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Sample records for al ca cr

  1. LiCaAl/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new laser, LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3/ (Cr/sup 3+/ :LiCAF). The intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency was found to be 67 percent. For comparison, they also measured the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3+/ (alexandrite), Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, and ScBO/sub 3/:Cr/sup 3+/, and obtained values of 65,28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/ was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.

  2. Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of Cr3+-doped CaGdAlO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Sun, Shijia; Yuan, Feifei; Lin, Zhoubin

    2017-04-01

    A Cr3+:CaGdAlO4 single crystal with dimensions of ∅21 × 33 mm3 was grown successfully by Czochralski method for the first time. Its spectral properties including polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra, excitation spectrum and fluorescence decay curves were investigated in detail. The absorption cross-sections at around 573 nm corresponding to the 4A2 → 4T2 transition of Cr3+ ions are 4.75 × 10-20 and 2.56 × 10-20 cm2 for σ- and π-polarizations, respectively. The excitation spectrum shows two broad and intense absorption bands at about 390 nm and 570 nm, which are associated with the 4A2 → 4T1 and 4A2 → 4T2 transitions of Cr3+ ions, respectively. The emission band with peak at around 744 nm is ascribed to the 2E → 4A2 transition of Cr3+ ions, with the emission cross-sections of 5.55 × 10-22 and 5.41 × 10-22 cm2 for σ- and π-polarizations, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime is 4.35 ms at room temperature. The Dq/B value is 2.72, which means that Cr3+ ions occupy the lattice sites with strong crystal field strength. The results show that Cr3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal can be regarded as a potential laser gain medium.

  3. Progress in the material development of LiCaAlF sub 6 :Cr sup 3+ laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle D. Shinn.; Chase, L.L.; Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Atherton, L.J.; Kway, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    High Cr{sup 3+} doping levels, up to 8 mole percent, and low losses have been obtained with the tunable solid-state laser material LiCaAlF{sub 6}:Cr{sup 3+} (Cr:LiCAF). Measurements and calculations show that high pumping and extraction efficiencies are possible with the improved material. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  5. Partition coefficients for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained by melting experiment on an LL6 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the partition coefficients for Ca, Al, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained through a series of melting experiments on an LL6 chondrite under varying conditions of temperature and oxygen fugacity. It is necessary to examine the variation of partition coefficients up to extremely reducing conditions in order to study meteoritic olivines. For Ca, Al, and Cr, the partition coefficients tend to decrease as temperature increases, but do not change even under extremely reducing conditions.

  6. CrLiCaAlF6 Laser Pumped by Visible Laser Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    first demonstration of diode pumping was reported the polarization of the orthogonally polarized beams for alexandrite [1]. Recently a new Cr-doped...the fractional power of to perform as well as the more mature alexandrite laser. each that will be reflected by the second polarization beam For...gradually "dialed out" of higher than in alexandrite . These advantages, coupled the pump axis while the laser diode power was simulta- with highly

  7. Viscosity Measurement and Structure Analysis of Cr2O3-Bearing CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiuhan; Gao, Jintao; Zhang, Yanling; An, Zhuoqing; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of different Cr2O3 contents and optical basicity (denoted by Λ) on the viscosity and structure of the Cr2O3-bearing CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slag were investigated. The viscosities of Cr2O3-bearing CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags in the liquid phase below 1823 K (1550 °C) were measured by rotating-cylinder method, and the structures of the slags were examined via Raman spectroscopy. Three different parameters were used to characterize the structures of the slags. The results showed that the viscosity of the slags increased as the Cr2O3 content increased, but decreased as Λ increased. The Cr3+ ions acted as network formers and increased the degree of polymerization (DOP), and thus, the addition of Cr2O3 to the slag increased the number of bridging oxygen atoms in the silicate structural units. Generally, the viscosity increased by increasing DOP. In addition, there was a linear inverse relationship between the viscous activation energy ( E μ ) and Λ. Furthermore, as the Cr2O3 content increased, the gradients of the plots of E μ vs Λ decreased. This indicates that for a slag with a high Cr2O3 content, trying to improve the fluidity of the slag by increasing Λ has a limited effect.

  8. Experimental investigation of the stability of clinopyroxene in mid-ocean ridge basalts: The role of Cr and Ca/Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Martin; Coogan, Laurence A.; von der Handt, Anette

    2017-03-01

    The change in the stability field of clinopyroxene in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) as a function of pressure has been used widely as a geobarometer. Based on results from crystallization experiments using MORB-like compositions it has been suggested that MORB differentiation occurs at relatively high pressures at ultraslow- and slow-spreading ridges. However, differentiation requires the loss of substantial heat and it is unclear how this is possible at elevated pressures. To better understand the controls on the stability field of clinopyroxene in MORB-like compositions we report a series of experiments performed at 0.1 MPa in which the temperature of clinopyroxene saturation was determined in melts with variable Cr, Ca/Al and fO2. The results show that increased Cr and Ca/Al lead to an expansion of the clinopyroxene stability field. Incorporating these results into a new model of MORB differentiation shows that realistic parental melt Cr contents can increase the temperature at which clinopyroxene saturation occurs relative to assuming a Cr-free melt (as is commonly the case). Likewise, high Ca/Al melts will saturate clinopyroxene earlier than low Ca/Al melts and their crystallization may provide an explanation for high Mg# clinopyroxene in oceanic gabbros. The newly calibrated geobarometer gives lower crystallization pressures for MORB at the slow-spreading SWIR than previous calibrations, but still suggests relatively higher pressures of crystallization with decreasing spreading rate.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  10. Evolution of Inclusions in Fe-13Cr Treated by CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Top Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Jun; Li, Jianmin; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of Al2O3 in the slag of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaF2 system on the cleanness of Fe-13Cr stainless steel deoxidized by ferrosilicon. Increasing the Al2O3 content in basicity = 2.28 slag can reduce the usage of CaF2 and benefit the obtainment of a good kinetic condition for inclusion removal, but over 21 pct would lead to a higher total oxygen content in the melt and make the inclusion composition more complex. It is found that increasing basicity in 16 pct Al2O3 slag would have a good deoxidation ability and accelerate the transformation from high Al2O3 inclusions to low melting point CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system inclusions, but basicity over 2.58 would lead to high content of [Al] in liquid steel, which would promote the formation of MgO-Al2O3 inclusions. Therefore, it is not suitable to add a high content of Al2O3 into high-basicity slag. Adding Al2O3 into slag of 2.28 in basicity until a content of 16 pct could achieve inclusion plastication within 45 minutes without Ca treatment, which has potential application in industrial production.

  11. Cross sections for He and Ne isotopes in natural Mg, Al, and Si, He isotopes in CaF2, Ar isotopes in natural Ca, and radionuclides in natural Al, Si, Ti, Cr, and stainless steel induced by 12- to 45-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Heymann, D.; Yaniv, A.; Edgerley, D.; Rowe, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    Stacks of thin Mg, Al, Si, Ca, CaF2, Ti, and stainless steel foils were bombarded in twelve irradiations by a variable energy cyclotron. Cross sections are reported for He and Ne in natural Mg, Al, and Si, and for He in CaF2, and for Ar in natural Ca, as determined from mass spectrometer analysis of the inert gases. In addition, cross sections of Na-22 in natural Al and Si, of V-48 in natural Ti, and of Cr-51, Mn-52, and Co-57 in stainless steel are reported. From these were deduced Cr-51 and Mn-52 cross sections in natural Cr.

  12. Thermomechanical and thermo-optical properties of the LiCaAlF sub 6 :Cr sup 3+ laser material (US)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, B.W.; Payne, S.A.; Marion, J.E.; Hughes, R.S.; Davis, L.E. )

    1991-05-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic thermomechanical and thermo-optical properties of the new laser material LiCaAlF{sub 6}:Cr{sup 3+} (known as Cr:LiCAF) are performed. Thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion, elastic constants, fracture toughness, and dispersion and temperature variation of the refractive index are all characterized for this material. In addition, the magnitude of the thermal lensing induced in a flash-lamp-pumped laser rod of Cr:LiCAF is measured and compared with the results obtained for an alexandrite laser rod in the same laser head. We find that the thermal lensing of Cr:LiCAF is favorably small and that the thermomechanical properties are expected to be adequate for applications at low and medium average power.

  13. The effect of Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3 and MgO on devitrification of silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    The effect of doping on devitrification of vitreous silica was studied at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Dispersion of dopants on a molecular scale was accomplished via a sol-gel technique. All dopants accelerated the devitrification of silica but to different degrees. The most active was CaO followed by MgO, Al2O3, and Cr2O3. Pure silica and silica containing Cr2O3 and Al2O3 devitrified to alpha-cristobalite only, whereas silica doped with CaO and MgO produced alpha-quartz and alpha-cristobalite. It appears that prolonged heat treatment would cause alpha-quartz to transform to alpha-cristobalite.

  14. Effects of MgO and Al2O3 Addition on Redox State of Chromium in CaO-SiO2-CrO x Slag System by XPS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-jun; Yu, Ji-peng; Chou, Kuo-chih; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-08-01

    The effects of MgO and Al2O3 on the redox state of chromium in CaO-SiO2-CrO x system have been investigated at 1873 K (1600 °C) under Ar-CO-CO2 atmosphere and analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. From the analysis of the Cr 2p core level spectra, it was found that both Cr(II) and Cr(III) exist simultaneously in CaO-MgO/Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x , and the quantitative ratio Cr(II)/Cr(III) has been obtained by deducing from the area under the computer-resolved peaks. Substitutions of CaO by MgO, SiO2 by Al2O3 favored the Cr(II) state existing in the system in the composition ranges of 3 to 10 wt pct MgO and 5 to 20 pct Al2O3. Meanwhile, from the analysis of the O1s spectra in CaO-MgO-SiO2-CrO x , it was found that the ratio of the non-bridging oxygen content increased first due to the CrO contribution to the electron distribution uniformly as O- at MgO low content. Afterward, it went to decreasing with continuing addition of MgO because ionic contribution of MgO is less than that of CaO and the influence of the CrO clustering on the non-Bridging oxygen is limited due to only 5 wt pct CrO x . In CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x system, Cr(II) acts as a network modifier to compensate Al3+ charge balance to make the structure stable, so the non-bridge oxygen in this system continues decreasing.

  15. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  16. Lunar highland rocks - Element partitioning among minerals. II - Electron microprobe analyses of Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.; Hansen, E. C.; Steele, I. M.

    1980-01-01

    Lunar olivines from anorthosites, granulitic impactites, and rocks in the Mg-rich plutonic trend were subjected to electron probe measurements for Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn, which show that the FeO/MnO ratio for lunar olivines lies between 80 and 110 with little difference among the rock types. The low values of Ca in lunar olivines indicate slow cooling to subsolidus temperatures, with blocking temperatures of about 750 C for 67667 and 1000 C for 60255,73-alpha determined by the Finnerty and Boyd (1978) experiments. An important paradox is noted in the low Ti content of Fe-rich olivines from anorthosites, although both Ti and Fe tend to become enriched in liquid during fractional distillation. Except for Ca and Mn, olivine from anorthosites has lower minor element values than other rock types. Formation from a chemically distinct system is therefore implied.

  17. High-temperature tribological properties of NiCoCrAlY-WSe2-BaF2·CaF2 solid lubricant coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. H.; Yuan, X. J.; Xia, J.; Yu, Z. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, NiCoCrAlY-WSe2-BaF2·CaF2 solid lubricant coatings were produced on a substrate by plasma spray and investigated at the high temperature, such as 500 °C and 800 °C. The structure of the coatings was characterized using XRD pattern and scanning electron microscopy. The TC1 (83wt% NiCoCrAlY) coating has a low friction coefficient at 500C, where the WSe2 is a good solid lubricant. The TC2 (65wt% NiCoCrAlY) coating has the low friction coefficient (0.279) at 800°C, due to the formation of BaCrO4 on the surfaces. As a result, the TC2 coating has the optimal tribological property in the wide temperature.

  18. Synthesis, characterization of double perovskite Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr, Al) materials via sol–gel auto-combustion and their catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Feraru, S.; Samoila, P.; Borhan, A.I.; Ignat, M.; Iordan, A.R.; Palamaru, M.N.

    2013-10-15

    Double perovskite-type oxide Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} materials, where M = Dy, Fe, Cr, and Al, were prepared by using the sol–gel auto-combustion method. The role of different B-site cations on their synthesis, structures, morphologies and catalytic properties was investigated. The progress of double-perovskite type structure formation and the disappearance of the organic phases were monitored by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). Double perovskite oxide structures were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the microstructure of obtained compounds was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, BET surface areas were measured at the liquid nitrogen temperature by nitrogen adsorption. Catalytic properties of the obtained compounds were evaluated by test reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. - Highlights: • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} double perovskites were obtained by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr and Al) as catalysts in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition • Strong relationship between particles' shape, BET area and catalytic performance • Ca{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} spherical grains show superior catalytic activity.

  19. Optical spectroscopy of the Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnets CuCrO2 and α-CaCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, F.; Toth, S.; Lake, B.; Islam, A. T. M. N.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Deisenhofer, J.

    2012-02-01

    We will compare and discuss our results obtained by optical spectroscopy on CuCrO2 and α-CaCr2O4. While CuCrO2 is famous for its multiferroicity [1], in α-CaCr2O4 a polarization can only be observed under the application of electric or magnetic field, despite having a closely related structure [2]. At near infrared and visible light frequencies we observe Cr^3+ crystal field absorptions and below TN excitons and exciton-magnon-transitions appear. The width of these exciton-magnon transitions is analyzed with respect to the existence of Z2 vortices as proposed by Kojima et al. [3]. [4pt] [1] S. Seki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067240 (2008)[0pt] [2] K. Singh et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 064129 (2011)[0pt] [3] N. Kojima et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 62, 4137 (1993)

  20. X-Ray Data on Extraterrestrial CA Dialuminate (CaAl4O7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, D.; Ross, C. R., II; Bischoff, A.

    1993-07-01

    After the first discovery of Ca-dialuminate (CaAl4O7) in Allende [1], in recent years this phase has been found in several carbonaceous chondrites. Ca- dialuminate is a major phase in Ca,Al-rich inclusions from ALH85085 (e.g., [2]) and a dominating phase in CAIs from Acfer 182 ([3,4]). X-ray data on Ca-dialuminate are known from synthetic (e.g., [5-8]; cell constants) and terrestrial CaAl4O7 ([9]; only d-spacings), but are not available from extraterrestrial Ca-dialuminate. We report here the results of the first X-ray study of extraterrestrial Ca- dialuminate. The data (Table 1) were obtained by microdiffraction using a Rigaku PSPC microdiffractometer at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut. Ni-filtered Cr radiation was used with a direct beam diameter of about 50 micrometers. This powder diffraction method allows in situ measurement of polycrystalline Ca- dialuminate in a thin section. The CaAl4O7-rich inclusion 022/9 described in [4], consisting of a ~200-micrometer-sized core of Ca-dialuminate surrounded by layers of melilite and Ca-pyroxene, was chosen for analysis. The polycrystalline core contains only a small number of tiny inclusions (especially perovskite) and is therefore an excellent candidate for an X-ray study. For determination of the d-spacings of Ca-dialuminate an external standard (Ag6Ge10P12) was used for detector calibration. A large number of reflections could be indexed based upon comparison with the X-ray pattern of synthetic CaAl4O7 available in the JCPDS compilation [7]. The comparison was simplified because of the high purity of CaAl4O7 in inclusion 022/9 [4], and suggests the same structure for synthetic and extraterrestrial Ca-dialuminate. For determination of lattice parameters (cell constants, cell volume) refinement calculations were made based on 14 reflections (Table 1). The data for extraterrestrial CaAl4O7 shown in Table 1 indicate a close similarity to those obtained for synthetic CaAl4O7. The cell constants a, b, and therefore the cell

  1. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  2. Magnetic properties of Al/57Fe/Cr multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Jain, Vishal; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Venugopalan, K.

    2013-06-01

    Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and DC magnetization are used to compare magnetic properties of as-deposited multilayer (MLS) and Fe2CrAl thin film made from Al/57Fe/Cr MLS deposited by ion beam sputtering and then annealed in UHV. Interdiffusion of elements on annealing sample-1 at 500°C leads to formation of a single, disordered film of Fe2CrAl as evidenced by hyperfine field values obtained by CEMS in the film which compares well with that in bulk Fe2CrAl. CEMS also shows contributions from Fe, Fe/Cr and Fe/Al interfaces in the MLS. Saturation magnetization of as-deposited sample-1 is much less than pure Fe due to reduced Fe thickness because of interface formation and also reduction in Fe-Fe interaction due to intervening Al and Cr layers.

  3. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  4. Observation of ferromagnetism above 900 K in Cr-GaN and Cr-AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. X.; Wu, Stephen Y.; Singh, R. K.; Gu, Lin; Smith, David J.; Newman, N.; Dilley, N. R.; Montes, L.; Simmonds, M. B.

    2004-11-01

    We report ferromagnetism at over 900K in Cr-GaN and Cr-AlN thin films. The magnetic properties vary as a function of Cr concentration with 60%, and 20%, of the Cr being magnetically active at 3% doping in GaN, and 7% in AlN, respectively. In the GaN sample with the highest magnetically active Cr (60%), channeling Rutherford backscattering indicates that over 70% of Cr impurities are located on substitutional sites. These results give indisputable evidence that substitutional Cr defects are involved in the magnetic behavior. While Cr-AlN is highly resistive, Cr-GaN exhibits properties characteristic of hopping conduction including T-1/2 resistivity dependence and small Hall mobility (0.06cm2/Vs). A large negative magnetoresistance is attributed to the influence of the magnetic field on the quantum interference between the many paths linking two hopping sites. The results strongly suggest that ferromagnetism in Cr-GaN and Cr-AlN can be attributed to the double exchange mechanism as a result of hopping between near-midgap substitutional Cr impurity bands.

  5. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuangmeng; Yin, Yuan; Shieh, Sean R.; Shan, Shuangming; Xue, Weihong; Wang, Ching-Pao; Yang, Ke; Higo, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies of orthorhombic CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4 chromite were carried out up to 16.2 and 32.0 GPa at room temperature using multi-anvil apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. No phase transition was observed in this study. Fitting a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the P-V data yields a zero-pressure volume of V 0 = 286.8(1) Å3, an isothermal bulk modulus of K 0 = 183(5) GPa and the first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus K 0' = 4.1(8). Analyses of axial compressibilities show anisotropic elasticity for β-CaCr2O4 since the a-axis is more compressible than the b- and c-axis. Based on the obtained and previous results, the compressibility of several CaFe2O4-type phases was compared. The high-pressure Raman spectra of β-CaCr2O4 were analyzed to determine the pressure dependences and mode Grüneisen parameters of Raman-active bands. The thermal Grüneisen parameter of β-CaCr2O4 is determined to be 0.93(2), which is smaller than those of CaFe2O4-type CaAl2O4 and MgAl2O4.

  6. Hot Corrosion Performance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Nailiang; Hu, Hengfa; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2016-04-01

    AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying, respectively, in order to improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance. The hot corrosion performance of the coatings at 700 and 900 °C were studied, and the detailed microstructures and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that both coatings are structurally featured by slatted layers, consisting of amorphous phase, Cr2O3, Ni3Al, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion resistance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating is better than that of AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating. This improvement is attributed to lower porosity and more compact Cr2O3 in AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating which performs better than Al2O3 in blocking further inward progress of corrosion and oxidization.

  7. Distribution of 26Al in the CR chondrite chondrule-forming region of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Amelin, Yuri; Stirling, Claudine H.; Kaltenbach, Angela

    2017-03-01

    We report on the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of eight porphyritic chondrules (seven FeO-poor and one FeO-rich) from the Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites Graves Nunataks 95229, Grosvenor Mountains 03116, Pecora Escarpment 91082, and Queen Alexandra Range 99177, which experienced minor aqueous alteration and very mild thermal metamorphism. We find no evidence that these processes modified the oxygen- or Al-Mg isotope systematics of chondrules in these meteorites. Olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase within an individual chondrule have similar O-isotope compositions, suggesting crystallization from isotopically uniform melts. The only exceptions are relict grains in two of the chondrules; these grains are 16O-enriched relative to phenocrysts of the host chondrules. Only the FeO-rich chondrule shows a resolvable excesses of 26Mg, corresponding to an inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] of (2.5 ± 1.6) × 10-6 (±2SE). Combining these results with the previously reported Al-Mg isotope systematics of CR chondrules (Nagashima et al., 2014, Geochem. J. 48, 561), 7 of 22 chondrules (32%) measured show resolvable excesses of 26Mg; the presence of excess 26Mg does not correlate with the FeO content of chondrule silicates. In contrast, virtually all chondrules in weakly metamorphosed (petrologic type 3.0-3.1) unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites, and the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094 show resolvable excesses of 26Mg. The inferred (26Al/27Al)0 in CR chondrules with resolvable excesses of 26Mg range from (1.0 ± 0.4) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 0.9) × 10-6, which is typically lower than (26Al/27Al)0 in the majority of chondrules from UOCs, COs, and Acfer 094. Based on the inferred (26Al/27Al)0, three populations of CR chondrules are recognized; the population characterized by low (26Al/27Al)0 (<3 × 10-6) is dominant. There are no noticeable

  8. Magnetic Properties of Cr-based Ternary Compound CrAlGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Soshi; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Koyama, Keiichi

    Structural and magnetic properties of Cr-based compound CrAlGe were investigated. The crystal structure was found to be an orthorhombic TiSi2-type with lattice parameters a = 0.4770 nm, b = 0.8254 nm and c = 0.8725 nm at room temperature. Magnetization curve of CrAlGe showed the ferromagnetic behavior. The saturation magnetic moment, spontaneous magnetic moment and Curie temperature of CrAlGe were determined to be 0.45 μB/f.u., 0.41 μB/f.u. and TC = 80 K, respectively. For the temperature T below 30 K, the decrease in the square of the spontaneous magnetization M0(T)2 was proportional to T2. However, for 30 CrAlGe is a weak itinerant electron ferromagnet.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-15

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Sa/P=0.2 and Ca/M{sup III}=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP{sub 3}O{sub 9}, {beta}-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 3}CaFe(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, Ca{sub 9}M{sup III}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M{sup III}-Fe, Cr), Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) A, c=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) A, respectively. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural relationships between {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and synthesized compounds is shown in terms aliovalent substitution of calcium atoms, which residue on three-fold axis, by other metals in {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} framework. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Phase formation in the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems were determined. {yields} The composition and structure of the compounds depend on the nature of M{sup III} and initial ratio of Cs/P. {yields} Obtained compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. {yields} Crystal structures of CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined by single crystal XRD.

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Cr-Mn Ternary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Senlin; Jung, In-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The phase diagram information available in the literature on the Al-Cr-Mn system was comprehensively evaluated and optimized for the first time to obtain a set of Gibbs energies of all the solid and liquid phases in the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) was utilized to describe the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase of the Al-Cr-Mn system. The Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) was used to model the solid solution phases. A revision of the Al-Mn system was simultaneously conducted to consider the γ_H (Al8Mn5) phase. The liquid Cr-Mn phase was also remodeled using the Modified Quasi-chemical Model (MQM) to obtain a consistent description of the ternary Al-Cr-Mn liquid phase. Accurate description of the phase diagram of the entire Al-Cr-Mn system was obtained from the thermodynamic models with optimized parameters in the present study, and the model parameters can be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system.

  11. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  12. Development and quality assessments of commercial heat production of ATF FeCrAl tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-01

    Development and quality assessment of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl tube production with commercial manufacturers were conducted. The manufacturing partners include Sophisticated Alloys, Inc. (SAI), Butler, PA for FeCrAl alloy casting via vacuum induction melting, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for extrusion process to prepare the master bars/tubes to be tube-drawn, and Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), North Ridgeville, OH, for tube-drawing process. The masters bars have also been provided to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who works with Century Tubes, Inc., (CTI), San Diego, CA, as parallel tube production effort under the current program.

  13. Fretting Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the wear behavior of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in atomic percent) in contact with a typical nickel-base superalloy under repeated microscopic vibratory motion in air at temperatures from 296-823 K. The surface damage observed on the interacting surfaces of both Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy consisted of fracture pits, oxides, metallic debris, scratches, craters, plastic deformation, and cracks. The Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb transferred to the superalloy at all fretting conditions and caused scuffing or galling. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear at 473 K. Mild oxidative wear was observed at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473-823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals. Keywords

  14. Contribution of Ca^{2+} ions influx in Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourahmad, J.; O'Brien, P. J.

    2003-05-01

    Previously we showed that hepatocyte lysis induced by Cu (II) or Cr (VI) could be partly attributed to membrane lipid peroxidation induced by Cu (II) or Cr (VI) [1, 2]. Changes in Na^+ and Ca^{+2} homeostasis induced when Cu^{+2} or Cr VI were incubated with hepatocytes. Na^+ omission from the media or addition of the Na^+/H^+ exchange inhibitor 5-(N, N-dimethyl)-amiloride markedly increased Cu (II) or Cr (VI) cytotoxicity even though Cu (II) or Cr (VI) did not increase hepatocyte Na^+ when the media contained Na^+. The omission of CI^- from the media or addition of glycine, a CI^- channel blocker also enhanced Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced cytotoxicity. Intracellular Ca^{+2} levels however were markedly increased when the hepatocytes were incubated with Cu^{+2} or Cr VI in a Na^+ free media and removing media Ca^{+2} with EGTA also prevented Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity. This suggests that intracellular Ca^{+2} accumulation contributes to Cu (II) or Cr (VI) induced cytotoxicity and a Na^+_- dependent Ca^{+2} transporter is involved in controlling excessive Ca^{+2} accumulation caused by Cu (II) or Cr (VI).

  15. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating < the stainless steel with Al-Si coating < the stainless steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  16. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  17. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  18. Effect of Ti/Al ratio and Cr, Nb, and Hf additions on material factors and mechanical properties in TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, T.; Tamura, T.; Izumi, O.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/Al ratio and Cr, Nb, and Hf additions on material factors, such as the grain size, second phase, la tice parameters and the axial ratio, and on mechanical properties in TiAl-base alloys has been studied. The grain size was decreased by the deviation from the stoichiometric composition o the Ti-rich side and the addition of the third elements. The Cr element was contained a little more in Ti3Al phase than in TiAl phase in two-phase Ti-rich alloys. The lattice parameters, a and c, and the axial ratio, c/a, of the binary alloys varied linearly with decreasing Al content even in the dual-phase region. The Cr addition decreased the a and c and also c/a. The Nb addition increased weakly the a and c and c/a. On the contrary, the Hf addition increased the a and c but decreased the c/a ratio. In the Cr added alloys, the decrease of volume of a unit cell, due to the substitution of Cr atoms for Ti and Al atoms, was larger than that expected from the difference of atom sizes. The Nb addition should decrease the volume of a unit cell, but it increased the volume. The Hf addition caused a larger increase of volume of a unit cell than that expected from the difference of atom sizes. We suggested that the Cr addition increases and the Nb and Hf additions decrease the bond strength in TiAl. The deviation from stoichiometry and the addition of third elements caused an increase of work-hardening rate. The alloys with Ti-rich composition have superior mechanical properties compared to those of alloys vith Al-rich composition. The Cr addition resulted in high solution hardening, and the Ti-47A1 3Cr (in atomic percent) alloys had the highest fracture strain of 2.7 pct in all alloys tested. The Nb addition resulted in poor ductility in both Ti- and Al-rich alloys. The Hf additions to the Ti-rich composition caused better mechanical properties than those of Al-rich alloys. Thi; trend was also similar to the Nb-added alloys. In the Hf-added alloys, the Ti-49Al-2Hf

  19. Phase Separation kinetics in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} phase separation kinetics in a commercial Fe-20 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Al oxide dispersion-strengthened PM 2000{trademark} steel have been characterized with the complementary techniques atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements during isothermal aging at 673, 708, and 748 K for times up to 3600 h. A progressive decrease in the Al content of the Cr-rich {alpha}{prime} phase was observed at 708 and 748 K with increasing time, but no partitioning was observed at 673 K. The variation in the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase well inside the coarsening regime, along with the Avrami exponent 1.2 and activation energy 264 kJ mol{sup -1}, obtained after fitting the experimental results to an Austin-Rickett type equation, indicates that phase separation in PM 2000{trademark} is a transient coarsening process with overlapping nucleation, growth, and coarsening stages.

  20. Hot corrosion of CoCrAlY alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of the hot corrosion of CoCrAlY alloys over wide ranges of temperature (600-1000{degree}C) and Pso{sub 3} (10{sup {minus}6}-10{sup {minus}3} atm) were studied. Isothermal and cyclic experiments were performed to study the kinetics, and microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. After interpreting these results, the hot corrosion mechanisms of the CoCrAlY alloys were proposed to explain the observed behavior. The reaction mechanism governing hot corrosion is thought to be as follows. At low temperature (600-800{degree}C), SO{sub 3} and CoO react and form a molten Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CoSO{sub 4} salt mixture. Aluminum diffuses through the alloy, is oxidized, and the alumina which is formed becomes subject to basic fluxing. While alumina is subject to the Rapp-Goto mechanism, chromia may not be subject to this mechanism. Since Co is left behind in the alloy, the basic fluxing of alumina seems to be the cause for formation of nonprotective scales. Sulfides can form during low temperature hot corrosion and considerable sulfide formation is observed at 900-850{degree}C, but the sulfidation process is less likely to be the major cause of LTHC. Also, the sulfite formation mechanism is evaluated, and the activity of aluminum sulfite is found to be too low for this compound to exist. At high temperature (900-1000{degree}C), the CoCrAlY alloy was in the initiation stage due to the formation of protective alumina during isothermal tests. The mode of degradation of the CoCrAlY alloy at 1000{degree}C in pure oxygen during the cyclic tests was basic fluxing of alumina and chromia accompanied by spalling and cracking of oxides.

  1. Magnetic properties of EuCr2Al20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatek, Przemysław; Kaczorowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-01

    Polycrystalline sample of EuCr2Al20 was studied by means of x-ray powder diffraction, magnetization, electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements. The compound was found to order antiferromagnetically at TN = 4.8 K due to the magnetic moments carried on divalent of Eu ions. The experimental findings are supported by the results of ab-initio band structure calculations.

  2. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  3. Bulk modulus and specific heat of B-site doped (La{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 3} (B=Fe, Cr, Ru, Al, Ga)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    Specific heat (C{sub p}) thermal expansion (α) and Bulk modulus (B{sub T}) of lightly doped Rare Earth manganites (La{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 3} (B{sup 3+} = Fe{sup 3+},Cr{sup 3+},Ga{sup 3+},Al{sup 3+},Ru4+); (0.3Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 0.97}Fe{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} as a function of temperature (10K≤T≤ 200K) is found to be in agreement with the published data. The trend of variation of Debye temperature with B-site cationic radius is predicted probably for the first time for the B-site doped rare earth manganites.

  4. Cr, Mn, and Ca distributions for olivine in angritic systems: Constraints on the origins of Cr-rich and Ca-poor core olivine in angrite LEW87051

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G.; Le, L.

    1994-01-01

    Angrite meteorites are a type of basaltic achondrites that are noted for their very old cyrstallization ages (4.55 b.y.) and unusual chemical and mineralogical properties. In spite of great interest, only four angrites have been found. LEW87051 is the smallest one which weighs 0.6 g. It is a porphyritic rock with coarse subhedral to euhedral olivines set in a fine-grained groundmass which clearly represents a crystallized melt. The largest uncertainty about the petrogenesis of LEW87051 is the relationship between the large olivine crystals and the groundmass. Prinz et al. suggests that olivines are xenocrysts, while McKay et al. proposed a fractional cyrstallization model based on experimental studies. However, the crystals have Cr-rich and Ca-poor cores which do not match experimental olivines. Although Jurewicz and McKay tried to explaine the zoning of the rim by diffusion, some features are not explained. There also exists a definite composition boundary of Fe(2+) and MnO between the core and the rim. To clarify the origin of these olivines, we have performed experiments using LEW87051 analogs to measure the effects of oxygen fugacity on distribution coefficients of various elements in an angritic system.

  5. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  6. Thermogynamics of Genesis of Ca-Al-Inclusions in Chrondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, S. I.

    2013-09-01

    The semi-empirical model was used for thermodynamic calculations of composition changes in the Ca-Al-Inclusions in chondrites during their evaporation and condensation. The presented model discussed with the Grossman approaches.

  7. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  8. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Du, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Ji; Zhao, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC-Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 mixtures. Al0.6Cr0.4, Al0.6Cr0.3Si0.1, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiNx peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/MexN coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H3/E2 ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  9. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  10. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    DOE PAGES

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explainmore » that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.« less

  11. Al, Ti, and Cr: Complex Zoning in Synthetic and Natural Nakhlite Pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Le, L.; Mikouchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates. The cumulus pyroxenes have cores that are relatively homogeneous in Fe, Mg, and Ca, but show complex zoning of minor elements, especially Al, Ti, and Cr. Zoning patterns contain information about crystallization history parent magma compositions. But it has proven difficult to decipher this information and translate the zoning patterns into petrogenetic processes. This abstract reports results of high-precision Electron Probe MicroAnalysis (EPMA) analysis of synthetic nakhlite pyroxenes run at fO2 from IW to QFM. It compares these with concurrent analyses of natural nakhlite MIL03346 (MIL), and with standardprecision analyses of Y000593 (Y593) collected earlier. Results suggest that (1) different processes are responsible for the zoning of MIL and other more slowly-cooled nakhlites such as Y593, and (2) changes in oxidation conditions during MIL crystallization are not responsible for the unusual Cr zoning pattern

  12. Cell adhesion to cathodic arc plasma deposited CrAlSiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Pham, Vuong-Hung; Kim, Chong-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Osteoblast cell response (cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton and focal contact adhesion as well as cell proliferation) to CrN, CrAlSiN and Ti thin films was evaluated in vitro. Cell adhesion and actin stress fibers organization depended on the film composition significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of vinculin in osteoblast cells showed good focal contact adhesion on the CrAlSiN and Ti thin films but not on the CrN thin films. Cell proliferation was significantly greater on the CrAlSiN thin films as well as on Ti thin films than on the CrN thin films.

  13. Development and High Temperature Property Evaluation of Ni-Co-Cr-Al Composite Electroforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Meenu; Siju; Balaraju, J. N.; Ravisankar, B.

    2015-05-01

    Ni-Co-Cr-Al composite electroforms were developed with cobalt content of 10 and 40 wt.%. Cr and Al nano-particles were suspended in sulphamate electrolyte and co-deposited in the Ni-Co matrices. The surface morphology was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope and the composition analyzed by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The oxidation resistance of the electroforms was studied from 600 to 1000 °C. The weight gain of Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al was less (better oxidation resistance) compared to Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al. The x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the oxidation product formed on the surface of Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al consisted of NiO and Al2O3, while Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al comprised oxides such as NiCo2O4, CrO3, CoO, NiO, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion behavior was investigated in 75%Na2SO4 + 25%NaCl environment at 800 °C. It was found that the hot corrosion resistance of the composite coating improved with increase in cobalt content. The probable composition suitable for high-temperature applications was found to be Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al.

  14. Microdomain Structure of Cr-Doped Manganites: Nd 1/2Ca 1/2(Mn,Cr)O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Akihiko; Moritomo, Yutaka; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki; Sakata, Makoto; Ohoyama, Kenji; Mori, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nakamura, Arao

    2000-11-01

    Crystal and magnetic structures of Cr-doped manganites, Nd1/2Ca1/2Mn1-yCryO3 (y=0.00 and 0.03), have been investigated by synchrotron radiation (SR) x-ray powder diffraction as well as neutron powder diffraction measurements.A detailed analysis of the high-resolution x-ray profile has revealed that the Cr-doped compound exhibits broad extra reflections, suggesting the formation of microdomains below the charge-ordering temperature T CO.The origin of the microdomain structure is discussed in terms of the charge separation.

  15. Hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Co-Cr-Al, and Ni-Cr alloys in the temperature range of 700-750 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, K. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of SO3 pressure in the gas phase on the Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr-Al alloys was studied in the temperature range 700 to 750 C. The degradation of the Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys was found to be associated with the formation of liquid mixed sulfates (CoSO4-Na2SO4 or NiSO4-Na2SO4) which provided a selective dissolution of the Co or Ni and a subsequent sulfidation oxidation mode of attack which prevented the maintenance of a protective Cr2O3 film. A clear mechanism was not developed for the degradation of Co-Cr-Al alloys. A pitting corrosion morphology was induced by a number of different mechanisms.

  16. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  17. A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCrAl, and NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCrAl, PWA 1480, and NiAl alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCrAl sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCrAl and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.

  18. Process development for Ni-Cr-ThO2 and Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. C.; Norris, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A process was developed for the production of thin gauge Ni-Cr-ThO2 sheet. The process was based on the elevated temperature deposition of chromium onto a wrought Ni-2%ThO2 sheet and subsequent high temperature diffusion heat treatments to minimize chromium concentration gradients within the sheet. The mechanical properties of the alloy were found to be critically dependent on those of the Ni-2%ThO2 sheet. A similar process for the production of a Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloy having improved oxidation resistance was investigated but the non-reproducible deposition of aluminum from duplex Cr/Al packs precluded successful scale-up. The mechanical properties of the Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloys were generally equivalent to the best Ni-Cr-ThO2 alloy produced in the programme.

  19. Al-augite and Cr-diopside ultramafic xenoliths in basaltic rocks from western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Shervais, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in basalts from the western United States are divided into Al-augite and Cr-diopside groups. The Al-augite group is characterized by Al, Ti-rich augites, comparatively Fe-rich olivine and orthopyroxene, and Al-rich spinel, the Cr-diopside group by Cr-rich clinopyroxene and spinel and by Mg-rich olivine and pyroxenes. Both groups have a wide range of subtypes, but the Al-augite group is dominated by augite-rich varieties, and the Cr-diopside group by olivine-rich lherzolites. ?? 1975.

  20. The initial 41Ca/40Ca ratios in two type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions: Implications for the origin of short-lived 41Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports new 41Ca-41K isotopic data for two Type A CAIs, NWA 3118 #1Nb (Compact Type A) and Vigarano 3138 F8 (Fluffy Type A), from reduced CV3 chondrites. The NWA CAI is found to have carried live 41Ca at the level of (4.6 ± 1.9) ×10-9 , consistent with the proposed Solar System initial 41Ca /40Ca = 4.2 ×10-9 by Liu et al. (2012a). On the other hand, the Vigarano CAI does not have resolvable radiogenic 41K excesses that can be attributed to the decay of 41Ca. Combined with the 26Al data that have been reported for these two CAIs, we infer that the 41Ca distribution was not homogeneous when 26Al was widespread at the canonical level of 26Al /27Al = 5.2 ×10-5 . Such a 41Ca heterogeneity can be understood under two astrophysical contexts: in situ charged particle irradiation by the protoSun in the solar nebula that had inherited some baseline 10Be abundance from the molecular cloud, and Solar System formation in a molecular cloud enriched in 26Al and 41Ca contaminated by massive star winds. That said, more high quality 41Ca data are still needed to better understand the origin of this radionuclide.

  1. Diffusive Interaction Between Ni-Cr-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacz-Śmiech, Katarzyna; Danielewski, Marek; Bożek, Bogusław; Berent, Katarzyna; Zientara, Dariusz; Zajusz, Marek

    2017-03-01

    In high-temperature coatings, welded parts, and a range of other applications, components in the contact zone interdiffuse at elevated temperatures and may react to change the phase composition. The diffusion zone can be complex and can consist of sequential layers of intermediate phases, solid solutions, and in the case of multicomponent systems also of multiphase layers. In this work, the interdiffusion in Ni-Cr-Al alloys is studied experimentally and modeled numerically. The diffusion multiples were prepared by hot isostatic pressing and post-annealing at 1473 K (1200 °C). The concentration profiles were measured with wide-line EDS technique which allowed obtaining high-accuracy diffusion paths. The experimental profiles and diffusion paths were compared with numerical results simulated with application of very recent model of interdiffusion in muticomponent-multiphase systems. The calculated and experimental data show good agreement.

  2. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  3. Aluminian Low-Ca Pyroxene in a Ca-Al-rich Chondrule from the Semarkona Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    A Ca-AI-rich chondrule (labeled G7) from the Semarkona LL3.0 ordinary chondrite (OC) consists of 73 vol% glassy mesostasis, 22 vol% skeletal forsterite. 3 vol% fassaite (i.e., Al-Ti diopside), and 2 vol% Al-rich, low-Ca pyroxene. The latter phase, which contains up to 16.3 wt% A1203, is among the most AI-rich, low-Ca pyroxene grains ever reported. It is inferred that 20% of the tetrahedral sites and 13% of the octahedral sites in this grain are occupied by Al. Approximately parallel optical extinction implies that the Al-rich, low-Ca pyroxene grains are probably orthorhombic, consistent with literature data that show that A1203 stabilizes the orthoenstatite structure relative to protoenstatite at low pressure. The order of crystallization in the chondrule was forsterite, AI-rich low-Ca pyroxene, and fassaite; the residual liquid vitrified during chondrule quenching. Phase relationships indicate that, for a G7-composition liquid at equilibrium, spinel and anorthite should crystallize early and orthopyroxene should not crystallize at all. The presence of AI-rich orthopyroxene in G7 is due mainly to the kinetic failure of anorthite to crystallize; this failure was caused by quenching of the G7 precursor droplet. Aluminum preferentially enters the relatively large B tetrahedra of orthopyroxene; because only one tetrahedral size occurs in fassaite, this phase contains higher mean concentrations of Al2O3 than the Al-rich orthopyroxene (17.8 and 14.7 wt%, respectively). Chondrule G7 may have formed by remelting an amoeboid olivine inclusion that entered the OC region of the solar nebula during an episode of chondrule formation.

  4. Chemical ordering in Cr3Al and relation to semiconducting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Stewart, D. A.; Hellman, F.

    2012-08-01

    Cr3Al shows semiconductor-like behavior which has been attributed to a combination of antiferromagnetism and chemical ordering of the Cr and Al atoms on the bcc sublattice. This article presents a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the chemical ordering in Cr3Al. Using density functional theory within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) formalism, we consider five possible structures with the Cr3Al stoichiometry: a bcc solid solution, two-phase C11b Cr2Al+Cr, off-stoichiometric C11b Cr3Al, D03 Cr3Al, and X-phase Cr3Al. The calculations show that the chemically ordered, rhombohedrally distorted X-phase structure has the lowest energy of those considered and should, therefore, be the ground state found in nature, while the D03 structure has the highest energy and should not occur. While KKR calculations of the X phase indicate a pseudogap in the density of states, additional calculations using a full potential linear muffin-tin orbital approach and a plane-wave technique show a narrow band gap. Experimentally, thin films of Cr1-xAlx were grown and the concentration, growth temperature, and substrate were varied systematically. The peak resistivity (2400 μΩ-cm) is found for films with x=0.25, grown epitaxially on a 300 ∘C MgO substrate. At this x, a transition between nonmetallic and metallic behavior occurs at a growth temperature of about 400 ∘C, which is accompanied by a change in chemical ordering from X phase to C11b Cr3Al. These results clarify the range of possible structures for Cr3Al and the relationship between chemical ordering and electronic transport behavior.

  5. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  6. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  7. Structure and colossal dielectric permittivity of Ca2TiCrO6 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Qing, Tan; Meng, Yan; Yong-Mei, Hao

    2013-01-01

    A colossal permittivity ceramic material, Ca2TiCrO6, was successfully synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction, and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Rietveld refinement of XRD data indicated that the material crystallized in orthorhombic structure with space group pbnm. SEM displayed Ca2TiCrO6 ceramic grains packed uniformly with the size range 5-20 µm. XPS analyses indicated that elemental chromium and titanium of the material were in mixed valence. The corresponding dielectric property was tested in the frequency range 1 kHz-1 MHz and the temperature range 213-453 K, and the ceramics exhibited a relaxation-like dielectric behaviour. Importantly, the permittivity of Ca2TiCrO6 could reach 80 000 at 298 K (100 Hz) and was maintained at 40 000 up to 398 K at 1 MHz, which could be attributed to the ion disorder and mixed valence of Cr3+/Cr6+ and Ti3+/Ti4+.

  8. Electronic, magnetic and Fermi properties investigates on quaternary Heusler NiCoCrAl, NiCoCrGa and NiFeCrGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Chu, Yan-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Ting; Guo, Peng; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Using the full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis method within the framework of density functional theory, we study the electronic, magnetic and Fermi properties of three quaternary Heusler compounds: NiCoCrAl, NiCoCrGa and NiFeCrGa. Results identify that these compounds are half-metallic ferromagnets with integer spin magnetic moment, and their spin moments follow the Slater-Pauling rule. Accordingly, the origin of gap and magnetic moment are also discussed. In addition, the Fermi surface is further plotted to explore the behavior of electronic states in the vicinity of Fermi level for these compounds. Finally, we argue the influence of tetragonal deformation on electronic and magnetic properties. Meanwhile, the possible L21 disorder is also discussed for NiCoCrAl and NiCoCrGa.

  9. Magneto-structural study of a Cr-doped CaRuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Garg, Rohini; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Hegde, M. S.; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Boysen, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction, magnetization and XPS studies were carried out on an optimally Cr-doped CaRuO3, i.e. CaRu0.85Cr0.15O3 (CRC-15). XPS data revealed that Cr exist in 3+ and 6+ oxidation states. The charge dissociation preserves the overall 4+ nominal charge of the Ru site. Although ferromagnetic correlations develop around 100 K, the system exhibits a large coercive field below 50 K. The unit cell volume exhibits negative thermal expansion below 50 K since the lattice expansion due to the magnetostrictive effect outweighs the thermal contraction due to the phonon-driven mechanism.

  10. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  11. High temperature oxidation resistant coatings for the directionally solidified Ni-Nb-Cr-Al eutectic superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.; Felten, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings required for the Ni-Nb-Cr-Al directionally solidified eutectic superalloy were developed and evaluated on the basis of oxidation resistance, diffusional stability, thermal fatigue, and creep resistance. NiCrAlY+Pt and NiCrAlY physical vapor-deposition coating systems exhibited the best combination of properties. Burner-rig testing indicated that the useful life of a 127-micron-thick NiCrAlY+Pt coating exceeds 1000 h at 1366 K. Eutectic-alloy creep lives at 1311 K and a stress of 151.7 MN/sq m were greater for NiCrAlY+Pt-coated specimens than for uncoated specimens by a factor of two.

  12. Evaluation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Under Fretting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.; Raj, Sai V.

    2001-01-01

    The fretting behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (y-TiAl) in contact with the nickel-base superalloy 718 was examined in air at temperatures from 296 to 823 K (23 to 550 C). The interfacial adhesive bonds between Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy 718 were generally stronger than the cohesive bonds within Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. The failed Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb debris subsequently transferred to the superalloy 718. In reference experiments conducted with Ti-6Al-4V against superalloy 718 under identical fretting conditions, the degree of transfer was greater for Ti-6A1-4V than for Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in wear at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473 to 823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide film disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals.

  13. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Deming; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  14. Irradiation-enhanced α' precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.; Sridharan, Kumar; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.

    2016-02-17

    We have irradiated the model FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions (Fe(10–18)Cr(10–6)Al at.%) with a neutron at ~ 320 to damage levels of ~ 7 displacements per atom (dpa) to investigate the compositional influence on the formation of irradiation-induced Cr-rich α' precipitates using atom probe tomography. In all alloys, significant number densities of these precipitates were observed. Cluster compositions were investigated and it was found that the average cluster Cr content ranged between 51.1 and 62.5 at.% dependent on initial compositions. Furthermore, this is significantly lower than the Cr-content of α' in binary FeCr alloys. As a result, significant partitioning of the Al from the α' precipitates was also observed.

  15. Irradiation-enhanced α' precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; ...

    2016-02-17

    We have irradiated the model FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions (Fe(10–18)Cr(10–6)Al at.%) with a neutron at ~ 320 to damage levels of ~ 7 displacements per atom (dpa) to investigate the compositional influence on the formation of irradiation-induced Cr-rich α' precipitates using atom probe tomography. In all alloys, significant number densities of these precipitates were observed. Cluster compositions were investigated and it was found that the average cluster Cr content ranged between 51.1 and 62.5 at.% dependent on initial compositions. Furthermore, this is significantly lower than the Cr-content of α' in binary FeCr alloys. As a result, significant partitioning ofmore » the Al from the α' precipitates was also observed.« less

  16. 1100 to 1500 K Slow Plastic Compressive Behavior of NiAl-xCr Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Darolia, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The compressive properties of near <001> and <111> oriented NiAl-2Cr single crystals and near <011> oriented NiAl-6Cr samples have been measured between 1100 and 1500 K. The 2Cr addition produced significant solid solution strengthening in NiAl, and the <111> and <001> single crystals possessed similar strengths. The 6Cr crystals were not stronger than the 2Cr versions. At 1100 and 1200 K plastic flow in all three Cr-modified materials was highly dependent on stress with exponents > 10. The <011> oriented 6Cr alloy exhibited a stress exponent of about 8 at 1400 and 1500 K; whereas both <001> and <111> NiAl-2Cr crystals possessed stress exponents near 3 which is indicative of a viscous dislocation glide creep mechanism. While the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model predicted creep rates within a factor of 3 at 1500 K for <001>-oriented NiAl-2Cr; this mechanism greatly over predicted creep rates for other orientations and at 1400 K for <001> crystals.

  17. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  18. Phase separation in equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, A; Daoud, H; Völkl, R; Glatzel, U; Wanderka, N

    2013-09-01

    The microstructure of the as-cast AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The alloy shows a very pronounced microstructure with clearly distinguishable dendrites and interdendrites. In both regions a separation into an Al-Ni rich matrix and Cr-Fe-rich precipitates can be observed. Moreover, fluctuations of single elements within the Cr-Fe rich phase have been singled out by three dimensional atom probe measurements. The results of investigations are discussed in terms of spinodal decomposition of the alloying elements inside the Cr-Fe-rich precipitates.

