponding values for boar spermatozoa were 16.9 +/- 1.98 and 57.1 +/- 4.3. Bull spermatozoa washed twice in a standard buffered salt solution, pH 7.75, lost 72.6% of their zinc and 46.5% of their magnesium. Boar spermatozoa lost 40% of Zn and 18% of Mg, respectively. Addition of albumin (4% final concentration) to the washing solution did not increase the loss of ions from bull spermatozoa but increased the loss of zinc and magnesium from boar spermatozoa to 52% and 41%, respectively.

  18. 75 FR 13715 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and... of critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) ] under the Endangered Species Act of... January 14, 2010, we published our proposed revised designation of critical habitat for bull trout in...

  19. The influence of temperament, transportation stress, and endotoxin challenge on body composition traits in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament of bulls on ultrasound body composition traits in response to transportation and an endotoxin challenge. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected from a pool of 60 bulls based on temperament scores measured at weaning (n=8 each: calm, int...

  20. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami... during the Red Bull Flugtag. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take place on Saturday, November 3... to the water below. 150 spectator vessels are expected to attend the event. The special...

  1. 78 FR 57061 - Special Local Regulation; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Red Bull Flugtag Miami..., during the Red Bull Flugtag. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take place on September 21, 2013. The... foot ramp to the water below. Approximately 100 spectator vessels are anticipated to be at the...

  2. 78 FR 40079 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami... Park, in Miami, Florida, during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take... flying objects from a 30 foot ramp to the water below. The special local regulation is necessary...

  3. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa.

  4. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  5. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  6. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  7. TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE HORIZONTAL, IDLER, BULL WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE HORIZONTAL, IDLER, BULL WHEEL TO REVERSE DIRECTION OF TRACTION CABLE. TRAM CABLE DRIVE MOTOR (NO LONGER EXTANT) WAS AT MINE END OF TRAM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…

  9. Relationships among temperament, behavior, and growth during performance testing of bulls.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, S A; Kattesh, H G; Krawczel, P D; Kirkpatrick, F D; Saxton, A M; Rhinehart, J D; Wilkerson, J B

    2015-12-01

    Excitable cattle are dangerous to personnel and have reduced individual performance. The aim of this study was to 1) identify objective criteria for evaluating bull temperament and 2) examine relationships among temperament, behavior, and performance of bulls during an 84-d performance test. Angus bulls ( = 60) were reared in 6 pens based on BW and age. Pen scores (PS; 1 = docile and 5 = very aggressive) were assigned on d -1, 27, 55, and 83. Exit velocity (EV), BW, time to exit the chute, and order through the chute were recorded on d 0, 28, 56, and 84. The ADG was calculated for the 84-d test period, and ultrasound data and frame score calculations were recorded on d 84. Dataloggers measured steps taken, lying time, number of lying bouts, and lying bout duration of bulls ( = 27; 3 pens) from d 3 to 28 and d 59 to 84. Bulls with a d -1 PS of 1 or 2 were categorized as calm (PScalm; = 40), whereas bulls with a PS of 3 or 4 were categorized as excitable (PSexcitable; = 20). Bulls were separated into 2 groups based on the bottom 20 EV (EVcalm) and top 20 EV (EVexcitable) on d 0. Mixed model ANOVA (SAS 9.3) was used to compare groups for the two temperament assessment methods, behavior, and growth performance. Mean EV decreased ( < 0.05) by d 84. Total lying time from d 3 to 28 was greater ( < 0.05) for PScalm bulls when compared with PSexcitable bulls. However, total lying time from d 59 to 84 was greater ( < 0.05) for EVexcitable bulls when compared with EVcalm bulls. Regardless of initial contemporary group assignment, all bulls exited the chute slower ( < 0.001) on d 84 than on d 0. The PSexcitable bulls had greater ( < 0.01) frame scores and greater ADG than PScalm bulls. The PSexcitable bulls had more ( < 0.01) backfat than PScalm bulls. However, ribeye area was smaller ( < 0.01) in EVexcitable bulls than EVcalm bulls. Based on these results, bulls appeared to have habituated over the testing period. Additionally, the potential lack of innate temperament

  10. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  11. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  12. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  13. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly; Olson, Jason

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  14. Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are

  15. Rhombencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a pastured bull.

    PubMed

    Matto, Carolina; Varela, Gustavo; Mota, María Inés; Gianneechini, Ruben; Rivero, Rodolfo

    2017-03-01

    A pastured 2-y-old cross-breed bull developed brainstem encephalitis (rhombencephalitis); Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain. In the brainstem, there was perivascular cuffing, multiple microabscesses, and positive immunostaining for L. monocytogenes. Samples of bovine feces, water, feedstuffs, milking parlor soil, and bulk tank milk were collected from the dairy farm. Seven isolates of the genus Listeria were obtained, 6 of L. innocua and 1 of L. monocytogenes, which was found in the pasture where the bull grazed. Both isolates belonged to serotype 4b and were positive for internalins A, C, and J. According to the DNA fragment patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the isolates were closely related. The source of infection was the pasture, implying that listeriosis should not be discounted in cases with compatible clinical signs but the absence of silage feeding.

  16. Bull breeding soundness, semen evaluation and cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J

    2016-06-01

    The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries.

  17. Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistula in a Brown Swiss bull.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Spiess, B; Matheis, F; Schnetzler, C; Trösch, L; Drögemüller, C; Gerspach, C

    2012-03-01

    A five-year-old Brown Swiss bull was referred to the Department of Farm Animals, University of Zurich, because of bilateral epiphora that was unresponsive to treatment. Clinical examination revealed a fistulous opening medial to the medial canthus of both eyes and mucopurulent discharge from both openings. Attempts to flush the nasolacrimal duct via the lacrimal points resulted in the fluid exiting via the fistulous opening. Retrograde flushing of the nasolacrimal duct from the nasolacrimal opening resulted in the flush fluid flowing back out the nasolacrimal opening. Bilateral lacrimal fistula medial to the medial canthus of the eye was diagnosed based on the findings. The same anomaly was diagnosed a year later in 4 related female animals referred to our Department for other reasons. Three of the cases were sired by the bull described above and one was sired by his half-brother. Therefore, an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of this anomaly was assumed. Clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies of the offspring of both bulls are underway to further investigate this anomaly.

  18. Purification and properties of hyaluronidase from bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Srivastava, P N

    1975-01-10

    Hyaluronidase from bull sperm was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex chromatography. The highly purified hyaluronidase preparation showed 2,370 units per mg of protein (68,730 N.F. units per mg of protein), i.e. 182-fold purification. Disc gel electrophoresis showed one major component. The molecular weight of bull sperm hyaluronidase was 62,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Hyaluronidase from bull sperm has optimum activity at pH 3.8 and an absolute requirement for cations. Kplus and Naplus have a greater effect than Ca2plus, Mg2plus, and Mn2plus, whereas Co2plus, Cu2plus, and Zn2plus do not affect the enzyme activity. Purified preparations are less stable than crude extracts stored frozen at minus 15 degrees. Km of hyaluronidase with hyaluronic acid as substrate is 3.7 mg per ml and Vmax is 2.4 mumol per min by Hofstee plot.

  19. Bull selection and use in northern Australia. 5. Social behaviour and management.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, G; Fitzpatrick, L A; Cooper, N J; Doogan, V J; De Faveri, J; Holroyd, R G

    2002-05-15

    Calf output of bulls was derived using DNA typing for paternity following multiple-sire mating at two sites in northern Australia. At Swan's Lagoon Beef Cattle Research Station, 12, mixed-age, Brahman cross bulls were continuously mated with an average of 325 females in a 22km2 open-savannah paddock. Water was available in two troughs. Behaviour of the bulls and location of cows were monitored. At Kamilaroi Station, 2- to 2.5-year-old Brahman bulls were introduced to the study. Twenty-four bulls (HIGH%) were mated in an 84km2 paddock for 3.5 months to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and for 4.5 months to 350 heifers and 320 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. A second group of 10 bulls (LOW%) selected on reproductive soundness was mated concurrently in a neighbouring 60km2 paddock to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and to 350 heifers and 298 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. In each paddock in both years, 300-350 females were expected to cycle during mating. Both paddocks were flat and semi-forested and water was available only at troughs. At both sites, detailed physical and reproductive examinations of all bulls were conducted prior to and post-mating.Calf output of individual bulls was highly variable but repeatable (r=0.6-0.7) between years. Up to 90% of the 270-380 calves resulting from each mating were sired by between 6 and 8 bulls. Reducing from 3.7 to 2.8% bulls:females at Swan's Lagoon did not delay conceptions. At Kamilaroi, reproductively sound bulls achieved an estimated 5-6 conceptions per week over the peak mating period when sufficient cycling females were available. Differences in pregnancy rates between paddocks appeared due to differences in nutrition and it appeared that conceptions were not delayed with LOW% vs. HIGH% bulls. Variance between bulls in calf output was substantially lower when fewer bulls were used. Bull attrition occurred each year in the HIGH% paddock but not in the LOW% paddock. Calf output was unrelated to body condition of bulls. Seven of

  20. Summer microhabitat use of fluvial bull trout in Eastern Oregon streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, R.; Budy, P.

    2007-01-01

    The management and recovery of populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus requires a comprehensive understanding of habitat use across different systems, life stages, and life history forms. To address these needs, we collected microhabitat use and availability data in three fluvial populations of bull trout in eastern Oregon. We evaluated diel differences in microhabitat use, the consistency of microhabitat use across systems and size-classes based on preference, and our ability to predict bull trout microhabitat use. Diel comparisons suggested bull trout continue to use deeper microhabitats with cover but shift into significantly slower habitats during nighttime periods; however, we observed no discrete differences in substrate use patterns across diel periods. Across life stages, we found that both juvenile and adult bull trout used slow-velocity microhabitats with cover, but the use of specific types varied. Both logistic regression and habitat preference analyses suggested that adult bull trout used deeper habitats than juveniles. Habitat preference analyses suggested that bull trout habitat use was consistent across all three systems, as chi-square tests rejected the null hypotheses that microhabitats were used in proportion to those available (P < 0.0001). Validation analyses indicated that the logistic regression models (juvenile and adult) were effective at predicting bull trout absence across all tests (specificity values = 100%); however, our ability to accurately predict bull trout absence was limited (sensitivity values = 0% across all tests). Our results highlight the limitations of the models used to predict microhabitat use for fish species like bull trout, which occur at naturally low densities. However, our results also demonstrate that bull trout microhabitat use patterns are generally consistent across systems, a pattern that parallels observations at both similar and larger scales and across life history forms. Thus, our results, in

  1. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    PubMed

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable.

  2. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    PubMed

    Persson, Ylva; Söderquist, Lennart; Ekman, Stina

    2007-11-05

    The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle), tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal) joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples) from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34) had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93%) had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86%) of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47%) had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71%) of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12%) had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9%) had mild osteoarthritis (OA), 5 (5/34, 15%) moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50%) severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15%) deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97%) were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34) had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%). Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11) had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55%) or moderate (36%). None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  3. Influence of Wave Refraction on Coastal Geomorphology-Bull Island to Isle of Palms, South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    coast from Bull Island to the Isle of Palms . REFRAC, a computerized wave-refracti program developed for this study, generates refraction diagrams...Geomorphology Bull Island to Isle of Palms , South Carolina Cary Fico Coastal Research Division Department of Geology Uo 0O University of South Carolina Columnbia...South Carolina 29208 80 :i1 13 U23 INFLUENCE OF WAVE REFRACTION ON COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY -- BULL ISLAND TO ISLE OF PALMS , SOUTH CAROLINA by Cary Fico

  4. Fertility aspects in yearling beef bulls grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, G M; Edwards, J L; Hopkins, F M; Rohrbach, N R; Adair, H S; Scenna, F N; Waller, J C; Oliver, J W; Saxton, A M; Schrick, F N

    2005-01-01

    During a 2-year study, yearling beef bulls were used to determine the effects of grazing on endophyte-infected tall fescue on endocrine profiles, semen quality and fertilisation potential. Bulls were allotted to graze tall fescue pastures infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+; n = 20 per year) or Jesup/MaxQ (Pennington Seed, Atlanta, GA, USA; NTE; n = 10 per year). Bulls were grouped by scrotal circumference (SC), bodyweight (BW), breed composites and age to graze tall fescue pastures from mid-November until the end of June (within each year). Blood samples, BW, SC and rectal temperatures (RT) were collected every 14 days. Semen was collected from bulls every 60 days by electroejaculation and evaluated for motility and morphology. The developmental competence of oocytes fertilised in vitro with semen from respective treatments was determined. Bulls grazing E+ pastures had decreased BW gain (P < 0.01), increased overall RT (P < 0.01) and decreased prolactin (P < 0.01) compared with animals grazing NTE pastures. Neither percentage of normal sperm morphology nor motility differed between bulls grazed on the two pasture types. Semen from E+ bulls demonstrated decreased cleavage rates (P = 0.02) compared with semen from NTE bulls. However, development of cleaved embryos to the eight-cell and blastocyst stages did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, semen from bulls grazing E+ tall fescue resulted in decreased cleavage rates in vitro, which may lower reproductive performance owing to reduced fertilisation ability.

  5. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  6. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  7. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of Taurine, Indicine, and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bull spermatozoa for identification of proteins related to sperm malfunctions and subfertility in crossbred bulls.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aslam, Munchakkal Kather; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Tajmul, Md; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita

    2015-09-01

    Subfertility is one of the most common problems observed among Taurine × Indicine crossbred bulls in tropical countries; however, the etiology remain unknown in most of the cases. In present study, we compared the proteomic profile of spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) against their purebred parent lines (Holstein Friesian [Taurine] and Tharparkar [Indicine]) to find out alteration in expressions of proteins, if any. The proteomic profiles of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from these breeds were compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. It was observed that compared to Holstein Friesian, nine proteins were underexpressed and eight proteins were overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls. Similarly, four proteins were overexpressed and four proteins were underexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. In concurrent three breed comparison, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between these breeds. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the expression levels of several functionally significant proteins are either upregulated or downregulated in spermatozoa of crossbred bulls, which might be related to high incidence of subfertility in these bulls.

  9. Distribution and Movement of Bull Trout in the Upper Jarbidge River Watershed, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Charrier, Jodi; Dixon, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, we surveyed the occurrence of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), the relative distributions of bull trout and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and stream habitat conditions in the East and West Forks of the Jarbidge River in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems at strategic locations within the watershed, and PIT-tagged bull trout were monitored to evaluate individual fish growth, movement, and the connectivity of bull trout between streams. Robust bull trout populations were found in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, the West Fork Jarbidge River, and in the Pine, Jack, Dave, and Fall Creeks. Small numbers of bull trout also were found in Slide and Cougar Creeks. Bull trout were numerically dominant in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, and in Fall, Dave, Jack, and Pine Creeks, whereas redband trout were numerically dominant throughout the rest of the watershed. The relative abundance of bull trout was notably higher at altitudes above 2,100 m. This study was successful in documenting bull trout population connectivity within the West Fork Jarbidge River, particularly between West Fork Jarbidge River and Pine Creek. Downstream movement of bull trout to the confluence of the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River both from Jack Creek (rkm 16.6) in the West Fork Jarbidge River and from Dave Creek (rkm 7.5) in the East Fork Jarbidge River was detected. Although bull trout exhibited some downstream movement during the spring and summer, much of their emigration occurred in the autumn, concurrent with decreasing water temperatures and slightly increasing flows. The bull trout that emigrated were mostly age-2 or older, but some age-1 fish also emigrated. Upstream movement by bull trout was detected less than downstream movement. The overall mean annual growth rate of bull trout in the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River was 36 mm

  10. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ∼40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P < 0.001) number of calves (Ncalf), ranging from 0 (4.4% of bulls present in any given breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P < 0.01) in the average individual 205-d adjusted weaning weight (I205) of progeny, and I205 varied between years (P < 0.01) and seasons (P < 0.01) but not ranches (P = 0.29). The pattern for cumulative total 205-d adjusted weaning weight of all progeny sired by a bull (T205) was highly correlated to Ncalf, with small differences between ranches (P = 0.35), years (P = 0.66), and seasons (P = 0.20) but large differences (P < 0.01) between bulls, ranging from an average of 676 to 8,838 kg per bull per calf crop. The peak Ncalf occurred at about 5 yr of age for bulls ranging from 2 to 11 yr of age. Weekly conception rates as assessed by date of calving varied significantly and peaked at wk 3 of the calving season. The distribution of calves born early in the calving season was disproportionately skewed toward the highly prolific bulls. The DNA paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to

  11. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  12. Massive obstructive urolithiasis in a bull used for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Ogaa, J S; Agumbah, G J; Patel, J H; Kiere, S; Mwangi, J L

    A seven-year-old Jersey bull used for artificial insemination showed clinical signs of obstructive urolithiasis. This was confirmed by catheterisation and subsequent urethrotomy over the site of obstruction distal to the sigmoid flexure. Although urine flow was elicited after removal of the calculi, this was only temporary and the animal had to be killed 24 hours later. On post mortem examination about 2 kg of round, smooth, pearl-like calculi were found in the urinary bladder and the urethra of the sigmoid flexure was studded with similar calculi. It was concluded that urethrotomy at the sigmoid flexure or penectomy post scrotally would not have alleviated this condition.

  13. Evaluation of bison (Bison bison) semen from Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA, bulls for Brucella abortus shedding.

    PubMed

    Frey, Rebecca K; Clarke, P Ryan; McCollum, Matt P; Nol, Pauline; Johnson, Kammy R; Thompson, Brent D; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Rhyan, Jack C

    2013-07-01

    To determine if bison (Bison bison) bulls from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Montana, USA, shed an infective dose of Brucella abortus in semen, 50 YNP bulls were captured on public lands in Montana during the winter and early spring (April-May) of 2010 and 2011. The bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and Brucella culture. Thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and B. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive or suspect bulls, though not at concentrations considered an infective dose. Eight bulls (six antibody-positive, two negative) had palpable lesions of the testes, epididymides, or seminal vesicles consistent with B. abortus infection. Breeding soundness exams and semen analysis suggested that antibody-positive bulls were more likely to have nonviable ejaculate (8/35; 23%) than bulls without detectable antibody (2/15; 13%).

  14. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected for this study based on temperament score. Bulls were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters for serial sampling to evaluate peri...

  15. Influence of temperament and transportation on physiological and endocrinological parameters in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured physiological, immunological, and endocrinological responses to transportation. Based on temperament score (TS), the 7 most calm (TS = 0.84 +/- 0.03) and 8 most temperamental (TS = 3.37 +/- 0.18) Brahman bulls were selected from our research herd. Prior to transportation, bulls w...

  16. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow...

  17. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  18. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... on the water could easily result in serious injuries or fatalities. Establishing a safety zone...

  19. "As if Reviewing His Life": Bull Lodge's Narrative and the Mediation of Self-Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1980, on behalf of the Gros Ventre people, George P. Horse Capture published "The Seven Visions of Bull Lodge, as Told by His Daughter, Garter Snake." "The Seven Visions" describes a lifetime of personal encounters with Powerful other-than-human Persons by the noted Gros Ventre warrior and ritual leader, Bull Lodge (ca.…

  20. Foucault and Colonial Strategy in Douglas C. Jones' "Arrest Sitting Bull"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    "Arrest Sitting Bull," a novel written by Douglas C. Jones that relates the personal stories of individuals involved in the military and the political domination of the Sioux Indian during the period leading to the Sitting Bull killing is described. The incessant quest to establish and maintain control and the integral roles played by fear and…

  1. Effect of supplemental trace mineral level and form on peripubertal bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to determine if different supplemental trace mineral levels and /or forms (sulfate and metal amino acid complexes) influence age at puberty, semen quality, endocrine status and scrotal circumference in peripubertal bulls. Fifty crossbred, peripubertal bulls were blocked by age (...

  2. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  3. Reproductive characteristics of grass-fed, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-immunocastrated Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J A; Zanella, E L; Bogden, R; de Avila, D M; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-12-01

    Two field trials were conducted in Brazil to evaluate LHRH immunocastration of Bos indicus bulls (d 0 = 2 yr of age). In Study I, 72 bulls were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: LHRH0-immunized, castrated, and intact. Immunized animals (n = 25) received a primary and two booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7 fusion proteins on d 0, 141, and 287. Twenty-three bulls were surgically castrated on d 141, and 24 served as intact controls. All animals were slaughtered on d 385, at approximately 3 yr of age. In Study II, 216 bulls were assigned randomly to the same three treatments as in Study I; however, because of a drought in the area, bulls were kept on pasture an additional year, and a fourth treatment was added, in which one-half the LHRH-immunized bulls received an additional booster on d 639 (fourth immunization). All animals in Study II were slaughtered on d 741 (4 yr of age). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies increased following each immunization for immunized bulls, but they were not detectable in castrate or intact animals in either study. Consequently, scrotal circumference was suppressed in immunized bulls compared with intact controls in both studies. By d 287, serum concentrations of testosterone in LHRH-immunized bulls were decreased compared with intact controls (P < 0.01). In both studies, testes and epididymal weights at slaughter were greater (P < 0.01) for intact (500 +/- 17 and 60 +/- 2 g, respectively) than for immunized bulls (173 +/- 22 and 26 +/- 2 g, respectively) and fourth immunization bulls (78 +/- 23 and 20 +/- 2 g, respectively; Study II). At the end of each study, BW was greater (P < 0.01) for intact bulls than for castrated and LHRH-immunized animals. In these two studies, the efficacy of the LHRH fusion proteins to induce an effect similar to that of surgical castration was considered 92 and 93%, respectively. These data support the concept that immunocastration of bulls at 2 yr of

  4. Spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Larson, Gary L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spawning migration of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in the North Fork Skokomish River in Olympic National Park (Washington State) during 1996. Day-snorkeling and electrofishing were conducted to determine timing and duration of the migration and the distribution and abundance of bull trout. The primary spawning migration began in early October and was waning by December. Bull trout migrated 6 km or less up the river from Lake Cushman. Increased river discharge and decreased water temperature appeared to be the primary environmental variables corresponding to the initiation of the migration. Mean length of migratory bull trout increased from June to December. Comparisons with other lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations in Oregon, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia suggested that these populations exhibit specific migratory strategies related to local environmental conditions.

  5. Relationship between the nuclear morphology of the sperm of 10 bulls and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Vieytes, A L; Cisale, H O; Ferrari, M R

    2008-11-22

    The relationships between the fertility and nuclear morphology, chromatin maturity and chromatin condensation of the sperm of three bulls with a calving rate over a year of more than 65 per cent, four bulls with a calving rate between 65 per cent and 35 per cent, and three bulls with a calving rate of less than 35 per cent were studied. The sperm nuclei were stained with the Feulgen reaction, and chromatin condensation and maturation were evaluated in situ by staining with toluidine blue and acid aniline blue. Nuclear chromatin decondensation was induced with dithiothreitol; this showed that in the bulls with low fertility, more than 35 per cent of nuclei were decondensed, and that one of them had the lowest percentage of normal nuclei (64.9 per cent) and stronger positive reactions to the acid aniline blue and toluidine blue stains than the other bulls.

  6. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Sperm protamine-status correlates to the fertility of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Sule; Vargovic, Peter; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Belser, Lauren E; Kaya, Abdullah; Moura, Arlindo; Sutovsky, Peter; Parrish, John; Topper, Einko; Memili, Erdoğan

    2015-04-01

    During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin

  8. Electroejaculation increased vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, but not substance P, in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Coffman, E A; Coetzee, J F; Daniel, J A

    2012-09-01

    Electroejaculation is a reliable method of obtaining a semen sample for a bull breeding soundness examination, but is sometimes regarded as painful. Substance P is a neuropeptide involved in the integration of pain, stress, and anxiety. We hypothesized that substance P is a measure of pain in bulls following electroejaculation. The specific objective was to compare vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and substance P immunoreactivity in bulls following electroejaculation. Nine Angus bulls (501.9 ± 14.3 kg) were used. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, 2, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 min relative to treatment. At Time 0, bulls were subject to electroejaculation, rectal probe insertion without electroejaculation, or no manipulation. Treatments were administered contemporaneously to three bulls. Treatments were repeated weekly until each bull had received each treatment in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. More bulls (P = 0.0147) in the electroejaculation group vocalized (5 of 9 bulls; 55.6%) when compared to controls (0 of 9 bulls; 0%). Mean plasma cortisol and progesterone concentration following electroejaculation in bulls were higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations in probed and control bulls through the 45 min sample. However, mean plasma substance P concentration following electroejaculation in bulls (77.2 ± 17.2 pg/mL) was not different (P = 0.6264) from probed (79.1 ± 17.2 pg/mL) or control bulls (93.4 ± 17.2 pg/mL). A significant increase in vocalization and plasma cortisol and progesterone concentrations in bulls following electroejaculation was likely owing to acute stress. However, the lack of a difference in plasma concentrations of substance P after electroejaculation was interpreted as a lack of pain associated with nociception.

  9. Bull Fertility and Its Relation with Density Gradient Selected Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Allouche, Lynda; Madani, Toufik; Mechmeche, Mohamed; Clement, Laetitia; Bouchemal, Allaoua

    2017-01-01

    Background Sperm selection method is usually used to collect these cells for in vitro-assisted reproduction. Few studies reported the relationship of in vivo fertility and semen parameters after sperm selection; hence, the present study attempted to assess different semen parameters after post-thaw or sperm selection, using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict in vivo fertility. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, frozen semen quality of four Montbeliarde bulls were assessed after post-thaw (PT) or after sperm selection (SSp), using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict the fertility rate in vivo. In addition to PT or SSp, semen was examined for concentration, motility, morphology abnormalities, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrities. Fertility was measured as non-return rates within 56 days after the first insemination (NRR) or as corrected NRR, expressed as CNRR, to the factors influencing fertility using linear mixed model. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare semen parameter variables. Fertility rates were compared using Chi-square test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between CNRR and semen parameters. Data was analysed using SPSS package program, version 21.0. Results Most of the examined bulls exhibited a high fertility rate (3/4 bulls, 62.1- 81.8% for NRR or 67.2-98.5% for CNRR). Fertility rate, expressed as CNRR, was significantly related to semen parameters after SSp, but not after PT. Thus, CNRR was increased with decrease of total motility, progressive spermatozoa and abaxial implantation frequencies after SSp (r=-0.999, P=0.001; r=-0.990, P=0.010; r=-0.988, P= 0.012, respectively); while, CNRR was decreased with decrease of SSp immotile spermatozoa (r=+0.995, P=0.005), underlying that maximal limit of determined immotile spermatozoa is 47%. Conclusion High frequencies of total and progressive motility spermatozoa, and abaxial implantation in

  10. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  11. Diet overlap of top-level predators in recent sympatry: bull trout and nonnative lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Christopher S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Smith, Clinton J.; Garfield, David W.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lakes containing lacustrine–adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus often results in a precipitous decline in bull trout abundance. The exact mechanism for the decline is unknown, but one hypothesis is related to competitive exclusion for prey resources. We had the rare opportunity to study the diets of bull trout and nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake, Montana during a concomitant study. The presence of nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake is relatively recent and the population is experiencing rapid population growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diets of bull trout and lake trout during the early expansion of this nonnative predator. Diets were sampled from 142 bull trout and 327 lake trout during the autumn in 2007 and 2008. Bull trout and lake trout had similar diets, both consumed Mysis diluviana as the primary invertebrate, especially at juvenile stages, and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka as the primary vertebrate prey, as adults. A diet shift from primarily M. diluviana to fish occurred at similar lengths for both species, 506 mm (476–545 mm, 95% CI) for bull trout and 495 mm (470–518 mm CI) for lake trout. These data indicate high diet overlap between these two morphologically similar top-level predators. Competitive exclusion may be a possible mechanism if the observed overlap remains similar at varying prey densities and availability.

  12. Inbreeding depression on semen quality in Austrian dual-purpose simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Maximini, L; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Gredler, B; Baumung, R

    2011-02-01

    Using pedigree data, the inbreeding coefficients of 715 Austrian dual-purpose Simmental (Fleckvieh) bulls stationed in two artificial insemination (AI) centres in Upper and Lower Austria were calculated and incorporated in statistical models for the analysis of semen quality. Five semen quality parameters (volume, concentration, motility, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate and percentage of viable spermatozoa) of approximately 30,000 ejaculates, used in two separate data sets, were investigated. The mixed model included the fixed effects age class of the bull, bull handler, semen collector, month and year of collection, number of collection per bull and day, time interval since last collection, the linear continuous effect of the inbreeding coefficient of the bull, interactions between age class and month, and age class and interval since last collection, respectively, as well as the random effect of the bull and the random residual effect. Non-linear effects of inbreeding were significant for motility only. Despite the quite low inbreeding coefficients (mean 1.3%), all semen quality traits showed inbreeding depression, in four of the five traits significantly in at least one of the data sets. The magnitude of inbreeding depression was small, which might partly be caused by the low inbreeding levels and a potential pre-selection of the bulls in the AI centres. However, monitoring of inbreeding depression on fertility traits is recommended to avoid unrecognized deterioration of such traits.

  13. Effects of diets containing gossypol on spermatogenic tissues of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Arshami, J; Ruttle, J L

    1988-09-01

    Eighteen yearling beef bulls were used in a study to determine the effects of diets containing gossypol on spermatogenic tissues, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of three (n = 6) isonitrogenous diet groups formulated from alfalfa hay and corn (gossypol-free control), control plus whole cottonseed and cottonseed hulls, or control plus cottonseed meal and cottonseed hulls as sources of gossypol. Testicular tissues collected were examined histologically, and tissues from bulls fed gossypol-free diets were compared with those fed diets containing cottonseed products. Following a 2-mo period (P(1)) when bulls were fed diets containing gossypol, one-half of the bulls were placed on a gossypol-free diet for an additional 2 mo (P(2)) to determine if gossypol effects were reversible. At the end of P(1), bulls fed whole cottonseed and cottonseed meal had larger (P<0.01) lumens in their seminiferous tubules, decreased (P<0.001) wall thickness in their seminiferous tubules, and a reduced (P<0.0001) number of cell layers in their seminiferous tubles, when compared with bulls fed a gossypol-free diet. These histological changes indicate detrimental effects to the spermatogenic tissues and associated cells. Following the initial two months (P(1)) of receiving feed containing gossypol, herd mates that were fed a gossypol-free diet for 2 mo (P(2)) showed improvement in histological characteristics, indicating that gossypol-induced effects were partially reversible.

  14. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  15. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Frances R; Gronli, Tyler D; Batool, Narjes; Haight, Nicole; Mehaffey, April; McMahon, Erin C; Nalli, Thomas W; Mannello, Carla M; Sell, Crystal J; McCann, Patrick J; Kastello, Gary M; Hooks, Tisha; Wilson, Ted

    2010-04-01

    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked to the development of adverse cardiovascular effects in consumers, although clinical trials to support this link are lacking. The effects of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and neurologic functions were examined in college-aged students enrolled at Winona State University. In a double-blind experiment where normal calorie and low calorie Red Bull were compared to normal and low calorie placebos, no changes in overall cardiovascular function nor blood glucose (mg/dL) were recorded in any participant (n = 68) throughout a 2-h test period. However, in the second experiment, nine male and twelve female participants subjected to a cold pressor test (CPT) before and after Red Bull consumption showed a significant increase in blood sugar levels pre- and post Red Bull consumption. There was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure of the male volunteers immediately after submersion of the hand in the 5 degrees C water for the CPT. Under the influence of Red Bull, the increase in diastolic pressure for the male participants during the CPT was negated. There were no significant changes in the blood pressure of the female participants for the CPT with or without Red Bull. Finally, the CPT was used to evaluate pain threshold and pain tolerance before and after Red Bull consumption. Red Bull consumption was associated with a significant increase in pain tolerance in all participants. These findings suggest that Red Bull consumption ameliorates changes in blood pressure during stressful experiences and increases the participants' pain tolerance.

  16. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  17. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  18. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  19. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2016-11-24

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (P<0.001) due to a drop of intake during the daylight hours. Ceiling fan treatment had no effect on bulls' growth performance or water consumption but these results most likely depended on the mild climate conditions. Ceiling fans proved to mitigate some of the negative effects of heat stress on bulls' behaviour (rumination

  20. National market cow and bull beef quality audit-1999: a survey of producer-related defects in market cows and bulls.

    PubMed

    Roeber, D L; Mies, P D; Smith, C D; Belk, K E; Field, T G; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2001-03-01

    The 1999 National Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit comprised face-to-face interviews with industry representatives (n = 49); in-plant evaluations of cattle in holding pens (n = 3,969), carcasses on harvest floors (n = 5,679), and in carcass coolers (n = 4,378); and a strategy workshop. Face-to-face interviews suggested that the beef industry was most frequently concerned about the presence of antibiotic residues in carcasses, presence of lead shot in carcasses, and price discovery for carcasses following excessive trimming of bruises and testing due to arthritic joints, pathogens, or antibiotic residues. Although live animal evaluations determined that 73.4% of beef cows, 60.8% of dairy cows, 63.7% of beef bulls, and 70.9% of dairy bulls did not exhibit evidence of lameness, losses due to lameness were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 1994 National Non-Fed Beef Quality Audit. In-plant audits revealed that 88.9, 10.3, and 88.2% of cow carcasses and 18.9, 21.2, and 52.9% of bull carcasses had inadequate muscling, arthritic joints, and at least 1 bruise, respectively, all of which resulted in greater (P < 0.05) losses than the same defects in 1994. Audits revealed that 88.9% of cow carcasses and 18.9% of bull carcasses were lightly muscled, resulting in greater (P < 0.05) losses for cow carcasses, and similar (P > 0.05) losses for bull carcasses, than the same defect in the 1994 audit. Also, 14.5 and 30.8% of cow carcasses and 6.9 and 5.9% of bull carcasses had excess external fat and yellow-colored external fat, respectively, which was an improvement (P < 0.05) over 1994 results. In aggregate, 24.1, 19.2, 7.2, 6.7, 9.5, and 1.1% of livers, tripe, hearts, heads, tongues, and whole cattle or carcasses, respectively, were condemned and 60.6, 2.4, and 46.5% of cattle had hide damage from latent defects, insect damage, and brands, respectively. Condemnation rates were generally lower (P < 0.05), but tongue condemnations and frequency of branded hides were higher (P

  1. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography.

    PubMed

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B

    1982-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.

  2. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B

    1982-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed. PMID:7074199

  3. Alternatives for evaluating daughter performance of progeny-test bulls between official evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2007, USDA changed from calculating official genetic evaluations quarterly to triannually to coincide with the schedule for international evaluations. Industry cooperators requested that unofficial interim evaluations be initiated between official evaluations for progeny-test (PT) bulls to...

  4. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  5. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  6. Blood, Bull Terriers and Babesiosis: further evidence for direct transmission of Babesia gibsoni in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, R; Ryan, U M; Jardine, J; Broughton, D K; Robertson, I D; Irwin, P J

    2007-11-01

    This study reports on the epidemiology of Babesia gibsoni in American Pit Bull Terriers living in a region of western Victoria in southern Australia. Both American Pit Bull Terriers (n = 100) and other dog breeds (n = 51) were screened for B gibsoni using immunofluorescent antibody testing (IFAT) and/or polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A questionnaire was also completed by each dog owner, ascertaining the husbandry and habits of the dogs sampled. Fourteen dogs were positive for B gibsoni using IFAT and/or PCR-RFLP and all were American Pit Bull Terriers. Dogs that were male and/or had been bitten by or were biters of other American Pit Bull Terriers were more likely to be B gibsoni positive, thus suggesting that blood-to-blood transmission contributes to the spread of this disease between dogs.

  7. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  8. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  9. Molecular morphology and function of bull spermatozoa linked to histones and associated with fertility.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Dogan, Sule; Belser, Lauren E; Kaya, Abdullah; Topper, Einko; Moura, Arlindo; Thibaudeau, Giselle; Memili, Erdogan

    2013-09-01

    Sub-par fertility in bulls is influenced by alterations in sperm chromatin, and it might not be solved with increased sperm concentration in artificial insemination. Appropriate histone retention during sperm chromatin condensation plays critical roles in male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine failures of sperm chromatin condensation associated with abnormal persistence or accessibility of histones by aniline blue (ANBL) test, expression levels, and cellular localizations of one variant and two core histones (H3.3, H2B, and H4 respectively) in the spermatozoa of low-fertility (LF) vs high-fertility (HF) bulls. The expression levels and cellular localizations of histones in spermatozoa were studied using immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and staining methods. The bioinformatics focused on the sequence identity and evolutionary distance of these proteins among three mammalian species: bovine, mouse, and human. We demonstrated that ANBL staining was different within the LF (1.73 (0.55, 0.19)) and HF (0.67 (0.17, 0.06)) groups (P<0.0001), which was also negatively correlated with in vivo bull fertility (r=-0.90, P<0.0001). Although these histones were consistently detectable and specifically localized in bull sperm cells, they were not different between the two groups. Except H2B variants, H3.3 and H4 showed 100% identity and were evolutionarily conserved in bulls, mice and humans. The H2B variants were more conserved between bulls and humans, than in mice. In conclusion, we showed that H2B, H3.3, and H4 were detectable in bull spermatozoa and that sperm chromatin condensation status, changed by histone retention, is related to bull fertility.

