Science.gov

Sample records for al ca na

  1. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  2. Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2009-08-15

    Details of quaternary compounds formation in the system NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCaAlF{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The system under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-NaAlF{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is NaAlF{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCaAlF{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCaAlF{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCaAlF{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the system the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) which is very important for

  3. Thermochemistry of glasses and liquids in the systems CaMgSi 2O 6-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8, SiO 2-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8 and SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-Na 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.; Hon, R.; Weill, D. F.; Henry, D. J.

    1980-10-01

    Enthalpies of solution in 2PbO· B 2O 3 at 712°C have been measured for glasses in the systems albite anorthite diopside, NaAlO 2-SiO 2, Ca 0.5AlO 2-SiO 2 and albite-anorthite-quartz. The systems albite-anorthite and diopside-anorthite show substantial negative enthalpies of mixing, albite-diopside shows significant positive heats of mixing. For compositions up to NaAlO2 = 0.42 (which includes the subsystem albite-silica) the system NaAlO 2-SiO 2 shows essentially zero heats of mixing. A negative ternary excess heat of mixing is found in the plagioclase-rich portion of the albite-anorthite-diopside system. The join Si 4O 8-CaAl 2Si 2O 8 shows small but significant heats of mixing. In albite-anorthite-quartz. ternary glasses, the ternary excess enthalpy of mixing is positive. Based on available heat capacity data and appropriate consideration of the glass transition, the enthalpy of the crystal-glass transition (vitrification) is a serious underestimate of the enthalpy of the crystal-liquid transition (fusion) especially when the melting point, Tf, is many hundreds of degrees higher than the glass transition temperature, Tg. On the other hand, the same heat capacity data suggest that the enthalpies of mixing in albite-anorthite-diopside liquids are calculated to be quite similar to those in the glasses. The enthalpies of mixing observed in general support the structural models proposed by TAYLOR and BROWN (1979a, b) and others for the structure of aluminosilicate glasses.

  4. Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than

  5. The Influence of Na2O on the Solidification and Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinxing; Wen, Guanghua; Sun, Qihao; Tang, Ping; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The reaction between [Al] and SiO2 sharply increased the Al2O3 and decreased SiO2 contents in mold flux during the continuous casting of high-Al steels. These changes converted original CaO-SiO2-based flux into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux, promoting the crystallization and deteriorating the mold lubrication. Therefore, study on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux, with the applicable fluidizers, is of importance. The effect of Na2O, predominantly used as the fluidizer in mold flux, on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux needs to be investigated. In this study, a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O was designed; the effect of Na2O on the solidification and crystallization behavior of these mold fluxes was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) and the double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT). Moreover, the slag film obtained by a heat flux simulator was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the solid fraction of molten slag (Fs) and the crystalline fraction of solid slag (Fc) in the mold slag films decrease with increasing Na2O content from 0 to 2 wt pct. However, Fs and Fc increased when the Na2O content increased from 2 to 6 wt pct. The critical cooling rates initially decreases and then increases with increasing Na2O content. The XRD analysis results show that LiAlO2 and CaF2 were the basic crystals for all the mold fluxes. Increasing the Na2O content both inhibits the Ca2Al2SiO7 formation and promotes the production of Ca12Al14O33, indicating that the mold lubrication deteriorated because of the high melting-point phase formation of Ca2Al2SiO7 in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O, without Na2O. The strong crystallization tendency also deteriorated the mold lubrication for the mold flux with a higher Na2O content. Therefore, the addition of Na2O was less than 2 wt pct in

  6. Effects of CaO/SiO2 Ratio and Na2O Content on Melting Properties and Viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (0.8 to 1.5) and Na2O concentration (6 to 9 wt pct) on melting properties and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O mold fluxes with a fixed B2O3 content. Melting properties of fluxes (softening temperature T s, hemispherical temperature T h, and fluidity temperature T f) were determined by the hot-stage microscopy method. Viscosity was measured using rotating cylindrical viscometer, and structure of quenched fluxes was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Equilibrium phases in the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O system were calculated using FactSage. It was found that T h decreased with increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio from 0.8 to 1.0 and increased with a further increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio to 1.5. The effect of Na2O content in the range of 6 to 9 wt pct on T h of the flux with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio at 1.3 was marginal. Increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio and Na2O content increased the break temperature and reduced the value of viscosity at 1673 K (1400 °C). Viscosity of liquid fluxes was discussed in the relationship with the flux structure. Melting properties and viscosity of boracic fluxes were compared with those of industrial fluorine-containing mold fluxes.