  19. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Hoelzer, David T.; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO2 or ZrO2. The new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.

  20. Kinetics of borided 31CrMoV9 and 34CrAlNi7 steels

    SciTech Connect

    Efe, Goezde Celebi; Ipek, Mediha; Ozbek, Ibrahim; Bindal, Cuma

    2008-01-15

    In this study, kinetics of borides formed on the surface of 31CrMoV9 and 34CrAlNi7 steels borided in solid medium consisting of Ekabor II at 850-900-950 deg. C for 2, 4, 6 and 8 h were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy examinations showed that borides formed on the surface of borided steels have columnar morphology. The borides formed in the coating layer confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis are FeB, Fe{sub 2}B, CrB, and Cr{sub 2}B. The hardnesses of boride layers are much higher than that of matrix. It was found that depending on process temperature and time the fracture toughness of boride layers ranged from 3.93 to 4.48 MPa m{sup 1/2} for 31CrMoV9 and from 3.87 to 4.40 MPa m{sup 1/2} for 34CrAlNi7 steel. Activation energy, growth rate and growth acceleration of boride layer calculated according to these kinetic studies revealed that lower activation energy results in the fast growth rate and high growth acceleration.

  1. Cr-Al coatings on low carbon steel prepared by a mechanical alloying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hia, A. I. J.; Sudiro, T.; Aryanto, D.; Sebayang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Four different compositions of Cr and Al coatings as Cr10o, Cr87.5Al12.5, Cr5oAl5o, and Al100 have been prepared on the surface of low carbon steel by a mechanical alloying technique. The composition of each powder was milled for 2 hour in a stainless steel crucible with a ball to powder ratio of 10:1. Hereafter, the Cr-Al powder and substrate were mechanical alloyed in air for 1 hour. Heat treatment of coated sample were carried out at 800°C in a vacuum furnace. In order to characterize the phase composition and microstructure of the coating before and after heat treatment, XRD and SEM-EDX were used. The results show that Cr, Cr-Al or Al coatings were formed on the surface of low carbon steel. After heat treatment, new phases and interdiffusion zone were formed in the coating and at the coating/steel interface, depending on the coating composition.

  2. The influence of Cr and Al pack cementation on low carbon steel to improve oxidation resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya, Didik; Sugiarti, Eni; Destyorini, Fredina; Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Pack chromizing and aluminizing has been widely used for many years to improve hot temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of metals. The coating process involves packing the steel in a powder mixture which contain aluminum and chromium source, and inert filler (usually alumina), and halide activator NH4Cl. Al and Cr were deposited onto carbon steel by pack cementation process using elemental Al and Cr powder as Al and Cr source, whereas NiCo alloys codeposited by electrodeposition. The position of Al and Cr could be under or over Ni-Co alloys deposited. Pack cementation was heated on dry inert gas at temperature 800 °C about 5 hours and 20 minute for Cr and Al respectively. Al and Cr was successfully deposited. Laying down effect of Al and Cr onto carbon steel whether up and down toward NiCo alloys coating have affected to oxidation resistance. The pack aluminizing as top layer given best resitance to restrain excessive oxide scale, in contrast pack chromizing reveal bad oxidation resistance, moreover occured spallation on layer.

  3. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  4. Solid state reduction of chromium (VI) pollution for Al2O3-Cr metal ceramics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Tang, Hao; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of chromium (VI) from Na2CrO4 through aluminothermic reaction and fabrication of metal-ceramic materials from the reduction products have been investigated in this study. Na2CrO4 could be successfully reduced into micrometer-sized Cr particles in a flowing Ar atmosphere in presence of Al powder. The conversion ratio of Na2CrO4 to metallic Cr attained 96.16% efficiency. Al2O3-Cr metal-ceramic with different Cr content (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%) were further prepared from the reduction product Al2O3-Cr composite powder, and aluminum oxide nanopowder via pressure-less sintering. The phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites were characterized to ensure the potential of the Al2O3-Cr composite powder to form ceramic materials. The highest relative density and bending strength can reach 93.4% and 205 MP, respectively. The results indicated that aluminothermic reduction of chromium (VI) for metal-ceramics application is a potential approach to remove chromium (VI) pollutant from the environment.

  5. Spectroscopic properties of {Cr}^{3+} in the spinel solid solution {ZnAl}_{2-x}{Cr}x{O}_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verger, Louisiane; Dargaud, Olivier; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozsályi, Emese; Juhin, Amélie; Cabaret, Delphine; Cotte, Marine; Glatzel, Pieter; Cormier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the structural environment of {Cr}{^{3+}} along the solid solution {ZnAl}_{2-x}{Cr}x{O}_4 has been investigated using a multi-analytical approach. X-ray diffraction confirms that the system follows Vegard's law. Diffuse reflectance spectra show a decrease of the crystal field parameter with the Cr content, usually related to the increase of the Cr-O bond length in a point charge model. This interpretation is discussed and compared to the data obtained by first-principle calculations based on density functional theory. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra at the Cr K-edge show a pronounced evolution in the pre-edge with the Cr content, characterised by the appearance of a third feature. Calculations enable to assign the origin of this feature to Cr neighbours. The colour change from pink to brownish pink and eventually green along the solid solution has also been quantified by calculating the L*, a*, b* and x, y coefficients in the system defined by the International Commission on Illumination.

  6. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several compounds with Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between Fe-19.8Cr-4.8Al (weight percent), which is the base composition for the commercial superalloy MA956, and several carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides was analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The effect of addition of minor alloying elements, such as Ti, Y, and Y2O3, to the Fe-Cr-Al alloy on chemical compatibility between the alloy and various compounds was also analyzed. Several chemically compatible compounds that can be potential reinforcement materials and/or interface coating materials for Fe-Cr-Al based composites were identified.

  8. Structural Disorder and Magnetism in the Spin-Gapless Semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half- metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half- metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of...magnets. However, Si addition improves the degree of Heusler ordering and changes the electronic structure from a SGS to a half- metal with increased...total moment per relaxed unit cell are 1.71 µB (I), –0.60 µB (II), and 1.05 µB (III). None of the disordered CoFeCrAl structures is energetically

  9. Properties of Cr2AlC MAX phase thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Zachary; Donato, Tyler; Rotella, Christopher; Lunk, Carl; Lofland, S. E.; Hettinger, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    Mn+ 1AXn (MAX) phases, where n is 1, 2, and 3, M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element, and X is either C or N, are ternary carbides with unique properties such as low density, easy machinability, and good oxidation resistance. The MAX phase Cr2AlC is of particular interest for industrial applications to its excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and relatively low synthesis temperature. We prepared Cr2AlC thin films on c-axis oriented single crystal Al2O3, glassy carbon and Si thermal oxide substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering as precursor materials for carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films for ``on-chip'' supercapacitors. Film deposition was optimized using elemental composition data obtained by WDXRF. Optimized films were characterized using XRD and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that textured Cr2AlC films only form when the composition was Al-rich allowing the formation of a Cr5Al8 interfacial layer. As film composition was optimized, the interfacial layer did not form but the XRD peaks associated with the Cr2AlC also decreased in magnitude. Extremely high-textured films were grown when a thin buffer layer of CrAl2 was deposited on the substrate before depositing the Cr2AlC films. This result suggests that Cr2AlC films may not be ideal for CDC applications since the films may ``lift-off'' during conversion due to the existence of the naturally occurring buffer-layer.

  10. Effect of reaction time and (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios on crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al layered double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Sanjaya, F. B.; Darojat, A. A.; Handayani, D. S.; Hidayat, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) compounds were successfully synthesized from brine water and AlCl3.6H2O as the starting materials by coprecipitation method. The product result was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effects of the reaction time and the molar ratios of the raw material on the crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al-LDH were examining. Results show that increasing reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min.) could improve the crystallinity and monodispersity of layered double hydroxide compounds particles. The well-defined Ca-Mg- Al-LDH could be prepared with (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios 0.5.

  11. Magnetic soft modes in the distorted triangular antiferromagnet -CaCr2O4

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, Sandor; Lake, Bella; Hradil, Klaudia; Rule, K; Stone, Matthew B; Islam, A. T. M. N.

    2012-01-01

    -CaCr2O4 is a spin-3/2, distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet with a simple 120 spin structure that masks the complex pattern of exchange interactions. The magnetic excitation spectrum has been measured using inelastic neutron scattering on powder and single crystal samples. It reveals unusual low energy modes which can be explained by linear spin-wave theory assuming nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions. The mode softening is due to the next-nearest neighbor interactions and indicates a new magnetic phase nearby as revealed by the phase diagram constructed for this system. The extracted direct exchange interactions correlate well with the Cr3+{Cr3+ distances and are in agreement with other chromium oxide delafossite compounds.

  12. Oxidation behavior of cubic phases formed by alloying Al3Ti with Cr and Mn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, L. J.; Nic, J. P.; Mikkola, D. E.; Smialek, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric, SEM, and XRD data are presented which document the significant improvement obtainable in the oxidation resistance of Al3Ti-containing alloys through additions of Cr. The L1(2) Al(67)Cr(8)Ti25 alloy exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance at 1473 K, with the primary oxide formed being the ideally protective alpha-Al2O3. The Al(67)Mn(8)Ti(25) alloy also tested for comparison exhibited poor cyclic oxidation resistance, with substantial occurrence of TiO2 in the protective scales. Catastrophic oxidation was also encountered in the quaternary alloy Al(67)Mn(8)Ti(22)V(3).

  13. Reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids in the presence of Al (III).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Lan, Yeqing; Wang, Bo; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-09-15

    The effects of Al (III) on the reduction of Cr (VI) by three α-hydroxy acids, tartaric, malic and citric acids, were investigated through batch experiments at pH from 2.5 to 4.0 and temperatures from 25 °C to 35 °C. These reactions could be described as pseudo-zero-order with respect to Cr (VI) when the concentrations of α-hydroxy acids were greatly in excess. The transformation rates of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in the presence of Al (III) without light were in the decreasing order of tartaric acid>malic acid>citric acid. This order suggested that the two α-hydroxyl groups in tartaric acid could play an important role in the reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids. The possible mechanism was that the formed complex between organic acids and Al (III) significantly enhanced the reductivity of α-hydroxy acids and further led to the more complicated Cr (VI)-tartaric acid-Al (III) cyclic ester which greatly accelerated the reduction rate. The Cr (VI) reduction reaction rate increased with the decrease of pH but with the increase of Al (III) concentration, tartaric acid concentration, and temperature. As the pH decreased, the increase of [H(+)] led to an increase in {Al(III)H₂Tar₂}(+), the most active species, and thus the enhanced reduction rate.

  14. Spectral data for F-like ions: Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Gultekin; Ates, Sule; Nahar, Sultana

    2015-05-01

    Transition Probabilities, oscillator strengths and lifetimes have been determined for fluorine like Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni through atomic structure calculations in the relativistic Breit-Pauli approximation. These transition parameters are needed for spectral analysis of iron-peak elements in astrophysical objects. We employed the code SUPERSTRUCTURE. The results are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. Good agreement with results in the literature has been found for most cases. Acknowledgement of Support: NSF, DOE, OSC.

  15. Luminescence Spectra of ZnAl 2 O 4 {:}Cr 3+ Spinel Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, H. H.; Nguyen, T. K.; Nguyen, V. M.; Suchocki, A.; Kamiñska, A.; Le, V. K.; Nguyen, V. H.; Luong, T. T.

    2002-12-01

    The synthetic ZnAl 2 O 4 spinels doped with Cr 3+ ions are prepared from ZnSO,dwi{4}>, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . The spinel single phase is detected from X-ray diffraction. Luminescence properties of Cr 3+ in ZnAl 2 O 4 were studied by low temperature luminescence and decay measurements. Four luminescence lines at 14570, 14520, 14460, and 14330 cm -1 were found to originate from structure distortion and the line at 14175 cm -1 - from chromium pairs. The broad emission band at about 13540 cm -1 is considered to arise from a new Cr 3+ center in ZnCr 2 O 4 .

  16. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4: Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra.

    PubMed

    Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J

    2008-06-21

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized.

  17. Formation Mechanisms of Alloying Element Nitrides in Recrystallized and Deformed Ferritic Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Maryam; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Jägle, Eric A.; Kurz, Silke J. B.; Bischoff, Ewald; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the initial microstructure (recrystallized or cold-rolled) on the nitride precipitation process upon gaseous nitriding of ternary Fe-4.3 at. pct Cr-8.1 at. pct Al alloy was investigated at 723 K (450 °C) employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In recrystallized Fe-Cr-Al specimens, one type of nitride develops: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N. In cold-rolled Fe-Cr-Al specimens, precipitation of two types of nitrides occurs: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N and binary, cubic, NaCl-type AlN. By theoretical analysis, it was shown that for the recrystallized specimens an energy barrier for the nucleation of mixed Cr1- x Al x N exists, whereas in the cold-rolled specimens no such energy barriers for the development of mixed Cr1- x Al x N and of binary, cubic AlN occur. The additional development of the cubic AlN in the cold-rolled microstructure could be ascribed to the preferred heterogeneous nucleation of cubic AlN on dislocations. The nitrogen concentration-depth profile of the cold-rolled specimen shows a stepped nature upon prolonged nitriding as a consequence of instantaneous nucleation of nitride upon arrival of nitrogen and nitride growth rate-limited by nitrogen transport through the thickening nitrided zone.

  18. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  19. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  20. Understanding phase stability of Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Diao, Haoyan; Gao, Michael C.; Tang, Zhi; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-19

    The concept of high entropy alloy (HEA) opens a vast unexplored composition range for alloy design. As a well-studied system, Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni has attracted tremendous amount of attention to develop new-generation low-density structural materials for automobile and aerospace applications. In spite of intensive investigations in the past few years, the phase stability within this HEA system is still poorly understood and needs to be clarified, which poses obstacles to the discovery of promising Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs. In the present work, the CALPHAD approach is employed to understand the phase stability and explore the phase transformation within the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni system. As a result, the phase-stability mapping coupled with density contours is then constructed within the composition - temperature space, which provides useful guidelines for the design of low-density Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs with desirable properties.

  1. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    Al(OH)3 and Ca(OH)2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation.

  2. Effect of Si on DC arc plasma generation from Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si cathodes used in oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirkov, I.; Landälv, L.; Göthelid, E.; Ahlgren, M.; Eklund, P.; Rosen, J.

    2017-02-01

    Al2O3 alloyed with Cr is an important material for the tooling industry. It can be synthesized from an arc discharge using Al-Cr cathodes in an oxygen atmosphere. Due to formation of Al-rich oxide islands on the cathode surface, the arc process stability is highly sensitive to oxygen pressure. For improved stability, the use of Al0.70Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes has previously been suggested, where Si may reduce island formation. Here, we have investigated the effect of Si by comparing plasma generation and thin film deposition from Al0.7Cr0.3 and Al0.7Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes. Plasma ion composition, ion energies, ion charge states, neutral species, droplet formation, and film composition have been characterized at different O2 flow rates for arc currents of 60 and 90 A. Si and related compounds are detected in plasma ions and in plasma neutrals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show that the cathode composition and the film composition are the same, with Si present in droplets as well. The effect of Si on the process stability, ion energies, and ion charge states is found to be negligible compared to that of the arc current. The latter is identified as the most relevant parameter for tuning the properties of the reactive discharge. The present work increases the fundamental understanding of plasma generation in a reactive atmosphere, and provides input for the choice of cathode composition and process parameters in reactive DC arc synthesis.

  3. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  4. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  5. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-04-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  6. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; ...

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory insidemore » the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.« less

  7. Viability of thin wall tube forming of ATF FeCrAl

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Aydogan, Eda; Anderoglu, Osman; Lavender, Curt; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-16

    Fabrication of thin walled tubing of FeCrAl alloys is critical to its success as a candidate enhanced accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Alloys that are being investigated are Generation I and Generation II FeCrAl alloys produced at ORNL and an ODS FeCrAl alloy, MA-956 produced by Special Metals. Gen I and Gen II FeCrAl alloys were provided by ORNL and MA-956 was provided by LANL (initially produced by Special Metals). Three tube development efforts were undertaken. ORNL led the FeCrAl Gen I and Gen II alloy development and tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Rhenium Corporation. LANL received alloys from ORNL and led tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Century Tubing. PNNL led the development of tube processing studies on MA-956 through pilger processing working with Sandvik Corporation. A summary of the recent progress on tube development is provided in the following report and a separate ORNL report: ORNL/TM-2015/478, “Development and Quality Assessments of Commercial Heat Production of ATF FeCrAl Tubes”.

  8. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  9. Modeling degradation and failure of Ni-Cr-Al overlay coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Degradation of a Ni-16Cr-25Al-0.06Zr overlay coating on a Ni-22Cr substrate was examined after oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling. Concentration/distance profiles were measured in the coating and substrate after various one-hour cycles at 1150 C. A numerical model was developed to simulate coating degradation by simultaneous oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparison of predicted and measured concentration/distance profiles. The ability of the model to identify critical system parameters was demonstrated for the case of the initial Al and Cr content of the coating and substrate.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+, Tb3+ powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Loan, Trinh; Thi Thuy, Nguyen; Long, Nguyen Ngoc

    2013-10-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+, Tb3+ powders with different dopant contents have been synthesized by sol-gel method using the following precursors: zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2), aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3), terbium nitrate (Tb(NO3)3), chrome nitrate (Cr(NO3)3), and citric acid. The effect of the Cr3+, Tb3+ concentration and heat-treating temperature on structural and optical properties of the synthesized samples has been studied. International Workshop on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology 2012 (IWAMN 2012).

  11. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of CuCrAl Cold-Sprayed Coatings for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai; Karthikeyan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of reusable launch vehicles is likely to use GRCop-84 [Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb] copper alloy combustion liners. The application of protective coatings on GRCop-84 liners can minimize or eliminate many of the environmental problems experienced by uncoated liners and significantly extend their operational lives and lower operational cost. A newly developed Cu- 23 (wt.%) Cr-5% Al (CuCrAl) coating, shown to resist hydrogen attack and oxidation in an as-cast form, is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84. The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique, where the CuCrAl was procured as gas-atomized powders. Cyclic oxidation tests were conducted between 773 and 1,073 K to characterize the coated substrates.

  12. Diffusional transport during the cyclic oxidation of. gamma. +. beta. , Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.A.; Heckel, R.W. )

    1988-02-01

    The cyclic oxidation behavior of several cast {gamma} + {beta}, Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys and one LPPS {gamma} + {beta}, Ni-Co-Cr-Al(Y) alloy was examined ({gamma}, fcc; {beta}, NiAl structure). Cyclic oxidation was performed by cycling between 1200{degree}C and approximately 70{degree}C. Oxide morphologies and microstructural changes during cyclic oxidation were noted. Recession of the high-Al {beta} phase was nonparabolic with time. Kirkendall porosity resulting from diffusional transport within the alloy was observed in the near-surface {gamma}-phase layer of one alloy. Concentration profiles for Ni, Cr, and Al were measured in the {gamma}-phase layer after various cyclic oxidation exposures. It was observed that cyclic oxidation results in a decreasing Al concentration at the oxide-metal interface due to a high demand for Al (a high rate of Al consumption) associated with oxide scale cracking and spalling. In addition, diffusion paths plotted on the ternary phase diagram shifted to higher Ni concentrations with increasing cyclic oxidation exposures. The alloy with the highest rate of Al consumption, and highest Al content, underwent breakway oxidation after 500 1-hr cycles at 1200{degree}C. Breakaway oxidation occurred when the Al concentration at the oxide-metal interface approached zero. The relationship between the Al transport in the alloy and breakaway oxidation is discussed.

  13. Status of FeCrAl ODS Irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2016-08-19

    FeCrAl oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are an attractive sub-set alloy class of the more global FeCrAl material class for nuclear applications due to their high-temperature steam oxidation resistance and hypothesized enhanced radiation tolerance. A need currently exists to determine the radiation tolerance of these newly developed alloys. To address this need, a preliminary study was conducted using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate an early generation FeCrAl ODS alloy, 125YF. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on these irradiated specimens have shown good radiation tolerance at elevated temperatures (≥330°C) but possible radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C to a damage level of 1.9 displacement per atom (dpa). Building on this experience, a new series of irradiations are currently being conceptualized. This irradiation series called the FCAD irradiation program will irradiate the latest generation FeCrAl ODS and FeCr ODS alloys to significantly higher doses. These experiments will provide the necessary information to determine the mechanical performance of irradiated FeCrAl ODS alloys at light water reactor and fast reactor conditions.

  14. Functionally graded Co-Cr-Mo coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy structures.

    PubMed

    Vamsi Krishna, B; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Functionally graded, hard and wear-resistant Co-Cr-Mo alloy was coated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a metallurgically sound interface using Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENS). The addition of the Co-Cr-Mo alloy onto the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloy significantly increased the surface hardness without any intermetallic phases in the transition region. A 100% Co-Cr-Mo transition from Ti-6Al-4V was difficult to produce due to cracking. However, using optimized LENS processing parameters, crack-free coatings containing up to 86% Co-Cr-Mo were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with excellent reproducibility. Human osteoblast cells were cultured to test in vitro biocompatibility of the coatings. Based on in vitro biocompatibility, increasing the Co-Cr-Mo concentration in the coating reduced the live cell numbers after 14 days of culture on the coating compared with base Ti-6Al-4V alloy. However, coated samples always showed better bone cell proliferation than 100% Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Producing near net shape components with graded compositions using LENS could potentially be a viable route for manufacturing unitized structures for metal-on-metal prosthetic devices to minimize the wear-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening that are significant problems in current implant design.

  15. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  16. Microstructure and wear behavior of γ/Al 4C 3/TiC/CaF 2 composite coating on γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy prepared by Nd:YAG laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiu-Bo; Shi, Shi-Hong; Guo, Jian; Fu, Ge-Yan; Wang, Ming-Di

    2009-03-01

    As a further step in obtaining high performance elevated temperature self-lubrication anti-wear composite coatings on TiAl alloy, a novel Ni-P electroless plating method was adopted to encapsulate the as-received CaF 2 in the preparation of precursor NiCr-Cr 3C 2-CaF 2 mixed powders with an aim to decrease its mass loss and increase its compatibility with the metal matrix during a Nd:YAG laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and the friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against the hardened 0.45% C steel ring was evaluated using a block-on-ring wear tester at room temperature. It was found that the coating had a unique microstructure consisting of primary dendrites TiC and block Al 4C 3 carbides reinforcement as well as fine isolated spherical CaF 2 solid lubrication particles uniformly dispersed in the NiCrAlTi ( γ) matrix. The good friction-reducing and anti-wear abilities of the laser clad composite coating was suggested to the Ni-P electroless plating and the attendant reduction of mass loss of CaF 2 and the increasing of it's wettability with the NiCrAlTi ( γ) matrix during the laser cladding process.

  17. Crystal growth, structure and magnetic properties of Ca10Cr7O28.

    PubMed

    Balz, Christian; Lake, Bella; Reehuis, Manfred; Islam, A T M; Prokhnenko, Oleksandr; Singh, Yogesh; Pattison, Philip; Toth, Sandor

    2017-03-24

    A detailed diffraction study of Ca10Cr7O28 is presented which adds significant new insights into the structural and magnetic properties of this compound. A new crystal structure type was used where the a and b axes are doubled compared to previous models providing a more plausible structure where all crystallographic sites are fully occupied. The presence of two different valences of chromium was verified and the locations of the magnetic Cr5+ and non-magnetic Cr6+ ions were identified. The Cr5+ ions have spin-1/2 and form distorted kagome bilayers which are stacked in an ABC arrangement along the c axis. These results lay the foundation for understanding of the quantum spin liquid behavior in Ca10Cr7O28 which has recently been reported in [C. Balz et al., Nature Physics 12, 942 (2016)].

  18. Coherence times and Rabi oscillations in CaWO₄:Cr(5+) crystal.

    PubMed

    Baibekov, Eduard; Kurkin, Igor; Gafurov, Marat; Endeward, Burkhard; Rakhmatullin, Rafail; Mamin, Georgy

    2011-03-01

    The coherence times of dopant pentavalent chromium ions in CaWO₄ single crystal (0.0006at.% Cr(5+)) were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Temperature dependences of spin-lattice relaxation time T₁ and phase memory time T(M) were measured in the temperature range 6-30 K at high (94 GHz, W band) and low (3.5 GHz, S band) frequencies of electron spin resonance. It follows from T(M) calculations that phase relaxation of Cr(5+) ion arises mainly from magnetic dipole interactions between the chromium ions. Anomalously fast damping of Rabi oscillations is detected in both S- and W-band experiments. It is shown that this phenomenon is caused by microwave field inhomogeneity inside the resonator. Relations between the damping time of Rabi oscillations, Rabi frequency and the crystal sample size are obtained. Lumped-element resonators and smaller sample dimensions are suggested to lower spin dephasing during transient nutations.

  19. Transient Oxidation of a γ-Ni-28Cr-11Al Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L; Hovis, D B; Heuer, A H

    2012-04-02

    γ-NiCrAl alloys with relatively low Al contents tend to form a layered oxide scale during the early stages of oxidation, rather than an exclusive α-Al2O3 scale, the so-called 'thermally grown oxide' (TGO). A layered oxide scale was established on a model γ-Ni-28Cr-11Al (at.%) alloy after isothermal oxidation for several minutes at 1100 °C. The layered scale consisted of an NiO layer at the oxide/gas interface, an inner Cr2O3 layer, and an α-Al2O3 layer at the oxide/alloy interface. The evolution of such an NiO/Cr2O3/Al2O3 layered structure on this alloy differs from that proposed in earlier work. During heating, a Cr2O3 outer layer and a discontinuous inner layer of Al2O3 initially formed, with metallic Ni particles dispersed between the two layers. A rapid transformation occurred in the scale shortly after the sample reached maximum temperature (1100°C), when two (possibly coupled) phenomena occurred: (i) the inner transition alumina transformed to α-Al2O3, and (ii) Ni particles oxidized to form the outer NiO layer. Subsequently, NiO reacted with Cr2O3 and Al2O3 to form spinel. Continued growth of the oxide scale and development of the TGO was dominated by growth of the inner α-Al2O3 layer.

  20. Thermal stability and thermo-mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered Cr-Al-Y-N coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rovere, Florian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.

    2008-01-15

    Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings are promising candidates for advanced machining and high temperature applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. Recently the authors have shown that reactive magnetron sputtering using Cr-Al targets with Al/Cr ratios of 1.5 and Y contents of 0, 2, 4, and 8 at % results in the formation of stoichiometric (Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 1-y}Y{sub y}N films with Al/Cr ratios of {approx}1.2 and YN mole fractions of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 8%, respectively. Here, the impact of Y on thermal stability, structural evolution, and thermo-mechanical properties is investigated in detail. Based on in situ stress measurements, thermal analyzing, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy studies the authors conclude that Y effectively retards diffusional processes such as recovery, precipitation of hcp-AlN and fcc-YN, grain growth, and decomposition induced N{sub 2} release. Hence, the onset temperature of the latter shifts from {approx}1010 to 1125 deg. C and the hardness after annealing at T{sub a}=1100 deg. C increases from {approx}32 to 39 GPa with increasing YN mole fraction from 0% to 8%, respectively.

  1. Preliminary Study on Fatigue Strengths of Fretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue behavior (stress-life curve) of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, atomic percent) was examined by conducting two tests: first, a fretting wear test with a fatigue specimen in contact with a typical nickel-based superalloy contact pad in air at temperatures of 296 and 823 K and second, a high-cycle fatigue test of the prefretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb fatigue specimen at 923 K. Reference high-cycle fatigue tests were also conducted with unfretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens at 923 K. All Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb fatigue specimens were machined from cast slabs. The results indicate that the stress-life results for the fretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens exhibited a behavior similar to those of the unfretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens. The values of maximum stress and life for the fretted specimens were almost the same as those for the unfretted specimens. The resultant stress-life curve for the unfretted fatigue specimens was very flat. The flat appearance in the stress-life curve of the unfretted specimens is attributed to the presence of a high density of casting pores. The fatigue strengths of both the fretted and unfretted specimens can be significantly affected by the presence of this porosity, which can decrease the fatigue life of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. The presence of the porosity made discerning the effect of fretting damage on fatigue strength and life of the specimens difficult.

  2. Oxidation Resistant Ti-Al-Fe Diffusion Barrier for FeCrAlY Coatings on Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialke, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A diffusion barrier to help protect titanium aluminide alloys, including the coated alloys of the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha2) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C is disclosed. The coating may comprise FeCrAlX alloys. The diffusion barrier comprises titanium, aluminum, and iron in the following approximate atomic percent: Ti-(50-55)Al-(9-20)Fe. This alloy is also suitable as an oxidative or structural coating for such substrates.

  3. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; ...

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition.more » Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.« less

  4. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  5. Cr doped Ca2GeO4, Ca5Ge3O11 and Li2CaGeO4 single crystals grown by the flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marychev, M. O.; Koseva, I.; Gencheva, G.; Stoyanova, R.; Kukeva, R.; Nikolov, V.

    2017-03-01

    Pure and Cr doped Ca2GeO4, Ca5Ge3O11 and Li2CaGeO4 single crystals were grown by the flux method. The Ca2GeO4 crystals were grown at significantly more proper conditions than used up to now, while Ca5Ge3O11 and Li2CaGeO4 single crystals were grown for the first time. The macroscopic defects are characterized and discussed in relation to the growth conditions. The distribution coefficients of Cr were established being very different for the three crystals. EPR investigation shows that as in the case of Ca2GeO4, in Ca5Ge3O11 and Li2CaGeO4 the Cr occupied the tetrahedral position. The Cr doped crystals show broad band emissions from 1000 to 1600 nm. The dependence of the integrated intensity of emission on the Cr concentration in the crystals is discussed.

  6. Optimized Gen-II FeCrAl cladding production in large quantity for campaign testing

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Sun, Zhiqian; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2016-06-03

    There are two major objectives in this report; (1) to optimize microstructure control of ATF FeCrAl alloys during tube drawing processes, and (2) to provide an update on the progress of ATF FeCrAl tube production via commercial manufacturers. Experimental efforts have been made to optimize the process parameters balancing the tube fabricability, especially for tube drawing processes, and microstructure control of the final tube products. Lab-scale sheet materials of Gen II FeCrAl alloys (Mo-containing and Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys) were used in the study, combined with a stepwise warm-rolling process and intermediate annealing, aiming to simulate the tube drawing process in a commercial tube manufacturer. The intermediate annealing at 650ºC for 1h was suggested for the tube-drawing process of Mo-containing FeCrAl alloys because it successfully softened the material by recovering the work hardening introduced through the rolling step, without inducing grain coarsening due to recrystallization. The final tube product is expected to have stabilized deformed microstructure providing the improved tensile properties with sufficient ductility. Optimization efforts on Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys focused on the effect of alloying additions and annealing conditions on the stability of deformed microstructure. Relationships between the second-phase precipitates (Fe2Nb-Laves phase) and microstructure stability are discussed. FeCrAl tube production through commercial tube manufacturers is currently in progress. Three different manufacturers, Century Tubes, Inc. (CTI), Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), and Superior Tube Company, Inc. (STC), are providing capabilities for cold-drawing, warm-drawing, and HPTR cold-pilgering, respectively. The first two companies are currently working on large quantity tube production (expected 250 ft length) of Gen I model FeCrAl alloy (B136Y3, at CTI) and Gen II (C35M4, at RAI), with the process parameters obtained from the experimental

  7. Influence of recrystallization on phase separation kinetics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe Cr Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Pimentel, G.; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different starting microstructures on the kinetics of Fe-rich ({alpha}) and Cr-rich ({alpha}') phase separation during aging of Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys has been analyzed with a combination of atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements. The results revealed that the high recrystallization temperature necessary to produce a coarse grained microstructure in Fe-base ODS alloys affects the randomness of Cr-atom distributions and defect density, which consequently affect the phase separation kinetics at low annealing temperatures.

  8. Role of Y in the oxidation resistance of CrAlYN coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Meister, S.; El Mrabet, S.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Mariscal, A.; Jiménez de Haro, M. C.; Justo, A.; Brizuela, M.; Rojas, T. C.; Sánchez-López, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    CrAlYN coatings with different aluminum (4-12 at.%) and yttrium (2-5 at.%) contents are deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and M2 steel substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N2 mixtures. The influence of the nanostructure and chemical elemental distribution on the oxidation resistance after heating in air at 1000 °C is studied by means of cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (X-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES). The sequential exposure to the metallic targets during the synthesis leads to a multilayer structure where concentration of metallic elements (Cr, Al and Y) is changing periodically. A good oxidation resistance is observed when Al- and Y-rich regions are separated by well-defined CrN layers, maintaining crystalline coherence along the columnar structure. This protective behavior is independent of the type of substrate and corresponds to the formation of a thin mixed (Al, Cr)-oxide scale that protects the film underneath. The GD-OES and XRD analysis have demonstrated that Y acts as a reactive element, blocking the Fe and C atoms diffusion from the steel and favoring higher Al/Cr ratio in the passivation layer after heating. The coating with Y content around 4 at.% exhibited the best performance with a thinner oxide scale, a delay in the CrN decomposition and transformation to Cr2N, and a more effective Fe and C blocking.

  9. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Ni-P-CoNiCrAlY Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, H.; Monirvaghefi, S. M.; Hadipour, Ali

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Ni-P-CoNiCrAlY composite coatings were deposited on 310 stainless steel. The surface morphology and cross-sectional observations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The high-temperature corrosion of all coatings was evaluated by cyclic oxidation method. According to the results, the amounts of CoNiCrAlY particles co-deposited in all samples coated at pH = 4.7 were higher than that of those produced at pH = 6.7. Also, the surface roughness of all composite coatings coated at pH = 6.7 is lower than the coatings produced at pH = 4.7. The Ni-P-(3 g/l) CoNiCrAlY deposit produced at pH = 6.7 had the best corrosion resistance among other coatings.

  11. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approx. 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Ni-P-CoNiCrAlY Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, H.; Monirvaghefi, S. M.; Hadipour, Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Ni-P-CoNiCrAlY composite coatings were deposited on 310 stainless steel. The surface morphology and cross-sectional observations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The high-temperature corrosion of all coatings was evaluated by cyclic oxidation method. According to the results, the amounts of CoNiCrAlY particles co-deposited in all samples coated at pH = 4.7 were higher than that of those produced at pH = 6.7. Also, the surface roughness of all composite coatings coated at pH = 6.7 is lower than the coatings produced at pH = 4.7. The Ni-P-(3 g/l) CoNiCrAlY deposit produced at pH = 6.7 had the best corrosion resistance among other coatings.

  13. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33 Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approximately 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  14. BeAl6O10: Cr3+: a promising active medium for femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, Efim V.; Trunov, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Alimpiev, A. I.

    2003-10-01

    The new laser crystals BeAl6O10:Cr3+ were grown, spectral-luminescence and CW laser properties were investigated and compared with those of well-known laser medium-alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr3+). CW laser generation on vibronic transition 4T2-4A2 of Cr3+ ions in BeAl6O10 crystals was realized in the range of 800-880 nm under Ar+ laser pumping. The emission cross-section of laser transition was estimated about 6×10-20 cm2. We confirmed these crystals are perspective for generation of femtosecond pulses in the near IR region under LD pumping.

  15. Microstructural characterization of Ni-22Fe-22Cr-6Al metallic foam by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Lee, Taeg Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Eui Sung; Oh, Kwon Oh; Lee, Chang Woo; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Ni-22Fe-22Cr-6Al metallic foam, prepared using a thermomechanical treatment and alloying elements, was studied via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the relationship between the mechanical properties and the nanoscale microstructural characteristics. Due to the unique porous structure of the metallic foam, TEM specimens were prepared using an embedding-process-assisted-ion-milling technique and a focused-ion-beam method. The Cr-, Fe- and Al-clustered regions around the surface of the metallic foam were investigated using elemental maps. The Ni(3)Al (γ') precipitates, which can affect the mechanical properties of the Ni-Fe-Cr (γ) matrix, were characterized in the metallic foam.

  16. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  17. Deformation and annealing study of NiCrAlY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, L. J.; Trela, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The elevated temperature properties (tensile and creep) of NiCrALY, a nickel base alloy containing nominally 16% chromium, 4% aluminum, and 2 to 3% yttria (Y2O3) were evaluated and the optimal combination of thermomechanical treatments for maximum creep resistance was determined. Stored strain energy in as-extruded bars (14:1 extrusion ratio) permitted the development of a large grain size in the material when it was annealed at the maximum safe temperature 2450 F (1343 C). With a one-hour anneal at this temperature, the relatively fine grain size of the as-extruded material was changed to one in which the average grain diameter approached 1 mm, and the aspect ratio was about 10. The material was capable of being cold worked (by rolling) in amounts greater than 30% reduction in area. When the cold worked material was given a relaxation treatment, consisting of heating one hour at 1600 F(871 C), and then a high temperature anneal at 2450 F (1343 C) for one hour, both the high temperature strength and the high temperature creep resistance of the material was further enhanced.

  18. A study of the oxide dispersion and recrystallization in NiCrAl prepared from preoxidized powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The SAP technique of dispersion strengthening (formation of an oxide dispersion by preoxidation of metal powders) was applied to atomized powder of the alloy Ni-17Cr-5Al-0.2 Y. SAP-NiCrAl was worked by extrusion and rod rolling at 1205 C and by swaging at 760 C. A variety of annealing treatments were applied after working to determine the recrystallization response. NiCrAlY, similarly prepared from atomized powder, but without a preoxidation treatment, was examined for comparison. The SAP-NiCrAl of this study exhibited oxide particle size and spacing much larger than that usually observed in oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; nonetheless, it was possible to achieve abnormal (secondary) recrystallization in the SAP-NiCrAl as has been reported for other oxide dispersion strengthened alloys. In contrast, unoxidized NiCrAlY exhibited only primary recrystallization.

  19. Nonstoichiometry and phase stability of Al and Cr substituted Mg ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by citrate method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ateia, Ebtesam. E.; Mohamed, Amira. T.

    2017-03-01

    The spinel ferrite Mg0.7Cr0.3Fe2O4, and Mg0.7Al0.3Fe2O4 were prepared by the citrate technique. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs (HRTEM), Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of the investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes were found to be between 24.7 and 27.5 nm for Al3+ and Mg2+ respectively. The substitution of Cr3+/Al3+ in place of Mg2+ ion initiates a crystalline anisotropy due to large size mismatch between Cr /Al and Mg2+, which creates strain inside the crystal volume. According to VSM results, by adding Al3+ or Cr3+ ions at the expense of Mg2+, the saturation magnetization increased. The narrow hysteresis loop of the samples indicates that the amount of dissipated energy is small, which is desirable for soft magnetic applications. Magnetic dynamics of the samples were studied by measuring magnetic susceptibility versus temperature at different magnetic fields. The band gap energy, which was calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function, decreases with increasing the particle size. Furthermore, the band gaps were quite narrow (1.5-1.7 eV), hence the investigated samples could act as visible light driven photo catalysts. To sum up the addition of trivalent Al3+, and Cr3+ ions enhanced the optical, magnetic and structure properties of the samples. Mg0.7 Cr0.3Fe2O4 sample will be a better candidate for the optical applications and will also be a guaranteeing hopeful for technological applications.

  20. Terahertz Spectroscopy of CrH (X 6Σ+) and AlH (X 1Σ+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    New laboratory measurements of hydrides have been carried out using terahertz direct absorption spectroscopy. Spin components of the N=2≤ftarrow 1 transition of the free radical CrH (X 6Σ+) have been recorded in the range 730-734 GHz, as well as a new measurement of the J=2≤ftarrow 1 line of AlH (X 1Σ+) near 755 GHz. Both species were created in an AC discharge of H2, argon, and metal vapor. For CrH, the chromium source was Cr(CO)6, while AlH was produced from Al(CH3)3. The J=4.5≤ftarrow 3.5 and 3.5≤ftarrow 2.5 fine-structure components were recorded for CrH, each which consists of resolved proton hyperfine doublets. For AlH, the two main quadrupole components, F=4.5≤ftarrow 3.5 and 3.5≤ftarrow 2.5, of the J=2≤ftarrow 1 transition were observed as blended features. These data were analyzed with previous 1≤ftarrow 0 millimeter/submillimeter measurements with 6Σ and 1Σ Hamiltonians for chromium and aluminum hydrides, respectively, and rotational, fine-structure (CrH only), and hyperfine constants were derived. The new measurements have resulted in refined spectroscopic parameters for both species, as well as direct measurement of the respective 2≤ftarrow 1 rotational transitions. This work also resolves a 10 MHz discrepancy in the frequency of the AlH line. CrH and AlH have already been observed in the photospheres of stars via their electronic transitions. These data will facilitate their discovery at submillimeter/terahertz wavelengths in circumstellar envelopes and perhaps in diffuse clouds.

  1. The role of temperature on Cr(VI) formation and reduction during heating of chromium-containing sludge in the presence of CaO.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Zhai, Jianping; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Qin; Cui, Hao

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of Cr(VI) formation and reduction in the presence of CaO was examined during the thermal treatment of sludge that contains chromium. thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the thermal behavior and phase transformation, respectively. Na2CO3 leaching procedure was employed to determine the amount of Cr(VI). The result showed that CaO promoted Cr(III) oxidation, however, its influence is very dependent on heating temperature, with the extent of the effect varying with temperature. From 200-400 °C, the presence of CaO facilitated formation of intermediate product Cr2O3+x containing Cr(VI) during dehydration of chromium hydrate, while Cr2O3+x would decompose as temperature over 400 °C, accompanied by part of Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III). From 500 to 900 °C, Cr(III) reacted with CaO to form a leachable CaCrO4 product. This product was stable and a prolonged heating time did not reduce the amount of Cr(VI) significantly. At 1000-1200 °C, part of CaCrO4 was reduced to Ca(CrO2)2 in 1h. While extended heating time above 1h resulted in the Ca(CrO2)2 being oxidized reversibly to CaCrO4 at 1200 °C. Since CaCrO4 is thermodynamically less stable over 1000 °C, MgO could induce CaCrO4 to be reduced into MgCr2O4 at around 900 °C, lower than that for the reduction from CaCrO4 into Ca(CrO2)2. It suggested that adding MgO might be a potential approach for inhibiting Cr(VI) formation during heating sludge containing chromium.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of Al substituted misfit cobaltite Ca3(Co1- x Al x )4O9 at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Hong-mei; Hu, Jin-lian; Tang, Xu-bing; Li, Hai-jin; Wang, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Thermoelectric properties of Al substituted compounds Ca3(Co1- x Al x )4O9 ( x = 0, 0.03, 0.05), prepared by a sol-gel process, have been investigated in the temperature range 305-20 K. The results indicate that after Al substitution for Co in Ca3(Co1- x Al x )4O9, the direct current electrical resistivity and thermopower increase due to the reduction of carrier concentration. Experiments show that Al substitution results in decreased lattice thermal conductivity. The figure of merit of temperature behavior suggests that Ca3(Co0.97Al0.03)4O9 would be a promising candidate thermoelectric material for high-temperature thermoelectric application.

  3. Equation of State of an AlCoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gong; Xiao, Daihong; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Lijun; Liaw, Peter K.; Li, Yanchun; Liu, Riping

    2015-08-01

    The pressure-volume (P-V) relationship of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) at room temperature has been studied using in situ high-pressure energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation at high pressures. The equation of state of the AlCoCrCuFeNi HEA is determined by the calculation of the radial distribution function. The experimental results indicate that the HEA keeps a stable face-centered-cubic + body-centered-cubic structure in the experimental pressure range from 0 GPa to 24 GPa.

  4. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Zachary T.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  5. The effect of yttrium and thorium on the oxidation behavior of Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Douglass, D. L.; Nasrallah, M.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported included a determination of the optimum composition of a Ni-Cr-Al ternary alloy with respect to oxidation resistance and minimum film-spalling tendencies. Yttrium and thorium in small amounts were added to the ternary alloy and an investigation of the oxidation mechanism and the oxide scale adherence was conducted. It was found that the oxidation mechanism of Ni-Cr-Al ternary alloys depends upon the composition of the alloy as well as the time, oxygen pressure, and temperature of oxidation.

  6. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots.

  7. Fiber optic thermometer using Cr-doped GdAlO3 broadband emission decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Chambers, Matthew D.

    2015-09-01

    Luminescence decay temperature measurements are performed from 800 to 1200 °C using a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) sensor tip on a YAG single crystal fiber. As a thermographic phosphor, Cr:GdAlO3 combines the intense luminescence of transition metal dopants with the high temperature long decay times usually exhibited only by rare earth dopants. The proposed mechanism is emission by the Cr3+ dopant via the spin-allowed 4T2  →  4A2 transition supported by a reservoir state in 2E which populates {}4{{\\text{T}}2} (2E  →  {}4{{\\text{T}}2} ) through thermal equilibration. The relative energy levels and transition probabilities associated with the strong crystal field at the Al3+ site in the perovskite structure of GdAlO3 are favorable for suppressing thermal quenching of luminescence. Results from a single-fiber configuration sensor, based on a YAG fiber for its low background luminescence, are presented. Using a decay curve fitting procedure that accounts for background fluorescence, accuracies of better than  ±5 °C are demonstrated.

  8. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    SciTech Connect

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explain that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.

  9. Half-metallicity in highly L21-ordered CoFeCrAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Kharel, P.; Valloppilly, S. R.; Li, X.-Z.; Kim, D. R.; Zhao, G. J.; Chen, T. Y.; Choudhary, R.; Kashyap, A.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron-transport properties of Heusler-ordered CoFeCrAl thin films are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The films, sputtered onto MgO and having thicknesses of about 100 nm, exhibit virtually perfect single-crystalline epitaxy and a high degree of L21 chemical order. X-ray diffraction and transmission-electron microscopy show that the structure of the films is essentially of the L21 Heusler type. The films are ferrimagnetic, with a Curie temperature of about 390 K, and a net moment of 2 μB per formula unit. The room temperature resistivity is 175 μΩ cm; the carrier concentration and mobility determined from the low temperature (5 K) measurement are 1.2 × 1018 cm-3 and 33 cm2/V s, respectively. In contrast to the well-investigated Heusler alloys such as Co2(Cr1-xFex)Al, the CoFeCrAl system exhibits two main types of weak residual A2 disorder, namely, Co-Cr disorder and Fe-Cr disorder, the latter conserving half-metallicity. Point-contact Andreev reflection yields a lower bound for the spin polarization, 68% at 1.85 K, but our structural and magnetization analyses suggest that the spin polarization at the Fermi level is probably higher than 90%. The high resistivity, spin polarization, and Curie temperature are encouraging in the context of spin electronics.

  10. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  11. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; ...

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is amore » general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.« less

  12. Hafnium influence on the microstructure of FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geanta, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Stanciu, E.-M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to their special properties at high temperatures, FeCrAl alloys micro-alloyed with Zr can be regarded as potential materials for use at nuclear power plants, generation 4R. These materials are resistant to oxidation at high temperatures, to corrosion, erosion and to the penetrating radiations in liquid metal environments. Also, these are able to form continuously, by the self-generation process of an oxide coating with high adhesive strength. The protective oxide layers must be textured and regenerable, with a good mechanical strength, so that crack and peeling can not appear. To improve the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the oxide layer, we introduced limited quantities of Zr, Ti, Y, Hf, Ce in the range of 1-3%wt in the FeCrAl alloy. These elements, with very high affinity to the oxygen, are capable to stabilize the alumina structure and to improve the oxide adherence to the metallic substrate. FeCrAl alloys microalloyed with Hf were prepared using VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) unit, under high argon purity atmosphere. Three different experimental alloys have been prepared using the same metallic matrix of Fe-14Cr-5Al, by adding of 0.5%wt Hf, 1.0%wt Hf and respectively 1.5%wt Hf. The microhardness values for the experimental alloys have been in the range 154 ... 157 HV0.2. EDAX analyses have been performed to determine chemical composition on the oxide layer and in the bulk of sample and SEM analyze has been done to determine the microstructural features. The results have shown the capacity of FeCrAl alloy to form oxide layers, with different texture and rich in elements such as Al and Hf.

  13. Study of the effects of implantation on the high Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribarsky, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study of the effects of implantation on the corrosion resistance of Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Al alloys was undertaken. The purpose was to elucidate the process by which corrosion scales form on alloy surfaces. The experiments dealt with Ni implanted with Al, exposed to S at high temperatures, and then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Pair bonding and tight-binding models were developed to study the compositions of the alloys and as a result, a new surface ordering effect was found which may exist in certain real alloys. With these models, the behavior of alloy constituents in the presence of surface concentrations of O or S was also studied. Improvements of the models to take into account the important effects of long- and short-range ordering were considered. The diffusion kinetics of implant profiles at various temperatures were investigated, and it was found that significant non-equilibrium changes in the profiles can take place which may affect the implants' performance in the presence of surface contaminants.

  14. Solute transport during the cyclic oxidation of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Important requirements for protective coatings of Ni-Cr-Al alloys for gas turbine superalloys are resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling, resistance to thermal fatigue cracking. The resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling is discussed. The resistance to thermal fatigue cracking is also considered.

  15. Database on Performance of Neutron Irradiated FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    The present report summarizes and discusses the database on radiation tolerance for Generation I, Generation II, and commercial FeCrAl alloys. This database has been built upon mechanical testing and microstructural characterization on selected alloys irradiated within the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to doses of 13.8 dpa at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 550°C. The structure and performance of these irradiated alloys were characterized using advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective of developing this database is to enhance the rapid development of a mechanistic understanding on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys, thereby enabling informed decisions on the optimization of composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys for application as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. This report is structured to provide a brief summary of critical results related to the database on radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.