  10. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  11. Effect of temperament and prolonged transportation on endocrine and functional variables in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Cravana, C; Cavaleri, S; Ferlazzo, A

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged transportation on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, total and free triiodothyronine (T(3), fT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4), fT(4)) concentrations, and functional variables (heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT)) in calm and temperamental Limousin young beef bulls. Exit velocity measurement was used to classify bulls' temperament as calm (group I: consisted of eight slowest bulls) and temperamental (group II: consisted of five fastest bulls). Calm subjects showed an increase of ACTH (P<0.05) and T(4) (P<0.01) concentrations after transportation compared with before transportation values. Temperamental subjects showed higher ACTH (P<0.01) concentrations before transportation, and lower T(4) (P<0.05) and fT(4) (P<0.001) concentrations after transportation than calm subjects. Related to functional variables, temperamental young beef bulls showed a decrease of RT (P<0.05) after transportation compared with before values, higher RT (P<0.001) before transportation, and higher HR (P<0.001) and RR (P<0.01) after transportation than calm subjects. Data obtained suggest that longer periods of transportation could minimise the magnitude and duration of the endocrine and functional responses to stress of young beef bulls; such responses probably decrease or disappear during transport, in accordance with animal temperament.

  12. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  13. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  14. Acute BRSV infection in young AI bulls: effect on sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Alm, K; Koskinen, E; Vahtiala, S; Andersson, M

    2009-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important part of the calf pneumonia complex, occasionally affecting even adult cattle. However, the pathogenicity of BRSV in animals older than 6 months is often neglected. Finland is free of many contagious diseases in farm animals, and this gives a good opportunity to study the effects of specific pathogens on bovine reproduction. This report describes the deteriorating effects of BRSV epizootics on sperm morphology and fertility of young dairy bulls (n = 79) at a bull station. More than half of the young bulls had a clinical respiratory disease caused by BRSV during their quarantine when they were 6 months old. Four of seven subsequent quarantine groups were affected. Six months later, when these seropositive bulls (n = 54) came into semen production, they had poorer sperm morphology, and the proportion of normal spermatozoa was 74.1% in BRSV-seropositive animals compared with 81.2% in seronegative bulls (n = 25) (p = 0.035). Field fertility was also slightly affected, the 60-day non-return rates were 75.2% and 76.8% for BRSV seropositive and seronegative bulls respectively (p = 0.014). Potential reasons for lowered sperm quality are discussed here.

  15. Short communication: Genetic analysis of dairy bull fertility from field data of Brown Swiss cattle.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and repeatability of dairy bull fertility in Italian Brown Swiss cattle. Bull fertility indicators were calving per service and nonreturn rate at 56 d after service. Data included 124,206 inseminations carried out by 86 technicians on 28,873 heifers and cows in 1,400 herds. Services were recorded from 1999 to 2008 and were performed with semen from 306 AI Brown Swiss bulls. Data were analyzed with a threshold animal model, which included the fixed effects of parity by class of days in milk of the inseminated cow (age at insemination for heifers), year-season of insemination, and status of the service bull at the time of insemination (progeny testing or proven), and the random effects of herd, technician, additive genetic, and permanent environment of inseminated heifer/cow and service bull, and residual. Also, genetic covariance between heifer/cow and service bull effects was considered in the model. Heritability and repeatability were 0.0079 and 0.0100 for nonreturn rate at 56 d after service, and 0.0153 and 0.0202 for calving per service, respectively. The low estimates obtained in the present study indicate that selection for male fertility using field data is hardly pursuable.

  16. Assessment of sperm morphology in zebu bulls, under field conditions in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Chacón, J

    2001-04-01

    Sperm morphology was studied in 302 extensively managed Zebu bulls (aged 1.5-9 years), classified as sound (n=166) or unsound (n=136) for breeding, under field conditions in the dry tropics of Costa Rica. Single semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation and fixed in formol-saline solution immediately after collection. Sperm morphology was determined in the field on wet smears using a microscope equipped with phase-contrast optics, and further determined in the laboratory on air-dried smears stained with carbol-fuchsin. The frequencies of sperm abnormalities (such as abnormal acrosome, head, neck, mid-piece, tail, and presence of cytoplasmic droplets) were recorded as a percentage of the total number of counted spermatozoa (400 cells). Zebu bulls considered unsound for breeding showed a higher mean prevalence (p < 0.05) of knobbed acrosomes (4.0 versus 0.9%), head defects [specifically, nuclear invaginations and heads with abnormal shapes and sizes (27.6 versus 4.0%)], abnormal tails (11.2 versus 4.7%), and proximal droplets (8.4 versus 1.6%), compared with bulls considered sound for breeding. In these latter bulls, the abnormality most commonly seen was the presence of single bent tails with an entrapped cytoplasmic droplet (3.0 +/- 3.7%). Young Zebu bulls (i.e. bulls under 2 years of age) showed a higher percentage of missing acrosomes, and proximal cytoplasmic droplets, than older sires (12.1 versus 2.4%, and 23.9 versus 3.6%, respectively; p < 0.05), interpreted as an indication of low ejaculation frequency and sexual immaturity, respectively. Bulls with a long scrotum and soft testicular consistency (TC) at palpation showed higher percentages of abnormal sperm heads in the ejaculate than bulls with a normal scrotal length (SL) and a normal TC (32.7 versus 12.8% and 30.7 versus 10.3%, respectively; p < 0.05). In addition, Zebu bulls with a scrotal circumference (SC) < or = 30 cm showed a higher prevalence of proximal cytoplasmic droplets than bulls

  17. Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull's eye structures.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Palacios, S; Mahboub, O; Garcia-Vidal, F J; Martin-Moreno, L; Rodrigo, Sergio G; Genet, C; Ebbesen, T W

    2011-05-23

    We analyze both experimentally and theoretically the physical mechanisms that determine the optical transmission through deep sub-wavelength bull's eye structures (concentric annular grooves surrounding a circular hole). Our analysis focus on the transmission resonance as a function of the distance between the central hole and its nearest groove. We find that, for that resonance, each groove behaves almost independently, acting as an optical cavity that couples to incident radiation, and reflecting the surface plasmons radiated by the other side of the same cavity. It is the constructive contribution at the central hole of these standing waves emitted by independent grooves which ends up enhancing transmission. Also for each groove the coupling and reflection coefficients for surface plasmons are incorporated into a phenomenological Huygens-Fresnel model that gathers the main mechanisms to enhance transmission. Additionally, it is shown that the system presents a collective resonance in the electric field that does not lead to resonant transmission, because the fields radiated by the grooves do not interfere constructively at the central hole.

  18. Arrangement of beta tubulin in bull spermatozoa during nuclei decondensation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Conde, E; Romero-Pastrana, F; Vargas-Mejía, M A; Delgado, N M; Reyes, R

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have internal scaffolding of microtubules cytoskeleton that gives them their characteristic shapes. We analyzed by immuno-fluorescence the shift and distribution of tubuline during in vitro bull sperm nuclei swelling by the action of heparin-reduced glutathione physiological decondensing agents. Sperm tubulin display a pattern that shows tubulin fluorescence all over the head, leaving the acrosome tip devoid of tubulin. In the second stage we can observe that the acrosomal zone is practically devoid of fluorescence and a net of fluorescent microtubules that seems to be anchored in the basal plate in the postacrosomal region. It is also possible to observe green spots of tubulin fluorescence in the nucleus periphery, that might represent clusters of chromatin hub-like bodies and/or the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). In the third stage, practically all tubulin moves backwards to the basal plate in the neck region of the sperm nuclei remaining in only the green fluorescence spots in the periphery of the swollen sperm nuclei. The results allow us to assume that tubulin mechanism rearrangement is considered to be necessary for the normal fertilization process.

  19. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Eisner, R L; Tamas, M J; Cloninger, K; Shonkoff, D; Oates, J A; Gober, A M; Dunn, D W; Malko, J A; Churchwell, A L; Patterson, R E

    1988-12-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

  20. Environmental Enrichment in Kennelled Pit Bull Terriers (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kiddie, Jenna; Bodymore, Anna; Dittrich, Alex

    2017-03-23

    Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines. Thirty-six dogs were allocated to one of three treatment groups following a matched-subject design: (i) cardboard bed provision; (ii) coconut provision; and (iii) visual contact with dogs housed in adjacent cages obstructed with cardboard partitions. Behavioural diversity and the duration and frequency of individual behaviours were analysed using linear mixed-effect models. Yawning frequencies and time spent lying down and sitting decreased during treatment. No particular treatment was more influential in these behavioural changes. In conclusion, enrichment, regardless of type, affected the dogs' behaviour, with some effects depending on the sex of the dogs. Therefore, it is possible to cheaply and sustainably enrich the lives of dogs living in highly constrained environments, however, further research is required to refine the methods used.

  1. Characterization of Park Visitors, Visitation Levels, and Associated Economic Impacts of Recreation at Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Table Rock Lakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Economic Impacts of Recreation at Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Table Rock Lakes En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Richard Kasul, Daniel Stynes, Lichu...Levels, and Associated Economic Impacts of Recreation at Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Table Rock Lakes Richard Kasul, Lichu Lee, R. Scott...This study provides a broadly scoped examination of park-based recreation at Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Table Rock Lakes, so that present and emerging

  2. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, P<0.001) and bottom (F1,23.7 = 37.01, P < 0.001) habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  3. Physical, biotic, and sampling influences on diel habitat use by stream-dwelling bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banish, N.P.; Peterson, J.T.; Thurow, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used daytime and nighttime underwater observation to assess microhabitat use by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (N = 213) in streams of the intermountain western USA during the summers of 2001 and 2002. We recorded fish focal points and measured a set of habitat characteristics as well as habitat availability via line transects. Bull trout were benthic and solitary; most (88%) were observed at night. We developed a conditional logistic regression model to account for the effect of fish movement in response to snorkeling, and we fitted 18 candidate models to evaluate the relative influences of biotic and abiotic factors on habitat use. The candidate models were also fitted with a naive logistic regression (i.e., no movement) to evaluate the effects of movement on inferences of microhabitat use. The most plausible model describing bull trout habitat use was the same for the conditional and nai??ve regressions and included depth, velocity, percent rubble substratum, and the day X depth, body size X depth, and body size X day X depth interactions. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis and the abundance of conspecifics did not strongly influence microhabitat use by bull trout. The relative rankings of the remaining models differed substantially between the conditional and nai??ve models. Relative to the conditional models, the naive models overestimated the importance of diurnal differences in habitat use and overestimated the use of deepwater habitats, particularly during the day. Both model types suggested that all sizes of bull trout were generally found in deeper, low-velocity habitat at night, whereas small bull trout (70-90 mm total length) were found in shallower habitats during the day. We recommend lhat biologists account for fish movement in response to sampling to avoid biasing modeled habitat use patterns by bull trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  4. Natural or Artificial? Habitat-Use by the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas

    PubMed Central

    Werry, Jonathan M.; Lee, Shing Y.; Lemckert, Charles J.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN ‘Near-threatened’ species - one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. Methodology/Findings We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals). Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. Conclusions/Significance Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of this research

  5. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from early and late maturing bulls in different production systems.

    PubMed

    Mezgebo, G B; Monahan, F J; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Picard, B; Richardson, R I; Moloney, A P

    2016-12-28

    In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments. Bulls were managed to have a common target carcass weight of 380 kg. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content was higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM, and for C than GSPC bulls. Collagen solubility was higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phosphofructokinase activities were higher (P<0.05) for LM than EM. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and the Type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proportion were higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM. The LDH activity and the Type IIX MyHC proportion were higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Sensory ratings for tenderness and juiciness were higher (P<0.01) for beef from EM than LM while sensory ratings for tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were higher (P<0.001) for C than for GSPC bulls. Differences in sensory quality were largely eliminated when adjusted for IMF. Overall, carcass fat scores, IMF and sensory scores were higher in EM than LM and in C than GSPC bulls but most differences in sensory quality could be attributed to differences in IMF.

  6. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kumiko; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Kinukawa, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P < 0.01). The sperm TUNEL index of cryopreserved semen obtained from test-mated Japanese Black (n = 30, including two bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P < 0.05). Semen samples from six bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality.

  7. Relationships among production traits and estimates of sex drive and dominance value in yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Ologun, A G; Chenoweth, P J; Brinks, J S

    1981-04-01

    Average daily gain (ADG) and final test weight (FTW) were compared with libido score (L), serving capacity score (SC), reaction time to first mount (RTM), reaction time to first service (RTS) and dominance value (DV) in 90 purebred yearling beef bulls which had just completed an 140-day performance test. The bulls represented 15 breeding lines (12 Hereford, 2 Black Angus and 1 Red Angus) and nine sires within lines. Libido and serving capacity assessments were applied to randomly selected groups of two bulls which were tested for 10-minutes with nonestrous heifers restrained in service crates. RTM and RTS were recorded for both tests. Social dominance was assessed during randomized observations of social interactions between bulls within their pen groups (comprising 9 to 10 bulls) over four days. Two methods of determining social dominance (DV1 and DV2) were employed initially. Differences occurred among both lines and sire/lines in mean and best libido scores (P < .05). Sire/lines differed in L1, while both lines and sire/lines differed in L2 (P < .05). These differences were not reflected in either reaction times or serving capacity scores. Sires and sire/lines both differed in FTW (P < .05 and P < .01 respectively), while DV1 differed with sire/lines (P < .01). DV1 and DV2 were highly correlated (r = .84). Those sex-drive estimates which correlated with DV1 were the mean and best libido scores, mean serving capacity score, L2 and RTS 1 (P < .05). All correlations were negative, indicating that dominance and sex-drive may be unfavourably related in yearling beef bulls. ADG and FTW showed negative correlations with the mean and best serving capacity scores and with SC2 (P < .05). The only positive correlations between the two production traits and a sex-drive estimate was with RTM 2 (P < .05). This indicates that ADG and FTW may be unfavourably related to sex-drive in yearling beef bulls.

  8. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  9. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2001 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-03-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0{sup +}, 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m{sup 2} (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m{sup 2}). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m{sup 2} (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0{sup +}) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are

  10. Effects of dietary energy on sexual maturation and sperm production in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Harstine, B R; Maquivar, M; Helser, L A; Utt, M D; Premanandan, C; DeJarnette, J M; Day, M L

    2015-06-01

    In prepubertal bulls and heifers of dairy and beef breeds, puberty can be induced to occur earlier than typical with targeted high-energy diets due to precocious activation of the endocrine mechanisms that regulate puberty. Precocious activation of puberty in bulls intended for use in the AI industry has the potential to hasten and perhaps increase sperm production. It was hypothesized that feeding bulls a high-energy diet beginning at 8 wk of age would advance the prepubertal rise in LH and lead to advanced testicular maturation and age at puberty. From 58 to 230 ± 0.3 d of age, Holstein bulls received either a high-energy diet (HE;n = 9; targeted ADG 1.5 kg/d) or a control diet (CONT;n = 10; targeted ADG 0.75 kg/d). Thereafter, all bulls were fed a similar diet. The HE treatment increased LH secretion at 125 d of age, testosterone concentrations from 181 to 210 d, and scrotal circumference (SC) from 146 to 360 d of age relative to the CONT treatment. Beginning at 241 ± 5 d of age, semen collection (artificial vagina) was attempted every 14 d in bulls from the HE (n = 8) and CONT (n = 7) treatment until each bull attained puberty (ejaculate containing 50 × 10 spermatozoa with 10% motility). To assess semen production as mature bulls, semen was collected thrice weekly beginning at 541 ± 5 d of age until slaughter at 569 ± 5 d of age. After slaughter, epididymal and testicular measurements were collected and testicular tissue was fixed to determine seminiferous tubule diameter. Age at puberty did not differ between treatments (310 ± 35 d). Although testis and epididymal weight and testis volume were greater (P < 0.05) in the HE than the CONT treatment, sperm production of mature bulls did not differ between treatments. Diameter of seminiferous tubules also did not differ between treatments. We conclude that the HE advanced aspects of sexual maturation and increased testes size, but this was not reflected in hastened puberty or sperm production in the present

  11. Glacial oceanographic contrasts explain phylogeography of Australian bull kelp.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M

    2009-05-01

    The evolutionary effects of Southern Hemisphere Pleistocene oceanographic conditions - marked by fluctuations in sea levels and water temperatures, and redirected currents - are poorly understood. The southeastern tip of Australia presents an intriguing model system for studying the biological impacts of palaeoceanography. In particular, contrasting oceanographic conditions that existed on eastern vs. western sides of the Bassian Isthmus during Pleistocene glacial periods allow for natural comparisons between putative refugial vs. re-invading populations. Whereas many western Tasmanian marine taxa were likely eliminated by cold subantarctic water during the last glacial period, eastern Tasmanian populations would have persisted in relatively warm temperatures mediated by the ongoing influence of the East Australian Current (EAC). Here we test for the effects of contrasting palaeoceanographic conditions on endemic bull kelp, Durvillaea potatorum, using DNA sequence analysis (COI; rbcL) of more than 100 individuals from 14 localities in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic reconstructions reveal a deep (maximum divergence 4.7%) genetic split within D. potatorum, corresponding to the 'eastern' and 'western' geographical regions delimited by the Bassian Isthmus, a vicariant barrier during low Pleistocene sea levels. Concordant with the western region's cold glacial conditions, samples from western Tasmania and western Victoria are genetically monomorphic, suggesting postglacial expansion from a mainland refugium. Eastern samples, in contrast, comprise distinct regional haplogroups, suggesting the species persisted in eastern Tasmania throughout recent glacial periods. The deep east-west divergence seems consistent with earlier reports of morphological differences between 'western' and 'eastern' D. potatorum, and it seems likely that these forms represent reproductively isolated species.

  12. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. Case presentation The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. Conclusions The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum. PMID:24666697

  13. Effects of GnRH treatment on scrotal surface temperatures in bulls.

    PubMed Central

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Cook, R B; Sasser, R G; Brito, L F; Csik, J V; Coulter, G H; Györkös, I

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize scrotal surface temperature (SST) in bulls treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). In Experiment 1, Angus bulls (n = 10, 18 mo, 597 kg) were given GnRH (400 ng/kg) or saline, IV. Bottom SST increased approximately 1.7 degrees C (P < 0.005) over time (0 to 90 min) at an ambient temperature of 5 degrees C. However, there was no significant effect of GnRH treatment and temperature increases were attributed to stress. When the experiment was repeated at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C, SST was elevated prior to treatment, with no subsequent significant increase. Experiment 2 was conducted with Charolais bulls (n = 6, 12-14 mo, 517 kg) with an emphasis on minimizing stress. Bottom SST increased approximately 2 degrees C (P < 0.05) between 0 and 45 min after GnRH treatment, supporting the hypothesis that GnRH treatment increases SST in bulls. In conclusion, it was apparent that stress, high ambient temperatures, and GnRH treatment can all increase SST in bulls. PMID:11227197

  14. Prevention of dark-cutting (DFD) beef in penned bulls at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, L; Franc, C; Albiston, G; Beber, K

    1988-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence indicating that activities associated with regrouping of bulls before slaughter, which leads to physical exhaustion mainly from mounting, are primary factors inducing dark-cutting (DFD) in beef. The aim of this study was to test several methods to control activity when regrouping cannot be avoided. Fifty bulls previously individually tied for at least 16 months were drafted into groups of five animals and released in a pen at the abattoir. After 18 to 22 h they were slaughtered. According to environmental conditions in the pen, the bulls were divided into four groups: Control group (n = 10, no experimentation); Electricity group (n = 10, an electric fence was constructed above the pen so that a mounting bull would receive an electric shock); Darkness group (n = 10, the whole stall was in darkness); and Combination group (n = 20, both treatments, of the electricity and darkness groups were applied). During the first hour of penning the behaviour of the bulls was videorecorded. After slaughter meat quality characteristics were measured. Dark-cutting was found in Control (70%), Electricity (30%) and Darkness (70%) groups, but not in the Combination group (0%). No treatment altered the repertoire of agonistic activity, but under the combined treatments the number of agonistic interactions was significantly lower than in any other group.

  15. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  16. Growth hormone treatment of breeding bulls used for artificial insemination improves fertilization rates.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, H; Breier, B H; Gallaher, B W; Götz, C; Küfner, G; Montag, T; Vickers, M; Schallenberger, E

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate new therapeutical concepts for male subfertility, we tested the effects of exogenous recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) on various endocrine and metabolic parameters both in blood and in seminal plasma of bulls. Sperm quality was assessed morphometrically and by monitoring the number of successful artificial inseminations (AIs) defined as non-return rates (NRR). Aliquots of 450 semen samples were used from each bull and each experimental period (4 wk before, 14 weeks during and 6 wk after treatment). Six out of ten sires (average age 8.4 years) were treated every two weeks with 640-mg depot formulated rbGH (Eli Lilly). Four bulls received vehicle only. Blood plasma bGH, IGF-I, insulin and glucose concentrations were increased with rbGH treatment. In seminal plasma there was no effect of rbGH treatment on fructose and citrate or on testosterone concentrations. With one exception, rbGH-treated bulls had greater IGFBP-3 concentrations in seminal plasma. Motility of spermatozoa after freezing and thawing was increased compared with pretreatment rates. Most interestingly, the number of successful AIs was increased by an average of 6.0% NRR when ejaculates from rbGH-treated bulls were used.

  17. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls.

    PubMed

    Irons, P C; Henton, M M; Bertschinger, H J

    2002-06-01

    Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid). In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  18. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  19. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an ''H

  20. Theileria annulata induced brisket oedema in a bull and its successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara Reddy, B; Sivajothi, S

    2017-03-01

    In the present case, jugular vein engorgement and oedema of the brisket region which mimic the signs of pseudopericarditis due to theileriosis in a bull was reported. An adult Ongole crossbred bull with history of weakness, anorexia and oedema at brisket region was referred to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Proddatur. Physical examination revealed the presence of ticks over the body, right and left prescapular lymphadenopathy and oedema at brisket region. Blood examination revealed the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes, schizont in lymphocytes, anaemia and lymphopenia. Bull was treated with injection buparvaquone along with supportive medications. By the 3rd week of therapy improvement was noticed by disappearance of brisket oedema and recurrence was not noticed during the 8  months of observation.

  1. Polarization-independent split bull's eye antennas for infrared nano-photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Ren, Fang-Fang; Pu, Lin; Xiao, Long; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Junzhuan; Lu, Hai; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi

    2016-12-19

    Split bull's eye (SBE) antennas exhibit much larger extraordinary optical transmission and strong polarization dependence rather than bull's eye (BE) antennas in the infrared range due to the introduced sub-wavelength slit. Here, we demonstrate a dual-split bull's eye (DSBE) antenna, which consists of two sub-wavelength slits crossing through the center of the BE antenna with an intersection angle θ. The polarization dependence in transmission can be flexibly tailored by adjusting the intersection angle, following a cos(2) (Φ + θ/2) angular dependence on polarization angle Φ. When θ = 90°, the DSBE antenna yields high and polarization-independent transmission enhancement over the entire infrared spectrum. It presents highly promising applications for polarization-insensitive photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices.

  2. Prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in bulls as determined by serology and proviral detection.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, R M; Jefferson, B J; Suarez, D L

    1998-01-01

    We found the rate of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) infection among bulls to be 9.6% using serology and 12.6% when tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of BIV provirus in peripheral blood leukocytes. Previously, we determined the frequency of BIV infection among the general dairy cow population in Ontario to be 5.5% based on serological analysis. Apparently, serological testing detects only 77% of BIV-infected bulls. Since almost a quarter of BIV-infected bulls may be seronegative, it is recommended that the PCR test be used to identify BIV-infected individuals. It is clear from the data presented here and supported by experimental studies that the latent carrier state is a relatively common outcome in ruminants infected with BIV. PMID:9684054

  3. Temperament dictates endotoxin-induced metabolic changes in Brahman bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that animal temperament influences the rectal temperature response, sickness behavior scores, serum concentrations of epinephrine (Burdick et al., 2011; Innate Immunity), and serum cytokine concentrations (Hulbert et al., 2009; J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl 2):527) following a provo...

  4. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  5. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S.; Honanie, Isadore

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  6. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  7. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, an event scheduled to be held over water. This regulation is necessary to protect...

  8. 76 FR 68523 - Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC-Change in Operators Exemption-Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC--Change in Operators Exemption--Iron Bull... of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iron Bull Railroad Company (IBRC) to USRC... near Iron Springs, Utah, and milepost 14.7 at or near Iron Mountain, Utah, a distance of 14.6 miles...

  9. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  10. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  11. Profiling of sperm gene transcripts in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) bulls.

    PubMed

    H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani

    2017-02-01

    Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (P<0.01) expressed with 160 genes upregulated and 145 genes down regulated. Some of the upregulated candidate genes were further validated by RT-qPCR. These genes had a four to 16 fold upregulation in sperm with inferior motility as compared to sperm of crossbred bulls with superior motility.

  12. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  13. Design and validation of a self-administered test to assess bullying (bull-M) in high school Mexicans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bullying (Bull) is a public health problem worldwide, and Mexico is not exempt. However, its epidemiology and early detection in our country is limited, in part, by the lack of validated tests to ensure the respondents’ anonymity. The aim of this study was to validate a self-administered test (Bull-M) for assessing Bull among high-school Mexicans. Methods Experts and school teachers from highly violent areas of Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua, México), reported common Bull behaviors. Then, a 10-item test was developed based on twelve of these behaviors; the students’ and peers’ participation in Bull acts and in some somatic consequences in Bull victims with a 5-point Likert frequency scale. Validation criteria were: content (CV, judges); reliability [Cronbach’s alpha (CA), test-retest (spearman correlation, rs)]; construct [principal component (PCA), confirmatory factor (CFA), goodness-of-fit (GF) analysis]; and convergent (Bull-M vs. Bull-S test) validity. Results Bull-M showed good reliability (CA = 0.75, rs = 0.91; p < 0.001). Two factors were identified (PCA) and confirmed (CFA): “bullying me (victim)” and “bullying others (aggressor)”. GF indices were: Root mean square error of approximation (0.031), GF index (0.97), and normalized fit index (0.92). Bull-M was as good as Bull-S for measuring Bull prevalence. Conclusions Bull-M has a good reliability and convergent validity and a bi-modal factor structure for detecting Bull victims and aggressors; however, its external validity and sensitivity should be analyzed on a wider and different population. PMID:23577755

  14. The effect of sea transport from Ireland to the Lebanon on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of bulls.

    PubMed

    Earley, B; McDonnell, B; Murray, M; Prendiville, D J; Crowe, M A

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of sea transport on the physiological, behavioural and performance responses of bulls. One-hundred and eleven bulls (mean body weight (standard error of the mean) 429 (5.7 kg)) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; control (C; n=54) bulls were housed in 6 pens at Teagasc, Grange Research Centre at a stocking density of (1), 1.7 m(2)/head (C1.7; 3 pens) and (2), 3.4 m(2)/head (C3.4; 3 pens) and (3), transported (T) bulls (n=57) were penned at a space allowance of 1.7 m(2)/head (6 pens) and allocated to one of five decks on the shipping vessel. C and T bulls were subjected to the same live weight (d -2), blood sampling and rectal temperature (d -1) measurements pre-transport and on d 3, d 6, d 9 and d 11 of the study. T bulls had greater (P<0.05) live weight gain (+4.4%) compared with C1.7 bulls (-2.0%) and C3.4 (+0.13%)). Time spent lying was greater (P<0.05) among C1.7 and C3.4 bulls (9.9% and 53.3%, respectively) compared with T bulls (45.8%). Rectal body temperature was not different (P>0.05) among treatment groups throughout the study. At d 11, neutrophil % was greater (P<0.05) in transported bulls on decks 1, 2, 4 and 5 compared with C1.7 and C3.4 treatments. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not different (P>0.05) between control and transported bulls. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower (P<0.05) among C3.4 and T bulls on decks 2, 3, 4 and 5 compared with d 3 values. In conclusion, the welfare of bulls transported by sea on the sea journey was not adversely affected. Housing control bulls at a reduced space allowance (1.7 m(2)) had a negative effect on live weight gain.

  15. A definition of unknown parent groups based on bull usage patterns across herds.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-03-01

    In genetic evaluations, the definition of unknown parent groups (UPG) is usually based on time periods, selection path and flows of foreign founders. The definition of UPG may be more complex for populations presenting genetic heterogeneity due to both, large national expansion and coexistence of artificial insemination (AI) and natural service (NS). A UPG definition method accounting for beef bull flows was proposed and applied to the French Charolais cattle population. It assumed that, at a given time period, unknown parents belonged to the same UPG when their progeny were bred in herds that used bulls with similar origins (birth region and reproduction way). Thus, the birth period, region and AI rate of a herd were pointed out to be the three criteria reflecting genetic disparities at the national level in a beef cattle population. To deal with regional genetic disparities, 14 regions were identified using a factorial approach combining principal component analysis and Ward clustering. The selection nucleus of the French cattle population was dispersed over three main breeding areas. Flows of NS bulls were mainly carried out within each breeding area. On the contrary, the use and the selection of AI bulls were based on a national pool of candidates. Within a time period, herds of different regions were clustered together when they used bulls coming from the same origin and with an estimated difference of genetic level lower than 20% of genetic standard deviation (σg) for calf muscle and skeleton scores (SS) at weaning. This led to the definition of 16 UPG of sires, which were validated as robust and relevant in a sire model, meaning numerically stable and corresponding to distinct genetic subpopulations. The UPG genetic levels were estimated for muscle and SS under sire and animal models. Whatever the trait, differences between bull UPG estimates within a time period could reach 0.5 σg across regions. For a given time period, bull UPG estimates for muscle and

  16. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Alford, C; Cox, H; Wescott, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Red Bull Energy Drink, which includes taurine, glucuronolactone, and caffeine amongst the ingredients, were examined over 3 studies in a total of 36 volunteers. Assessments included psychomotor performance (reaction time, concentration, memory), subjective alertness and physical endurance. When compared with control drinks, Red Bull Energy Drink significantly (P < 0.05) improved aerobic endurance (maintaining 65-75% max. heart rate) and anaerobic performance (maintaining max. speed) on cycle ergometers. Significant improvements in mental performance included choice reaction time, concentration (number cancellation) and memory (immediate recall), which reflected increased subjective alertness. These consistent and wide ranging improvements in performance are interpreted as reflecting the effects of the combination of ingredients.

  17. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull.

    PubMed

    Wood, A K; Blockey, B; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1979-10-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness.

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management efforts

  19. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Su, G; Cooper, T A; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S; VanRaden, P M

    2015-05-01

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations of Danish and US bulls from using a larger reference population was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Data were separated into reference (US only, Danish only, and combined US-Danish) and validation (US only and Danish only) populations. Depending on trait (milk, fat, and protein yields and component percentages; productive life; somatic cell score; daughter pregnancy rate; 14 conformation traits; and net merit), the US reference population included 2,720 to 4,772 bulls and cows with traditional evaluations as of August 2009; the Danish reference population included 635 to 996 bulls. The US validation population included 442 to 712 bulls that gained a traditional evaluation between August 2009 and December 2013; the Danish validation population included 105 to 196 bulls with multitrait across-country evaluations on the US scale by December 2013. Genomic predicted transmitting abilities (GPTA) were calculated on the US scale using a selection index that combined direct genomic predictions with either traditional predicted transmitting ability for the reference population or traditional parent averages (PA) for the validation population and a traditional evaluation based only on genotyped animals. Reliability for GPTA was estimated from the reference population and August 2009 traditional PA and PA reliability. For prediction of December 2013 deregressed daughter deviations on the US scale, mean August 2009 GPTA reliability for Danish validation bulls was 0.10 higher when based on the combined US-Danish reference population than when the reference population included only Danish bulls; for US validation bulls, mean reliability increased by 0.02 when Danish bulls were added to the US reference population. Exchanging genotype data to increase the size of the reference population is an efficient approach to increasing the accuracy

  20. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2005-11-01

    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft. above

  1. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2002-12-01

    Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to spawn (Fraley and Shepard 1989). These migratory forms occur where conditions allow movement from spawning locations to downstream waters that provide greater foraging opportunities (Dunham and Rieman 1999). Resident and migratory forms may occur together, and either form can produce resident or migratory offspring (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The ability to migrate is important to the persistence of local bull trout populations (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The identification of migratory corridors can help focus habitat protection efforts. Determining the life history form(s) that comprise local populations, the timing of seasonal movements, and the geographic extent of these movements are critical to bull trout protection and recovery efforts. This section describes work accomplished in 2001 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla basins, we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel

  2. Rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the semen of infected bulls by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed Central

    Masri, S A; Olson, W; Nguyen, P T; Prins, S; Deregt, D

    1996-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen and compared with the virus isolation method. When extended semen, commonly used in the bovine artificial insemination industry, was inoculated with BHV-1, the PCR assay detected BHV-1 DNA in semen inoculated at 0.25-2.5 TCID50 per 0.5 mL. In contrast, the lower limit of detection for virus isolation was 250 TCID50 of BHV-1 inoculated in 0.5 mL of extended semen. These methods were also used to detect BHV-1 in the semen of four bulls which were experimentally infected with BHV-1. All infected bulls demonstrated balanitis at 3 d post-inoculation (DPI) and severe balanoposthitis at 4 DPI. BHV-1 was detected in raw semen by virus isolation and PCR at 2 DPI, before balanitis was evident. For virus isolation, the last day that BHV-1 was detected during primary infection was 7 DPI for two bulls and 9 and 11 DPI for the other two bulls. In contrast, PCR detected BHV-1 in the bulls' semen until 14 or 18 DPI. For individual animals, PCR detected BHV-1 during primary infection for at least 1-10 d longer than virus isolation. Reactivation of BHV-1 from latency without the presence of visible lesions was promoted twice by two series of 5 d dexamethasone injections. For the first series of dexamethasone treatments, a positive virus isolation result was obtained on the 5th d of treatment for only one bull. In contrast, two bulls demonstrated evidence of viral reactivation on this day by PCR. All bulls shed BHV-1 in semen on d 4 after dexamethasone treatment, as evidenced by positive virus isolation and PCR results. One bull was still PCR positive 13 d later. For the second series of dexamethasone treatments, a small amount of virus was isolated from semen collected on d 3 or 4 after treatment for two bulls but not from the other two bulls. In contrast, semen samples from all bulls were PCR positive for either or both of these 2 d. In total, from 80 semen

  3. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, IL. This safety zone is intended...

  4. Influence of temperament and transportation on physiological and endocrinological parameters in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured physiological, immunological, and endocrinological responses of Bos indicus cattle of differing temperaments to transportation. Based on temperament score (TS) the 7 most Calm (TS = 0.84 ± 0.03) and 8 most Temperamental (TS = 3.37 ± 0.18) Brahman bulls were selected from our rese...

  5. Inferring Quantitative Trait Pathways Associated with Bull Fertility from a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Weigel, Kent A.; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome association studies typically focus on genetic markers with the strongest evidence of association. However, single markers often explain only a small component of the genetic variance and hence offer a limited understanding of the trait under study. As such, the objective of this study was to perform a pathway-based association analysis in Holstein dairy cattle in order to identify relevant pathways involved in bull fertility. The results of a single-marker association analysis, using 1,755 bulls with sire conception rate data and genotypes for 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used in this study. A total of 16,819 annotated genes, including 2,767 significantly associated with bull fertility, were used to interrogate a total of 662 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 248 InterPro (IP) entries using a test of proportions based on the cumulative hypergeometric distribution. After multiple-testing correction, 20 GO categories and one IP entry showed significant overrepresentation of genes statistically associated with bull fertility. Several of these functional categories such as small GTPases mediated signal transduction, neurogenesis, calcium ion binding, and cytoskeleton are known to be involved in biological processes closely related to male fertility. These results could provide insight into the genetic architecture of this complex trait in dairy cattle. In addition, this study shows that quantitative trait pathways inferred from single-marker analyses could enhance our interpretations of the results of genome-wide association studies. PMID:23335935

  6. Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on semen quality and blood enzymes in buffalo bulls.