  7. Characterization of Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams surface treated in aqueous NaOH and CaCl2 solutions.

    PubMed

    Bütev, Ezgi; Esen, Ziya; Bor, Şakir

    2016-07-01

    Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams having 53-73% porosity were manufactured via evaporation of magnesium space holders. A bioactive 1µm thick sodium hydrogel titanate layer, NaxH2-xTiyO2y+1, formed after 5M NaOH treatment, was converted to crystalline sodium titanate, Na2TiyO2y+1, as a result of post-heat treatment. On the other hand, subsequent CaCl2 treatment of NaOH treated specimens induced calcium titanate formation. However, heat treatment of NaOH-CaCl2 treated specimens led to the loss of calcium and disappearance of the titanate phase. All of the aforementioned surface treatments reduced yield strengths due to the oxidation of the cell walls of the foams, while elastic moduli remained mostly unchanged. Accordingly, equiaxed dimples seen on the fracture surfaces of as-manufactured foams turned into relatively flat and featureless fracture surfaces after surface treatments. On the other hand, Ca- and Na-rich coating preserved their mechanical stabilities and did not spall during fracture. The relation between mechanical properties of foams and macro-porosity fraction were found to obey a power law. The foams with 63 and 73% porosity met the desired biocompatibility requirements with fully open pore structures and elastic moduli similar to that of bone. In vitro tests conducted in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that NaOH-heat treated surfaces exhibit the highest bioactivity and allow the formation of Ca-P rich phases having Ca/P ratio of 1.3 to form within 5 days. Although Ca-P rich phases formed only after 15 days on NaOH-CaCl2 treated specimens, the Ca/P ratio was closer to that of apatite found in bone. PMID:26807769

  8. A clear effect of charge compensation through Na+ co-doping on the luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of Nd3+-doped CaAl4O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, M.; Watras, A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of luminescence behavior of singly Nd3+ doped and Nd3+, Na+ co-doped calcium aluminates powders: Ca1-xNdxAl4O7 and Ca1-2xNdxNaxAl4O7 (x=0.001-0.1). Relatively intense Nd3+ luminescence in IR region corresponding to typical 4F3/2→4IJ (J=9/2-13/2) transitions with maximum located at about 1079 nm was obtained in all samples on direct excitation into f-f levels. The effect of dopant concentration and charge compensation by co-doping with Na+ ions on morphology and optical properties were studied. The results show that both, the Nd3+ concentration and the alkali metal co-doping affected the optical properties but had no influence on the powders morphology. The studies of luminescence spectra (298 and 77 K) in a function of dopant concentration showed an increasing distortion of the local symmetry of Nd3+with raising activator content due to certain defects created in the crystal lattice. On the other hand Na+ addition led to significant narrowing of absorption and luminescence bands and also a reduction of the number of their components, showing smaller disturbance of Nd3+ ions local symmetries. Consequently, charge compensated by Na+ co-doping materials showed significantly enhanced Nd3+ luminescence. The decrease of emission intensity and luminescence lifetimes with increase of activator concentration was attributed mainly to phonon-assisted cross-relaxation processes between Nd3+ ions. Analysis with Inokuti-Hirayama model indicated dipole-dipole mechanism of ion-ion interaction. Na+ addition led to much smaller concentration quenching due to smaller clustering of dopant ions in CaAl4O7 lattice.

  9. Effect of Agitation on Crystallization Behavior of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 Mold Fluxes with Varying Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Shu, Qifeng; Chou, Kuochih

    2015-08-01

    The effect of agitation on crystallization behaviors of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 mold fluxes with basicity of 1.1 and 1.2 was investigated. It was found that crystallization temperatures of agitated samples were higher than those of static samples. The morphology of cuspidine shifted from dendrites to facet crystals with the decrease of temperature. The agitation was conducive to the formation of small dendritic cuspidine and could lead to crystals with smaller size. Crystalline fraction could be significantly enhanced by agitation at the initial stage of crystallization.

  10. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M

    2013-01-21

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  11. Drugs preventing Na+ and Ca2+ overload.