  16. Understanding phase stability of Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Diao, Haoyan; ...

    2016-07-19

    The concept of high entropy alloy (HEA) opens a vast unexplored composition range for alloy design. As a well-studied system, Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni has attracted tremendous amount of attention to develop new-generation low-density structural materials for automobile and aerospace applications. In spite of intensive investigations in the past few years, the phase stability within this HEA system is still poorly understood and needs to be clarified, which poses obstacles to the discovery of promising Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs. In the present work, the CALPHAD approach is employed to understand the phase stability and explore the phase transformation within the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni system. As a result,more » the phase-stability mapping coupled with density contours is then constructed within the composition - temperature space, which provides useful guidelines for the design of low-density Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs with desirable properties.« less

  17. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al₂O₃ oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commercially available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.

  18. BISON Fuel Performance Analysis of FeCrAl cladding with updated properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Ryan; George, Nathan M.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian

    2016-08-30

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys due to much slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and allow the cladding to remain integral longer in the presence of high temperature steam, making accident mitigation more likely. As a continuation of the development for these alloys, suitability for normal operation must also be demonstrated. This research is focused on modeling the integral thermo-mechanical performance of FeCrAl-cladded fuel during normal reactor operation. Preliminary analysis has been performed to assess FeCrAl alloys (namely Alkrothal 720 and APMT) as a suitable fuel cladding replacement for Zr-alloys, using the MOOSE-based, finite-element fuel performance code BISON and the best available thermal-mechanical and irradiation-induced constitutive properties. These simulations identify the effects of the mechanical-stress and irradiation response of FeCrAl, and provide a comparison with Zr-alloys. In comparing these clad materials, fuel rods have been simulated for normal reactor operation and simple steady-state operation. Normal reactor operating conditions target the cladding performance over the rod lifetime (~4 cycles) for the highest-power rod in the highest-power fuel assembly under reactor power maneuvering. The power histories and axial temperature profiles input into BISON were generated from a neutronics study on full-core reactivity equivalence for FeCrAl using the 3D full core simulator NESTLE. Evolution of the FeCrAl cladding behavior over time is evaluated by using steady-state operating conditions such as a simple axial power profile, a constant cladding surface temperature, and a constant fuel power history. The fuel rod designs and

  19. The oxidation behavior of Ni-Cr-Al-2ThO2 alloys at 1093 and 1204 C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wilcox, B. A.; Stringer, J.

    1972-01-01

    A pack diffusion process has been developed which permits the introduction of nearly 6 wt % Al into solid solution in the near surface region of TDNiCr (Ni-20 wt % Cr-2 vol % ThO2) and Ni-20Cr. Alumina scales, adherent under cyclic heating and cooling conditions, were produced on TDNiCr-5.86Al upon exposure to an environment of 1330 N/sq m (10 torr) or 101,000 N/sq m (760 torr) air at temperatures of 1093 and 1204 C. While the same oxidation kinetics were observed in isothermal tests for Ni-14.6Cr-5.86Al as were obtained for the TDNiCr-5.86Al, the dispersion-strengthened alloy exhibited superior oxide scale adhesion during cyclic testing. At 1204 C, continuous weight gains were observed under all test conditions for TDNiCr-5.86Al, in contrast to the weight loss with time which occurred several hours after exposure of TDNiCr to an oxidizing environment. TDNiCr with an initial aluminum surface concentration of 4.95 wt % has nearly comparable oxidation resistance to the TDNiCr-5.86Al alloy.

  20. Formation of (Cr, Al)UO4 from doped UO2 and its influence on partition of soluble fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Gregg, D. J.; Zhang, Y.; Thorogood, G. J.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Grimes, R. W.; Middleburgh, S. C.

    2013-11-01

    CrUO4 and (Cr, Al)UO4 have been fabricated by a sol-gel method, studied using diffraction techniques and modelled using empirical pair potentials. Cr2O3 was predicted to preferentially form CrUO4 over entering solution into hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x by atomic scale simulation. Further, it was predicted that the formation of CrUO4 can proceed by removing excess oxygen from the UO2 lattice. Attempts to synthesise AlUO4 failed, instead forming U3O8 and Al2O3. X-ray diffraction confirmed the structure of CrUO4 and identifies the existence of a (Cr, Al)UO4 phase for the first time (with a maximum Al to Cr mole ratio of 1:3). Simulation was subsequently used to predict the partition energies for the removal of fission products or fuel additives from hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x and their incorporation into the secondary phase. The partition energies are consistent only with smaller cations (e.g. Zr4+, Mo4+ and Fe3+) residing in CrUO4, while all divalent cations are predicted to remain in UO2+x. Additions of Al had little effect on partition behaviour. The reduction of UO2+x due to the formation of CrUO4 has important implications for the solution limits of other fission products as many species are less soluble in UO2 than UO2+x.

  1. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  2. Advanced ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T; Pint, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    ODS FeCrAl alloys are being developed with optimum composition and properties for accident tolerant fuel cladding. Two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-15Cr-5Al+Y2O3 alloys were fabricated by ball milling and extrusion of gas atomized metallic powder mixed with Y2O3 powder. To assess the impact of Mo on the alloy mechanical properties, one alloy contained 1%Mo. The hardness and tensile properties of the two alloys were close and higher than the values reported for fine grain PM2000 alloy. This is likely due to the combination of a very fine grain structure and the presence of nano oxide precipitates. The nano oxide dispersion was however not sufficient to prevent grain boundary sliding at 800 C and the creep properties of the alloys were similar or only slightly superior to fine grain PM2000 alloy. Both alloys formed a protective alumina scale at 1200 C in air and steam and the mass gain curves were similar to curves generated with 12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+Hf or Zr) ODS alloys fabricated for a different project. To estimate the maximum temperature limit of use for the two alloys in steam, ramp tests at a rate of 5 C/min were carried out in steam. Like other ODS alloys, the two alloys showed a significant increase of the mas gains at T~ 1380 C compared with ~1480 C for wrought alloys of similar composition. The beneficial effect of Yttrium for wrought FeCrAl does not seem effective for most ODS FeCrAl alloys. Characterization of the hardness of annealed specimens revealed that the microstructure of the two alloys was not stable above 1000 C. Concurrent radiation results suggested that Cr levels <15wt% are desirable and the creep and oxidation results from the 12Cr ODS alloys indicate that a lower Cr, high strength ODS alloy with a higher maximum use temperature could be achieved.

  3. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis.

  4. High-Temperature Thermometer Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Broadband Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey; Chambers, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A new concept has been developed for a high-temperature luminescence-based optical thermometer that both shows the desired temperature sensitivity in the upper temperature range of present state-of-the-art luminescence thermometers (above 1,300 C), while maintaining substantial stronger luminescence signal intensity that will allow these optical thermometers to operate in the presence of the high thermal background radiation typical of industrial applications. This objective is attained by using a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) sensor with an orthorhombic perovskite structure, resulting in broadband luminescence that remains strong at high temperature due to the favorable electron energy level spacing of Cr:GdAlO3. The Cr:GdAlO3 temperature (and pressure) sensor can be incorporated into, or applied onto, a component s surface when a non-contact surface temperature measurement is desired, or alternatively, the temperature sensor can be attached to the end of a fiber-optic probe that can then be positioned at the location where the temperature measurement is desired. In the case of the fiber-optic probe, both the pulsed excitation and the luminescence emission travel through the fiber-optic light guide. In either case, a pulsed light source provides excitation of the luminescence, and the broadband luminescence emission is collected. Real-time temperature measurements are obtain ed using a least-squares fitting algorithm that determines the luminescence decay time, which has a known temperature dependence established by calibration. Due to the broad absorption and emission bands for Cr:GdAlO3, there is considerable flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength and emission wavelength detection bands. The strategic choice of the GdAlO3 host is based on its high crystal field, phase stability, and distorted symmetry at the Cr3+ occupation sites. The use of the broadband emission for temperature sensing at high temperatures is a key feature of the invention and is

  5. Fretting corrosion of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V interfaces.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2012-08-01

    Mechanically assisted corrosion (fretting corrosion, tribocorrosion etc.,) of metallic biomaterials is a primary concern for numerous implant applications, particularly in the performance of highly-loaded medical devices. While the basic underlying concepts of fretting corrosion or tribocorrosion and fretting crevice corrosion are well known, there remains a need to develop an integrated systematic method for the analysis of fretting corrosion involving metal-on-metal contacts. Such a method can provide detailed and quantitative information on the processes present and explore variations in surfaces, alloys, voltages, loadings, motion and solution conditions. This study reports on development of a fretting corrosion test system and presents elements of an in-depth theoretical fretting corrosion model that incorporates both the mechanical and the electrochemical aspects of fretting corrosion. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new system and validate the proposed model, experiments were performed to understand the effect of applied normal load on fretting corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V, CoCrMo/Ti6Al4V, and CoCrMo/CoCrMo material couples under potentiostatic conditions with a fixed starting surface roughness. The results of this study show that fretting corrosion is affected by material couples, normal load and the motion conditions at the interface. In particular, fretting currents and coefficient of friction (COF) vary with load and are higher for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple reaching 3 mA/cm(2) and 0.63 at about 73 MPa nominal contact stress, respectively. Ti6Al4V coupled with CoCrMo displayed lower currents (0.6 mA/cm(2)) and COF (0.3), and the fretting corrosion behavior was comparable to CoCrMo/CoCrMo couple (1.2 mA/cm(2) and 0.3, respectively). Information on the mechanical energy dissipated at the interface, the sticking behavior, and the load dependence of the inter-asperity distance calculated using the model elucidated the influence of

  6. Annealing effect on the electrical properties and composition of a NiCrAl thin film resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Ru

    2015-12-01

    The composition of NiCrAl thin film resistors, under different annealing conditions in a N2 atmosphere, was investigated. The Auger electron spectrum (AES) has been used in studying the composition of NiCrAl thin films. The concentration ratio of Cr to Ni decreases when the annealing temperature increases. The electrical properties of a NiCrAl thin film resistor are affected by the concentrations of Cr and Ni, which lead to a higher temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and a lower sheet resistivity. The TCR of a NiCrAl thin film resistor is -5 ppm/°C at a 250 °C annealing temperature.

  7. Mn-Cr dating of Fe- and Ca-rich olivine from 'quenched' and 'plutonic' angrite meteorites using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Amelin, Yuri; Holden, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half life of 3.7 Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55Mn/52Cr ratios arising from very low Cr concentrations. Discrepant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or 'quenched' angrite D'Orbigny and some slowly cooled or 'plutonic' angrites suggests that some have been affected by secondary disturbances, but this seems to have occurred in quenched rather than in slow-cooled plutonic angrites, where such disturbance or delay of isotopic closure might be expected. Using SIMS, we investigate the Mn-Cr systematics of quenched angrites to higher precision than previously achieved by this method and extend our investigation to non-quenched (plutonic or sub-volcanic) angrites. High values of 3.54 (±0.18) × 10-6 and 3.40 (±0.19) × 10-6 (2-sigma) are found for the initial 53Mn/55Mn of the quenched angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555, which are preserved by Cr-poor olivine and kirschsteinite. The previously reported initial 53Mn/55Mn value of D'Orbigny obtained from bulk-rock and mineral separates is slightly lower and was probably controlled by Cr-rich olivine. Results can be interpreted in terms of the diffusivity of Cr in this mineral. Very low Cr concentrations in Ca-rich olivine and kirschsteinite are probably charge balanced by Al; this substitutes for Si and likely diffuses at a very slow rate because Si is the slowest-diffusing cation in olivine. Diffusion in Cr-rich Mg-Fe olivine is probably controlled by cation vacancies because of deficiency in charge-balancing Al and is therefore more prone to disturbance. The higher initial 53Mn/55Mn found by SIMS for extrusive angrites is more likely to reflect closure of Cr in kirschsteinite at the time of crystallisation, simultaneous with closure of U-Pb and Hf-W isotope systematics for these meteorites obtained from pyroxenes. For the younger

  8. Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1995-01-01

    A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

  9. Cage Structure Formation of Singly Doped Aluminum Cluster Cations Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sandra M.; Claes, Pieterjan; Neukermans, Sven; Janssens, Ewald

    2011-09-01

    Structural information on free transition metal doped aluminum clusters, Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr), was obtained by studying their ability for argon physisorption. Systematic size ( n = 5 - 35) and temperature ( T = 145 - 300 K) dependent investigations reveal that bare Al n + clusters are inert toward argon, while Al n TM + clusters attach one argon atom up to a critical cluster size. This size is interpreted as the geometrical transition from surface-located dopant atoms to endohedrally doped aluminum clusters with the transition metal atom residing in an aluminum cage. The critical size, n crit , is found to be surprisingly large, namely n crit = 16 and n crit = 19 - 21 for TM = V, Cr, and TM = Ti, respectively. Experimental cluster-argon bond dissociation energies have been derived as function of cluster size from equilibrium mass spectra and are in the 0.1-0.3 eV range.

  10. The effect of chemical pressure on the structure and properties of A2CrOsO6 (A=Sr, Ca) ferrimagnetic double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Ryan; Soliz, Jennifer R.; Hauser, Adam J.; Gallagher, James C.; Susner, Michael A.; Sumption, Michael D.; Aczel, Adam A.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Yang, Fengyuan; Woodward, Patrick M.

    2016-06-01

    The ordered double perovskites Sr2CrOsO6 and Ca2CrOsO6 have been synthesized and characterized with neutron powder diffraction, electrical transport measurements, and high field magnetization experiments. As reported previously Sr2CrOsO6 crystallizes with R 3 bar symmetry due to a-a-a- octahedral tilting. A decrease in the tolerance factor leads to a-a-b+ octahedral tilting and P21/n space group symmetry for Ca2CrOsO6. Both materials are found to be ferrimagnetic insulators with saturation magnetizations near 0.2 μB. Sr2CrOsO6 orders at 660 K while Ca2CrOsO6 orders at 490 K. Variable temperature magnetization measurements suggest that the magnetization of the Cr3+ and Os3+ sublattices have different temperature dependences in Sr2CrOsO6. This leads to a non-monotonic temperature evolution of the magnetic moment. Similar behavior is not seen in Ca2CrOsO6. Both compounds have similar levels of Os/Cr antisite disorder, with order parameters of η=80.2(4)% for Sr2CrOsO6 and η=76.2(5)% for Ca2CrOsO6, where η=2θ-1 and θ is the occupancy of the osmium ion on the osmium-rich Wyckoff site.

  11. A combined APT and SANS investigation of α' phase precipitation in neutron-irradiated model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Briggs, Samuel A.; Edmondson, Philip D.; Littrell, Kenneth C.; ...

    2017-03-01

    Here, FeCrAl alloys are currently under consideration for accident-tolerant fuel cladding applications in light water reactors owing to their superior high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance compared to the Zr-based alloys currently employed. However, their performance could be limited by precipitation of a Cr-rich α' phase that tends to embrittle high-Cr ferritic Fe-based alloys. In this study, four FeCrAl model alloys with 10–18 at.% Cr and 5.8–9.3 at.% Al were neutron-irradiated to nominal damage doses up to 7.0 displacements per atom at a target temperature of 320 °C. Small angle neutron scattering techniques were coupled with atom probe tomography to assessmore » the composition and morphology of the resulting α' precipitates. It was demonstrated that Al additions partially destabilize the α' phase, generally resulting in precipitates with lower Cr contents when compared with binary Fe-Cr systems. The precipitate morphology evolution with dose exhibited a transient coarsening regime akin to previously observed behavior in aged Fe-Cr alloys. Similar behavior to predictions of the LSW/UOKV models suggests that α' precipitation in irradiated FeCrAl is a diffusion-limited process with coarsening mechanisms similar to those in thermally aged high-Cr ferritic alloys.« less

  12. Phase transformations in rapidly quenched Al-Cr-Zr alloys during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvereva, N. L.; Kazakova, E. F.; Dmitrieva, N. E.

    2017-02-01

    Results from studying the effect zirconium has on solid-phase processes in aluminum-chromium alloys are presented. Rapidly quenched alloys are prepared via melt spinning. The quenching rate is 106 K/s. By means of physicochemical analysis, it is shown that doping Al-Cr alloys with zirconium improves the thermal stability of supersaturated solid solutions and stabilizes their microcrystalline structure; this hinders the coagulation of intermetallic phases and thus improves the hardness of the alloys. It is found that supersaturated solid solutions of Cr and Zr in aluminum undergo stepwise decomposition; the temperature and time parameters of each step are shown in TTT diagrams.

  13. Cr:YSO Saturable Absorber for the Three-Level Cr:BeAl2O4 Laser at 680.4 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chen, Horng-Min

    2000-12-01

    In addition to being an efficient saturable absorber Q switch for the tunable Cr:BeAl2O4 laser for its entire tuning range from 700 to 818 nm, the Cr:YSO is shown to be an effective saturable absorber Q switch for the 3-level Cr:BeAl2O4 laser at 680.4 nm. The passive Q-switching performance of this 3-level laser is similar to that of the passively Q-switched ruby laser.

  14. Tunable Cr:YSO Q-Switched Cr:BeAl2O4 Laser: Numerical Study on Laser Performance along Three Principal Axes of the Q Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Horng-Min

    2000-07-01

    Numerical simulation of the Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:BeAl2O4 tunable laser is studied along the three principal axes of the Cr:YSO saturable absorber. The n1 axis has the best Q-switching performance when compared to the n2 and n3 axes. Theoretical expressions of important parameters such as the laser population inversion at various stages, the peak photon number inside the laser resonator, and the output energy and the pulsewidth of the Q-switched laser pulses are derived and used to evaluate the characteristics of the Cr:YSO Q-switched Cr:BeAl2O4 laser system.

  15. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu-17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9+/-9.5 kJ/mol. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR-5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  16. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj. Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu- 17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9 +/- 9.5 kJ/mol. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr- 5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR- 5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  17. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj. Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu- 17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9 9.5 kJ mol-1. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr- 5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR- 5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  18. Electronic and Elastic Properties of CrO2 in the Orthorhombic CaCl2-TYPE Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Deng, C. R.; Su, X. F.

    2012-07-01

    The structure, electronic and elastic properties of CrO2 in the high pressure orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) phase are investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Our calculated crystal parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The electronic band structure, density of state (DOS) and projected density of state (PDOS) at 14 GPa are studied within local spin density approximation (LSDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in details. The CaCl2 phase of CrO2 still has the half metal character, which is in accordance with previous theoretical predictions. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson ratio under pressures are successfully obtained for the orthorhombic CaCl2 phase of CrO2. This structure is mechanically stable at our applied range of pressures. The calculated elastic anisotropic factors show that the CaCl2 phase of CrO2 is provided with high elastic anisotropy and the elastic anisotropy decreases with increasing pressures. The propagation speed of transverse, longitudinal elastic wave together with associated Debye temperatures are also estimated.

  19. Long-term high-velocity oxidation and hot corrosion testing of several NiCrAl and FeCrAl base oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys have been tested for cyclic, long-term, high gas-velocity resistance to oxidation at 1100 C and hot corrosion at 900 C. Both nominally Ni-16Cr-4Al and Fe-20Cr-4.5Al ODS alloys were subjected up to about 2500 cycles, where each cycle consisted of 1 hr in a hot, Mach 0.3 combusted gas stream followed by a 3-min quench in an ambient temperature, Mach 0.3 air blast. For comparison to existing technology, a coated superalloy was simultaneously tested. The ODS iron alloy exhibited clearly superior behavior, surviving 3800 oxidation and 2300 hot corrosion cycles essentially unscathed. While the ODS nickel alloys exhibited adequate oxidation resistance, the long-term hot corrosion resistance could be marginal, since the best life for such alloys under these conditions was only about 1100 cycles. However, the hot corrosion resistance of the ODS Ni-base alloys is excellent in comparison to that of traditional superalloys.

  20. O-18 tracer studies of Al2O3 scale formation on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, K. P. R.; Cooper, A. R.; Smialek, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl + Zr alloys were studied by the proton activation technique employing the O-18 isotope as a tracer. The O-18 profiles identified a zone of oxide penetration beneath the external scale. Both this subscale formation and the outer Al2O3 scale thickness were shown by this technique to increase with Zr content in the alloy. Estimated kp's from scale thicknesses were in agreement with gravimetric measurements for various Zr levels. Alternate exposures in O-16 and O-18 revealed that oxygen inward transport was the primary growth mechanism. A qualitative analysis of these O-18 profiles indicated that the oxygen transport was primarily via short-circuit paths, such as grain boundaries.

  1. Kerr rotation and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoCr films with Al ultrathin interlayers and single-layer CoCr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Toyoaki; Takahashi, Takakazu; Hoshi, Youichi; Naoe, Masahiko

    1991-11-01

    The Co81Cr19/Al multilayered films were prepared by using the plasma-free sputtering apparatus. The specimen films with the thicknesses of Co81Cr19 and Al layers lCo-Cr and lAl of 50-170 and 7-14 Å, respectively, were investigated for the Kerr rotation angle θK and the reflectance R of the multilayered films with total thickness of 1500 Å. Films with lCo-Cr and lAl of 138 and 7 Å, respectively, had a θK of 0.21° and R of 0.7 which is larger than Co81Cr19 single-layer films prepared by conventional sputtering where θK and R are 0.036° and 0.4-0.5, respectively. These results indicate that the films were entirely homogeneous, that is, the surface and interior of the films may be almost the same for composition, microstructure and magnetic properties. Consequently, the Co81Cr19 thin films with Al ultrathin interlayers may be useful for microcrystalline magneto-optical media with a high C/N ratio.

  2. Ga, Ca, and 3d transition element (Cr through Zn) partitioning among spinel-lherzolite phases from the Lanzo massif, Italy: Analytical results and crystal chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wogelius, R.A.; Fraser, D.G.

    1994-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed in Lanzo massif, Italy is a record of mantle geochemistry, melting, sub-solidus re-equilibration. Plagioclase(+ spinel)-lherzolite samples were analyzed by Scanning Proton Microscopy, other techniques. Previous work postulated partial melting events and a two-stage sub-solidus cooling history; this paper notes Ga enrichment on spinel-clinopyroxene grain boundaries, high Ga and transition element content of spinel, and pyroxene zonation in Ca and Al. Trace element levels in olivine and orthopyroxene are also presented. Zoning trends are interpreted as due to diffusion during cooling. Olivine-clinopyroxene Cr and Ca exchange as well as clinopyroxene and spinel zonation trends indicate that the massif experienced at least two sub-solidus cooling episodes, one at 20 kbar to 1000 C and one at 8 kbar <750C. Ga levels in cores of Lanzo high-Cr spinels are high (82-66 ppM) relative to other mantle spinels (66-40 ppM), indicating enrichment. Ga content of ultramafic spinels apparently increases with Cr content; this may be due to: increased Ga solubility stemming from crystal chemical effects and/or higher Ga activities in associated silicate melts. Thus, during melting, high-Cr residual spinel may tend to buffer solid-phase Ga level. These spinels are not only rich in Ga and Cr (max 26.37 el. wt %), but also in Fe (max 21.07 el. wt %), Mn (max 3400 ppM), and Zn (max 2430 ppM). These enrichments are again due to melt extraction and partitioning into spinel structure. Low Ni (min 1050 ppM) levels are due to unsuccessful competition of Ni with Cr for octahedral structural sites caused by crystal field. Comparisons of change in partitioning vs Cr content among several 3d transition elements for spinels from Lanzo, other localities allow us to separate crystal field effects from bulk chemical effects and to show that in typical assemblages, inversion of olivine-spinel partition coefficient for Ni from <1 to >1 should occur at 11% el. wt. Cr in spinel.

  3. Comparative study of hydrogen sulfide adsorption in the MIL-53(Al, Cr, Fe), MIL-47(V), MIL-100(Cr), and MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic frameworks at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Lomig; Serre, Christian; Devic, Thomas; Loiseau, Thierry; Millange, Franck; Férey, Gérard; De Weireld, Guy

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide gravimetric isotherm adsorption measurements were carried out on MIL-53(Al, Cr, Fe), MIL-47(V), MIL-100(Cr), and MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). A two-step adsorption mechanism related to a breathing effect was observed for MIL-53 terephthalate-based MOFs. Methane adsorption measurements highlighted the regenerability of MIL-53(Al, Cr) and MIL-47(V) MOFs after H(2)S treatment, whereas MIL-100 and MIL-101 CH(4) adsorption capacities were significantly decreased.

  4. First-principles investigation of point defect and atomic diffusion in Al2Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao; Wang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ya-Ping; Shi, Xue-Feng; Tang, Bi-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Point defects and atomic diffusion in Al2Ca have been studied from first-principles calculations within density functional framework. After formation energy and relative stability of point defects are investigated, several predominant diffusion processes in Al2Ca are studied, including sublattice one-step mechanism, 3-jump vacancy cycles and antistructure sublattice mechanism. The associated energy profiles are calculated with climbing image nudged elastic band (CI-NEB) method, then the saddle points and activation barriers during atomic diffusion are further determined. The resulted activation barriers show that both Al and Ca can diffuse mainly mediated by neighbor vacancy on their own sublattice. 3-jump cycle mechanism mediated by VCa may make some contribution to the overall Al diffusion. And antistructure (AS) sublattice mechanism can also play an important role in Ca atomic diffusion owing to the moderate activation barrier.

  5. Relative phase and physical properties of CrN/AlN multilayer: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudris, E. F.; Díaz F, J. H.; Espita R, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Using first principles total-energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we studied the relative stability and the structural and electronic properties of multilayer CrN/AlN in the sodium chloride (NaCl), cesium chloride (CsCl), nickel arsenide (NiAs), zinc-blende, and wurtzite structures. The calculations were carried out using the method based on pseudopotentials, employed exactly as implemented in Quantum-ESPRESSO code. Based on total energy minimization, we found that the minimum global energy of CrN/AlN is obtained for the zincblende structure. Additionally, at high pressure our calculations show the possibility of a phase transition from the zincblende to NaCl structure. For the zincblende phase, the density of states analysis reveals that the multilayer exhibits a half-metallic behavior with a magnetic moment of 3.0^p/Cr-atom. These properties come essentially from the polarization of Cr-d and N-p states that cross the Fermi level. Due to these properties, the multilayer can potentially be used in the field of spintronics or spin injectors.

  6. Researching the spin-Hamiltonian parameters of Cr5+ ions in CaWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals with the two-mechanism model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Mei, Yang; Wei, Cheng-Fu; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2015-11-01

    The high-order perturbation formulas based on the two-mechanism model are adopted to calculate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors g//, g⊥ and hyperfine structure constants A//, A⊥) of the tetragonal Cr5+ centers in CaWO4 and CaMoO4 crystals. In the model, besides the vastly used crystal-field (CF) mechanism concerning the CF excited states, the generally omitted charge-transfer (CT) mechanism related to CT excited states are taken into account. The calculated results are rationally coincident with the experimental values. The signs of constants A//, A⊥ and the impurity-induced angular distortion of Cr5+ centers in both crystals are suggested from the calculations. The results (including the relative importance of CT mechanism) are discussed.

  7. Electronic structure of AlCrN films investigated using various photoelectron spectroscopies and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatemizo, N.; Imada, S.; Miura, Y.; Yamane, H.; Tanaka, K.

    2017-03-01

    The valence band (VB) structures of wurtzite AlCrN (Cr concentration: 0-17.1%), which show optical absorption in the ultraviolet-visible-infrared light region, were investigated via photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS), x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), and ab initio density of states (DOS) calculations. An obvious photoelectron emission threshold was observed ~5.3 eV from the vacuum level for AlCrN, whereas no emission was observed for AlN in the PYS spectra. Comparisons of XPS and UPS VB spectra and the calculated DOS imply that Cr 3d states are formed both at the top of the VB and in the AlN gap. These data suggest that Cr doping could be a viable option to produce new materials with relevant energy band structures for solar photoelectric conversion.

  8. Status Report on Irradiation Capsules Containing Welded FeCrAl Specimens for Radiation Tolerance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2016-02-26

    This status report provides the background and current status of a series of irradiation capsules, or “rabbits”, that were designed and built to test the contributions of microstructure, composition, damage dose, and irradiation temperature on the radiation tolerance of candidate FeCrAl alloys being developed to have enhanced weldability and radiation tolerance. These rabbits will also test the validity of using an ultra-miniature tensile specimen to assess the mechanical properties of irradiated FeCrAl base metal and weldments. All rabbits are to be irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to damage doses up to ≥15 dpa at temperatures between 200-550°C.

  9. Synthesis of Waste Form in the Gd-Fe-Al-Ni-Mn-Cr-O System

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, S.C.; Jang, Y.N.; Bae, I.K.; Ryu, K.W.

    2006-07-01

    Poly-phase waste form which was the mixture of Gd{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 3}O{sub 12} and (Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x})(Fe{sub y}Cr{sub 1-y}){sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized. Also, we are intended to examine phase relation and physicochemical properties of coexisted phases in the compositions and to confirm accommodation relation of elements and phases. Two types of phase series were observed: Garnet-perovskite-spinel and Garnet-spinel. The compositions of garnets and spinels were nonstoichiometric, and especially, this poly-phase ceramics may be in a good waste form. The excessive Gd in garnets indicated the immobilization of higher content of actinides. The nonstoichiometric compositions of garnet and spinel were attributed to the formation of perovskite in that perovskite contained Gd, Fe and Al from garnet and Cr from spinel. (authors)

  10. The Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure of a Model Ni-Al-Cr Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Yoon, Kevin E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2004-01-01

    The early to the later stages of precipitation of ordered gamma'-precipitates (L1(sub 2)) in Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr (at.%) are studied at 873 K. Precipitates with radii as small as 0.45 nm are characterized fully by three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy. Contrary to what is often assumed by theory or in models, the average precipitate composition is shown to evolve with time, such that solute concentrations decrease toward an equilibrium value given by the solvus lines. Power-law time dependencies of the number density, mean radius, and supersaturations of Al and Cr are discussed in light of theoretical predictions for Ostwald ripening.

  11. Fuel Performance Calculations for FeCrAl Cladding in BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    George, Nathan; Sweet, Ryan; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Wirth, Brian D.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study expands upon previous neutronics analyses of the reactivity impact of alternate cladding concepts in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores and directs focus toward contrasting fuel performance characteristics of FeCrAl cladding against those of traditional Zircaloy. Using neutronics results from a modern version of the 3D nodal simulator NESTLE, linear power histories were generated and supplied to the BISON-CASL code for fuel performance evaluations. BISON-CASL (formerly Peregrine) expands on material libraries implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and the MOOSE framework by providing proprietary material data. By creating material libraries for Zircaloy and FeCrAl cladding, the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod (e.g., strains, centerline fuel temperature, and time to gap closure) were investigated and contrasted.

  12. 1300 K Compressive Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2000-01-01

    The Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo eutectic has been directionally solidified by a modified Bridgeman technique at growth rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h to produce grain/cellular microstructures, containing alternating plates of NiAl and Cr alloyed with Mo. The grains had sharp boundaries for slower growth rates (< 12.7 mm/h), while faster growth rates (> 25.4 mm/h) lead to cells bounded by intercellular regions. Compressive testing at 1300 K indicated that alloys DS'ed at rates between 25.4 to 254 mm/h possessed the best strengths which exceed that for the as-cast alloy.

  13. AlF4- induces Ca2+ oscillations in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Himpens, B; Missiaen, L; Droogmans, G; Casteels, R

    1991-02-01

    The effects of different compounds that inhibit the isolated plasma-membrane Ca2+/Mg2(+)-ATPase on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and on the corresponding force development have been examined in smooth muscle of the longitudinal layer of the guinea-pig ileum. F-, in the presence of Al3+, induced an increase of the resting force and of the amplitude of the superimposed phasic contractions. The increase of resting force was associated with an increased level of basal [Ca2+]i while the phasic contractions were accompanied by concomitant oscillations in [Ca2+]i. Comparable contractions could be induced by vanadate and the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium. The oscillations of [Ca2+]i and of force elicited by AlF4- were not modified by adrenergic or cholinergic blocking agents but were inhibited by verapamil. These phasic contractions were not affected by depleting the intracellular Ca2+ stores with ryanodine. This finding excludes a cytosolic origin of these oscillations. However, hyperpolarization and complete depolarization of the cells inhibited the oscillations. It is concluded that AlF4-, vanadate and calmidazolium induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations possibly by acting at the plasma membrane. Indeed all these substances affect by different mechanisms the isolated plasma-membrane Ca2+/Mg2(+)-ATPase. The generation of membrane-linked Ca2+ oscillations could therefore be related to an inhibition of the plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump resulting in an increase of [Ca2+]i. This change in [Ca2+]i could be responsible for the pronounced changes of the electrical and mechanical activity of this tissue.

  14. Chemically sensitive amorphization process in the nanolaminated Cr2AC (A = Al or Ge) system from TEM in situ irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Mauchamp, Vincent; Oliviero, Erwan; Jaouen, Michel; Cabioc'h, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    The effect of 320 keV Xe2+ ion-irradiation in Cr2AlC and Cr2GeC is investigated in situ in the transmission electron microscope. Both compounds amorphize at moderate fluences (1013-1014 Xe cm-2) but exhibit different amorphization mechanisms, bearing witness of the major influence of the chemical composition of the nanolaminated Mn+1AXn phases. It is proposed that amorphization takes place via a direct impact amorphization process in Cr2GeC whereas it is governed by a defect accumulation process in Cr2AlC.

  15. Thermodynamic Descriptions of NI Alloys Containing AL, CR, and RU: A Computational Thermodynamic Approach Coupled with Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-03

    the present study is to adopt the Calphad approach to develop thermodynamic descriptions of Ni alloys containing elements such as Al, Cr , Ru, etc and...Fig. 2(b), the agreement between calculated 0.0 Al 0 cr three phases SLiquidus o two phases 0.2 0.2 bcc 02 02 O . O 0.2 040. 08 000 0.2 0406 O . 10 44 40...experimentation is achieved. 8 0.7, 0.7, U_. 0.01 0.01 - yphase Y phase Miyazaki 1994 Miyazaki 1994 •Ni, 0 AI, -V Cr , XRe & Ni, o AI, Cr , X Re IE-3 I

  16. The effect of zirconium on the cyclic oxidation of NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Khan, A. S.; Lowell, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines results with cyclic oxidation tests of Ni(9-20) Cr(15-30) Al-(x)Zr alloys carried out at 1100 C and 1200 C in static air. The concentration of zirconium varies from 0 to 0.63 atomic percent. Significant aluminum penetration is found in metallographic and electron microscopic examination of oxidized surfaces. Small amounts of zirconium lead to minimal penetration, and with increased zirconium content pronounced oxide penetration is observed.

  17. Synthesis of low-moment CrVTiAl: A potential room temperature spin filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, G. M.; McDonald, I.; Lejeune, B.; Lewis, L. H.; Heiman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The efficient production of spin-polarized currents at room temperature is fundamental to the advancement of spintronics. Spin-filter materials—semiconductors with unequal band gaps for each spin channel—can generate spin-polarized current without the need for spin-polarized contacts. In addition, a spin-filter material with zero magnetic moment would have the advantage of not producing strong fringing fields that would interfere with neighboring electronic components and limit the volume density of devices. The quaternary Heusler compound CrVTiAl has been predicted to be a zero-moment spin-filter material with a Curie temperature in excess of 1000 K. In this work, CrVTiAl has been synthesized with a lattice constant of a = 6.15 Å. Magnetization measurements reveal an exceptionally low moment of μ = 2.3 × 10-3 μB/f.u. at a field of μ0H = 2 T that is independent of temperature between T = 10 K and 400 K, consistent with the predicted zero-moment ferrimagnetism. Transport measurements reveal a combination of metallic and semiconducting components to the resistivity. Combining a zero-moment spin-filter material with nonmagnetic electrodes would lead to an essentially nonmagnetic spin injector. These results suggest that CrVTiAl is a promising candidate for further research in the field of spintronics.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Co 2CrAl Heusler alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, M.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2010-11-01

    Mechanical alloying has been used to produce nanocrystalline samples of Co 2CrAl Heusler alloys. The samples were characterized by using different methods. The results indicate that, it is possible to produce L2 1-Co 2CrAl powders after 15 h of ball-milling. The grain size of 15 h ball milled L2 1-Co 2CrAl Heusler phase, calculated by analyzing the XRD peak broadening using Williamson and Hall approach was 14 nm. The estimated magnetic moment per formula unit is ˜2 μ B. The obtained magnetic moment is significantly smaller than the theoretical value of 2.96 μ B for L2 1 structure. It seems that an atomic disorder from the crystalline L2 1-type ordered state and two-phase separation depresses the ferromagnetic ordering in alloy. Also, the effect of annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of ball milled powders was investigated. Two structures were identified for annealed sample, namely L2 1 and B2. The obtained value for magnetic moment of annealed sample is smaller than the as-milled sample due to the presence of disordered B2 phase and improvement of phase separation.

  19. Effects of Solute Concentrations on Kinetic Pathways in Ni-Al-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Weninger, Jessica; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic pathways resulting from the formation of coherent gamma'-precipitates from the gamma-matrix are studied for two Ni-Al-Cr alloys with similar gamma'-precipitate volume fractions at 873 K. The details of the phase decompositions of Ni-7.5Al-8.5Cr at.% and Ni-5.2Al-14.2Cr at.% for aging times from 1/6 to 1024 h are investigated by atom-probe tomography, and are found to differ significantly from a mean-field description of coarsening. The morphologies of the gamma'-precipitates of the alloys are similar, though the degrees of gamma'-precipitate coagulation and coalescence differ. Quantification within the framework of classical nucleation theory reveals that differences in the chemical driving forces for phase decomposition result in differences in the nucleation behavior of the two alloys. The temporal evolution of the gamma'-precipitate average radii and the gamma-matrix supersaturations follow the predictions of classical coarsening models. The compositional trajectories of the gamma-matrix phases of the alloys are found to follow approximately the equilibrium tie-lines, while the trajectories of the gamma'-precipitates do not, resulting in significant differences in the partitioning ratios of the solute elements.

  20. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  1. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed MCrAlY-Cr2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Chuanbing; Lan, Hao; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of two atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 and CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coatings, which are primarily designed for wear applications at high temperature, were investigated in this study. The two coatings were exposed to air and molten salt (75%Na2SO4-25%NaCl) environment at 800 °C under cyclic conditions. Oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves were obtained by thermogravimetric technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry were employed to characterize the coatings' microstructure, surface oxides, and composition. The results showed that both coatings provided the necessary oxidation resistance with oxidation rates of about 1.03 × 10-2 and 1.36 × 10-2 mg/cm2 h, respectively. The excellent oxidation behavior of these two coatings is attributed to formation of protective (Ni,Co)Cr2O4 spinel on the surface, while as-deposited Cr2O3 in the coatings also acted as a barrier to diffusion of oxidative and corrosive substances. The greater presence of Co in the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating restrained internal diffusion of sulfur and slowed down the coating's degradation. Thus, the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating was found to be more protective than the NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating under hot corrosion condition.

  2. Yttrium influence on the alumina growth mechanism on an FeCr23Al5 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntz, A. M.; Abderrazik, G. Ben; Moulin, G.; Young, E. W. A.; De Wit, J. H. W.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which yttrium modifies alumina growth was studied by comparing the behaviour of a high purity FeCr23Al5 alloy, either undoped or Y doped by implantation. By combining several techniques, in particular XPS, nuclear reaction analyses and electrochemical measurements, it is shown that the growth of Al2O3 scales on pure samples is mainly ensured by aluminum short-circuit diffusion. The presence of yttrium promotes the oxygen diffusion along grain boundaries, while retarding Al short-circuit diffusion and increasing Al lattice diffusion. From this growth mechanism with both cationic amd anionic diffusion along different paths, suggestions for the improvement of scale adherence due to yttrium are proposed. The simultaneous study of C- and Y-doped samples indicates that synergetic effects occur.

  3. Analysis of the microstructure of Cr-Ni surface layers deposited on Fe{sub 3}Al by TIG

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Haijun . E-mail: hjma123@mail.sdu.edu.cn; Li Yajiang; Wang Juan

    2006-12-15

    A series of Cr-Ni alloys were overlaid on a Fe{sub 3}Al surface by tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG) technology. The microstructure of the Cr-Ni surface layers were analysed by means of optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that when the appropriate TIG parameters were used and Cr25-Ni13 and Cr25-Ni20 alloys were used for the overlaid materials, the Cr-Ni surface layers were crack-free. The matrix of the surface layer was austenite (A), pro-eutectoid ferrite (PF), acicular ferrite (AF), carbide-free bainite (CFB) and lath martensite (LM), distributed on the austenitic grain boundaries as well as inside the grains. The phase constituents of the Cr25-Ni13 surface layer were {gamma}-Fe, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, NiAl, an Fe-C compound and an Fe-C-Cr compound. The microhardness of the fusion zone was lower than that of the Fe{sub 3}Al base metal and Cr25-Ni13 surface layer.

  4. Spinel to CaFe2O4 transformation: mechanism and properties of beta-CdCr2O4.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-López, Angel M; Dos santos-García, Antonio J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Durán, Alejandro; Alario-Franco, Miguel A

    2010-03-15

    The CdCr(2)O(4) spinel transforms to a 10.6% denser new polymorph of the CaFe(2)O(4)-type structure at 10 GPa and 1100 degrees C. This new polymorph has a honeycomb-like structure because of double rutile-type chains formed by [Cr-O(6)] edge-shared octehedra. This crystal structure is prone to be magnetically frustrated and presents low-dimensional antiferromagnetism at 25 K < T < 150 K, accompanied by more complex interactions as the temperature decreases. These transitions are evidenced by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. We also discuss a possible structural mechanism for the transformation.

  5. Calcium-Ca/AlCl4/2-thionyl chloride cell - Performance and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitav, A.; Peled, E.

    1982-03-01

    Tests to determine the effect of concentration and temperature on the conductivity of Ca(AlCl4)2-thionyl chloride solutions, to assess the discharge performance of the Ca/Ca(AlCl4)2-thionyl chloride cell at varying temperatures and electrolyte concentrations, and to study the safety of the cell during charging and reversal in comparison to a LiAlCl4 electrolyte-based cell are reported. Flat cells were examined for discharge and cylindrical cells with a reference electrode were used for electrodeposition experiments. Conductivity was found to increase when temperature decreased in the Ca(AlCl4)2 solutions, with a preferred concentration set at 0.7 M for low temperatures and 1.25 M in the range 10-60 C. No anodic disintegration was observed with lithium cathodes, although an explosion hazard remained. Finally, sandwich-like Ca/Ca(AlCl4)2-thionyl chloride cells possessed the energy density of the Li-SO2 cells, and were also impossible to charge or overdischarge, indicating a suitability for high rate multicell battery applications.

  6. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  7. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  8. Pressure effects on the superconducting transition in nH-CaAlSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeri, L.; Kim, J. S.; Giantomassi, M.; Razavi, F. S.; Kuroiwa, S.; Akimitsu, J.; Kremer, R. K.

    2008-04-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of pressure on Tc of the hexagonal layered superconductors nH-CaAlSi ( n=1 , 5, and 6), where nH denotes the different stacking variants that were recently discovered. Experimentally, the pressure dependence of Tc has been investigated by measuring the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals up to 10 kbars. In contrast to previous results on polycrystalline samples, single crystals with different stacking sequences display different pressure dependences of Tc . 1H-CaAlSi shows a decrease in Tc with pressure, whereas 5H - and 6H-CaAlSi exhibit an increase in Tc with pressure. Ab initio calculations for 1H -, 5H -, and 6H-CaAlSi reveal that an ultrasoft phonon branch associated with out-of-plane vibrations of the Al-Si layers softens with pressure, leading to a structural instability at high pressures. For 1H-CaAlSi , the softening is not sufficient to cause an increase in Tc , which is consistent with the present experiments but adverse to previous reports. For 5H and 6H , the softening provides the mechanism to understand the observed increase in Tc with pressure. Calculations for hypothetical 2H and 3H stacking variants reveal qualitative and quantitative differences.

  9. Effect of Ca addition on the damping capacity of Mg-Al-Zn casting alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Joong-Hwan; Moon, Jung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The influences of Ca addition on the microstructures and damping capacities of AZ91-(0˜2)%Ca casting alloys were investigated, on the basis of the results of X-ray diffractometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibration tests in a single cantilever mode. The amount of intermetallic compounds decreased with increasing Ca content up to 0.5%, above which it increased; the average cell size showed the opposite tendency. All alloys exhibited similar damping levels in the strain-amplitude independent region. Considering the very low solubility of Ca in the matrix, and that most of the Ca elements are consumed by the formation of the Al2Ca phase and incorporation into the Mg17Al12 phase, this would be ascribed to the almost identical concentrations of Ca solutes distributed in the matrix. In the strain-amplitude dependent region, however, the AZ91-0.5%Ca alloy possessed the maximum damping capacity. From the viewpoint of microstructural evolution with Ca addition, the number density of compound particles is considered to be the principal factor affecting the damping behavior in the strain-amplitude dependent region.

  10. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  11. Fabrication and performance testing of CaO insulator coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Corrosion resistance of structural materials, and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion, are major concerns in the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs). The objective of this study is to develop in-situ stable coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on coatings that can be converted to an electrically insulating film to prevent adverse currents that are generated by the MHD force from passing through the structural walls. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5Cr-5Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5 - 8.5 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degree}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degree}C to produce a CaO coating.

  12. Degradation of Aluminide Coatings in Fe-Al-Cr Alloy on the Isothermal Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juwita, L.; Prajitno, D. H.; Soedarsono, J. W.; Manaf, A.

    2008-03-01

    Fe base superalloy has a good mechanical strength to be used as component operating at high temperature with oxidative environment. Although, the oxidation rate can not be tolerated as it will be oxidized and form oxide scale of un-protective FeO. Coating is a proper solution that this alloy can be used at high temperature. In this research, pack aluminizing on sample was conducted with temperatures of 900 °C, 1000 °C and 1100 °C for 10 hours in inert (argon) environment and then an oxidation test was carried out at temperature of 650 °C by an isothermal method for 10 hours in air environment. It was carried out an analysis for characteristics of coating and oxide scale formed in Fe-Al-Cr super alloy resulted from pack aluminizing. From this experiment, it was indicated by XRD analysis that the coating formed on substrate was a layer of FeAl2 compound, other than coating it was found a diffused zone, where in this area it occurred movement of Fe and Cr atoms from substrate toward coating, while Al atoms moved from coating to substrate. The increase of temperature of pack aluminizing process will affect settling rate of Al and coating growth.

  13. Interdiffusion in (fcc) Ni-Cr-X (X = Al, Si, Ge or Pd) Alloys at 700?aC

    SciTech Connect

    Garimella, N; Brady, Michael P; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2007-01-01

    Interdiffusion at 700 aC for Ni-22at.%Cr (fcc ^ phase) alloys with small additions of Al, Si, Ge, or Pd was examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples. Rods of Ni-22at.%Cr, Ni-21at.%Cr-6.2at.%Al, Ni-22at.%Cr-4.0at.%Si, Ni-22at.%Cr-1.6at.%Ge and Ni-22at.%Cr-1.6at.%Pd alloys were cast using arc-melt and homogenized at 900 aC for 168 hours. The diffusion couples were assembled with alloy disks in Invar steel jig, encapsulated in Argon after several hydrogen flushes, and annealed at 700 XC for 720 hours. Experimental concentration profiles were determined from polished cross-sections by using electron probe microanalysis with pure standards of Ni, Cr, Al, Si, Ge and Pd. Interdiffusion fluxes of individual components were calculated directly from the experimental concentration profiles, and the moments of interdiffusion fluxes were examined to determine average ternary interdiffusion coefficients. Effects of ternary alloying additions on the interdiffusional behavior of Ni-Cr-X alloys at 700 XC are presented in the light of the diffusional interactions and the formation of protective Cr2O3 scale.

  14. Sirolimus-loaded CaP coating on Co-Cr alloy for drug-eluting stent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxin; Lee, In-Seop; Cui, Fuzhai

    2016-01-01

    To achieve polymer-free and controllable drug-eluting system, there have been many efforts to modify the surface composition and topography of metal stent. Recently, calcium phosphate is commonly applied to metallic implants as a coating material for fast fixation and firm-implant bone attachment on the account of its demonstrated bioactive and osteoconductive properties. In the present study, the release of sirolimus could be controllable because of immobilization of sirolimus during the process of biomimetic CaP coating forming. A completely new concept is the drug carrier of biomimetic CaP coating with sirolimus for an absorbable drug eluting system, which in turn can serve as a drug reservoir. We here describe the characteristic, mechanisms and drug release in vitro of new drug-eluting system in comparison to conventional system equivalent. Nano-structured calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was formed on the cobalt–chromium (Co-Cr) alloy substrate. By immersing coated sample in solution with sirolimus (rapamycin), the sirolimus could be immobilized in the newly formed CaP layer. The morphology, composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that a uniform CaP coating incorporated with sirolimus was observed on Co-Cr alloy. PMID:27252886

  15. Crystallization paths in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system as a genotype of silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Zelenaya, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The phases trajectories in the fields of primary crystallization of cristobalite (SiO2cr), tridymite (SiO2tr), mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and in a field of liquid immiscibility are analyzed on a basis of computer model for T-x-y diagram of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system. The concentration fields with unique set of microconstituents and the fields without individual crystallization schemes and microconstituents are revealed.

  16. Ab initio calculation of half-metallic ferromagnetism in zinc-blende (CaN)1/(AlN)x and (CaN)x/(AlN)1 (x=2, 3) (001) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-Sheng; Dong, Shengjie; Zhao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of zinc-blende (CaN)1/(AlN)x and (CaN)x/(AlN)1 (x=2, 3) superlattices in the (001) direction. With a total magnetic moment of 1 μB for (CaN)1/(AlN)2, 2 μB for (CaN)2/(AlN)1, 1 μB for (CaN)1/(AlN)3, and 3 μB for (CaN)3/(AlN)1, these four superlattices show very stable half-metallic ferromagnetic behaviors. The analysis of the partial density of states reveals that the p-d hybridization of N and Ca is responsible for the magnetization. Besides, it is shown that the magnetic properties of these multilayer superlattices can be controlled by changing the ratio of the layer numbers of dissimilar materials.