    PubMed

    El-Sharawy, Mohamed; Eid, Entsar; Darwish, Samy; Abdel-Razek, Ibrahim; Islam, Md Rashedul; Kubota, Kaiyu; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; El-Shamaa, Ibrahim

    2016-11-21

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium (Se) supplementation on semen quality and blood serum profiles of buffalo bulls. Nine mature buffalo bulls were divided into three groups: control (non-supplemented); organic Se (10 mg Sel-Plex®/head twice weekly) and inorganic Se (10 mg sodium selenite/head twice weekly). Semen was collected twice a week for 3 months during Se supplementation. Semen properties were evaluated from fresh ejaculate. Moreover, fructose concentration, aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT) activities, total protein and total cholesterol were assayed in seminal plasma. Additionally AST, ALT, testosterone and Se levels were determined in the blood serum. Results showed that Se supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) influences the semen parameters during 3 months of treatment. Organic Se significantly (P < 0.05) increased the percentage of viable sperms compared to inorganic Se and the control group. Fructose concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the seminal plasma of organic Se-treated bulls. Serum testosterone and Se concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the Se supplemented groups than the control group. In conclusion, Se supplementation improved the parameters of buffalo bull semen and more precisely, organic Se was more effective for the improvement of semen quality and some blood components than inorganic Se.

  7. Isolation of Mycoplasma bovirhinis from the kidneys of a bull with urinary obstruction and subacute nephritis.

    PubMed

    Panangala, V S; Stringfellow, J S; Oliver, J L; Wolfe, D F

    1990-08-01

    A bull with urethral obstruction secondary to urolithiasis died following exploratory laparotomy. Postmortem examination revealed renal, cystic, and urethral calculi. Gross and histologic findings were consistent with acute urethral and bilateral renal obstruction. Bacteriologic culture of renal tissue revealed Mycoplasma bovirhinis.

  8. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species.

  9. Winter diel habitat use and movement by subadult bull trout in the upper Flathead River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Glutting, Steve; Hunt, Rick; Daniels, Durae; Marotz, Brian

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the diel habitat use and movement of subadult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus by use of radiotelemetry during winter in the upper Flathead River, Montana. Of the 13 monitored bull trout, 12 (92%) made at least one diel movement to other habitat locations during their respective day–night tracking surveys and moved an average of 73% of the time. The median distance moved from day to night locations by the mobile fish was 86 m (range, 27–594 m). Diel shifts in habitat use by nine of the tagged fish were related to light intensity; nocturnal emergence generally commenced immediately after the onset of night, and daytime concealment occurred at daybreak. When diel shifts in microhabitat use occurred, subadult bull trout moved from deep, midchannel areas during the day to shallow, low-velocity areas along the channel margins without overhead cover at night. Resource managers who wish to protect the overwintering habitat features preferred by subadult bull trout in the upper Flathead River should use natural flow management strategies that maximize and stabilize channel margin habitats at night.

  10. 7. BUILDING 604F, INTERIOR OF BULL PEN SHOWING TESTING STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BUILDING 604-F, INTERIOR OF BULL PEN SHOWING TESTING STAND AND HEAVY WOOD LINING ON CONCRETE WALLS. STEEL PLATE ABOVE TEST STAND DEFLECTS SHRAPNEL, SCREEN FURTHER HELPS TO CONTAIN PARTICLES. ONLY SMALL EXPLOSIVES WERE TESTED HERE (GRENADES, MINES, BOMB FUZES, ETC.). - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  11. Sire effects on carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M

    2014-04-29

    Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P≤0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions.

  12. What affects fertility of sexed bull semen more, low sperm dosage or the sorting process?

    PubMed

    Frijters, A C J; Mullaart, E; Roelofs, R M G; van Hoorne, R P; Moreno, J F; Moreno, O; Merton, J S

    2009-01-01

    Until now it has been unclear to what extent the reduced fertility with sexed semen in the dairy industry is caused by too few sperm per AI dose, or by the effect of flow cytometric sorting, which is the established procedure for sexing semen. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of low sperm numbers per dose with and without sorting on non-return rates after 56 days (NRR 56); in addition, we evaluated the effects of bulls, in order to further optimize use of sexed semen. Based on results of using sexed semen from seven Holstein bulls, an overall numerical decline of 13.6% in NRR 56 was observed (P<0.05). About two-thirds of this decline (8.6%) was due to the low dose (P<0.05), and a third (5.0%) due to the process of sorting (P<0.05). The effect of low dosage and sorting differed among bulls. We observed a sex ratio of 91.6% females for sexed semen from the first 131 calves born. Currently the best way to increase fertility of sexed semen is by closely monitoring fertility so that the highest fertility bulls are used, and by improving farm animal management. However, to make substantial progress, more in depth studies are needed on the sexing technology, especially on aspects such as sorting procedures and sperm dosage.

  13. Comparison of organoleptic quality and composition of beef from suckler bulls from different production systems.

    PubMed

    Mezgebo, G B; Moloney, A P; O'Riordan, E G; McGee, M; Richardson, R I; Monahan, F J

    2017-03-01

    Bull beef production is traditionally based on high concentrate rations fed indoors. Inclusion of grazed grass, which is generally a cheaper feed, would decrease the cost of bull beef production, but may affect beef quality. Accordingly, the organoleptic quality and composition of beef from continental-sired suckler bulls (n=126) assigned to either ad libitum concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage (GS) ad libitum for 120 days followed by C (GSC) or GS followed by 100 days at pasture and then C (GSPC) and slaughtered at target carcass weights (CW) of 360, 410 or 460 kg was examined. Tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than for C and GSC. Intramuscular fat content and soluble collagen proportion were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than GSC which was lower (P<0.05) than C. Soluble collagen proportion was lower (P<0.05) for 460 kg than 410 kg CW, which was lower (P<0.05) than 360 kg CW. Inclusion of a grazing period decreased the ratings of tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking, but age of the bulls at slaughter had no clear influence on sensory characteristics.

  14. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  15. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    PubMed

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were detected between stations or birth years. We also compared the CR of 695 AI bulls with the CR of their 27 sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated.

  16. Retention through Research: Sitting Bull College Builds STEM Program around Research Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1996, faculty at Sitting Bull College (SBC, Fort Yates, North Dakota) developed its Environmental Science (ENS) Program, basing it on the scientific method and techniques students would need for employment in environmental technician positions with local and tribal agencies. Over the course of 15 years, this employment-based training evolved…

  17. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  18. Effect of immunocastration with Bopriva on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Linares, C; Bolado-Sarabia, L; Figueroa-Saavedra, F; Barreras-Serrano, A; Sánchez-López, E; Tamayo-Sosa, A R; Godina, A A; Ríos-Rincón, F; García, L A; Gallegos, E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of immunocastration on carcass and meat characteristics, Holstein bulls aged between 7 and 8months with a live weight of 232±1.19kg were given two separate treatments, placebo (intact bulls) versus Bopriva, and then slaughtered after approximately 239days of fattening. While the testosterone levels in intact bulls remained at 0.42ng/ml throughout the study, by day 181, differences (P<0.05) were observed in immunized bulls, with values of 0.21ng/ml. The carcasses of animals treated with Bopriva recorded both a higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and a cold carcass weight (CCW), as well as higher dorsal fat density, marbling and KPH (P<0.05); however, no differences (P>0.05) were observed in the Longissimus lumborum area. No significant differences (P>0.05) were recorded between the treatments for pH, L*, a*, b* C* and H*. The carcasses of the animals treated with Bopriva were heavier, with higher dorsal fat density and marbling score.

  19. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  20. Occurrence of "Haemophilus somnus" in bovine semen and in the prepuce of bulls and steers.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J D; Little, P B; Barnum, D A; Doig, P A; Stephens, L R; Thorsen, J

    1982-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus was isolated from 40 of 79 unprocessed bovine semen samples, 14 of 23 preputial washings of bulls and three of eight preputial washings of steers. The results indicate nonvenereal colonization of the male urogenital tract. It is suggested that dissemination of H. somnus from the urogenital tract may be of significance in the epizootiology of H. somnus associated diseases. PMID:7093816

  1. Energy and protein requirements of crossbred (Holstein × Gyr) growing bulls.

    PubMed

    Oss, D B; Machado, F S; Tomich, T R; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Castro, M M D; da Silva, T E; Marcondes, M I

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the energy and protein requirements of crossbred (Holstein × Gyr) growing bulls. Twenty-four 10-mo-old bulls [initial body weight (BW) = 184 ± 23.4 kg] were used in a comparative slaughter trial. Six bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment as the reference group, to estimate initial empty body weight (EBW) and energy and protein contents of the remaining animals. The remaining bulls were assigned to a completely randomized design with 3 levels of dry matter intake and 6 replicates. The levels of dry matter intake were 1.2% of BW, 1.8% of BW, and ad libitum to target orts equal to 5% of the total amount that was fed. The remaining bulls were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The bulls were fed a diet consisting of 59.6% corn silage and 40.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. The equation that determined the relationship between EBW and BW was EBW = (0.861 ± 0.0031) × BW. The relationship between empty body gain (EBG) and average daily gain (ADG) was demonstrated by the following equation: EBG = (0.934 ± 0.0111) × ADG. Net energy for maintenance (NEM) was 74.8 ± 2.89 kcal/kg of EBW(0.75) per day, and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEM) was 120.8 kcal/kg of EBW(0.75) per day. The detected efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance (km) was 61.9%. The equation used to estimate net energy for gain (NEG) was as follows: NEG = (0.049 ± 0.0011) × EBW(0.75) × EBG(0.729 ± 0.0532). The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for gain (kg) was 35.7%. The metabolizable protein for maintenance (MPM) was 3.05 g/kg of BW(0.75). The equation used to estimate net protein requirements for gain (NPG) = (87.138 ± 65.1378 × EBG) + [(40.436 ± 21.3640) × NEG]. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 35.7%. We concluded that the estimates of energy and protein requirements presented herein are more appropriate than the National Research Council dairy cattle

  2. Effect of inbreeding depression on bull sperm quality and field fertility.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Jesús; Cid, Rosa Morales; Molina, Antonio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ariza, Julia; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián

    2015-12-18

    The present study investigated the effect of inbreeding depression on sperm quality using automated and objective methods and subsequent effects on beef bull field fertility. Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) values and field fertility data were determined using a dataset of AI bulls belonging to the Spanish Retinta Breeders Association (Asociación Nacional de Criadores de Ganado Vacuno Selecto de Raza Retinta (ANCRE)). Animals were clustered in two groups according to the F values as follows: (1) a high inbreeding group (HI; F ≥ 13.5%, mean 16.3); and (2) a non-inbreeding group (NI; F = 0%). In total, 17 different assessments were performed in both experimental groups, including evaluation of sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status, sperm plasma membrane integrity and function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), 10 kinetic parameters and the structure of sperm subpopulations. Sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status and osmotic tolerance were similar in both groups. Three velocity parameters (curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity and average path velocity) and the amplitude of lateral head displacement were higher in HI (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis of kinematic parameters revealed three different sperm subpopulations (sP1, sP2 and sP3), with the proportion of the sP1 population (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa) being significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HI group. Field fertility was assessed using two calving record datasets. In a smaller database including only bulls evaluated in the present study, there was a significant increase in the calving interval of cows sired with HI bulls. Conversely, in an extended genetic analysis of the ANCRE database, inbreeding only explained a small part of the variation in calving interval, and the results of regression analysis were not significant among bulls. The findings of the present study suggest that high inbreeding levels have a moderate effect on bull semen quality, with an increased

  3. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  4. Technical note: adjustment of all cow evaluations for yield traits to be comparable with bull evaluations.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, G R; Vanraden, P M; Cooper, T A

    2012-06-01

    Traditional evaluations of cows with genotypes have been adjusted since April 2010 to be comparable with evaluations of bulls so that their value for estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism effects in genomic evaluation programs would be improved. However, that adjustment made them not comparable with traditional evaluations of nongenotyped cows. To create an adjustment for all cows with an evaluation based on US data, Mendelian sampling, which is the difference between predicted transmitting ability (PTA) and parent average (PA), was calculated for milk, fat, and protein yields and divided by a deregression factor. Standard deviations for the deregressed Mendelian sampling (DMS) were grouped by reliability with PA contribution removed (REL(no PA)). A multiplicative adjustment to reduce the DMS standard deviation for cows so that it would be the same as for bulls with similar REL(no PA) was represented as a linear function of REL(no PA). Mean cow PA by birth year was subtracted from individual bull and cow PA to create within-year PA deviation groups, and mean DMS was calculated by PA deviation group. Means decreased for bulls and increased for cows with increasing deviation. The differences were fit by linear regression on PA deviation and used to adjust cow DMS. The adjustment reduced PTA of cows with a high PA and increased PTA of cows with a low PA but did not change estimated genetic trend because adjustment was within birth year. The adjustment also reduced variance of cow evaluations within birth year. Traditional evaluations of genotyped cows with a REL(no PA) of ≥55% were further adjusted so that the difference between those evaluations and direct genomic values calculated using only bulls as predictors was similar to that for bulls. The second adjustment was small compared with a 2010 adjustment and, therefore, had little effect on the comparability of evaluations for genotyped and nongenotyped cows. Cows with converted evaluations from other

  5. Effect of age and season on semen quality parameters in Sahiwal bulls.

    PubMed

    Bhakat, Mukesh; Mohanty, T K; Raina, V S; Gupta, A K; Khan, H M; Mahapatra, R K; Sarkar, M

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season, period, age, bull, and ejaculate on semen quality in Sahiwal bulls. Semen production records from 1996 to 2006 of 5,483 ejaculates from 46 Sahiwal bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal, India were analyzed using least square analysis of variance by LSML software package. The overall least squares means of ejaculate volume (VOL), total volume per day (VOLD), mass activity (MA), initial motility (IM), sperm concentration per ml (SPC), and sperm concentration per ejaculate (SPCE) were 3.79 ± 0.02 ml, 5.81 ± 0.06 ml, 2.32 ± 0.01, 55.47 ± 0.001%, 766.69 ± 5.50 × 10(6)/ml and 3023.25 ± 30.15 × 10(6), respectively. All semen traits (VOL, VOLD, MA, IM and SPCE) were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by age groups, season and period, whereas season had significant effect on VOL at 5% level. During hot-humid season, highest value of VOL, VOLD, MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE were observed followed by summer and cold season. Highest value of VOL, VOLD, IM, and SPCE were observed during period-3 (2004-2006), whereas highest value of MA and SPC were observed during period-1 (1996-1999). However, lowest magnitude of MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE during period-2 (2000-2003) was observed. Ejaculate characteristics like VOL, VOLD, and SPCE increased with the increasing age of bull up to 5 years and then decreased. Significant (P < 0.01) bull to bull variation was found in VOL, VOLD, MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE traits. First ejaculate had significantly (P < 0.01) higher MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE. Hence, it could be concluded that during rainy season and period-1 and period-3 the quality of semen is quantitatively and qualitatively good. Better quality semen was obtained up to 5 years of age in Sahiwal bulls.

  6. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  7. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18–24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25–36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37–48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters. PMID:27351012

  8. Scrotal Circumference and Its Relationship with Testicular Growth, Age, and Body Weight in Tho Tho (Bos indicus) Bulls.

    PubMed

    Perumal, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between the scrotal circumference and testicular parameters with body weight and age in Tho Tho bulls (Bos indicus), which were maintained at around the villages of National Research Centre on Mithun (ICAR), Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. A total of 32 Tho Tho bulls were selected and divided into four groups according to their age and each group consisted of 8 bulls, namely, Group I: 18-24 months (n = 8), Group II: 25-36 months (n = 8), Group III: 37-48 months (n = 8), and Group IV: 49 months and above (n = 8). The scrotal circumference and testicular parameters were measured with caliper and tape and age of animals was calculated with dental formula. The body weight of bulls was estimated with Shaeffer's formula. Result revealed that the scrotal circumference was highly correlated with testicular parameters and body weight compared to age. Compared to exotic cattle (Bos taurus), Tho Tho bull's testicular parameters and scrotal circumference were lower. The results of the present study in Tho Tho bulls revealed that scrotal circumference is a useful indicator and is an important selection criterion to determine the testicular development and breeding soundness in young bulls as it is highly correlated with tesicular parameters.

  9. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  10. Conventional and fluorescent based semen quality assessment in Karan Fries bulls

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, A.; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Upadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out on semen ejaculates of 15 Karan Fries (KF) bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India with an objective to evaluate the relationship between the conventional and fluorescent based semen quality analysis of the bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 ejaculates were collected from 15 KF (Holstein Friesian [HF] crossbred) bulls. Semen were evaluated for color, volume, mass activity (MA) and percentage of individual motility (IM), sperm concentration, percent live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test and acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm viability, and membrane integrity. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package for descriptive analysis. The correlation between rankings of sires based on conventional and fluorescent semen parameters were calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results: The average ejaculates volume (ml), sperm concentration (106/ml), MA, IM (%), live (%), morphological abnormalities (%), host (%), acrosome integrity (%), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) (%), SYBR-PI (%), and fluorescent isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) (%) were 4.57±0.36, 1162.98±97.93, 2.95±0.09, 60.8±1.22, 71.41±2.10, 9.31±1.15, 65.5±1.81, 86.6±1.59, 3.53±0.43, 65.39±2.23 and 74.47±2.53, respectively. Rank correlations were found to be significant for SYBR-PI and FITC-PNA with most of the parameters evaluated by conventional methods. Overall, among conventional criteria, IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. Conclusion: Overview of our results indicated that, among conventional criteria, MA and IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. PMID:27047025

  11. Minimum Pool and Bull Trout Prey Base Investigations at Beulah Reservoir - Final Report for 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Beulah Reservoir in southeastern Oregon provides irrigation water to nearby farms and supports an adfluvial population of threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Summer drawdowns in the reservoir could affect forage fish production and overwintering bull trout. To assess the impacts of drawdown, we sampled fish, invertebrates, and water-quality variables seasonally during 2006-08. In 2006, the summer drawdown was about 68 percent of full pool, which was less than a typical drawdown of 85 percent. We detected few changes in pelagic invertebrate densities, and catch rates, abundance, and sizes of fish when comparing values from spring to values from fall. We did note that densities of benthic insects in areas that were dewatered annually were lower than those from areas that were not dewatered annually. In 2007, the drawdown was 100 percent (to run-of-river level) and resulted in decreases in abundance of invertebrates as much as 96 percent, decreases in catch rates of fish as much as 80 percent, decreases in abundance of redside shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) as much as 93 percent, and decreased numbers of small fish in catches. In the fall 2007, we estimated the total biomass of forage fish to be 76 kilograms, or about one-quarter of total biomass of forage fish in 2006. Bioenergetics modeling suggested that ample forage for about 1,000 bull trout would exist after a moderate drawdown, but that forage remaining after a complete dewatering would not be sufficient for a population one-fifth the size. Our results indicate that drawdowns in Beulah Reservoir affect the aquatic community and perhaps the health and well-being of bull trout. The severity of effects depends on the extent of drawdown, population size of bull trout, and perhaps other factors.

  12. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Muhlfeld, Clint C; Wade, Alisa A; Hand, Brian K; Whited, Diane C; DeHaan, Patrick W; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-02-06

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4-7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = -0.77; P < 0.001); watersheds containing populations with lower average genetic diversity generally had the lowest habitat complexity, warmest stream temperatures, and greatest frequency of winter flooding. Together, these findings have important conservation implications for bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already

  13. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  14. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P < 0.001); watersheds containing populations with lower average genetic diversity generally had the lowest habitat complexity, warmest stream temperatures, and greatest frequency of winter flooding. Together, these findings have important conservation implications for bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already

  15. A Comparison of Spatial and Movement Patterns between Sympatric Predators: Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and Atlantic Tarpon (Megalops atlanticus)

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Luo, Jiangang; Irschick, Duncan J.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. Methodology/Principal Findings We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas) and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus) in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1) How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2) How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3) Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths) and/or their rates of movement (ROM) differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4) Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? Conclusions/Significance Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm) coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability) tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and osmoregulation

  16. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    PubMed

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  17. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  18. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Maroney, Joseph R.; Andersen, Todd

    2004-11-01

    In 2003, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 209 bull trout and 1,276 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples next year. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  19. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, Joseph R.; Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F.

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  20. Repression of common bull sperm flora and in vitro impairment of sperm motility with Pseudomonas aeruginosa introduced by contaminated lubricant.

    PubMed

    Smole, I; Thomann, A; Frey, J; Perreten, V

    2010-08-01

    Semen collected from clinically healthy bulls at an artificial insemination centre was examined for bacterial diversity. While bacteria that are normally present in the common flora of bovine semen were absent, such as Mycoplasma sp., Proteus sp. and Corynebacterium sp., all semen samples contained an unusually high number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Analysis via pulsed field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that one particular P. aeruginosa strain, present in a sealed bottle of lubricant, was widespread in bull semen. This strain was shown to secrete substances that inhibited both the growth of bacteria constituting the normal bull sperm flora and the motility of spermatozoa in vitro. This study demonstrated that commercially available lubricants might contain bacteria that can spread amongst breeding bulls and affect the quality of semen. Bacteriological controls and species' identification are necessary at several production levels, including lubricants and extenders, to ensure high semen quality and avoid the spread of pathogens.

  1. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  2. Use of internal artificial vaginas for breeding soundness evaluation in range bulls: an alternative for electroejaculation allowing observation of sex drive and mating ability.

    PubMed

    Barth, Albert D; Arteaga, Andres A; Brito, Leonardo F C; Palmer, Colin W

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an inexpensive, reusable internal artificial vagina (IAV) developed for breeding soundness evaluation of range beef bulls. In addition, sexual behavior during semen collection by IAV was compared to behavior during pasture breeding. Breeding soundness exams (BSEs) were conducted on 165 bulls in two consecutive years (96 in Year 1 and 69 in Year 2). In Year 1, BSEs were done twice in all bulls, once by a conventional protocol using electroejaculation (EEJ), followed by the IAV method, one week later. In Year 2, all BSEs were done on one day; 69 bulls by the IAV method followed by EEJ in 21 bulls that failed to serve the IAV. For semen collection using an IAV, mount cows were restrained in breeding crates and an IAV was inserted into the vagina just beyond the depth of the vestibular sphincter. After each copulation, the IAV was replaced for the next bull to be tested. Semen collection by IAV was successful for all bulls that mounted and penetrated cows during the testing period (54.3 and 69.6% of the bulls served the cows with IAVs in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Semen was collected successfully by EEJ from all bulls in both years. Differences were observed between semen collection methods in semen volume and percentage of sperm staining alive; however, the differences were opposite in Year 1 and 2 and, therefore, were probably due to natural variations in time and within bull rather than the method of semen collection. Semen collection by IAV allowed the detection of problems that prevented copulation in 8 bulls (4.8%) that were determined to be satisfactory potential breeders when semen was collected by EEJ. In Year 1, breeding observations were made at pasture for 15 bulls that served, and 15 bulls that did not serve cows with an IAV. Bulls that did not serve the IAV during the test period had fewer mounts, attempts to mount, and completed services at pasture than bulls that had served the IAV, indicating

  3. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  4. Effect of 12-hour road transportation on physiological, immunological and haematological parameters in bulls housed at different space allowances.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2007-05-01

    The effects of transporting Holstein Friesian bulls (n=72; bodyweight 403+/-3.5 kg) for 12h by road were examined. Adrenal, haematological and immune responses, body temperature and performance were recorded. The animals had been previously housed for 96 days at three space allowances (1.2, 2.7 or 4.2m(2) per bull). The bulls were allocated to one of two treatments: T (transport for 12h; n=16 per space allowance) and C (control; n=8 per space allowance). Basal cortisol plasma concentrations and interferon (IFN)-gamma production from cultured lymphocytes did not show any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) following the housing period. Removing bulls from their home pens and walking them to the pre-loading crush facility, loading onto the transporter, and unloading following the 12h road journey, significantly (P<0.001) increased plasma cortisol concentration. The bulls housed at 4.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 1.2m(2) at loading, unloading, or on return to the crush holding facility; those housed at 1.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 2.7 and 4.2m(2) in their home pens after transport. There was an increased (P<0.05) plasma cortisol response in the T than in the C bulls following adrenocorticotrophic hormone administration. Transport significantly reduced (P<0.05) IFN-gamma production, lymphocyte % and body weight and significantly increased (P<0.05) neutrophils, eosinophils, packed cell volume, red blood cell numbers and haemoglobin. In conclusion, housing bulls for 96 days in a range of space allowances did not affect basal cortisol response or immune function parameters. Whereas transport increased plasma cortisol and reduced the immune response in the short-term, the changes were transient and within normal physiological ranges, suggesting that 12h road transport had no adverse effect on welfare status over the longer term. Furthermore, transport of bulls

  5. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  6. Effect of age and environmental factors on semen quality, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative parameters in Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Balić, I Majić; Milinković-Tur, S; Samardžija, M; Vince, S

    2012-07-15

    Taking into account that semen quality depends on animal age and climate conditions and that oxidative stress has been reported to be a common cause of infertility, the objective of this study was to monitor indicators of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection during four seasonal periods in service bulls of various age to get better insight into the significance of these factors upon evaluating service bull semen. The research was conducted over a year on 19 Simmental service bulls. Animals were divided into two groups according to age; Group I consisted of younger bulls aged two to four yrs (n=9), and Group II was comprised of older bulls aged five to ten yrs (n=10). Semen samples were obtained once in the middle of every seasonal period and blood samples for biochemical analysis were collected by jugular venipuncture immediately after ejaculate collection. The activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) and selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), together with the intensity of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) and oxidative protein damage (protein carbonyl content (PCC)) were measured in seminal plasma. In samples of spermatozoa and blood serum, the activity of Se-GSH-Px and TBARS and PCC concentrations were determined. Older service bulls had significantly higher ejaculate volume in summer in comparison with younger bulls, whereas the number of spermatozoa and progressive motility percentage did not significantly vary with age. Younger animals had lower progressive motility percentage during summer than in spring, with more intensive oxidative processes observed in seminal plasma (TBARS) and spermatozoa (TBARS and PCC). Based on the results presented here, it can be concluded that younger bulls are more sensitive to elevated ambient temperatures during the summer, when intensified prooxidative processes in semen plasma and spermatozoa

  7. Acute renal failure following Bull ant mass envenomation in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Abraham, L A; Hinkley, C J; Tatarczuch, L; Holloway, S A

    2004-01-01

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in a German Short Haired Pointer bitch and a Kelpie cross-bred dog following envenomation by Bull ants. Both dogs had been tethered over a Bull ant nest and had experienced mass envenomation. There was local reaction at the envenomation sites and each dog had experienced vomiting that was poorly controlled by symptomatic therapy. Intensive treatment of renal failure was successful in the German Short Haired Pointer and the bitch remains well 19 months after envenomation. The Kelpie cross-bred deteriorated despite intensive treatment and was euthanased 36 hours after presentation. Necropsy examination revealed haemorrhage and necrosis of the small intestine and myocardium, bilateral nephrosis with tubular necrosis, and patchy haemorrhage of the lung alveoli, pancreas and adrenal cortices. Electron microscopy revealed necrosis of the small intestine and hydropic swelling of proximal renal tubules with necrosis of medullary tubules.

  8. Conditions for growth and survival of bull trout in Beulah Reservoir, Oregon. Annual report 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Kofoot, E.E.; Rose, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) constructed Agency Valley Dam on the North Fork of the Malheur River in 1934-35, creating Beulah Reservoir. The project is operated and maintained by the Vale Irrigation District for irrigation and downstream flood control. There is currently no formal agreement for a minimum pool level at Beulah Reservoir, but project operators of Agency Valley Dam and BOR are considering management alternatives. Although the project is not operated for fish and wildlife values, the reservoir supports a rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fishery and also seasonally harbors an adfluvial population of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife [ODFW], unpublished data). Bull trout were listed by the USFWS as a threatened species throughout the Columbia and Klamath river basins in 1998, and Oregon has listed the North Fork Malheur River population “Of Special Concern”.

  9. Conditions for growth and survival of bull trout in Beulah Reservoir, Oregon. Annual report 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; Kofoot, Eric E.

    2002-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) constructed Agency Valley Dam on the North Fork of the Malheur River in 1934-35, creating Beulah Reservoir. The project is operated and maintained by the Vale Irrigation District for irrigation and downstream flood control, with no minimum pool or outflow operational criteria. Although the project is not operated for fish and wildlife values, the reservoir supports a rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fishery and also seasonally harbors an adfluvial population of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife [ODFW]; Burns Paiute Tribe). Bull trout were listed by the USFWS as a threatened species throughout the Columbia and Klamath river basins in 1998, and Oregon has listed the North Fork Malheur River population “Of Special Concern”.

  10. Heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography for purification of bull seminal-plasma hyaluronidase.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, P N; Farooqui, A A

    1979-01-01

    Bull seminal-plasma hyaluronidase was purified 180-fold by chromatography on concanvalin A-Sepharose, heparin Sepharose, Sephadex G-200 and Sephacryl S-200. With hyaluronic acid as the substrate, the specific activity and turnover number of purified hyaluronidase were 3.63 mumol/min per mg (104000 National Formulary units/mg of protein) and 214 min-1 (mol of product formed/mol of enzyme per min) respectively. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the purified enzyme migrated as a single band on 7.5 and 10% (w/v) gels at pH 4.3 and 5.3. Bull seminal-plasma hyaluronidase was markedly inhibited by hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine and semicarbazide. Purified hyaluronidase (1.25 munits; 1 unit = 1 mumol of N-acetylglucosamine liberated/min at 37 degrees C) dispersed the cumulus clot of rabbit ova in 1 h at 22 degrees C. Images Fig. 4. PMID:540029

  11. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  12. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    PubMed Central

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  13. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  14. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  15. Fragmentation of riverine systems: the genetic effects of dams on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Clark Fork River system.

    PubMed

    Neraas, L P; Spruell, P

    2001-05-01

    Migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) historically spawned in tributaries of the Clark Fork River, Montana and inhabited Lake Pend Oreille as subadult and adult fish. However, in 1952 Cabinet Gorge Dam was constructed without fish passage facilities disrupting the connectivity of this system. Since the construction of this dam, bull trout populations in upstream tributaries have been in decline. Each year adult bull trout return to the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam when most migratory bull trout begin their spawning migration. However, the origin of these fish is uncertain. We used eight microsatellite loci to compare bull trout collected at the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam to fish sampled from both above and further downstream from the dam. Our data indicate that Cabinet Gorge bull trout are most likely individuals that hatched in above-dam tributaries, reared in Lake Pend Oreille, and could not return to their natal tributaries to spawn. This suggests that the risk of outbreeding depression associated with passing adults over dams in the Clark Fork system is minimal compared to the potential genetic and demographic benefits to populations located above the dams.

  16. Is that dog a pit bull? A cross-country comparison of perceptions of shelter workers regarding breed identification.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances.

  17. 75 FR 63897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are revising critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are designating a total of 31,750.8 km (19,729.0 mi) of streams (which includes 1,213.2 km (754.0 mi) of marine shoreline) and are designating a total of 197,589.2 ha (488,251.7 ac) of reservoirs and lakes. The areas......

  18. Leg lesions and cleanliness of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different lying area surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schulze Westerath, H; Gygax, L; Mayer, C; Wechsler, B

    2007-07-01

    The influence of the quality of different lying surfaces on lesions and swellings at the joints as well as on the cleanliness of finishing bulls throughout the fattening period was studied. On 17 farms (623 bulls), pens with fully slatted concrete floors (CONCRETE), with rubber coated slats (RUBBER), with cubicles (CUBICLES, provided with five different types of soft lying mat) and with a littered lying area (STRAW) were compared. Bulls kept on STRAW developed the smallest lesion scores at the joints. In CUBICLES, there was a huge variability in the lesion scores depending on the type of lying mat, ranging from values comparable to STRAW up to and greater than the values for CONCRETE. The highest lesion scores at the carpal joints were found on CONCRETE, with intermediate values on RUBBER and in CUBICLES. At the tarsal joints, lesion scores were similar on CONCRETE and RUBBER and in the same range or worse on most mats in the CUBICLES. Swelling scores were highest on CONCRETE and intermediate on RUBBER and in CUBICLES compared to STRAW. In general, there was a steady increase in the lesion scores of the leg joints throughout the fattening period on CONCRETE, RUBBER and STRAW, whereas on some of the mats in CUBICLES these scores were at a high level from early on in the fattening period. Animals in all the housing systems were clean over the whole fattening period. Littering the lying area in CUBICLES affected neither the lesion scores nor the swelling scores at the joints nor animal cleanliness. In conclusion, both rubber coated slats and cubicles provided with soft lying mats were favourable with regard to the levels of lesions and swellings of the leg joints of finishing bulls compared to concrete slats. However, these levels were even lower in pens with a straw bedded lying area.

  19. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Matera, Angela J; Basinger, Jency; Evans, Mindy; Schurman, Taylor; Marquez, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    Energy drinks are frequently consumed by athletes prior to competition to improve performance. This study examined the effect of Red Bull™ on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Fifteen collegiate soccer players participated, with mean age, height, and body mass equal to 19.5±1.1 year, 168.4±5.8 cm, and 63.4±6.1 kg, respectively. After performing a familiarization trial, subjects performed three sets of eight bouts of the modified t test after ingestion of 255 mL of placebo or Red Bull 1 h pre-exercise in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Throughout testing, sprint time, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were continuously obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in variables between drink conditions. Across athletes, t test time ranged from 10.4 to 12.7 s. Mean sprint time was similar (p>0.05) between Red Bull (11.31±0.61 s) and placebo (11.35±0.61 s). HR and RPE increased (p<0.05) during the bouts, but there was no effect (p>0.05) of Red Bull on either variable versus placebo. Findings indicate that 255 mL of Red Bull containing 1.3 mg/kg of caffeine and 1 g of taurine does not alter repeated sprint performance, RPE, or HR in women athletes versus placebo. One serving of this energy drink provides no ergogenic benefit for women athletes engaging in sprint-based exercise.

  20. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  1. Effects of radioactive caesium on bull testes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Kino, Yasushi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Fukumoto, Motoi; Takahashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Uematsu, Emi; Tong, Bin; Yamada, Takahisa; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sato, Eimei; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident on the testis from 2 bulls. Estimated dose of internal exposure in one bull was 0.7–1.2 mGy (134Cs) and 0.4–0.6 mGy (137Cs) and external exposure was 2.0 mGy (134Cs) and 0.8 mGy (137Cs) (196 days). Internal dose in the other was 3.2–6.1 mGy (134Cs) and 1.8–3.4 mGy (137Cs) and external dose was 1.3 mGy (134Cs) and 0.6 mGy (137Cs) (315 days). Sperm morphology and spermatogenesis were within normal ranges. 134, 137Cs radioactivity was detected but Cs was not detectable in the testis by electron probe microanalysis. Thus, adverse radiation-induced effects were not observed in bull testes following chronic exposure to the above levels of radiation for up to 10 months. Since we could analyse a limited number of testes, further investigation on the effects of ionizing radiation on spermatogenesis should be extended to more animals. PMID:24100305

  2. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network.

    PubMed

    Meeuwig, Michael H; Guy, Christopher S; Kalinowski, Steven T; Fredenberg, Wade A

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  3. Upstream movement of residual hatchery steelhead into areas containing bull trout and cutthroat trout.

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Pearsons, Todd N.

    2000-11-01

    Hatchery-reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss that do not emigrate as smolts shortly after release may negatively impact wild fish communities through ecological interactions. We used systematic, stratified snorkeling surveys to document the relative abundance of wild rainbow trout O. mykiss, bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi as well as the upstream limit of residual hatchery steelhead (hatchery-reared steelhead that had failed to emigrate before June 1). Our objective was to determine whether residual hatchery steelhead had migrated upstream from their release point into an area containing a threatened population of bull trout and cutthroat trout. Hatchery steelhead made up a larger portion of the salmonid community in the sites near their release location (mean= 52.5%, range= 29-79%), and constituted a lower proportion (mean= 4.8%, range= 0-14%) of the salmonid community as distance upstream of the release location increased. However, residual hatchery steelhead had migrated over 12 km upstream into an area containing a threatened stock of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi.

  4. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Guy, C.S.; Kalinowski, S.T.; Fredenberg, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  5. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  6. Mount St. Helens ash fall in the Bull Run watershed, Oregon, May-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shulters, M.V.; Clifton, D.G.