    PubMed

    Ravens, U; Himmel, H M

    1999-03-01

    Cardiac intracellular Na+and Ca2+homeostasis is regulated by the concerted action of ion channels, pumps and exchangers. The Na+, K+-ATPase produces the electrochemical concentration gradient for Na+, which is the driving force for Ca2+removal from the cytosol via the Na+/Ca2+exchange. Reduction of this gradient by increased intracellular Na+concentration leads to cellular Ca2+overload resulting in arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Na+and Ca2+overload-associated arrhythmias can be produced experimentally by inhibition of Na+efflux (digitalis-induced intoxication) and by abnormal Na+influx via modulated Na+channels (veratridine, DPI 201-106; hypoxia) or via the Na+, H+exchanger. Theoretically, blockers of Na+and Ca2+channels, inhibitors of abnormal oscillatory release of Ca2+from internal stores or modulators of the Na+, Ca2+and Na+, H+exchanger activities could protect against cellular Na+and Ca2+overload. Three exemplary drugs that prevent Na+and Ca2+overload, i.e. the benzothiazolamine R56865, the methylenephenoxydioxy-derivative CP-060S, and the benzoyl-guanidine Hoe 642, a Na+, H+exchange blocker, are briefly reviewed with respect to their efficacy on digitalis-, veratridine- and ischaemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. PMID:10094840

  12. Solubility and Stability of Grossular in the System CaSiO3-Al2O3-NaCl-H2O at 800 C and 10 Kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    The solubility of grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) in H2O-NaCl solutions was investigated in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 800°C, 10 kbar, at NaCl mole fractions (XNaCl) of 0-0.4 (68.4 wt% NaCl). Starting materials included synthetic corundum and grossular, and natural, very pure wollastonite. Solubilities were determined by weight changes of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates enclosed in perforated Pt inner capsules which were in turn sealed with H2O and halite in larger Pt outer capsules. Grossular dissolves congruently at all NaCl mole fractions. Experimental XNaCl and measured solubilities (mol/kg H2O) are: 0, 0.0055(4); 0.05, 0.030(1); 0.1, 0.056(4); 0.2, 0.079(5); 0.3, 0.100(4); 0.4, 0.127(7). The large initial solubility enhancement with NaCl indicates complexing, probably to Na-aluminates which are also probably hydrates. All quenched fluids from NaCl-bearing runs with CaSiO3 were strongly basic (pH 11-12), indicating that Ca forms chloride. NaCl also produces great enhancement of wollastonite solubility (Newton and Manning, 2006). Solubility of corundum in CaSiO3-bearing brines and of wollastonite in Al2O3-bearing brines were measured up to grossular saturation. CaSiO3 together with NaCl increases corundum solubility up to 100-fold over pure H2O at 800°C and 10 kbar, but Al2O3 added to NaCl has only a small effect on wollastonite solubility, indicating that increased pH, rather than Ca-Al-(Si) complexing, accounts for the Al2O3 enhancement. Zoisite replaces corundum in equilibrium with grossular at XNaCl ≥ 0.3; this is the only departure from the quaternary system. The high solubility of grossular and high mobility of Al2O3 in basic chloride solutions at high P and T suggest that brine infiltration may be an important factor in metasomatism of deep-crust calcareous rocks.

  13. Tissintite, (Ca, Na, □)AlSi2O6, a highly-defective, shock-induced, high-pressure clinopyroxene in the Tissint martian meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chi; Tschauner, Oliver; Beckett, John R.; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Zhuravlev, Kirill; Prakapenka, Vitali; Dera, Przemyslaw; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-07-01