  17. X-ray Diffraction Analysis on Post Treatment of Ca-Mg-Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Heriyanto

    2017-02-01

    This research objectives to study post treatment on Ca-Mg-Al-Layered Double Hydroxide (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) slurry which was prepared from brine water by cooling treatment. The cooling rate was varied from 1 to 3 °C/min by using stirring and without stirring, and the cooling time was done at 0, 30 minutes and 24 hours. The quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) was employed on Ca-Mg-Al-LDH using Le Bail refinement method. The refinement results found another Mg-Al-LDH and Ca-Al-LDH phases, such as Mg(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and CaCO3. The highest phase composition on material Ca-Mg-Al-LDH using Le Bail refinement was showed by Al(OH)3.

  18. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of {gamma}-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation {gamma}-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed.

  19. Large magnetization and high Curie temperature in highly disordered nanoscale Fe2CrAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulal, Rajendra P.; Dahal, Bishnu R.; Forbes, Andrew; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    2017-02-01

    We have successfully grown nanoscale Fe2CrAl thin films on polished Si/SiO2 substrates using an ultra-high vacuum deposition with a base pressure of 9×10-10 Torr. The thickness of thin films ranges from 30 to 100 nm. These films exhibit cubic crystal structure with lattice disorder and display ferromagnetic behavior. The Curie temperature is greater than 400 K, which is much higher than that reported for bulk Fe2CrAl. The magnetic moments of the films varies from 2.5 to 2.8 μB per formula unit, which is larger than the reported bulk values. Thus, the disordered nanoscale Fe2CrAl films exhibit strong Fe-Fe exchange interactions through Fe-Cr-Fe and Fe-Al-Fe layers, resulting in both a large magnetization and a high Curie temperature.

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    DOEpatents

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  1. Cyclic Corrosion and Chlorination of an FeCrAl Alloy in the Presence of KCl

    DOE PAGES

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; ...

    2015-05-30

    The KCl-induced corrosion of the FeCrAl alloy Kanthal® APMT in an O2 + N2 + H2O environment was studied at 600 °C. The samples were pre-oxidized prior to exposure in order to investigate the protective nature of alumina scales in the present environment. The microstructure and composition of the corroded surface was investigated in detail. Corrosion started at flaws in the pre-formed α-alumina scales, i.e. α-alumina was protective in itself. Consequently, KCl-induced corrosion started locally and, subsequently, spread laterally. An electrochemical mechanism is proposed here by which a transition metal chloride forms in the alloy and K2CrO4 forms at themore » scale/gas interface. Scale de-cohesion is attributed to the formation of a sub-scale transition metal chloride.« less

  2. High hardness and superlative oxidation resistance in a pseudo-icosahehdral Cr-Al binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, J. W.; Rosa, R.; Antonacci, A. K.; He, H.; Bender, A. D.; Pabla, J.; Adrip, W.; McNally, D. E.; Zebro, A.; Kamenov, P.; Geschwind, G.; Ghose, S.; Dooryhee, E.; Ibrahim, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    Improving the efficiency of fossil fuel plants is a practical option for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from electrical power generation. Present limits on the operating temperatures of exposed steel components, however, restrict steam temperatures and therefore energy efficiency. Even as a new generation of creep-resistant, high strength steels retain long term structural stability to temperatures as high as ~ 973 K, the low Cr-content of these alloys hinders their oxidation resistance, necessitating the development of new corrosion resistant coatings. We report here the nearly ideal properties of potential coating material Cr55Al229, which exhibits high hardness at room temperature as well as low thermal conductivity and superlative oxidation resistance at 973 K, with an oxidation rate at least three times smaller than those of benchmark materials. These properties originate from a pseudo-icosahedral crystal structure, suggesting new criteria for future research.

  3. Epitaxial growth of the Heusler alloy Co2Cr1-xFexAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekar, R.; Clemens, B. M.

    2004-07-01

    We report a method for the growth of single-phase epitaxial thin films of compounds from the family of Heusler alloys Co2Cr1-xFexAl. Elemental targets were dc magnetron sputtered in 1.5 mtorr Ar gas onto MgO substrates held at 500 °C at a total growth rate of ≈0.8 Å/s. As the Fe content increases, the structural quality improves, the level of chemical ordering increases, and the slope of the resistivity versus temperature, dρ/dt, above 50 K changes from negative to positive. An extraordinary Hall resistivity exceeding 1×10-8 Ω m is observed in the Cr-containing alloys at low temperature and room temperature. Preliminary work on the incorporation of a single quaternary alloy into spin valves shows maximum giant magnetoresistances ranging from 4% at 15 K to 2% at room temperature.

  4. Potential and frequency effects on fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo surfaces.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2013-09-01

    Fretting corrosion has been reported at the metal-metal interfaces of a wide range of medical devices, including total joint replacements, spinal devices, and overlapping cardiovascular stents. Currently, the fretting corrosion phenomenon associated with metal-on-metal contacts is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of potential and fretting frequency on the fretting corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al4V/CoCrMo, and CoCrMo/CoCrMo alloy combinations at fixed normal load and displacement conditions using a custom built fretting corrosion test system. The results showed that the fretting current densities increased with increases in potential and were highest for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple (1.5 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The coefficient of friction varied with potential and was about two times higher for Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V (0.71 V at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl). In most of the potential range tested, the fretting corrosion behavior of CoCrMo/Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo/CoCrMo was similar and dominated by the CoCrMo surface. Increase in applied fretting frequency linearly increased the fretting current densities in the regions where the passive film is stable. Also, the model-based fretting current densities were in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Overall, Ti6Al4V/Ti6Al4V couple was more susceptible to fretting corrosion compared with other couples. However, the effects of these processes on the biological system were not assessed.

  5. Structure and composition of higher-rhenium-content superalloy based on La-alloyed Ni-Al-Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Eduard V.; Koneva, Nina A.; Nikonenko, Elena L.; Popova, Natalya A.; Fedorischeva, Marina V.

    2015-10-27

    The paper presents the transmission and scanning electronic microscope investigations of Ni-Al-Cr superalloy alloyed with additional Re and La elements. This superalloy is obtained by a directional solidification method. It is shown that such additional elements as Re and La result in formation of new phases in Ni-Al-Cr accompanied by considerable modifications of quasi-cuboid structure in its γ’-phase.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Double Perovskite Ca2CrSbO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Ni, Guang-Xin; Liu, Hui-Ping; Yi, Lin

    2010-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for the study of the electronic hand structure and ferromagnetic properties of double perovskite Ca2CrSbO6. The density of states, total energy, spin magnetic moment, and charge density were calculated and analyzed in details. It is found that Ca2CrSbO6 has a stable ferromagnetic ground state and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is about 2.99μB. The chromium contributes the most in the total magnetic moments. The results indicate that Ca2CrSbO6 is half-metallic.

  7. Characterization of DC magnetron plasma in Ar/Kr/N2 mixture during deposition of (Cr,Al)N coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Theiß, S.; Brugnara, R.; Bibinov, N.; Awakowicz, P.

    2017-02-01

    Reactive sputter deposition of (Cr,Al)N coatings in DC magnetron plasmas containing Ar/Kr/N2 mixtures is characterized by applying a combination of voltage–current measurement, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and numerical simulation. Theoretical and experimental methods supplement each other and their combination permits us to obtain the most reliable information about the processes by physical vapor deposition. Gas temperature (T g) and plasma parameters, namely electron density n e and electron temperature T e are determined by spatial resolved measurements of molecular nitrogen photoemission. Steady-state densities of Cr and Al atoms are measured using OES. The sputtering of Cr and Al atoms is simulated using the TRIDYN code, measured electric current and applied voltage. Transport of sputtered atoms through the plasma volume is simulated by adopting a Monte-Carlo code. In order to quantify the ‘poisoning’ of the target surface with nitrogen, simulated steady state densities of Al and Cr atoms at different states of poisoning and at different distances from the target are compared with the measured densities. In addition, simulated fluxes of Cr and Al atoms to the substrate are compared with the measured deposition rates of the (Cr,Al)N coating.

  8. A study of the oxide dispersion and recrystallization in NiCrAl prepared from preoxidized powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The sintered aluminum powder (SAP) technique of dispersion strengthening (formation of an oxide dispersion by preoxidation of metal powders) was applied to atomized powder of a nickel alloy containing, by weight, 17% Cr, 5% Al, and 0.2% Y. The SAP-NiCrAl alloy (without the ytterbium removed by oxdation) was worked by extrusion and rod rolling at 1205 C and by swaging at 760 C. Annealing treatments were applied after working to determine the recrystallization response. The NiCrAlY alloy, similarly prepared from atomized powder, but without a preoxidation treatment, was examined for comparison. The SAP-NiCrAl alloy exhibited oxide particle size and spacing much larger than that usually observed in oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; nonetheless, it was possible to achieve abnormal (secondary) recrystallization in the SAP-NiCrAl alloy as has been reported for other oxide dispersion strengthened alloys. In contrast, the unoxidized NiCrAlY alloy exhibited only primary recrystallization.

  9. In quest of cathode materials for Ca ion batteries: the CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-de Dompablo, M E; Krich, C; Nava-Avendaño, J; Palacín, M R; Bardé, F

    2016-07-20

    Basic electrochemical characteristics of CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) as cathode materials for Ca ion batteries are investigated using first principles calculations at the Density Functional Theory level (DFT). Calculations have been performed within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and GGA+U methodologies, and considering cubic and orthorhombic perovskite structures for CaxMO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The analysis of the calculated voltage-composition profile and volume variations identifies CaMoO3 as the most promising perovskite compound. It combines good electronic conductivity, moderate crystal structure modifications, and activity in the 2-3 V region with several intermediate CaxMoO3 phases. However, we found too large barriers for Ca diffusion (around 2 eV) which are inherent to the perovskite structure. The CaMoO3 perovskite was synthesized, characterized and electrochemically tested, and results confirmed the predicted trends.

  10. Effect of decomposition of the Cr-Fe-Co rich phase of AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy on magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Wanderka, N; Kiefer, K; Siemensmeyer, K; Banhart, J

    2011-05-01

    Splat-quenched, as-cast and aged (2h at 600 °C after casting) AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloys were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe (3D-AP). 3D-AP revealed anti-correlated fluctuations of the Cr and Fe-Co compositions in Cr-Fe-Co-rich regions of the as-cast alloy. The ferromagnetic behavior of AlCoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy was correlated with the decomposition of the Cr-Fe-Co-rich regions into ferromagnetic Fe-Co-rich and antiferromagnetic Cr-rich domains, the size of which was determined by statistical analysis of 3D-AP data. The splat-quenched alloy showed a softer magnetic behavior as compared to the as-cast and aged alloys. The aged alloy possessed a higher saturation magnetization and coercivity as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  11. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A.

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  12. Theoretical study of the coordination of the Cr3+ ion in α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Recio, J. M.; Pendas, A. Martín; Francisco, E.; Luaña, V.; Pueyo, L.

    1995-12-01

    The local arrangement of a substitutional Cr3+ ion for an Al3+ ion in corundum is studied by means of first-principles pairwise simulations and quantum-mechanical ab initio Perturbed Ion calculations. Our investigation is organized in two steps. First, we determine the cohesive properties of the host lattice by calculating the set of four crystalline parameters that makes minimum the total energy of corundum. Secondly, we solve cluster models of increasing complexity centered at the Cr3+ site and embedded in the previously computed crystal potential. This is a consistent strategy that contributes to determine the local geometry of Cr3+ in α-Al2O3.

  13. Atomic-scale microstructure underneath nanoindentation in Al-Cr-N ceramic films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang Li, Zhipeng; Lin, Songsheng

    2015-12-15

    In this work, Al-Cr-N ceramic films deformed by nanoindentation were peeled off from silicon substrates and their atomic-scale microstructures underneath the indenter were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). Dislocations were formed underneath the indenter and they accumulated along nano-grain boundaries. The accumulative dislocations triggered the crack initiation along grain boundaries, and further resulted in the crack propagation. Dislocations were also observed in nano-grains on the lateral contact area. A model was proposed to describe the variation of microstructures under nanoindentation.

  14. Atomic-scale microstructure underneath nanoindentation in Al-Cr-N ceramic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Li, Zhipeng; Lin, Songsheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, Al-Cr-N ceramic films deformed by nanoindentation were peeled off from silicon substrates and their atomic-scale microstructures underneath the indenter were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). Dislocations were formed underneath the indenter and they accumulated along nano-grain boundaries. The accumulative dislocations triggered the crack initiation along grain boundaries, and further resulted in the crack propagation. Dislocations were also observed in nano-grains on the lateral contact area. A model was proposed to describe the variation of microstructures under nanoindentation.

  15. Interdiffusion in ? (fcc) Ni-Cr-X (X=Al, Si, Ge or Pd) Alloys at 900?C

    SciTech Connect

    Garimella, N; Brady, Michael P; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2006-01-01

    Interdiffusion in Ni-Cr (fcc phase) alloys with small additions of Al, Si, Ge, or Pd was investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples. Ni-Cr-X alloys having compositions of Ni- 22at.%Cr, Ni-21at.%Cr-6.2at.%Al, Ni-22at.%Cr-4.0at.%Si, Ni-22at.%Cr-1.6at.%Ge and Ni- 22at.%Cr-1.6at.%Pd were manufactured by arc-casting. The diffusion couples were assembled in an Invar steel jig, encapsulated in Ar after several hydrogen purges, and annealed at 900 C in a three-zone tube furnace for 168 hours. Experimental concentration profiles were determined from polished cross-section of these couples by using electron probe microanalysis with pure element standards. Interdiffusion fluxes of individual components were calculated directly from the experimental concentration profiles, and the moments of interdiffusion fluxes were examined to determine average ternary interdiffusion coefficients. Effects of ternary alloying additions on the diffusional behavior of Ni-Cr-X alloys are presented in the light of the diffusional interactions and the formation of a protective Cr2O3 scale

  16. Weldability of Fe-Al-Cr Overlay Coatings for CorrosionProtection in Oxidizing/Sulfidizing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, JR

    2003-03-04

    The effect of chromium additions to the weldability of Fe-Al based overlay claddings are currently being investigated for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx furnaces. The primary objective of this research is to identify weldable (crack-free) Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay coating compositions that provide corrosion resistance over long exposure times. During the current project phase, preliminary corrosion testing was conducted on several ternary Fe-Al-Cr alloys in two types of gaseous corrosion environments. These long-term corrosion tests were used to develop a target weld composition matrix and serve as a base line for future corrosion tests. Preliminary Fe-Al based welds with various aluminum concentrations and one ternary Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay were successfully deposited using a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process and cracking susceptibility was evaluated on these coatings.

  17. The electrochemical and mechanical behavior of passivated and TiN/AlN-coated CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloys.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jay R; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2004-02-01

    The mechanical and electrochemical behavior of the surface oxides of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloys during fracture and repassivation play an important role in the corrosion of the taper interfaces of modular hip implants. This behavior was investigated in one group of CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V alloy samples passivated with nitric acid and another group coated with a novel TiN/AlN coating. The effects of mechanical load and sample potential on peak currents and time constants resulting from fracture of the surface oxide or coating, and the effects of mechanical load on scratch depth were investigated to determine the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the oxides or coating. The polarization behavior of the samples after fracture of the oxide or coating was also investigated. CoCrMo had a stronger surface oxide and higher interfacial adhesion strength, making it more resistant to fracture than Ti6Al4V. If undisturbed, the oxide on the surface of Ti6Al4V significantly reduced dissolution currents at a wider range of potentials than CoCrMo, making Ti6Al4V more resistant to corrosion. The TiN/AlN coating had a higher hardness and modulus of elasticity than CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V. It was much less susceptible to fracture, had a higher interfacial adhesion strength, and was a better barrier to ionic diffusion than the surface oxides on CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V. The coating provided increased corrosion and fretting resistance to the substrate alloys.

  18. Structural changes in the FeAl2O4-FeCr2O4 solid solution series and their consequences on natural Cr-bearing spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaz, Davide; Skogby, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    The influence of Al-Cr substitution on the spinel structure was studied in synthetic single crystals belonging to the FeCr2O4-FeAl2O4 series produced by flux growth at 1,000-1,300 °C in controlled atmosphere. Samples were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analyses and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Crystals of sufficient size and quality for single-crystal X-ray diffraction were obtained in the ranges Chr0-0.45 and Chr70-100 but not for intermediate compositions, possibly due to a reduced stability in this range. The increase in chromite component leads to an increase in the cell edge from 8.1534 (6) to 8.3672 (1) Å and a decrease in the u parameter from 0.2645 (2) to 0.2628 (1). Chemical analyses show that Fe2+ is very close to 1 apfu (0.994-1.007), Al is in the range 0.0793-1.981 apfu, Cr between 0 and 1.925 apfu. In some cases, Fe3+ is present in amounts up to 0.031 apfu. Spinels with intermediate Cr content (Chr component between 40 and 60) are strongly zoned with Cr-rich cores and Cr-poor rims. Mössbauer analyses on powdered spinels of the runs from which single crystal has been used for X-ray structural data show values of Fe3+/Fetot consistently larger than that calculated by EMPA on single crystals, presumably due to chemical variation between single crystals from the same runs. The synthesis runs ended at a temperature of 1,000 °C, but it is possible that cation ordering continued in the Cr-poor samples towards lower temperatures, possibly down to 700 °C.

  19. The effect of magnetron pulsing on the structure and properties of tribological Cr-Al-N coatings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianliang; Moore, John J; Mishra, Brajendra; Sproul, Williams D; Rees, John A

    2010-02-01

    The paper will discuss the effect of pulsing single or two unbalanced magnetrons in a closed magnetic field configuration on the structure and properties of tribological Cr-Al-N coatings. Nanocrystalline Cr-Al-N coatings were reactively deposited from Cr and Al elemental targets using two unbalanced magnetrons, which were powered in both dc, pulsing only Al target and asynchronously pulsing both Cr and Al targets at 100 kHz and 50% duty cycle conditions. The ion energy distributions of these deposition and pulsing conditions were characterized using a Hiden Electrostatic QuadruPole Plasma Analyzer. It was found that pulsing two magnetrons asynchronously at 100 kHz and 50% duty cycle produced higher ion energies and significant increased ion fluxes than pulsing none or pulsing only one (Al) target. The structure and properties of Cr-Al-N coatings synthesized under different dc and pulsing conditions were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation and ball-on-disk wear test, and were correlated with the effects of ion energies and ion flux regimes observed in the plasma diagnostics. The advantages of using pulsed magnetron sputtering producing different energetic ion regimes to enhance the ion bombardment on the growing films and therefore achieving the improved density, refinement of grain size and properties are illustrated.

  20. Electronic structure, magnetism, and antisite disorder in CoFeCrGe and CoMnCrAl quaternary Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enamullah; Venkateswara, Y.; Gupta, Sachin; Varma, Manoj Raama; Singh, Prashant; Suresh, K. G.; Alam, Aftab

    2015-12-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of two quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrGe (CFCG) and CoMnCrAl (CMCA), promising candidates for spintronics applications. Magnetization measurement shows the saturation magnetization and transition temperature to be 3 μB , 866 K and 0.9 μB , 358 K for CFCG and CMCA respectively. The magnetization values agree fairly well with our theoretical results and also obey the Slater-Pauling rule, a prerequisite for half metallicity. A striking difference between the two systems is their structure; CFCG crystallizes in fully ordered Y -type structure while CMCA has L 21 disordered structure. The antisite disorder adds a somewhat unique property to the second compound, which arises due to the probabilistic mutual exchange of Al positions with Cr/Mn and such an effect is possibly expected due to comparable electronegativities of Al and Cr/Mn. Ab initio simulation predicted a unique transition from half metallic ferromagnet to metallic antiferromagnet beyond a critical excess concentration of Al in the alloy.

  1. Electronic structure, magnetism, and antisite disorder in CoFeCrGe and CoMnCrAl quaternary Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Enamullah, .; Venkateswara, Y.; Gupta, Sachin; Varma, Manoj Raama; Singh, Prashant; Suresh, K. G.; Alam, Aftab

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of two quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrGe (CFCG) and CoMnCrAl (CMCA), promising candidates for spintronics applications. Magnetization measurement shows the saturation magnetization and transition temperature to be 3 μB, 866 K and 0.9 μB, 358 K for CFCG and CMCA respectively. The magnetization values agree fairly well with our theoretical results and also obey the Slater-Pauling rule, a prerequisite for half metallicity. A striking difference between the two systems is their structure; CFCG crystallizes in fully ordered Y-type structure while CMCA has L21 disordered structure. The antisite disorder adds a somewhat unique property to the second compound, which arises due to the probabilistic mutual exchange of Al positions with Cr/Mn and such an effect is possibly expected due to comparable electronegativities of Al and Cr/Mn. Ab initio simulation predicted a unique transition from half metallic ferromagnet to metallic antiferromagnet beyond a critical excess concentration of Al in the alloy.

  2. Electronic structure, magnetism, and antisite disorder in CoFeCrGe and CoMnCrAl quaternary Heusler alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Enamullah, .; Venkateswara, Y.; Gupta, Sachin; ...

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of two quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrGe (CFCG) and CoMnCrAl (CMCA), promising candidates for spintronics applications. Magnetization measurement shows the saturation magnetization and transition temperature to be 3 μB, 866 K and 0.9 μB, 358 K for CFCG and CMCA respectively. The magnetization values agree fairly well with our theoretical results and also obey the Slater-Pauling rule, a prerequisite for half metallicity. A striking difference between the two systems is their structure; CFCG crystallizes in fully ordered Y-type structure while CMCA has L21 disordered structure. The antisite disorder adds amore » somewhat unique property to the second compound, which arises due to the probabilistic mutual exchange of Al positions with Cr/Mn and such an effect is possibly expected due to comparable electronegativities of Al and Cr/Mn. Ab initio simulation predicted a unique transition from half metallic ferromagnet to metallic antiferromagnet beyond a critical excess concentration of Al in the alloy.« less

  3. Electronic structure and unusual superconducting properties of of CaAlSi and SrAlSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Igor I.; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitris

    2004-03-01

    We report full-potential LAPW calculations for CaAlSi and SrAlSi in ordered structures and in the virtual crystal approximation, at normal and elevated pressures. We also estimate the electron-phonon coupling using either frozen-phon calculations at the zone center, or the rigid muffin tin approximation. We conclude that there is no simple way to explain the recently reported qualitative disparity in the superconducting properties of the two compounds. An assumption of an ultrasoft phonon mode, on the other hand, allows to reconcile in a reasonable way the experimental findings with the theory.

  4. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  5. Characteristics of CrAlSiN + DLC coating deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc PVD and PACVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukaszkowicz, Krzysztof; Sondor, Jozef; Balin, Katarzyna; Kubacki, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Coating system composed of CrAlSiN film covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based lubricant, deposited on hot work tool steel substrate was the subject of the research. The CrAlSiN and DLC layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC) and PACVD technology on the X40CrMoV5-1 respectively. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of DLC layer. It was found that the tested CrAlSiN layer has a nanostructural character with fine crystallites while their average size is less than 10 nm. Based on the XRD pattern of the CrAlSiN, the occurrence of fcc phase was only observed in the coating, the texture direction <3 1 1> is perpendicular to the sample surface. Combined SEM, AES and ToF-SIMS studies confirmed assumed chemical composition and layered structure of the coating. The chemical distribution of the elements inside the layers and at the interfaces was analyzed by SEM and AES methods. It was shown that additional CrN layer is present between substrate and CrAlSiN coating. The atomic concentration of the particular elements of DLC and CrAlSiN layer was calculated from the XPS measurements. In sliding dry friction conditions the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.05 and 0.07. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate.

  6. Study on catalytic incineration of methane using Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Huei; Lin, Shiow-Shyung

    2004-01-01

    A fixed bed reactor was employed to investigate the catalytic incineration of CH4 by various supported transition metal oxide catalysts, with a view of finding the optimal one. Results indicated that the active species, the support, the metal content, the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), and the inlet CH4 concentration were all important factors affecting CH4 oxidation. Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was found to be the most active catalyst among the seven gamma-Al2O3-supported metal oxide catalysts tested. With Cr2O3 as the active species, gamma-Al2O3 was the most suitable of six supports tested. Furthermore, the optimal Cr content of Cr2O3/ gamma-Al2O3 was 9 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that it was formation of CrO3 crystals that caused a decline in catalyst activity at Cr content above 9wt.%. Using the optimal Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, CH4 was completely oxidized at about 390 degrees C. much lower than the temperature required by noble metal catalysts for the same outcome. The stability of Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was good and was not affected by the reaction temperature, demonstrated by a nearly constant conversion rate of CH4 of 57% at 350 degrees C and 97% at 380 degrees C during a 20 h on-stream test. However, WHSV and inlet concentration of CH4 did affect CH4 conversion noticeably. For complete oxidation of CH4, the reaction temperature required increased with WHSV and inlet CH4 concentration.

  7. XPS and NMR analysis on 12CaO•7Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R. K.; Feng, S.; Tao, H. Z.

    2017-01-01

    12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) glass was prepared by the melt quenching method. The glass transition temperature (T g) and the crystallization temperature (T c) of C12A7 glass are about 1050 K and 1194 K, respectively, measured by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The structure of C12A7 glass was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Analysis shows that Al coordination number is about four in C12A7 glass, in which AlO4 tetrahedrons and bridging oxygens (BO) constitute the glass network. Ca2+ produces a few of non-bridging oxygens (NBO), which become neighbours of Al.

  8. A Study of Pack Aluminizing Process for NiCrAlY Coatings Using Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Rong; Yang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Aluminizing process is widely used to provide additional Al deposition onto superalloy surface for enhanced oxidation and corrosion resistance. In this research, an aluminizing process—pack cementation process, is used to deposit Al onto the surface of NiCrAlY coatings for increasing environmental protection. The experiment is designed using Box-Behnken approach, in which three parameters, the Al content, Ni content of the pack powder, and the temperature of the process, are selected as factors; and the thickness and Al/Ni ratio of the coatings are selected as responses. The effects of the factors on the responses are analyzed and modeled empirically. It is found that these empirical models correlate well with the results from additional sets of experiment. These models can be used to produce aluminized NiCrAlY coatings with specific thicknesses and Al/Ni ratios.

  9. Structural, Magnetic and Electron Transport Properties of Rapidly Quenched CoFeCrAl Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, P.; Fuglsby, R.; Gilbert, S.; Huh, Y.; Zhang, W.; Valloppilly, S.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Materials with moderate magnetization, high spin polarization at the Fermi level and high Curie temperature well above room temperature have huge potential for spin-based electronic devices. Several Heusler compounds including a quaternary compound CoFeCrAl are predicted to have these interesting materials properties. We have used a rapid quenching technique to prepare single-phase CoFeCrAl nanostructured ribbons in a cubic L21 crystal structure and have investigated the magnetic and electrical properties. As-quenched ribbons are ferrimagnetic at room temperature with a Curie temperature of about 500 K. The saturation magnetization is 1.9 μB/f.u, which is very close to the value predicted by the Slater-Pauling Rule. The ribbons are conducting with a room temperature resistivity of about 80 m Ωcm, but the resistivity is almost independent of temperature. The thermal coefficient of resistivity is very small and it is negative. These ribbons show a small positive magnetoresistance (1.5% at 5 K) between 5 K and 300 K. We will also discuss the effect of vacuum annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of this material. This research is supported by DOE/BES (DE-FG02-04ER46152) and NCMN. The work at SDSU is supported by the Department of Physics.

  10. High spin polarization and spin splitting in equiatomic quaternary CoFeCrAl Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Coelho, A. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Varaprasad, B. S. D. Ch. S.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.; Hono, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate CoFeCrAl alloy by means of ab-initio electronic structure calculations and various experimental techniques. The alloy is found to exist in the B2-type cubic Heusler structure, which is very similar to Y-type (or LiMgPdSn prototype) structure with space group F-43m (#216). Saturation magnetization (MS) of about 2 μB/f.u. is observed at 8 K under ambient pressure, which is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. MS values are found to be independent of pressure, which is a prerequisite for half-metals. The ab-initio electronic structure calculations predict half-metallicity for the alloy with a spin slitting energy of 0.31 eV. Importantly, this system shows a high current spin polarization value of 0.67±0.02, as deduced from the point contact Andreev reflection measurements. Linear dependence of electrical resistivity with temperature indicates the possibility of reasonably high spin polarization at elevated temperatures (~150 K) as well. All these suggest that CoFeCrAl is a promising material for the spintronic devices.

  11. Plasma Nitriding Behavior of Fe-C-M (M = Al, Cr, Mn, Si) Ternary Martensitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomio, Yusaku; Kitsuya, Shigeki; Oh-ishi, Keilchiro; Hono, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Goro; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Change in surface hardness and nitrides precipitated in Fe-0.6C binary and Fe-0.6 mass pct C-1 mass pct M (M = Al, Cr, Mn, Si) ternary martensitic alloys during plasma nitriding were investigated. Surface hardness was hardly increased in the Fe-0.6C binary alloy and slightly increased in Fe-0.6C-1Mn and Fe-0.6C-1Si alloys. On the other hand, it was largely increased in Fe-0.6C-1Al and Fe-0.6C-1Cr alloys. In all the Fe-0.6C-1M alloys except for the Si-added alloy, fine platelet alloy nitrides precipitated inside martensite laths. In the Fe-0.6C-1Si alloy, Si-enriched film was observed mainly at a grain boundary and an interface between cementite and matrix. Crystal structure of nitrides observed in the martensitic alloys was similar to those in Fe-M binary ferritic alloys reported previously. However, there was a difference in hardening behavior between ferrite and martensite due to a high density of dislocations acting as a nucleation site of the nitrides and partitioning of an alloying element between martensite and cementite changing the driving force of precipitation of the nitrides.

  12. Submission of FeCrAl Feedstock for Support of AFC ATR-2 Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Barrett, Kristine E.; Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-16

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is currently being used to test accident tolerant fuel (ATF) forms destined for commercial nuclear power plant deployment. One irradiation program using the ATR for ATF concepts, Accident Tolerant Fuel-2 (ATF-2), is a water loop irradiation test using miniaturized fuel pins as test articles. This complicated testing configuration requires a series of pre-test experiments and verification including a flowing loop autoclave test and a sensor qualification test (SQT) prior to full test train deployment within the ATR. In support of the ATF-2 irradiation program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supplied two different Generation II FeCrAl alloys in rod stock form to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These rods will be machined into dummy pins for deployment in the autoclave test and SQT. Post-test analysis of the dummy pins will provide initial insight into the performance of Generation II FeCrAl alloys in the ATF-2 irradiation experiment as well as within a commercial nuclear reactor.

  13. A first-principles study of the tetragonal and hexagonal R 2Al (R = Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta) phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiu; Shen, Jiang; Tian, Fuyang

    2016-10-01

    The crystal structures, elastic moduli, electronic structure, and phonon dispersion of the tetragonal R 2Al (R = Cr, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta) intermetallic compounds are investigated by using the first-principles method. The space group number is 139 for tetragonal Cr2Al, 136 for tetragonal Nb2Al and Ta2Al, and the space group numbers are 140 and 194 for tetragonal and hexagonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al, respectively. The results of elastic constants and phonon dispersion indicate that the present intermetallic compounds are thermodynamically stable. The stability of hexagonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al is analyzed via the electronic density of state, compared to the tetragonal Zr2Al and Hf2Al compounds. For the R2Al intermetallic compounds, the less ductility and strong anisotropy are predicted. The more negative formation enthalpy and thermodynamic stability of R2Al (R = Nb, Zr, Hf) shed light on the Nb2Al, Zr2Al, Hf2Al phases found experimentally in refractory high entropy alloys.

  14. Electronic structure, magnetism and stability of Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga, In) ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmane, F.; Mesri, D.; Tadjer, A.; Khenata, R.; Benalia, S.; Djoudi, L.; Doumi, B.; Boumia, L.; Aourag, H.

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic as well as the magnetic properties of the Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga and In) full-Heusler alloy have been studied using first-principles calculations performed in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It was taken into account both possible L21 structures (i.e. Hg2CuTi- and Cu2MnAl-type). Basically, for all compounds, the Cu2MnAl-type structure is energetically more stable than Hg2CuTi-type structure at the equilibrium volume. The electronic structure calculations for Co2CrAl reveal that half-metallic (HM) character in Cu2MnAl-type structure, Co2CrGa show nearly HM behavior and Co2CrIn has a metallic character. The predicted total magnetic moment is 3μB for Co2CrX (X =Al, Ga) which is in good convergence with the Slater-Pauling (SP) rule.

  15. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  16. Selective substitution of Cr in CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} and its effect on the spin density wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, I.; Chung, D. Y.; Claus, H.; Gray, K. E.; Li, Q.; Schlueter, J.; Bakas, T.; Douvalis, A.; Gutmann, M.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Ioannina; Rutherford Appleton Lab.

    2010-08-11

    Single crystals of CaCr{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 3.16}As{sub 3}, a Cr substituted analog of CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3}, were grown from Sn flux and characterized with single crystal neutron diffraction. CaCr{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 3.16}As{sub 3} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma with a three-dimensional framework, where Fe, Cr, and As form a covalent channel-like network with Ca{sup 2+} cations residing in the channels. CaCr{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 3.16}As{sub 3} has a unit cell of a = 12.057(4) {angstrom}, b = 3.7374(13) {angstrom}, and c = 11.694(3) {angstrom}, as determined by room temperature single crystal neutron diffraction (R{sub 1} = 0.0747, wR{sub 2} = 0.1825). Structural data was also collected at 10 K. The single crystal neutron data showed that Cr selectively occupies a particular metal site, Fe(4). The antiferromagnetic transition associated with spin density wave (SDW) in the parent compound is preserved and shifts from 96 to 103 K with the selective Cr doping. Moessbauer, magnetic, and electrical resistivity measurements are reported.

  17. Creep behavior of a {beta}{prime}(NiAl) precipitation strengthened ferritic Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, S.M.; Tjong, S.C.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1998-05-22

    Creep in precipitation-strengthened alloys usually exhibits a pronounced transition in the stress vs creep rate relationship due to dislocations bypassing of particles by climb at low stresses. In the present study, a single-slope behavior is observed in creep of {beta}{prime}(NiAl) strengthened ferritic Fe-19Cr-4Ni-2Al alloy in the temperature range 873--923 K. The alloy exhibits anomalously high values of apparent stress exponent and activation energy (980 kJ/mol). Transmission electron microscopy examination of the deformation microstructure reveals the occurrence of attractive dislocation/particle interaction, a feature which is usually observed in dispersion-strengthened alloys. Such an attractive dislocation particle interaction makes the local climb of dislocations over particles a realistic configuration at low stresses. The creep data are analyzed by the back-stress approach and by the recent dislocation-climb theories based on attractive interaction between dislocations and particles. By considering a back stress, all data can be rationalized by a power-law with a stress exponent of 4 and a creep activation energy close to the self-diffusion energy of the matrix lattice. Local climb together with the attractive but not strong interactions between the dislocations and particles is suggested to be the operative deformation mechanism at low stresses and to account for the single-slope behavior in the stress/creep rate relationship of this alloy.

  18. Can Cr( iii ) substitute for Al( iii ) in the structure of boehmite?

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Conroy, Michele A.; Smith, Frances N.; Jung, Hee-Joon; Wang, Zheming; Peterson, Reid A.; Huq, Ashfia; Burtt, David G.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Buck, Edgar C.

    2016-01-01

    The dissolution of boehmite is a technical issue for the Al industry because of its recalcitrant nature. In fact, a similar problem exists with boehmite in nuclear waste sludge at the Hanford site in eastern Washington State, USA. Dissolution of Al phases is required to reduce the waste loadings in the final borosilicate glass waste form. Although not the most common Al-bearing species in the sludge, boehmite may become a rate limiting step in the processing of the wastes. Hanford boehmite is an order of magnitude more resistant to dissolution in hot caustic solutions than expected from surface-normalized rates. We are exploring potential intrinsic and extrinsic effects that may limit boehmite reactivity; one clue comes from microstructural analyses that indicate an association of Cr with Al in the Hanford nuclear waste. Hence, in this first paper, we investigated the potential role of chromium on the reactivity of boehmite in caustic solution. An important finding was that irrespective of the synthesis pathway, amount of Cr(III), or the resultant morphology, there was no evidence for Cr incorporation in the bulk structure, in agreement with QM calculations. In fact, electron microscopic (EM) and spectroscopic analyses showed that Cr was enriched at the (101) edges of the boehmite. However, Cr had no measurable effect on the morphology during the synthesis step. In contrast, comparison of the morphologies of the synthetic Cr-doped and pure boehmite samples after exposure to caustic solutions provided evidence that Cr inhibited the corrosion. TEM showed that Cr was not homogeneously distributed at the surface. Consequently, Cr may have partially passivated the surface by blocking discrete energetic sites on the lateral surfaces of boehmite.

  19. Flow stress of rapidly solidified Al-5Cr-2Zr alloy as a function of processing variables

    SciTech Connect

    Brahmi, A.; Gerique, T.; Torralba, M.; Lieblich, M.

    1997-12-01

    In a previous work, Lieblich et al. determined that room temperature hardness and tensile strength of as-extruded Al-5Cr-2Zr (wt.%) alloys obtained by gas atomization increased with decreasing powder particle size and extrusion temperature, and depended only very little on extrusion ratio and ram speed. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of powder particle diameter and extrusion temperature on the flow stress of Al-5Cr-2Zr at temperatures ranging from 373 to 773 K. The contribution to the flow stress of different strengthening mechanisms is evaluated and related to the processing parameters.

  20. Predicting diffusion paths and interface motion in gamma/gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al diffusion couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified model has been developed to predict Beta recession and diffusion paths in ternary gamma/gamma + beta diffusion couples (gamma:fcc, beta: NiAl structure). The model was tested by predicting beta recession and diffusion paths for four gamma/gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al couples annealed for 100 hours at 1200 C. The model predicted beta recession within 20 percent of that measured for each of the couples. The model also predicted shifts in the concentration of the gamma phase at the gamma/gamma + beta interface within 2 at. pct Al and 6 at. pct Cr of that measured in each of the couples. A qualitative explanation based on simple kinetic and mass balance arguments has been given which demonstrates the necessity for diffusion in the two-phase region of certain gamma/gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al couples.

  1. Ca-,Al-rich inclusions in the unique chondrite ALH85085 - Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.; Palme, H.; Zinner, E.

    1993-05-01

    A comprehensive study is performed for the Ca-,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the unique chondrite ALH85085. The ALH85085 inclusions are smaller (5-80 microns) and more refractory than their counterparts in carbonaceous chondrites. The study includes 42 inclusions for petrography and mineralogy, 15 for bulk major and minor element chemical composition, six for Mg-Al isotopic systematics, 10 for Ca isotopes, nine for Ti isotopes, and six for trace element abundances. In addition, oxygen-isotopic compositions were determined in minerals from a single inclusion. No correlation is found between mineralogy, major element chemistry, and trace element abundances. It is further shown that the high-temperature geochemical behavior of ultrarefractory trace elements is decoupled from that of the major elements Ca and Ti (Ti is correlated with the relatively volatile elements Nb and Yb) implying that perovskite is of only minor importance as carrier of ultrarefractories.

  2. First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Shouxin; Wei Dongqing; Hu Haiquan; Feng Wenxia; Gong Zizheng

    2012-07-15

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX, with X=N, C, have been investigated at the density functional theory level by applying a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. The band structure and density of states reveal the metallic features of Cr{sub 2}AlX. The total and projected density of states indicate that the bonding is achieved through a hybridization of Cr 3d states with Al and X-atom p states. The Cr 3d-X2p bonds are lower in energy and are stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds. The charge density distributions indicate that there exist soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds, which might be responsible for their hardness. The elastic constants were obtained in the pressure range 0-100 GPa, and satisfy the stability conditions for hexagonal crystal, which indicates that these two compounds are stable in the pressure regime studied. By analyzing bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and Cauchy pressure, Cr{sub 2}AlC is predicted to be brittleness and Cr{sub 2}AlN is ductile. The Debye temperature was obtained from the average sound velocity. - Graphical abstract: The heterogeneity of chemical bonds in Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) is observed: soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds might be contributed to their hardness. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr 3d-X2p (X=N, C) bonds are lower in energy and stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds for Cr{sub 2}AlX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of Cr{sub 2}AlX might be ascribed to soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predicted brittleness of Cr{sub 2}AlC and ductility of Cr{sub 2}AlN originated from their novel structure.

  3. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-02-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

  4. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  5. Experimental and first-principles investigation of the electronic structure anisotropy of Cr2AlC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnet, M.; Jaouen, M.; Mauchamp, V.; Cabioc'h, T.; Hug, G.

    2014-11-01

    The anisotropy of the electronic structure of the MAX phase Cr2AlC has been investigated by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) at the C K edge, and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Al K , Cr L2 ,3, and Cr K edges. The experimental spectra were interpreted using either a multiple-scattering approach or a full-potential band-structure method. The anisotropy is found to be small around C atoms because of the rather isotropic nature of the octahedral site, and of the averaging of the empty C p states probed by EELS at the C K edge. In turn, a pronounced anisotropy of the charge distribution around Al atoms is evidenced from polarized XAS measurements performed on textured Cr2AlC sputtered thin films. From the analysis of the XAS data using the multiple-scattering feff code, it is demonstrated that the probed thin film is constituted of 70 % (0001) and 30 % (10 1 ¯3 ) grains oriented parallel to the film surface. A decomposition of the calculated spectrum in coordination shells allows for the ability to connect XAS fine structures to the Cr2AlC structure. Combining high-resolution data with up-to-date multiple-scattering calculations, it is shown that the crystalline orientations of the grains present in a probe of 100 ×100 μ m 2 can be determined from the Cr K edge. Interestingly, it is also revealed that a static disorder is involved in the studied thin films. These findings highlight that, given the overall agreement between experimental and calculated spectra, the Cr2AlC electronic structure is accurately predicted using density functional theory.

  6. Effects of particle size and forming pressure on pore properties of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal by pressureless sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Uk; Yi, Yujeong; Lee, Minjeong; Kim, Byoung-Kee

    2017-03-01

    With increased hydrogen consumption in ammonia production, refining and synthesis, fuel cells and vehicle industries, development of the material components related to hydrogen production is becoming an important factor in industry growth. Porous metals for fabrication of hydrogen are commonly known for their relative excellence in terms of large area, lightness, lower heat capacity, high toughness, and permeability. Fe-Cr-Al alloys not only have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and chemical stability but also ductility, excellent mechanical properties. In order to control powder size and sintering temperature effects of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal fabrication, Fe-Cr-Al powder was classified into 25-35 μm, 35-45 μm, 45-75 μm using an auto shaking sieve machine and then classified Fe-Cr-Al powders were pressed into disk shapes using a uniaxial press machine and CIP. The pelletized Fe-Cr-Al specimens were sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum. Properties such as pore size, porosity, and air permeability were evaluated using perm-porosimetry. Microstructure and phase changes were observed with SEM and XRD. Porosity and relative density were proportionated to increasing sintering temperature. With sufficient sintering at increasing temperatures, the pore size is expected to be gradually reduced. Porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperature and gradually increased necking of the powder.

  7. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Field, K. G.; Yang, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10-20Cr, 3-5Al, and 0-0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitive to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741 °C.

  8. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10–20Cr, 3–5Al, and 0–0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitivemore » to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741°C.« less

  9. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-10-19

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10–20Cr, 3–5Al, and 0–0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitive to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741°C.

  10. Hydrogen sorption behavior of CaAl1.5Li0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereznitsky, Matvey; Mogilyanski, Dmitry; Jacob, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogen sorption properties of an alloy with nominal composition CaAl1.5Li0.5 have been investigated in a pursuit for hydrogen-absorbing Li-containing intermetallics. X-ray analysis of the original alloy indicated a coexistence of three closely related Laves phases. The maximum hydrogen capacity, recorded at about 6 MPa and 300 °C, was approximately 2.5 H atoms per formula unit (f.u.). Pressure-composition (p-c) isotherm measurements were taken in the temperature range between 350 and 450 °C up to pressures of 133 kPa. Thermodynamic parameters are derived for two plateau regions in the p-c isotherms. Analysis of these parameters and supporting evidence from X-ray patterns of hydrogenated and dehydrogenated samples suggest: (a) an initial irreversible disproportionation of the original alloy and (b) subsequent reversible hydrogenations, featuring reversible disproportionations of CaAl2 and LiAl intermetallic compounds. Attempts to form additional Li-containing intermetallics, namely CaAlLi, TiMn2- x Li x (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6) and TiAl2- x Li x (x = 0.3, 0.5), and to hydrogenate them, are reported in brief.

  11. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} and LiCaAlF{sub 6}

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-05-14

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF{sub 6} type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} and LiSrGaF{sub 6}, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator. 10 figs.

  12. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 and LiCaAlF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.

    1996-01-01

    Ce.sup.3+ -doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF.sub.6 type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF.sub.6 and LiSrGaF.sub.6, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator.

  13. NMR probe of pseudogap characteristics in CaAl2-xSi2+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, C. S.; Wang, S. Y.; Fang, C. P.

    2007-06-01

    We report the results of a Al27 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of CaAl2-xSi2+x , near the stoichiometric composition with x=0 . The low-temperature NMR relaxation rates for stoichiometric (x=0) and nonstoichiometric ( x=-0.1 and 0.1) compounds follow a Korringa law, associated with a finite density of carriers at the Fermi level. High-temperature relaxation rates for x⩾0 go over to a semiconductorlike activated form, providing information about the electronic structure near the Fermi energy. The results are consistent with pseudogap features identified by recent band-structure calculations. An analysis of the pseudogap change vs composition further points out that the band-filling picture is proper for the understanding of the NMR observations in CaAl2-xSi2+x .

  14. High-pressure behaviour of Cr-Fe-Mg-Al spinels: applications to diamond geobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Bruschini, Enrico; Nestola, Fabrizio; Lenaz, Davide; Princivalle, Francesco; Andreozzi, Giovanni B.; Bosi, Ferdinando

    2014-05-01

    Spinels belonging to the chromite - magnesiochromite - hercynite (FeCr2O4-MgCr2O4-FeAl2O4) system are among the most common inclusions found in diamonds (Stachel and Harris 2008). In particular, although FeCr2O4 and MgCr2O4 components sum to between 85 and 88% of spinels found in diamonds, hercynite FeAl2O4 plays a not negligible role in determining their thermo-elastic properties with concentrations reaching 7-9 % (other minor end-members like MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4 and Fe2O3 rarely reach 2-3% in total, see Lenaz et al. 2009). Recent studies were focused on the determination of the diamond formation pressure by the so-called "elastic method" (see for example Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein). It was demonstrated that accurate and precise thermo-elastic parameters are fundamental to minimize the uncertainty of formation pressure. In this work we have determined the equations of state at room temperature of three synthetic spinel end-members chromite - magnesiochromite - hercynite and one natural spinel crystal extracted from a diamond (from Udachnaya mine, Siberia, Russia) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in situ at high-pressure. A diamond-anvil cell was mounted on a STADI IV diffractometer equipped with a point detector and motorized by SINGLE software (Angel and Finger 2011). The natural crystal was investigated to test (and possibly validate) the "empirical prediction model", capable to provide bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative only knowing the composition of the spinels found in diamonds. Such prediction model could be used to obtain pressure of formation for the diamond-spinel pair through the elastic method. Details and results will be discussed. The research was funded by the ERC Starting Grant to FN (grant agreement n° 307322). References Angel R.J., Finger L.W. (2011) SINGLE A program to control single-crystal diffractometers. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 44, 247-251. Lenaz D., Logvinova A.M., Princivalle F., Sobolev N. (2009

  15. Microstructure of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of transient scales formed on pure and Y or Zr-doped Ni-15Cr-13Al alloys oxidized for 0.1 hr at 1100 C was studied by the use of transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographically oriented scales were found on all three alloys, but especially for the Zr-doped NiCrAl. The oriented scales consisted of alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3, Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 and gamma-Al2O3. They were often found in intimate contact with each other such that the close-packed planes and directions of one oxide phase were aligned with those of another. The prominent structural features of the oriented scales were approximately equal to micrometer subgrains; voids, antiphase domain boundaries and aligned precipitates were also prevalent. Randomly oriented alpha-Al2O3 was also found and was the only oxide ever observed at the immediate oxide metal interface. These approximately 0.15 micrometer grains were populated by intragranular voids which decreased in size and number towards the oxide metal interface. A sequence of oxidation was proposed in which the composition of the growing scale changed from oriented oxides rich in Ni and Cr to oriented oxides rich in Al. At the same time the structure changed from cubic spinels to hexagonal corundums with apparent precipitates of one phase in the matrix of the other. Eventually randomly oriented pure alpha-Al2O3 formed as the stable oxide with an abrupt transition: there was no gradual loss of orientation, no gradual compositional change or no gradual decrease in precipitate density.