    1980-07-01

    On May 25-26, May 30-June 2, and June 12-13, 1980, strong, high-altitude winds from the north occurred during periods of volcanic-ash eruption at Mount St. Helens in southwestern Washington. As a result, ash fell in the Bull Run watershed, Oregon, some 50 miles to the south, the principal water-supply source for the Portland area. Samples from precipitation collectors and from stream sites in the Bull Run watershed were collected on several dates during May and June 1980. Analyses were made and are tabulated for pH, conductivity, acidity, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite. Field pH values of the precipitation ranged from 4.0 to 5.6 pH units and the stream samples from 6.7 to 7.5 units. Particle-size analyses for ash samples collected in the Bull Run watershed and Portland, Oregon, are also shown. Volcanic events, precipitation and high-altitude speeds for northerly winds are given for May 18-June 15, 1980. 6 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena; Fries, Hans Rudolf; SandøLund, Mogens; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Boichard, Didier; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, Roel; Goddard, Michael; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Hayes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models for individual-specific allele frequencies that directly capture a wide range of complex structure from genome-wide genotypes. As measured by magnitude of differentiation, selection pressure on SNPs within genes is substantially greater than that on intergenic regions. Additionally, broad regions of chromosome 6 harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull genomes can support genetic management strategies that capture structural complexity and promote sustainable genetic breadth. PMID:28084449

  8. The effect of castration time on growth and carcass production of elk bulls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kwan-Woo; Park, Seong-Bok; Kim, Myung-Jick; Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of castration time on growth and carcass traits of elk bulls were investigated. Twelve bulls at 5 years old were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were allocated randomly to each of four treatment groups (3 heads/group). Groups of each treatment were castrated surgically in March, April or June and managed together with non-castration (entire) treatment. All elk bulls in the trial were slaughtered at same time. Growth parameters, carcass yield and composition were recorded. The total gain and average daily gain was higher when castrated in April (p < 0.05). The entire elk produced heaviest and highest in saddle and brisket portions (p < 0.05). It is apparent that the castrate animals carried more total fat weight and percentages than the entire males (p < 0.05). It was found that loin muscles from non-castrated elk, in comparison with those from castrated one, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p < 0.05). In this study, growth parameters, carcass yields and chemical composition were greatly affected by castration time.

  9. Effects of the Red Bull energy drink on cognitive function and mood in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Watson, Anthony W; Bal, Wendy; Okello, Edward

    2017-02-01

    The present study compared the cognitive and mood effects of two commercially available products, Red Bull energy drink 250 mL and Red Bull Sugarfree energy drink 250 mL, together with a matching placebo 250 mL. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers took part in a randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind, three-way cross-over study. Cognitive function was assessed using an integrated set of nine computerised tests of attention, working and episodic memory. On each study day the volunteers received a standardised breakfast prior to completing a baseline performance on cognitive tests and mood scales, followed by the consumption of the study drink. The cognitive tests and scales were then re-administered at 30, 60 and 90 min post-dose. Red Bull was found to produce significant improvements over both the Sugarfree version and the placebo drink on two composite scores from the six working and episodic memory tests; one combining the 12 accuracy measures from the six tasks and the other the average speed of correct responses from the working memory and episodic recognition memory tasks. These improvements were in the range of a medium effect size, which reflects a substantial enhancement to memory in young volunteers.

  10. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  11. Investigation of an outbreak of infectious pustular balanoposthitis in cattle breeding bulls at a frozen semen bank.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A B; Nandi, S; Tiwari, A K; Audarya, S D; Sharma, K; Pradhan, S K; Chauhan, R S

    2014-12-01

    Infectious pustular balanoposthitis (IPB) is one of the reproductive disorders caused by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) that can be transmitted through artificial insemination. A herd of 63 breeding bulls at a frozen semen bank in Odisha state in India experienced a suspected outbreak of IPB, with 11 bulls showing clinical signs of the infection. Clinical signs were noticed in two bulls initially and a few days after in the other nine animals. Serum samples from 53 bulls were examined for anti-BoHV1 antibodies using a virus neutralisation test (VNT) and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); the remaining ten bulls were not included in the study because it was difficult to restrain them at that time. Paired serum samples were collected 21 days apart from ten clinically affected bulls (the eleventh clinically affected bull was not included in the study for the reason stated above). In the neutralisation test, the paired serum samples showed a two- to fourfold increase in anti-BoHV1 antibody titre; in the cELISA, the paired samples were also found positive for anti-BoHV1 antibodies. Serum samples from 43 in-contact bulls were collected about day 22 after the first observation of clinical infection in the herd. Among these serum samples, a total of 30 were found positive for anti-BoHV1 antibodies in the VNT and a total of 30 were found positive in cELISA. Ten samples were positive in one test but not the other and 25 tested positive in both tests. In all, 35 serum samples from in-contact bulls tested positive in either one or both of the two types of test. An overall agreement of 76.74% was found in detection of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in the two tests. Sensitivity was higher than specificity in detection of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in the serum samples. The glycoprotein C region of the genomic DNA of BoHV1 was amplified from semen samples by polymerase chain reaction. The findings from the outbreak indicate that continuous monitoring of breeding bulls at

  12. Relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Forrest, D W; Fox, J T; Forbes, T D A; Davis, M E; Randel, R D; Holloway, J W

    2012-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine phenotypic relationships between feed efficiency, scrotal circumference, and semen quality traits in yearling bulls. Data evaluated were obtained from 5 postweaning trials involving Angus (n = 92), Bonsmara (n = 62), and Santa Gertrudis (n = 50) bulls fed diets that ranged from 1.70 to 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. After an adaptation period of 24 to 28 d, feed intake was measured daily, and BW was measured at 7- or 14-d intervals during the 70- to 77-d trials. Ultrasound carcass traits (12th-rib back fat thickness, BF; LM area, LMA) and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured at the start and end of each trial. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation within 51 d of the end of the trials when the age of bulls averaged from 365 to 444 d and were evaluated for progressive sperm motility and morphology. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75), with trial, trial by ADG, and trial by midtest BW(0.75) as random effects. Across all studies, bulls with low RFI phenotypes (<0.5 SD below the mean RFI of 0) consumed 20% less DM and had 10% less BF but had similar ADG, SC, and semen quality traits compared with high-RFI bulls (>0.5 SD above the mean RFI of 0). Gain to feed ratio was strongly correlated with ADG (0.60) and weakly correlated with initial BW (-0.17) and DMI (-0.26). Residual feed intake was not correlated with ADG, initial age, or BW but was correlated with DMI (0.71), G:F (-0.70), and BF (0.20). Initial SC (-0.20), gain in SC (-0.28), and percent normal sperm (-0.17) were correlated with G:F, but only sperm morphology was found to be weakly associated with RFI (0.13). These data suggest that RFI is not phenotypically associated with SC or sperm motility but is weakly associated with sperm morphology.

  13. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV) on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI). Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64) than for survival (0.19-0.20), which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6%) over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay for young bulls

  14. Prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern Nigeria. Methods A total of 602 preputial samples was collected from bulls in 250 herds and tested using culture and identification. Various indigenous and exotic breeds were studied and four major management systems were encountered. Age of the cattle was estimated using dentition, farm records or cornual rings. Results The estimated true animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter fetus infection was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.0-20.7), of which 18.5% was C. f. fetus and 81.5% was C. f. venerealis. Of the latter, 92% were C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. Animal-level prevalences in Adamawa, Kano and Kaduna states were 31.8%, 11.6% and 8.3% respectively, and were highest in bulls >7 years old (33.4%) and in the Gudali breed (28.8%). Of the 250 herds, 78 (25.5%, 95% CI: 19.4-32.7) had at least one infected bull, and herd prevalence was highest in the pastoral management system (43.5%). After adjustment for confounding using multivariable analysis, the odds of C. fetus infection were highest in Adamawa state (P < 0.01), in the pastoral management system (P < 0.01), and in bulls >7 years old (P = 0.01), and tended to be higher in Bos taurus breeds (P = 0.06). There was a strong positive association between the presence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis (P < 0.01), both within bulls (OR = 8.3) and within herds (OR = 16.0). Trichomonosis was not detected in any herds. Conclusion Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is prevalent particularly in the pastoral management system in northern Nigeria, with C. f. venerealis biovar intermedius as the major aetiology. There was a strong positive correlation between the occurrence of campylobacteriosis and brucellosis. No evidence of trichomonosis was found in herds in this study. PMID:23927676

  15. Sequencing and annotated analysis of full genome of Holstein breed bull.

    PubMed

    Kõks, Sulev; Reimann, Ene; Lilleoja, Rutt; Lättekivi, Freddy; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we describe the deep sequencing and structural analysis of the Holstein breed bull genome. Our aim was to receive a high-quality Holstein bull genome reference sequence and to describe different types of variations in its genome compared to Hereford breed as a reference. We generated four mate-paired libraries and one fragment library from 30 μg of genomic DNA. Colour space fasta were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assembly from Oct. 2011 (Baylor 4.6.1/bosTau7). Initial sequencing resulted in the 4,864,054,296 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 71.7 % and altogether 3,494,534,136 reads and 157,928,163,086 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 60 × coverage. This is the highest coverage for bovine genome published so far. Tertiary analysis found 6,362,988 SNPs in the bull's genome, 4,045,889 heterozygous and 2,317,099 homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,330,337 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database (build 137) and therefore 2,032,651 SNPs were novel. Large indel variations accounted for the 245,947,845 bp of the variation in entire genome and their number was 312,879. We also found that small indels (number was 633,310) accounted for the total variation of 2,542,552 nucleotides in the genome. Only 106,768 small indels were listed in the dbSNP. Finally, we identified 2,758 inversions in the genome of the bull covering in total 23,099,054 bp of genome's variation. The largest inversion was 87,440 bp in size. In conclusion, the present study discovered different types of novel variants in bull's genome after high-coverage sequencing. Better knowledge of the functions of these variations is needed.

  16. Assessing the impact of natural service bulls and genotype by environment interactions on genetic gain and inbreeding in organic dairy cattle genomic breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Yin, T; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Simianer, H; Swalve, H H; König, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare genetic gain and inbreeding coefficients of dairy cattle in organic breeding program designs by applying stochastic simulations. Evaluated breeding strategies were: (i) selecting bulls from conventional breeding programs, and taking into account genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, (ii) selecting genotyped bulls within the organic environment for artificial insemination (AI) programs and (iii) selecting genotyped natural service bulls within organic herds. The simulated conventional population comprised 148 800 cows from 2976 herds with an average herd size of 50 cows per herd, and 1200 cows were assigned to 60 organic herds. In a young bull program, selection criteria of young bulls in both production systems (conventional and organic) were either 'conventional' estimated breeding values (EBV) or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for two traits with low (h 2=0.05) and moderate heritability (h 2=0.30). GEBV were calculated for different accuracies (r mg), and G×E interactions were considered by modifying originally simulated true breeding values in the range from r g=0.5 to 1.0. For both traits (h 2=0.05 and 0.30) and r mg⩾0.8, genomic selection of bulls directly in the organic population and using selected bulls via AI revealed higher genetic gain than selecting young bulls in the larger conventional population based on EBV; also without the existence of G×E interactions. Only for pronounced G×E interactions (r g=0.5), and for highly accurate GEBV for natural service bulls (r mg>0.9), results suggests the use of genotyped organic natural service bulls instead of implementing an AI program. Inbreeding coefficients of selected bulls and their offspring were generally lower when basing selection decisions for young bulls on GEBV compared with selection strategies based on pedigree indices.

  17. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Marcy K.; Grandin, Temple

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary When cattle breeders purchase semen from a website, the only way they can visually appraise a bull’s conformation is by looking at his photograph. Correct foot and leg structure is important to help reduce lameness. Only 19.4% of the bull pictures on four major websites had fully visible feet and lower legs. A possible explanation for this may be deliberate covering of feet and legs with photo editing software to cover up conformation defects. Visibility of feet and lower legs would help semen buyers avoid bulls with obvious feet or leg problems. Abstract A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned), Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs. PMID:26479372

  18. The effect of road transport in comparison to a novel environment on the physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of bulls.

    PubMed

    Earley, Bernadette; Drennan, Michael; O'Riordan, Edward G

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of 18 h road transport with a 12h mid-journey rest period in comparison to the exposure of bulls to a novel environment on physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of beef bulls. Thirty Charolais sired crossbred beef bulls (mean 486.0, s.d. 57.0 kg) were assigned by live weight to one of the two treatments, transport (T) (9h+9h) (n=15) and not-transported (NT) (n=15) on day 0. The bulls were transported at a spatial allowance of 1.3m(2)/animal by road for 9h, unloaded and rested for a 12h rest period, re-loaded and transported for a further 9h journey by road followed by a 2h rest period on the transporter, then unloaded and rested in a lairage for 24h with access to hay and water. Plasma albumin and urea concentrations increased (P<0.05) after the first 9h journey with values returning to baseline at the end of the 24h recovery period. There was a transient increase in haematocrit% in T and NT at sampling time points corresponding to the completion of the first 9h journey. Bulls spent longer time lying (P<0.05) during the first 9h journey compared with the percentage time spent lying during the second 9h journey. Differences in live weight, behaviour, and some blood variables show that transport is more stressful for bulls than being subjected to a novel environment and management, and while some biological variables returned to baseline values, others require a longer time (plasma haptoglobin, total protein, glucose and NEFA concentrations). Thus, the effective recovery of bulls exposed to an 18 h transport journey by road would suggest that a rest period of at least 24h with access to feed and water is required before further transport.

  19. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  20. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  1. Two-stage genome-wide association study identifies integrin beta 5 as having potential role in bull fertility

    PubMed Central

    Feugang, Jean M; Kaya, Abdullah; Page, Grier P; Chen, Lang; Mehta, Tapan; Hirani, Kashif; Nazareth, Lynne; Topper, Einko; Gibbs, Richard; Memili, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Background Fertility is one of the most critical factors controlling biological and financial performance of animal production systems and genetic improvement of lines. The objective of this study was to identify molecular defects in the sperm that are responsible for uncompensable fertility in Holstein bulls. We performed a comprehensive genome wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for bull fertility followed by a second-stage replication in additional bulls for a restricted set of markers. Results In the Phase I association study, we genotyped the genomic sperm DNA of 10 low-fertility and 10 high-fertility bulls using Bovine SNP Gene Chips containing approximately 10,000 random SNP markers. In these animals, 8,207 markers were found to be polymorphic, 97 of which were significantly associated with fertility (p < 0.01). In the Phase II study, we tested the four most significant SNP from the Phase I study in 101 low-fertility and 100 high-fertility bulls, with two SNPs (rs29024867 and rs41257187) significantly replicated. Rs29024867 corresponds to a nucleotide change of C → G 2,190 bp 3' of the collagen type I alpha 2 gene on chromosome 4, while the rs41257187 (C → T) is in the coding region of integrin beta 5 gene on chromosome 1. The SNP rs41257187 induces a synonymous (Proline → Proline), suggesting disequilibrium with the true causative locus (i), but we found that the incubation of bull spermatozoa with integrin beta 5 antibodies significantly decreased the ability to fertilize oocytes. Our findings suggest that the bovine sperm integrin beta 5 protein plays a role during fertilization and could serve as a positional or functional marker of bull fertility. Conclusion We have identified molecular markers associated with bull fertility and established that at least one of the genes harboring such variation has a role in fertility. The findings are important in understanding mechanisms of uncompensatory infertility in bulls, and in other

  2. Pituitary, adrenal, immune and performance responses of mature Holstein x Friesian bulls housed on slatted floors at various space allowances.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2007-05-01

    The effect of various space allowances on the pituitary, adrenal and immune responses and on performance was investigated in 72 mature Holstein x Friesian beef bulls. The animals (weighing 403+/-3.5 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to two groups (familiar, F, and unfamiliar, UF) x three treatments (1.2, 2.7 and 4.2m(2) per bull; n=24 per space allowance), and housed for 83 days in 18 pens (n=4 per pen). Blood samples were collected on days -1, 0, 3, 14, 36 and 77 with respect to mixing and housing on day 0. The bulls were given exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) on day 3 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) on days 14, 36 and 77. Basal plasma cortisol concentration was not affected (P>0.05) by mixing F and UF bulls. On day 3, basal cortisol was greater (P<0.05) in bulls housed at 1.2 than those at 2.7 and 4.2m(2) space allowances while no effect was observed in ACTH-induced plasma cortisol concentration among treatments. Following CRH administration, there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment and treatment x time on plasma ACTH concentration. On day 14, interferon-gamma production was lower (P<0.05) in the bulls housed at 4.2 vs. 2.7 m(2) and was intermediate but not significantly different (P>0.05) for those housed at 1.2m(2). Animals housed at either space allowances had significant (P<0.05) neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia and decreased haemoglobin on day 3 compared with day 0. The liveweight gain from days 0 to 83 was lower (P<0.05) in bulls housed at 1.2 compared with those at 2.7 and 4.2m(2). Housing bulls at 1.2m(2) space allowance had a detrimental effect on their growth and was associated with an acute rise in plasma cortisol concentration (on day 3) compared with those having space allowances of 2.7 and 4.2m(2)/bull.

  3. Seasonal movement and habitat use by sub-adult bull trout in the upper Flathead River system, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marotz, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance of large-scale habitat connectivity to the threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, little is known about the life history characteristics and processes influencing natural dispersal of migratory populations. We used radiotelemetry to investigate the seasonal movements and habitat use by subadult bull trout (i.e., fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) tracked for varying durations from 1999 to 2002 in the upper Flathead River system in northwestern Montana. Telemetry data revealed migratory (N = 32 fish) and nonmigratory (N = 35 fish) behavior, indicating variable movement patterns in the subadult phase of bull trout life history. Most migrating subadults (84%) made rapid or incremental downriver movements (mean distance, 33 km; range, 6–129 km) to lower portions of the river system and to Flathead Lake during high spring flows and as temperatures declined in the fall and winter. Bull trout subadults used complex daytime habitat throughout the upper river system, including deep runs that contained unembedded boulder and cobble substrates, pools with large woody debris, and deep lake-influenced areas of the lower river system. Our results elucidate the importance of maintaining natural connections and a diversity of complex habitats over a large spatial scale to conserve the full expression of life history traits and processes influencing the natural dispersal of bull trout populations. Managers should seek to restore and enhance critical river corridor habitat and remove migration barriers, where possible, for recovery and management programs.

  4. Swimming endurance of bull trout, lake trout, arctic char, and rainbow trout following challenge with Renibacterium salmoninarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the swimming endurance of juvenile bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 9??C and 15??C to determine whether sublethal infection from a moderate challenge of Renibacterium salmoninarum administered months before testing affected the length of time fish could maintain a swimming speed of 5-6 body lengths per second in an experimental flume. Rainbow trout and Arctic char swam longer in trials than did bull trout or lake trout, regardless of challenge treatment. When we tested fish 14-23 weeks postchallenge, we found no measurable effect of R. salmoninarum on the swimming endurance of the study species except for bull trout, which showed a mixed response. We conducted additional trials with bull trout 5-8 weeks postchallenge to determine whether increasing the challenge dose would affect swimming endurance and hematocrit. In those tests, bull trout with clinical signs of disease and those exposed to the highest challenge doses had significantly reduced swimming endurance compared with unchallenged control fish. Fish hematocrit levels measured at the end of all swimming endurance tests varied among species and between test temperatures, and patterns were not always consistent between challenged and control fish.

  5. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  7. Feed restriction and subsequent realimentation in Holstein Friesian bulls: I. Effect on animal performance; muscle, fat, and linear body measurements; and slaughter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keogh, K; Waters, S M; Kelly, A K; Kenny, D A

    2015-07-01

    Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 75) were used to evaluate the effect of restricted and subsequent compensatory growth on muscular and skeletal growth as well as the recovery of carcass and noncarcass components. Fifteen bulls were slaughtered on Day 0 to provide baseline parameters for carcass and noncarcass measurements. Of the remaining 60 bulls, 30 were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) and 30 were fed a restricted (RES) diet to grow at 0.6 kg/d for 125 d, denoted as Period 1. After 125 d of differential feeding, 15 bulls from each group were slaughtered. The remaining bulls in both treatment groups were then offered ad libitum access to feed for a further 55 d (realimentation), denoted as Period 2, after which they were also slaughtered. All animals received the same diet composed of 70% concentrate and 30% grass silage throughout the experimental trial. As planned, feed intake was greater for ADLIB bulls in Period 1 (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in feed intake during realimentation (P > 0.05). During Period 1, RES bulls gained 0.6 kg/d whereas ADLIB bulls grew at 1.9 kg/d. During realimentation in Period 2, RES bulls displayed accelerated growth, gaining 2.5 kg/d compared with 1.4 kg/d for ADLIB bulls (P < 0.001). This amounted to a live weight difference between treatment groups of 161 kg at the end of Period 1 after restricted feeding, which was then reduced to 84 kg at the end of Period 2 (P < 0.001). Restricted animals achieved a compensatory growth (or recovery) index of 48% within 55 d of realimentation. During Period 2, RES bulls displayed a better feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) than ADLIB bulls, indicating better feed efficiency. Ultrasonically measured longissmus dorsi growth was greater for ADLIB bulls compared with RES bulls during Period 1; however, this was reversed during Period 2 (P < 0.001). Metabolically active organs such as the liver and components of the gastrointestinal tract were lighter in RES bulls at the end of Period 1, with no

  8. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  9. Heritability of metabolic response to the intravenous glucose tolerance test in German Holstein Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Christ, Jana; Panicke, Lothar; Müller, Uwe; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2016-09-01

    Selection for improved health and welfare in farm animals is of increasing interest worldwide. Peripartum energy balance is a key factor for pathogenesis of diseases in dairy cows. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) can be used to study the metabolic response to a glucose stimulus. The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of ivGTT traits in German Holstein bulls. A total of 541 Holstein bulls aged 7 to 17 mo from 2 breeding stations were subjected to the ivGTT. Serum glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 63 min relative to glucose infusion. The maximum increase in blood glucose concentration, glucose area equivalent, and blood glucose half-life period were calculated. Heritabilities were estimated using a univariate animal model including station-year-season and age as fixed effects, and animal additive genetic and residual as random effects. The estimated heritabilities were 0.19 for fasting glucose concentration, 0.43 for glucose area equivalent, 0.40 for glucose half-life period, 0.14 for the peak glucose concentration, and 0.12 for the maximum increase of blood glucose concentration. Correlations between ivGTT traits and breeding values for milk yield and composition were not found. The results indicate that heritability for response to glucose is high, which warrants further investigation of this trait for genetic improvement of metabolic disorders. Research is necessary to determine the target levels of ivGTT traits and potential associations between ivGTT traits in breeding bulls and periparturient diseases in their offspring.

  10. Glycosidases Interact Selectively With Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptors of Bull Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Andrea C; Boschin, Verónica; Carvelli, Lorena; Cavicchia, Juan C; Sosa, Miguel A

    2016-11-01

    Glycosidases may play a role in sperm maturation during epididymal transit. In this work, we describe the interaction of these enzymes with bull spermatozoa. We found that β-galactosidase associated to spermatozoa can be released under low ionic strength conditions, whereas the interaction of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β-glucuronidase with spermatozoa appeared to be stronger. On the other hand, α-mannosidase and α-fucosidase cannot be removed from the gametes. In addition, part of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, and β-glucuronidase can also be released by mannose-6-phosphate. Taking into account these data, we explored the presence of cation-independent- and cation-dependent-mannose-6-phosphate receptors in the spermatozoa and found that cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor is highly expressed in bull spermatozoa and cation-dependent-mannose-6-phosphate receptor is expressed at a lesser extent. In addition, by immunofluorescence, we observed that cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate receptor is mostly located at the acrosomal zone, whereas cation-dependent-mannose-6-phosphate receptor presents a different distribution pattern on spermatozoa during the epididymal transit. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β-glucuronidase isolated from epididymal fluid interacted mostly with cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate receptor, while β-galactosidase was recognized by both receptors. We concluded that glycosidases might play different roles in bull spermatozoa and that mannos-6-phosphate receptors may act as recruiters of some enzymes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2464-2472, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Varsha; Patel, Brijesh; Umar, Farhat Paul; Ajithakumar, H. M.; Gurjar, Suraj K.; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis. The target region of PPP1R11 gene was amplified using four sets of primer designed based on Bos taurus reference sequence. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using Clustal Omega for identification of SNPs. Animals were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using EcoNI restriction enzyme. Results: The sequences in the NCBI accession number NW_005785016.1 for Bubalus bubalis were compared and aligned with the edited sequences of Murrah bulls with Clustal Omega software. A total of 10 SNPs were found, out of which 1 at 5’UTR, 3 at intron 1, and 6 at intron 2 region. PCR-RFLP using restriction enzyme EcoNI revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study. Conclusion: A total of 10 SNPs were found. PCR-RFLP revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study, due to which association analysis with conception rate was not feasible. PMID:28344410

  12. Characterisation of intramuscular, intermuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues in yearling bulls of different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Aldai, N; Nájera, A I; Dugan, M E R; Celaya, R; Osoro, K

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular (IM, Longissimus thoracis muscle), intermuscular (IT) and subcutaneous (SC) fat of one hundred intensively fed yearling bulls with different propensities to fatten were studied. Meat samples were collected from Asturiana de los Valles bulls with different genotypes with respect to the myostatin gene (mh/mh n=24, mh/+ n=26 and +/+ n=25) and from Asturiana de la Montaña (n=25) bulls lacking the mutation responsible for double muscling and characterised by small to medium-frame size adapted to less favoured mountain areas. FA profiles were expressed as percentages of total FA (g/100g of total FA) and organised into groups (saturated (SFA), branched (BFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), C18:1trans, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-6, n-3, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), unsaturated (UFA)) and ratios (MUFA/SFA (M/S), PUFA/SFA (P/S), UFA/SFA (U/S), n-6/n-3). The IT depot was the most saturated and SC depot contained the most monounsaturated FAs, while IM fat had the most polyunsaturated FAs. IM fat showed the highest P/S ratio and for the n-6/n-3 ratio there were no significant differences between adipose tissue depots. In general, genotype effects were more pronounced in IM and SC fat profiles compared to the IT depot, for which no significant differences between genotypes were found in SFA, PUFA (including n-6 and n-3), UFA and most of the ratios. IM fat of mh/mh animals had the highest content of PUFA and thus the highest P/S ratio. Accordingly, the presence of the gene causing double muscling influenced the tendency to deposit carcass fat and its FA composition, mainly in IM fat. In general, when carcass fat decreased, SFA content decreased while PUFA and UFA contents increased due to the changes in their percentages.

  13. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  14. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  15. Comparison of Biociphos-Plus and TRIS-egg yolk extender for cryopreservation of bull semen.

    PubMed

    Thun, Rico; Hurtado, Maria; Janett, F

    2002-02-01

    For optimizing routine freezing of bull semen, we examined three different cryopreservation methods using either TRIS-egg yolk-citrate extender or Biociphos-Plus. Biociphos-Plus (IMV, France) has been marketed as an extender, in which egg yolk is replaced by a sterile soybean extract to reduce the contamination risk derived from animal borne substances. We used 78 bulls of various breeds (Brown Swiss, Holstein, Simmental) between 12 and 23 months of age, and we produced a total of 800-1000 straws (0.25 ml, 20 x 10(6) spermatozoa) from each bull using three different methods. In method A, we used TRIS-egg yolk as extender and packaged at 4 degrees C. In method B, we also used TRIS-egg yolk but packaged at room temperature (RT) between 18 and 22 degrees C. In method C, Biociphos-Plus served as extender and we packaged at RT. We compared methods A, B and C by using post-thaw motility, viability, morphology and osmotic resistance as semen quality parameters. In addition, we recorded 75-day nonreturn rates (NR75) to detect the effect of extenders on fertility. With the exception of primary defects, all laboratory parameters investigated were significantly (P < 0.05) better in methods A (TRIS-egg yolk, 4 degrees C) and B (TRIS-egg yolk, RT), compared to method C (Biociphos-Plus, RT). We recorded no significant difference between methods A and B. We could not verify the differing laboratory results by fertility data (NR75). However, when we analyzed NR75 for a single breed, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between methods A and B compared to method C in Simmental and Holstein but not in Brown Swiss. We obtained best results in Simmental using method A (69%, n = 3384), while method C (61.4%, n = 763) was superior to methods A (57.6%, n = 698) and B (57.3%, n = 737) in Holstein. After considering various factors like preparation of extender, cost of materials and ambient working temperature, we concluded from our data that bull semen processing using TRIS-egg yolk

  16. Bull Trout Forage Investigations in Beulah Reservoir, Oregon - Annual Report for 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Mathew G.

    2009-01-01

    Beulah Reservoir on the north fork of the Malheur River in northeastern Oregon provides irrigation water to nearby farms and ranches and supports an adfluvial population of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Water management in Beulah Reservoir results in seasonal and annual fluctuations of water volume that may affect forage availability for bull trout. Because no minimum pool requirements currently exist, the reservoir is occasionally reduced to run-of-river levels, which may decimate forage fish populations and ultimately affect bull trout. We sampled fish and aquatic insects in Beulah Reservoir in the spring, before the annual drawdown of 2006, and afterward, in the late fall. We also collected samples 1.5 years after the reservoir was dewatered for three consecutive summers. Overall, the moderate drawdown of 2006 (32 percent of full pool) did not drastically alter the fish community in Beulah Reservoir. We did document, however, decreases in abundance and sizes of chironomids in areas of the reservoir that were frequently dewatered, increased catch rates of fish with gillnets, and decreases in population estimates for smaller fishes after drawdown. In 2006, after the dewaterings of 2002-04, species composition was similar to that prior to the dewaterings, but the size distributions of most species were biased toward small juvenile or subyearling fishes and larger fishes were rare. Our results indicate that repeated reservoir drawdown reduces aquatic insect forage for bull trout and probably affects forage fish populations at least temporarily. The high catch rates of juvenile fishes 1.5 years after consecutive dewaterings suggests good reproductive success for any remaining adult fish, and shows that the fish community in Beulah Reservoir is resilient to such disturbances. There is, however, a period of time after serious drawdowns before significant numbers of juvenile fishes start to appear

  17. [Kinetics of the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase in bull adrenal cortex by malonate and oxaloacetate].

    PubMed

    Mandrik, K A; Vonsovich, V A; Vinogradov, V V

    1983-01-01

    The activity of succinate dehydrogenase from bull adrenal cortex was studied as affected by malonate and oxaloacetate. The both substrate analogs without preincubation (separately and in the mixture) inhibit the enzyme by the competitive type. After a 3 min oxaloacetate preincubation of the enzyme inhibition is of a mixed character. Malonate under these conditions lowers the oxaloacetate effect without changing the type of inhibition. It is supposed that the protective effect is due to a high rate of formation and decay of the enzyme-inhibitory malonate complex.

  18. Bovine Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) and Clusterin (CLU) mRNA Quantitation in Ejaculated Crossbred Bull Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Deb, R; Singh, U; Ganguly, I; Mandal, D K; Tyagi, S; Kumar, M; Sengar, G; Sharma, S; Singh, R; Singh, R

    2015-06-01

    Mammalian circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene encodes a transcription factor that affects both the persistence and the period of circadian rhythms. Earlier reports suggested that CLOCK gene might be associated with male infertility in human. Present investigation, for the first time, reports that CLOCK gene expresses differentially between good and poor quality crossbred bull semen. The relative expression of CLOCK was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among good quality bull semen than motility-impaired ones. Clusterins (CLU) are series of genes associated with a variety of physiological activities including spermatogenesis, apoptosis and degenerative disease conditions. In the present context, we also investigated that the expression of CLU gene was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among motility-impaired crossbred bull semen compared to the good quality one.

  19. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  20. VULNERABILITY OF BULL TROUT TO EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) AND OTHER AHR AGONISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population declines of bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, have occurred in recent decades throughout much of the species' natural range in the Columbia River watershed and other river systems in western Canada. Bull trout in the U.S. are now listed as threatened under the Endang...

  1. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeong, Jin Young; Lee, Ra Ham; Park, Mi Na; Kim, Seok-Ho; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Jeon, Young-Joo; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and omental adipose tissue (OMAT) from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental) were collected from cows (n = 7), steers (n = 7), or bulls (n = 7). LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM) 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.

  2. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeong, Jin Young; Lee, Ra Ham; Park, Mi Na; Kim, Seok-Ho; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Jeon, Young-Joo; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S.; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and omental adipose tissue (OMAT) from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)–based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental) were collected from cows (n = 7), steers (n = 7), or bulls (n = 7). LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM) 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle. PMID:27165017

  3. Genome-wide association study for semen volume and total number of sperm in Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Hering, D M; Oleński, K; Ruść, A; Kaminski, S

    2014-12-30

    In artificial insemination industry bulls producing high volume of semen with relatively high concentration of sperm are very desirable since they ensure stable production of commercial straws especially in case of top bulls. The aim of the study was to screen the entire bull genome to identify markers and candidate genes underlying semen volume (SV) and total number of sperm (TNS) in ejaculate produced by Holstein-Friesian bulls. Data on semen production were retrieved from records of AI center and included a population of 877 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Each bull was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with the use of GoldenHelix SVS7 software. An additive model for Linear Regression Analysis was used to estimate the effect of SNP marker for SV and TNS. After Bonferroni correction, 3 markers located on chromosome 22 reached the highest significance (rs41625599, rs41584616, rs42012507) for both traits. In the vicinity of these significant markers 3 genes are located (DCP1A, SFMBT1, TMEM110). Moreover, marker rs110109069 located on chromosome 25 was significantly associated with TNS and marker rs42438348 located on chromosome 10 has been found to be associated with SV. Some additional candidate genes were suggested to be potentially involved in analyzed traits (GALC, PRKCD, PHF7, TLR9, SPATA7). Identifying SNPs associated with the lower total number of sperm may be very useful for early recognition of a young sire as less suitable for effective semen production in artificial insemination centers.

  4. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P < 0.05). Semen quality improved gradually with age and the interval between puberty and maturity (mean ± SD; 309.4 ± 29.7 and 357 ± 42 days of age) was approximately 50 days. Age, weight, scrotal circumference, and paired-testes volume were all good predictors of pubertal and mature status, with moderate to high sensitivity and specificity (71.6% to 92.4%). In summary, growth rate between 6 and 16 mo of age did not affect sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  5. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  6. Combining cow and bull reference populations to increase accuracy of genomic prediction and genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Calus, M P L; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F

    2013-10-01

    Genomic selection holds the promise to be particularly beneficial for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, such that access to phenotypes on large daughter groups of bulls is limited. Instead, cow reference populations can be generated, potentially supplemented with existing information from the same or (highly) correlated traits available on bull reference populations. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a model to perform genomic predictions and genome-wide association studies based on a combined cow and bull reference data set, with the accuracy of the phenotypes differing between the cow and bull genomic selection reference populations. The developed bivariate Bayesian stochastic search variable selection model allowed for an unbalanced design by imputing residuals in the residual updating scheme for all missing records. The performance of this model is demonstrated on a real data example, where the analyzed trait, being milk fat or protein yield, was either measured only on a cow or a bull reference population, or recorded on both. Our results were that the developed bivariate Bayesian stochastic search variable selection model was able to analyze 2 traits, even though animals had measurements on only 1 of 2 traits. The Bayesian stochastic search variable selection model yielded consistently higher accuracy for fat yield compared with a model without variable selection, both for the univariate and bivariate analyses, whereas the accuracy of both models was very similar for protein yield. The bivariate model identified several additional quantitative trait loci peaks compared with the single-trait models on either trait. In addition, the bivariate models showed a marginal increase in accuracy of genomic predictions for the cow traits (0.01-0.05), although a greater increase in accuracy is expected as the size of the bull population increases. Our results emphasize that the chosen value of priors in Bayesian genomic prediction

  7. Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects. PMID:22240071

  8. Effect of muscular hypertrophy on physico-chemical, biochemical and texture traits of meat from yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Oliván, Mamen; Martínez, Antonio; Osoro, Koldo; Sañudo, Carlos; Panea, Begoña; Olleta, José Luis; Campo, M Mar; Oliver, M Àngels; Serra, Xavier; Gil, Marta; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2004-12-01

    The effect of the presence of the double-muscling gene either homozygous (mh/mh) or heterozygous (mh/+) on the physico-chemical, biochemical and texture traits of Longissimus thoracis muscle of yearling bulls of the Asturiana de los Valles (AV) breed was studied. Meat of mh/mh bulls had lower amount of intramuscular fat (p<0.001) and also lower total (p<0.01) and insoluble collagen (p<0.05), although the double-muscling genotype did not affect collagen solubility. Homozygous animals had lower pigment content (p<0.05) and a lighter meat, showing lower water holding capacity, estimated as expressible juice under pressure (p<0.001). Genotype affected significantly the metabolic traits of muscle, with mh/mh animals having higher muscle glycolytic metabolism, assessed by a higher (p<0.001) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lower (p<0.001) oxidative activity of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH). The percentage of myosin heavy chain I in muscle was lower, although not significantly, for mh/mh bulls compared to mh/+ bulls. Texture measurements performed on raw material showed that meat of mh/mh bulls had lower resistance to total and 80% compression, which means lower background or collagen toughness. However, there were no differences between genotypes on shear force of cooked meat. Therefore, the physico-chemical, biochemical and texture traits of meat from mh/mh and mh/+ bull are in general significantly different, which could affect the sensorial quality of meat and hence the consumer acceptance.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of culture and PCR of smegma samples of bulls experimentally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Cobo, E R; Favetto, P H; Lane, V M; Friend, A; VanHooser, K; Mitchell, J; BonDurant, R H

    2007-10-01

    The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of different testing schemes were estimated for detecting Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) in smegma samples from experimentally infected bulls. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on smegma samples were evaluated alone and in parallel testing. Mature dairy bulls (n=79) were intrapreputially inoculated with T. foetus (n=19); Campylobacter (C.) fetus venerealis (n=13); both T. foetus and C. fetus venerealis (n=11); Tetratrichomonas spp. (n=9); C. fetus fetus (n=8); or were not inoculated (n=19). For each bull, smegma samples were collected for 6 week post-inoculation and tested for T. foetus by In Pouch TF culture and PCR. Most T. foetus-inoculated bulls became infected, according to culture (86.7%), PCR (90.0%), and both tests together (93.3%). In T. foetus-inoculated bulls, both tests combined in parallel on a single sample had a Se (78.3%) and Sp (98.5%) similar to two cultures (Se 76.0%, Sp 98.5%) or two PCR (Se 78.0%, Sp 96.7%) sampled on consecutive weeks. The PCR on three consecutive weekly samples (Se 85.0%, Sp 95.4%) and both tests applied in parallel on three consecutive weekly samples (Se 87.5%, Sp 95.6%) were similar to the current gold-standard of six weekly cultures (Se 86.7% and Sp 97.5%). Both tests used in parallel six times had the highest Se (93.3%), with similar Sp (92.5%). Tetratrichomonas spp. were only sporadically detected by culture or PCR. In conclusion, we have proposed alternative strategies for T. foetus diagnostics (for the AI industry), including a combination of tests and repeat testing strategies that may reduce time and cost for bull surveillance.