    Tissintite is a new vacancy-rich, high-pressure clinopyroxene, with a composition essentially equivalent to plagioclase. It was discovered in maskelynite (shocked plagioclase) and is commonly observed included within, or in contact with, shock-melt pockets in the Tissint meteorite, a depleted olivine-phyric shergottite fall from Mars. The simple composition of tissintite (An58-69) and its precursor plagioclase (An59-69) together with the limited occurrence, both spatially (only in maskelynite less than ˜25 μm of a shock melt pocket) and in terms of bulk composition, make tissintite a "goldilocks" phase. It formed during a shock event severe enough to allow nucleation and growth of vacancy-rich clinopyroxene from a melt of not too calcic and not too sodic plagioclase composition that was neither too hot nor too cold. With experimental calibration, these limitations on occurrence can be used to place strong constraints on the thermal history of a shock event. The kinetics for nucleation and growth of tissintite are probably slower for more-sodic plagioclase precursors, so tissintite is most likely to occur in depleted olivine-phyric shergottites like Tissint and other highly shocked meteorites and lunar and terrestrial rocks that consistently contained calcic plagioclase precursors in the appropriate compositional range for a shock of given intensity. Tissintite, (Ca0.45Na0.31□0.24) (Al0.97Fe0.03Mg0.01) (Si1.80Al0.20)O6, is a C 2 / c clinopyroxene, containing 42-60 mol% of the Ca-Eskola component, by far the highest known. The cell parameters are a = 9.21 (17) Å, b = 9.09 (4) Å, c = 5.20 (2) Å, β = 109.6 (9)°, V = 410 (8) Å3, Z = 4. The density is 3.32 g/cm3 and we estimate a cell volume for the Ca-Eskola end-member pyroxene of 411 ± 13 Å3, which is consistent with a previous estimate and, therefore, supports the importance of this component in clinopyroxenes from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks from the Earth's upper mantle. At least in C 2 / c

  14. Carbon in silicate liquids: the systems NaAlSi3O8-CO2, CaAl2Si2O8-CO2, and KAlSi3O8-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Art; Luth, Robert W.; White, Bradford S.

    1987-11-01

    To further our knowledge of the effects of volatile components on phase relationships in aluminosilicate systems, we determined the vapor saturated solidi of albite, anorthite, and sanidine in the presence of CO2 vapor. The depression of the temperature of the solidus of albite by CO2 decreases from ˜30° C at 10 kbar, to ˜10° C at 20 kbar, to about 0 at 25 kbar, suggesting that the solubility of CO2 in NaAlSi3O8 liquid in equilibrium with solid albite decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. In contrast, CO2 lowers the temperature of the solidus of anorthite by ˜30° C at 14 kbar, and by ˜70dg C at 25 kbar. This contrasting behavior of albite and anorthite is also reflected in the behavior of melting in the absence of volatile components. Whereas albite melts congruently to a liquid of NaAl-Si3O8 composition to pressures of ˜35 kbar, anorthite melts congruently to only about 10 kbar and, at higher pressures, incongruently to corundum plus a liquid that is enriched in SiO2 and CaO and depleted in Al2O3 relative to CaAl2Si2O8. The tendency toward incongruent melting with increasing pressure in albite and anorthite produces an increase in the activity of SiO2 component in the liquid (a_{SiO_2 }^l ). We predict that this increases the ratio of molecular CO2/CO{3/2-}in these liquids, but the experimental results from other workers are mutually contradictory. Because of the positive dP/dT of the albite solidus and the negative dP/dT of the anorthite solidus, we propose that a negative temperature derivative of the solubility of molecular CO2 in plagioclase liquids may partly explain the decrease in solubility of carbon with increasing pressure in near-solidus NaAlSi3O8 liquids, which is in contrast to that in CaAl2Si2O8 liquid. Also, reaction of CO2 with NaAlSi3O8 liquid to form CO{3/2-}that is complexed with Na+ must be accompanied by a change in Al3+ from network-former to network-modifier, as Na+ is no longer abailable to charge-balance Al3+ in a

  15. Structure and Crystallization Kinetics of Glassy CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Na2O Mold Fluxes with Varying Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Yan, Baijun; Shu, Qifeng; Chou, Kuochih

    2015-12-01

    The structure and the crystallization kinetics of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Na2O mold fluxes with varying basicities were investigated by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance with magic angular spinning (MAS-NMR) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique, respectively. 29Si MAS-NMR study indicated that the increase of basicity decreased the degree of polymerization of mold fluxes. With the increasing basicity, Q 0, Q 2, and Q 3 gradually decreased, while Q 1 gradually increased, and the overall degree of polymerization was reduced. Crystallization analysis showed the cuspidine first crystallized from glass, and wollastonite crystal crystallized at elevated temperature for the samples with basicity (defined as CaO/SiO2 mass ratio) values of 0.9 and 1.0, respectively. Only cuspidine was found to crystallize from glass for the samples with basicity values of 1.1 and 1.2, indicating that the crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with the increase of basicity. Crystallization kinetics analysis by DTA and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy investigation showed that growth mechanism of cuspidine is mainly of the diffusion-controlled three-dimensional growth with the increasing number of nuclei during heating. Activation energies for growth of cuspidine decreased with the increasing basicity of mold flux, which indicated that the crystallization ability was enhanced with the increase of basicity. The relationship between structure and crystallization of mold fluxes was established.