  16. Letter Report Documenting Progress of Second Generation ATF FeCrAl Alloy Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, Y.; Field, K. G.; Terrani, K.; Pint, B. A.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-06-10

    Development of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl alloy has been initiated, and a candidate alloy was selected for trial tube fabrication through hot-extrusion and gun-drilling processes. Four alloys based on Fe-13Cr-4.5Al-0.15Y in weight percent were newly cast with minor alloying additions of Mo, Si, Nb, and C to promote solid-solution and second-phase precipitate strengthening. The alloy compositions were selected with guidance from computational thermodynamic tools. The lab-scale heats of ~ 600g were arc-melted and drop-cast, homogenized, hot-forged and -rolled, and then annealed producing plate shape samples. An alloy with Mo and Nb additions (C35MN) processed at 800°C exhibits very fine sub-grain structure with the sub-grain size of 1-3μm which exhibited more than 25% better yield and tensile strengths together with decent ductility compared to the other FeCrAl alloys at room temperature. It was found that the Nb addition was key to improving thermal stability of the fine sub-grain structure. Optimally, grains of less than 30 microns are desired, with grains up to and order of magnitude in desired produced through Nb addition. Scale-up effort of the C35MN alloy was made in collaboration with a commercial cast company who has a capability of vacuum induction melting. A 39lb columnar ingot with ~81mm diameter and ~305mm height (with hot-top) was commercially cast, homogenized, hot-extruded, and annealed providing 10mm-diameter bar-shape samples with the fine sub-grain structure. This commercial heat proved consistent with materials produced at ORNL at the lab-scale. Tubes and end caps were machined from the bar sample and provided to another work package for the ATF-1 irradiation campaign in the milestone M3FT-14OR0202251.

  17. Site partitioning of Cr3+ in the trichroic alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ crystal: contribution from x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bordage, Amélie; Rossano, Stéphanie; Horn, Adolf Heinrich; Fuchs, Yves

    2012-06-06

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Cr K-edge of a trichroic crystal of alexandrite BeAl(2)O(4):Cr(3+) for different orientations of the crystal with respect to the polarization and direction of the x-ray incident beam have been performed. Analysis of the experimental spectra with the help of first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra allowed us to estimate the proportion of chromium Cr(3+) cations among the two different octahedral sites of the alexandrite structure (70% in the C(s) site-30% in the C(i) site). The methodology presented in this work opens up new possibilities in the field of mineralogy for the study of complex minerals containing several sites potentially occupied by several transition elements or for solid solutions.

  18. Site partitioning of Cr3+ in the trichroic alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ crystal: contribution from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordage, Amélie; Rossano, Stéphanie; Horn, Adolf Heinrich; Fuchs, Yves

    2012-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Cr K-edge of a trichroic crystal of alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ for different orientations of the crystal with respect to the polarization and direction of the x-ray incident beam have been performed. Analysis of the experimental spectra with the help of first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra allowed us to estimate the proportion of chromium Cr3+ cations among the two different octahedral sites of the alexandrite structure (70% in the Cs site-30% in the Ci site). The methodology presented in this work opens up new possibilities in the field of mineralogy for the study of complex minerals containing several sites potentially occupied by several transition elements or for solid solutions.

  19. Energy transfer efficiency from Cr(3+) to Nd(3+) in solar-pumped laser using transparent Nd/Cr:Y(3)Al(5)O(12) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Mizuno, Shintaro; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Ikesue, Akio; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Yamaga, Mitsuo

    2015-06-01

    We report energy transfer efficiency from Cr3+ to Nd3+ in Nd (1.0 at.%)/Cr (0.4 at.%) co-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics in the laser oscillation states. The laser oscillation has performed using two pumping lasers operating at 808 nm and 561 nm; the former pumps Nd3+ directly to create the 1064 nm laser oscillation, whereas the latter assists the performance via Cr3+ absorption and sequential energy transfer to Nd3+. From the laser output power properties and laser mode analysis, the energy transfer efficiency was determined to be around 65%, which is close to that obtained from the spontaneous Nd3+ emission.

  20. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-10-01

    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb-17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb-17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3 + ZrO2 (125YZ), (3) Y2O3 + HfO2 (125YH), and (4) Y2O3 + TiO2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb-17Li for 1000 h at 700 °C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb-17Li with small mass change after testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experienced the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (∼1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all four ODS alloys, which extended 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb-17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.

  1. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-07-09

    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb–17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb–17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3+ZrO2 (125YZ), (3) Y2O3+HfO2 (125YH), and (4) Y2O3+TiO2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb–17Li for 1000 h at 700°C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb–17Li with small mass change after testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experiencedmore » the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (~1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all 4 ODS alloys, which extended through 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb–17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.« less

  2. Evaluation of Pb-17Li compatibility of ODS Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2016-07-09

    The Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL: eutectic Pb–17Li and He) blanket concept requires improved Pb–17Li compatibility with ferritic steels in order to demonstrate acceptable performance in fusion reactors. As an initial step, static Pb-17at.%Li (Pb-17Li) capsule experiments were conducted on new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys ((1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3+ZrO2 (125YZ), (3) Y2O3+HfO2 (125YH), and (4) Y2O3+TiO2 (125YT)) produced at ORNL via mechanical alloying (MA). Tests were conducted in static Pb–17Li for 1000 h at 700°C. Alloys showed promising compatibility with Pb–17Li with small mass change after testing for 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT, while the 125Y alloy experienced the highest mass loss associated with some oxide spallation and subsequent alloy dissolution. X-ray diffraction methods identified the surface reaction product as LiAlO2 on all four alloys. A small decrease (~1 at.%) in Al content beneath the oxide scale was observed in all 4 ODS alloys, which extended through 60 μm beneath the oxide/metal interface. This indicates improvements in alloy dissolution by decreasing the amount of Al loss from the alloy. Scales formed on 125YZ, 125YH and 125YT were examined via scanning transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and revealed incorporation of Zr-, Hf-, and Ti-rich precipitates within the LiAlO2 product, respectively. This indicates an inward scale growth mechanism. Future work in flowing Pb–17Li is needed to further evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a test blanket module.

  3. The Al-Rich Part of the System CaO-Al 2O 3-MgO . Part I. Phase Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbbels, M.; Woermann, E.; Jung, J.

    1995-12-01

    In the Al-rich part of the ternary system CaO-Al 2O 3MgO two new ternary phases Ca 2Mg 2Al 28O 46 (CAM-I) and CaMg 2Al 16O 27 (CAM-II) with limited solid solution ranges were found. Due to the fact that the compositions of the Mg-rich end members of these solid solutions lie on the join between hibonite (CaAl 12O 19) and spinel (MgAl 2O 4), the model of the crystal structures of these phases can be constructed by a suitable combination of hibonite and spinel units. Both phases, CAM-I and CAM-II, exhibit solid solution ranges described by a substitution mechanism also found in the binary spinel phase, MgAl 2O 4: 3 Mg 2+ = 2 Al 3+ + □. Thus the ternary phases can be expressed by the chemical formulas. Ca 2Mg 2-3 xAl 28+2 x□ xO 46 for CAM-I with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 and CaMg 2-3 yAl 16+2 y□ yO 27 for CAM-II with 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2.

  4. Effect of Al Enrichment by Pack Cementation of FeCr Coatings Deposited by HVOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, A.; Bellini, S.; Pileggi, R.; Stocchi, D.; Tuurna, S.

    2015-01-01

    A great contribution to CO2 emissions comes from coal fired power generation. Combination of carbon capture sequestering technologies with sustainable biomass conversion constitutes a decisive boost in limiting rise in global temperature. Co-firing alternative materials with pulverized coal and using oxy-fuel combustion conditions (oxy-fuel co-combustion) is a very attractive process for power industry. Materials with both high mechanical properties and high environmental resistance are required by such advanced combustion systems. One approach to improve high-temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance is to apply protective coatings. In the present work, low and high Cr content Fe-based alloys have been deposited in order to investigate the influence of Cr content on coating protective performance in oxy-fuel co-combustion conditions. Grade 91 steel has been assumed as reference substrate. Effect of Al enrichment on coating environmental resistance has also been analyzed. Activities have been performed within the framework of Macplus Project (Integrated Project co-founded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program in the Energy area).

  5. Cyclic Corrosion and Chlorination of an FeCrAl Alloy in the Presence of KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Svensson, J-E; Johansson, L-G

    2015-05-30

    The KCl-induced corrosion of the FeCrAl alloy Kanthal® APMT in an O2 + N2 + H2O environment was studied at 600 °C. The samples were pre-oxidized prior to exposure in order to investigate the protective nature of alumina scales in the present environment. The microstructure and composition of the corroded surface was investigated in detail. Corrosion started at flaws in the pre-formed α-alumina scales, i.e. α-alumina was protective in itself. Consequently, KCl-induced corrosion started locally and, subsequently, spread laterally. An electrochemical mechanism is proposed here by which a transition metal chloride forms in the alloy and K2CrO4 forms at the scale/gas interface. Scale de-cohesion is attributed to the formation of a sub-scale transition metal chloride.

  6. Multiple quasicrystal approximants with the same lattice parameters in Al-Cr-Fe-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanbing; Li, Hua; Ma, Haikun; Li, Guowu

    2017-01-01

    By means of atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, we found three types of giant approximants of decagonal quasicrystal in Al-Cr-Fe-Si alloys, where each type contains several structural variants possessing the same lattice parameters but different crystal structures. The projected structures of these approximants along the pseudo-tenfold direction were described using substructural blocks. Furthermore, the structural relationship and the plane crystallographic groups in the (a, c) plan of these structural variants was also discussed. The diversity of quasicrystal approximants with the same lattice parameters was shown to be closely related to the variety of shield-like tiles and their tiling patterns. PMID:28084405

  7. Microstructure Evolution in a New Refractory High-Entropy Alloy W-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorr, Bronislava; Azim, Maria; Christ, Hans-Juergen; Chen, Hans; Szabo, Dorothee Vinga; Kauffmann, Alexander; Heilmaier, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The microstructure of a body-centered cubic 20W-20Mo-20Cr-20Ti-20Al alloy in the as-cast condition as well as its microstructural evolution during heat treatment was investigated. Different characterization techniques, such as focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope, were applied. Experimental observations were supported by thermodynamic calculations. The alloy exhibits a pronounced dendritic microstructure in the as-cast condition with the respective dendritic and interdendritic regions showing significant fluctuations of the element concentrations. Using thermodynamic calculations, it was possible to rationalize the measured element distribution in the dendritic and the interdendritic regions. Observations of the microstructure evolution reveal that during heat treatment, substantial homogenization takes place leading to the formation of a single-phase microstructure. Driving forces for the microstructural evolution were discussed from a thermodynamic point of view.

  8. Microstructure and Properties of FeAlCrNiMo x High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. C.; Dou, D.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Li, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    FeAlCrNiMo x high-entropy alloys were prepared. The effect of Mo content on the microstructure and the properties of the alloys were investigated. When the Mo content was 0.1, the alloys were composed of single BCC solid solution; when Mo content reaches 0.25, the alloys were composed of BCC solid solution and ordered B2 solid solution. When Mo content is more than 0.75, some σ phases emerged. The volume fraction of the second phase increases with the increasing Mo content, and the crystal grains became coarsening. The yield strength, fracture strength, and hardness increase with the increasing Mo content and reach 2252, 2612 MPa, and 1006 Hv, respectively. The magnetic transformation undergoes from the ferromagnetism to paramagnetism with the increasing Mo content. The saturation intensity and remnant magnetism are decreased with the increasing Mo content.

  9. Multiple quasicrystal approximants with the same lattice parameters in Al-Cr-Fe-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhanbing; Li, Hua; Ma, Haikun; Li, Guowu

    2017-01-01

    By means of atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, we found three types of giant approximants of decagonal quasicrystal in Al-Cr-Fe-Si alloys, where each type contains several structural variants possessing the same lattice parameters but different crystal structures. The projected structures of these approximants along the pseudo-tenfold direction were described using substructural blocks. Furthermore, the structural relationship and the plane crystallographic groups in the (a, c) plan of these structural variants was also discussed. The diversity of quasicrystal approximants with the same lattice parameters was shown to be closely related to the variety of shield-like tiles and their tiling patterns.

  10. The hot workability and superplasticity of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1998-02-01

    The hot compression behavior and microstructure evolution of ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) processed samples of the near-{gamma} Ti-aluminide alloy, Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at%), were determined. Three I/M conditions and two P/M conditions were examined in this study. Hot compression tests were performed in the temperature range 1,100--1,300 C at strain rates ranging from 1.67 {times} 10{sup {minus}1}/sec to 1.67 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/sec. P/M materials consolidated by either hot isostatic pressing (HIP`ing) or extrusion exhibited the best hot workability in most cases. The P/M materials possessed finer, more homogeneous microstructures than the I/M materials. It was also noted that improved workability, and in some cases superplastic behavior, was observed in the materials with equiaxed microstructures without any lamellar constituents.

  11. Tensile behavior of the L(1)2 compound Al67Ti25Cr8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature-related variations in tensile yield strength and ductility were studied on cast, homogenized and isothermally forged Al67Ti25Cr8. Yield strength dropped discontinuously between 623 K and 773 K and then decreased gradually with increasing temperature. Below 623 K, fracture occurred prior to macroscopic yielding. Ductility decreased from 0.2 percent at 623 K to zero at 773 K, but increased again at higher temperatures. At 1073 K, an elongation of 19 percent was obtainable, and ultimate tensile strength and localized necking were observed. Fracture surfaces and deformed microstructures were examined. The 1073 K tensile specimen that exhibited 19 percent elongation showed grain boundary serrations and some evidence of recrystallization (likely dynamic) although fracture occurred predominantly via an intergranular mode.

  12. Structural and magnetization behavior of highly spin polarized Co{sub 2}CrAl full Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S. N. Panda, J. Nath, T. K.

    2014-04-24

    The half metallic ferromagnet Co{sub 2}CrAl full Huesler alloy was successfully prepared by arc melting process. The electrical and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}CrAl alloy have been studied in the temperature range of 5 – 300 K. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature T{sub c} of the same alloy has been observed at 329.8 K. The alloy shows semiconducting like electronic transport behavior throughout the studied temperature range. The origin of the semiconducting behavior of Co{sub 2}CrAl alloy can be best explained by the localization of conduction electrons and the presence of an energy gap in the electronic spectrum near the Fermi level E{sub F}.

  13. Magnetic and microstructural properties of Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites, with composition Ca0.6Sr0.1La0.3Fe12-xAlxO19 (0≤x≤1.4), have been prepared using the conventional ceramic techniques. The phase composition of the magnetic powders was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data show that the magnetic powders with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.8 show α-Fe2O3 as a second phase, while the magnetic powders with x from 1.0 to 1.4 consist of pure magnetoplumbite without any other impurity phases. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe the morphologies of the magnetic powders. FE-SEM images of the magnetic powders show the hexagonal platelet-like shape. The magnetic properties of the magnetic powders were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The saturation magnetization (Ms) linearly decreases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4. While the remanent magnetization (Mr) first increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.2 and then decreases when Al content (x)≥0.2. However, the coercivity (Hc) increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4.

  14. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al Part II: Scale Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. Details of the oxidation kinetics of these alloys were discussed in Part I. This paper analyzes the microstructures of the scale and its composition in an attempt to elucidate the oxidation mechanisms in these alloys. The scales formed on Cu-17%Cr specimens oxidized between 773 and 973 K consisted of external CuO and subsurface Cu2O layers. The total thickness of these scales varied from about 10 m at 773 K to about 450 m at 973 K. In contrast, thin scales formed on Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloys oxidized between 773 and 1173 K. The exact nature of these scales could not be determined by x-ray diffraction but energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to construct a scale composition map. Phenomenological oxidation mechanisms are proposed for the two alloys.

  15. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al. Part 2; Scale Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. Details of the oxidation kinetics of these alloys were discussed in Part I. This paper analyzes the microstructures of the scale and its composition in an attempt to elucidate the oxidation mechanisms in these alloys. The scales formed on Cu-17%Cr specimens oxidized between 773 and 973 K consisted of external CuO and subsurface Cu2O layers. The total thickness of these scales varied from about 10 m at 773 K to about 450 m at 973 K. In contrast, thin scales formed on Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloys oxidized between 773 and 1173 K. The exact nature of these scales could not be determined by x-ray diffraction but energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to construct a scale composition map. Phenomenological oxidation mechanisms are proposed for the two alloys.

  16. High-temperature oxidation of CrN/AlN multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, U.; Chenakin, S. P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giolli, C.; Goruppa, A.; Lavacchi, A.; Miorin, E.; Pagura, C.; Tolstogouzov, A.

    2005-12-01

    Experiments are reported on sputter depth profiling of CrN/AlN multilayer abrasive coatings by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) coupled with sample current measurements (SCM). The coatings were deposited by a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. It is shown that after oxidation tests, performed in air at 900 °C for 2 h and at 1100 °C for 4 h, the layered structure begins to degrade but is not destroyed completely. Oxidation at 1100 °C for 20 h causes total destruction of the coatings that can be attributed to a fast diffusion of oxygen, nickel, manganese and other elements along defect paths (grain boundaries, dislocations, etc.) in the coating. There are practically no nitrides in the near-surface layer after such a treatment and all the metallic components are in the oxidized form as follows from the data obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to XPS and mass-resolved ion scattering spectrometry (MARISS), the surface content of Al in the heat-treated coatings has decreased in comparison with the as-received sample and that of Cr increased. Both XPS and MARISS data exhibit real increase in superficial concentration of the substrate materials (Mn and Ni) that is controversial if using SIMS alone. SCM turned out to be an informative depth profiling method complementary to more expensive and complicated SIMS, being particularly useful for structures with different secondary electron emission properties of the layers. SCM with predetermined SIMS calibration allows a routine characterization of coatings and other multilayer structures, particularly, in situations where the expenses of analysis can be justified.

  17. Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure and Phase Compositions in a Model Ni-Al-Cr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Yoon, Kevin E.; Seidman, David N.; Seidman, David N.

    2006-01-01

    In a Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr at.% alloy with moderate solute supersaturations and a very small gamma/gamma prime lattice parameter misfit, the nanostructural and compositional pathways during gamma prime(L12) precipitation at 873 K are investigated using atom-probe tomography, conventional transmission electron microscopy, and hardness measurements. Nucleation of high number densities (N(sub v) greater than 10(sup 23) per cubic meters) of solute-rich precipitates (mean radius = [R] = 0.75 nm), with a critical nucleus composition of Ni-18.3 plus or minus 0.9 Al-9.3 plus or minus 0.7 Cr at.%, initiates between 0.0833 and 0.167 h. With increasing aging time (a) the solute concentrations decay in spheroidal precipitates ([R] less than 10 nm); (b) the observed early-stage coalescence peaks at maximum N(sub v) in coincidence with the smallest interprecipitate spacing; and (c) the reaction enters a quasi-stationary regime where growth and coarsening operate concomitantly. During this quasi-stationary regime, the c (face-centered cubic)-matrix solute supersaturations decay with a power-law dependence of about -1/3, while the dependencies of [R] and N(sub v) are 0.29 plus or minus 0.05 and -0.64 plus or minus 0.06 at a coarsening rate slower than model predications. Coarsening models allow both equilibrium phase compositions to be determined from the compositional measurements. The observed early-stage coalescence is discussed in further detail.

  18. Heterogeneous dislocation loop formation near grain boundaries in a neutron-irradiated commercial FeCrAl alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Hu, Xunxiang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    FeCrAl alloys are an attractive class of materials for nuclear power applications because of their increased environmental compatibility compared with more traditional nuclear materials. Preliminary studies into the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys under accelerated neutron testing between 300 and 400 °C have shown post-irradiation microstructures containing dislocation loops and a Cr-rich α‧ phase. Although these initial studies established the post-irradiation microstructures, there was little to no focus on understanding the influence of pre-irradiation microstructures on this response. In this study, a well-annealed commercial FeCrAl alloy, Alkrothal 720, was neutron irradiated to 1.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at 382 °C and then the effect of random high-angle grain boundaries on the spatial distribution and size of a<100> dislocation loops, a/2<111> dislocation loops, and black dot damage was analyzed using on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results showed a clear heterogeneous dislocation loop formation with a/2<111> dislocation loops showing an increased number density and size, black dot damage showing a significant number density decrease, and a<100> dislocation loops exhibiting an increased size in the vicinity of the grain boundary. These results suggest the importance of the pre-irradiation microstructure and, specifically, defect sink density spacing to the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.

  19. Heterogeneous dislocation loop formation near grain boundaries in a neutron-irradiated commercial FeCrAl alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Hu, Xunxiang; ...

    2016-11-01

    FeCrAl alloys are an attractive materials class for nuclear power applications due to their increased environmental compatibility over more traditional nuclear materials. Preliminary studies into the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys under accelerated neutron testing between 300-400 °C have shown post-irradiation microstructures containing dislocation loops and Cr-rich ' phase. Although these initial works established the post-irradiation microstructures, little to no focus was applied towards the influence of pre-irradiation microstructures on this response. Here, a well annealed commercial FeCrAl alloy, Alkrothal 720, was neutron irradiated to 1.8 dpa at 382 °C and then the role of random high angle grain boundariesmore » on the spatial distribution and size of dislocation loops, dislocation loops, and black dot damage was analyzed using on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results showed a clear heterogeneous dislocation loop formation with dislocation loops showing an increased number density and size, black dot damage showing a significant number density decrease, and an increased size of dislocation loops in the vicinity directly adjacent to the grain boundary. Lastly, these results suggest the importance of the pre-irradiation microstructure on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.« less

  20. Heterogeneous dislocation loop formation near grain boundaries in a neutron-irradiated commercial FeCrAl alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Hu, Xunxiang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2016-11-01

    FeCrAl alloys are an attractive materials class for nuclear power applications due to their increased environmental compatibility over more traditional nuclear materials. Preliminary studies into the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys under accelerated neutron testing between 300-400 °C have shown post-irradiation microstructures containing dislocation loops and Cr-rich ' phase. Although these initial works established the post-irradiation microstructures, little to no focus was applied towards the influence of pre-irradiation microstructures on this response. Here, a well annealed commercial FeCrAl alloy, Alkrothal 720, was neutron irradiated to 1.8 dpa at 382 °C and then the role of random high angle grain boundaries on the spatial distribution and size of dislocation loops, dislocation loops, and black dot damage was analyzed using on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy. Results showed a clear heterogeneous dislocation loop formation with dislocation loops showing an increased number density and size, black dot damage showing a significant number density decrease, and an increased size of dislocation loops in the vicinity directly adjacent to the grain boundary. Lastly, these results suggest the importance of the pre-irradiation microstructure on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.

  1. Enhanced wear and fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified by plasma carburizing/CrN coating.

    PubMed

    Park, Y G; Wey, M Y; Hong, S I

    2007-05-01

    In this study, a newly developed duplex coating method incorporating plasma carburization and CrN coating was applied to Ti-6Al-4V and its effects on the wear resistance and fatigue life were investigated. The carburized layer with approximately150 microm in depth and CrN coating film with 7.5 microm in thickness were formed after duplex coating. Hard carbide particles such as TiC And V(4)C(3) were formed in the carburized layer. XRD diffraction pattern analysis revealed that CrN film had predominant [111] and [200] textures. The hardness (Hv) was significantly improved up to about 1,960 after duplex coating while the hardness value of original Ti-6Al-4V was 402. The threshold load for the modification and/or failure of CrN coating was measured to be 32 N using the acoustic emission technique. The wear resistance and fatigue life of duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V improved significantly compared to those of un-treated specimen. The enhanced wear resistance can be attributed to the excellent adhesion and improved hardness of CrN coating film for the duplex-coated Ti-6Al-4V. The initiation of fatigue cracks is likely to be retarded by the presence of hard and strong layers on the surface, resulting in the enhanced fatigue life.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of the Ca(5)Al(2-x)In(x)Sb(6) solid solution.

    PubMed

    Zevalkink, Alex; Swallow, Jessica; Ohno, Saneyuki; Aydemir, Umut; Bux, Sabah; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2014-11-14

    Zintl phases are attractive for thermoelectric applications due to their complex structures and bonding environments. The Zintl compounds Ca(5)Al(2)In(x)Sb(6)and Ca(5)Al(2)In(x)Sb(6) have both been shown to have promising thermoelectric properties, with zT values of 0.6 and 0.7, respectively, when doped to control the carrier concentration. Alloying can often be used to further improve thermoelectric materials in cases when the decrease in lattice thermal conductivity outweighs reductions to the electronic mobility. Here we present the high temperature thermoelectric properties of the Ca(5)Al(2-x)In(x)Sb(6)solid solution. Undoped and optimally Zn-doped samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction confirms that a full solid solution exists between the Al and In end-members. We find that the Al : In ratio does not greatly influence the carrier concentration or Seebeck effect. The primary effect of alloying is thus increased scattering of both charge carriers and phonons, leading to significantly reduced electronic mobility and lattice thermal conductivity at room temperature. Ultimately, the figure of merit is unaffected by alloying in this system, due to the competing effects of reduced mobility and lattice thermal conductivity.

  3. Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2009-08-15

    Details of quaternary compounds formation in the system NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCaAlF{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The system under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-NaAlF{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is NaAlF{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCaAlF{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCaAlF{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCaAlF{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the system the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) which is very important for

  4. Effect of nitrogen pressure on the hardness and chemical states of TiAlCrN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Jonathan F.; Huang Feng; Barnard, John A.; Weaver, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    TiAlCrN coatings were reactively sputtered from a Ti{sub 0.37}Al{sub 0.51}Cr{sub 0.12} alloy target in this study with a nitrogen partial pressure ranging from 0% to 25% of the total pressure. The effects of the incorporation of nitrogen into the coatings on the hardness, elastic modulus, and chemical state of the metal atoms in the coatings were investigated. The hardness and reduced modulus of the coatings increased with increasing nitrogen partial pressures. The formation of ternary nitrides was inferred from the noticeable difference in the chemical states from those for the corresponding binary nitrides.

  5. Optimization of the NiCrAl-Y/ZrO-Y2O3 thermal barrier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of bond and thermal barrier coating compositions, thicknesses, and densities on air plasma spray deposited Ni-Cr-Al-Y/ZrO2-Y2O3 life were evaluated in cyclic furnace oxidation tests at temperatures from 1110 to 1220 C. An empirical relation was developed to give life as a function of the above parameters. The thermal barrier system tested which had the longest life consisted of Ni-35.0 wt% Cr-5.9 wt% Al-0.95 wt% Y bond coating and ZrO2-6.1 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coating.

  6. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} ceramic pigments by spray drying

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M.; Ocana, M.

    2009-04-02

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 {mu}m range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  7. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  8. Nanosized Cr2O3 as pinning center in (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. H.; Abd-Shukor, R.

    2013-05-01

    Nanosized Cr2O3 (6 nm) has been introduced into (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O/Ag tapes fabricated by the powderin-tube method. The starting powder with composition (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10(Cr2O3)0.05 was prepared by the solid state reaction method. The superconductor tapes with thickness of about 0.3 mm and length about 2 cm were heated at 845°C for 96, 144, 192 and 240 h. The samples were characterized by the four point probe electrical measurements, X-ray powder diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The transport critical current density, Jc was measured from 30 to 65 K using the 1 μ/cm criterion. The highest Jc was obtained for the tape heated for 240 h with Jc = 1700 A/cm2 at 30 K. XRD patterns showed that the samples consisted of the 2212 and 2223 phase. SEM micrographs showed the plat-like structure. The role of nano-Cr2O3 in the superconductor system is discussed. The size of the nanoparticle (R) was larger than the coherence length, ξ but smaller than the penetration depth, λ(ξ< R <λ). The temperature dependent Jc from 30 to 65 K showed a linear relation for all except for the tapes heated at 240 h. Using the self-field approximation together with the Jc dependence on temperature, it was observed that between 30 and 65 K the characteristic length (Lc) associated with the pinning force Fp is approximately the same as the average grain size (Rg) in all samples except for the tapes heated for 240 h where Rg < Lc. This shows that a change in the flux pinning mechanism occurred in the tapes when the heating time was prolonged.

  9. Temperature Sensing Above 1000 C Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Spin-Allowed Broadband Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Chambers, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) is shown to produce remarkably high-intensity spin-allowed broadband luminescence with sufficiently long decay times to make effective luminescence-decay-time based temperature measurements above 1000 C. This phosphor is therefore an attractive alternative to the much lower luminescence intensity rare-earth-doped thermographic phosphors that are typically utilized at these elevated temperatures. In particular, Cr:GdAlO3 will be preferred over rare-earth-doped phosphors, such as Dy:YAG, at temperatures up to 1200 C for intensity-starved situations when the much lower emission intensity from rare-earth-doped phosphors is insufficient for accurate temperature measurements in the presence of significant radiation background. While transition-metal-doped phosphors such as Cr:Al2O3 (ruby) are known to exhibit high luminescence intensity at low dopant concentrations, quenching due to nonradiative decay pathways competing with the (sup 2)E to (sup 4)A(sub 2) radiative transition (R line) has typically restricted their use for temperature sensing to below 600 C. Thermal quenching of the broadband (sup 4)T(sub 2) to (sup 4)A(sub 2) radiative transition from Cr:GdAlO3, however, is delayed until much higher temperatures (above 1000 C). This spin-allowed broadband emission persists to high temperatures because the lower-lying (sup 2)E energy level acts as a reservoir to thermally populate the higher shorter-lived (sup 4)T(sub 2) energy level and because the activation energy for nonradiative crossover relaxation from the (sup 4)T(sub 2) level to the (sup 4)A(sub 2) ground state is high. The strong crystal field associated with the tight bonding of the AlO6 octahedra in the GdAlO3 perovskite structure is responsible for this behavior.

  10. Evolution of the electronic structure and physical properties of Fe2MeAl (Me = Ti, V, Cr) Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreder, E.; Streltsov, S. V.; Svyazhin, A.; Makhnev, A.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Lukoyanov, A.; Weber, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of experiments on the optical, electrical and magnetic properties and electronic structure and optical spectrum calculations of the Heusler alloys Fe2TiAl, Fe2VAl and Fe2CrAl. We find that the drastic transformation of the band spectrum, especially near the Fermi level, when replacing the Me element (Me = Ti, V, Cr), is accompanied by a significant change in the electrical and optical properties. The electrical and optical properties of Fe2TiAl are typical for metals. The abnormal behavior of the electrical resistivity and the optical properties in the infrared range for Fe2VAl and Fe2CrAl are determined by electronic states at the Fermi level. Both the optical spectroscopic measurements and the theoretical calculations demonstrate the presence of low-energy gaps in the band spectrum of the Heusler alloys. In addition, we demonstrate that the formation of Fe clusters may be responsible for the large enhancement of the total magnetic moment in Fe2CrAl.

  11. A study of interdiffusion in beta + gamma/gamma + gamma prime Ni-Cr-Al. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carol, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Ternary diffusion in the NiCrAl system at 1200 C was studied with beta + gamma/gamma + gamma prime infinite diffusion couples. Interdiffusion resulted in the formation of complex, multiphase diffusion zones. Concentration/distance profiles for Cr and Al in the phases present in the diffusion zone were measured after 200 hr. The Ni-rich portion of the NiCrAl phase diagram (1200 C) was also determined. From these data, bulk Cr and Al profiles were calculated and translated to diffusion paths on the ternary isotherm. Growth layer kinetics of the layers present in the diffusion zone were also measured.

  12. Temperature-dependent polarized far-infrared optical properties of CaNdAlO 4 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. Y.; Bi, C. Z.; Fang, X.; Kamran, M.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, B. R.; Qiu, X. G.

    2008-10-01

    Polarized near-normal incident infrared reflectivity spectra of (1 0 0) CaNdAlO 4 single crystal along the ab plane and c-axis have been measured under different temperatures in the frequency region between 100 and 6000 cm -1. All the spectra are fitted with the factorized form of the dielectric function. Assignment of different phonon modes has been done in both crystalline directions. The dielectric property and optical conductivity of the CaNdAlO 4 crystal are analyzed. The differences between CaNbAlO 4 and SrLaAlO 4 are discussed with respect to vibration frequency and static optical permittivities.

  13. Dissolution of Al2TiO5 inclusions in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slags at 1823 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De-Yong; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Mao-Fa; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Al-Ti-O inclusions always clog submerged nozzles in Ti-bearing Al-killed steel. A typical synthesized Al2TiO5 inclusion was immersed in a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 molten slag for different durations at 1823 K. The Al2TiO5 dissolution paths and mechanism were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Decreased amounts of Ti and Al and increased amounts of Si and Ca at the dissolution boundary prove that inclusion dissolution and slag penetration simultaneously occur. SiO2 diffuses or penetrates the inclusion more quickly than CaO, as indicated by the w(CaO)/ w(SiO2) value in the reaction region. A liquid product (containing 0.7-1.2 w(CaO)/ w(SiO2), 15wt%-20wt% Al2O3, and 5wt%-15wt% TiO2) forms on the inclusion surface when Al2TiO5 is dissolved in the slag. Al2TiO5 initially dissolves faster than the diffusion rate of the liquid product toward the bulk slag. With increasing reaction time, the boundary reaches its largest distance, the Al2TiO5 dissolution rate equals the liquid product diffusion rate, and the dissolution process remains stable until the inclusion is completely dissolved.

  14. Preparation and properties of Eu doped CaAlSiN3 red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pan; Zhang, Ning; Man, Shiqing

    2017-03-01

    The Eu2+ activated CaAlSiN3 phosphor was synthesized by solid-state reaction method under a nitrogen atmosphere at 1550°C for 6h. The phosphors structure was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD); excitation spectra, emission spectra and decay lifetime were obtained by fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped. It showed a broad excitation band originating from the 4f7-4f65d transition of Eu2+ ion extending to 650nm and the peaking at 467nm; a strong emission band centering at 668nm, and the lifetime of Eu2+ in the CaAlSiN3 host is 1.4227 µs.

  15. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  16. Spray Forming of Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Al-Fe-Cr-Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjongprasert, C.; Hogg, S. C.; Liotti, E.; Kirk, C. A.; Thompson, S. P.; Mi, J.; Grant, P. S.

    2010-12-01

    An Al-2.7Fe-1.9Cr-1.8Ti alloy has been spray formed in bulk and the microstructure and properties compared with those of similar alloys produced by casting, powder aomization (PA), and mechanical alloying (MA) routes. In PA and MA routes, a nanoscale metastable icosahedral phase is usually formed and is known to confer high tensile strength. Unlike previous studies of the spray forming of similar Al-based metastable phase containing alloys that were restricted to small billets with high porosity, standard spray forming conditions were used here to produce a ~98 pct dense 19-kg billet that was hot isostatically pressed (“HIPed”), forged, and/or extruded. The microstructure has been investigated at all stages of processing using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) at the Diamond Light Source. Consistent with the relatively low cooling rate in spray forming under standard conditions, the microstructure showed no compelling evidence for the formation of metastable icosahedral phases. Nonetheless, after downstream processing, the spray-formed mechanical properties as a function of temperature were very similar to both PA rapid solidification (RS) materials and those made by MA. These aspects have been rationalized in terms of the typical phases, defects, and residual strains produced in each process route.

  17. Optimization of an oxide dispersion strengthened Ni-Cr-Al alloy for gas turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klarstrom, D. L.; Grierson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to determine the optimum alloy within the Ni-16Cr-Al-Y2O3 system for use as a vane material in advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. Six alloys containing nominally 4%, 5% and 6% Al with Y2O3 levels of 0.8% and 1.2% were prepared by mechanical attrition. Six small-scale, rectangular extrusions were produced from each powder lot for property evaluation. The approximate temperatures for incipient melting were found to be 1658 K (2525 F), 1644 K (2500 F) and 1630 K (2475 F) for the 4%, 5% and 6% aluminum levels, respectively. With the exception of longitudinal crystallographic texture, the eight extrusions selected for extensive evaluation either exceeded or were close to mechanical property goals. Major differences between the alloys became apparent during dynamic oxidation testing, and in particular during the 1366 K (2000 F)/500 hour Mach 1 tests carried out by NASA-Lewis. An aluminum level of 4.75% was subsequently judged to be optimum based on considerations of dynamic oxidation resistance, susceptibility to thermal fatigue cracking and melting point.

  18. The effect of zirconium on the isothermal oxidation of nominal Ni-14Cr-24Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, A. S.; Lowell, C. E.; Barrett, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation of Ni-14Cr-24Al-xZr-type alloys was performed in still air at 1100, 1150, and 1200 C for times up to 200 hr. The zirconium content of the alloys varied from 0-0.63 atom percent (a/o). The oxidized surfaces were studied by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The base alloy was an alumina former with the zirconium-containing alloys also developing some ZrO2. The addition of zirconium above 0.066 a/o increased the rate of weight gain relative to the base alloy. Due to oxide penetratio, the weight gain increased with Zr content; however, the scale thickness did not increase. The Zr did increase the adherence of the oxide, particularly at 1200 C. The delta W/A vs. time data fit the parabolic model of oxidation. The specific diffusion mechanism operative could not be identified by analysis of the calculated activation energies. Measurements of the Al2O3 scale lattice constants yielded the same values for all alloys.

  19. EXAFS Study of Refractory Cement Phases: CaAl2O{14}H{20}, Ca2Al2O{13}H{16}, and Ca3Al2O{12}H{12}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, N.; Lequeux, N.; Boch, P.

    1995-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS and XANES) is used for the first time to characterize the local environment of aluminium and calcium in phases formed by hydration of high-alumina cements. Ca K-edge EXAFS spectrum confirms that C2AH8 is an AFm phase. A location is given for the interlayer aluminium cations, which are in a tetrahedrally coordinated hydrated site. Absorption measurements at the AI K-edge show a structural analogy between CAH{10} and gibbsite AH3. The structural model proposed for CAH{10} is based on two rings of six edge-sharing [ Al(OH)6] ^{3-} octahedra, with Ca^{2+} cations linking them together. High-alumina cements are commonly used for refractory applications. Changes in aluminium and calcium environments during CAH{10} dehydration is therefore investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Dehydration leads to a decrease in the Ca-O distance and reduces the number of oxygen neighbours in the first coordination shell around calcium. La spectroscopie d'absorption des rayons X est utilisée pour la première fois pour caractériser l'environnement local autour de l'aluminium et du calcium dans des phases formées par hydratation de ciments alumineux. Le spectre EXAFS au seuil K du calcium confirme que C2AH8 est une phase AFm. De plus, on indique une position pour les cations aluminium de l'intercouche, qui sont dans un site tétraédrique hydraté. Les expériences d'absorption au seuil K de l'aluminium révèlent une analogie entre la structure de CAH{10} et celle de la gibbsite AH3. Le modèle structural proposé pour CAH{10} est basé sur l'existence de deux anneaux formés chacun de six octaèdres [ Al(OH)6] ^{3-} liés par arêtes, les atomes de calcium assurant un lien entre ces anneaux. Les ciments alumineux sont couramment utilisés pour des applications réfractaires ; c'est pourquoi cette étude suit l'évolution de l'environnement autour du calcium et de l'aluminium au cours de la déshydratation de CAH{10}. Une diminution

  20. Effect of CaF2 on Interfacial Phenomena of High Alumina Refractories with Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interfacial phenomena between Al-alloy and industrial grade high alumina refractories containing varying contents of CaF2 at 1250 °C. Interfacial reaction products and phases formed in the heat-treated refractory samples were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while interfacial phenomena including dynamic wetting behavior were analyzed using the sessile drop technique. Refractories containing less than 5 wt pct CaF2 showed good resistance to reactions with the molten alloy, due to the dominance of corundum, and the presence of anorthite at the interface. However, with a further increase in the additive content, a glassy matrix of anorthite with CaF2 was formed. Formation of this phase significantly increased the intensity of reactions resulting in the buildup of an interfacial layer. The study thus revealed the strong catalytic effect of CaF2 on reactions of high alumina refractories with Al-alloy.

  1. Sr isotopic fractionation in Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    True relative Sr isotopic compositions, determined by double spiking on Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite show up to 1.5??? per mass unit mass fractionation relative to the Earth and bulk chondrites. All abnormal inclusions are light-isotope enriched. A lack of isotopically heavy Sr in inclusions would place constraints on the time, place and mechanism of origin of these objects. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Shock Resistance of HVOF Sprayed NiCrAlY Coatings Without and With Nano Ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Shufen; Wang, You; Pan, Zhaoyi; Wang, Liang

    2012-09-01

    NiCrAlY coatings without and with 0.2 wt.% nano ceria were prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying. The microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal shock resistance of as-sprayed coatings were investigated. The results showed that in the as-sprayed coatings, the number of un-melted particles was reduced drastically, the microstructure was refined and compact due to the refinement of sprayable powders. Both the hardness and adhesive strength of the NiCrAlY increased due to the refinement of microstructure and the decrease of the defects, such as pores and oxides, after adding nano ceria. The thermal cycle life of NiCrAlY coatings was improved by 15% after adding 0.2 wt.% nano ceria, which is attributed to the low content of spinel NiCr2O4 and high content of Cr2O3 in the thermal cycling, the refined and compact microstructure, and increased interfacial boundary.

  3. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

  4. Hibonite, Ca2/Al, Ti/24O38, from the Leoville and Allende chondritic meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Hibonite was discovered in light-colored, Ca-Al-Ti-rich and Si-Fe-poor, achondritic inclusions of the Leoville and Allende HL-group chondrites. Two varieties of hibonite occur: one emits a bright red-orange luminescence under electron bombardment and has high amounts of Al2O3 (87.7; 87.9) and low amounts of MgO (0.65; 0.8) and TiO2 (0.68; 0.8). The other emits a bright blue luminescence and is low in Al2O3 (78.7; 79.2) and high in MgO (3.3; 3.7) and TiO2 (6.5; 7.9) (in wt. %). The oxide CaO is about the same in both varieties. It is suggested that the change in the color of the visible luminescence results from changes in composition. The origin of hibonite which occurs in complex mineral assemblages together with anorthite, gelhenite, wollastonite, aluminous diopside, andradite, Ca-pyroxene, perovskite, spinel, taenite, chromite, and pentlandite, and in close proximity to nodules containing calcite, whewellite, forsterite and many of the aforementioned phases, is discussed. The proposition that hibonite and associated phases originated by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of calcite-dolomite bearing assemblages cannot, at this time, be completely ruled out.

  5. Crystallization of Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions: Experimental Studies on the Effects of Repeated Heating Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Le, Loan

    2000-01-01

    The observed textures and chemistry of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are presumed to be the culmination of a series of repeated heating and cooling events in the early history of the solar nebula. We have examined the effects of these heating/cooling cycles experimentally on a bulk composition representing an average Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusion composition. We have tested the effect of the nature of the starting material. Although the most recent and/or highest temperature event prior to incorporation into the parent body dominates the texture and chemistry of the CAI, prior events also affect the phase compositions and textures. We have determined that heating precursor grains to about 1275 C prior to the final melting event increases the likelihood of anorthite crystallization in subsequent higher temperature events and a prior high temperature even that produced dendritic melilite results in melilite that shows evidence of rapid crystallization in subsequent lower temperature events. Prior low temperature pre-crystallization events produce final ran products with pyroxene compositions similar to Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions, and the glass (residual liquid) composition is more anorthitic than any other experiments to date. The addition of Pt powder to the starting material appears to enhance the ability of anorthite to nucleate from this composition.

  6. Polymer coated CaAl-layered double hydroxide nanomaterials for potential calcium supplement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-12-05

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement.

  7. Solid-State Reaction Between Fe-Al-Ca Alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO Oxide During Heat Treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengsong; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Ni, Hongwei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to control the physicochemical characteristics of inclusions in steel through appropriate heat treatment. Using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and pipe furnace, the solid-state reactions between Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide during heat treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C) and the influence of these reactions on the compositions of and phases in the alloy and oxide were investigated by the diffusion couple method. Suitable pretreatment of the oxide using a CSLM and production of the diffusion couple of Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide gave good contact between the alloy and oxide. The diffusion couple was then sealed in a quartz tube with a piece of Ti foil to lower oxygen partial pressure and a block of Fe-Al-Ca alloy was introduced to conduct heat treatment experiments. Solid-state reactions between the alloy and oxide during heat treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C) were analyzed and discussed. A dynamic model to calculate the width of the particle precipitation zone based on the Wagner model of internal oxidation of metal was proposed. This model was helpful to understand the solid-state reaction mechanism between Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide.

  8. Solid-State Reaction Between Fe-Al-Ca Alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO Oxide During Heat Treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengsong; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Ni, Hongwei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to control the physicochemical characteristics of inclusions in steel through appropriate heat treatment. Using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and pipe furnace, the solid-state reactions between Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide during heat treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C) and the influence of these reactions on the compositions of and phases in the alloy and oxide were investigated by the diffusion couple method. Suitable pretreatment of the oxide using a CSLM and production of the diffusion couple of Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide gave good contact between the alloy and oxide. The diffusion couple was then sealed in a quartz tube with a piece of Ti foil to lower oxygen partial pressure and a block of Fe-Al-Ca alloy was introduced to conduct heat treatment experiments. Solid-state reactions between the alloy and oxide during heat treatment at 1473 K (1200 °C) were analyzed and discussed. A dynamic model to calculate the width of the particle precipitation zone based on the Wagner model of internal oxidation of metal was proposed. This model was helpful to understand the solid-state reaction mechanism between Fe-Al-Ca alloy and Al2O3-CaO-FeO oxide.

  9. Effect of thermal cycling on the microstructure of a directionally solidified Fe, Cr, Al-TaC eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.; Tewari, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    Cylindrical bars (1.2 cm diameter) of Fe-13.6Cr-3.7Al-9TaC (wt %) eutectic alloy were directionally solidified in a modified Bridgman type furnace at 1 cm/h. The alloy microstructure consisted of aligned TaC fibers imbedded in a bcc Fe-Cr-Al matrix. Specimens of the alloy were thermally cycled from 1100 to 425 C in a burner rig. The effects of 1800 thermal cycles on the microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a zig-zag shape of TaC fibers aligned parallel to the growth direction. The mechanism of carbide solution and reprecipitation on the (111) easy growth planes, suggested previously to account for the development of irregular serrations in Co-Cr-Ni matrix alloys, is believed to be responsible for these zig-zag surfaces.

  10. Structure and Tribological Properties of CrTiAlN Coatings Deposited by Multi-Arc Ion Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Canxin; Yang, Bing; He, Jun; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zesong; Wang, Guangfu; Fu, Dejun

    2011-02-01

    CrTiAlN coatings were prepared by using a home-made industrial scale multi-arc ion plating system. The coatings were found to be composites of face-center-cubic CrN and TiN. The surface roughness, microhardness, and tribological properties of the films were significantly affected by the nitrogen pressure and dc-pulsed bias voltage applied to the substrate. The CrTiAlN coatings with the smoothest surfaces were obtained at optimum conditions of nitrogen pressure of 5.0 Pa and bias voltage of -200 V. The samples were found to exhibit a hardness of 2900 HV0.05 with an average friction coefficient of 0.16 and wear rate of 1.5×10-16 m3/N·m against cemented carbide.

  11. Evaluation on the Effect of Composition on Radiation Hardening and Embrittlement in Model FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Edmondson, Philip; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Howard, Richard; Parish, Chad M.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-18

    This report details the findings of post-radiation mechanical testing and microstructural characterization performed on a series of model and commercial FeCrAl alloys to assist with the development of a cladding technology with enhanced accident tolerance. The samples investigated include model alloys with simple ferritic grain structure and two commercial alloys with minor solute additions. These samples were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to nominal doses of 7.0 dpa near or at Light Water Reactor (LWR) relevant temperatures (300-400 C). Characterization included a suite of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS), atom probe tomography (APT), and transmission based electron microscopy techniques. Mechanical testing included tensile tests at room temperature on sub-sized tensile specimens. The goal of this work was to conduct detailed characterization and mechanical testing to begin establishing empirical and/or theoretical structure-property relationships for radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement in the FeCrAl alloy class. Development of such relationships will provide insight on the performance of FeCrAl alloys in an irradiation environment and will enable further development of the alloy class for applications within a LWR environment. A particular focus was made on establishing trends, including composition and radiation dose. The report highlights in detail the pertinent findings based on this work. This report shows that radiation hardening in the alloys is primarily composition dependent due to the phase separation in the high-Cr FeCrAl alloys. Other radiation induced/enhanced microstructural features were less dependent on composition and when observed at low number densities, were not a significant contributor to the observed mechanical responses. Pre-existing microstructure in the alloys was found to be important, with grain boundaries and pre-existing dislocation

  12. Strain rate sensitivity of nanoindentation creep in an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, R. F.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Creep behaviors of an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy with the body-centered cubic structure were investigated by nanoindentation. The enhanced strain gradient induced by higher strain rate leads to decreased strain rate sensitivity during creep process. The present alloy exhibits excellent creep resistance, mainly due to its large entropy of mixing and highly distorted lattice structure.

  13. Magnetic and electron-transport properties of spin-gapless semiconducting CoFeCrAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellmyer, David; Jin, Yunlong; Kharel, Parashu; Valloppilly, Shah; George, Tom; Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Skomski, Ralph

    Recently, spin-gapless semiconductors (SGS) with a semiconducting or insulating gap in one spin channel and zero gap in the other at the Fermi level have attracted much attention due to their new functionalities such as voltage-tunable spin polarization, the ability to switch between spin-polarized n-type and p-type conduction, high spin polarization and carrier mobility. For the development of spintronic devices utilizing SGS, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the magnetic and transport properties of the thin films of these materials. In this study, the structural, magnetic, and electron-transport properties of a SGS material CoFeCrAl in the thin film geometry have been investigated. CoFeCrAl films were grown on atomically flat SiO2 substrates using magnetron sputtering. The Curie temperature was measured to be 550 K very close to the value reported for bulk CoFeCrAl. Electron-transport measurements on the oriented films revealed a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity and linear field dependence of magnetoresistance, which are transport signatures of SGS. The effect of elemental compositions and structural ordering on the SGS properties of the CoFeCrAl films will be discussed. Research supported by NSF (Y. J.), DoE (B. B., D. J. S), ARO (T. A. G., S. R. V.), SDSU (P. K.), and NRI (Facilities).

  14. Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed NiCrAlY Coatings Modified by Rare Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. F.; Liu, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Sun, X. G.; Zou, Z. W.; Li, X. W.; Wang, C. H.