  10. Peak discharge on Bull Creek and tributaries, Scurry and Borden Counties, Texas, flood of April 12, 13, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniels, L.L.

    1954-01-01

    This report contains a description of the rainfall pattern producing the flood of April 12, 13, 1954, in the Bull Creek watershed, the results of indirect determinations of peak discharges and estimates of flows at several points in that watershed, and a comparison of the peak stage at the discontinued gaging station on Bull Creek near Ira, Tex., with other floods on record. Field work consisted of transit-stadia surveys at five locations to develop high-water profiles and cross-sections, performed within two weeks after flood occurred.

  11. Sericin supplementation improves semen freezability of buffalo bulls by minimizing oxidative stress during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sikka, P; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    The variety of mammalian cells has been successfully cryopreserved by use of the silk protein sericin due to its strong free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of sericin on buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Semen of four breeding bulls was collected twice a week using artificial vagina technique. The ejaculates of four bulls were pooled, divided into five equal fractions, diluted with the extender supplemented with different concentrations of sericin (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5 and 2%) and then cryopreserved. Post-thawed motility was objectively assessed by computer assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in frozen-thawed extended seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. The extender supplemented with 0.25, 0.5 and 1% sericin resulted in the higher sperm motility and GPx acivity. Furthermore, plasma membrane integrity and SOD activity were found to be higher (P<0.05) in group supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5% sericin (P<0.05). The MDA concentration was found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in 0.25 and 0.5% sericin treated groups than control and other treated groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of 0.25-0.5% sericin in semen extender improves frozen-thawed semen quality through protecting sperm from oxidative stress.

  12. Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:12608891

  13. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river.

    PubMed

    Gelsleichter, James; Szabo, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals.

  14. Season-induced variation in lipid composition is associated with semen quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, N; Mahgrefthe, K; Zeron, Y; Roth, Z

    2013-05-01

    Season-induced variation in fatty acid and cholesterol composition in bovine semen has been associated with semen quality. Given the specific roles of the various semen compartments (seminal fluids, sperm head, and sperm tail) in fertilization, we hypothesized that environmental-stress-induced alterations in the lipid composition of a specific compartment might impair semen quality and sperm function. Semen samples were collected from five mature Holstein-Friesian bulls during the summer (August to September) and winter (December to January). Semen was evaluated by computerized sperm-quality analyzer, calibrated for bulls' semen, and centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa from the seminal fluids. The spermatozoal fraction was sonicated to separate the sperm head and tail compartments. Cold lipid extraction was performed with chloroform:methanol (2:1, vol/vol). Lipids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Seasonal variation was found in both physiological and structural parameters. The proportion of spermatozoa defined as morphologically normal was higher in the winter, with higher motility, progressive motility, and velocity relative to summer samples. Lipid composition within fractions varied between seasons with prominent impairment in the tail compartment, characterized by high saturated fatty acid, low polyunsaturated fatty acid, and low cholesterol concentrations during the summer. Given the association between alterations in lipid composition and reduced sperm motility and velocity during the summer, it is suggested that lipid composition might serve to predict sperm quality.

  15. Proposed standard-weight (W(s)) equations for kokanee, golden trout and bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.H.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We developed standard-weight (W(s)) equations for kokanee (lacustrine Oncorhynchus nerka), golden trout (O. aguabonita), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) using the regression-line-percentile technique. The W(s) equation for kokanee of 120-550 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.062 + 3.033 log10 TL, when W(s) is in grams and TL is total length in millimeters; the English-unit equivalent is log10 W(s) = -3.458 + 3.033 log10 TL, when W(s) is in pounds and TL is total length in inches. The W(s) equation for golden trout of 120-530 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.088 + 3.041 log10 TL, with the English-unit equivalent being log10 W(s) = -3.473 + 3.041 log10 TL. The W(s) equation for bull trout of 120-850 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.327 + 3.115 log10 TL, with the English-unit equivalent being log10 W(s) = -3.608 + 3.115 log10 TL.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate markers for bull fertility in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Peñagaricano, F; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2012-07-01

    The decline in the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle has become a challenging problem worldwide. Female fertility is now taken into account in breeding goals while generally less attention is given to male fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study in Holstein bulls to identify genetic variants significantly related to sire conception rate (SCR), a new phenotypic evaluation of bull fertility. The analysis included 1755 sires with SCR data and 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire bovine genome. Associations between SNPs and SCR were analyzed using a mixed linear model that included a random polygenic effect and SNP genotype either as a linear covariate or as a categorical variable. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium. After genome-wide correction, eight SNPs showed significant association with SCR. Some of these SNPs are located close to or in the middle of genes with functions related to male fertility, such as the sperm acrosome reaction, chromatin remodeling during the spermatogenesis, and the meiotic process during male germ cell maturation. Some SNPs showed marked dominance effects, which provide more evidence for the relevance of non-additive effects in traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. The results could contribute to the identification of genes and pathways associated with male fertility in dairy cattle.

  17. Enhancing bull sexual behavior using estrus-specific molecules identified in cow urine.

    PubMed

    Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Gérard, Olivier; Sellem, Eli; Ponsart, Claire; Chemineau, Philippe; Humblot, Patrice; Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Deficiencies in bull mating behavior have implications for bovine artificial insemination activities. The aim of this study was to identify the compounds present in fluids emitted by cows during estrus, which could enhance bull libido. Chemical analysis of urine samples from cows led to the characterization of molecules varying specifically at the preestrous and estrous stages. The synthetic counterpart molecules (1,2-dichloroethylene, squalene, coumarin, 2-butanone, oleic acid) were used to investigate the biological effects on male sexual behavior and sperm production. When presented to males, 2-butanone and oleic acid synthetic molecules significantly lowered mounting reaction time and ejaculation time (-33% and 21% after 2-butanone inhalation, respectively, P < 0.05). The "squalene +1,2-dichloroethylene" combination induced a 9% increase of sperm quantity (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the identified estrous-specific molecules could be part of the chemical signals involved in male and female mating behavior and may be used for a wide range of applications. The identification of these molecules may have implications for the cattle breeding industry.

  18. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2015-08-06

    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  19. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  20. Immunocastration of Bos indicus x Brown Swiss bulls in feedlot with gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine Bopriva provides improved performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Stegner, J; King, V; Rubio, L M S; Howard, R; Lopez, E; Walker, J

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a GnRH vaccine on feedlot performance and meat quality in Bos indicus Zebu × Brown Swiss bulls. The study was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 1,600 bulls allocated by BW into 4 groups of ≈ 400 animals. The GnRH vaccine (Bopriva) was injected on d 0 and 42, and anabolic implants given on d 0 (Component E-S) and d 84 (Synovex Choice). Group designations were: Con = placebo control; Imp = implants alone; Vac = GnRH vaccine alone; and Vac+Imp = GnRH vaccine together with implants. The second GnRH vaccination at d 42 resulted in elevated titers of IgG antibody and suppressed concentrations of testosterone in vaccinated groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) at d 56 (P < 0.001), with titers and suppressed testosterone persisting to d 147 (P < 0.001). Groups Vac and Vac+Imp had reduced testes weights at slaughter on d 147 (P < 0.001). Bulls in group Vac were not different in final BW, HCW, or ADG (d 42 to 147) relative to bulls in group Con. Bulls in group Vac+Imp had greater final BW than bulls in group Imp (P = 0.008) and greater BW than bulls in group Vac and group Con (P < 0.001). The HCW of Vac+Imp bulls was greater than the Vac or Con bulls (P < 0.001) but was not different to the Imp bulls (P = 0.294). Improved ADG was obtained by vaccination with the GnRH vaccine, in the presence of implants (group Vac+Imp compared with group Imp, P < 0.001) or absence of implants (group Vac compared with group Con, P = 0.028). Meat quality of bulls receiving the GnRH vaccine was improved irrespective of implant status, with a 1.6- to 2.6-fold increase in the proportion of bulls in groups Vac and Vac+Imp, respectively, grading as USDA Choice (P < 0.002) and with greater fat depth at the 12th rib (P < 0.001). Meat tenderness was improved in the vaccine groups (Vac and Vac+Imp) compared with groups Con and Imp (P < 0.004). Use of the GnRH vaccine Bopriva in Bos indicus × Brown Swiss bulls finishing in a feedlot

  1. Effect of improved nutrition during calfhood on serum metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone concentrations, and on testicular development in bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Barth, Albert D; Rawlings, Norm C; Wilde, Randal E; Crews, Denny H; Mir, Priya S; Kastelic, John P

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of improved nutrition during calfhood on serum metabolic hormones, gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations, and on sexual development in bulls. Bulls received high (n=17) or control nutrition (n=16) diets from 10 to 30 week of age and the same control nutrition diet from 31 to 74 week of age. Improved nutrition during calfhood resulted in a more sustained period of elevated LH secretion (pulse frequency and total secretion in 10h) during the early gonadotropin rise. GnRH-stimulated LH secretion was not affected by diet, indicating that pituitary responsiveness was not altered; therefore, improved nutrition had direct effects on GnRH secretion by the hypothalamus. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were greater during calfhood in bulls receiving high nutrition, indicating that these metabolic hormones might be involved in regulating GnRH and LH secretion. Improved nutrition also resulted in increased testosterone secretion that was associated with greater circulating IGF-I concentrations, suggesting a role for this metabolic hormone in regulating Leydig cell number and function. Furthermore, improved nutrition during calfhood resulted in greater testicular weight and sperm production in mature bulls, indicating that increased LH secretion during calfhood, and increased IGF-I and testosterone concentrations during calfhood and peripubertal period were associated with greater testicular cell proliferation and enhanced function.

  2. Effect of feed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Rawlings, N C; Wilde, R E; Crews, D H; Boisclair, Y R; Ehrhardt, R A; Kastelic, J P

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects offeed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls. Eight beef bull calves received a control diet from 10 to 70 weeks of age. An additional 16 calves had restricted feed (75% of control) from 10 to 26 weeks of age (calfhood), followed by either control or high nutrition (n=8/group) during the peripubertal period until 70 weeks of age. Restricted feed during calfhood inhibited the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, reduced the pituitary response to GnRH, impaired testicular steroidogenesis, delayed puberty, and reduced testicular weight at 70 weeks of age, regardless of the nutrition during the peripubertal period. Restricted feed reduced serum IGF-I concentrations, but concentrations of leptin, insulin, and GH were not affected. In conclusion, restricted feed during calfhood impaired sexual development in bulls due to adverse effects on every level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and these effects were not overcome by supplemental feeding during the peripubertal period. Furthermore, based on temporal associations, the effects of restricted feed on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis might be mediated by serum IGF-I concentrations. These results supported the hypotheses that the pattern of LH secretion during the early gonadotropin rise during calfhood is the main determinant of age of puberty in bulls and that gonadotropin-independent mechanisms involved in testicular growth during the peripubertal period are affected by previous LH exposure.

  3. The influence of temperament on transportation induced increases in body temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on rectal temperature (RT) and secretion of cortisol (CS) and epinephrine (E) in response to transportation. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning [n=8 each: Calm (C), Intermediate (I), an...

  4. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Zewde, Girma; Admassu, Berhanu

    2013-06-01

    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D.; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce. PMID:23908278

  6. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  7. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...

  8. Effect of manganese supplementation on the membrane integrity and the mitochondrial potential of the sperm of grazing Nelore bulls.

    PubMed

    Reis, L S L S; Ramos, A A; Camargos, A S; Oba, E

    2014-11-10

    The effect of dietary manganese (Mn(2+)) supplementation on the reproductive performance of Nelore bulls was evaluated by assessment of sperm membrane integrity. Sixty Nelore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) aged 18-20 mo were randomly divided into four groups (n=15) receiving dietary Mn(2+) supplementation at 540, 1300, 3800 and 6300mg/kg (treatments TC, T1300, T3800 and T6300, respectively). The diets were changed for the groups every 70d. Semen samples were obtained 15 and 56d after the diet change, which corresponded to the period of adjustment to the new diet and the time required for a complete spermatogenesis cycle, respectively. Sperm integrity was assessed by detection of: intact (IMe) or damaged (DMe) membranes, intact (IA) or damaged (DA) acrosomes, and high (HM) or low (LM) mitochondrial membrane potentials. Only bulls from the TC treatment showed a significant increase in the production of intact sperm [IMe/IA/LM] and decrease in the production of sperm with damaged acrosome [IMe/DA/LM] or completely damaged sperm [DMe/DA/LM] (P<0.05). The Mn(2+) concentrations in the semen were positively correlated with the incidence of sperm with IMe, DA, and LM and negatively correlated with number of sperm with DMe, IA, and LM. Therefore, dietary Mn(2+) supplementation for Nelore bulls must be limited to 540mg of Mn(2+)/kg given that higher doses are detrimental to the integrity of the plasma and acrosomal sperm membranes.

  9. 78 FR 20133 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Bull Mountain Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...; water quality and supply; threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species; wildlife and wildlife... wells within the Bull Mountain Unit (146 natural gas wells and 4 water disposal wells) and to construct... bisected by State Highway 133. The proposal is to drill up to 146 natural gas wells and 4 water...

  10. Effects of immunization against LHRH and treatment with trenbolone acetate on reproductive function of beef bulls and steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of trenbolone acetate (TBA) administered in tandem with LHRH immunization to suppress reproductive function in beef bulls and (2) to examine the effects of LHRH and androgen (TBA) signaling on pituitary function. In order to address thes...

  11. Short communication: Improving accuracy of Jersey genomic evaluations in the United States and Denmark by sharing reference population bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on prediction accuracy for Jersey genomic evaluations in Denmark and the United States from using larger reference populations was assessed. Each country contributed genotypes from 1,157 Jersey bulls to the reference population of the other. Eight of 9 traits analyzed by Denmark (milk, fa...

  12. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Akhil; Saxena, Atul; Swain, Dilip Kumar; Yadav, Dushyant; Yadav, Sanjay Singh; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2). After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples were analyzed for progressive motility, sperm viability and membrane integrity. Results: Progressive motility, sperm viability and sperm membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the samples fortified with BHT as compared to the control during the process of cryopreservation and thawing. The BHT concentration of 1 mM revealed better results as compared to 0.5 mM. Conclusion: Addition of 1.0 mM BHT was found better in cryopreservation of Hariana bull semen compared to 0.5 mM BHT and control samples. The addition of BHT has improved the sperm quality by acting as an antioxidant thereby reducing the lipid peroxidation of the sperms. PMID:27065652

  13. Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto

    2012-10-15

    Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p < 0.05) than without egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p < 0.05). Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    PubMed

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  15. Comparison between primary sex ratio in spermatozoa of bulls and secondary sex ratio in the deriving offspring.

    PubMed

    Amadesi, A; Frana, A; Gandini, L M; Bornaghi, V; Parati, K; Bongioni, G; Puglisi, R; Galli, A

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of the present work were to compare the primary sex ratio in sperm with the secondary sex ratio recorded in the offspring produced by artificial insemination (AI) with the same sperm and assess whether the primary sex ratio is influenced by sperm survival and motility after thawing. Calving data of 98 Holstein Friesian bulls used in AI were collected during 4 years, and commercial semen of the same bulls was analyzed immediately after thawing and after swim-up using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method developed and validated in our laboratory. Calving data relative to single bulls did not reveal any significant deviation between genders from the theoretical 1:1 for none of the bulls, being the mean values of male and female calves born 52.1 ± 2.80% and 47.9 ± 2.71%, respectively. Thereafter, calving events of bulls were classified and analyzed according to four classes of years: 2009 (n = 13,261), 2010 (n = 21,551), 2011 (n = 24,218), and 2012 (n = 41,726), and seasons categorized as winter, spring, summer, and fall. When data aggregated per years were analyzed, the difference between the two sexes was significant (P < 0.005) in favor of the male gender, whereas no influence of the season was evidenced. Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not evidence any difference between the mean values of frequency of Y chromosome-bearing sperm detected in three sperm batches of the same bulls analyzed immediately after thawing (51.1 ± 2.1), nor a difference with respect to the theoretical 1:1 ratio was reported after sperm analysis of one batch of sperm of the bulls analyzed after swim-up and immediately after thawing (50.1 ± 2.1 and 49.8 ± 1.8, respectively). The results are consistent with the observation of the farmers who often report a skewed sex ratio of the calves being born with AI in favor of the male gender. However, we have not evidenced differences in the primary sex ratio with respect to the theoretical 1:1 ratio both at thawing

  16. Effect of red bull energy drink on auditory reaction time and maximal voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vartika; Manjunatha, S; Pai, Kirtana M

    2014-01-01

    The use of "Energy Drinks" (ED) is increasing in India. Students specially use these drinks to rejuvenate after strenuous exercises or as a stimulant during exam times. The most common ingredient in EDs is caffeine and a popular ED available and commonly used is Red Bull, containing 80 mg of caffeine in 250 ml bottle. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Auditory reaction time and Maximal voluntary contraction. A homogeneous group containing twenty medical students (10 males, 10 females) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body weight of caffeine) or isoenergetic isovolumetric noncaffeinated control drink (a combination of Appy Fizz, Cranberry juice and soda) separated by 7 days. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was recorded as the highest of the 3 values of maximal isometric force generated from the dominant hand using hand grip dynamometer (Biopac systems). Auditory reaction time (ART) was the average of 10 values of the time interval between the click sound and response by pressing the push button using hand held switch (Biopac systems). The energy and control drinks after one hour of consumption significantly reduced the Auditory reaction time in males (ED 232 ± 59 Vs 204 ± 34 s and Control 223 ± 57 Vs 210 ± 51 s; p < 0.05) as well as in females (ED 227 ± 56 Vs 214 ± 48 s and Control 224 ± 45 Vs 215 ± 36 s; p < 0.05) but had no effect on MVC in either sex (males ED 381 ± 37 Vs 371 ± 36 and Control 375 ± 61 Vs 363 ± 36 Newton, females ED 227 ± 23 Vs 227 ± 32 and Control 234 ± 46 Vs 228 ± 37 Newton). When compared across the gender groups, there was no significant difference between males and females in the effects of any of the drinks on the ART but there was an overall significantly lower MVC in females compared to males. Both energy drink and the control drink significantly improve the reaction time but may not have any effect

  17. Ascorbic acid, catalase and chlorpromazine reduce cryopreservation-induced damages to crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Kumar, S; Meur, S K; Kumaresan, A

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ascorbic acid, catalase, chlorpromazine and their combinations in reducing the cryodamages to crossbred bull (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) spermatozoa. A total of 32 ejaculates (eight each from four bulls) were diluted in Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender. Each ejaculate was split into six parts (five treatment and one control). Treatment groups included 10 mm ascorbic acid, 0.1 mm chlorpromazine, 200 IU/ml catalase, 10 mm ascorbic acid + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine or 200 IU/ml catalase + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine in the extender. Fluorescent probes (Fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin + Propidium iodide) were used for the assessment of spermatozoa viability and acrosomal status. The proportion of acrosome intact live (AIL), acrosome intact dead, acrosome reacted live and acrosome reacted dead sperm was assessed in fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. The functional status of the sperm was assessed using hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test (HOSST). Activities of acrosin and hyaluronidase enzyme were also determined. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed based on the melonaldehyde (MDA) production. In cryopreserved semen, the values of AIL spermatozoa, HOSST response, hyaluronidase and acrosin activity were reduced by 53%, 47%, 34% and 54%, respectively from their initial values in fresh semen. However, MDA level was threefold higher in the frozen-thawed sperm compared with fresh sperm. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motility, viability, HOSST response, retention of hyaluonidase and acrosin and reduction in MDA was recorded in ascorbic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine and catalase + chlorpromazine incorporated groups. The percentage of AIL sperm was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine incorporated groups compared with the control. Chlorpromazine alone did not improve the post-thaw semen quality but when combined

  18. Use of nonlinear models for describing scrotal circumference growth in Guzerat bulls raised under grazing conditions.

    PubMed

    Loaiza-Echeverri, A M; Bergmann, J A G; Toral, F L B; Osorio, J P; Carmo, A S; Mendonça, L F; Moustacas, V S; Henry, M

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to use various nonlinear models to describe scrotal circumference (SC) growth in Guzerat bulls on three farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The nonlinear models were: Brody, Logistic, Gompertz, Richards, Von Bertalanffy, and Tanaka, where parameter A is the estimated testis size at maturity, B is the integration constant, k is a maturating index and, for the Richards and Tanaka models, m determines the inflection point. In Tanaka, A is an indefinite size of the testis, and B and k adjust the shape and inclination of the curve. A total of 7410 SC records were obtained every 3 months from 1034 bulls with ages varying between 2 and 69 months (<240 days of age = 159; 241-365 days = 451; 366-550 days = 1443; 551-730 days = 1705; and >731 days = 3652 SC measurements). Goodness of fit was evaluated by coefficients of determination (R(2)), error sum of squares, average prediction error (APE), and mean absolute deviation. The Richards model did not reach the convergence criterion. The R(2) were similar for all models (0.68-0.69). The error sum of squares was lowest for the Tanaka model. All models fit the SC data poorly in the early and late periods. Logistic was the model which best estimated SC in the early phase (based on APE and mean absolute deviation). The Tanaka and Logistic models had the lowest APE between 300 and 1600 days of age. The Logistic model was chosen for analysis of the environmental influence on parameters A and k. Based on absolute growth rate, SC increased from 0.019 cm/d, peaking at 0.025 cm/d between 318 and 435 days of age. Farm, year, and season of birth significantly affected size of adult SC and SC growth rate. An increase in SC adult size (parameter A) was accompanied by decreased SC growth rate (parameter k). In conclusion, SC growth in Guzerat bulls was characterized by an accelerated growth phase, followed by decreased growth; this was best represented by the Logistic model. The inflection point occurred at

  19. Differential methylation status of IGF2-H19 locus does not affect the fertility of crossbred bulls but some of the CTCF binding sites could be potentially important.

    PubMed

    Jena, Subas C; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajput, Sandeep; Roy, Bhaskar; Verma, Arpana; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Mohanty, Tushar K; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha K

    2014-04-01

    Associations between abnormal methylation of spermatozoan DNA with male infertility have been sought in recent years to identify a molecular explanation of differential spermatozoan function. The present work was undertaken to investigate the methylation profile of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the IGF2-H19 locus of Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred bull spermatozoa. Bulls having more than at least 100 insemination records over a period of 12 years were classified into two groups of five bulls each belonging to low- and high-fertility groups. The IGF2 and H19 DMR sequences in B. indicus cattle were observed to be in absolute homology with B. taurus cattle. The DNA of crossbred bull spermatozoa was isolated, bisulfite treated, and amplified for specific DMR regions using methylation-change-specific primers. The overall degree of methylation at IGF2-H19 DMRs was not found to be significantly different among two groups of bulls. The sixth CTCF binding site (CCCTC) identified in H19 DMR, however, had a significant methylation difference between the high- and low-fertility bulls. It was concluded that alteration of the methylation levels at IGF2-H19 DMRs might not be responsible for the fertility difference of crossbred bulls, although the role played by the specific CTCF binding sites at this locus, which could influence IGF2 expression during spermatogenesis and early embryonic development, deserves further attention.

  20. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  1. Time trends, environmental factors and genetic basis of semen traits collected in Holstein bulls under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Karoui, Sofiene; Díaz, Clara; Serrano, Magdalena; Cue, Roger; Celorrio, Idoia; Carabaño, María J

    2011-03-01

    The fact that results of artificial insemination (AI) are declining in highly selected dairy cattle populations has added a renewed interest to the evaluation of male fertility. Data from 42,348 ejaculates collected from 1990 to 2007 on 502 Holstein bulls were analysed in a Bayesian framework to provide estimates of the evolution of semen traits routinely collected in AI centres throughout the last decades of intense selection for production traits and estimate genetic parameters. The traits under consideration were volume (VOL), concentration (CONC), number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (NESPZ), mass motility score (MM), individual motility (IM), and post-thawing motility (PTM). The environmental factors studied were year-season and week of collection, which account for changes in environmental and technical conditions along time, age at collection, ejaculate order, time from previous collection (TPC) and time between collection and freezing (TCF) (only for PTM). Bull's inbreeding coefficient (Fi), bull's permanent environmental and additive genetic effects were also considered. The use of reduced models was evaluated using the Bayes factor. For all the systematic effects tested, strong or very strong evidence in favour of including the effect in the model was obtained, except for Fi for motility traits and TCF for PTM. No systematic time trends for environment or bull effects were observed, except for PTM, which showed an increasing environmental trend, associated with improvements in freezing-thawing protocols. Heritability estimates were moderate (0.16-0.22), except for IM, which presented a low value (0.07). Genetic correlations among motilities and between motilities and CONC were large and positive [0.38-0.87], VOL showed a negative correlation with CONC (-0.13) but with ample HPD 95%. The magnitude of heritabilities would allow an efficient selection if required and grants the use of these traits as indicators of the sperm viability component of bulls

  2. Distribution and Dynamic Habitat Use of Young Bull Sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a Highly Stratified Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Drymon, J. Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Powers, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system – the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29–32°C), moderate salinities (10–11 psu) and normoxic waters (5–7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks. PMID:24841925

  3. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Welsh, Paul G; Lipton, Josh; Cacela, Dave; Dailey, Anne D

    2002-01-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Present and historical habitat of this species includes waterways that have been impacted by metals released from mining and mineral processing activities. We conducted paired bioassays with bull trout and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the relative sensitivity of each species to Cd and Zn independently and as a mixture. A total of 15 pairs of acute toxicity bioassays were completed to evaluate the effects of different water hardness (30 or 90 mg/L as CaCO3), pH (6.5 or 7.5), and temperature (8 or 12 degrees C) on Cd and Zn toxicity. For both species, the acute toxicity of both Cd and Zn was greater than previously observed in laboratory studies. Bull trout were about twice as tolerant of Cd and about 50% more tolerant of Zn than were rainbow trout. Higher hardness and lower pH water produced lower toxicity and slower rates of toxicity in both species. Elevated temperature significantly increased the sensitivity of bull trout to Zn but decreased the sensitivity (not significantly) of rainbow trout to Zn. At a hardness of 30 mg/L, the toxicity values (i.e., median lethal concentration; 120-h LC50) for both species were lower than the current U.S. national water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life, indicating that current national criteria may not be protective of sensitive salmonids--including the threatened bull trout--in low calcium waters.

  4. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    PubMed

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  5. Use of Hoechst 33342 stain to evaluate live fresh and frozen bull sperm by computer-assisted analysis.

    PubMed

    Tardif, A L; Farrell, P B; Trouern-Trend, V; Simkin, M E; Foote, R H

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate possible procedures for evaluating living bull sperm stained with Hoechst 33342 while in a simple medium and in commonly used complex egg yolk-glycerol-Tris (EYGT) and whole milk-glycerol (WMG) extenders. The two semen extenders provide good cryoprotection, but the latter one virtually obscures the sperm. To evaluate sperm motion characteristics when static nonsperm particles are present, a new Hamilton Thorne epifluorescent optical system (UV) with a strobe light was developed for potential use with DNA-stained sperm. This system permitted examination for the first time of sperm motion characteristics in milk. In Experiment 1 (four bull semen replicates with five dye concentrations and three incubation times), 2.5 microg/ml of Hoechst 33342 stained live and dead sperm sufficiently in a modified Tyrode's solution to measure all sperm characteristics without depressing motility, which was validated by using phase-contrast to analyze stained and unstained controls. In Experiments 2a and 2b, each using semen from four bulls with a 5 x 5 factorial arrangement, it was determined that 40 to 60 microg/ml of dye in EYGT or WMG, with UV illumination for 20 minutes, was optimal. There was no detrimental effect on sperm motility. In Experiment 3, analyses of two ejaculates, from each of eight bulls, confirmed that motion characteristics of sperm in EYGT and WMG were not depressed when the sperm were stained with Hoechst 33342. These experiments demonstrate that the dye concentrations and exposure times developed for use with the new epifluorescent optics facilitate evaluating bull sperm frozen in particle-filled whole milk and should be useful for sperm evaluation of a variety of species when nonsperm particulate matter may otherwise interfere.

  6. Alternative splicing, promoter methylation, and functional SNPs of sperm flagella 2 gene in testis and mature spermatozoa of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Yang, B; Ju, Z H; Wang, X G; Qi, C; Zhang, Y; Wang, C F; Liu, H D; Feng, M Y; Chen, Y; Xu, Y X; Zhong, J F; Huang, J M

    2014-02-01

    The sperm flagella 2 (SPEF2) gene is essential for development of normal sperm tail and male fertility. In this study, we characterized first the splice variants, promoter and its methylation, and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SPEF2 gene in newborn and adult Holstein bulls. Four splice variants were identified in the testes, epididymis, sperm, heart, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and liver tissues through RT-PCR, clone sequencing, and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the SPEF2 was specifically expressed in the primary spermatocytes, elongated spermatids, and round spermatids in the testes and epididymis. SPEF2-SV1 was differentially expressed in the sperms of high-performance and low-performance adult bulls; SPEF2-SV2 presents the highest expression in testis and epididymis; SPEF2-SV3 was only detected in testis and epididymis. An SNP (c.2851G>T) in exon 20 of SPEF2, located within a putative exonic splice enhancer, potentially produced SPEF2-SV3 and was involved in semen deformity rate and post-thaw cryopreserved sperm motility. The luciferase reporter and bisulfite sequencing analysis suggested that the methylation pattern of the core promoter did not significantly differ between the full-sib bulls that presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen and testis. This finding indicates that sperm quality is unrelated to SPEF2 methylation pattern. Our data suggest that alternative splicing, rather than methylation, is involved in the regulation of SPEF2 expression in the testes and sperm and is one of the determinants of sperm motility during bull spermatogenesis. The exonic SNP (c.2851G>T) produces aberrant splice variants, which can be used as a candidate marker for semen traits selection breeding of Holstein bulls.

  7. Assessment of the value of international genetic evaluations for yield in predicting domestic breeding values for foreign Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Nicolazzi, E L; Forabosco, F; Fikse, W F

    2011-05-01

    International genetic evaluations are a valuable source of information for decisions about the importation of (the semen of) foreign bulls. This study analyzed data from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, Italy, France, the Netherlands, and the United States) and compared international evaluations for production traits of foreign bulls (i.e., when no national daughter information was available) to their national breeding values in August 2009, which were based only on domestic daughters' data. A total of 821 bulls with highly reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk, fat, and protein yield were analyzed. No evidence of systematic over- or underestimation was found in most of the countries analyzed. Observed correlations between national and international evaluations were close to 0.9 and, for most countries, generally close to their expected values (calculated from national and international EBV reliabilities). In Italy, however, higher differences between observed and expected correlations and significant mean differences between EBV for more than one trait were observed in bulls progeny-tested in the United States and in other European countries (with differences up to 33.1% of the genetic standard deviation). These results were probably induced by a relatively recent change in the model for national evaluation. The findings in this study reflect a conservative estimate of the real value of international evaluations, as changes in methodologies in either the national or the international evaluations decreased the ability of past international evaluations to predict current national evaluations. Nevertheless, our results indicate that international evaluations based on foreign information for Holstein bulls were reasonably accurate predictors of the future national breeding values based only upon domestic daughters.

  8. Swimming speed distributions of bull spermatozoa as determined by quasi-elastic light scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, F R; Craig, T; Marsh, J

    1978-01-01

    88 semen samples from 39 bulls have been investigated by the quasi-elastic light scattering technique. Normal, defective, and dead cells each yielded characteristic autocorrelation functions. The form of these functions indicates that the swimming speed distribution of normal cells is a gamma distribution with two degrees of freedom while that for defective or circular swimmers is a gamma distribution with one degree of freedom. The resulting analysis of the experimental autocorrelation functions yields the fraction of the sample that is normal, the fraction that is defective, and the average speed of each group. The average helical swimming speed of normal cells was found to be 384 micron/s, while the average trajectory speed of the circular swimmers was found to be 103 micron/s. The overall quality of the semen samples as determined by light scattering is compared to quality determination on the same samples by technicians from the artificial insemination industry. PMID:630041

  9. ESR (electron spin resonance)-determined osmotic behavior of bull spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Du, J.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Spitzer, V.J.; Critser, J.K. . Dept. of Medical Research); Horstman, L. . School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. )

    1990-01-01

    Our laboratories are pursuing a fundamental approach to the problems of semen cryopreservation. For many cell types (human red cells, yeast, HeLa) it has been demonstrated that there is an optimum cooling rate for cryopreservation. Faster rates allow insufficient time for cell dehydration and result in intracellular ice formation and cell death. It is possible to predict this optimal rate provided that the cell acts as an ideal osmometer and several other cell parameters are known such as the membrane hydraulic conductivity. It is the purpose of this work to examine the osmotic response of bull sperm to sucrose and NaCl utilizing electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure cell volume. For calibration purposes we also measured the ESR response of human red cells (RBC), the osmotic response of which is well documented with other methods. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Adrenal glands of slaughtered bulls, heifers and cows: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, F; Konecny, R

    2011-02-01

    The study involved histological and immunohistochemical examinations of the adrenal glands of healthy slaughtered cattle. Glands of 13 bulls, 10 heifers and 10 cows were examined. The following histological findings were observed: Unequal thickness of connective capsule and nodular formations of the zona glomerulosa (ZG), eosinophilic granules in cells of the ZG, globoid arrangement of the zona fasciculata, nodules or pegs of cortical tissue in the medulla, mutual interlacing of superficial and deep zones of the medulla, proliferation of cortical or medullary cells into the blood vessels wall situated in the medulla and focal inflammatory infiltrates. Cortical cells and noradrenalin-secreting (N) cells in the medulla expressed cytoplasmic positivity of S100 protein. Both adrenalin (A) cells and N cells were positive in synaptophysin. The majority of the cells in the cortex and in the medulla displayed were positive for chromogranin A. Electron microscopy showed structureless, electrondense particles of varying size and shape, mostly displaying the having mostly character of secretory granules.

  11. Effect of lamps with different spectral properties on prolactin release in prepubertal bulls

    SciTech Connect

    Stanisiewski, E.P.; Chapin, L.T.; Tucker, H.A.

    1984-02-01

    Concentrations of prolactin in serum increased 1.8- to 7.8-fold within 6 weeks after duration of daily light was shifted from 8 to 16 hr. In comparison with cool-white fluorescent light, this increment in concentration of prolactin was similar when a light source that simulates natural sunlight (Vita-Lite), or incandescent, high-pressure sodium, or mercury vapor lamps were used. Regardless of light source, increasing the duration of daily light from 8 to 16 hr during warmer months (Aug) resulted in a greater magnitude of increase in mean prolactin concentrations as compared with increases observed during cooler months (Feb). The authors conclude that in prepubertal bulls, secretion of prolactin increases similarly when duration of light from lamps with different spectral properties in increased from 8 to 16 hr daily.