  16. Multinuclear high-resolution NMR study of compounds from the ternary system NaF-CaF2-AlF3: from determination to modeling of NMR parameters.

    PubMed

    Martineau, C; Body, M; Legein, C; Silly, G; Buzaré, J-Y; Fayon, F

    2006-12-11

    27Al and 23Na NMR satellite transition spectroscopy and 3Q magic-angle-spinning spectra are recorded for three compounds from the ternary NaF-CaF2-AlF3 system. The quadrupolar frequency nuQ, asymmetry parameter etaQ, and isotropic chemical shift deltaiso are extracted from the spectrum reconstructions for five aluminum and four sodium sites. The quadrupolar parameters are calculated using the LAPW-based ab initio code WIEN2k. It is necessary to perform a structure optimization of all compounds to ensure a fine agreement between experimental and calculated parameters. By a comparison of experimental and calculated values, an attribution of all of the 27Al and 23Na NMR lines to the crystallographic sites is achieved. High-speed 19F NMR MAS spectra are recorded and reconstructed for the same compounds, leading to the determination of 18 isotropic chemical shifts. The superposition model developed by Bureau et al. is used, allowing a bijective assignment of the 19F NMR lines to the crystallographic sites. PMID:17140229

  17. Ehimeite, NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2: The first Cr-dominant amphibole from the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Minakawa, Tetsuo; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Shohei; Kadota, Ryo

    The first Cr-dominant amphibole, ehimeite, ideally NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2, has been found in a chromitite deposit in the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Ehimeite occurs as prismatic crystals of up to 1.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width and is found in association with chromite, kämmererite (Cr-rich clinochlore), Cr-poor clinochlore, phlogopite, and uvarovite. It is transparent, emerald green to pale green in color with pale green streaks, and has a vitreous luster. Optically, it is biaxial positive with α = 1.644(2), β = 1.647(2), γ = 1.659(2), and 2Vcalc. = 53°. It has a Mohs’ hardness of 6 and densities of 3.08(3) g/cm3 (measured using heavy liquids) and 3.121 g/cm3 (calculated from powder diffraction data and the empirical formula). The empirical formula is (Na0.88K0.07)Σ0.95(Ca1.89Na0.02Mg0.09)Σ2.00(Mg4.03Cr0.62Al0.19Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.07Ti0.03)Σ5.00(Si6.14Al1.86)Σ8.00O22(OH)2 on the basis of O = 22 and OH = 2, and ehimeite mainly forms a solid solution, NaCa2Mg4(Cr, Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2, with pargasite. It has a monoclinic unit cell with a = 9.9176(14) Å, b = 18.0009(12) Å, c = 5.2850(7) Å, β = 105.400(7)°, V = 909.6 (17) Å3, and Z = 2, and it belongs to the space group C2/m, as refined from powder XRD data. The eight strongest lines in the powder XRD pattern [d (Å), I/I0, hkl] are (3.370, 58, 150), (2.932, 43, 221), (2.697, 81, 151), (2.585, 50, 061), (2.546, 100, 202), (2.346, 42, 351), (2.156, 35, 261), and (1.514, 55, 263). The crystal structure has been refined to R1 = 0.0488 using single-crystal XRD data. It has been concluded that ehimeite in the Akaishi Mine was formed by the reaction of chromitite and the metamorphic fluid in the retrograde stage of serpentinization during the Sanbagawa metamorphism.

  18. Crystal structure of the mineral (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4}: a triclinic representative of the amphibole family

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.

    2012-05-15

    A mineral belonging to the amphibole family found at the Rothenberg paleovolcano (Eifel, Germany) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic pseudomonoclinic unit-cell parameters are a = 5.3113(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 18.0457(3) Angstrom-Sign ; c = 9.8684(2) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.016(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 105.543(4) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 89.985(2) Degree-Sign . The structure was solved by direct methods in sp. gr. P1 and refined to the R factor of 2.7% based on 6432 reflections with |F| > 3{sigma}(F) taking into account twinning. The mineral with the idealized formula (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4} has some symmetry and structural features that distinguish it from other minerals of this family.