    2014-06-01

    Rare earth (RE)-modified NiCrAlY powders were prepared by ultrasonic gas atomization and deposited on stainless steel substrate by high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying. The effects of the RE on the microstructure, properties, and thermal shock resistance of the NiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The results showed that the NiCrAlY powders were refined and distributed uniformly after adding RE, while the number of unmelted particles in the coatings was reduced. Moreover, the RE-modified coatings showed improved microhardness and distribution uniformity. The microhardness of the coating reached a maximum after adding 0.9 wt.% RE, being 34.4 % higher than that of coatings without RE. The adhesive strength increased and reached a maximum after adding 0.6 wt.% RE, being 18.8 % higher than that of coatings without RE. Excessive RE decreased the adhesive strength. The thermal cycle life of NiCrAlY coatings increased drastically with RE addition. The coating with 0.9 wt.% RE showed optimum thermal shock resistance, being 21.2 % higher than that of coatings without RE.

  15. The Analysis of the General Performance and Mechanical Behavior of Unirradiated FeCrAl Alloys Before and After Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-06-03

    The present report summarizes and discusses the preliminary results for the in-depth characterization of the modern, nuclear-grade FeCrAl alloys currently under development. The alloys were designed for enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability, and the research is currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program. Last year, seven candidate FeCrAl alloys with well-controlled chemistry and microstructures were designed and produced; welding was performed under well-controlled conditions. The structure and general performance of unirradiated alloys were assessed using standardized and advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective is to identify the best candidate alloy, or at a minimum to identify the contributing factors that increase the weldability and radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys, therefore enabling future generations of FeCrAl alloys to deliver better performance parameters. This report is structured so as to describe these critical assessments of the weldability; radiation tolerance will be reported on in later reports from this program.

  16. Ca- and Sc-based ternary AlB2-like crystals: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2017-02-01

    The aluminum diboride (AlB2) crystal structure comprises intercalated metal atoms between honeycomb sheets. In addition to metal diborides, which represent the most common family of AlB2-like structures, many more materials are known to crystallize in this geometry. Here we use first-principles calculations to probe the structural and electronic properties of several such systems. Specifically, we investigate the stability of various polymorphs of CaAuAs, CaAuP, CaCuP, ScAuGe, ScAuSi, Ca2AgSi3 and Ca2AuGe3 and find lattice parameters in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The analysis of densities of states and band structure diagrams show that all materials are metallic. However, the details of band dispersion vary significantly, from typical metals such as CaAuP, to almost semi-metallic behaviour in CaCuP.

  17. Interdiffusion between the L1(2) trialuminides Al66Ti25Mn9 and Al67Ti25Cr8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Concentration-distance profiles obtained from Al66Ti25Mn9/Al67Ti25Cr8 diffusion couples are used to determine the interdiffusion coeffients in the temperature range 1373-1073 K. The couples are treated as pseudobinaries, and the diffusion coefficients are determined using the Matano approach. The results are then used to compute the activation energies for diffusion, and a comparison is made with some existing data for the activation energy for creep of Al22Ti8Fe3.

  18. Effect of Sealing Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed NiCrAl/Cr2O3-8 wt.%TiO2 Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Zehua; Lin, Pinghua; Lu, Wenhuan; Zhou, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun

    2011-03-01

    Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings inherently contain pores and micro-cracks which is deleterious when performed in aggressive environment. Various methods were applied to the as-sprayed coatings in order to improve the corrosion resistance. In the investigation of this study, plasma-sprayed NiCrAl/Cr2O3-8 wt.%TiO2 coatings were sealed by epoxy resin and silicone resin, respectively. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), optical microscopy (OM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The possible corrosion mechanism was discussed. The results of salt spray test and electrochemical measurements indicated that after the sealing treatment, the porosity of coatings decreased obviously and a compact layer was formed to protect the coating from corrosion. The silicone resin proved to be more effective than epoxy resin in enhancing the corrosion resistance of the coatings used in this research.

  19. Nanomechanical characterization of alumina coatings grown on FeCrAl alloy by thermal oxidation.

    PubMed

    Frutos, E; González-Carrasco, J L; Polcar, T

    2016-04-01

    This work studies the feasibility of using repetitive-nano-impact tests with a cube-corner tip and low loads for obtaining quantitative fracture toughness values in thin and brittle coatings. For this purpose, it will be assumed that the impacts are able to produce a cracking, similar to the pattern developed for the classical fracture toughness tests in bulk materials, and therefore, from the crack developed in the repetitive impacts it will be possible to evaluate the suitability of the classical indentation models (Anstins and Laugier) for measuring fracture toughness. However, the length of this crack has to be lower than 10% of the total coating thickness to avoid substrate contributions. For this reason, and in order to ensure a small plastic region localized at the origin of the crack tip, low load values (or small distance between the indenter tip and the surface) have to be used. In order to demonstrate the validity of this technique, repetitive-nano-impact will be done in a fine and dense oxide layer (α-Al2O3), which has been developed on the top of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys (PM 2000) by thermal oxidation at elevated temperatures. Moreover, it will be shown how it is possible to know with each new impact the crack geometry evolution from Palmqvist crack to half-penny crack, being able to study the proper evolution of the different values of fracture toughness in terms of both indentation models and as a function of the strain rate, ε̇, decreasing. Thereby, fracture toughness values for α-Al2O3 layer decrease from ~4.40MPam , for high ϵ̇ value (10(3)s(-1)), to ~3.21MPam, for quasi-static ϵ̇ value (10(-3)s(-1)). On the other hand, ϵ̇ a new process to obtain fracture toughness values will be analysed, when the classical indentation models are not met. These values are typically found in the literature for bulk α-Al2O3, demonstrating the use of repetitive-nano-impact tests which not only provide qualitative information about

  20. DFT+ U study of electronic structure and Curie temperature of A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex; Marianetti, Chris

    Re-based double perovskites (DPs) have attracted much attention due to their high Curie temperature (TC) and colossal magneto resistance with large potential for spintronic applications. Here we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the Re-based DPs A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe) using density functional theory + U (DFT+ U) calculations. While monoclinic Ca2CrReO6 and Ca2FeReO6 (monoclinic) are insulating within GGA+ U, tetragonal Sr2CrReO6 (a0a0c0) and Sr2FeReO6 (a0a0c-) remain metallic. We show that both on-site interaction U and octahedral tilting are critical to obtain the insulating phases. The a0a0c- -phase of Sr2CrReO6 is most stable and insulating with nonzero U, suggesting that the high quality Sr2CrReO6 film on STO substrate can be a semiconductor as reported in recent experiments. We explain that the insulator-to-metal transition (MIT) of Ca2FeReO6 at 140K is predominantly due to a structural phase transition which drives the insulating state. Curie temperatures of Re-based DPs are calculated using the classical Monte Carlo simulations based on the Heisenberg model.

  1. BeAl 6O 10:Cr 3+ (Ti 3+, Ni 2+) laser crystals and their spectroscopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solntsev, V. P.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Alimpiev, A. I.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Matrosov, V. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.

    2003-12-01

    The EPR, optical absorption, luminescence spectra, and lasing characteristics of Cr 3+, Ti 3+, and Ni 2+ ions in BeAl 6O 10 (beryllium hexaaluminate, BHA) crystals are studied. The spectroscopic data show that the BHA crystals have an orthorhombic structure with the space group Pbcm. The temperature dependence of luminescence lifetime of the excited state of Cr 3+ ions ( τ≈13×10 -6 s at 300 K) is investigated. The energy gap between the 2E- and 4T 2-levels of Cr 3+ (˜236 cm -1) and the nonradiative relaxation activation energy ( Ea≈1667 cm -1) are determined. High-efficient tunable radiation of a new BeAl 6O 10:Cr 3+ laser crystal is demonstrated in the region of 0.78-0.92 μm at 300 K. It is shown that the doped BHA crystals are promising active media for tunable solid state lasers in the spectral regions of 0.7-1.0 μm (Cr 3+) and 1.35-1.65 μm (Ni 2+).

  2. Deposition of LaMO 3 (M=Co, Cr, Al) films by spray pyrolysis in inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Katsuki, Hiroaki; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-11-01

    LaMO 3 (M=Co, Cr, Al) films were prepared on substrates by introducing ultrasonically atomized metal nitrate solutions into an inductively coupled plasma under atmospheric pressure (spray-ICP technique). Dense perovskite-type oxide films of LaCoO 3 and LaCrO 3 were obtained at 600-900°C, while the LaAiO 3 films consisted of loosely packed aggregates. Deposition rates of the films were 6-35 nm/min at 600-900°C. The high temperature phases (cubic) of LaCoO 3 and LaAlO 3 crystallized due to effect of grain size. LaCrO 3 film crystallized in the room temperature phase (orthorhombic). LaCoO 3 was highly oriented to (100) on MgO(100), and LaCrO 3 to (011) and (101) on sapphire(001). Lowest electric resistivities of LaCoO 3 and LaCrO 3 film on MgO were 9.8X10 -3 and 2.7X10 -1 Ω m, respectively, at room temperature.

  3. Removal of Tin and Copper from Liquid Iron by Al2O3-Saturated Ca-CaCl2 Slags at 1448 to 1648 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2009-08-01

    The removal of tin and copper from liquid iron by Al2O3-saturated Ca-CaCl2 slags was carried out in separate alumina crucibles at 1448 to 1648 K that showed small partition ratios of less than 1. The tin content of the liquid iron typically decreased from its initial value of 50 to 40 wt pct and the (gross) copper content of the iron-copper mixture from 50 to 45 wt pct, at equilibrium. The small refining efficiencies (37 pct, maximum) of the slags, the initial composition of which were, in most cases, Ca-50 wt pct CaCl2, may be attributed to the significant dissolution in them of alumina, up to 42.0 wt pct (29.6 mol pct), in experiments with Sn, and up to 54.4 wt pct (38.6 mol pct), in experiments with Cu. Treating Ca as the solvent, a number of interaction coefficients such as \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{text{Sn}} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }}^{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }} , \\varepsilon_{{{text{CaCl}}_{ 2} }}^{text{Sn}} , and \\varepsilon_{text{Sn}}^{text{Sn}} as well as the activity coefficient γ_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}0 were all determined at 1448 K. The activity of Ca (relative to pure liquid Ca) was obtained as approximately 0.65 to 0.75 in the system. Further, the two partial molar mixing/excess properties of alumina bar{H}_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}M and bar{S}_{{{text{Al}}_{ 2} {text{O}}_{ 3} }}^{XS} in the alumina-saturated Ca-17 pct CaCl2- 37 pct Al2O3 (molar basis) slag were evaluated and found to be -118.3(±10.8) kJ/mol and -0.062(±0.007) kJ/K·mol, respectively, at 1448 to 1648 K. In addition, in view of the reported success of CaC2 as a refining agent, some experiments were carried out with CaC2-CaF2 mixtures in alumina, magnesia, and graphite crucibles at 1873 K, to remove tin from liquid Fe-2 wt pct Sn. However, alumina and magnesia crucibles

  4. Characterization and oxidation behavior of NiCoCrAlY coating fabricated by electrophoretic deposition and vacuum heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiming; Qian, Shiqiang; Wang, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was showed to be a feasible and convenient method to fabricate NiCoCrAlY coatings on nickel based supperalloys. The microstructure and composition of the NiCoCrAlY coatings after vacuum heat treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Isothermal-oxidation test was performed at 1100 °C in static air for 100 h. The results show that the major phases in electrophoretic deposited and vacuum heat treated NiCoCrAlY coating are γ-Ni and γ‧-Ni3Al phases, also there is an extremely small quantity of Al2O3 in the coating. Composition fluctuations occur in the coating and a certain amount of titanium diffuse from the superalloy substrate to the top of the coating during vacuum heat treatment. The oxidation test results exhibit that the oxidation kinetics of this coating has two typical stages. The protective oxide layer is mainly formed in the initial linear growth stage and then the oxide layer hinders further oxidation of the coating in the subsequent parabolic growth stage. The coating can effectively protect the superalloy substrate from oxidation. A certain amount of rutile TiO2 is formed in the coating during oxidation and it is adverse to the oxidation resistance of the coating.

  5. Erosion behavior of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Robert Mendez Martin, Francisca; Hawranek, Gerhard; Polcik, Peter

    2016-03-15

    Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1−x} composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} atmospheres and their erosion behavior was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres were nonuniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded center region of the cathodes.

  6. Flow microcapillary plasma mass spectrometry-based investigation of new Al-Cr-Fe complex metallic alloy passivation.

    PubMed

    Ott, N; Beni, A; Ulrich, A; Ludwig, C; Schmutz, P

    2014-03-01

    Al-Cr-Fe complex metallic alloys are new intermetallic phases with low surface energy, low friction, and high corrosion resistance down to very low pH values (0-2). Flow microcapillary plasma mass spectrometry under potentiostatic control was used to characterize the dynamic aspect of passivation of an Al-Cr-Fe gamma phase in acidic electrolytes, allowing a better insight on the parameters inducing chemical stability at the oxyhydroxide-solution interface. In sulfuric acid pH 0, low element dissolution rates (in the µg cm(-2) range after 60 min) evidenced the passive state of the Al-Cr-Fe gamma phase with a preferential over-stoichiometric dissolution of Al and Fe cations. Longer air-aging was found to be beneficial for stabilizing the passive film. In chloride-containing electrolytes, ten times higher Al dissolution rates were detected at open-circuit potential (OCP), indicating that the spontaneously formed passive film becomes unstable. However, electrochemical polarization at low passive potentials induces electrical field generated oxide film modification, increasing chemical stability at the oxyhydroxide-solution interface. In the high potential passive region, localized attack is initiated with subsequent active metal dissolution.

  7. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  8. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  9. The effect of yttrium and thorium on the oxidation behavior of Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Nasrallah, M.; Douglass, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of quaternary additions of 0.5% Y, 0.5 and 1.0% Th to a base alloy of Ni-10CR-5Al on the oxidation behavior and mechanism was studied during oxidation in air over the range of 1000 to 1200 C. The presence of yttrium decreased the oxidation kinetics slightly, whereas, the addition of thorium caused a slight increase. Oxide scale adherence was markedly improved by the addition of the quaternary elements. Although a number of oxides formed on yttrium containing alloys, quantitative X-ray diffraction clearly showed that the rate-controlling step was the diffusion of aluminum through short circuit paths in a thin layer of alumina that formed parabolically with time. Although the scale adherence of the yttrium containing alloy was considerably better than the base alloys, spalling did occur that was attributed to the formation of the voluminous YAG particles which grew in a mushroom-like manner, lifting the protective scale off the subrate locally. The YAG particles formed primarily at grain boundaries in the substrate in which the yttrium originally existed as YNi9.

  10. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation ofmore » very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.« less

  11. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.

  12. Tribological Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN Abradable Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irissou, E.; Dadouche, A.; Lima, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The processing conditions, microstructural and tribological characterizations of plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN high temperature abradable coatings are reported in this manuscript. Plasma spray torch parameters were varied to produce a set of abradable coatings exhibiting a broad range of porosity levels (34-62%) and superficial Rockwell hardness values (0-78 HR15Y). Abradability tests have been performed using an abradable-seal test rig, capable of simulating operational wear at different rotor speeds and seal incursion rates (SIRs). These tests allowed determining the rubbing forces and quantifying the blade and seal wear characteristics for slow and fast SIRs. Erosion wear performance and ASTM C633 coating adhesion strength test results are also reported. For optimal abradability performance, it is shown that coating hardness needs to be lower than 70 and 50 HR15Y for slow and fast blade incursion rate conditions, respectively. It is shown that the erosion wear performance, as well as, the coating cohesive strength is a function of the coating hardness. The current results allow defining the coating specifications in terms of hardness and porosity for targeted applications.

  13. Magnetic properties of polycrystalline Co2Cr1-xFexAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmeier, M.; Schneider, C. M.; Werner, J.; Elefant, D.; Teresiak, A.; Behr, G.; Schumann, J.; Arushanov, E.

    2007-06-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of the Heusler phase Co2Cr1-xFexAl in the composition regime (x=0.3-0.5) in the disordered B2 phase. Both bulk and surface static and dynamic magnetic aspects were addressed by employing alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). All samples show ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and a tendency of increasing saturation magnetization Ms with the iron content. With BLS the behavior of bulk spin waves and the Damon Eshbach (DE) surface spin wave mode have been studied. The spectra are typical for opaque bulk ferromagnetic samples with strong exchange. The measured spin wave frequencies as a function of magnetic field are in good agreement with the calculated values. Saturation magnetization and gyromagnetic ratio g have been determined from the field-dependent peak positions of the bulk and the DE modes. The g-factor extracted from the DE mode shows a clear tendency of increase with increasing Fe-content. However, we could not find any peculiarities of the alloy with x=0.4, which had been proposed as a Heusler phase on the basis of electronic structure calculations [T. Block, C. Felser, G. Jakob, J. Ensling, B. Mühling, P. Gütlich, R.J. Cava, J. Solid State Chem. 176 (2003) 646].

  14. Magnetic and electrical properties of the half-metallic ferromagnets Co2CrAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Korolev, A. V.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of the magnetic and electrical properties of the ferromagnetic alloy Co2CrAl in two structural states: (i) after severe plastic deformation and (ii) after shortterm high-temperature annealing of the deformed specimens. The experiments have been performed at temperatures in the range from 2 to 900 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 50 kOe. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature T C and the paramagnetic Curie temperature Θ have been determined ( T C = 305 K and Θ = 326 K), as well as the spontaneous magnetic moment μ S and the effective magnetic moment μeff per molecule of the alloy (μ S = 1.62 μB and μ{eff/2} = 8.2 μ{B/2}). It has been shown that the magnetic crystalline anisotropy energy of the alloy is on the order of ˜5 × 105 erg/g. The specific features of the electrical properties are associated with the presence of an energy gap in the electronic spectrum near the Fermi level E F and with the change in the parameters of the energy gap as a function of the temperature.

  15. Processing of AlCoCrFeNiTi high entropy alloy by atmospheric plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbel, M.; Lindner, T.; Kohrt, C.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    High Entropy Alloys (HEA) are gaining increasing interest due to their unique combination of properties. Especially the combination of high mechanical strength and hardness with distinct ductility makes them attractive for numerous applications. One interesting alloy system that exhibits excellent properties in bulk state is AlCoCrFeNiTi. A high strength, wear resistance and high-temperature resistance are the necessary requirements for the application in surface engineering. The suitability of blended, mechanically ball milled and inert gas atomized feedstock powders for the development of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) coatings is investigated in this study. The ball milled and inert gas atomized powders were characterized regarding their particle morphology, phase composition, chemical composition and powder size distribution. The microstructure and phase composition of the thermal spray coatings produced with different feedstock materials was investigated and compared with the feedstock material. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness (HV) was measured and the wear behavior under different tribological conditions was tested in ball-on-disk, oscillating wear and scratch tests. The results show that all produced feedstock materials and coatings exhibit a multiphase composition. The coatings produced with inert gas atomized feedstock material provide the best wear resistance and the highest degree of homogeneity.

  16. Magnetism, electron transport and effect of disorder in CoFeCrAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, P.; Zhang, W.; Skomski, R.; Valloppilly, S.; Huh, Y.; Fuglsby, R.; Gilbert, S.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of a Heusler-type CoFeCrAl alloy have been investigated experimentally and by model calculations, with a focus on the alloy’s spin-gapless semiconductivity. The as-quenched samples are ferrimagnetic at room temperature with a Curie temperature of about 456 K, which increases to 540 K after vacuum annealing at 600 °C for 2 h. The saturation magnetizations of the as-quenched and 600 °C-annealed samples are 1.9 µB/f.u. and 2.1 µB/f.u., respectively, which are very close to the value predicted by the Slater-Pauling curve. The resistivity shows a nearly linear decrease with increasing temperature, from about 930 µΩ cm at 5 K to about 820 µΩ cm at 250 K, with dρ/dT of about  -5   ×   10-7 Ω cm K-1. We explain this high resistivity and its temperature dependence as imperfect spin-gapless semiconducting behavior, with a negative band-gap parameter of 0.2 eV.

  17. Properties of nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Cr and Al) powders prepared by mechanical alloying.

    PubMed

    Kalita, M P C; Perumal, A; Srinivasan, A; Pandey, Brajesh; Verma, H C

    2008-08-01

    We report the structural and magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline Fe75Si15M10 (M-Al and Cr) powders prepared by mechanical alloying. The milling process produced a non-equilibrium solid solutions of bcc alpha-Fe(Si,Cr) and alpha-Fe(Si,Al). The average dislocation density increases and the average crystallite size decreases with increasing milling time. Magnetic property studies show that the coercivity of the sample increases and magnetization of the sample decreases with increasing milling time. The evolution of a non-equilibrium solid solution and the resulting magnetic properties of nanocrystalline powders are explained on the basis of Neel theory and modified random anisotropy model proposed by Shen et al.

  18. Petrography, mineralogy, and Mg isotope composition of VICTA: A vigarano CaAl4O7-bearing type A inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Morse, A.; Long, J. V. P.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations predict that Ca-dialuminate (CaAl4O7) condenses from a cooling gas of solar composition after hibonite and before melilite. Although Ca-dialuminate has now been recorded from Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in at least 9 meteorites, compared to hibonite it is a relatively rare phase. As pointed out by Michel-Levy et al., the absence of Ca-dialuminate from most hibonite-bearing inclusions poses a serious problem for the condensation model of CAI formation. Here we describe an inclusion which contains abundant CA-dialuminate partially altered to a hercynite-rich (FeAl2O4) assemblage. The evidence from VICTA indicates that compared to all other phases in type A inclusions, Ca-dialuminate is the most susceptible to secondary alteration; a feature which may explain its restricted occurrence. Unaltered Ca-dialuminate and melilite in VICTA display excess Mg-26 indicative of in situ decay of Al-26.

  19. Materials Data on Ca2AlCrO5 (SG:46) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-09-30

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Cold Sprayed CuCrAl-Coated and Uncoated GRCop-84 Substrates for Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Karthikeyan, J.; Garlick, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed Cu-23 (wt %) Cr-5%Al (CuCrAl) alloy shown to resist hydridation and oxidation in an as-cast form is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84, which is an advanced copper alloy containing 8 (at.%) Cr and 4 (at.%) Nb. The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique. Cyclic oxidation tests conducted in air on both coated and uncoated substrates between 773 and 1073 K revealed that the coating remained intact and protected the substrate up to 1073 K. No significant weight loss of the coated specimens were observed at 773 and 873 K even after a cumulative cyclic time of 500 h. About a 10 percent weight loss observed at 973 and 1073 K was attributed to the excessive oxidation of the uncoated sides. In contrast, the uncoated substrate lost as much as 80 percent of its original weight under similar test conditions. It is concluded that the cold sprayed CuCrAl coating is suitable for protecting GRCop-84 substrates.

  1. Characterization of Cold Sprayed CuCrAl-Coated and Uncoated GRCop-84 Substrates for Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Karthikeyan, J.; Lerch, B. A.; Barrett, C.; Garlich, R.

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed Cu-23(wt.%)Cr-5%Al (CuCrAl) alloy is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84 (Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb). The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique. Cyclic oxidation tests conducted in air on both coated and uncoated substrates between 773 and 1073 K revealed that the coating remained intact and protected the substrate up to 1073 K. No significant weight loss of the coated specimens were observed at 773 and 873 K even after a cumulative cyclic time of 500 h. In contrast, the uncoated substrate lost as much as 80% of its original weight under similar test conditions. Low cycle fatigue tests revealed that the fatigue lives of thinly coated GRCop-84 specimens were similar to the uncoated specimens within the limits of experimental scatter. It is concluded that the cold sprayed CuCrAl coating is suitable for protecting GRCop-84 substrates.

  2. Controlling microstructure, preferred orientation, and mechanical properties of Cr-Al-N by bombardment and alloying with Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerweger, R.; Zhou, L.; Holec, D.; Koller, C. M.; Rachbauer, R.; Polcik, P.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2016-02-01

    Recent ab initio studies showed that the inherent ductility of cubic structured Cr1-xAlxN coatings (as compared with similar hard coatings) significantly increases when alloyed with Ta. As there is only little experimental and theoretical information available, we have performed a combined experimental and ab initio based study on the influence of Ta additions (0, 2, 6, 12, and 26 at. % on the metal sublattice) on structure and mechanical properties of arc evaporated Cr1-x-yAlxTayN coatings with Al/(Cr + Al) ratios >0.61. With increasing Ta-content, the droplet number density decreases and the coating surface smoothens, which is much more pronounced as with increasing the bias potential from -40 to -120 V. Simultaneously, the columnar structure observed for Ta-free Cr0.37Al0.63N significantly changes into a fine-grained structure (crystallite size ˜5 nm) with clearly reduced columnar character. Increasing the Ta content also favors the formation of a preferred 200 growth orientation resulting in a reduction of the indentation moduli E from ˜500 to ˜375 GPa, which is in agreement with ab initio calculations. As the hardness H remains between 34 and 41 GPa, an increased resistance against brittle fracture is indicated with increasing Ta.

  3. Deposition of LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al)-Oriented Films by Spray Combustion Flame Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Shiwa, Yuzo; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-10-01

    LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films were prepared on sintered alumina, sapphire (001) and MgO(100) at 500 900°C by spraying ultrasonically atomized aqueous solutions of nitrates into a combustion flame (spray combustion flame technique). LaNiO3 and LaCoO3 on MgO(100) crystallized in high-temperature phases (cubic) while LaCrO3 and LaAlO3 crystallized in room-temperature phases. LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films on MgO(100) were highly oriented to (100), (100), (001) and (100), respectively, while the films on sintered alumina and sapphire were not. The electric resistivities of the dense LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr) films were as low as those of bulk ceramics. LaNiO3 film deposited on MgO above 700°C showed the lowest resistivity of about 6×10-6 Ω m. It was suggested that the reactivities of the constituent metal atoms with OH in the flame are associated with the preferred phase and the morphology of the films.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlYTa alloy processed by press and sintering route

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, J.C.; Zambrano, J.C.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Amigó, V.

    2015-03-15

    Nickel-based superalloys such as NiCoCrAlY are widely used in high-temperature applications, such as gas turbine components in the energy and aerospace industries, due to their strength, high elastic modulus, and high-temperature oxidation resistance. However, the processing of these alloys is complex and costly, and the alloys are currently used as a bond coat in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, the effect of cold press and sintering processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlY alloy were studied using the powder metallurgy route as a new way to obtain NiCoCrAlYTa samples from a gas atomized prealloyed powder feedstock. High mechanical strength and adequate densification up to 98% were achieved. The most suitable compaction pressure and sintering temperature were determined for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy through microstructure characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis (EDS) were performed to confirm the expected γ-Ni matrix and β-NiAl phase distribution. Additionally, the results demonstrated the unexpected presence of carbides and Ni–Y-rich zones in the microstructure due to the powder metallurgy processing parameters used. Thus, microhardness, nanoindentation and uniaxial compression tests were conducted to correlate the microstructure of the alloy samples with their mechanical properties under the different studied conditions. The results show that the compaction pressure did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the alloy samples. In this work, the compaction pressures of 400, 700 and 1000 MPa were used. The sintering temperature of 1200 °C for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy was preferred; above this temperature, the improvement in mechanical properties is not significant due to grain coarsening, whereas a lower temperature produces a decrease in mechanical properties due to high porosity and

  5. CaMn2Al10: Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    DOE PAGES

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W. -G.; ...

    2015-07-24

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10, a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83μB/Mn, significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈ 9% of Rln2. These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010]/χ[001] ≈ 3.5. A strong power-lawmore » divergence χ(T) ~ T–1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order, an Arrott plot analysis of the magnetization suggests a vanishing low Curie temperature TC ~ 0. Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.« less

  6. CaMn2Al10 : Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W.-G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10 , a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83 μB/Mn , significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈9 % of R ln 2 . These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010 ]/χ[001 ]≈3.5 . A strong power-law divergence χ (T ) ˜T-1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order with a low Curie temperature TC<2 K . Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.

  7. Geochemical modeling of leaching of Ca, Mg, Al, and Pb from cementitious waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, E.; Jacques, D.; Van Gerven, T.; Wang, L.; Mallants, D.

    2010-08-15

    Results from extraction tests on cement-waste samples were simulated with a thermodynamic equilibrium model using a consistent database, to which lead data were added. Subsequent diffusion tests were modeled by means of a 3D diffusive transport model combined with the geochemical model derived from the extraction tests. Modeling results of the leached major element concentrations for both uncarbonated and (partially) carbonated samples agreed well with the extraction test using the set of pure minerals and solid solutions present in the database. The observed decrease in Ca leaching with increasing carbonation level was qualitatively predicted. Simulations also revealed that Pb leaching is not controlled by dissolution/precipitation only. The addition of the calcite-cerrusite solid solution and adsorption reactions on amorphous Fe- and Al-oxides improved the predictions and are considered to control the Pb leaching during the extractions tests. The dynamic diffusive leaching tests were appropriately modeled for Na, K, Ca and Pb.

  8. 12CaO-7Al2O3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al2O3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  9. Low-temperature heat capacities of CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene and thermal expansion of CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Low-T heat capacities (5-380 K) have been measured by adiabatic calorimetry for synthetic CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene. High-T unit cell parameters were measured for CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene by means of a Nonius Guinier-Lenne powder camera in order to determine the mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the T range 25-1200oC. -J.A.Z.

  10. In vitro evaluation of human osteoblast adhesion to a thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl intermetallic alloy of composition Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%).

    PubMed

    Bello, Samir A; de Jesús-Maldonado, Idaris; Rosim-Fachini, Esteban; Sundaram, Paul A; Diffoot-Carlo, Nanette

    2010-05-01

    Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) (gamma-TiAl), a gamma titanium aluminide alloy originally designed for aerospace applications, appears to have excellent potential as implant material. Thermal treatment of gamma-TiAl renders this alloy extremely corrosion resistant in vitro, which could improve its biocompatibility. In this study, the surface oxides produced by thermal oxidation (at 500 degrees C, and at 800 degrees C for 1 h in air) on gamma-TiAl were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). hFOB 1.19 cell adhesion on thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl was examined in vitro by a hexosaminidase assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after 1, 7 and 14 days. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were used for comparison. Hexosaminidase assay data and CLSM analysis of focal contacts and cytoskeleton organization showed no differences in cell attachment on autoclaved and both heat-treated gamma-TiAl surfaces at the different time points. SEM images showed well organized multi-layers of differentiated cells adhered on thermally oxidized gamma-TiAl surfaces at day 14. Unexpectedly, thermally oxidized Ti-6Al-4V surfaces oxidized at 800 degrees C exhibited cytotoxic effects on hFOB 1.19 cells. Our results indicate that thermal oxidation of gamma-TiAl seems to be a promising method to generate highly corrosion resistant and biocompatible surfaces for implant applications.

  11. A critical evaluation of GGA + U modeling for atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC.

    PubMed

    Dahlqvist, M; Alling, B; Rosen, J

    2015-03-11

    In this work we critically evaluate methods for treating electron correlation effects in multicomponent carbides using a GGA + U framework, addressing doubts from previous works on the usability of density functional theory in the design of magnetic MAX phases. We have studied the influence of the Hubbard U-parameter, applied to Cr 3d orbitals, on the calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, magnetic order, bulk modulus and electronic density of states of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro-, and five different antiferromagnetic spin configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic orders in the search for MAX phases with finite magnetic moments in the ground state. We show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation (U = 0 eV), the magnetic ground state of Cr2AC (A = Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments, and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values. By comparing GGA and GGA + U results with experimental data we find that using a U-value larger than 1 eV results in structural parameters deviating strongly from experimentally observed values. Comparisons are also done with hybrid functional calculations (HSE06) resulting in an exchange splitting larger than what is obtained for a U-value of 2 eV. Our results suggest caution and that investigations need to involve several different magnetic orders before lack of magnetism in calculations are blamed on the exchange-correlation approximations in this class of magnetic MAX phases.

  12. A NiCrAl pressure cell up to 4.6 GPa and its application to cuprate and pnictide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    A NiCrAl-CuBe hybrid cell has been paid much attention because its maximum pressure goes beyond 3 GPa despite its large sample space. In the previous pressurizing trials for this pressure cell, we reached 4.0 GPa under a steady load of 15 ton. In the present trial, we have succeeded in reaching 4.6 GPa by using a short Teflon capsule as a pressure-mediation-liquid container. The pressure efficiency at 15 ton was 75 %. The maximum expansion of the inner diameter of the NiCrAl cylinder was 5 %, suggesting that 4.6 GPa is the upper limit of pressure. To keep high pressure above 4 GPa, a steady load control is needed: a pressure of 4.0 GPa under a steady load decreased to 3.7 GPa after the pressure cell was clamped and the steady load was released. The pressure cell is available to various experiments that need a large sample space. We have applied this pressure cell to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on cuprate and pnictide superconductors, such as Sr2Ca12Cu24O41, LaFeAsO1-xFx, and CaFe1-xCoxAsF. These compounds have superconducting layers, and Tcs of these compounds are enhanced by pressure application. We review what happens at optimal pressure in electric and/or magnetic properties on a microscopic level. Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan.

  13. (Ca/Sr)Au xCd 1- x: Stacking variants of the CrB-FeB series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Wiebke; Dürr, Ines; Daub, Michael; Röhr, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The structural chemistry of binary 1:1 alkaline earth metallides AIIM ( M=p-block or late transition element) is dominated by planar M zig-zag chains, which are stacked in different orientations (CrB ( c) to FeB ( h) type) and with variable stacking distances (types I and II). As a case study of the electronic influences, the substitution of Au against Cd in the respective Ca and Sr aurides was examined by means of experimental, crystallographic and computational methods. Starting from CaAu, up to 11% of Au can be substituted by Cd without a change in the CrB structure type (orthorhombic, space group Cmcm, a=398.2(1), b=1122.6(6), c=460.9(2) pm, Z=4, R1=0.0303). Starting from SrAu (stacking sequence (hc)2(h2c)2), depending on the proportion of the Cd substitution a successive change to structures with increased hexagonality is observed: In SrAu0.93Cd0.07 (monoclinic, space group P21/m, a=621.3(4), b=472.4(2), c=1216.1(9) pm, β=96.97(5)∘, Z=6, R1=0.0467) the stacking sequence is h2 c, i.e. the hexagonality is 66.67%. A slightly more increased Cd content in SrAu0.78Cd0.22 (orthorhombic, space group Pnma, a=3243.3(8), b=474.17(8), c=626.20(9) pm, Z=16, R1=0.0682) drives the hexagonality to 75%, with a (h3c)2 stacking sequence known from several rare earth nickel compounds. Further Cd substitution is not possible. However, in the Cd-rich section of the two series, where the CsCl/β-brass structure type occurs for both alkaline earth elements, a small Au substitution, as determined from powder data by Rietveld refinements, is possible. The substitution limit and the stability ranges of the CsCl and the CrB type can be rationalized from the calculated band structures. Geometrical and electronic criteria are used to compare and discuss the stability ranges in a structural map.

  14. A comparative first-principles study on electronic structures and mechanical properties of ternary intermetallic compounds Al8Cr4Y and Al8Cu4Y: Pressure and tension effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Pang, Mingjun; Tan, Yong; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2016-11-01

    An investigation into the bulk properties, elastic properties and Debye temperature under pressure, and deformation mode under tension of Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y compounds was investigated by using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants for the ternary compounds (Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y) are in good agreement with the experimental data. It can be seen from interatomic distances that the bonding between Al1 atom and Cr, Y, and Al2 atoms in Al8Cr4Y are stronger than Al8Cu4Y. The results of cohesive energy show that Al8Cr4Y should be easier to be formed and much stronger chemical bonds than Al8Cu4Y. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν can be obtained by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme. From the results of elastic properties, Al8Cr4Y has the stronger mechanical behavior than Al8Cu4Y. Our calculations also show that pressure has a greater effect on mechanical behavior for both compounds. The ideal tensile strength are obtained by stress-strain relationships under [001](001) uniaxial tensile deformation, which are 15.4 and 23.4 GPa for Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y, respectively. The total and partial density of states and electron charge density under uniaxial tensile deformations for Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y compounds are also calculated and discussed in this work.

  15. Be/W and W/Be bilayers deposited on Si substrates with hydrogenated Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Al interlayers for plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greculeasa, S. G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G.; Lungu, G. A.; Porosnicu, C.; Jepu, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Kuncser, V.

    2016-12-01

    Be/W and W/Be bilayers, of interest in regard to the specific behavior of plasma facing components (PFCs) were deposited on Si substrates by thermionic vacuum arc, with Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Al interlayers. The interlayers, with compositions approaching the one of the reduced activation steels used in supporting PFCs, were subsequently annealed in hydrogen atmosphere. The multilayers were characterized with respect to morphologic, structural, diffusional and atomic intermixing aspects via XRD, XRR, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. All as-prepared samples present partially amorphous structures. A main α-Fe phase is observed, as well as (superparamagnetic) secondary Fe oxides, metallic Fe with Si, Cr, W and Be neighbors, Be-rich Fe-Be and Fe-Si phases. High amounts of tungsten and tungsten oxides were also evidenced in the Fe layer. The strong atomic intermixing of W and Be layers was indirectly supported by the unusual densities of W and Be layers and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy results.

  16. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Grained Ti-47Al-2Cr (at %) Alloy Produced Using Powder Compact Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadakuduru, Vijay N.; Zhang, Deliang; Cao, Peng; Gabbittas, Brian

    Development of innovative techniques to produce gamma TiAl based alloys, with good mechanical properties, while still maintaining ultra fine grain size can be rewarding, but also is a great challenge. In the present study study a Ti-47Al-2Cr (at %) alloy has been synthesized by directly forging green powder compacts of a Ti/Al/Cr composite powder produced by high energy mechanical milling of a mixture of elemental Ti, Al, Cr powders. It has been found that the density of the bulk consolidated alloy sample after forging decreases from 95% of the theoretical density in the central region to 84% in the periphery region. The microstructure of the bulk alloy consisted of several Ti rich regions, which was expected to be mainly due to initial powder condition. The room temperature tensile strength of the samples produced from this process was found to be in the range of 115 - 130 MPa. The roles of canning and green powder compact density in determining the forged sample porosity level and distribution are discussed.

  17. Electrochemical investigation of chromium oxide-coated Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrates.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Viswanathan; Zeng, Haitong; Lawrynowicz, Daniel; Zhang, Zongtao; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2011-08-01

    Hard coatings for articulating surfaces of total joint replacements may improve the overall wear resistance. However, any coating approach must take account of changes in corrosion behavior. This preliminary assessment analyzes the corrosion kinetics, impedance and mechanical-electrochemical stability of 100 μm thick plasma sprayed chromium oxide (Cr₂O₃) coatings on bearing surfaces in comparison to the native alloy oxide films on Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-6V. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mechanical abrasion under potentiostatic conditions were performed on coated and substrate surfaces in physiological saline. SEM analysis characterized the coating morphology. The results showed that the corrosion current density values of chromium oxide coatings (0.4-1.2 μA/cm²) were of the same order of magnitude as Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mechanical abrasion did not increase corrosion rates of chromium oxide coatings but did for uncoated Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V. The impedance response of chromium oxide coatings was very different than Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V native oxides characterized by a defected coating model. More of a frequency-independent purely resistive response was seen in mid-frequency range for the coatings (CPE(coat) : 40-280 nF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α: 0.67-0.83) whereas a more capacitive character is seen for Co-Cr-Mo and Ti-6Al-4V (CPE(ox) around 20 μF/cm² (rad/s)(1-α) , α around 0.9). Pores, interparticle gaps and incomplete fusion typical for thermal spray coatings were present in these oxides which could have influenced corrosion resistance. The coating microstructure could have allowed some fluid penetration. Overall, these coatings appear to have suitable corrosion properties for wear surfaces.

  18. An Unusual Ca-Ti-Al Silicate in a Type A Allende Inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floss, C.; El Goresy, A.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Zinner, E.

    1992-07-01

    During the investigation of a Type A inclusion from Allende, preparatory to experimental studies designed to address the role of volatilization in CAI formation, we noted an unusual Ca-Ti-Al silicate, previously observed only as rare tiny grains in several CAIs. Here we report the petrography and chemistry of inclusion A44 and preliminary data for this mineral. Petrography: A44 is a large, highly convoluted inclusion that is remarkably unaltered compared to most Allende CAIs. Except for several broken fragments and faulted regions, it is surrounded by a well-defined rim sequence ranging from 50 to 100 microns in width. The core of the inclusion consists of irregular to almost perfectly circular patches of spinel poikilitically enclosed by fassaite and melilite, which are separated by large regions of spinel-free melilite. Several of these spinel framboids surround voids containing wollastonite needles similar to those described by Allen et al. (1978). Minor perovskite is primarily associated with spinel, but is also found within melilite. Several grains of the Ca-Ti-Al silicate are present in the inclusion; their occurrences and chemistry are discussed below. Chemistry: Two fragments (A: 249.6 mg and E: 241.1 mg) were analyzed by INAA. Fragment A is uniformly enriched in refractory lithophiles and siderophiles to 13-20 x C1, except for depletions of W and Mo, due to the increased volatility of both elements under oxidizing conditions (Fegley and Palme, 1985). Fragment E shows a wider range of enrichment factors (14-30 x C1) with a Yb anomaly (Yb/Lu = 0.52 x C1) characteristic of Group III patterns. The presence of a Yb anomaly in E and its absence in A may indicate that the inclusion consists of fragments formed under different nebular conditions. Mg isotopic fractionations are +5.5 +- 2.0 for melilite and +5.0 +- 1.6 for spinel, values typical for Allende CAIs. Ca-Ti-Al Silicate: An unusually Ti- and Ca-rich mineral occurs in three distinct modes. Numerous grains

  19. Identical superconducting gap on different Fermi surfaces of Ca(Al0.5Si0.5)2 with the AlB2 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, S.; Yokoya, T.; Shin, S.; Imai, M.; Hase, I.

    2004-03-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of Ca(Al0.5Si0.5)2 (CaAlSi), which is a superconductor (transition temperature is 7.7 K) with the AlB2 structure, revealed that superconducting gaps on two Fermi surfaces (FSs) with three-dimensional character around Γ(A) and M(L) in the Brillouin zone provide essentially the same superconducting gap value (˜1.2 meV±0.2 meV). This is in contrast to the case of MgB2, in which different FSs exhibit different gap values. The reduced gap value 2Δ(0)/kBTc of ˜4.2±0.2 classifies CaAlSi as a moderately strong-coupling superconductor.

  20. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  1. Brillouin light scattering study of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al and Co2FeAl Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaier, O.; Hamrle, J.; Trudel, S.; Conca Parra, A.; Hillebrands, B.; Arbelo, E.; Herbort, C.; Jourdan, M.

    2009-04-01

    The thermal magnonic spectra of Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al (CCFA) and Co2FeAl were investigated using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. For CCFA, the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) is found to be 0.48 ± 0.04 µerg cm-1 (203 ± 16 meV Å2), while for Co2FeAl the corresponding values of 1.55 ± 0.05 µerg cm-1 (370 ± 10 meV Å2) were found. The observed asymmetry in the BLS spectra between the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies was assigned to an interplay between the asymmetrical profiles of hybridized Damon-Esbach and perpendicular standing spin-wave modes, combined with the optical sensitivity of the BLS signal to the upper side of the CCFA or Co2FeAl film.

  2. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  3. Removal of Phosphorus in Silicon by the Formation of CaAl2Si2 Phase at the Solidification Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liyuan; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Hang; Wang, Dong; Qian, Guoyu

    2017-02-01

    To fully understand the role of CaAl2Si2 phase in concentrating the non-metallic impurity phosphorus, an experiment of directional solidification of Al-70 at. pct Si alloy with extreme small lowering rate 0.05 mm min-1 was carried out. With good dynamic condition for the diffusion of impurity (Ca, Al, P) from silicon to the S/L interface, the CaAl2Si2 phase with 0.6-0.7 at. pct P was successfully observed by Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA), and its distribution character was originally presented. This impurity phase was widely detected in the refined sample but only at the interface of silicon crystal and Al-Si alloy which contributed to the deep removal of impurity P. The formation mechanism of CaAl2Si2-P phase was thus explored, in which the microsegregation and concentration of element P, Ca, Al in front of S/L interface were crucial. After acid leaching, the P content decreased from the original 23 ppm to below 5 ppm. Compared with normal solidification, a 16 pct higher removal efficiency of P was obtained in this study.

  4. Mechanical Properties of High Entropy Alloy Al0.1CoCrFeNi for Peripheral Vascular Stent Application.

    PubMed

    Alagarsamy, Karthik; Fortier, Aleksandra; Komarasamy, Mageshwari; Kumar, Nilesh; Mohammad, Atif; Banerjee, Subhash; Han, Hai-Chao; Mishra, Rajiv S

    2016-12-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are new class of metallic materials with five or more principal alloying elements. Due to this distinct concept of alloying, the HEAs exhibit unique properties compared to conventional alloys. The outstanding properties of HEAs include increased strength, superior wear resistance, high temperature stability, increased fatigue properties, good corrosion, and oxidation resistance. Such characteristics of HEAs have generated significant interest among the scientific community. However, their applications are yet to be explored. This paper discusses the mechanical behavior and microstructure of Al0.1CoCrFeNi HEA subjected to thermo-mechanical processing, and its potential application in peripheral vascular stent implants that are prone to high failure rates. Results show that Al0.1CoCrFeNi alloy possesses characteristics that compare well against currently used stent materials and it can potentially find use in peripheral vascular stent implants and extend their life-cycle.

  5. Status Report on Irradiation Capsules Designed to Evaluate FeCrAl-UO2 Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2016-06-24

    This status report provides the background and current status of a series of irradiation capsules that were designed and are being built to test the interactions between candidate FeCrAl cladding for enhanced accident tolerant applications and prototypical enriched commercial UO2 fuel in a neutron radiation environment. These capsules will test the degree, if any, of fuel cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between FeCrAl and UO2. The capsules are to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory to burn-ups of 10, 30, and 50 GWd/MT with a nominal target temperature at the interfaces between the pellets and clad of 350°C.

  6. Superior Mechanical Properties of AlCoCrFeNiTi x High-Entropy Alloys upon Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Ma, S. G.; Chu, M. Y.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    High-entropy alloys with composition of AlCoCrFeNiTi x ( x: molar ratio; x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) under quasi-static and dynamic compression exhibit excellent mechanical properties. A positive strain-rate sensitivity of yield strength and the strong work-hardening behavior during plastic flows dominate upon dynamic loading in the present alloy system. The constitutive relationships are extracted to model flow behaviors by employing the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. Upon dynamic loading, the ultimate strength and fracture strain of AlCoCrFeNiTi x alloys are superior to most of bulk metallic glasses and in situ metallic glass matrix composites.

  7. CO₂ sorbents with scaffold-like Ca-Al layered double hydroxides as precursors for CO₂ capture at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    A highly stable high-temperature CO₂ sorbent consisting of scaffold-like Ca-rich oxides (Ca-Al-O) with rapid absorption kinetics and a high capacity is described. The Ca-rich oxides were prepared by annealing Ca-Al-NO₃ layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors through a sol-gel process with Al(O(i)P)₃ and Ca(NO₃)₂ with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 7:1. XRD indicated that only LDH powders were formed for Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 2:1. However, both LDH and Ca(OH)₂ phases were produced at higher ratios. Both TEM and SEM observations indicated that the Ca-Al-NO₃ LDHs displayed a scaffold-like porous structure morphology rather than platelet-like particles. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable porous network structure of the CaO-based Ca-Al-O mixed oxide (CAMO), composed of CaO and Ca₁₂Al₁₄O₃₃, was still present. The CAMO exhibited high specific surface areas (up to 191 m(2)g(-1)) and a pore size distribution of 3-6 nm, which allowed rapid diffusion of CO₂ into the interior of the material, inducing fast carbonation/calcination and enhancing the sintering-resistant nature over multiple carbonation/calcination cycles for CO₂ absorption at 700 °C. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicated that a CO₂ capture capacity of approximately 49 wt% could be obtained with rapid absorption from the porous 7:1 CAMO sorbents by carbonation at 700 °C for 5 min. Also, 94-98% of the initial CO₂ capture capability was retained after 50 cycles of multiple carbonation/calcination tests. Therefore, the CAMO framework is a good isolator for preventing the aggregation of CaO particles, and it is suitable for long-term cyclic operation in high-temperature environments.

  8. Formation of Al2O3/FeAl coatings on a 9Cr-1Mo steel, and corrosion evaluation in flowing Pb-17Li loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Sanjib; Paul, Bhaskar; Chakraborty, Poulami; Kishor, Jugal; Kain, Vivekanand; Dey, Gautam Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Iron aluminide coating layers were formed on a ferritic martensitic grade 9Cr-1Mo (P 91) steel using pack aluminizing process. The formation of different aluminide compositions such as orthorhombic-Fe2Al5, B2-FeAl and A2-Fe(Al) on the pack chemistry and heat treatment conditions have been established. About 4-6 μm thick Al2O3 scale was formed on the FeAl phase by controlled heat treatment. The corrosion tests were conducted using both the FeAl and Al2O3/FeAl coated specimens in an electro-magnetic pump driven Pb-17Li Loop at 500 °C for 5000 h maintaining a flow velocity of 1.5 m/s. The detailed characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy, back-scattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectrometry revealed no deterioration of the coating layers after the corrosion tests. Self-healing oxides were formed at the cracks generated in the aluminide layers during thermal cycling and protected the base alloy (steel) from any kind of elemental dissolution or microstructural degradation.

  9. Effects of Tantalum on the Temporal Evolution of a Model Ni-Al-Cr Superalloy During Phase Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Morrison, Christopher; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 2.0 at.% addition of Ta to a model Ni-10.0Al-8.5Cr (at.%) superalloy aged at 1073 K are assessed using scanning electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography. The gamma'(Ll2)-precipitate morphology that develops as a result of gamma-(fcc)matrix phase decomposition is found to evolve from a bimodal distribution of spheroidal precipitates, to {001}-faceted cuboids and parallelepipeds aligned along the elastically soft {001}-type directions. The phase compositions and the widths of the gamma'-precipitate/gamma-matrix heterophase interfaces evolve temporally as the Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy undergoes quasi-stationary state coarsening after 1 h of aging. Tantalum is observed to partition preferentially to the gamma'-precipitate phase, and suppresses the mobility of Ni in the gamma-matrix sufficiently to cause an accumulation of Ni on the gamma-matrix side of the gamma'/gamma interface. Additionally, computational modeling, employing Thermo-Calc, Dictra and PrecipiCalc, is employed to elucidate the kinetic pathways that lead to phase decomposition in this concentrated Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy.