  12. Atypical cerebral listeriosis associated with Listeria innocua in a beef bull.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Grattarola, Carla; Casalone, Cristina; Del Piero, Fabio; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2013-02-01

    Natural infections of cattle associated with Listeria innocua have not been reported. This report describes the first case of cerebral listeriosis in a bull due to Listeria innocua. The animal presented neurological signs characterized by weakness, incoordination and recumbency. Histopathologic evaluation of brain tissue revealed multifocal microabscesses, perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, vasculitis, oedema and haemorrhages. All lesions extended from the medulla oblongata to the basal nuclei/parietal cortex area. Indirect immunohistochemistry labelled for Listeria sp. in the brain tissue, but not for Listeria monocytogenes, neurotropic Flaviviruses, BVDV, bovine Herpesvirus 1, Chlamydophila spp. and Histophilus somni. PCR was negative for ovine herpesvirus. L. innocua was isolated from brainstem and identified by biochemical tests (Camp and beta-hemolysis negative). Subsequently, the species was confirmed by a duplex PCR and minisequencing assays. L. innocua should be histologically considered as a differential diagnosis of thrombotic meningoencephalitis, malignant catarrhal fever and cerebral listeriosis due to L. monocytogenes in cattle.

  13. An outbreak of Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) poisoning in grazing Aberdeen Angus bulls in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, E; Paloma, E; Lopez, T; Campero, C

    1991-06-01

    Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) is used as a forage source in some cattle-producing areas in Argentina. The plant had no previous reports of toxicity in this country. A herd of 33 Aberdeen Angus bulls grazed during 20 days in October on a pasture composed mainly of hairy vetch. Eight animals developed conjunctivitis, rinitis, dermatitis, loss of hair and fever. All of them died within 15 d after the development of signs with a marked loss of body condition. No more animals became sick 5 d after the removal of the herd from the pasture. Serum parameters tested (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, GOT, alfa-GT and bilirubin) enlarged liver and spleen, generalized hemorrhage in the abomasum, dilated kidneys and multiple pale areas on the heart. Severe necrotizing granulomatous myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and necrotizing cholangitis were the most striking microscopic changes. Close observation of animals feeding on pastures in which V villosa is dominant is the only prevention.

  14. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  15. Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

  16. Effects of road transportation or droving on the weight and metabolism of young bulls.

    PubMed

    D'Oliveira, Marcella Cândia; Souza, Maria Inês Lenz; Corrêa Filho, Ruy Alberto Caetano; Morais, Maria da Graça; Itavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Franco, Gumercindo Loriano

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the mode of transportation on weight and metabolism of young bulls, which are generally transported by two systems: droving and truck. This experiment consisted of two phases: transportation and refeeding and involved transportation by droving and truck. Fifty young Nellore bulls were separated in equal numbers in both groups, droving group and truck group. In the transportation phase, animals were moved, in a 640-km journey. The refeeding phase consisted of 84 days and commenced after the animals arrived at the fattening farm. The effect of the transportation system on animals' weight, metabolic hormones, and serum biochemistry was assessed after 28, 56, and 84 days. During the transportation phase, animals in the droving group lost 10.11 kg and animals in the truck group gained 13.1 kg. The truck group showed 20.5 kg of weight gain at the end of the refeeding phase. The highest triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were observed on days 0 and 60 in the transportation phase in both droving and truck groups. The serum cortisol concentration was higher in the droving group than in the truck group on day 56 of the refeeding phase. The IGF-I concentrations were higher during the refeeding phase in the droving group than in the truck group. Our results showed that transportation by droving leads to increased weight loss and reduced further weight gain compared to transportation by truck and that serum concentrations of T4, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) hormones are altered by the transportation system.

  17. Incorporation of selenium-75 into seminal plasma and spermatozoa of the bull.

    PubMed

    Vanha-Perttula, T; Remes, E

    1990-01-01

    75Se was given intravenously into 5 bulls. Multiple blood and semen samples were taken and during slaughter 5, 10, 15, 20 and 80 days later samples of various reproductive and other organs were collected. After injection, 75Se in blood reached a peak at 6 h followed by a rapid decline. The label was mainly found in serum with very low levels in erythrocytes. Initially the serum 75Se was bound to a macromolecule with a mw of 80 kDa, but later a larger molecule (100 kDa) was observed. In semen 75Se was first mainly found in seminal plasma, where a plateau level was reached at 5 d followed by a gradual decline after 12 d. The total semen level, however, increased after 14 d and this increase was due to a rapid appearance of the label in spermatozoa. The sperm 75Se level reached a plateau at 20 d and remained high until 40 days, after which a gradual decline ensued. The seminal plasma 75Se eluted in gel filtration coincident with glutathione peroxidase. The highest levels of 75Se were found in the kidney followed by seminal vesicles and testicles. The seminal vesicle secretion was particularly rich in 75Se and its fractionation resembled that of the seminal plasma. 75Se appeared in the epididymal caput within 5 days and passed through the epididymis in 20 days. It is concluded that 75Se is actively incorporated in the bull seminal vesicles into GSH-Px, while in the testis it is incorporated into a structural sperm protein during spermatogenesis.

  18. Technical note: Relationship between infrared thermography and heat production in young bulls.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R A; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Johnson, K A; Galvão, M C; Rodrigues, A C; Lourençoni, D; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-03-01

    The traditional techniques to measure heat production (HP) are calorimetry (direct and indirect) and comparative slaughter. Both methods are expensive and require extensive amounts of time and infrastructure. Infrared thermography (IRT) could be a faster and less expensive alternative to estimate cattle HP. The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the IRT technique as an indicator of HP in cattle. A total of 24 bulls (12 Nellore and 12 Black Angus) with initial BW of 380 ± 7 kg were used. Initially, 4 animals of each breed were harvested (baseline animals) and simple regressions were developed for each breed from these baseline animals to estimate the initial chemical composition of the remaining bulls. Eight animals of each breed were fed a silage/concentrate diet for ad libitum intake in individual stalls. On the 25th, 50th, and 75th experimental day, infrared thermal images (Fluke Ti 55ft; Fluke Corporation) were taken of each animal's face to access skin and ocular surface temperatures. A metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the ME intake (MEI). After 84 experimental days, the cattle were harvested and retained energy (RE) and HP were calculated. The data were analyzed using the MIXED and REG procedures of SAS adopting a significance level of 0.05. Angus cattle had a greater daily MEI, HP, and skin and eye temperatures than Nellore. We found significant correlations ( ≤ 0.005) between daily HP and maximum ( = 0.65) and average skin temperatures ( = 0.65) and maximum ( = 0.65) and average ocular surface ( = 0.69) temperatures recorded on d 50. Infrared thermography has potential to be used to evaluate HP in cattle.

  19. Localization of CD9 Molecule on Bull Spermatozoa: Its Involvement in the Sperm-Egg Interaction.

    PubMed

    Antalíková, J; Jankovičová, J; Simon, M; Cupperová, P; Michalková, K; Horovská, Ľ

    2015-06-01

    Tetraspanin CD9 is one of the egg membrane proteins known to be essential in fertilization process. The presence and localization of CD9 molecule in spermatozoa and its possible function in reproduction are still unclear. In our study, we describe the localization of CD9 on bull spermatozoa. In the immunofluorescence assay, the positive signal has been observed in the high proportion of sperm cells as a fine grains either on the apical part or through the entire anterior region of sperm head. CD9 recognized by monoclonal antibody IVA-50 was detected on freshly ejaculated (83.4 ± 3.7%) and frozen-thawed (84.3 ± 2.3%) sperm. The same reaction pattern was observed on sperm capacitated for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h (83.6 ± 2.0%; 84.0 ± 1.5%; 85.7 ± 0.8%; 77.5 ± 10.8%). The presence of CD9 exclusively on plasma membrane of the bovine sperm has been detected by Western blot analysis of the protein fractions after the discontinuous sucrose gradient fractionation of the bull sperm. Moreover, probable role of the sperm CD9 molecule in fertilization process of cattle has been suggested as sperm treatment with anti-CD9 antibody significantly reduced (by 25%, p ≤ 0.001) the number of fertilized oocytes compared to control group in fertilization assay in vitro.

  20. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively.

  1. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL(-1) leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL(-1) leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL(-1). Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes.

  2. Quality of streams in the Bull Mountains region, south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In October 1977, water-quality monitoring stations were established on five small streams that drain the Bull Mountains and also on the Musselshell River to document present water-quality conditions in a coal area of south-central Montana. Relatively static water-quality conditions exist throughout the annual flow cycle on the small streams but water quality varies with time on the Musselshell River. The near absence of surface runoff in the Bull Mountains during the study and the dominance by the base-flow component account for stability of water quality in the small streams. High-mountain runoff coupled with storms and prairie runoff impact the base flow of the Musselshell River. Bicarbonate and sulfate were the principal anions and are present in nearly equal proportions in all small streams. Except for West Parrot Creek, magnesium was the most dominant cation. West Parrot Creek, which consistently contained the smallest levels of dissolved solids, had sodium rather than magnesium as the principal cation. Fattig Creek was highest in dissolved solids with an approximate concentration range of 900 to 2,100 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment discharge in the streams was relatively small; no stream exceeded 0.32 ton per day. The Musselshell River had dissolved solids concentrations that ranged from about 450 milligrams per liter during spring runoff to 1,800 milligrams per liter during periods of base flow. The sodium sulfate-type water, which is common during base flow, is diluted during runoff with water having principal ions of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Suspended-sediment loads ranged from 0.56 to 37,300 tons per day and correlated directly to stream discharge. (USGS)

  3. The uses of infrared thermography to evaluate the effects of climatic variables in bull's reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Bremm, Carolina; Pimentel, Concepta; Lopes, Rubia Branco; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Carvalho, Helena Robattini; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects of the environment on sperm quality in subtropical region determined by temperature and humidity index (THI). We used 20 Brangus bulls (5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore) aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Semen evaluations were performed twice per season during 1 year. Climate THI data were collected from an automatic weather station from the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images were used to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis to assess the testicular temperature gradient (TG). The seasonal effects on seminal and climatic variables were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS. Sperm motility in spring (60.1 %), summer (57.6 %), and autumn (64.5 %) showed difference compared to winter (73.0 %; P < 0.01). TG was negatively correlated with THI at 18 days (spermiogenesis) (-0.76; P < 0.05) and at 12 days (epididymal transit) (-0.85; P < 0.01). Ocular temperature (OcT) had a positive correlation with THI at 18 days (0.78; P < 0.05) and at 12 days (0.84; P < 0.01). Motility showed a negative correlation with THI only at 18 days (-0.79; P < 0.05). During spermiogenesis, the TG had higher negative correlation compared to OcT (-0.97; P < 0.01) and rectal temperature (-0.72; P < 0.05). Spermatozoa with distal midpiece reflex were correlated with THI during transit epididymis (0.72; P < 0.05). Seminal parameters are not affected when THI reaches 93.0 (spermiogenesis) and 88.0 (epididymal transit). We concluded that infrared thermography can be adopted as an indirect method in order to assess the effect of environmental changes in TG and OcT of Brangus bulls.

  4. Genetic parameters for scrotal circumference, breeding soundness examination and sperm defects in young Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Silva, M R; Pedrosa, V B; Borges-Silva, J C; Eler, J P; Guimarães, J D; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-10-01

    A total of 51,161 records of scrotal circumference measurements at 18 mo of age (SC18) and 17,648 records of sperm defects and breeding soundness of Nellore bulls (mean age of 22.5 mo), raised under extensive conditions, were analyzed to estimate coefficients of heritability and genetic correlations of morphological semen traits by Bayesian inference. The observed semen traits were classified as minor (MID), major (MAD), and total sperm defects (TD). The animals were classified according to breeding soundness as satisfactory and unsatisfactory potential breeders. The (co)variance components and breeding values were estimated by Gibbs sampling using the GIBBS2F90 program under an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect, age of animal as linear covariate, and direct additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritabilities of 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, 0.04 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.01, and 0.10 ± 0.01 were obtained for SC18, MID, MAD, TD, and breeding soundness, respectively. The SC18 showed a positive and moderate correlation with breeding soundness (0.56 ± 0.04) and a negative and low correlation with MID (-0.23 ± 0.03), MAD (-0.16 ± 0.02), and TD (-0.24 ± 0.02). In conclusion, scrotal circumference showed the best response to selection among the traits studied and was favorably correlated with breeding soundness and sperm morphology in young Nellore bulls.

  5. Improving the accuracy of acetabular cup implantation using a bulls-eye spirit level.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Duncan; Gupta, Sanjay; Ohly, Nicholas E; Patil, Sanjeev; Meek, R; Mohammed, Aslam

    2011-01-01

    Acetabular introducers have a built-in inclination of 45 degrees to the handle shaft. With patients in the lateral position, surgeons aim to align the introducer shaft vertical to the floor to implant the acetabulum at 45 degrees. We aimed to determine if a bulls-eye spirit level attached to an introducer improved the accuracy of implantation. A small circular bulls-eye spirit level was attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer. A saw bone hemipelvis was fixed to a horizontal, flat surface. A cement substitute was placed in the acetabulum and subjects were asked to implant a polyethylene cup, aiming to obtain an angle of inclination of 45 degrees. Two attempts were made with the spirit level masked and two with it unmasked. The distance of the air bubble from the spirit level's center was recorded by a single assessor. The angle of inclination of the acetabular component was then calculated. Subjects included both orthopedic consultants and trainees. Twenty-five subjects completed the study. Accuracy of acetabular implantation when using the unmasked spirit level improved significantly in all grades of surgeon. With the spirit level masked, 12 out of 50 attempts were accurate at 45 degrees inclination; 11 out of 50 attempts were "open," with greater than 45 degrees of inclination, and 27 were "closed," with less than 45 degrees. With the spirit level visible, all subjects achieved an inclination angle of exactly 45 degrees. A simple device attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer can significantly improve the accuracy of implantation of a cemented cup into a saw bone pelvis in the lateral position.

  6. Sequestration of PDC-109 protein by specific antibodies and egg yolk cryoprotects bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, N; Srivastava, S K; Ghosh, S K; Jerome, A; Das, G K; Mehrotra, S

    2013-10-01

    PDC-109, one of the most abundant proteins in bovine seminal plasma, has detrimental effect on spermatozoa in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that sequestration of detrimental protein from ejaculates would be beneficial following cryopreservation of sperm cells. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of sequestration of PDC-109 either by anti-PDC-109 antibodies (Ab) or egg yolk (EY) alone or by the synergistic action of EY + Ab in minimizing cryoinjury to bull spermatozoa. PDC-109 protein was purified by applying two-step chromatography procedures. The purified protein was injected in rabbits to raise antibodies which were isolated using ion-exchange chromatography. After checking the Ab cross-reactivity, they were quantitated and added to ejaculates, either alone or in addition to EY in Tris-glycerol (TG) extender. Thus, ejaculates were processed in extender containing EY + TG (group I), Ab + TG (group II) or EY + Ab + TG (group III). Semen quality parameters (SQPs) viz. viability and acrosome integrity (FITC-PSA), cryoinjury to spermatozoa (chlortetracycline, CTC assay) and in vitro fertility of protein-sequestered-semen (zona-penetration assay) were evaluated. A significant (p < 0.05) improvement in post-thaw SQPs as well as in non-capacitated spermatozoa observed at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation in group III compared with other groups indicated reduction in protein-mediated cryoinjury. From this study, it can be concluded that sequestration of PDC-109 by synergistic action of EY+Ab as compared to either of them alone significantly improve sperm quality and minimize cryoinjury to bull spermatozoa upon storage at ultra-low temperatures.

  7. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  8. To b or not to b ?? A nonextensive view of b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter law.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1944) law one of the cornerstones of modern seismology has been considered as a paradigm of manifestation of self-organized criticality since the dependence of the cumulative number of earthquakes with energy, i.e., the number of earthquakes with energy greater than E, behaves as a power law with the b value related to the critical exponent. A great number of seismic hazard studies have been originated as a result of this law. The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) law is an empirical relationship, which recent efforts relate it with general physical principles (Kagan and Knopoff, 1981; Wesnousky, 1999; Sarlis et al., 2010; Telesca, 2012; Vallianatos and Sammonds, 2013). Nonextensive statistical mechanics pioneered by Tsallis (Tsallis, 2009) provides a consistent theoretical framework for the studies of complex systems in their nonequilibrium stationary states, systems with multi fractal and self-similar structures, long-range interacting systems, etc. Earth is such system. In the present work we analyze the different pathways (originated in Sotolongo-Costa, A. Posadas , 2004; Silva et al., 2006) to extract the generalization of the G-R law as obtained in the frame of non extensive statistical physics. We estimate the b-value and we discuss its underline physics. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project of the "Education & Lifelong Learning" Operational Programme. References Gutenberg, B. and C. F. Richter (1944). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 34, 185-188. Kagan, Y. Y. and L. Knopoff (1981). J. Geophys. Res. 86, 2853-2862. Sarlis, N., E. Skordas and P. Varotsos (2010). Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 82 (2) , 021110. Silva, R., G. Franca, C. Vilar and J. Alcaniz (2006). Phys. Rev. E, 73, 026102 Sotolongo-Costa, O. and A. Posadas (2004). Phys. Rev. Lett., 92

  9. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced early-life nutrition (∼130% of required energy and protein) increased testes size and weight (∼20-25%) and reduced age at puberty (∼1 month) in beef and dairy bulls, compared with those fed 70% of dietary requirements. The objective was to determine effects of early-life (2-31 weeks) nutritional modulation on feed costs, predicted number of harvestable sperm and doses of semen, and semen quality. Calves (∼1 week old) were randomly allocated into three groups that were fed 4, 6, or 8 L/day of milk (low [n = 8], medium [n = 9], and high groups [n = 9], respectively) from ages 2 to 8 weeks. Thereafter, they were weaned, transitioned onto barley silage-based diets, to receive ∼70, 100, or 130% of recommended amounts of energy and protein (feed costs were ∼CDN$280 more per bull to feed high versus low diets from 2 to 31 weeks). After 31 weeks, all bulls were fed a medium diet. Semen was collected, by electroejaculation, from 51 to 73 weeks, extended, chilled, and cryopreserved. Bulls fed high nutrition were numerically younger (P = 0.45) at sexual maturity (sperm with ≥30% progressive motility, ≥70% morphologically normal, and ≤20% abnormal heads), first acceptable post-chill sperm motility (>50%; P = 0.66) and first acceptable post-thaw motility (>25% progressive; P = 0.25) than bulls in the low-nutrition group. Semen from three bulls per group was used for in vitro fertilization (total of 1249 bovine oocytes); there were no significant differences among groups in fertilization percentage (mean ± SEM of 68.0 ± 8.7, 77.1 ± 3.5, and 68.7 ± 4.5% for low, medium, and high, respectively) or blastocyst yield (31.5 ± 5.6, 41.4 ± 4.9, and 33.7 ± 4.6%). On the basis of analysis of 2D gels of sperm proteins, 380 spots were identified on the fused master gel, but no spots were differentially expressed across groups. Overall, there were no significant differences in semen quality or sperm function among bulls fed

  10. Bull exposure and an increased within-day milking to suckling interval reduced postpartum anoestrus in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-12-16

    It is hypothesized that the combined effects of suckling and milking in the dual purpose cows is one of the main suppressors of reproductive efficiency in this production system. The experiment described here examined whether managing the interval between milking and suckling could reduce the postpartum anoestrous period and whether the presence of a teaser bull could enhance the effects of these managements. The experiment involved 39 Bos taurus x Bos indicus cows which had an average weight of 523.0 +/- 12.8 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.) and body condition score of 5-7 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves grazed separate pastures and the cows were supplemented with 2 kg 17% CP concentrates and 1 kg molasses per cow per day. The experiment was conducted over the first 100 days postpartum. Cows were hand-milked once per day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. The factors in the 2 x 2 design were the milking to suckling interval (0 h, control suckling; CS versus 8 h prolonged-delay suckling; PDS) and no exposure versus exposure to a teaser bull (B). Cows were assigned at random within calving date to the four treatments: CS (n = 10), PDS (n = 10), CS-B (n = 9) and PDS-B (n = 10). Cows on treatments CS and CS-B had three-quarters of the udder milked and one-quarter was not milked. The entire udder was milked on those treatments where there was an interval between milking and suckling. The bull was introduced 7 days after calving in treatments where the cows were exposed to a teaser bull. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yield were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial design and by chi(2)-test. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in cow body weight at calving and at 100 days postpartum, nor in milk yield (overall mean 6.0 +/- 1.1 kg per day). Calf daily gain was 598 +/- 25 g for treatments CS and CS-B in which

  11. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Mach, N; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2009-02-01

    Forty-eight bulls (335 +/- 8.6 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned to 4 glycerin levels (0, 4, 8, and 12% of concentrate DM) with the objective of evaluating the effects of glycerin supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrates were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (assuming a glycerin ME content of 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM). Concentrate and straw were fed for ad libitum intake. Bull BW and feed consumption were recorded monthly. Additionally, rumen and blood samples were collected every month. Bulls were slaughtered after 91 d of study (460 +/- 11 kg of final BW). Hot carcass weight, carcass backfat, and conformation were recorded. The area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and intramuscular fat content of LM were determined. Glycerin level did not affect daily concentrate intake (6.89 +/- 0.34 kg/d of DM), straw intake (1.38 +/- 0.069 kg/d of DM), total DMI (8.27 +/- 0.32 kg/d of DM), ADG (1.36 +/- 0.087 kg/d), or G:F (0.17 +/- 0.009). Similarly, rumen molar proportions of propionic, acetic, and butyric acids, and rumen liquid osmolality were unaffected by treatment. However, a decreased rumen pH (P < 0.05), and greater rumen total VFA concentration (P = 0.09), serum insulin concentration (P < 0.05), and insulin to glucose ratio (P < 0.05) were observed in bulls fed 8% glycerin in concentrate compared with those receiving 0, 4, or 12%. No changes were observed in carcass and meat quality. The ME content of glycerin (86% glycerol) can be assumed to be 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. In addition, feeding concentrate containing up to 12.1% of glycerin does not lead to detrimental effects on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality variables.

  12. Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank

  13. Nuclear DNA identification of migrating bull trout captured at the Puget Sound Energy diversion dam on the White River, Washington State.

    PubMed

    Baker, J D; Moran, P; Ladley, R

    2003-02-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a char listed as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act throughout its range in the coterminous United States. Substantial morphological similarities between bull trout and Dolly Varden (S. malma) make field identification difficult. This has resulted in an incomplete understanding of their distribution and abundance in Washington State where these two species occur sympatrically. We used three diagnostic nuclear loci to determine the species of char collected at a trap on the White River in southern Puget Sound (Washington State, USA). Each of the 104 samples revealed the expected bull trout genotype at all three loci. This work presents three principle results: (i) the presence of a migratory bull trout population in southern Puget Sound; (ii) no evidence of migratory Dolly Varden over 3 years; and (iii) no evidence of hybridization was detected. These results also demonstrate how molecular markers can provide information essential to the conservation and management of these species.

  14. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Assess the role of passage over Boundary Dam, in the context of other factors in the system that may influence the feasibility of establishing a self-sustaining bull trout population in the Boundary system.

  15. Carcass fat partitioning and meat quality of Alentejana and Barrosã young bulls fed high or low maize silage diets.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana S H; Costa, Paulo; Bessa, Rui J B; Lemos, José P C; Simões, Jorge A; Santos-Silva, José; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Prates, José A M

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of breed and diet on carcass composition, particularly fat partitioning, and meat quality in young bulls. An experiment with forty young bulls from two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, fed two diets with different maize silage to concentrate ratios, but isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, was carried out until the animals reached 18 months of age. In the longissimus lumborum muscle, Barrosã bulls fed the low silage diet had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Bulls fed the low silage diet also had the highest IMF content in the semitendinosus muscle. Diet determined the proportions of total visceral fat and individual fat depots. Under these experimental conditions, it was shown that the genetic background is a major determinant of carcass composition and meat quality, and that the dietary differences studied had limited effect on carcass composition.

  16. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional assessments, seminal plasma composition, and field fertility after AI with either non-sorted or sex-sorted bull semen.

    PubMed

    Holden, S A; Fernandez-Fuertes, B; Murphy, C; Whelan, H; O'Gorman, A; Brennan, L; Butler, S T; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that different in vitro parameters are required to predict the in vivo fertility of non-sorted (NS) and sex-sorted (SS) semen. Thus, the aim was to correlate in vitro bull sperm functional parameters (experiment 1) and seminal plasma composition (experiment 2) with pregnancy rates using 2 cohorts of bulls (NS and SS). Experiment 1: ejaculates from each bull (n = 3 ejaculates per bull; n = 6 bulls for both NS and SS) were assessed for motility, thermal stress tolerance and morphology using microscopy, and viability, osmotic resistance, mitochondrial membrane potential, and acrosome integrity using flow cytometry. Fertilizing ability was assessed using IVF. Experiment 2: ejaculates (n = 3 per bull; n = 8 and 6 bulls for NS and SS, respectively) were collected, seminal plasma harvested and frozen and later analyzed for amino acid and fatty acid composition using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the NS cohort of bulls, there was no correlation between pregnancy rate and any of the sperm functional parameters assessed. However, within the SS cohort, motility and viability were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.80, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between IVF outcome and pregnancy rate in either the SS or NS cohort of bulls. In the NS cohort of bulls, concentrations of the amino acid isoleucine and the fatty acid tricosylic acid (C23:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.80 and 0.74, respectively; P < 0.05). Within the SS cohort of bulls, the amino acid glutamic acid and the fatty acid arachidic acid (C20:0) were correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggests that different in vitro markers of fertility are required to predict the fertility of NS and SS sperm.

  17. The influence of gamete co-incubation length on the in vitro fertility and sex ratio of bovine bulls with different penetration speed.

    PubMed

    Sattar, A; Rubessa, M; Di Francesco, S; Longobardi, V; Di Palo, R; Zicarelli, L; Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate whether the sperm penetration speed is correlated to the in vitro fertility and whether adapting the gamete co-incubation length to the kinetics of the bull improves in vitro fertility and affects the sex ratio. In vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa from four different bulls (A-D). At various post-insemination (p.i.) times (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h), samples of oocytes were fixed and stained with DAPI for nuclei examination, while the remaining ones were transferred into culture to evaluate embryo development. The blastocysts produced were sexed by PCR. Two bulls (A and B) had faster kinetics than the others (C and D), as shown by the higher penetration rates recorded at 4 h p.i. (43%, 30%, 11% and 6%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p<0.01). The differences in the kinetics among bulls did not reflect their in vitro fertility. The incidence of polyspermy was higher for faster penetrating bulls (36%, 24%, 16% and 4%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p<0.01) and at longer co-incubation times (0%, 16%, 19%, 30% and 34%, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.; p<0.01). The fertilizing ability of individual bulls may be improved by adapting the co-incubation length to their penetration speed. A sperm-oocyte co-incubation length of 8 h ensured the greatest blastocyst yields for the two faster penetrating bulls. On the contrary, 16 h co-incubation was required to increase (p<0.01) cleavage rate of the two slower bulls. Bulls with a faster kinetics did not alter the embryo sex ratio towards males. The female/male (F/M) ratios recorded were 2.1, 1.4, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.

  18. Overdominance effect of the bovine ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a)-DelR242 locus on growth in Japanese Shorthorn weaner bulls: heterozygote advantage in bull selection and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masanori; Sato, Yoichi; Negami, Tatsuki; Terada, Tohru; Sasaki, Osamu; Yasuda, Jumpei; Arakawa, Aisaku; Yoshida, Chikara; Takahashi, Hideaki; Malau-Aduli, Aduli E O; Suzuki, Keiichi; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2014-12-23

    Ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) are involved in growth hormone secretion, food intake, and several other important functions. Ghrelin acts on GHSR1a and induces signal transduction via the Gαq subunit. In our previous study, we identified the DelR242 (3R) allele, a truncated 3-arginine residue (3R) [major type: 4 arginine residues (4R)] of the third intracellular loop of GHSR1a, with a high frequency in Japanese Shorthorn bulls (0.43) but with a low frequency in other cattle breeds (0.00-0.09). To further investigate the reasons for the higher frequency of the 3R allele, we performed several experiments. In this study, we found a significant sex difference in the frequency of the 3R allele. Statistical analysis revealed a significant overdominance effect of the DelR242 locus on growth in Japanese Shorthorn weaner bulls. However, additive/dominance/overdominance effects of the 3R allele on carcass traits in adult steers and dams were not significant. The mode of the overdominance effect was estimated to be solely controlled by the single DelR242 locus without any other linked loci using linkage disequilibrium analysis in GHSR1a. These results indicated that 4R/3R heterozygotes had a selective advantage in weaner bulls because of their higher average daily gain than homozygotes. We discussed possible molecular mechanisms involved in the overdominance effect of the DelR242 locus on these traits in weaner bulls using a structural model of the complex consisting of a GHSR1a dimer and Gαq.

  19. Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated. Results We investigated the copy number (CN) of the bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY in a total of 460 bulls from 15 breeds using a quantitative PCR approach. We observed CNVs for both gene families within and between cattle breeds. The median copy number (MCN) of HSFY among all bulls was 197, ranging from 21 to 308. The MCN of ZNF280BY was 236, varying from 28 to 380. Furthermore, bulls in the Bos taurus (BTA) lineage had a significantly higher MCN (202) of HSFY than bulls in the Bos indicus (BIN) lineage (178), while taurine bulls had a significantly lower MCN (231) of ZNF280BY than indicine bulls (284). In addition, the CN of ZNF280BY was positively correlated to that of HSFY on the BTAY. Association analysis revealed that the CNVs of both HSFY and ZNF280BY were correlated negatively with testis size, while positively with sire conception rate. Conclusion The bovine HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families have extensively expanded on the Y chromosome during evolution. The CN of both gene families varies significantly among individuals and cattle breeds. These variations were associated with testis size and bull fertility in Holstein, suggesting that the CNVs of HSFY and ZNF280BY may serve as valuable makers for male fertility selection in cattle. PMID:24507556

  20. Post-Death Cloning of Endangered Jeju Black Cattle (Korean Native Cattle): Fertility and Serum Chemistry in a Cloned Bull and Cow and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Eun Young; SONG, Dong Hwan; PARK, Min Jee; PARK, Hyo Young; LEE, Seung Eun; CHOI, Hyun Yong; MOON, Jeremiah Jiman; KIM, Young Hoon; MUN, Seong Ho; OH, Chang Eon; KO, Moon Suck; LEE, Dong Sun; RIU, Key Zung; PARK, Se Pill

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC. PMID:23955237

  1. Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM.

  2. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  3. Regional adjustment factors for three NGA-West2 ground-motion prediction equations to be applicable in northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafarani, H.; Rahpeyma, S.; Mousavi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are essential tools in seismic hazard studies to estimate ground motions generated by potential seismic sources. Global GMPEs which are based on well-compiled global strong-motion databanks, have certain advantages over local GMPEs, including more sophisticated parameters in terms of distance, faulting style, and site classification but cannot guarantee the local/region-specific propagation characteristics of shear wave (e.g., geometric spreading behavior, quality factor) for different seismic regions at larger distances (beyond about 80 km). Here, strong-motion records of northern Iran have been used to estimate the propagation characteristics of shear wave and determine the region-specific adjustment parameters for three of the NGA-West2 GMPEs to be applicable in northern Iran. The dataset consists of 260 three-component records from 28 earthquakes, recorded at 139 stations, with moment magnitudes between 4.9 and 7.4, horizontal distance to the surface projection of the rupture (R JB) less than 200 km, and average shear-wave velocity over the top 30 m of the subsurface (V S30) between 155 and 1500 m/s. The paper also presents the ranking results for three of the NGA-West2 GMPEs against strong motions recorded in northern Iran, before and after adjustment for region-dependent attenuation characteristics. The ranking is based on the likelihood and log-likelihood methods (LH and LLH) proposed by Scherbaum et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 94: 2164-2185, 2004, Bull Seismol Soc Am 99, 3234-3247, 2009, respectively), the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (Nash and Sutcliffe, J Hydrol 10:282-290, 1970), and the EDR method of Kale and Akkar (Bull Seismol Soc Am 103:1069-1084, 2012). The best-fitting models over the whole frequency range are the ASK14 and BSSA14 models. Taking into account that the models' performances were boosted after applying the adjustment factors, at least moderate regional variation of ground motions

  4. The influence of diet on collagen content and quality attributes of infraspinatus muscle from Holstein-Friesian young bulls.

    PubMed

    Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Nogalski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine effects of feeding intensity on collagen content and eating quality of infraspinatus (INF) muscle. Twenty Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls (11-month-old) were fed either intensively (I, n=10, with triticale meal addition to total mixed ration) or semi-intensively (SI, n=10, without triticale meal) before slaughter at 19months. The animals from I group showed higher body weight at the end of fattening, average daily gain and dressing percentage than SI group. The INF muscle from I treatment had higher fat content and the proportion of water-soluble collagen, whereas lower insoluble collagen content compared with SI treatment. There were no differences in shear force values, cooking loss and eating quality between the treatments. In conclusion, feeding Holstein-Friesian bulls with increased energy value fodder beneficially affected its slaughter value and collagen profile in infraspinatus muscle.

  5. Sperm in poor quality semen from bulls during heat stress have a lower affinity for binding hydrogen-3 heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Ax, R.L.; Gilbert, G.R.; Shook, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Binding assays with (/sup 3/H) heparin were performed using spermatozoa collected prior to, during, and following summer heat stress to dairy bulls. Ejaculates collected in August 1983 after a period of ambient temperatures exceeding 29.4/sup 0/C exhibited a high frequency of abnormal sperm, and motility was reduced in some samples. Sperm in samples collected during heat stress possessed dissociation constants for binding (/sup 3/H) heparin ranging from 134.5 to 163.2 nmol. In contrast, sperm in semen collected prior to and after heat stress had significantly lower dissociation constants (higher affinity) for (/sup 3/H)heparin, 12.9 to 56.4 nmol. The number of binding sites for (/sup 3/H) heparin on sperm did not change among collection periods. It was concluded that the binding affinity for (/sup 3/H) heparin may reflect membrane integrity of bull sperm.

  6. Notes on the husbandry and long-term transportation of Bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Correia, João; Pinho, Rúben; Graça, José; Rodrigues, Filipe; Hirofumi, Morikawa

    2013-03-01

    Bull rays (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis) were collected in Olhão (south of Portugal). These animals hosted multiple parasites, namely Caligus spp., and underwent a variety of treatments to remove them. Of all treatments tested, hydrogen peroxide showed the best results, although only concentrations above 100 ppm were effective in parasite removal. These high concentrations, however, proved to be highly toxic for the fish and led to the loss of some animals, especially those which had been handled before treatment. A total of 14 Bull rays were transported to Bolougne-Sur-Mer (France) by road and some animals were lost, which was attributed to excessive time in transit (>45 hr). In another transport, three Bull rays and 10 Dolphinfishes were moved to Stralsund (Germany) by road and air. The mechanical wounds suffered by one of the Bull rays during transport led to its death and, consequently, a deterioration of water quality in the tank containing two other conspecifics. This deterioration of water quality resulted in problems for the other two Bull rays, and one perished approximately 48 hr after arrival. The authors concluded that Dolphinfish can be transported with a low bioload for at least 27 hr, and Bull rays should not undergo transports longer than 35 hr. Special attention must be taken to injured animals, since this can lead to a decrease in water quality and consequently affect other animals in the same transport tank.

  7. Effects of MboII and BspMI polymorphisms in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Na; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Li-Guo

    2011-06-01

    The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays an essential physiological role in reproductive function, which triggers the synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of polymorphisms of GnRHR gene on the quality of fresh and frozen semen in Holstein bulls. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect G286A and T340C transitions determining MboII and BspMI polymorphisms, respectively, in the exon I of bovine GnRHR gene and evaluated its associations with sperm quality traits in 131 Holstein bulls. In polymorphic locus 286, bulls with the GA genotype had significantly higher sperm motility in frozen semen (FMOT) than GG genotype (P < 0.01). In polymorphic locus 340, bulls with heterozygote CT genotype had significantly higher sperm motility (MOT), semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), and lower abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) than homozygote TT genotype (P < 0.05). Bulls contained one A allele or C allele had a favorable, positive effect on sperm quality traits. These results indicate that GnRHR gene can be a potential marker for improving sperm quality traits, and imply that bulls with GA or CT genotype should be selected in breeding program.