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  20. Esperanzaite, NaCa2Al2(As5+O4)2F4(OH)*2H2O, a new mineral species from the La Esperanza mine, Mexico: descriptive mineralogy and atomic arrangement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Hughes, J.M.; Cureton, F.; Maxwell, C.H.; Falster, A.U.; Sommer, A.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCa2Al2(As5+O4)2F4(OH)??2H2O, Z = 2, is a new mineral species from the La Esperanza mine, Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm in diameter. The Mohs hardness is 4 1/2 , and the specific gravity, 3.24 (obs.) and 3.36(3) (calc.). Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), X = Y = Z = colorless, ?? 1.580(1), ?? 1.588(1), and ?? 1.593(1); 2V(obs) is 74(1)??and 2V(calc) is 76.3??. The dispersion is medium, r < v, and the optic axes are oriented according to a ?? Z = +50.5??, b = Y, c ?? X = +35??. The strongest five X-ray-diffraction maxima in the powder pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are: 2.966(100)(131, 311, 031), 3.527(90)(220), 2.700(90)(221,002,040), 5.364(80)(001,020) and 4.796(80)(011). Esperanzaite is monoclinic, a 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7) A??, ?? 105.32(1)??, space group P21/m. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by direct methods and Fourier analysis (R = 0.032). The Fundamental Building Block (FBB) is formed of [001] stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedra and two Al octahedra, corner-linked in four-member rings. The FBBs are linked by irregular Na??5 and Ca??8 polyhedra.

  1. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai- dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 m

  2. Vladimirivanovite, Na6Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2O, a new mineral of sodalite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, A. N.; Kaneva, E. V.; Cherepanov, D. I.; Suvorova, L. F.; Levitsky, V. I.; Ivanova, L. A.; Reznitsky, L. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The results of an examination of vladimirivanovite, a new mineral of the sodalite group, found at the Tultui deposit in the Baikal region are discussed. The mineral occurs in the form of outer rims (0.01-3 mm thick) of lazurite, elongated segregations without faced crystals (0.2 to 3-4 mm in size; less frequently, 4 × 12-15 × 20 mm), and rare veinlets (up to 5 mm) hosted in calciphyre and marble. Vladimirivanovite is irregular and patchy dark blue. The mineral is brittle; on average, the microhardness VHN is 522-604, 575 kg/mm2; and the Mohs hardness is 5.0-5.5. The measured and calculated densities are 2.48(3) and 2.436 g/cm3, respectively. Vladimirivanovite is optically biaxial; 2 V meas = 63(±1)°, 2 V calc = 66.2°; the refractive indices are α = 1.502-1.507 (±0.002), N m = 1.509-1.514 (±0.002), and N g = 1.512-1.517 (±0.002). The chemical composition is as follows, wt %: 32.59 SiO2, 27.39 Al2O3, 7.66 CaO, 17.74 Na2O, 11.37 SO3, 1.94 S, 0.12 Cl, and 1.0 H2O; total is 99.62. The empirical formula calculated based on (Si + Al) = 12 with sulfide sulfur determined from the charge balance is Na6.36Ca1.52(Si6.03Al5.97)Σ12O23.99(SO4)1.58(S3)0.17(S2)0.08 · Cl0.04 · 0.62H2O; the idealized formula is Na6Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2O. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pnaa; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.066, b = 12.851, c = 38.558 Å, V = 4492 Å3, and Z = 6. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( dÅ— I[ hkl]) are: 6.61-5[015], 6.43-11[020, 006], 3.71-100[119, 133], 2.623-30[20.12, 240], 2.273-6[04.12], 2.141-14[159, 13.15], 1.783-9[06.12, 04.18], and 1.606-6[080, 00.24]. The crystal structure has been solved with a single crystal. The mineral was named in memoriam of Vladimir Georgievich Ivanov (1947-2002), Russian mineralogist and geochemist. The type material of the mineral is deposited at the Mineralogical Museum of St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