  10. Development of a CuNiCrAl Bond Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Torben; Rösler, Joachim; Bäker, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The lifetime of rocket combustion chambers can be increased by applying thermal barrier coatings. The standard coating systems usually used in gas turbines or aero engines will fail at the bond coat/substrate interface due to the chemical difference as well as the different thermal expansion between the copper liner and the applied NiCrAlY bond coat. A new bond coat alloy for rocket engine applications was designed previously with a chemical composition and coefficient of thermal expansion more similar to the copper substrate. Since a comparable material has not been applied by thermal spraying before, coating tests have to be carried out. In this work, the new Ni-30%Cu-6%Al-5%Cr bond coat alloy is applied via high velocity oxygen fuel spraying. In a first step, the influence of different coating parameters on, e.g., porosity, amount of unmolten particles, and coating roughness is investigated and a suitable parameter set for further studies is chosen. In a second step, copper substrates are coated with the chosen parameters to test the feasibility of the process. The high-temperature behavior and adhesion is tested with laser cycling experiments. The new coatings showed good adhesion even at temperatures beyond the maximum test temperatures of the NiCrAlY bond coat in previous studies.

  11. Mechanical properties and permeability of hydrogen isotopes through CrNi35WTiAl alloy, containing radiogenic helium

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimkin, I.P.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Boitsov, I.Y.; Malkov, I.L.; Musyaev, R.K.; Baurin, A.Y.; Shevnin, E.V.; Vertey, A.V.

    2015-03-15

    The long-term contact of structural materials (SM) with tritium-containing media makes their properties in terms of kinetic permeability of hydrogen isotopes change. This change is the consequence of the defect formation in SM due to the result of {sup 3}He build-up generated by the radioactive decay of tritium dissolved in SM. This paper presents the experimental results concerning the permeability of hydrogen isotopes through CrNi35WTiAl alloy containing {sup 3}He and the impact of the presence of {sup 3}He and H on its mechanical properties. Tensile tests of cylindrical samples containing various concentrations of {sup 3}He (90, 230 and 560 appm) have been performed in inert and hydrogen atmospheres. The build-up of {sup 3}He has been made using the 'helium trick' technique. The maximal decrease in the plastic characteristics of the CrNi35WTiAl alloy occurs in samples with the highest {sup 3}He (560 appm) content at 873 K. The permeability of deuterium through the CrNi35WTiAl alloy in the initial state and that with 560 appm of {sup 3}He content was explored. The presence of this {sup 3}He concentration has shown an increase in deuterium permeability, evidently due to structural changes in the material under the impact of radiogenic helium.

  12. Deformation Behavior of Laser Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Fuel Cladding Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Gussev, Maxim N; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al in weight percent with a minor addition of yttrium using laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions for all alloys studied. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. No significant correlation was found between the deformation behavior/mechanical performance of welds and the level of Cr or Al in the alloy ranges studied.

  13. Effects of substrate bias on structure and mechanical properties of (AlCrNbSiTiV)N coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ping-Kang; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2009-06-01

    AlCrNbSiTiV nitride films were deposited by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and the effects of substrate bias on the chemical composition, structure and mechanical properties of the deposited films were investigated. AlCrNbSiTiV nitride films exhibit a single FCC NaCl-type structure and have the stoichiometric nitride ratio of (Al, Cr, Nb, Si, Ti, V)50N50. The deposition rate decreases with increasing substrate bias due to resputtering effects and densification of films, which also leads to less obvious columnar structure, reduced grain size, smaller surface roughness and transition of preferred orientation from the (1 1 1) plane to the (2 0 0) plane. The nitride film deposited at -100 V exhibits the maximum compressive stress around 4.5 GPa and attains a peak hardness and an elastic modulus of 42 GPa and 350 GPa, respectively, which fall in the superhard grade. Moreover, the film keeps its hardness at the superhard grade even after its residual compressive stress was partially released by annealing at 1073 K for 5 h. The structural evolution mechanism and strengthening mechanism are both discussed.

  14. Overview of the multifaceted activities towards development and deployment of nuclear-grade FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A; Terrani, Kurt A

    2016-01-01

    A large effort is underway under the leadership of US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program to develop advanced FeCrAl alloys as accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding to replace Zr-based alloys in light water reactors. The primary motivation is the excellent oxidation resistance of these alloys in high-temperature steam environments right up to their melting point (roughly three orders of magnitude slower oxidation kinetics than zirconium). A multifaceted effort is ongoing to rapidly advance FeCrAl alloys as a mature ATF concept. The activities span the broad spectrum of alloy development, environmental testing (high-temperature high-pressure water and elevated temperature steam), detailed mechanical characterization, material property database development, neutron irradiation, thin tube production, and multiple integral fuel test campaigns. Instead of off-the-shelf commercial alloys that might not prove optimal for the LWR fuel cladding application, a large amount of effort has been placed on the alloy development to identify the most optimum composition and microstructure for this application. The development program is targeting a cladding that offers performance comparable to or better than modern Zr-based alloys under normal operating and off-normal conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the systematic effort to advance nuclear-grade FeCrAl alloys as an ATF cladding in commercial LWRs.

  15. Creep behavior of a rapidly solidified Al-5Cr-2Zr alloy between room temperature and 823 K

    SciTech Connect

    Brahmi, A.; Gerique, T.; Lieblich, M.; Torralba, M.

    1996-12-15

    Rapidly solidified (RS) Al-Cr-Zr alloys are established contenders for applications in the aircraft industry where lower cost, lightweight substitutes for titanium alloys are being sought for use in the temperature range of 473 to 723 K. Creep resistance is one of the critical properties of any material intended for high temperature applications. Therefore, a precise knowledge of creep behavior and a clear understanding of the mechanisms controlling creep in these materials are of great importance. The good thermal stability exhibited by the RS Al-5Cr-2Zr (wt.%) alloy makes it a good candidate for applications where high creep resistance is needed. This paper presents the results of creep behavior over a wide range of temperatures (0.32 to 0.88 Tm, where Tm = 933 K is the melt temperature of pure aluminum) of an Al-5Cr-2Zr alloy processed by gas atomization and extrusion and includes a brief discussion on the creep mechanisms that may be involved.

  16. Effects of processing variables on the creep behavior of investment cast Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.M.; Jones, P.E.; Porter, W.J. III; Eylon, D.

    1995-12-31

    Intermetallics based on ordered {gamma}-TiAl are being considered for the replacement of steels and nickel-based superalloys for high temperature aerospace and automotive applications. This study investigates the creep behavior of investment cast Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr with microstructures ranging from duplex to nearly lamellar. Constant load creep tests were conducted in air at temperatures of 650 C and 760 C and at stress levels of 104MPa, 155MPa, and 207MPa. The effects of cooling rates during casting, aluminum content, oxygen level, and microstructure on creep properties are discussed. The activation energy for creep and stress exponent are also reported.

  17. Phase Evolution and Properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x High-Entropy Alloys Coatings by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Hui; Pan, Xuemin; Cao, Zhiqiang; Deng, Dewei; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2015-10-01

    A series of Al2CrFeNiMo x ( x = 0 to 2.0 at.%) high-entropy alloys coatings was synthesized on stainless steel by laser cladding. The effect of Mo content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings was studied. The results show that the laser clad layer consists of the cladding zone, bonding zone, and heat-affected zone. The Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings are composed of two simple body-center cubic phases and the cladding zone is mainly composed of equiaxed grains. When the content of Mo reaches 2 at.%, a eutectic structure is found in the interdendritic regions. The surface microhardness of the Al2CrFeNiMo2 coating is 678 HV, which is about three times higher than that of the substrate (243 HV). Compared with stainless steel, the wear resistance of the coatings has been improved greatly. The wear mass loss of the Al2CrFeNiMo alloy is 9.8 mg, which is much less than that of the substrate (18.9 mg) and its wear scar width is the lowest among the Al2CrFeNiMo x coatings, indicating that the wear resistance of the Al2CrFeNiMo is the best.

  18. Petrography and classification of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic petrographic survey of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite are reported, and a new classification system based on clearly defined and readily applied petrographic criteria is presented. Most Allende inclusions are aggregates containing one or more of three distinct constituents: (1) rimmed concentric objects enriched in Al- and Ti-rich oxide minerals and various amounts of Ca-rich silicates; (2) porous, 'fine-grained' chaotic material enriched in Ca-rich silicates, especially clinopyroxenes and garnets; and (3) porous, 'fine-grained', mafic inclusion matrix, enriched in olivine, pyroxene, and feldspathoids. Two texturally distinct varieties of inclusions consist primarily of inclusion matrix: unrimmed olivine aggregates and rimmed olivine aggregates. Ca, Al-rich inclusions are classified on the basis of the size and abundance of their constituent concentric objects. Some fundamental relationships among Allende inclusions that previusly have not been emphasized are discussed.

  19. Influence of Cr and W alloying on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength in cast and directionally solidified sapphire NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Tewari, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Sapphire-reinforced NiAl matrix composites with chromium or tungsten as alloying additions were synthesized using casting and zone directional solidification (DS) techniques and characterized by a fiber pushout test as well as by microhardness measurements. The sapphire-NiAl(Cr) specimens exhibited an interlayer of Cr rich eutectic at the fiber-matrix interface and a higher interfacial shear strength compared to unalloyed sapphire-NiAl specimens processed under identical conditions. In contrast, the sapphire-NiAl(W) specimens did not show interfacial excess of tungsten rich phases, although the interfacial shear strength was high and comparable to that of sapphire-NiAl(Cr). The postdebond sliding stress was higher in sapphire-NiAl(Cr) than in sapphire-NiAl(W) due to interface enrichment with chromium particles. The matrix microhardness progressively decreased with increasing distance from the interface in both DS NiAl and NiAl(Cr) specimens. The study highlights the potential of casting and DS techniques to improve the toughness and strength of NiAl by designing dual-phase microstructures in NiAl alloys reinforced with sapphire fibers.

  20. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen; Guo, Peng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Qimin

    2016-12-01

    DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2 and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C2H2 fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C2H2 fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C2H2 fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would cause abrasive wear and thus deteriorate the wear performance of the films.

  1. Control of mean ionic radius at Ca site by Sr co-doping for Ce doped LiCaAlF6 single crystals and the effects on optical and scintillation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yamaji, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Sr co-doped Ce:LiCaAlF6 [Ce:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6] crystals with various Ca/Sr ratios were grown by a micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method and effects of Sr co-doping on crystal structure, chemical composition, optical and scintillation properties for Ce:LiCaAlF6 crystals were investigated as a neutron scintillator. High transparent Ce2%:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 crystals with 2% and 5% Sr contents were obtained while Ce2%:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 crystals with 10% and 20% Sr contents included milky parts in the crystals. a- and c-axis lengths of Ce:Li(Ca,Sr)AlF6 phase systematically increased with an increase of Sr content. In addition to the emission at 284 and 308 nm from Ce3+ ion, emission peaks at 367 nm appeared by Sr co-doping.

  2. Processing and Properties of Mechanical Alloyed Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Nanomaterials, Aluminum Alloys ABSTRACT Nanostructured A193Fe3Ti2Cr2 alloys were prepared via mechanical alloying (MA) starting from elemental powders...2Cr2 . The aluminum powder had a purity of 99.5 wt% with a mean particle size of 70 ^rn, while the corresponding values for iron, chromium and...increases. 2) All aluminum reflections exhibit broadening even after only 2-hours of milling, indicating the grain size reduction and possibly the

  3. Preliminary Results on FeCrAl Alloys in the As-received and Welded State Designed to Have Enhanced Weldability and Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Hu, Xunxiang; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-30

    The present report summarizes and discusses the recent results on developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability. The alloys used for these investigations are modern FeCrAl alloys based on a Fe-13Cr-5Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.05Y alloy (in wt.%, designated C35M). Development efforts have focused on assessing the influence of chemistry and microstructure on the fabricability and performance of these newly developed alloys. Specific focus was made to assess the weldability, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance.

  4. Low temperature synthesis and enhanced electrical properties by substitution of Al3+ and Cr3+ in Co-Ni nanoferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Gul, I. H.

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum and chromium substituted Co-Ni spinel nanoferrites were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. Structural parameters along with electrical and magnetic properties have been investigated in the present work. Crystallite sizes of nano ferrite estimated from the peak (311) lies in the range of 13-21 nm ±2 nm and compared with crystallite sizes calculated from Williamsons-Hall plots. DC electrical resistivity variations due to the concentration of aluminum and chromium in the host ferrite have been measured from 368 K to 573 K. Increase in the room temperature DC electrical resistivity was observed up to a concentration x=0.2 and then decreases for x >0.2. Dielectric parameters (real and imaginary part of complex permittivity, dielectric loss tangent) were studied as a function of frequency (20 Hz-5 MHz) and a decrease in the dielectric parameters was observed due to substitution of nickel, aluminum and chromium ions in cobalt nanoferrites. AC conductivity, complex impedance and complex electrical modulus were studied as a function of frequency for the conduction and relaxation mechanisms in the present ferrite system. Saturation magnetization, coercivity, canting angles and magneto crystalline anisotropy variations with composition were observed and presented for the present ferrites under an applied magnetic field of 10 kOe at room temperature. It was found that both magnetization and coercivity decreases with increase in the concentration of aluminum and chromium along with a decrease in the anisotropy parameters. High DC resistivity with low dielectric parameters of the present nanoferrites make them suitable for high frequency and electromagnetic wave absorbing devices. High purity mixed Co-Ni-Al-Cr nanoferrites have been prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. DC electrical resistivity increases due to substitution of Al3+ and Cr3+. Complex permittivity decrease for Co-Ni-Al-Cr nanoferrites. Detailed AC response analysis has been presented for

  5. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors: structural and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, B S; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S

    2015-02-05

    ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin-forbidden (2)Eg→(4)A2g transition of Cr(3+) ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212°C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233°C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212°C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  6. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors: Structural and luminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, B. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Vidya, Y. S.; Anantharaju, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin - forbidden 2Eg → 4A2g transition of Cr3+ ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212 °C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233 °C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212 °C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  7. Fabrication and luminescent properties of Al2O3:Cr3 + microspheres via a microwave solvothermal route followed by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenfeng; Liu, Dianguang; Liu, Hui; Du, Juan; Yu, Hongguang; Deng, Jie

    2012-06-01

    AlOOH:Cr3 + powders were synthesized via a microwave solvothermal route at 433 K for 30 min and were used as the precursor and template for the preparation of γ-Al2O3:Cr3 + by thermal transformation at 773 K for 2 h in air. The obtained γ-Al2O3 based powders were microspheres with an average diameter about 1.9 μm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that the Al2O3:Cr3 + particles presented a symmetric broad R band at 696 nm without appreciable splitting when excited at 462 nm. It is shown that the 0.04 mol% of doping concentration of Cr3 + ions in γ-Al2O3:Cr3 + is optimum. According to Dexter's theory, the critical distance between Cr3 + ions for energy transfer was determined to be 47.54 Å. Based on the corresponding PL spectrum, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of Al2O3:Cr3 + (0.04 mol%) was calculated to be 3.35 nm.

  8. Effect of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr Micro-additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Uniaxial static and cyclic tests were used to assess the role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr additions on properties of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. The microstructure of the as-cast alloy consisted of α-Al, eutectic Si, and Cu-, Mg-, and Fe-rich phases Al2.1Cu, Al8.5Si2.4Cu, Al5.2CuMg4Si5.1, and Al14Si7.1FeMg3.3. In addition, the micro-sized Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich phases Al10.7SiTi3.6, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al21.4Si3.4Ti4.7VZr1.8, Al18.5Si7.3Cr2.6V, Al7.9Si8.5Cr6.8V4.1Ti, Al6.3Si23.2FeCr9.2V1.6Ti1.3, Al92.2Si16.7Fe7.6Cr8.3V1.8, and Al8.2Si30.1Fe1.6Cr18.8V3.3Ti2.9Zr were present. During solution treatment, Cu-rich phases were completely dissolved, while the eutectic silicon, Fe-, and Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich intermetallics experienced only partial dissolution. Micro-additions of Cr, Zr, Ti, and V positively affected the alloy strength. The modified alloy in the T6 temper during uniaxial tensile tests exhibited yield strength of 289 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 342 MPa, being significantly higher than that for the Al-Si-Cu-Mg base. Besides, the cyclic yield stress of the modified alloy in the T6 state increased by 23 pct over that of the base alloy. The fatigue life of the modified alloy was substantially longer than that of the base alloy tested using the same parameters. The role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr containing phases in controlling the alloy fracture during static and cyclic loading is discussed.

  9. Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

  10. Early development of Al, Ca, and Na compositional gradients in labradorite leached in pH 2 HCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, H. W.; Skinner, W. M.

    2001-03-01

    Labradorite reacted with HCl solution (pH = 2.0) develops leached layers extending to about 500 Å depth after 12 h leaching, and to 1500 Å depth after 143 h leaching. Accurate Al, Ca, and Na compositional depth profiles were measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), with compositional accuracy of about 10% and depth resolution of about 50 Å. XPS analyses of pristine K-feldspar and labradorite surfaces yield Ca, Al, Si, and O analyses within about 5% of electron microprobe results. Alkali element analyses are inaccurate due to preferential sputtering or mobility induced by fracture. The accurate compositional depth profiles yield well constrained diffusion coefficients and moving boundary velocities for Ca and Al. Na, Ca, and Al compositional gradients change character after about 2 days of leaching, from a convex upward hyperboloid to a sigmoid shape. Thereafter, the feldspar diffusion front is clearly separated from the surface (where silica dissolution occurs), with the diffusion front migrating into the feldspar at about 4 × 10 -11 cm/s. Al diffuses down the compositional gradient at about 2.5 × 10 -17 cm 2/s and Ca diffuses almost twice as fast (4.0 × 10 -17 cm 2/s). The solution-solid interface and active leaching zone are separated (after 2 days) by a Si-rich zone virtually devoid of Na, Ca, and Al. Diffusion rates through this Si-rich overlayer may be very rapid and approach rates observed in aqueous solutions. Diffusive release of Ca and Al from labradorite cannot be modelled accurately with mathematical solutions where diffusion through homogeneous media is assumed. During leaching, Ca and Al apparently diffuse by "jumping" to, and residing on, previously vacated structural sites of the feldspar. The probability of Ca and Al migrating towards solution consequently is greater than their probability of migrating towards pristine plagioclase, primarily because there are many more "vacant" sites in the leached zone than in pristine

  11. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence studies of CaAl2O4:Dy(3+) phosphor.

    PubMed

    Ziyauddin, Mohammad; Tigga, Shalinta; Brahme, Nameeta; Bisen, D P

    2016-02-01

    Calcium aluminate phosphors activated by Dy(3+) have been prepared by a combustion method at a temperature of 600°C. Photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of gamma-irradiated Dy-doped calcium aluminate were investigated. The PL spectrum shows a broad peak around 488 nm and 573 nm, under 347 nm excitation. Thermoluminescence studies were performed for different concentrations of Dy. Optimum intensity of photoluminescence was found for 0.02 mol% concentration of Dy. It was found that initially the peak TL intensity increases with increasing concentration of Dy in the CaAl2O4 host, attains a maximum value for 0.05 mol% concentration and decreases with further increase in the doping concentration due to concentration quenching.

  12. Effect of Rhenium Addition on Wear Behavior of Cr-Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Marcin; Piątkowska, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Materials for applications in the automotive industry are required to be strong, stiff, hard, light weight, and wear resistant, which is very difficult to achieve in the case of conventional materials. To meet all these diverse requirements, it is necessary to combine various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics). In the present study, the chromium and chromium-rhenium matrices were reinforced with aluminum oxide to obtain composite materials with improved wear resistance. The composites were fabricated by a powder metallurgy method. The effects of the rhenium addition and volume fraction of aluminum oxide on the wear rate and the friction coefficient of the composites at room temperature were examined in a ball-on-surface apparatus under dry conditions. The worn surfaces and debris were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The final values of the friction coefficient were 0.9 and 0.8 for the Cr-25%Al2O3 and Cr-40%Al2O3 composites, respectively. Alloying Cr matrix with Re improved wear resistance of composite but, at the same time, it caused an increase in its coefficient of friction.

  13. Exchange bias induced at a Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5/Cr interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. N. T.; Vick, A. J.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Frost, W.; Hirohata, A.

    2017-03-01

    In order to engineer the strength of an exchange bias in a cubic Heusler alloy layer, crystalline strain has been induced at a ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface by their lattice mismatch in addition to the conventional interfacial exchange coupling between them. Such interfaces have been formed in (Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5(CFAS)/Cr)3 structures grown by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The magnetic and structural properties have been characterised to investigate the exchange interactions at the CFAS/Cr interfaces. Due to the interfacial lattice mismatch of 1.4%, the maximum offset of 18 Oe in a magnetisation curve has been measured for the case of a CFAS (2 nm)/Cr (0.9 nm) interface at 193 K. The half-metallic property of CFAS has been observed to remain unchanged, which agrees with the theoretical prediction by Culbert et al (2008 J. Appl. Phys. 103 07D707). Such a strain-induced exchange bias may provide insight of the interfacial interactions and may offer a wide flexibility in spintronic device design.

  14. Synthesis and energy transfer studies of LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jicheng; Xia, Zhiguo; Liu, Quanlin

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Cr{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} co-doped LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19} phosphors were synthesized. • The energy transfer mechanism is ascribed to the dipole–quadrupole interaction. • The materials can convert the UV–vis light into near-infrared emission. - Abstract: Cr{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} co-activated LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19} phosphors have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. In the LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} system, Cr{sup 3+} can absorb the UV–vis photons (350–650 nm), and then energy transfer takes place between Cr{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}, and finally the samples give near infrared emission originated from Nd{sup 3+}. Energy transfer from Cr{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} is discussed via the variations of the lifetime values of Cr{sup 3+}, and the mechanism has been ascribed to the dipole–quadrupole interaction. The absorption of Cr{sup 3+} in the visible region and the following energy transfer from Cr{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} indicated that the material can potentially serve as spectral convertors to improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of silicon-based solar cell.

  15. Influence of Cr doping on the magnetic structure of the FeAs-strips compound CaFe4As3: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, P.; Chapon, L. C.; Trimarchi, G.; Todorov, I. S.; Chung, D. Y.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Gutmann, M. J.; Freeman, A. J.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the magnetic structure of a Cr-doped iron-arsenide compound CaFe4As3 by means of single crystal neutron diffraction. The neutron data reveal that below 90 K, an antiferromagnetic structure with propagation vector k=0 is adopted. Refinement of the magnetic structure using one of the modes allowed by symmetry analysis indicates that two of the four Fe sites, including the one where the selective substitution Fe/Cr happens, bear reduced magnetic moments. Density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of such a magnetic arrangement.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy prepared by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L. Y.; Du, B. N.; Guo, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    NiAl based materials has been considered as most potential candidate of turbine blade, due to its excellent high-temperature properties. However the bad room-temperature properties handicap its application. In the present paper, the zirconium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo) hypoeutectic alloy is fabricated by conventional casting and injection casting technology to improve its room-temperature properties. The microstructure and compressive properties at different temperatures of the conventionally-cast and injection-cast were investigated. The results exhibit that the conventionally-cast alloy comprises coarse primary NiAl phase and eutectic cell, which is dotted with irregular Ni2AlZr Heusler phase. Compared with the conventionally-cast alloy, the injection-cast alloy possesses refined the primary NiAl, eutectic cell and eutectic lamella. In addition, the Ni2AlZr Heusler phase become smaller and distribute uniformly. Moreover, the injection casting decrease the area fraction of primary NiAl phase at the cell interior or cell boundaries. The compressive ductility and yield strength of the injection-cast alloy at room temperature increase by about 100% and 35% over those of conventionally-cast alloy, which should be ascribed to the microstructure optimization.

  17. The effect of sulfur and zirconium Co-doping on the oxidation of NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl+Zr alloys was examined as a function of both sulfur and zirconium doping levels. In general, very high levels of zirconium were required to counteract the detrimental effects of sulfur. A sulfur-zirconium adherence map was constructed, as determined from the oxidation and spalling behavior in 1100 C cyclic tests. For low sulfur alloys, the amount of zirconium required for adherence at any given sulfur level can be described by Zr greater than 600 S sup 0.2 (in ppma). These results underscore the importance of sulfur to adhesion mechanisms and suggests that sulfur gettering is a first order effect of reactive element additions to MCrAl alloys.

  18. The effect of sulfur and zirconium co-doping on the oxidation of NiCrAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl+Zr alloys was examined as a function of both sulfur and zirconium doping levels. In general, very high levels of zirconium were required to counteract the detrimental effects of sulfur. A sulfur-zirconium adherence map was constructed, as determined from the oxidation and spalling behavior in 1100 C cyclic tests. For low sulfur alloys (less than 500 ppma), the amount of zirconium required for adherence at any given sulfur level can be described by Zr greater than 600 S(0.2) (in ppma). These results underscore the importance of sulfur to adhesion mechanisms and suggest that sulfur gettering is a first order effect of reactive element additions to MCrAl alloys.

  19. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  20. Interdiffusion in Ni-rich, Ni-Cr-Al alloys at 1100 and 1200 C. I - Diffusion paths and microstructures. II - Diffusion coefficients and predicted concentration profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Interdiffusion in Ni-rich Ni-Cr-Al alloys is investigated experimentally after annealing at 1100 and 1200 C using gamma/gamma, gamma/gamma+beta, gamma/gamma+gamma prime, and gamma/gamma+alpha diffusion couples. The amount and location of Kirkendall porosity suggests that Al diffuses more rapidly than Cr which diffuses more rapidly than Ni in the gamma phase of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. The location and extent of maxima and minima in the concentration profiles of the diffusion couples indicate that both cross-term diffusion coefficients are positive. Measurements are also presented of the ternary interdiffusion coefficients of the gamma phase in the Ni-Cr-Al system. It is shown that the interdiffusion coefficients can be accurately predicted by using a ternary finite-difference interdiffusion model.

  1. The Role of Rhenium on the Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure of a Model Ni-Al-Cr-Re Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Kevin E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Rhenium (2 at.%) additions to a model Ni-8.5 at.% Cr-10 at.% Al alloy are studied with respect to its effects on the temporal evolution of the nanostructure and the partitioning behavior of the four elements between the gamma (fcc) and gamma' (L1(sub 2)) phases. Chemical evolution of this quaternary alloy aged at 1073 K from 0.25 to 264 h, is investigated by three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy. The morphology of gamma'-precipitates remains spheroidal, even at an aging time of 264 h. The results demonstrate that Re slows the coarsening of gamma'-precipitates, in comparison to the ternary Ni-10 at.% A1-8.5 at.% Cr alloy at 1073 K.

  2. Model of Silicon Refining During Tapping: Removal of Ca, Al, and Other Selected Element Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jan Erik; Kero, Ida T.; Engh, Thorvald A.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    A mathematical model for industrial refining of silicon alloys has been developed for the so-called oxidative ladle refining process. It is a lumped (zero-dimensional) model, based on the mass balances of metal, slag, and gas in the ladle, developed to operate with relatively short computational times for the sake of industrial relevance. The model accounts for a semi-continuous process which includes both the tapping and post-tapping refining stages. It predicts the concentrations of Ca, Al, and trace elements, most notably the alkaline metals, alkaline earth metal, and rare earth metals. The predictive power of the model depends on the quality of the model coefficients, the kinetic coefficient, τ, and the equilibrium partition coefficient, L for a given element. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model results are most sensitive to L. The model has been compared to industrial measurement data and found to be able to qualitatively, and to some extent quantitatively, predict the data. The model is very well suited for alkaline and alkaline earth metals which respond relatively fast to the refining process. The model is less well suited for elements such as the lanthanides and Al, which are refined more slowly. A major challenge for the prediction of the behavior of the rare earth metals is that reliable thermodynamic data for true equilibrium conditions relevant to the industrial process is not typically available in literature.

  3. Model of Silicon Refining During Tapping: Removal of Ca, Al, and Other Selected Element Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jan Erik; Kero, Ida T.; Engh, Thorvald A.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2017-04-01

    A mathematical model for industrial refining of silicon alloys has been developed for the so-called oxidative ladle refining process. It is a lumped (zero-dimensional) model, based on the mass balances of metal, slag, and gas in the ladle, developed to operate with relatively short computational times for the sake of industrial relevance. The model accounts for a semi-continuous process which includes both the tapping and post-tapping refining stages. It predicts the concentrations of Ca, Al, and trace elements, most notably the alkaline metals, alkaline earth metal, and rare earth metals. The predictive power of the model depends on the quality of the model coefficients, the kinetic coefficient, τ, and the equilibrium partition coefficient, L for a given element. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model results are most sensitive to L. The model has been compared to industrial measurement data and found to be able to qualitatively, and to some extent quantitatively, predict the data. The model is very well suited for alkaline and alkaline earth metals which respond relatively fast to the refining process. The model is less well suited for elements such as the lanthanides and Al, which are refined more slowly. A major challenge for the prediction of the behavior of the rare earth metals is that reliable thermodynamic data for true equilibrium conditions relevant to the industrial process is not typically available in literature.

  4. Electronic structure, mechanical, and optical properties of CaO·Al2O3 system: a first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A.; Mehmood, S.; Rasool, M. N.; Aryal, S.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the structure, bonding, mechanical and optical properties of five stable phases within the calcium aluminate (Ca-Al-O) series with different CaO to Al2O3 proportions has been carried out using the density functional theory based orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals (OLCAO) method. The phases are C3A, C12A7-crystal, CA, CA2, and CA6 and the oxygen deficient C12A7-electride phase. These five stable phases are wide band gap insulators with energy gap values ranging from 3.85 to 4.62 eV. The charge neutral C12A7-crystal has localized defective states in the gap whereas the C12A7-electride phase has a region of metallic bands of about 2 eV wide in the gap. Effective charge and bond order calculations reveal intimate details of electronic structure and bonding in relation to the aluminate contents in the series. It is shown that Al-O bonds dominate the Ca-O bonds in determining the crystal strength with CA6 having the highest and C12A7 having the lowest bond order density. Calculations of elastic coefficients and mechanical properties in these crystals show a high degree of diversity and anisotropic behavior consistent with the bond order calculations. The refractive index values from optical properties calculations are in good agreement with available literature. Other results furnish more insights for the Ca-Al-O series and provide the opportunity for further investigations on similar or more complicated quaternary systems with potential novel properties.

  5. Scintillation characteristics of LiCaAlF6-based single crystals under X-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikl, M.; Bruza, P.; Panek, D.; Vrbova, M.; Mihokova, E.; Mares, J. A.; Beitlerova, A.; Kawaguchi, N.; Fukuda, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2013-04-01

    LiCaAlF6-based scintillators are studied under X- and soft gamma-ray excitations. Under nanosecond pulsed soft X-ray laser excitation the scintillation decay is measured with extremely high dynamical resolution and broad time scale. The undoped LiCaAlF6 shows complex temperature dependence of exciton luminescence and tunneling-driven energy transfer process in scintillation decay. In both the Ce and Eu-doped LiCaAlF6 the dominant part of measured scintillation decay is due to prompt recombination of electrons and holes at the doped emission centers. Nevertheless, the measured light yield value is considerably lower with respect to the derived upper limits. Possible origin of its deterioration is discussed.

  6. The Effect of Ballistic Impacts on the High Cycle Fatigue Properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at.%)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Lerch, B. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Nathal, M. V.; Austin, C. M.; Erdman, O.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of gamma - TiAl to withstand potential foreign and/or domestic object damage is a technical risk to the implementation of gamma - TiAl in low pressure turbine (LPT) blade applications. The overall purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of ballistic impact damage on the high cycle fatigue strength of gamma - TiAl simulated LPT blades. Impact and specimen variables included ballistic impact energy, projectile hardness, impact temperature, impact location, and leading edge thickness. The level of damage induced by the ballistic impacting was studied and quantified on both the impact (front) and backside of the specimens. Multiple linear regression was used to model the cracking and fatigue response as a function of the impact variables. Of the impact variables studied, impact energy had the largest influence on the response of gamma - TiAl to ballistic impacting. Backside crack length was the best predictor of remnant fatigue strength for low energy impacts (<0.74J) whereas Hertzian crack length (impact side damage) was the best predictor for higher energy impacts. The impacted gamma - TiAl samples displayed a classical mean stress dependence on the fatigue strength. For the fatigue design stresses of a 6th stage LPT blade in a GE90 engine, a Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr LPT blade would survive an impact of normal service conditions.

  7. The shock Hugoniot of the intermetallic alloy Ti-46.5Al-2Nb-2Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Jeremy; Gray, George T. Rusty III; Bourne, Neil

    2000-09-15

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on a {gamma}-titanium aluminide (TiAl) based ordered intermetallic alloy. Stress measurements were recorded using manganin stress gauges supported on the back of TiAl targets using polymethylmethacrylate windows. The Hugoniot in stress-particle velocity space for this TiAl alloy was deduced using impedance matching techniques. The results in this study are compared to the known Hugoniot data of the common alpha-beta engineering Ti-based alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of the current study on the intermetallic alloy TiAl support that TiAl possesses a significantly higher stress for a given particle velocity than the two-phase Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Influence of shock loading on the structure/property response of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-24Al-11Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.T. III

    1994-02-01

    Intermetallics are receiving increasing attention for applications requiring high-leverage materials possessing potentially high pay-offs such as in gas-turbine engines. While the quasi-static deformation response of a broad range of intermetallics is receiving intense scientific and engineering study, increased utilization of intermetallics under dynamic loading requires an understanding of their high-rate/shock-wave behavior. In this paper the influence of shock loading on structure/property behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-24Al-11Nb is presented. The reload constitutive response of both shock-loaded intermetallics supports the dynamic deformation of both intermetallics being controlled by a Peierls mechanism. Defect generation and storage in intermetallics is compared and contrasted to that typical to conventional disordered metals and alloys.

  9. Compression, bend, and tension studies on forged Al67Ti25Cr8 and Al66Ti25Mn(g) L1(2) compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cast, homogenized, and isothermally forged aluminum-rich L1(2) compounds Al67Ti25Cr8 and Al66Ti25Mn(g) were tested in compression as a function of temperature and as a function of strain rate at elevated temperatures (1000 K and 1100 K). Three-point bend specimens were tested as a function of temperature in the range 300 K to 873 K. Strain gages glued on the tensile side of the ambient and 473 K specimens enabled direct strain measurements. A number of 'buttonhead' tensile specimens were electro-discharge machined, fine polished, and tested between ambient and 1073 K for yield strength and ductility as a function of temperature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of fracture surfaces from both the bend and tensile specimens revealed a gradual transition from transgranular cleavage to intergranular failure with increasing temperature.

  10. The Molar Volume of FeO-MgO-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-Al2O3-TiO2 Spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    will include some minor components, including Ti4+ and Cr3+. Because most constraints on the activity of garnet and pyroxene at high-P are derived from experiments with coexisting spinel, we must be confident in the ability of our spinel model to realistically reproduce thermodynamic behavior over all applicable compositions. Additionally, producing a spinel molar volume model calibrated with recent in situ high-P, T diffraction data is crucial to our ability to accurately model the spinel-garnet transition in Earth's upper mantle. For example, we recently calibrated Cr-Al exchange equilibria for garnet and spinel. When this new calibration is used with the current MELTS model, a region of garnet-spinel coexistence in lherzolites is predicted with width in pressure comparable to experimental constraints. The transition occurs, however, at the unexpectedly low pressure of ~1.7 GPa. The improved model of spinel molar volume presented here, along with a new garnet molar volume model in the system FeO-MgO-CaO-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-Al2O3-TiO2-Na2O-SiO2 currently being calibrated, will enable coupled recalibration of the garnet and pyroxene models to match both the absolute pressure and width of this key transition in mantle lithology.

  11. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SUB-NANOMETER COMPOSITIONAL PROFILES ACROSS THE GAMMA/GAMMA' INTERFACE IN A MODEL Ni-Al-Cr SUPERALLOY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Early-stage phase separation in a Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr at.% superalloy, isothermally decomposing at 873 K, is investigated with atom-probe tomography. Sub-nanometer scale compositional profiles across the gamma/gamma'(L12) interfaces demonstrate that both the gamma-matrix and the gamma'-precipitate compositions evolve with time. Observed chemical gradients of Al depletion and Cr enrichment adjacent to the gamma'-precipitates are transient, consistent with well-established model predictions for diffusion-limited growth, and mark the first detailed observation of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it is shown that Cr atoms are kinetically trapped in the growing precipitates.

  12. Very Long Term Oxidation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb at 704 C In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Brady, M. P.; MacKay, R. A.; Smith, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction Titanium aluminides are of great interest for intermediate-temperature (600 C - 850 C) aerospace and power generation applications because of their high specific properties. Replacement of conventional superalloys by titanium aluminides offers the potential of significant weight savings. Extensive development efforts over the past IO years have led to the identification of y (TiAl) + alpha(sub 2) (Ti3Al) alloys, such as the G.E. alloy Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb (all composition in at. %), which offer a balance of room temperature mechanical properties and high-temperature strength retention. The two phase gamma + alpha(sub 2) class of titanium aluminides also offers superior oxidation and embrittlement resistance compared to the alpha(sub 2) and orthorhombic classes of titanium aluminides. However, environmental durability is still a major concern. Significant progress has recently been made in understanding the fundamental aspects of the oxidation behavior of binary gamma + alpha(sub 2) Ti-Al alloys. However, most of this work has concentrated on short term (less than 1000 hours), high temperature (900 C - 1000 C) exposures. Also little data are available in the literature regarding the oxidation behavior of the quaternary and higher order gamma + alpha(sub 2) engineering alloys. This is especially true for the very long-term, low temperature conditions likely to be experienced during engineering applications. The present work addresses this regime to fill this gap by characterizing the oxidation behavior of Ti48Al-2Cr-2Nb for periods up to 9000 h at 704 C in air.

  13. Effects of a Tantalum Addition on the Morphological and Compositional Evolutions of a Model Ni-AL-Cr Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a 2.0 at.% addition of Ta to a model Ni-Al-Cr superalloy aged at 1073 K are assessed using scanning electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography. The addition of Ta results in appreciable strengthening, and the morphology is found to evolve from a bimodal distribution of spheroidal precipitates, to cuboidal precipitates aligned along the elastically soft <001>-type directions. Tantalum is observed to partition preferentially to the gamma -precipitate phase and decreases the mobility of Ni in the gamma- matrix sufficiently to cause an accumulation of Ni on the gamma-matrix side of the gamma -precipitate/gamma-matrix heterophase interface.

  14. Tensile deformation damage in SiC reinforced Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Saltsman, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The damage mechanisms of a laminated, continuous SiC fiber reinforced Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) composite were investigated. Specimens consisting of unidirectional as well as cross-ply laminates were pulled in tension to failure at room temperature and 427 C and subsequently examined metallographically. Selected specimens were interrupted at various strain increments and examined to document the development of damage. When possible, a micromechanical stress analysis was performed to aid in the explanation of the observed damage. The analyses provide average constituent microstresses and laminate stresses and strains. It was found that the damage states were dependent upon the fiber architecture.

  15. Atomic disorder and the magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of a Co{sub 2}CrAl Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Svyazhin, A. D. Shreder, E. I.; Voronin, V. I.; Berger, I. F.; Danilov, S. E.

    2013-03-15

    Two Co{sub 2}CrAl alloy samples subjected to different heat treatment regimes are studied. An exact distribution of atoms over the sublattices in the samples is determined by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction methods. These data are used to perform ab initio density of states calculations and to calculate the magnetic moments of the samples in a coherent potential approximation. The calculated magnetic moments are compared to the experimental values. The effect of atomic ordering on the electronic structure near the Fermi level is analyzed using optical methods. The possible causes of the detected temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, unusual for metallic alloys, are discussed.

  16. In-situ XAFS study for calcination process of Cr catalyst supported on γ-Al2O3 and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, K.; Katayama, M.; Inada, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The catalytic performance is largely affected by the oxidation state of supported Cr species, and its control changes the activity of Cr catalysts and the selectivity of products. In this study, the calcination process of the supported Cr catalysts on γ-Al2O3 and SiO2 was investigated by in-situ XAFS spectroscopy. The hydrate species was first supported by the impregnation method and was converted to CrO3 via Cr2O3 during the calcination process on both supporting materials. It was found that the temperature to complete the oxidation from Cr2O3 to CrO3 on SiO2 was higher than that on γ-Al2O3. The similarity of the interatomic distance between the surface oxygen atoms of the intermediate Cr2O3 species to that of SiO2 contributes to the stabilization of Cr2O3 on SiO2 during the calcination process.

  17. Comparative study of the absorption spectrum of Li 2CaSiO 4:Cr 4+: First-principles fully relativistic and crystal field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brik, M. G.; Ogasawara, K.

    2007-11-01

    Systematic analysis of the energy level scheme and ground state absorption of the Cr4+ ion in Li2CaSiO4 crystal was performed using the exchange charge model of the crystal field [B.Z. Malkin, in: A.A. Kaplyanskii, B.M. Macfarlane (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare-earth Ions, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 33-50] and recently developed first-principles approach to the analysis of the absorption spectra of impurity ions in crystals based on the discrete variational multielectron (DVME) method [K. Ogasawara, T. Iwata, Y. Koyama, T. Ishii, I. Tanaka, H. Adachi, Phys. Rev. B 64 (2001) 115413]. Using the former method, the values of parameters of crystal field acting on the Cr4+ ion valence electrons were calculated using the Li2CaSiO4 crystal structure data. Energy levels of the Cr4+ ion obtained after diagonalizing the crystal field Hamiltonian are in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental spectra. The latter method is based on the numerical solution of the Dirac equation; therefore, all relativistic effects are automatically considered. As a result, energy level scheme of Cr4+ and its absorption spectra in both polarizations were calculated, assigned and compared with experimental data; energy of the lowest charge transfer transition was evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions for the CrO44- complex available in the literature. The main features of the experimental spectra shape are reproduced well by the calculations. By performing analysis of the molecular orbitals (MO) population, it was shown that the covalent effects play an important role in formation of the spectral properties of Cr4+ ion in the considered crystal.

  18. Possible Bose-Einstein condensate associated with an orbital degree of freedom in the Mott insulator CaCr O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.-S.; Cao, L.-P.; Alonso, J. A.; Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Fernandez-Diaz, M. T.; Li, X.; Cheng, J.-G.; Marshall, L. G.; Jin, C.-Q.; Goodenough, J. B.

    2016-10-01

    Whether CaCr O3 is a Mott insulator or a correlated metal is still controversial. We have performed measurements of magnetization, specific heat, and thermal conductivity on CaCr O3 samples selected from many batches of high-pressure synthesis. The single-crystal CaCr O3 sample exhibits an unprecedentedly sharp transition at a Néel temperature TN≈90 K . The critical behavior of specific heat cannot be rationalized by the renormalization group theory for a second-order magnetic transition. More surprisingly, the thermal conductivity κ exhibits an anomalous drop on cooling through TN, which is opposite to all known influence on κ from either spin or orbital ordering. We have argued, on the basis of anomalies found in all three measurements and structural data, for the coexistence of itinerant π-bonding electrons in a c -axis band and localized x y electrons in x y orbitals responsible for type-C antiferromagnetic order below TN and the occupation of a pure, localized x y orbital undergoing a Bose-Einstein condensate at TN.

  19. Three-dimensional hierarchical flower-like Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides: highly efficient adsorbents for As(v) and Cr(vi) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Xu, Ren-Xia; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong-Xing; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2012-05-01

    3D hierarchical flower-like Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al-LDHs) were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol (EG) and water. The formation mechanism of the flower-like Mg-Al-LDHs was proposed. After calcination, the flower-like morphology could be completely preserved. With relatively high specific surface areas, Mg-Al-LDHs and calcined Mg-Al-LDHs with 3D hierarchical nanostructures were tested for their application in water purification. When tested as adsorbents in As(v) and Cr(vi) removal, the as-prepared calcined Mg-Al-LDHs showed excellent performance, and the adsorption capacities of calcined Mg-Al-LDHs for As(v) and Cr(vi) were better than those of Mg-Al-LDHs. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms for As(v) and Cr(vi) onto calcined Mg-Al-LDHs were also investigated. The high uptake capability of the as-prepared novel 3D hierarchical calcined Mg-Al-LDHs make it a potentially attractive adsorbent in water purification. Also, this facile strategy may be extended to synthesize other LDHs with 3D hierarchical nanostructures, which may find many other applications due to their novel structural features.3D hierarchical flower-like Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al-LDHs) were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol (EG) and water. The formation mechanism of the flower-like Mg-Al-LDHs was proposed. After calcination, the flower-like morphology could be completely preserved. With relatively high specific surface areas, Mg-Al-LDHs and calcined Mg-Al-LDHs with 3D hierarchical nanostructures were tested for their application in water purification. When tested as adsorbents in As(v) and Cr(vi) removal, the as-prepared calcined Mg-Al-LDHs showed excellent performance, and the adsorption capacities of calcined Mg-Al-LDHs for As(v) and Cr(vi) were better than those of Mg-Al-LDHs. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics and mechanisms for As(v) and Cr(vi) onto calcined

  20. Effect of Al2O3 Concentration on Density and Structure of (CaO-SiO2)-xAl2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Kim, Hyelim; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seung; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Joonho

    2017-03-01

    The effect of Al2O3 concentration on the density and structure of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag was investigated at multiple Al2O3 mole percentages and at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 2154 K to 2423 K (1881 °C to 2150 °C) using the aerodynamic levitation technique. In order to understand the relationship between density and structure, structural analysis of the silicate melts was carried out using Raman spectroscopy. The density of each slag sample investigated in this study decreased linearly with increasing temperature. When the Al2O3 content was less than 15 mole pct, density decreased with increasing Al2O3 content due to the coupling of Si (Al), whereas above 20 mole pct density of the slag increased due to the role of Al3+ ion as a network modifier.

  1. Carbides in iron-rich Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Al-Si-C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Wayne, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of high carbon iron-base superalloy properties with duplex microstructure gamma + M7C3 carbide requires analysis in the context of a seven-component system. Data are first provided here for the Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C quinary system, at 30 at. pct carbon. A characterization of competing carbides, according to a pseudoternary phase diagram at 35 wt pct iron, is made from isothermal sections. It is noted that while M7C3 and M3C carbides' occurrences are respectively favored at the Cr and Mn corners, the M2C carbide and molybdenum cementite are predominant with increasing amounts of Mo. Lattice parameters are reported for the various carbides.

  2. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-14

    CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.

  3. The co-crystallization of beryl-structure compounds in the Al 2Be 3Si 6O 18—Mg,Ca/F,Cl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. A.

    2005-02-01

    An Al 2Be 3Si 6O 18 — Mg, Ca/F, Cl flux system unused earlier has been chosen for the synthesis of beryl (Al 2Be 3Si 6O 18) and its varieties. In such a case of disregarding the well-known rules of the choice of a solvent, the following crystallization features of beryl have been revealed: (1) the beryl co-crystallizes successively and/or simultaneously with isostructural beryllian indialite (Mg 2BeAl 2Si 6O 18); (2) the bulk of beryl crystals is formed only in regions with high concentration of a flux; (3) the solution-melt liquates; (4) the solvent evaporates intensively. The advantages of the flux proposed are both the possibility of using inexpensive steel crucibles and good chromophoric properties of Cr, V, and Ti. Ratios of constitutient elements and some additive those between beryl and beryllian indialite, both grown simultaneously, and between pinacoid and prism in crystals of these compounds are reported.

  4. Temperature-dependent phase-specific deformation mechanisms in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) lamellar composite

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Chen, Xu; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-09

    Phase-specific thermal expansion and mechanical deformation behaviors of a directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) lamellar in situ composite were investigated by using real-time in situ neutron diffraction during compression at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C. Tensile and compressive thermal residual stresses were found to exist in the NiAl phase and Crss (solid solution) phase, respectively. Then, based on the evolution of lattice spacings and phase stresses, the phase-specific deformation behavior was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, estimates of phase stresses were derived by Hooke's law on the basis of a simple method for the determination of stress-free lattice spacing in in situ composites. During compressive loading, the NiAl phase yields earlier than the Crss phase. The Crss phase carries much higher stress than the NiAl phase, and displays consistent strain hardening at all temperatures. The NiAl phase exhibits strain hardening at relatively low temperatures and softening at high temperatures. During unloading, the NiAl phase yields in tension whereas the Crss phase unloads elastically. Additionally, post-test microstructural observations show phase-through cracks at room temperature, micro cracks along phase interfaces at 600 °C and intact lamellae kinks at 800 °C, which is due to the increasing deformability of both phases as temperature rises.

  5. Temperature-dependent phase-specific deformation mechanisms in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) lamellar composite

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Chen, Xu; ...