  8. Diagnosis of lumbosacral diskospondylosis in a bucking bull assisted by high-definition thermal and nuclear scintigraphic imaging.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Marc; Passler, Thomas; Purohit, Ram C; Pascoe, David; Wolfe, Dwight F

    2017-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated for left hind limb lameness of 2 months' duration. The lameness was first noticed during a rodeo bucking performance, immediately after the bull appeared to land inappropriately on the affected limb. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings revealed left hind limb lameness, ataxia, and left-sided epaxial muscle atrophy. Palpation per rectum along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column revealed evidence of exostosis of the ventral aspect. High-definition infrared thermal imaging revealed a pattern of reduced skin temperature in the area of the left lumbar and gluteal regions suggestive of a disruption in the sympathetic control of peripheral blood flow. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed a focal area of increased radioisotope uptake on the left ventrolateral aspect of the L2-3 intervertebral joint. A presumptive diagnosis of ventrolateral vertebral spondylosis resulting in spinal nerve impingement was made. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 200 mg of methylprednisolone was epidurally injected at the site of the lesion, and treatment with polysulfated glycosaminoglycans was initiated (500 mg, IM, every 4 days for 7 treatments, then monthly thereafter). The lameness and ataxia observed in the left hind limb resolved within 1 week after treatment began. Subsequently, the bull was discharged from the hospital and was used successfully for semen collection and live-cover breeding. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of thermography for the bull of this report provided additional insight into neurovascular physiologic function that classical imaging modalities are unable to provide and, when combined with nuclear scintigraphy, aided in identifying the most critical lesion in a complex clinical case.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variation in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from northwestern North America: implications for zoogeography and conservation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E B; Pollard, S; Louie, D

    1999-07-01

    Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Salmonidae), are distributed in northwestern North America from Nevada to Yukon Territory, largely in interior drainages. The species is of conservation concern owing to declines in abundance, particularly in southern portions of its range. To investigate phylogenetic structure within bull trout that might form the basis for the delineation of major conservation units, we conducted a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) survey in bull trout from throughout its range. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of four segments of the mtDNA genome with 11 restriction enzymes resolved 21 composite haplotypes that differed by an average of 0.5% in sequence. One group of haplotypes predominated in 'coastal' areas (west of the coastal mountain ranges) while another predominated in 'interior' regions (east of the coastal mountains). The two putative lineages differed by 0.8% in sequence and were also resolved by sequencing a portion of the ND1 gene in a representative of each RFLP haplotype. Significant variation existed within individual sample sites (12% of total variation) and among sites within major geographical regions (33%), but most variation (55%) was associated with differences between coastal and interior regions. We concluded that: (i) bull trout are subdivided into coastal and interior lineages; (ii) this subdivision reflects recent historical isolation in two refugia south of the Cordilleran ice sheet during the Pleistocene: the Chehalis and Columbia refugia; and (iii) most of the molecular variation resides at the interpopulation and inter-region levels. Conservation efforts, therefore, should focus on maintaining as many populations as possible across as many geographical regions as possible within both coastal and interior lineages.

  10. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  11. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p < .05) in the CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p < .05). Progressive motility tended to be increased in the CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  12. Fertility-associated metabolites in bull seminal plasma and blood serum: 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajeet; Kroetsch, Tom; Blondin, Patrick; Anzar, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    Early estimation of bull fertility is highly desirable for the conservation of male genetics of endangered species and for the exploitation of genetically superior sires in artificial insemination programs. The present work was conducted as a proof-of-principle study to identify fertility-associated metabolites in dairy bull seminal plasma and blood serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Semen and blood samples were collected from high- and low-fertility breeding bulls (n = 5 each), stationed at Semex, Guelph, Canada. NMR spectra of serum and seminal plasma were recorded at a resonance frequency of 500.13 MHz on a Bruker Avance-500 spectrometer equipped with an inverse triple resonance probe (TXI, 5 mm). Spectra were phased manually, baseline corrected, and calibrated against 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2,2,3,3-d4 acid at 0.0 parts per million (ppm). Spectra were converted to an appropriate format for analysis using Prometab software running within MATLAB. Principal component analysis was used to examine intrinsic variation in the NMR data set, and to identify trends and to exclude outliers. Partial least square-discriminant analysis was performed to identify the significant features between fertility groups. The fertility-associated metabolites with variable importance in projections (VIP) scores >2 were citrate (2.50 ppm), tryptamine/taurine (3.34-3.38 ppm), isoleucine (0.74 ppm), and leucine (0.78 ppm) in the seminal plasma; and isoleucine (1.14 ppm), asparagine (2.90-2.94 ppm), glycogen (3.98 ppm), and citrulline (1.54 ppm) in the serum. These metabolites showed identifiable peaks, and thus can be used as biomarkers of fertility in breeding bulls.

  13. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Ju, Zhihua; Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

    2013-01-01

    The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as

  14. [Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

    2010-01-01

    The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made.

  15. The use of beef bull semen reduced the risk of abortion in Neospora-seropositive dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Garbayo, J M; Almería, S

    2005-03-01

    There is an evidence that the epidemiology of neosporosis differs in dairy and beef cattle, such that beef cattle carry a lower risk of abortion. The aim of the present study was to establish whether artificial insemination using semen from beef bulls could reduce the risk of abortion in dairy cows seropositive for the Neospora caninum parasite. Our study was based on yearly serological screening for neosporosis and on the confirmation of Neospora infection in aborted fetuses in two high-producing dairy herds with a mean 28% seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies. The study population comprised of 273 pregnancies in seropositive animals: 156 pregnancies monitored after insemination using Holstein-Friesian semen and 117 after insemination using beef bull semen. Abortion rates for these animals were 28.2% (77 of 273), 34.6% (54 of 156) and 19.7% (23 of 117). Logistic regression analysis indicated no significant effects of lactation number and previous abortion on the abortion rate. Based on the odds ratio, a 1-unit increase in the Neospora antibody titre yielded a 1.01-fold increase in the abortion rate. The likelihood of abortion was two times higher for cows in one of the two herds and 2.8 times lower (one of 0.36) for pregnant cows inseminated with beef bull semen rather than Holstein-Friesian semen. Our results indicate that the use of beef bull semen can reduce the risk of abortion in dairy cows, and suggest that annual screening for neosporosis, specifically the antibody titre to the protozoan, could be an useful predictor of abortion risk in reproductive health programmes.

  16. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  17. Evidence for prosauropod dinosaur gastroliths in the Bull Run Formation (Upper Triassic, Norian) of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, R.E.; Culp, M.J.; Wings, O.

    2007-01-01

    Definitive criteria for distinguishing gastroliths from sedimentary clasts are lacking for many depositional settings, and many reported occurrences of gastroliths either cannot be verified or have been refuted. We discuss four occurrences of gastrolith-like stones (category 6 exoliths) not found within skeletal remains from the Upper Triassic Bull Run Formation of northern Virginia, USA. Despite their lack of obvious skeletal association, the most parsimonious explanation for several characteristics of these stones is their prolonged residence in the gastric mills of large animals. These characteristics include 1) typical gastrolith microscopic surface texture, 2) evidence of pervasive surface wear on many of these stones that has secondarily removed variable amounts of thick weathering rinds typically found on these stones, and 3) a width/length-ratio modal peak for these stones that is more strongly developed than in any population of fluvial or fanglomerate stones of any age found in this region. When taken together, these properties of the stones can be explained most parsimoniously by animal ingestion and gastric-mill abrasion. The size of these stones indicates the animals that swallowed them were large, and the best candidate is a prosauropod dinosaur, possibly an ancestor of the Early Jurassic gastrolith-producing prosauropod Massospondylus or Ammosaurus. Skeletal evidence for Upper Triassic prosauropods is lacking in the Newark Supergroup basins; footprints (Agrestipus hottoni and Eubrontes isp.) from the Bull Run Formation in the Culpeper basin previously ascribed to prosauropods are now known to be underprints (Brachychirotherium parvum) of an aetosaur and underprints (Kayentapus minor) of a ceratosaur. The absence of prosauropod skeletal remains or footprints in all but the uppermost (upper Rhaetian) Triassic rocks of the Newark Supergroup is puzzling because prosauropod remains are abundant elsewhere in the world in Upper Triassic (Carnian, Norian

  18. Grazing Behavior and Locomotion of Young Bulls Receiving Different Nutritional Plans in a Tropical Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Valente, E. E. L.; Paulino, M. F.; Detmann, E.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Chizzotti, M. L.; Silva, A. G.; Maciel, I. F. S.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare visual observation and an electronic grazing time method and to evaluate the effects of nutritional plans on intake, grazing behavior and horizontal and vertical locomotion of young bulls in a tropical pasture. Thirty-nine Nellore young bulls with an average body weight of 345±9.3 kg kept in pasture were used. The experimental treatments consisted of: restricted: animals kept in a plot with a low mass of forage receiving mineral mixture only; control: animals receiving mineral mixture only; HPHC: a high protein and high carbohydrate supplement; HPLC: a high protein and low carbohydrate supplement; LPHC: a low protein and high carbohydrate supplement; LPLC: a low protein and low carbohydrate supplement. GPS collars equipped with activity sensors were used. Information about head position, latitude, longitude and altitude were recorded. Daytime grazing behavioral patterns monitored by a continuous focal animal recording method was compared to behavior estimated by the activity sensor. Feed intake was estimated by a marker method. The Restricted group presented lower (p<0.05) intake of dry matter and TDN. However, difference in dry matter intake was not found (p>0.05) between non-supplemented and supplemented animals. Difference was not found (p>0.05) in daytime grazing time obtained by visual observation or the activity sensor method. The restricted group showed longer (p<0.05) grazing time (9.58 h/d) than other groups, but difference was not found (p>0.05) in the grazing time between Control (8.35 h/d) and supplemented animals (8.03 h/d). The Restricted group presented lower (p<0.05) horizontal locomotion distance (2,168 m/d) in comparison to other groups (2,580.6 m/d). It can be concluded that the use of activity sensor methods can be recommended due to their being similar to visual observation and able to record 24-h/d. While supplements with high carbohydrates reduce pasture intake, they do not change grazing behavior

  19. Water-quality variations in the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon, under 1978 to 1983 management conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    During the period October 1978 to September 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Portland (Oregon) Water Bureau, conducted a study in the Bull Run River basin to define the hydrologic characteristics of the basin, and to examine relations between basin characteristics (both natural and man-made) and stream water quality and quantity within the basin. Hydrologically, the 1978-1983 period can be characterized as representative of the long-term average, with no records of extreme events. Likewise, water quality constituent concentrations affected by quantity of streamflow are representative of average values and ranges and exclude values that would be obtained during periods of extreme events. Ranges of concentration of major anions and cations for surface water collected October 1978 to September 1983 are similar to values collected historically. The ratio of constituent to chloride values determined for precipitation data collected during the period June 1980 to September 1981 indicated that other sources besides seawater contributed to its composition. In ratios of constituents in precipitation, Bull Run values are similar to those of other remote sites in Alaska, Washington, and California. Comparisons of storm-related suspended sediment load to annual suspended sediment loads indicated that 62% to 78% of the total annual loads occurred in 3 to 4 days during an average year. Multiple-linear regression analysis using discharge, suspended sediment and specific conductance indicated that most of the variation in the annual values could be explained by naturally occurring processes within the basin. A nonparametric time-trend analysis of 24 water quantity and quality constituents showed no statistically significant trends with estimated slopes large enough to be readily measurable for a particular year. Four constituents that were sampled weekly (turbidity, specific conductance, silica, and phytoplankton) had statistically significant

  20. Scrotal infrared digital thermography as a predictor of seasonal effects on sperm traits in Braford bulls.

    PubMed

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects of the environment on semen quality in bulls, using infrared thermography. Sperm motility (M), mass motion (MM), and vigor (VIG) were evaluated in sperm samples from 17 Bradford bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Infrared thermography images and data were collected using an infrared FLIR T 300 camera and Quick Report 1.2 SP2 software to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis and to assess the testicular temperature gradient. The seasonal effects on physiological, seminal, and climatic variables were analyzed by the GLM ANOVA and CORR procedures using SAS®. The microclimatic factors were recorded in hourly intervals, and the daily mean temperature and mean relative humidity were calculated to determine the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) every day for 1 year. The temperature gradient (TG) variations of the testes were significantly higher in the autumn (4.5 °C), winter (4.0 °C), and spring (2.9 °C) compared to summer (0.9 °C) (P < 0.05). Ocular globe temperatures were lower in the winter (27.6 °C) and autumn (26.8 °C) compared to summer (33.9 °C) and spring (31.1 °C) (P < 0.05). The average MM (2.58), M (52.64), and VIG (2.70) of the semen decreased in the summer compared to other seasons (P < 0.01). The TG was negatively correlated with THI (-0.44; P < 0.05). For the seminal variables, MaD (-0.45; P < 0.05) and TD (-0.50; P < 0.01) presented a negative correlation with TG. The TG had a positive correlation between M and VIG, which had values of 0.36 and 0.35, respectively (P < 0.05). We have concluded that infrared thermography can be used to assess the testicular temperature gradient and its consequences on physical and quantitative aspects of sperm.

  1. Scrotal infrared digital thermography as a predictor of seasonal effects on sperm traits in Braford bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects of the environment on semen quality in bulls, using infrared thermography. Sperm motility (M), mass motion (MM), and vigor (VIG) were evaluated in sperm samples from 17 Bradford bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Infrared thermography images and data were collected using an infrared FLIR T 300 camera and Quick Report 1.2 SP2 software to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis and to assess the testicular temperature gradient. The seasonal effects on physiological, seminal, and climatic variables were analyzed by the GLM ANOVA and CORR procedures using SAS®. The microclimatic factors were recorded in hourly intervals, and the daily mean temperature and mean relative humidity were calculated to determine the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) every day for 1 year. The temperature gradient (TG) variations of the testes were significantly higher in the autumn (4.5 °C), winter (4.0 °C), and spring (2.9 °C) compared to summer (0.9 °C) ( P < 0.05). Ocular globe temperatures were lower in the winter (27.6 °C) and autumn (26.8 °C) compared to summer (33.9 °C) and spring (31.1 °C) ( P < 0.05). The average MM (2.58), M (52.64), and VIG (2.70) of the semen decreased in the summer compared to other seasons ( P < 0.01). The TG was negatively correlated with THI (-0.44; P < 0.05). For the seminal variables, MaD (-0.45; P < 0.05) and TD (-0.50; P < 0.01) presented a negative correlation with TG. The TG had a positive correlation between M and VIG, which had values of 0.36 and 0.35, respectively ( P < 0.05). We have concluded that infrared thermography can be used to assess the testicular temperature gradient and its consequences on physical and quantitative aspects of sperm.

  2. The uses of infrared thermography to evaluate the effects of climatic variables in bull's reproduction.

    PubMed

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Bremm, Carolina; Pimentel, Concepta; Lopes, Rubia Branco; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Carvalho, Helena Robattini; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects of the environment on sperm quality in subtropical region determined by temperature and humidity index (THI). We used 20 Brangus bulls (5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore) aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Semen evaluations were performed twice per season during 1 year. Climate THI data were collected from an automatic weather station from the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images were used to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis to assess the testicular temperature gradient (TG). The seasonal effects on seminal and climatic variables were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS. Sperm motility in spring (60.1%), summer (57.6%), and autumn (64.5%) showed difference compared to winter (73.0%; P < 0.01). TG was negatively correlated with THI at 18 days (spermiogenesis) (-0.76; P < 0.05) and at 12 days (epididymal transit) (-0.85; P < 0.01). Ocular temperature (OcT) had a positive correlation with THI at 18 days (0.78; P < 0.05) and at 12 days (0.84; P < 0.01). Motility showed a negative correlation with THI only at 18 days (-0.79; P < 0.05). During spermiogenesis, the TG had higher negative correlation compared to OcT (-0.97; P < 0.01) and rectal temperature (-0.72; P < 0.05). Spermatozoa with distal midpiece reflex were correlated with THI during transit epididymis (0.72; P < 0.05). Seminal parameters are not affected when THI reaches 93.0 (spermiogenesis) and 88.0 (epididymal transit). We concluded that infrared thermography can be adopted as an indirect method in order to assess the effect of environmental changes in TG and OcT of Brangus bulls.

  3. Selection with inbreeding control in simulated young bull schemes for local dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Stella, A; Del Corvo, M; Jansen, G B

    2014-03-01

    Local breeds are rarely subject to modern selection techniques; however, selection programs will be required if local breeds are to remain a viable livelihood option for farmers. Selection in small populations needs to take into account accurate inbreeding control. Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is efficient in controlling inbreeding and maximizes genetic gain. The current paper investigates genetic progress in simulated dairy cattle populations from 500 to 6,000 cows undergoing young bull selection schemes with OCS compared with truncation selection (TS) at an annual inbreeding rate of 0.003. Selection is carried out for a dairy trait with a base heritability of 0.3. A young bull selection scheme was used because of its simplicity in implementation. With TS, annual genetic gain from 0.111 standard deviation units with 500 cows increases rapidly to 0.145 standard deviation units with 4,000 cows. Then, genetic gain increases more slowly up to 6,000 cows. At the same inbreeding rate, OCS produces higher genetic progress than TS. Differences in genetic gain between OCS and TS vary from to 2 to 6.3%. Genetic gain is also improved by increasing the number of years that males can be used as sires of sires. When comparing OCS versus TS at different heritabilities, we observe an advantage of OCS only at high heritability, up to 8% with heritability of 0.9. By increasing the constraint on inbreeding, the difference of genetic gain between the 2 selection methods increases in favor of OCS, and the advantage at the inbreeding rate of 0.001 per generation is 6 times more than at the inbreeding rate of 0.003. Opportunities exist for selection even in dairy cattle populations of a few hundred females. In any case, selection in local breeds will most often require specific investments in infrastructure and manpower, including systems for accurate data recording and selection skills and the presence of artificial insemination and breeders organizations. A cost

  4. Nonlinear study of seismicity in the Mexican subduction zone by means of visual recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rojas, A.; Moreno-Torres, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    The subduction in the Mexican South Pacific coast might be approximated as a subhorizontal slab bounded at the edge by the steep subduction geometry of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate to the east and of the Rivera plate beneath North America to the west. Singh et al. (1983), reported a study that takes into account the geometry of the subducted Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American lithosphere defining, according their geometry, four regions: Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero and Oaxaca. In this work we study the seismicity occurred in Mexico, for each region, by means of the visual recurrence analysis (VRA). Our analysis shows important differences between each region that could be associated with nonlinear dynamical properties of each region. Singh, S.K., M. Rodriguez, and L. Esteva (1983), Statistics of small earthquakes and frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes along the Mexican subduction zone, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 73, 6A, 1779-1796.

  5. Efficacy of caudal epidural injection of lidocaine, xylazine and xylazine plus hyaluronidase in reducing discomfort produced by electroejaculation in bulls.

    PubMed

    Pagliosa, Ronaldo C; Derossi, Rafael; Costa, Deiler S; Faria, Fabio J C

    2015-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that epidural administration of lidocaine, xylazine or xylazine plus hyaluronidase provides reduced pain and stress during electroejaculation in bulls, eight 30-month-old Nellore bulls received saline solution (control), 2% lidocaine, 2% xylazine or 2% xylazine plus hyaluronidase injected into the first intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) epidural space in randomized order. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, analgesia, animal behavior and motor blockade were evaluated before treatment and at predetermined intervals during and after treatment. Pain and stress were scored subjectively, and semen quality was evaluated. The onset of anesthetic action was significantly faster with lidocaine (3.0 ± 1.2 min) than with xylazine or xylazine plus hyaluronidase (8.9 ± 1.5 and 5.5 ± 2.6 min, P=0.021 and P=0.012, respectively), and the onset of anesthesia with xylazine plus hyaluronidase was significantly faster than that with xylazine alone (P=0.032). Treatment with xylazine or xylazine plus hyaluronidase resulted in less discomfort than treatment with lidocaine, as indicated by animal behavior. Changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial pressure were within acceptable limits. Penile protrusion and semen emission occurred in all animals during all four treatments. Our results suggest that xylazine plus hyaluronidase reduced discomfort during electroejaculation more effectively than xylazine or lidocaine alone. Further experiments are necessary to determine whether electroejaculation with xylazine plus hyaluronidase is feasible for obtaining semen from Nellore bulls unaccustomed to being handled or restrained.

  6. Multi-scale geomorphic and hydrogeologic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Woessner, W. W.; Muhlfeld, C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated multi-scale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt- dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Bull trout redds were primarily found in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (74%), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater-stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds (26%), however, were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches. Among all reaches and subreaches, the abundance of redds increased with increased bankfull dimensionless shear stress and decreased with reach-average streambed grain size (p < 0.05). Within these selected reaches and subreaches, redd occurrence tended to be associated with the finest available textural facies (i.e., gravel and small cobble substrates) in concave-up bedforms with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm. Groundwater provided substantial thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Our spawning gravel competence results indicate that bull trout select spawning areas that are potentially susceptible to flooding-induced scour during the fall and winter incubation period.

  7. Effect of gossypol-acetic acid on calcium transport and ATPase activity in plasma membranes from ram and bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, H; Rubinstein, S; Nass-Arden, L

    1984-10-01

    The effects of gossypol acetic acid on the activity of Mg-ATPase and Ca-Mg-ATPase and on calcium uptake by plasma membranes from ram and bull spermatozoa were examined. The three parameters were almost completely inhibited by 10 microM gossypol for both ram and bull sperm. In order to assess the effects of higher gossypol concentrations isolated membrane vesicles were loaded with calcium by operating the ATP-dependent calcium pump after which gossypol was added and calcium uptake followed. At 10 microM gossypol, additional calcium uptake was 85% inhibited while at 40 microM a release of the accumulated calcium was observed. The inhibitory effect of 10 microM gossypol was almost completely reversible by simple dilution of gossypol-treated membranes, whilst at 40 microM the effect was only 50% reversible. The data show a high degree of similarity between bull and ram, suggesting minimal differences between the two species as far as the structure and function of the sperm plasma membrane is concerned.

  8. Catalase supplementation on thawed bull spermatozoa abolishes the detrimental effect of oxidative stress on motility and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Esteso, M C; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-08-01

    The potential protective effect of catalase supplementation during in vitro culture of frozen/thawed bull spermatozoa was investigated. Frozen/thawed semen collected from three fighting bulls was diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubated at 37 degrees C under different experimental conditions: Control, Catalase (CAT) (200 U/mL), Oxidant (OXI) (100 microm Fe(2+)/1 mm ascorbate), and Catalase + Oxidant (CAT/OXI). We assessed sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin status (SCSA) at 0, 2 and 6 h of incubation. Our results showed that catalase abolished the effect of the oxidant, protecting spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species, and improving both sperm motility and chromatin status during incubation. The OXI treatment significantly reduced the percentage of motile sperm after 6 h of incubation. The statistical model also showed that there were differences in sperm motility between CAT/OXI (20.8 +/- 2.9%) and OXI (11.6 +/- 7.6%) (p < 0.001). There were no significant effects of OXI on sperm viability, acrosomal status or proportion of abnormal tails. %DFI (spermatozoa with moderate or high DNA Fragmentation Index) was significantly higher on OXI (p < 0.001). Catalase prevented DNA fragmentation even in the presence of the oxidant (%DFI: 30.3 +/- 0.8% OXI vs. 17.4 +/- 0.7% CAT/OXI). We conclude that catalase supplementation after thawing could protect bull spermatozoa against oxidative stress, and it could improve media used for processing thawed spermatozoa.

  9. Cryopreservation of bull semen: Evolution from egg yolk based to soybean based extenders.

    PubMed

    Layek, S S; Mohanty, T K; Kumaresan, A; Parks, J E

    2016-09-01

    Since the inception of bovine semen cryopreservation, egg yolk and milk based extenders have been used to protect sperm from the detrimental effects of cooling and freezing. In recent years, demand for alternatives to conventional commercial extenders has arisen as the risk of introducing exotic diseases through transporting egg yolk based products has been recognized. Egg yolk can also interfere with sperm evaluation and the presence of particulate material in the extender may reduce fertility. Soybeans contain lecithin, a phospholipid fraction that can substitute for high molecular weight lipoprotein and phospholipids from egg yolk and prevent or ameliorate damage to the sperm plasma membrane that occurs during extension, cooling, and cryopreservation. Soy lecithin based extenders have been evaluated for processing and freezing bovine semen, although extender from soybean milk has not been studied as extensively. Commercially available soy lecithin based extenders are used increasingly but remain under scrutiny and are not universally accepted. With these observations in mind, this review is intended to examine effects of conventional cryopreservation procedures, methods of assessment, and potential for developing soybean extract as an acceptable alternative to traditional egg yolk and milk based extenders for bull sperm cryopreservation.

  10. If a bull were a cow, how much milk would he give?

    PubMed

    Soller, Morris

    2015-01-01

    I became enamored of genetics at an early age. The desire to participate in the rebuilding of my people in our ancient homeland led to dairy science at Rutgers University, to Animal Breeding Plans by J.L. Lush, and to the realization that I could combine genetics and dairy science in animal breeding. It is to my mother-in-law that I owe the felicitous phrasing of the titular scientific question that has occupied my professional life: If a bull were a cow, how much milk would he give? Following my PhD (in 1956), I joined the Volcani Institute in Israel and, later (in 1972), the Applied Genetics group at the Hebrew University. The Applied Genetics group had an active marker lab, and this and a paper by Spickett & Thoday led me to explore genetic markers for quantitative trait loci mapping and marker-assisted selection. A chance encounter with Jacques Beckmann in 1980 opened my eyes to the potential of DNA-level markers for these purposes, and the rest followed.

  11. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine A; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-11-15

    When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs' scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher's Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher's Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  12. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  13. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  14. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laberge, Kelsen E.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program, allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite) configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp (2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Further studies are planned to determine the cause of this behavior.

  15. Impacts and pathways of mine contaminants to bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in an Idaho watershed.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Tim; Hansen, James; Kennedy, Brian

    2010-08-01

    Metals contamination from mining activities is a persistent problem affecting aquatic ecosystems throughout mining districts in the western USA. The Gold Creek drainage in northern Idaho has a history of mining within its headwaters and contains elevated sediment concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. To determine system-wide impacts of increased metals, we measured concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate tissues and related them to whole-body fish tissues and histopathological alterations in native salmonids. Water concentrations were higher than those in reference areas, but were below water quality criteria for protection of aquatic biota for most of the study area. Sediment and benthic macroinvertebrate tissue concentrations for all metals were significantly higher at all sites compared with the reference site. Fish tissues were significantly higher for all metals below mine sites compared with the reference site, but only Cd and Pb were higher in fish tissues in the furthest downstream reach in the Gold Creek Delta. Metals concentrations in benthic macroinvertebrate tissues and fish tissues were strongly correlated, suggesting a transfer of metals through a dietary pathway. The concentrations within sediments and biota were similar to those reported in other studies in which adverse effects to salmonids occurred. We observed histopathological changes in livers of bull trout, including inflammation, necrosis, and pleomorphism. Our study is consistent with other work in which sediment-driven exposure can transfer up the food chain and may cause adverse impacts to higher organisms.

  16. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  18. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle.

  19. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    PubMed

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from <4 wk to >3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (<4 wk; 5230 ± 2170 ng/g lipid wt) determined to not significantly differ from those quantified in >3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts.

  20. Localization of Tektin 1 at both acrosome and flagella of mouse and bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Oiki, Sayoko; Hiyama, Erina; Gotoh, Takafumi; Iida, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Tektins (TEKTs) are constitutive filamentous proteins of microtubules in cilia, flagella, basal bodies, and centrioles. In mammals, five TEKTs (TEKT1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) have been identified in testis and spermatozoa. With the exception of TEKT1, these TEKTs have been reported to be present in spermatozoa with predominant localization at the peri-axoneme structures of flagella, i.e., mitochondria and outer dense fibers. In the present study, we produced an antibody against TEKT1 to examine the localization of TEKT1 in mouse, bull, and rat spermatozoa. By immunoblot analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy, we found TEKT1 to be present in sperm flagella and at the apical region of acrosome cap in spermatozoa of all these species. Acrosome-associated TEKT1 disappeared after in vitro acrosome reaction in mouse spermatozoa. These observations suggest another potential role for TEKT1 as a cytoskeletal element in the sperm head, or as a molecule involved in acrosome-related phenomena, such as acrosome reaction.

  1. Suppression of Radiative Damping and Enhancement of Second Harmonic Generation in Bull's Eye Nanoresonators.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jue-Min; Smirnov, Vladimir; Piao, Xianji; Hong, Jiho; Kollmann, Heiko; Silies, Martin; Wang, Wei; Groß, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Park, Namkyoo; Lienau, Christoph

    2016-01-26

    We report a drastic increase of the damping time of plasmonic eigenmodes in resonant bull's eye (BE) nanoresonators to more than 35 fs. This is achieved by tailoring the groove depth of the resonator and by coupling the confined plasmonic field in the aperture to an extended resonator mode such that spatial coherence is preserved over distances of more than 10 μm. Experimentally, this is demonstrated by probing the plasmon dynamics at the field level using broadband spectral interferometry. The nanoresonator allows us to efficiently concentrate the incident field inside the central aperture of the BE and to tailor its local optical nonlinearity by varying the aperture geometry. By replacing the central circular hole with an annular ring structure, we obtain 50-times higher second harmonic generation efficiency, allowing us to demonstrate the efficient concentration of long-lived plasmonic modes inside nanoapertures by interferometric frequency-resolved autocorrelation. Such a light concentration in a nanoresonator with high quality factor has high potential for sensing and coherent control of light-matter interactions on the nanoscale.

  2. Qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed different levels of crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Lanna, D P D; Lopes, L S; Teixeira, P D; Ladeira, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed crude glycerin. Forty-four animals with an initial live weight of 368 ± 4 kg were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments: no glycerin or addition of 6, 12 or 18% glycerin. The animals were slaughtered with 519.5 ± 14.9 kg of live weight. The meat characteristics assessed were chemical composition, shear force, fatty acid concentration, color and lipid oxidation. The addition of glycerin increased the content of ether extract (P<0.05) in the muscle. A linear increase was observed (P<0.05) in the oleic acid contents (C18:1 cis 9). The saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents linearly decreased in the muscle as a function of glycerin addition. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) indices increased with the use of crude glycerin (P<0.05). The crude glycerin increased the intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle.

  3. Urinary Concentrations of Steroids in Bulls under Anabolic Treatment by Revalor-XS® Implant

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Roberto; Barrucci, Federica; Lega, Francesca; Angeletti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Despite the European ban of using anabolics in food-producing animals, growth promoters might still be illegally used in the European Union. To control the food chain and guarantee consumers' health, there is a need of highly sensitive analytical methods for the identification of marker residues of such treatments. In the present study, a group of bulls (n = 16) received trenbolone acetate (200 mg) and estradiol (40 mg) by a commercial ear implant during a time range of 71 days, and a second group (n = 16) was kept for control. The aim of the research was to measure the residual urinary concentrations of the administered drugs (β-trenbolone and β-estradiol), their main metabolites (α-trenbolone and α-estradiol), and possible alterations of the urinary profile of other endogenous hormones metabolically related. The analytical method was based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed average urinary concentrations of α-trenbolone and α-estradiol during treatment in the range of (0.81 ÷ 2.1) ng mL−1 and (0.96 ÷ 4.4) ng mL−1, respectively, whereas β-trenbolone and β-estradiol exhibit urinary concentrations lower than 0.22 ng mL−1 in both cases. Data obtained from the urinary profiles of endogenous steroids indicate that they could be useful to indirectly detect the ongoing treatment. PMID:27840769

  4. Geology of Bull Canyon quadrangle, Montrose and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Bull Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite depots. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tones. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  5. Fatty acid profile of beef from immunocastrated (BOPRIVA(®)) Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Nayara; Bridi, Ana Maria; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Prohmann, Paulo Emílio Fernandes; Peres, Louise Manha; Tarsitano, Marina Avena; de Lima Giangareli, Barbara; Takabayashi, Alyson Akira

    2016-07-01

    Twenty Nellore bulls (ABW=357.7±9.65kg) were divided into 2 groups: intact and immunocastrated - Bopriva®. After the trial period, the cattle were slaughtered and carcass fat thickness was evaluated, ether extract and fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis analyses were performed, and the activity indices of relevant enzymes were calculated. The means were calculated and compared by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<0.05). The immunocastrated group showed higher back fat thickness, ether extract, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and activity index of Δ(9) desaturase C18 and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 fatty acids when compared to the intact group. The correlations between ether extract and the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were positive, and negative with polyunsaturated, n-3, n-6 and PUFA/SFA. Therefore, immunocastration may improve the fatty acid profile in the longissimus thoracis by increasing MUFAs, mainly oleic acid that is the most representative fatty acid in the meat and is considered beneficial to health.

  6. Sexual precocity of Nellore bulls that are offspring of super precocious, precocious and normal cows in extensive farming conditions.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J B; Oba, E; Pinho, R O; Guimarães, S E F; Neto, T M; Guimarães, J D

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to verify that mothers classified as super precocious (M1) and precocious (M2) produce more precocious bulls than females classified as normal (M3). This study included 21,186 animals with an average age of 21.29 ± 1.77 months that underwent a breeding soundness evaluation from 1999 to 2008. Of these animals, 2019, 6059 and 13,108 were offspring of M1, M2 and M3 females, respectively. In the breeding soundness examination, the animals were classified as sound for reproduction, sound under a natural mating regime, unsound for reproduction and discarded. To compare the averages obtained for each category of mother within the individual breeding soundness classes, a chi-square test with a 5% error probability was used, considering the effects of year and month of birth and farm. For the three classes of mothers (M1, M2 and M3), 67.26, 67.22 and 64.16% of bull calves were considered sound for reproduction and 19.71, 19.46 and 21.90% were considered unsound for reproduction, respectively. There was no difference in the frequency of animals that were sound for reproduction under the natural breeding regime between the three classes of mothers (8.87, 9.31 and 9.19%, respectively). There was a difference between the numbers of precocious and normal females that were discarded, with frequencies of 4.01 and 4.75%, respectively (p < 0.05). There were differences in year and month of birth and farm between super precocious and precocious cows in relation to the breeding soundness classification of the animals. It was concluded that the bull offspring of super precocious and precocious cows presented a higher percentage of approval in the breeding soundness examination than the bull offspring of normal cows, demonstrating that the selection for precocity of females has contributed to an increase in the sexual precocity of the herd in relation to the sexual maturity of bulls.

  7. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    PubMed

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  8. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  9. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days ( P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  10. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  11. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation to the occurrence of pathological spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Massányi, P; Trandzik, J; Nad, P; Koreneková, B; Skalická, M; Toman, R; Lukac, N; Halo, M; Strapak, P

    2004-01-01

    In this study the concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation of these metals to spermatozoa morphology was investigated. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that copper concentration was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in ram semen in comparison with bull semen. The zinc concentration was higher in bull semen in comparison with ram semen. The iron and cadmium concentrations in the semen were similar. Higher concentration of lead was found in ram semen. Higher levels of nickel were found in ram semen in comparison with bulls. In bull semen 11.79+/-4.88% of pathological spermatozoa was found. Higher occurrence of pathological spermatozoa was in ram semen (17.17+/-3.76) in comparison with the semen of bulls. Separated tail, tail torso, and knob twisted tail were the most frequent forms of pathological spermatozoa in both species. Correlation analysis in bulls showed high positive relation between iron and zinc (r = 0.72), nickel and separated tail (r = 0.76), separated tail and tail torso (r = 0.71), tail torso and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.72), and between tail ball and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.78). In rams high positive correlation between cadmium and lead (r=0.98), nickel and separated tail (r=0.77), separated tail and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.69), knob twisted tail and retention of cytoplasmic drop (r=0.78), and between knob twisted tail and other pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.71) was found. High negative correlation in ram semen was observed between copper and nickel (r=0.71), copper and separated tail (r=0.70), and between iron and tail torso (r=0.67). The results suggest that the studied metals have a direct effect on spermatozoa quality.

  12. Comparative Feeding Ecology of Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Coastal Waters of the Southwest Indian Ocean Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W.; Smale, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ13C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ13C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range. PMID:24205168

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the Risk of Release of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus via Export of Bull Semen from Israel.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Zamir, L; Ben Yair Gilboa, A; Gelman, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2017-03-23

    Various foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus strains circulate in the Middle East, causing frequent episodes of FMD outbreaks among Israeli livestock. Since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. As a non-FMD-free country with vaccination, Israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of FMD virus through export of bull semen in order to estimate the risk for FMD-free countries considering purchasing Israeli bull semen. A stochastic risk assessment model was used to estimate this risk, defined as the annual likelihood of exporting at least one ejaculate of bull semen contaminated with viable FMD virus. A total of 45 scenarios were assessed to account for uncertainty and variability around specific parameter estimates and to evaluate the effect of various mitigation measures, such as performing a preexport test on semen ejaculates. Under the most plausible scenario, the annual likelihood of exporting bull semen contaminated with FMD virus had a median of 1.3 * 10(-7) for an export of 100 ejaculates per year. This corresponds to one infected ejaculate exported every 7 million years. Under the worst-case scenario, the median of the risk rose to 7.9 * 10(-5) , which is equivalent to the export of one infected ejaculate every 12,000 years. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most influential parameter is the probability of viral excretion in infected bulls.