    2015-10-09

    Phase-specific thermal expansion and mechanical deformation behaviors of a directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) lamellar in situ composite were investigated by using real-time in situ neutron diffraction during compression at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C. Tensile and compressive thermal residual stresses were found to exist in the NiAl phase and Crss (solid solution) phase, respectively. Then, based on the evolution of lattice spacings and phase stresses, the phase-specific deformation behavior was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, estimates of phase stresses were derived by Hooke's law on the basis of a simple method for the determination of stress-free lattice spacing in inmore » situ composites. During compressive loading, the NiAl phase yields earlier than the Crss phase. The Crss phase carries much higher stress than the NiAl phase, and displays consistent strain hardening at all temperatures. The NiAl phase exhibits strain hardening at relatively low temperatures and softening at high temperatures. During unloading, the NiAl phase yields in tension whereas the Crss phase unloads elastically. Additionally, post-test microstructural observations show phase-through cracks at room temperature, micro cracks along phase interfaces at 600 °C and intact lamellae kinks at 800 °C, which is due to the increasing deformability of both phases as temperature rises.« less

  6. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  7. RBS Depth Profiling Analysis of (Ti, Al)N/MoN and CrN/MoN Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin; Wang, Zesong; Devi, Neena; Kondamareddy, K. K.; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Na; Zuo, Wenbin; Fu, Dejun; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-03-01

    (Ti, Al)N/MoN and CrN/MoN multilayered films were synthesized on Si (100) surface by multi-cathodic arc ion plating system with various bilayer periods. The elemental composition and depth profiling of the films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) using 2.42 and 1.52 MeV Li2+ ion beams and different incident angles (0°, 15°, 37°, and 53°). The microstructures of (Ti, Al)N/MoN multilayered films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction. The multilayer periods and thickness of the multilayered films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and then compared with RBS results.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Directionally-Solidified NiAl/(CR,MO)-Based Eutectic Alloys for Airfoil Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to develop directionally-solidified alloys based on the Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo eutectic composition are discussed. These developmental efforts included studying the effects of macroalloying and growth rates on microstructure formation as well as the elevated temperature compressive and tensile properties of these alloys. These observations revealed that contrary to conventional opinion, the cellular microstructure was stronger and tougher than the planar eutectic microstructure due to a microstructural refinement of the cell size and interlamellar spacing. The high temperature strengths of these alloys are compared with those of commercial superalloys and advanced NiAl single crystals. The implications of this research on airfoil manufacturing and applications are discussed.

  9. Compositional Pathways and Capillary Effects during Early-stage Isothermal Precipitation in a Nondilute Ni-Al-Cr Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2006-01-01

    For a Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr at.% alloy with moderate solute supersaturations, the compositional pathways, as measured with atom-probe tomography, during early to later stage y'(LI2)-precipitation (R = 0.45-10 nm), aged at 873 K, are discussed in light of a multi-component coarsening model. Employing nondilute thermodynamics, detailed model analyses during quasistationary coarsening of the experimental data establish that the y/y' interfacial free-energy is 22- 23+/-7 mJ/sq m. Additionally, solute diffusivities are significantly slower than model estimates. Strong quantitative evidence indicates that an observed y'-supersaturation of Al results from the Gibbs-Thomson effect, providing the first experimental verification of this phenomenon. The Gibbs-Thomson relationship, for a ternary system, as well as differences in measured phase equilibria with CALPHAD assessments, are considered in great detail.

  10. Thermal Failure of Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings with Cold-Sprayed Nanostructured NiCrAlY Bond Coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Chang-Jiu; Li, Yong; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Wang, Xiu-Ru; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

    2008-12-01

    Nanostructured thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited by plasma spraying using agglomerated nanostructured YSZ powder on Inconel 738 substrate with cold-sprayed nanostructured NiCrAlY powder as bond coat. The isothermal oxidation and thermal cycling tests were applied to examine failure modes of plasma-sprayed nanostructured TBCs. For comparison, the TBC consisting of conventional microstructure YSZ and conventional NiCrAlY bond coat was also deposited and subjected to the thermal shock test. The results showed that nanostructured YSZ coating contained two kinds of microstructures; nanosized zirconia particles embedded in the matrix and microcolumnar grain structures of zirconia similar to those of conventional YSZ. Although, after thermal cyclic test, a continuous, uniform thermally grown oxide (TGO) was formed, cracks were observed at the interface between TGO/BC or TGO/YSZ after thermal cyclic test. However, the failure of nanostructured and conventional TBCs mainly occurred through spalling of YSZ. Compared with conventional TBCs, nanostructured TBCs exhibited better thermal shock resistance.

  11. Nature of the interfaces between the constituent phases in the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl.

    PubMed

    Welk, Brian A; Williams, Robert E A; Viswanathan, Gopal B; Gibson, Mark A; Liaw, Peter K; Fraser, Hamish L

    2013-11-01

    The interfaces between the phase separated regions in the dendritic grains of laser-deposited samples of the high entropy alloy CoCrCuFeNiAl have been studied using aberration-corrected analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). The compositional variations have been determined using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in (S)TEM. It was found that between B2, consisting mainly of Al, Ni, Co, and Fe, and disordered bcc phase, consisting mainly of Cr and Fe, there is a transition region, approximately 1.5 nm in width, over which the chemical composition changes from the B2 to that of the bcc phase. The crystal structure of this interfacial region is also B2, but with very different sublattice occupancy than that of the adjacent B2 compound. The structural aspects of the interface between the ordered B2 phase and the disordered bcc phase have been characterized using high angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in STEM. It has been determined that the interfaces are essentially coherent, with the lattice parameters of the two B2 regions and the disordered bcc phase being more or less the same, the uncertainty arising from possible relaxations from the proximity of the surfaces of the thin foils used in imaging of the microstructures. Direct observations show that there is a planar continuity between all three constituent phases.

  12. Evaluation of tribological behavior of Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high entropy alloy using molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    High-entropy alloys have been studied extensively for their excellent properties and performance, including outstanding strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. This study employed molecular dynamics simulation to produce a high-entropy alloy containing an equal molar ratio of Al, Co, Cr, Fe, and Ni and investigated the tribological behavior of the material using a diamond tool in a vacuum environment. We also simulated a AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy cooled from a high temperature molten state to 300 K in a high-speed quenching process to produce an amorphous microstructure. In a simulation of nanoscratching, the cutting force-distance curve of high-entropy alloys was used to evaluate work hardening and stick-slip. An increase in temperature was shown to reduce the scratching force and scratching resistance. Nanoscratching the high-entropy alloy at elevated temperatures provided evidence of work hardening; however, the degree of work hardening decreased with an increase in temperature. And it can also be found that when the temperature is higher, the fluctuation of the cutting force curve is greater.

  13. Tribological Properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 High-Entropy Alloy in Different Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Shengguo; Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Teng; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihua; Qiao, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the environmental effect on the mechanical behavior of high-entropy alloys, the tribological properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 are studied systematically in dry, simulated rainwater, and deionized water conditions against the Si3N4 ceramic ball at a series of different normal loads. The present study shows that both the friction and wear rate in simulated rainwater are the lowest. The simulated rainwater plays a significant role in the tribological behavior with the effect of forming passive film, lubricating, cooling, cleaning, and corrosion. The wear mechanism in simulated rainwater is mainly adhesive wear accompanied by abrasive wear as well as corrosive wear. In contrast, those in dry condition and deionized water are abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and surface plastic deformation. Oxidation contributes to the wear behavior in dry condition but is prevented in liquid condition. In addition, the phase diagram of Al x CrCuFeNi2 is predicted using CALPHAD modeling, which is in good agreement with the literature report and the present study.

  14. Report on fundamental modeling of irradiation-induced swelling and creep in FeCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnert, Aaron A.; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Wirth, Brian; Linton, Kory D.

    2016-09-23

    In order to improve the accident tolerance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, alternative cladding materials have been proposed to replace zirconium (Zr)-based alloys. Of these materials, there is a particular focus on iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys due to much slower oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam than Zr-alloys. This should decrease the energy release due to oxidation and allow the cladding to remain integral longer in the presence of high temperature steam, making accident mitigation more likely. As a continuation of the development for these alloys, the material response must be demonstrated to provide suitable radiation stability, in order to ensure that there will not be significant dimensional changes (e.g., swelling), as well as quantifying the radiation hardening and radiation creep behavior. In this report, we describe the use of cluster dynamics modeling to evaluate the defect physics and damage accumulation behavior of FeCrAl alloys subjected to neutron irradiation, with a particular focus on irradiation-induced swelling and defect fluxes to dislocations that are required to model irradiation creep behavior.

  15. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe-Cr-Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  16. Friction Stir Processing of a High Entropy Alloy Al0.1CoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Komarasamy, M.; Nelaturu, P.; Tang, Z.; Liaw, P. K.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-05-01

    High entropy alloys are a new class of metallic materials with a potential for use in structural applications. However, most of the studies have focused on microhardness and compressive strength measurements for mechanical properties determination. This study presents the tensile deformation behavior of a single-phase, face-centered cubic Al0.1CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy (HEA). Friction stir processing was carried out to refine the grain size. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were carried out for microstructural examination. The grain size of the alloy was on the order of millimeters in the as-received condition. The average grain size after friction stir processing of the alloy was 14 ± 10 micrometers. The mechanical properties were determined through microhardness measurement and mini-tensile tests. The friction stir processed alloy showed a total elongation of ~75% for the mini-tensile sample used and yield strength of 315 MPa. It is an exceptional combination of strength and ductility. Friction stress was determined to be 174 MPa and the Hall-Petch coefficient was 371 MPa ( µm)1/2. Such a high value of Hall-Petch coefficient suggests that grain boundary strengthening can be a very effective strengthening mechanism for the HEA Al0.1CoCrFeNi.

  17. Effect of Al and Ca co-doping, in the presence of Te, in superconducting YBCO whiskers growth.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Lise; Truccato, Marco; Operti, Lorenza; Agostino, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    High-Tc superconducting cuprates (HTSC) such as YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) are promising candidates for solid-state THz applications based on stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) with atomic thickness. In view of future exploitation of IJJs, high-quality superconducting YBCO tape-like single crystals (whiskers) have been synthesized from Ca-Al-doped precursors in the presence of Te. The main aim of this paper is to determine the importance of the simultaneous use of Al, Te and Ca in promoting YBCO whiskers growth with good superconducting properties (Tc = 79-84 K). Further, single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) refinements of tetragonal YBCO whiskers (P4/mmm) are reported to fill the literature lack of YBCO structure investigations. All the as-grown whiskers have also been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Our results demonstrate that the interplay of Ca, Te and Al elements is clearly necessary in order to obtain superconducting YBCO whiskers. The data obtained from SC-XRD analyses confirm the highly crystalline nature of the whiskers grown. Ca and Al enter the structure by replacing the Y and the octahedral coordinated Cu1 site, respectively, as in other similar orthorhombic compounds, while Te does not enter the structure of whiskers but its presence in the precursor is essential to the growth of the crystals.

  18. Luminescence properties of Eu 2+- and Ce 3+-doped CaAl 2S 4 and application in white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ruijin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jianhui; Yuan, Haibin; Su, Qiang

    2008-03-01

    The Eu 2+- and Ce 3+-doped CaAl 2S 4 phosphors were comparatively synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction and the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the sample with better crystalline quality was prepared by the evacuated sealed quartz ampoule, resulting in the enhancement of the emission intensity of Eu 2+ ion by a factor of 1.7. The intensive green LEDs were also fabricated by combining CaAl 2S 4:Eu 2+ with near-ultraviolet InGaN chips ( λem=395 nm). The dependence of as-fabricated green LEDs on forward-bias currents shows that it presents good chromaticity stability and luminance saturation, indicating that CaAl 2S 4:Eu 2+ is a promising green-emitting phosphor for a near-UV InGaN-based LED. In addition, the optical properties of CaAl 2S 4:Ce 3+ were systematically investigated by means of diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence excitation and emission, concentrating quenching and the decay curve.

  19. Flash-Heated Wild 2 Particles in the Stardust Aerogel: Anatomy of an Al-Ca-Mg Impact Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, H.; Roskosz, M.

    2014-09-01

    Using analytical TEM, chemical maps were recorded on an impact melt from the Stardust aerogel. We show that the impacting particle was a fine-grained refractory assemblage dominated by low and high-Ca pyroxenes and Mg-Al-spinel.

  20. Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni abundance for a sample of solar analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, Ricardo; Bertone, Emanuele; Chávez, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on the determination of chemical abundances of 38 solar analogues, including 11 objects previously identified as super metal-rich stars. We have measured the equivalent widths for 34 lines of 7 different chemical elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni) in high-resolution (R ˜ 80 000) spectroscopic images, obtained at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (Sonora, Mexico), with the Cananea High-resolution Spectrograph. We derived chemical abundances using ATLAS12 model atmospheres and the Fortran code MOOG. We confirmed the super metallicity status of 6 solar analogues. Within our sample, BD+60 600 is the most metal-rich star ([Fe/H]=+0.35 dex), while for HD 166991 we obtained the lowest iron abundance ([Fe/H]=-0.53 dex). We also computed the so-called [Ref] index for 25 of our solar analogues, and we found, that BD+60 600 ([Ref]=+0.42) and BD+28 3198 ([Ref]=+0.34) are good targets for exoplanet search.

  1. Experimentally Produced Spinel Rims on Ca-Al-Rich Inclusion Bulk Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Le, L.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    Most Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAls) from Allende are surrounded by a series of mineralogically distinct rim layers. Proposed modes of formation for these layers include flash heating, evaporation, and condensation. The innermost of these rim layers is generally spinel (SP), in some cases intergrown with perovskite (PV), and commonly containing varying amounts of secondary iron increasing towards the edge of the CAI. The SP or SP+PV rim is not always contiguous with the other rim layers, indicating that it is probably the result of a separate event. We have produced continuous SP rims on synthetic analogs representing Type A/B1, average Type B, and Type B2 bulk compositions by reheating a solid glass experimental charge to subliquidus crystallization temperatures. This experimental result is consistent with the formation of chondrules; and CAIs by more than one sequence of heating and cooling. Previous work indicated that prior crystallization events produced observable effects in the texture and chemistry of the final run product. Information on the nature of the heating/cooling cycles experienced by CAls and chondrules is important in modeling the environment of their formation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Laser surface alloying of FeCoCrAlNi high-entropy alloy on 304 stainless steel to enhance corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, C. L.; Zhang, C. H.; Guan, M.; Tan, J. Z.

    2016-10-01

    FeCoCrAlNi high-entropy alloy coating was synthesized with premixed high-purity Co, Cr, Al and Ni powders on 304 stainless steel by laser surface alloying, aiming at improving corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance. Phase constituents, microstructure and microhardness were investigated using XRD, SEM, and microhardness tester, respectively. The cavitation erosion and electrochemical corrosion behavior of FeCoCrAlNi coating in 3.5% NaCl solution were also evaluated using an ultrasonic vibrator and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. Experimental results showed that with appropriate laser processing parameters, FeCoCrAlNi coating with good metallurgical bonding to the substrate could be achieved. FeCoCrAlNi coating was composed of a single BCC solid solution. The formation of simple solid solutions in HEAs was the combined effect of mixing entropy (ΔSmix), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), atom-size difference (δ) and valence electron concentration (VEC), and the effect of ΔSmix was much larger than that of the other factors. The microhardness of the FeCoCrAlNi coating was ~3 times that of the 304 stainless steel. Both the corrosion and cavitation erosion resistance of the coating were improved. The cavitation erosion resistance for FeCoCrAlNi HEA coating was ~7.6 times that of 304 stainless steel. The corrosion resistance was also improved as reflected by a reduction in the current density of one order of magnitude as compared with 304 stainless steel.

  3. Infrared study of the vibrational behavior of CrO 42- guest ions matrix-isolated in metal (II) sulfates (Me=Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, D.; Georgiev, M.; Marinova, D.

    2005-03-01

    Infrared spectra of matrix-isolated CrO 42- guest ions in host sulfate matrices - CaSO 4·2H 2O, SrSO 4, BaSO 4 and PbSO 4 are reported and discussed with respect to the Cr-O stretching and O-Cr-O bending modes. An adequate measure for the CrO 42- guest ion distortion is the site group splitting Δ νas and Δ νmax (the difference between the highest and the lowest wavenumbered components of the stretching and bending modes). When the smaller SO 42- ions are replaced by the larger CrO 42- ions the mean frequencies of the asymmetric stretching and bending modes ( ν and ν) as well as the frequencies of ν1 of the CrO 42- guest ions are shifted to higher wavenumbers as compared to those in the respective neat chromates due to the larger repulsion potential at the host lattice sites (smaller values of the unit-cell volumes of the neat sulfates than those of the neat chromates). The CrO 42- guest ions exhibit three bands corresponding to the ν3 modes as deduced from the site group analysis ( C2 site symmetry in CaSO 4·2H 2O and Cs site symmetry in SrSO 4, BaSO 4 and PbSO 4). However, the bending modes ν4 and ν2 of the CrO 42- guest ions in SrSO 4, BaSO 4 and PbSO 4 show an effectively higher local symmetry than the 'rigorous' crystallographic one (two bands for ν4 and one band for ν2 instead of a triplet and a doublet expected, respectively). Such different apparent site symmetries observed in various spectral regions may be attributed to the different influence of energetic and geometrical distortions of the polyatomic entities at particular site on various modes.

  4. Structure, microstructure and magnetic properties of Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}1)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Martinez, E.; Duran, A.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    2008-04-15

    The effect of the calcium concentration on the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties of Sr{sub (1-x)}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3} with 0{<=}x{<=}1 has been studied. The compounds were prepared using high pressure and high temperature synthesis. X-ray diffraction shows that the samples evolve from the cubic Pm-3m space group for x=0-0.2 to tetragonal I4/mcm for x=0.4-0.5, then to the orthorhombic Pbnm space group for x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the respective cells for the end compositions: a{sub p}xa{sub p}xa{sub p} (Pm-3m) for SrCrO{sub 3}; and the {radical}(2)a{sub p}x{radical}(2)a{sub p}x2a{sub p} (Pbnm) for CaCrO{sub 3}. For intermediate compositions some extra spots appear in the electron diffraction patterns while the electron micrographs indicate the presence of microdomains. Magnetic measurements show Curie-Weiss behaviour at high temperature for all the samples. A sharp antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at about 91.5 K appears for x=0.8-1 together with a weak ferromagnetic ordering below T{sub N}. - Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a crystal of Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}CrO{sub 3} showing a random distribution of 2a{sub p}{approx}7.6 A all along the crystal that lacks long range order. Inset shows the FFT of the area of the image and of a tenth of that area showing the influence of the coherence length.

  5. Electrochemical Corrosion of HVOF-Sprayed NiCoCrAlY Coatings in CO2-Saturated Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; García-Herrera, J. E.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of pre-oxidation treatment and surface preparation of optimized NiCoCrAlY coatings deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying and exposed to a low-temperature corrosive environment is reported herein. Coatings with two surface finish conditions (as-sprayed and ground) were heat treated under two different oxygen partial pressures (air and argon). The electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated in CO2-saturated brine via potentiodynamic polarization, polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance measurements. The results show that the grinding process and pre-oxidation treatment in argon enhanced growth and formation of α-Al2O3 scale. The potentiodynamic polarization results show that both pre-oxidation and surface treatment had a positive influence on the corrosion resistance of the coating. The reduction of the porosity and the formation of a dense, uniform, and adherent oxide scale through pre-oxidation treatment led to an increase of the corrosion resistance due to a decrease in active sites and blocking of diffusion of reactive species into the coating. However, according to the results, complete transformation from metastable alumina phases to α-Al2O3 in addition to formation and growth of dense α-Al2O3 is required to ensure full protection of the coating and base material over long periods.

  6. Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir-welded Noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Li, Z. Y.; Nakata, K.; Feng, J. C.; Huang, Y. X.; Liao, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    Microstructure and fatigue behavior of friction stir-welded noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca magnesium alloy were investigated. The as-received hot-extruded material consisted of equiaxed α-Mg grains with β-Mg17Al12 and Al2Ca compounds distributed along the grain boundaries. Friction stir welding produced much refined α-Mg grains accompanied by the dissolution of the eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase, while Al2Ca phase was dispersed homogenously into the Mg matrix. Friction stir welding produced slightly increased hardness and tensile strength in the defect-free welds compared with the base material due to microstructural refinement and uniform distribution of intermetallic compounds. The load-controlled uniaxial tensile high-cycle fatigue tests indicated that fatigue strength of 90 MPa was obtained for the friction stir-welded joint with fatigue crack initiated basically near the specimen's surface and at the retreating side of the joint. Crack propagation was characterized by cleavage and fatigue striations.

  7. Development of Ca-doped LaCr03 feed material and its plasma coating for SOFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, R. D.; Nair, Sathi R.; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P. K.; Sharma, B. P.; Sreekumar, K. P.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Das, A. K.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    In order to realize SOFC as power generating devices, multiple cells are connected in series through an interconnect material to accumulate the voltage output. The interconnect should have very low permeability for the gases used. A novel solution combustion process has been developed for producing the phase pure, well-sinterable powders of Ca-doped LaCrO3 interconnect material. A process has been developed to produce the coarse granules as a feed material using combustion-synthesized powder for plasma spray through (a) preparation of granules through cold iso-static pressing followed by breaking and sieving (b) sintering of the green granules followed by sieving. The flow ability and deposition efficiency studies on +45-75 and 75-125 μm powders suggested that +45-75 powder is more suitable for the plasma spray coating. The plasma process parameters; plasma power, flow rate of carrier gases and distance between substrate and plasma gun have been optimized to achieve required coating characteristics. The as-produced coating using 20 kW power plasma gun on the porous Sr-doped LaMnO3 cathode substrates has been examined by SEM. An adherent coating of about 100 μm has been observed in the micrographs. No large cracks were observed throughout the coating. However, the coating was not found to be impervious in nature. Also the micrographs showed incomplete melting of the plasma-coated material. The similar experiments were performed using a higher power (approx 60 Kw) plasma gun. The coated coupons were tested for leakage by checking water penetration. It was found that water did not penetrate for quite a long time. Therefore, the coupon was further tested for leakage by keeping it over a port connected to vacuum pump. The vacuum attained was 7×10-3 mbar and it was maintained for four consecutive days. The SEM studies on the coated sample showed a quite dense coating along with a very few small local pores.

  8. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  9. Microstructure and properties of the Ti/Al2O3/NiCr composites fabricated by explosive compaction/cladding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingfeng; Xie, Fangyu; Wang, Bin; Luo, Xiaozhou

    2015-05-01

    Titanium/aluminum oxide/nickel chromium (Ti/Al2O3/NiCr) composite bar prepared by explosive compaction/cladding technique represents a new kind of sandwich-structural composites for medical application. Formation of the interfaces of Ti/Al2O3 and Al2O3/NiCr govern the properties of the composite material. The electrical resistivity and microstructure of the intermediate layer and the interfaces of the Ti/Al2O3/NiCr explosive compaction/cladding bar are investigated by means of four-point probe analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The Ti/Al2O3/NiCr composite bar is characterized by the consolidated ceramic intermediate layer and the metallurgical bonding interfaces. The intermediate ceramic layer plays a role of insulation and thermal conductance in this composite. The average shear strength of the composite bar is about 9.36 MPa. The heat affected zone characterized by relatively larger sizes of grains is distinguished from the other part of the Ti tube. The intermetallics AlTi3 and Al0.9Ni4.22 are generated at the intermediate ceramic layer. Formation mechanism of the interfaces of the explosive compaction/cladding bar are described.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial L2{sub 1}-structured Co{sub 2}(Cr,Fe)Al films grown on GaAs(001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hirohata, A.; Kurebayashi, H.; Okamura, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Masaki, T.; Nozaki, T.; Tezuka, N.; Inomata, K.

    2005-05-15

    We have successfully grown both L2{sub 1} polycrystalline Co{sub 2}CrAl and epitaxial L2{sub 1}-structured Co{sub 2}FeAl films onto GaAs(001) substrates under an optimized condition. Both structural and magnetic analyses reveal the detailed growth mechanism of the alloys, and suggest that the Co{sub 2}CrAl film contains atomically disordered phases, which decreases the magnetic moment per f.u., while the Co{sub 2}FeAl film satisfies the generalized Slater-Pauling behavior. By using these films, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have been fabricated, showing 2% tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for the Co{sub 2}CrAl MTJ at 5 K and 9% for the Co{sub 2}FeAl MTJ at room temperature (RT). Even though the TMR ratio still needs to be improved for future device applications, these results explicitly include that the Co{sub 2}(Cr,Fe)Al full Heusler alloy is a promising compound to achieve half-metallicity at RT by controlling both disorder and surface structures in the atomic level by manipulating the Fe concentration.

  11. First-principles study on the band structure, magnetic and elastic properties of half-metallic Cr2MnAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Santao; Zhang, Chuan-Hui; Chen, Bao; Shen, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have investigated the structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of the full-Heusler Cr2MnAl alloy in the framework of density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated results showed that Cr2MnAl was stable in ferrimagnetic configuration and crystallized in the Hg2CuTi-type structure. From the band structure and density of states calculation results, we concluded that Cr2MnAl belongs to a kind of half-metallic compound with an indirect band gap of 0.37 eV. Immediately thereafter, we have analyzed the origin of half-metallic band gap. The total magnetic moment of Cr2MnAl at the stable state is - 2μB per formula unit, obeying the Slater-Pauling rule Mt = Zt - 24. In addition, various mechanical properties have been obtained and discussed based on the three principle elastic tensor elements C11,C12 and C44 for the first time in the present work. We expect that our calculated results may trigger the application of Cr2MnAl in future spintronics field.

  12. AlM2B2 (M  =  Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni): a group of nanolaminated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kádas, K.; Iuşan, D.; Hellsvik, J.; Cedervall, J.; Berastegui, P.; Sahlberg, M.; Jansson, U.; Eriksson, O.

    2017-04-01

    Combining theory with experiments, we study the phase stability, elastic properties, electronic structure and hardness of layered ternary borides AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, AlFe2B2, AlCo2B2, and AlNi2B2. We find that the first three borides of this series are stable phases, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are metastable. We show that the elasticity increases in the boride series, and predict that AlCr2B2, AlMn2B2, and AlFe2B2 are more brittle, while AlCo2B2 and AlNi2B2 are more ductile. We propose that the elasticity of AlFe2B2 can be improved by alloying it with cobalt or nickel, or a combination of them. We present evidence that these ternary borides represent nanolaminated systems. Based on SEM measurements, we demonstrate that they exhibit the delamination phenomena, which leads to a reduced hardness compared to transition metal mono- and diborides. We discuss the background of delamination by analyzing chemical bonding and theoretical work of separation in these borides.

  13. LiCaAlF6 scintillators in neutron and gamma radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Klupák, V.; Vinš, M.; Koleška, M.; Šoltés, J.; Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, M.

    2016-09-01

    Intentionally doped LiCaAlF6 (LiCAF) single crystals are prospective scintillators, especially for thermal neutron detection through the 6Li(n,t)4He nuclear reaction. Four different LiCAF scintillator samples were tested in various neutron and gamma fields. Two of the tested samples were LiCAF:Eu and LiCAF:Eu,Na single crystals, and another two samples were made of LiCAF:Eu micro crystals dispersed in transparent rubber, with different rubber dimensions. All LiCAF samples contain lithium enriched to6Li. A plutonium-beryllium source was used as a neutron source. The neutron spectrum was modified by moderator and filter to get different ratios between thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The MCNP code was used for calculations of the fluence rates for different configurations. Radionuclides 137Cs and 60Co were applied as gamma radiation sources. The light signal from the scintillator was evaluated with a photomultiplier and a multichannel analyzer. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of LiCAF scintillators, especially the ability to discriminate signals from neutron and gamma radiation, which is the basic scintillator condition for neutron detection in mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields. Generally, the discrimination can be done by the pulse height and/or the pulse shape of the evaluated signals. Both methods can be used for a LiCAF scintillator. However, only the pulse height discrimination method is discussed in this paper. The possibility of fast neutron detection with LiCAF scintillators was also tested.

  14. Effect of ion plating TiN on the oxidation of sputtered NiCrAlY-coated Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb in air at 850-950 C

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, F.C.; Zeng, C. |; Wu, W.

    1998-08-01

    A single sputtered NiCrAlY coating and a complex coating of inner ion-plated TiN and outer sputtered NiCrAlY were prepared on the intermetallic compound Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb. Their oxidation behavior was examined at 850, 900, and 950 C in air by thermal gravimetry combined with XRD, SEM, and EDAX. The results showed that Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb followed approximately parabolic oxidation, forming an outer thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich scale and an inner TiO{sub 2}-rich layer doped with Nb at the three temperatures. The TiO{sub 2}-rich layer doped with Nb dominated the oxidation reaction. The single NiCrAlY coating did not follow parabolic oxidation exactly at 850 and 950 C, but oxidized approximately in a parabolic manner, because the instantaneous parabolic constants changed slightly with time. Besides the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, TiO{sub 2} formed from the coating surface at the coating-substrate interface. The deterioration of the coating accelerated with increasing temperature. The NiCrAlY-TiN coating showed two-stage parabolic oxidation at 850 and 900 C, and an approximate parabolic oxidation at 950 C. The TiN layer was effective as a barrier to inhibit coating-alloy interdiffusion.

  15. Effect of SiO2 on the Crystallization Behaviors and In-Mold Performance of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 Slags for Drawing-Ingot-Type Electroslag Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cheng-Bin; Li, Jing; Cho, Jung-Wook; Jiang, Fang; Jung, In-Ho

    2015-10-01

    The crystallization characteristics of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 slags with varying amounts of SiO2 were experimentally studied. The effects of slag crystallization behaviors on the horizontal heat transfer and lubrication performance in drawing-ingot-type electroslag remelting (ESR) were also evaluated in terms of as-cast ingots surface quality and drawing-ingot operation. The results show that increasing SiO2 addition from 0 to 6.8 mass pct strongly suppresses the crystallization of ESR type CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 slags. The crystallization temperature of the studied slags decreases with the increase in SiO2 addition. The liquidus temperatures of the slags also show a decreasing trend with increasing SiO2 content. In CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-(SiO2) slags, faceted 11CaO·7Al2O3·CaF2 crystals precipitate first during continuous cooling of the slag melts, followed by the formation of CaF2 at lower temperatures. 11CaO·7Al2O3·CaF2 was confirmed to be the dominant crystalline phase in the studied slags. CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 slags with a small amount of SiO2 addition are favorable for providing sound lubrication and horizontal heat transfer in mold for drawing-ingot-type ESR, which consequently bring the improvement in the surface quality of ESR ingot and drawing-ingot operating practice as demonstrated by plant trials.

  16. Teaching the Modes of Ca[superscript 2+] Transport between the Plasma Membrane and Endoplasmic Reticulum Using a Classic Paper by Kwan et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Willmann

    2009-01-01

    This teaching article uses the report by Kwan et al., "Effects of methacholine, thapsigargin, and La[superscript 3+] on plasmalemmal and intracellular Ca[superscript 2+] transport in lacrimal acinar cells," where the effects of Ca[superscript 2+]-mobilizing agents in regulating Ca[superscript 2+] fluxes were examined under various conditions.…

  17. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1995-09-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Electrical resistance of CaO coatings that were produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li containing 0.5-85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance, which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {>=}360{degrees}C.

  18. Synthesis and Luminescence Characteristics of Cr3+ doped Y3Al5O12 Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brenda A.; Dabestani, Reza T.; Lewis, Linda A.; Thompson, Cyril V.; Collins, Case T.; Aytug, Tolga

    2015-10-01

    Luminescence performance of yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) phosphors as a function of Cr3+ concentration has been investigated via two different wet-chemical synthesis techniques, direct- (DP) and hydrothermal-precipitation (HP). Using either of these methods, the red-emitting phosphor [Y3Al5-xCrxO12 (YAG: Cr3+)] showed similar photoluminescence (PL) intensities once the dopant concentration was optimized. Specifically, the YAG: Cr3+ PL emission intensity reached a maximum at Cr3+ concentrations of x = 0.02 (0.4 at.%) and x = 0.13 (2.6 at.%) for DP and HP processed samples, respectively. The results indicated the strong influence of the processing method on the optimized YAG: Cr3+ performance, where a more effective energy transfer rate between a pair of Cr3+ activators at low concentration levels was observed by using the DP synthesis technique. Development of a highly efficient phosphor, using a facile synthesis approach, could significantly benefit consumer and industrial applications by improving the operational efficiency of a wide range of practical devices.

  19. Surface characteristics and protein adsorption on combinatorial binary Ti-M (Cr, Al, Ni) and Al-M (Ta, Zr) library films.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhijun; Filiaggi, M J; Sanderson, R J; Lohstreter, L B; McArthur, M A; Dahn, J R

    2010-02-01

    Systematic studies of protein adsorption onto metallic biomaterial surfaces are generally lacking. Here, combinatorial binary library films with compositional gradients of Ti(1-x)Cr(x), Ti(1-x)Al(x), Ti(1-x)Ni(x) and Al(1-x)Ta(x), (0 Al(1-y)Zr(y) (0 < y <0.5) as well as corresponding pure metal films were sputtered onto clean Si surfaces. Bulk and surface chemistry, film microstructure, and surface roughness were subsequently correlated to fibrinogen or albumin adsorption measured using a high throughput wavelength dispersive spectroscopy technique. X-ray diffraction revealed these binary films to have crystalline phases present primarily at either extreme of the compositional library and an amorphous zone dominating along the gradient. These mirror-like films were generally found by atomic force microscopy to have a roughness of less than 8 nm, with any relative increases in roughness consistent with the development of crystalline phases. Surface chemistry by quantitative high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy differed significantly from bulk film composition as measured by electron microprobe, with TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) preferentially forming on the binary film surfaces. Correspondingly, protein adsorption onto these films closely correlated with their surface oxide fractions. Aluminum deposited as either a constant-composition film or as part of a binary library consistently adsorbed the least amount of albumin and fibrinogen, with alumina-enrichment of the surface oxide correlating with this adsorption. Overall, this combinatorial materials approach coupled with high-throughput surface analytical methods provides an efficient method of screening potential metallic biomaterials that may enable as well systematic studies of surface properties driving protein adsorption on these metal / metal oxide systems.

  20. Widmannstätten laths in Ti48Al2Cr2Nb alloy by undercooled solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Hu, Rui Yang, Guang; Kou, Hongchao; Zhang, Tiebang; Wang, Jun; Li, Jinshan

    2015-09-15

    Widmannstätten laths in Ti48Al2Cr2Nb alloy were obtained by containerless electromagnetic levitation during undercooled solidification rather than heat treatments in most cases. The nucleation of γ{sub Widmannstätten} is confirmed by the thermal history of the second recalescence behaviour. High dislocation density, stacking faults and dislocation slip are observed by transmission electron microscopy. By quantitative analysis of the transformation energy, the driving force for γ{sub Widmannstätten} in the solid state phase transformation is calculated, compared with that of heat treatments. Meanwhile, the proper undercoolings (ΔT = 257–300 K), post-solidification cooling rates (11.1–29.1 K/s), the fine lamellar colony sizes (306–467 μm) and proper undercoolings in the solid state phase transformation are in favour of promoting the formation of Widmannstätten laths at moderate undercoolings. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Widmannstätten laths were observed in undercooled TiAl alloy. • The influencing factors were discussed in undercooled TiAl alloy. • An analysis of the nucleation of γ{sub Widmannstätten} is carried out.

  1. Ab-initio study of structural, elastic, thermal, electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloys CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, As, Si, Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamedi, Mohamed Walid; Chahed, Abbes; Amar, Amina; Rozale, Habib; Lakdja, Abdelaziz; Benhelal, Omar; Sayede, Adlane

    2016-12-01

    First-principles approach is used to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ge and As) quaternary Heusler compounds, using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) scheme within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The computed equilibrium lattice parameters agree well with the available theoretical data. The obtained negative formation energy shows that CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ge, As) compounds have strong structural stability. The elastic constants Cij are calculated using the total energy variation with strain technique. The polycrystalline elastic moduli (namely: the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, sound velocities, Debye temperature and melting temperature were derived from the obtained single-crystal elastic constants. The ductility mechanism for the studied compounds is discussed via the elastic constants Cij. Our calculations with the GGA approximation predict that CoMnCrGe, CoMnCrAl, CoMnCrSi and CoMnCrAs are half-metallic ferrimagnets (HMFs) with a half-metallic gap EHM of 0.03 eV, 0.19 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.50 eV for, respectively. We also find that the half-metallicity is maintained on a wide range of lattice constants.

  2. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  3. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  4. Nanoindentation Creep Behavior of an Al0.3CoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Pengfei; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Huan; Diao, Haoyan; Shi, Yunzhu; Chen, Bilin; Chen, Peiyong; Feng, Rui; Bai, Jie; Jing, Qin; Ma, Mingzhen; Liaw, P. K.; Li, Gong; Liu, Riping

    2016-12-01

    Nanoindentation creep behavior was studied on a coarse-grained Al0.3CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy with a single face-centered cubic structure. The effects of the indentation size and loading rate on creep behavior were investigated. The experimental results show that the hardness, creep depth, creep strain rate, and stress exponent are all dependent on the holding load and loading rate. The creep behavior shows a remarkable indentation size effect at different maximum indentation loads. The dominant creep mechanism is dislocation creep at high indentation loads and self-diffusion at low indentation loads. An obvious loading rate sensitivity of creep behavior is found under different loading rates for the alloy. A high loading rate can lead to a high strain gradient, and numerous dislocations emerge and entangle together. Then during the holding time, a large creep deformation characteristic with a high stress exponent will happen.

  5. An empirical-statistical model for coaxial laser cladding of NiCrAlY powder on Inconel 738 superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M.; Shoja Razavi, R.; Barekat, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, coaxial laser cladding of NiCrAlY powder on a nickel-based superalloy is investigated from an experimental point of view so as to propose an empirical-statistical model for the process. The correlations between main processing parameters (i.e. scanning speed, powder feeding rate, and laser power) and geometrical characteristics (i.e. width, height, penetration depth, dilution and wetting angle) of single clad tracks have been predicted and are discussed using regression analysis (RA). The validity of the predictions is confirmed by providing correlation coefficient and analysis of the residuals. The correlations are established as a combined parameter (PαVβFγ) for each studied characteristic of single clad tracks. These correlations finally lead to the design of a processing map that can be practically used to select proper processing parameters for laser cladding of the particular material.

  6. Isothermal and bithermal thermomechanical fatigue behavior of a NiCoCrAlY-coated single crystal superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.

    1988-01-01

    Specimens of single crystal PWA 1480 with group of zone axes (100) orientation, bare, or with NiCoCrAlY coating PWA 276, were tested in low cycle fatigue (LCF) at 650, 870, and 1050 C, and in simplified bithermal thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests between these temperatures. These tests were examined as a bridge between isothermal LCF and general TMF. In the bithermal test, an inelastic strain is applied at one temperature, T sub max, and reversed at T sub min. The out-of-phase (OP) test type imposing tension at T sub min and compression at T sub max received most study, since it was more damaging than the in-phase type. Specifically investigated were the effects of: inelastic strain range, the coating, delta T, T sub max, T sub min, and the environment.

  7. AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Man, J. . E-mail: man@ipm.cz; Petrenec, M.; Obrtlik, K.; Polak, J.

    2004-11-08

    Atomic force microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy were applied to the study of surface relief evolution at emerging persistent slip bands (PSBs) in individual grains of ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel cycled with constant plastic strain amplitude. Only the combination of both methods can reveal the true shape and fine details of extrusions and intrusions. Quantitative data on the changes of the surface topography of persistent slip markings and on the kinetics of extrusion growth during the fatigue life were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy of surface foils revealed PSBs with the typical, well-known ladder structure. Experimental data on cyclic slip localization in PSBs are compared with those in fcc metals and discussed in terms of vacancy models of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation.

  8. Simulation of Cooling Rate Effects on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Crack Formation in Direct Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Li, Wei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joe; Liou, Frank; Dietrich, David

    2017-03-01

    Transient temperature history is vital in direct laser deposition (DLD) as it reveals the cooling rate at specific temperatures. Cooling rate directly relates to phase transformation and types of microstructure formed in deposits. In this paper, finite element analysis simulation was employed to study the transient temperature history and cooling rate at different experimental setups in the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb DLD process. An innovative prediction strategy was developed to model with a moving Gaussian distribution heat source and element birth and death technology in ANSYS®, and fabricate crack-free deposits. This approach helps to understand and analyze the impact of cooling rate and also explain phase information gathered from x-ray diffraction.

  9. The hot corrosion of Co-25Cr-10Ni-5Ta-3Al-0.5Y alloy /S-57/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    A cobalt-base alloy, Co-25Cr-10Ni-5Ta-3Al-0.5Y (S-57), was subjected to hot corrosion in Mach 0.3 burner-rig combustion gases at maximum alloy temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Various salt concentrations were injected into the burner: 0.5, 2,5, and 10 parts per million synthetic sea salt and 4 parts per million sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The extent of corrosion was determined by measuring the maximum depth of corrosion in the alloy, and the corrosion process was studied by metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. While S-57 was found to possess only moderate oxidation resistance at these temperatures, this alloy resisted significant hot corrosion attack under all but the most severe test conditions. The process of hot corrosion attack under the most severe conditions of this study was primarily sulfidation.

  10. Steam Oxidation of FeCrAl and SiC in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-08-01

    Numerous research projects are directed towards developing accident tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts that will enhance safety margins in light water reactors (LWR) during severe accident scenarios. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of ATF solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012 [1-3] and this facility continues to support those efforts in the ATF community. Compared to the current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system, alternative cladding materials can offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation that can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident [4-5]. Thus, steam oxidation behavior is a key aspect of the evaluation of ATF concepts. This report summarizes recent work to measure steam oxidation kinetics of FeCrAl and SiC specimens in the SATS.

  11. Comparative studies for Cr4+:YAG crystal and AlGaInAs semiconductor used as a saturable absorber in Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y; Zhuang, W Z; Huang, W C; Su, K W; Hu, C; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate comparative studies for Cr(4+):YAG crystal and AlGaInAs quantum-well (QW) used as a saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber lasers. Both saturable absorbers were designed to be possessed of nearly the same initial transmission. Under a pump power of 24 W, the average output powers were up to 14.4 W and 13.8 W obtained with the AlGaInAs QWs and with the Cr(4+):YAG crystal, respectively. The maximum pulse energies obtained with the Cr(4+):YAG crystal and with the AlGaInAs QWs were found to be 0.35 mJ and 0.45 mJ, respectively.

  12. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  13. A defect density-based constitutive crystal plasticity framework for modeling the plastic deformation of Fe-Cr-Al cladding alloys subsequent to irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Anirban; Wen, Wei; Martinez Saez, Enrique; Tome, Carlos

    2016-02-05

    It is essential to understand the deformation behavior of these Fe-Cr-Al alloys, in order to be able to develop models for predicting their mechanical response under varied loading conditions. Interaction of dislocations with the radiation-induced defects governs the crystallographic deformation mechanisms. A crystal plasticity framework is employed to model these mechanisms in Fe-Cr-Al alloys. This work builds on a previously developed defect density-based crystal plasticity model for bcc metals and alloys, with necessary modifications made to account for the defect substructure observed in Fe-Cr-Al alloys. The model is implemented in a Visco-Plastic Self Consistent (VPSC) framework, to predict the mechanical behavior under quasi-static loading.

  14. Half-metallicity at the Heusler alloy Co(2)Cr(0.5)Fe(0.5)Al(001) surface and its interface with GaAs(001).

    PubMed

    Zarei, Sareh; Javad Hashemifar, S; Akbarzadeh, Hadi; Hafari, Zohre

    2009-02-04

    Electronic and magnetic properties of the Heusler alloy Co(2)Cr(0.5)Fe(0.5)Al(001) surfaces and its interfaces with GaAs(001) are studied within the framework of density functional theory by using the plane-wave pseudopotential approach. The phase diagram obtained by ab initio atomistic thermodynamics shows that the CrAl surface is the most stable (001) termination of this Heusler alloy. We discuss that, at the ideal surfaces and interfaces with GaAs, half-metallicity of the alloy is lost, although the CrAl surface keeps high spin polarization. The energy band profile of the stable interface is investigated and a negative p Schottky barrier of -0.78 eV is obtained for this system.

  15. Experimental Plan and Irradiation Target Design for FeCrAl Embrittlement Screening Tests Conducted Using the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the FeCrAl embrittlement screening tests being conducted through the use of Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor is to provide data on the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties including radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement through systematic testing and analysis. Data developed on the mechanical properties will be supported by extensive microstructural evaluations to assist in the development of structure-property relationships and provide a sound, fundamental understanding of the performance of FeCrAl alloys in intense neutron radiation fields. Data and analysis developed as part of this effort will be used to assist in the determination of FeCrAl alloys as a viable material for commercial light water reactor (LWR) applications with a primary focus as an accident tolerant cladding.

  16. Disappearance of superconductivity in the solid solution between (Ca4Al2O6)(Fe2As2) and (Ca4Al2O6)(Fe2P2) superconductors.

    PubMed

    Shirage, Parasharam M; Kihou, Kunihiro; Lee, Chul-Ho; Takeshita, Nao; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Iyo, Akira

    2012-09-19

    The effect of alloying the two perovskite-type iron-based superconductors (Ca(4)Al(2)O(6))(Fe(2)As(2)) and (Ca(4)Al(2)O(6))(Fe(2)P(2)) was examined. While the two stoichiometric compounds possess relatively high T(c)'s of 28 and 17 K, respectively, their solid solutions of the form (Ca(4)Al(2)O(6))(Fe(2)(As(1-x)P(x))(2)) do not show superconductivity over a wide range from x = 0.50 to 0.95. The resultant phase diagram is thus completely different from those of other typical iron-based superconductors such as BaFe(2)(As,P)(2) and LaFe(As,P)O, in which superconductivity shows up when P is substituted for As in the non-superconducting "parent" compounds. Notably, the solid solutions in the non-superconducting range exhibit resistivity anomalies at temperatures of 50-100 K. The behavior is reminiscent of the resistivity kink commonly observed in various non-superconducting parent compounds that signals the onset of antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic long-range order. The similarity suggests that the suppression of the superconductivity in the present case also has a magnetic and/or structural origin.

  17. Structural, magnetic and dielectrical properties of Al-Cr Co-substituted M-type barium hexaferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alange, R. C.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Humbe, Ashok V.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Al3+ and Cr3+ co-substituted barium hexaferrite BaCrxAlxFe12-2xO19 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanoparticles were prepared by using sol-gel auto combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of M-type hexagonal crystal structure with some additional peaks of Fe2O3. Various structural parameters such as lattice constants (a and c), unit cell volume (V), X-ray density (ρx), bulk density (ρm) and porosity (P) were determined using XRD data. The lattice constant (a), X-ray density (ρx) and porosity (P) decreases with increase in Fe content x. The grain size determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images is in the nanometer range. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of hexagonal ferrite structure for all the calcined samples. The M-H curves recorded at room temperature using pulse field hysteresis loop tracer technique exhibited typical hysteresis loop indicating that the sample exhibits ferromagnetic nature. The large coercivity (Hc) values indicate the nanocrystalline nature of the present samples. The coercivity (Hc), saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence magnetization (Mr) and magneton number (nB) decreases with increase in Al-Cr content x. The dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant (ɛ‧), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and loss tangent (tan δ) were measured at room temperature in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz. All the dielectrical parameters show compositional as a function of frequency dependences. At lower frequencies, it is observed that the dielectric constant (ɛ‧), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and loss tangent (tan δ) are high.

  18. Corrosion performance of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe aluminide alloys in complex gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Johnson, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    Alumina-forming structural alloys can offer superior resistance to corrosion in the presence of sulfur-containing environments, which are prevalent in coal-fired fossil energy systems. Further, Fe aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in these systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. In addition, surface coatings of Fe aluminide are being developed to impart corrosion resistance to structural alloys. This paper describes results from an ongoing program that is evaluating the corrosion performance of alumina-forming structural alloys, Fe-Al and Fe aluminide bulk alloys, and Fe aluminide coatings in environments typical of coal-gasification and combustion atmospheres. Experiments were conducted at 650-1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HCl-containing gases. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales and to determine the modes of corrosion degradation that occur in the materials when they are exposed to S/Cl-containing gaseous environments.

  19. NEAMS-ATF M3 Milestone Report: Literature Review of Modeling of Radiation-Induced Swelling in Fe-Cr-Al Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xianming; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Jiang, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Fe-Cr-Al steels are proposed as accident-tolerant-fuel (ATF) cladding materials in light water reactors due to their excellent oxidation resistance at high temperatures. Currently, the understanding of their performance in reactor environment is still limited. In this review, firstly we reviewed the experimental studies of Fe-Cr-Al based alloys with particular focus on the radiation effects in these alloys. Although limited data are available in literature, several previous and recent experimental studies have shown that Fe-Cr-Al based alloys have very good void swelling resistance at low and moderate irradiation doses but the growth of dislocation loops is very active. Overall, the behavior of radiation damage evolution is similar to that in Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic alloys. Secondly, we reviewed the rate theory-based modeling methods for modeling the coevolution of voids and dislocation loops in materials under irradiation such as Frenkel pair three-dimensional diffusion model (FP3DM) and cluster dynamics. Finally, we summarized and discussed our review and proposed our future plans for modeling radiation damage in Fe-Cr-Al based alloys.

  20. Study the effect of mechanical alloying parameters on synthesis of Cr{sub 2}Nb–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Shayesteh, Payam Mirdamadi, Shamseddin; Razavi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}Nb–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite synthesized through MA. • Effect of BPR, rotating speed, milling time and PCA concentration investigated. • After annealing at 1100 °C crystalline phase were appeared. • Williamson–Hall analysis was used in order to study the grain size of nano composite. - Abstract: In this study, Cr{sub 2}Nb–20 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite was prepared successfully by mechanochemical reaction between Al, Nb and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. Amorphization of powder occurred during mechanical alloying because of high energy collisions between powders and steel balls in milling container which transfer high degree of energy to powders. Therefore, annealing was needed to form crystalline phases. The influence of different mechanical alloying parameters such as BPR, rotating speed, milling time and PCA concentration on synthesis of composite material were investigated. After mechanical alloying, the powder was encapsulated in quartz and then annealed at 1100 °C for 3 h. After annealing, 3 different phases were appeared (Cr{sub 2}Nb (cubic), Cr{sub 2}Nb (hexagonal) and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)