  14. Estimating Bodywave Arrivals and Attenuation from Seismic Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    power) and Figure 3d the standardized site amplification terms from Savage and Helmberger (2004) who used the Pnl ratio of vertical to radial energy...incident Pnl waves, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 94: 357-362. Shearer, P. (1997). Improving local earthquake locations using the LI norm and waveform

  15. Improvements to a Major Digital Archive of Seismic Waveforms from Nuclear Explosions: The Borovoye Seismogram Archive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    mining blast signals are being routinely acquired today by the well-instrumented modem BRVK station.) Because modern seismographic stations, now being...responses of digital seismographs at Borovoye, Kazakhstan, by inversion of transient calibration pulses, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 86: 191-203. Kim, W.-Y

  16. Evaluation of Cross-Correlation Methods on a Massive Scale for Accurate Relocation of Seismic Events in East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-21

    purposes, such as scientific study of earthquake interactions in a fault zone or seismic sources associated with magma conduits in a volcano , relative... Kilauea , J. Geophys. Res., 99, 375-393. HARRIS, D.B. (1991), A waveform correlation method for identifying quarry explosions, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am

  17. Explosion Source Model Development in Support of Seismic Monitoring Technologies: Apparent Explosion Moment and Prospects for Moment-Based Yield Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    and R. G. Warren (1994). A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent Canyon  caldera complex, Pahute Mesa, Nevada, J. Geophys. Res. 99: 4323–4339...Velocity structure of Silent Canyon caldera , Nevada Test Site, Bull.  Seismol. Soc. Am. 77: 597–613. 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based

  18. Explosion Source Models for Seismic Monitoring at High Frequencies: Quantification of the Damage Source and Further Validation of Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    24. Ferguson, J. F., A. H. Cogbill, and R. G. Warren (1994). A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent Canyon caldera complex, Pahute Mesa...and L. R. Johnson (1987). Velocity structure of Silent Canyon caldera , Nevada Test Site, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 77: 597–613. Murphy J. R. (1996

  19. Behavior and inflammation of the rumen and cecum in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets with different concentrate presentation forms with or without straw supplementation.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Penner, G B; Marti, S; Quintana, B; Fábregas, F; Bach, A; Arís, A

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks. Bulls were slaughtered after 64 d of exposure to treatments, lesions on the rumen and liver were assessed, and samples of the rumen and cecum were collected. Straw supplementation tended ( = 0.08) to increase concentrate intake (8.0 vs. 7.4 ± 0.26 kg/d), increased ( < 0.01) the proportion of time ruminating (9.4 vs. 3.1 ± 1.02%), and decreased ( < 0.01) the occurrence of oral nonnutritive behaviors (0.52 vs. 1.34 ± 0.123 times/15 min) relative to bulls deprived of straw. Provision of straw increased ruminal pH, but the magnitude of the change was greater when the concentrate was provided as meal compared with pellets (interaction, < 0.05). When straw was not supplemented, all rumen samples had papillae fusion, whereas only 16.7% of bulls fed pellets and straw had papillae fusions (interaction, < 0.05). Vacuole grading of the rumen papillae was less ( < 0.01) in bulls provided straw compared with bulls without straw. For the ruminal epithelium, straw provision tended to increase the relative expression ratio of (which stimulates peptide YY, PYY, and serotonin secretion; = 0.06) and α (which modulates immune reactions and behavior; = 0.09) and increased and (tight junction proteins; < 0.05), along with β and (proinflammatory cytokines; < 0.01) and ( < 0.01) in the rumen. Moreover, it also tended to increase the relative gene expression ratio of β (an antimicrobial peptide; = 0.10) and ( = 0.10). Bulls fed pellets

  20. Research note: investigation on the metabolism of glycerol in the rumen of bulls.

    PubMed

    Kijora, C; Bergner, H; Götz, K P; Bartelt, J; Szakács, J; Sommer, A

    1998-01-01

    Two bulls, each fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulas, received (in addition to a hay-grain diet) twice daily an infusion of 200 g glycerol into the rumen over a period of six days. During this preliminary in vivo investigation, the influence of a glycerol application on the rumen environment over a six-day adaptation period was examined. Samples of rumen fluid were collected daily, two hours after glycerol infusion. An additional 15N-urea application into the rumen was given on days 1 (without glycerol infusion), 3 and 7 (with glycerol infusion). Extra samples of rumen fluid and blood plasma (from puncture of vena jungularis) were taken through the 12th hour following urea application. Rumen fluid pH was reduced due to glycerol intake from 6.3 (day 1, without glycerol) to 5.4 by day 7. Molar proportion of acetic acid to propionic acid decreased from 3.5 (day 1) to 2.1 (days 6 and 7). Average glycerol disappearance rate from the rumen was 4.7 gl-1 h-1 for the first hour. Only small amounts of glycerol could be detected in the duodenal digesta. Blood plasma glycerol content was significantly higher after glycerol application (0.061 mmol l-1 vs. 0.019 mmol l-1). The incorporation of 15N into the rumen bacteria and the proportion of bacterial N (as percent of TCA-precipitable N in the rumen fluid) were lower after glycerol influsion. These results, coupled with the lower concentration of iso-acids (isobutyric and isovaleric acids) in the rumen fluid, indicate that the high amount of glycerol infusion (10% of DMI) reduced protein metabolism of rumen bacteria throughout the experimental period.

  1. Implementation of flow cytometry for quality control in four Danish bull studs.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P; Hansen, C; Liboriussen, T; Lehn-Jensen, H

    2005-02-01

    A flow cytometric method for simultaneous determination of sperm concentration and viability has recently been developed. In 2001, four Danish bull studs purchased flow cytometers and eight technicians were trained for routine analysis of raw and frozen-thawed semen. After initial training of the technicians, an experiment was carried out to document the precision of the system. The aim was also to assess if flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration could result in a more uniform production of semen doses. Results of this experiment showed high precision in the determination of sperm concentration and coefficients of variation were 3.5 and 2.4% for raw and frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Sperm viability was also assessed with high precision and coefficients of variation were 0.9% for raw semen and 1.7% for frozen-thawed semen. Furthermore, the experiment showed that package of semen doses after flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration in the raw semen results in a significantly smaller variation in the number of sperm per dose. In the second experiment, frozen semen was exchanged between the participating studs and were analysed by flow cytometry as well as by microscopic assessments by the eight technicians. Results show that the average correlation between technicians were 0.38 for motility assessments while flow cytometric agreement between technicians was significantly higher (average correlation was 0.86 for sperm viability and 0.92 for sperm concentration). The experiment also showed very high agreements between assessments within lab technician (correlations r=0.98 (sperm concentration) and r=0.99 (sperm viability)). Experiment 3 revealed that straws from the same batch varies in both concentration and viability. It is concluded that flow cytometric determination of sperm concentration and viability can be used to improve semen assessment by AI studs and result in a better quality control.

  2. Alterations to the Bull Sperm Surface Proteins That Bind Sperm to Oviductal Epithelium1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Suarez, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three Binder of SPerm proteins (BSP1, BSP3, BSP5) are secreted by bovine seminal vesicles into seminal plasma and adsorbed onto sperm. When sperm inseminated into the female reach the oviduct, the BSP proteins bind them to its epithelial lining, forming a sperm storage reservoir. Previously, we reported that binding of capacitated sperm to oviductal epithelium in vitro is lower than that of uncapacitated sperm and we proposed that reduced binding was due to loss of BSP proteins during capacitation. Because of differences in amino acid sequences, we predicted that each BSP would respond differently to capacitating conditions. To test whether all three BSP proteins were lost from sperm during capacitation and whether the kinetics of loss differed among the three BSP proteins, ejaculated bull sperm were incubated under various capacitating conditions, and then the amounts of BSP proteins remaining on the sperm were assayed by Western blotting. Capacitation was assayed by analysis of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. While loss of BSP1 was not detected, most of the BSP5 was lost from sperm during incubation in TALP medium, even without addition of the capacitation enhancers heparin and dbcAMP-IBMX. Surprisingly, a smaller molecular mass was detected by anti-BSP3 antibodies in extracts of incubated sperm. Its identity was confirmed as BSP3 by mass spectrometry, indicating that BSP3 undergoes modification on the sperm surface. These changes in the composition of BSP proteins on sperm could play a role in releasing sperm from the storage reservoir by modifying sperm interactions with the oviductal epithelium. PMID:22837481

  3. Tube bundle system studies at Signal Peak Energy Bull Mountains #1 Mine.

    PubMed

    Zipf, R K; Ochsner, R; Krog, R; Marchewka, W; Valente, M; Jensen, R

    2014-03-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine for analysis and display on the surface. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in collaboration with Signal Peak Energy (SPE), LLC, Bull Mountains No. 1 Mine, operated a TBS during mining of two bleederless, longwall panels. This paper describes the gas analysis data and its interpretation. As verified by the TBS, coal at the SPE mine tends to oxidize slowly. It was known that a reservoir of low-oxygen concentration atmosphere developed about 610 m (2,000 ft) behind the longwall face. A bleederless ventilation system facilitates formation of an inert atmosphere in this longwall gob and decreases the likelihood of spontaneous combustion. Connections of the mine atmosphere to the surface through subsidence cracks could allow airflow into the longwall gob, revive coal oxidation and increase spontaneous combustion risk. The atmospheric composition of the sealed areas was homogeneous, except in the immediate vicinity of suspected ingassing points. The TBS verified that gases within the partially sealed, bleederless longwall gob expanded into the longwall tailgate area when barometric pressure decreased. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the back return airflow at the longwall tailgate was observed to increase by a factor of three and possibly up to 10 times the typical background concentration of 0.5 to 1.0%, depending on the size of the longwall gob and the magnitude of barometric pressure decrease. TBS have the inherent disadvantage of slow response time due to travel time of the gas samples and sequential gas analyses. A TBS or similar continuous monitoring system could be beneficial in detecting and providing warning of potentially hazardous gas concentrations, if the slow response time of the system is always understood.

  4. Scales of Stream Disturbance Patterns and Population Structure in Bull Trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, C. H.; Rieman, B. E.; Dunham, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Ecological theory proposes that the geometry and dynamics of suitable habitats are important predictors for the persistence of a population or metapopulation. A key finding supporting a metapopulation-like conceptualization of extinction and colonization in fragmented salmonid populations is that individuals of particular species are more likely to be absent from small patches of suitable habitat than from large patches. Extinctions from small patches occur for a few reasons that can be roughly classed as physical catastrophic causes (e.g. a major channel reorganizing event) or as biological small-population effects related to genetics and demographics. One important question with implications for land management is how strong of a role physical disturbances play in determining presence and absence of a species within a patch. If disturbance plays a key role in structuring populations, then we would expect to observe two patterns. First the spatial scale of disturbance should be on the order of the size of patches that are commonly unoccupied. The second prediction would be that the spatial scale of genetic variability should show strong gene flow at scales smaller than the scale of disturbance. We examined aerial photography over the last 40 years in central Idaho to measure the scale of stream disturbance patches. The scale of stream disturbances was on the same order of magnitude as the divide between commonly occupied and unoccupied patches, and was smaller than scales of high gene flow among bull trout populations, failing to reject the possibility that disturbance plays an important role in structuring populations in this basin. Management for persistence of the species must consider both the likelihood of decreased habitat patch sizes and increased disturbance scales with global warming. Knowing disturbance patch scales and how disturbance operates to structure populations can be used to consider a disturbance based paradigm for management of sensitive

  5. Reproductive characteristics and thyroidal function in relation with season in Khuzestan buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Sadegh; Mamouei, Morteza; Tabatabaei, Saleh; Mirzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    High ambient temperature is the major constraint on Buffalo productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and thyroid gland function in winter and summer seasons in Khuzestan buffalo bulls. Six male indigenous buffaloes of Khuzestan with nearly the same age (2-3 years old) and weight were used. Semen and blood samples through jugular vein were collected, every two weeks throughout the summer and winter seasons. The thyroid hormones and thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in blood serum were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Semen quality was determined, using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and routine methods. The concentration of thyroxin (T4) was lower in winter than summer (p ≤ 0.05). The level of T3 uptake was higher in cold season than that of in hot season (p ≤ 0.05). The differences of tri-iodotyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations, as well as free thyroxin index were not significant between seasons. The semen volume and spermatozoa parameters including concentration, progressive motility, linear velocity, mean velocity, beat cross frequency, linear coefficient and straightness coefficient were higher in winter than summer (p ≤ 0.05). Semen pH and amplitude of lateral head displacement of spermatozoa were higher in summer than winter (p ≤ 0.05). In winter, there was positive correlation between spermatozoa concentration and T3 value of blood serum (p ≤ 0.05). There were positive correlations between values of semen volume and T4, progressive spermatozoa motility percent and TSH, as well as, total motility of spermatozoa and TSH in summer (p ≤ 0.05). In general, thyroid function and semen quality of Khuzestan buffaloes may be affected by seasons. PMID:25568719

  6. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the "classical" statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs.

  7. Opportunistic Visitors: Long-Term Behavioural Response of Bull Sharks to Food Provisioning in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004–2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00–12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site. PMID:23516496

  8. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  9. Body chemical composition of Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, E F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Araujo, F L; Magnani, E; Mercadante, M E Z

    2013-07-01

    Empty body and carcass chemical compositions, expressed as content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy, were evaluated in Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes (RFI). Forty-nine not castrated males, with 343 kg of average initial BW and 398 kg of average slaughter BW, were studied. Animals were divided in two subgroups: reference group (RG) and ad libitum feeding group. At the end of the adaptation period, animals of subgroup RG were slaughtered and the other animals were finished in individual pens for approximately 100 d, until they reached a subcutaneous fat thickness over the LM of 4 mm, and were slaughtered at an average age of 540 d. Body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and chemical composition of gain were also measured based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. No significant differences in slaughter BW (P = 0.8639), empty BW (P = 0.7288), HCW (P = 0.6563), or empty body and carcass rates of gain were observed between RFI groups, demonstrating that the low (-0.331 kg DM/d) and high (+0.325 kg DM/d) RFI animals presented similar body sizes and growth rates. No significant differences in empty body or carcass content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy were observed between the low and high RFI animals. And also there were no significant differences in empty BW or carcass gain, demonstrating that low and high RFI animals had a similar growth potential. More efficient animals (low RFI) consumed less feed than less efficient animals (high RFI) but presented similar body sizes, growth rates, and empty body and carcass chemical composition.

  10. Digestion and metabolism of low and high residual feed intake Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Branco, Renata Helena; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely; Monteiro, Fábio Morato; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used. Cattle were fed a high energy diet and were slaughtered when rib fat thickness measured by ultrasound between the 12th and 13th ribs reached the minimum of 4 mm. A completely randomized design was adopted, being data analyzed with a mixed model that included the random effect of slaughter group, the fixed effect of RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate feedlot time. No differences were found (p > 0.10) between RFI classes for performance, dry matter, and nutrients intake. However, dry (p = 0.0911) and organic matter (p = 0.0876) digestibility tended to be lower, and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (p = 0.0017), and total digestible nutrients (p = 0.0657) were lower for high RFI animals, indicating lesser capacity of food utilization. Difference between low and high RFI animals was also found for blood cortisol at the end of the trial (p = 0.0044), having low RFI animals lower cortisol concentrations. Differences in the ability to digest food can affect the efficiency of transforming feed into meat by Nellore cattle.

  11. Pit-1 gene polymorphism, milk yield, and conformation traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Renaville, R; Gengler, N; Vrech, E; Prandi, A; Massart, S; Corradini, C; Bertozzi, C; Mortiaux, F; Burny, A; Portetelle, D

    1997-12-01

    The growth hormone factor-1/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expression of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual association between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI enzyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy employing polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a 451-bp fragment from semen DNA. Digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with HinfI revealed two alleles: allele A was not digested (451-bp fragment), and allele B was cut at one restriction site, generating two fragments of 244 and 207 bp. Three patterns were observed; frequencies were 2.2, 31.5, and 66.3% for AA, AB, and BB, respectively. Fixed and mixed linear models were fitted on daughter yield deviations for milk yields and on deregressed proofs for conformation traits. Predictions were weighted using the inverse of the estimated variance of records. The models used contained mean and gene substitution effects for Pit-1 A allele as fixed effects and random sire effect for the mixed model. The A allele was found to be superior for milk and protein yields, inferior for fat percentage, and superior for body depth, angularity, and rear leg set, which is difficult to explain. A canonical transformation revealed that Pit-1 had three actions, one linked to milk yield traits and angularity, a second linked to body depth and rear leg set, and a third linked to lower fat yields and to higher angularity.

  12. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.

  13. Choroid plexus carcinoma cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of a Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Alice; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Archer, Joy

    2010-12-01

    An 11-year-old female intact Staffordshire Bull Terrier was referred to the Queen's Veterinary School Hospital at the University of Cambridge with sudden onset of episodic behavioral changes, a mammary mass, and papilledema in the right eye. On physical examination the dog appeared depressed and had a head tilt to the right with anisocoria. Using magnetic resonance imaging, a broad-based lesion that obliterated the fourth ventricle was detected in the right brainstem. There was no evidence of pulmonary metastasis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was then obtained; fluid analysis showed an increased cell count (165 cells/μL, reference interval 0-7 cells/μL) and total protein (0.30 g/L, reference value <0.25 g/L). Cytologic evaluation revealed a population of atypical epithelial cells arranged in cohesive rafts and characterized by moderate to occasionally marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. The appearance was highly suspicious of a malignant epithelial neoplasm. The dog was euthanized and on postmortem examination an asymmetrical nonencapsulated cerebellar mass was found within the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle with local extension into the cerebellopontine angle. Histologic sections of the cerebellar mass contained arborizing papillary structures covered by a single layer of atypical epithelial cells that showed local infiltration into the adjacent neuropil. The diagnosis was choroid plexus carcinoma. The atypical epithelial cells were negative for pancytokeratin and strongly positive for vimentin. The finding of clusters of choroid plexus epithelial cells in the CSF demonstrates the value of utilizing a relatively noninvasive diagnostic technique for diagnosis of choroid plexus tumors.

  14. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, John F; DeJarnette, J M; Geary, Thomas W; Kennedy, Chelsey E; Suarez, Susan S; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sutovsky, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant sperm phenotypes coincide with the expression of unique sperm surface determinants that can be probed by objective, biomarker-based semen analysis and targeted as ligands for semen purification. This study evaluated a nanoparticle-based magnetic purification method that removes defective spermatozoa (∼30% of sample) from bull semen and improves sperm sample viability and fertilizing ability in vitro and in vivo. Two types of nanoparticles were developed: a particle coated with antibody against ubiquitin, which is present on the surface of defective spermatozoa, and a particle coated with the lectin peanut agglutinin, which binds to glycans exposed by acrosomal damage. In a 2 yr artificial insemination field trial with 798 cows, a conception rate of 64.5% ± 3.7% was achieved with a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of peanut agglutinin-nanopurified spermatozoa, comparable to a control nonpurified full dose of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa per dose (63.3% ± 3.2%) and significantly higher than a 10 × 10(6) sperm dose of nonpurified control semen (53.7% ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). A total of 466 healthy calves were delivered, and no negative side effects were observed in the inseminated animals or offspring. Because the method is inexpensive and can be fully integrated in current protocols for semen cryopreservation, it is feasible for use in the artificial insemination industry to improve fertility with reduced sperm dosage inseminations. Spermatology will benefit from nanopurification methodology by gaining new tools for the identification of candidate biomarkers of sperm quality such as binder of sperm protein 5 (BSP5), described in the present study.

  15. Effect of Aging Time on Physicochemical Meat Quality and Sensory Property of Hanwoo Bull Beef.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soohyun; Kang, Sun Moon; Seong, Pilnam; Kang, Geunho; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jinhyung; Lee, Seounghwan; Kim, Sidong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the meat quality and sensory properties of 12 major cuts from 10 Hanwoo bulls (25-32 mon of age) after they were aged at 2℃ for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Protein content (%) was between 19.17 and 22.50%. Intramuscular fat content ranged from 2.79 to 8.39%. The collagen content of the chuck roll, chuck tender, and short plate muscles was higher (1.97-2.04%) than that of the striploin muscles (1.48%) (p<0.05). CIE lightness (L*) values increased with an increase in aging days for tenderloin, loin, chuck roll, oyster blade, short plate, top sirloin, and eye of round muscles (p<0.05). Most muscles, except the short plate, showed no significant changes in redness CIE (a*) and yellowness (b*) color values during aging. The tenderloin, loin, and striploin showed significantly higher water holding capacity (58.60-62.06%) than that of chuck roll and short plate (53.86-57.07%) muscles (p<0.05). The Warner-Bratzler shear force values of most muscles decreased significantly as the aging period increased (p<0.05), exception the tenderloin. The chuck tender muscles showed the highest cooking loss, whereas tenderloin muscle showed the lowest (p<0.05). The tenderloin muscle had the longest sarcomere length (SL) (3.67-3.86 μm) and the bottom round muscle had the shortest SL (2.21-2.35 μm) (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall-likeness scores of most muscles increased with increase in aging days. The tenderloin and oyster blade showed relatively higher tenderness and overall-likeness values than did the other muscles during the aging period. No significant differences were noted in juiciness and flavor-likeness scores among muscles and aging days.

  16. Effect of Aging Time on Physicochemical Meat Quality and Sensory Property of Hanwoo Bull Beef

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seounghwan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the meat quality and sensory properties of 12 major cuts from 10 Hanwoo bulls (25-32 mon of age) after they were aged at 2℃ for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Protein content (%) was between 19.17 and 22.50%. Intramuscular fat content ranged from 2.79 to 8.39%. The collagen content of the chuck roll, chuck tender, and short plate muscles was higher (1.97-2.04%) than that of the striploin muscles (1.48%) (p<0.05). CIE lightness (L*) values increased with an increase in aging days for tenderloin, loin, chuck roll, oyster blade, short plate, top sirloin, and eye of round muscles (p<0.05). Most muscles, except the short plate, showed no significant changes in redness CIE (a*) and yellowness (b*) color values during aging. The tenderloin, loin, and striploin showed significantly higher water holding capacity (58.60-62.06%) than that of chuck roll and short plate (53.86-57.07%) muscles (p<0.05). The Warner-Bratzler shear force values of most muscles decreased significantly as the aging period increased (p<0.05), exception the tenderloin. The chuck tender muscles showed the highest cooking loss, whereas tenderloin muscle showed the lowest (p<0.05). The tenderloin muscle had the longest sarcomere length (SL) (3.67-3.86 μm) and the bottom round muscle had the shortest SL (2.21-2.35 μm) (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall-likeness scores of most muscles increased with increase in aging days. The tenderloin and oyster blade showed relatively higher tenderness and overall-likeness values than did the other muscles during the aging period. No significant differences were noted in juiciness and flavor-likeness scores among muscles and aging days. PMID:27499666

  17. [Assessment of a Bull Terrier bloodline regarding possible hypertrophic aggressive behaviour in situations of dog-dog-contact of the temperament test of Lower Saxony].

    PubMed

    Schalke, Esther; Ott, Stefanie; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2010-01-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of and 11 b TierSchG assumes that a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour exists in some blood lines of Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pitbull type dogs. This study was carried out to detect whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bull Terrier breed line. A total of 38 dogs representing this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th, 2000. Furthermore, the results of their behaviour towards other dogs during the test were compared to those of 347 dogs tested by Böttjer (2003) in order to investigate possible significant differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. The comparison was aimed at exposing a possible significant accumulation of intraspecific aggressive behaviour. In the situations of dog-dog-contact of the test, 25 threatening behaviour"was displayed by 9 dogs (23.68%). Four dogs (10.53%) responded with "non-stationary threatening behaviour". All Bull Terriers reacted appropriately in every situation. A significant difference when comparing the results of the Bull Terriers to those of the dogs examined by Böttjer (2003) was not found. In conclusion, there were no indications for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bull Terrier breed line. Furthermore, the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately.

  18. Temperature-mediated differences in bacterial kidney disease expression and survival in Renibacterium salmoninarum-challenged bull trout and other salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.; Peters, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers considering restoration and reconnection of watersheds to protect and enhance threatened populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus have little information about the consequences of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum. To better understand the response of bull trout to R. salmoninarum challenge, we conducted several laboratory experiments at two water temperatures. The extent, severity, and lethality of BKD in bull trout were compared with those of similarly challenged lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and rainbow trout O. mykiss. The lethal dose of bacterial cells necessary to induce 50% mortality (LD50) was 10-fold lower at the 15??C challenge than at the 9??C challenge. Of the species tested, bull trout were relatively resistant to BKD, Arctic char were the most susceptible among Salvelinus species, and Chinook salmon were the most susceptible among Oncorhynchus species tested. Mean time to death was more rapid for all fish tested at 15??C than for fish challenged at 9??C. These results suggest that infection of bull trout with BKD likely poses a low risk to successful restoration of threatened populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  20. Dietary n-3 PUFAs improve fresh and post-thaw semen quality in Holstein bulls via alteration of sperm fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Khoshvaght, Ali; Towhidi, Armin; Zare-shahneh, Ahmad; Noruozi, Mohammad; Zhandi, Mahdi; Davachi, Navid Dadashpour; Karimi, Reza

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil-supplemented diet on fresh and post-thaw semen quality and sperm lipid composition in bulls. Bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6). Six bulls were used as the control group and six received the fish oil (1.2% dry matter of total diet) for 11 weeks. Semen was individually collected from each bull and frozen biweekly. Semen volume, sperm concentration, viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of sperm were measured in 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th week of experiment. Viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of post-thaw sperm were also measured in 3rd, 5th, 9th, and 11th week of experiment. Data were analyzed with using Proc GLM or MIXED (for repeated measurement data) in SAS program. The fish oil-supplemented diet increased the semen volume and sperm concentration. The fish oil-supplemented diet also altered the viability, progressive motility, and fatty acid profile of fresh and post-thaw sperm. In conclusion, feeding a fish oil-enriched diet via alteration of fatty acid profile of sperm lipid could improve in vitro quality of fresh and post-thaw sperm in Holstein bulls.

  1. Effects of feeding a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation on feedlot performance, feeding behavior, carcass characteristics, rumenitis, and blood gas profile of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Millen, D D; Pacheco, R D L; DiLorenzo, N; Martins, C L; Marino, C T; Bastos, J P S T; Mariani, T M; Barducci, R S; Sarti, L M N; DiCostanzo, A; Rodrigues, P H M; Arrigoni, M D B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing monensin (MON) with a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP) against several ruminal microorganisms on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behavior, blood gas profile, and the rumenitis incidence of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls. The study was designed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, replicated 6 times (4 bulls per pen and a total of 24 pens), in which bulls ( = 48) of each biotype were fed diets containing either MON fed at 300 mg/d or PAP fed at 3 g/d. No significant feed additive main effects were observed for ADG ( = 0.27), G:F ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.99), or dressing percentage ( = 0.80). However, bulls receiving PAP had greater DMI ( = 0.02) and larger ( = 0.02) final LM area as well as greater ( < 0.01) blood concentrations of bicarbonate and base excess in the extracellular fluid than bulls receiving MON. Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and DMI expressed in kilograms, final BW, heavier HCW, and larger initial and final LM area than Nellore bulls. However, Nellore bulls had greater daily DMI fluctuation ( < 0.01), expressed as a percentage, and greater incidence of rumenitis ( = 0.05) than Brangus bulls. In addition, Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) DMI per meal and also presented lower ( < 0.01) DM and NDF rumination rates when compared with Nellore bulls. Significant interactions ( < 0.05) between biotype and feed additive were observed for SFA, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), MUFA, and PUFA concentrations in adipose tissues. When Nellore bulls were fed PAP, fat had greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA contents but less ( < 0.01) UFA and MUFA than Nellore bulls receiving MON. For Brangus bulls, MON led to greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA and less ( < 0.05) UFA and MUFA than Brangus bulls fed PAP. Feeding a spray-dried PAP led to similar feedlot performance compared with that when feeding MON. Spray

  2. Royal jelly supplementation in semen extender enhances post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull sperm.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; ul Husna, Asma; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5 mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm.

  3. Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the East Coast of Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195–283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km.d−1 (mean  = 17.58 km.d−1) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean  = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales. PMID:25295972

  4. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J; Cowley, Paul D; Froneman, Pierre W

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  5. The association between continual, year-round hunting and bellowing rate of bison bulls during the rut

    PubMed Central

    Grigione, Melissa M.; Higa, Alessandra; Childers, Eddie; Ecoffey, Trudy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate—an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females. In addition to hunting, we investigated how the number of attendant males, number of adult females, group size, and number of days from the start of rut influenced bellowing rate. Bulls bellowed an order of magnitude more often in the protected population than in the hunted populations, whereas bellowing rate was not significantly different in the hunted populations. Hunting was significantly and negatively associated with bellowing rate, while all other predictors were found to be positively associated with bellowing rate. Furthermore, the impact of hunting on bellowing rate became more pronounced (i.e., dampened bellowing rate more strongly) as the number of attendant males increased. Changes in bellowing behavior of bulls (and possibly mate choice by cows) can alter breeding opportunities. Therefore, our data suggest the need for studies with broader-scale geographical and temporal replication to determine the extent that continual year-round hunting has on bellowing rate of bison during the rut. If reduced bellowing is associated with human hunting on a larger scale, then wildlife managers may need to adjust hunting rate and duration, timing (season), and the time lag between hunting events in order to insure that bison are able to express their full repertoire of natural mating behaviors.

  6. Effect of sex sorting on CTC staining, actin cytoskeleton and tyrosine phosphorylation in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bucci, D; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C; Vallorani, C; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Spinaci, M

    2012-04-01

    Sperm sorting is a useful technology that permits sex preselection. It presents some troubles because of low fertility after the process. The main aim of this work was to analyze the putative existence of capacitation-like changes in both boar and bull sperm subjected to sex sorting that could lead to a detriment of semen quality. The parameters used were CTC staining patterns, actin cytoskeleton organization and tyrosine phosphorylation patterns; the last two were determined by both western blotting and immunofluorescence. Sex sorted spermatozoa were compared with fresh, in vitro capacitated and in vitro acrosome reacted sperm. In both species, sex sorted sperm showed a CTC staining pattern similar to that observed after in vitro capacitation. The actin pattern distribution after sperm sorting also tended to be similar to that observed after in vitro capacitation, but this effect was more pronounced in bull than in boar spermatozoa. However, actin expression analysis through western blot did not show any change in either species. The tyrosine phosphorylation pattern in boar sperm was practically unaltered after the sex sorting process, but in bulls about 40% of spermatozoa had a staining pattern indicative of capacitation. Additionally, western blotting analysis evidenced some differences in the expression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation among fresh, capacitated, acrosome reacted and sex sorted sperm cells in both species. Our results indicate that not all the sex-sorted-related modifications of the studied parameters were similar to those occurring after "in vitro" capacitation, thus suggesting that sex sorting-induced alterations of sperm function and structure do not necessarily indicate the achievement of the capacitated status of sorted sperm.

  7. Hope for restoration of dead valuable bulls through cloning using donor somatic cells isolated from cryopreserved semen.

    PubMed

    Selokar, Naresh L; Saini, Monika; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells were isolated from cryopreserved semen of 4 buffalo bulls, 3 of which had died over 10 years earlier, and were established in culture. The cells expressed cytokeratin-18, keratin and vimentin indicating that they were of epithelial origin. The cells were used as nuclear donors for hand-made cloning for producing buffalo embryos. The blastocyst rate and quality, as indicated by apoptotic index, were comparable among embryos produced using cells obtained from fresh or frozen-thawed semen or those obtained from conventional cell sources such as skin. Examination of the epigenetic status revealed that the global level of H3K27me3 but not that of H3K9/14ac and H4K5ac differed significantly (P<0.05) among cloned embryos from different bulls. The relative mRNA abundance of HDAC1, DNMT1, P53 and CASPASE 3 but not that of DNMT3a differed in cells and in cloned embryos. Following transfer of 24 cloned embryos produced from fresh semen-derived cells to 12 recipients, one calf weighing 55 kg, which is now 6 months of age and is normal, was born through normal parturition. Following transfer of 20 embryos produced from frozen-thawed semen-derived cells to 10 recipients, 2 became pregnant, one of which aborted in the first trimester; the calf born was severely underweight (17 kg), and died 12 h after birth. The ability of cells derived from fresh and frozen-thawed semen to produce live offspring confirms the ability of these cells to be reprogrammed. Our findings pave the way for restoration of highly precious progeny-tested bulls, which has immense economic importance, and can also be used for restoration of endangered species.

  8. To Madagascar and back: long-distance, return migration across open ocean by a pregnant female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    PubMed

    Lea, J S E; Humphries, N E; Clarke, C R; Sims, D W

    2015-12-01

    A large, pregnant, female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas was tracked migrating from Seychelles across open ocean to south-east Madagascar, c. 2000 km away, and back again. In Madagascar, the shark spent a prolonged period shallower than 5 m, consistent with entering estuarine habitat to pup, and upon return to Seychelles the shark was slender and no longer gravid. This represents an unprecedented return migration across the open ocean for a C. leucas and highlights the need for international collaboration to manage the regional C. leucas population sustainably.

  9. Cryopreservation of bull semen shipped overnight and its effect on post-thaw sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes.

    PubMed

    Anzar, M; Kroetsch, T; Boswall, L

    2011-06-01

    In the Canadian Animal Genetic Resource Program, bull semen is donated in frozen or fresh (diluted) states. This study was designed to assess the cryopreservation of diluted bull semen shipped at 4°C overnight, and to determine the post-thaw quality of shipped semen using different straw volumes and freezing rates. Semen was collected from four breeding bulls (three ejaculates per bull). Semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol (TEYG) extender, cooled to 4°C and frozen as per routine (control semen). After cooling to 4°C, a part of semen was removed and shipped overnight to the research laboratory via express courier (shipped semen). Semen was packaged in 0.25 or 0.5 ml straws and frozen in a programmable freezer using three freezing rates, i.e., -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Control semen was also shipped to the research laboratory. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and post-thaw sperm plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes were assessed using flow cytometry. Post-thaw sperm quality was greater in shipped semen as compared to control (P<0.001). The shipped semen packaged in 0.25 ml straws had better post-thaw sperm quality than in 0.5 ml straws (P<0.001). Freezing rate had no effect on post-thaw sperm quality. In conclusion, bull semen can be shipped overnight for subsequent cryopreservation and gene banking. Overnight shipping of semen was found advantageous for bull semen cryopreservation. Semen packaging in 0.25 ml straws yielded better post-thaw quality than 0.5 ml straws.

  10. Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone and its transcriptional regulators with growth and carcass traits in two populations of Brangus bulls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M G; Enns, R M; Shirley, K L; Garcia, M D; Garrett, A J; Silver, G A

    2007-03-30

    Sequence polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) gene and its transcriptional regulators, Pit-1 and Prop-1, were evaluated for associations with growth and carcass traits in two populations of Brangus bulls Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC, N = 248 from 14 sires) and a cooperating breeding program (COOP, N = 186 from 34 sires). Polymorphisms were SNP mutations in intron 4 (C/T) and exon V (C/G) in GH, A/G in exon VI in Pit-1, and A/G in exon III in Prop-1. In the COOP population, bulls of Pit-1 GG genotype had a significantly greater percentage of intramuscular fat than bulls of the AA or AG genotype, and bulls of the Prop-1 AA genotype had significantly greater scrotal circumference than bulls of AG or GG genotypes at ~365 days of age. Also, heterozygous genotypes for the two GH polymorphisms appeared advantageous for traits of muscularity and adiposity in the COOP population. The heterozygous genotype of GH intron 4 SNP was associated with advantages in weight gain, scrotal circumference, and fat thickness in the CDRRC population. The two GH polymorphisms accounted for >/=27.7% of the variation in these traits in the CDRRC population; however, R(2) was <5% in the COOP population. Based on haplotype analyses the two GH SNPs appeared to be in phase; the haplotype analyses also paralleled with the genotype analyses. Polymorphisms in GH and its transcriptional regulators appear to be predictors of growth and carcass traits in Brangus bulls, particularly those with heterozygous GH genotypes.

  11. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle.

  12. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  13. Expression patterns of the activator type of cAMP-responsive element modulator in testicular germ cells of Japanese Black bulls