  3. Conservation of Ca2+/Calmodulin Regulation across Na and Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Johny, Manu; Yang, Philemon S.; Niu, Jacqueline; Yang, Wanjun; Joshi-Mukherjee, Rosy; Yue, David T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Voltage-gated Na and Ca2+channels comprise distinct ion-channel superfamilies, yet the carboxy tails of these channels exhibit high homology hinting at a long-shared and purposeful module. For different Ca2+ channels, carboxyl-tail inter actions with calmodulin do elaborate robust and similar forms of Ca2+ regulation. However, Na channels have only shown subtler Ca2+modulation that differs among reports, challenging attempts at unified understanding. Here, by rapid Ca2+photoreleaseon to Na channels, we reset this view of Na channel regulation. For cardiac muscle channels (NaV1.5), reported effects from which most mechanistic proposals derive, we observe no Ca2+modulation. Conversely, for skeletal-muscle channels (NaV1.4), we uncover fast Ca2+ regulation eerily similar to that of Ca2+ channels. Channel opathic myotonia mutations halve NaV1.4 Ca2+ regulation, and transplanting the NaV1.4 carboxy tail onto Ca2+ channels recapitulates Ca2+ regulation. Thus we argue for the persistence and physiological relevance of an ancient Ca2+ regulatory module across Na and Ca2+ channels. PMID:24949975

  4. Study of OSL in NaF: Ca,Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium Fluoride containing Cu+ ions was prepared by R.A.P. followed by melt-quenching technique. Results on photo, thermo and optically stimulated luminescence in NaF:Ca,Cu are reported. OSL sensitivity of NaF:Ca,Cu is approximately 2 times than that of standard phosphor LMP. The rate of OSL depletion for 90% decay for NaF:Ca,Cu is 0.3 times as that of OSL phosphor LMP. NaF:Ca,Cu thus deserves much more attention than it has received up till now.

  5. Dynamic buffering of mitochondrial Ca2+ during Ca2+ uptake and Na+-induced Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Blomeyer, Christoph A.; Bazil, Jason N.; Stowe, David F.; Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Camara, Amadou K. S.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiac mitochondria, matrix free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) is primarily regulated by Ca2+ uptake and release via the Ca2+ uniporter (CU) and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCE) as well as by Ca2+ buffering. Although experimental and computational studies on the CU and NCE dynamics exist, it is not well understood how matrix Ca2+ buffering affects these dynamics under various Ca2+ uptake and release conditions, and whether this influences the stoichiometry of the NCE. To elucidate the role of matrix Ca2+ buffering on the uptake and release of Ca2+, we monitored Ca2+ dynamics in isolated mitochondria by measuring both the extra-matrix free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]e) and [Ca2+]m. A detailed protocol was developed and freshly isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts were exposed to five different [CaCl2] followed by ruthenium red and six different [NaCl]. By using the fluorescent probe indo-1, [Ca2+] and [Ca2+e]m were spectrofluorometrically quantified, and the stoichiometry of the NCE was determined. In addition, we measured NADH, membrane potential, matrix volume and matrix pH to monitor Ca2+-induced changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our [Ca2+]e and [Ca2+]m measurements demonstrate that Ca2+ uptake and release do not show reciprocal Ca2+ dynamics in the extra-matrix and matrix compartments. This salient finding is likely caused by a dynamic Ca2+ buffering system in the matrix compartment. The Na+ - induced Ca2+ release demonstrates an electrogenic exchange via the NCE by excluding an electroneutral exchange. Mitochondrial bioenergetics were only transiently affected by Ca2+ uptake in the presence of large amounts of CaCl2, but not by Na+- induced Ca2+ release. PMID:23225099

  6. The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  7. LiCaAl/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new laser, LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3/ (Cr/sup 3+/ :LiCAF). The intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency was found to be 67 percent. For comparison, they also measured the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3+/ (alexandrite), Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, and ScBO/sub 3/:Cr/sup 3+/, and obtained values of 65,28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/ was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.

  8. Raman and infrared spectroscopy study on structure and microstructure of glass-ceramic materials from SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system modified by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Janusz; Leśniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the effect of the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminium-silicon-oxide lattice of the glass-ceramic materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. Following the heat-treatment procedure, pseudowollastonite, anorthite and the vitreous phase were identified. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR and FIR spectroscopy were performed.

  9. Diffusive transport through compacted Na- and Ca-bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.-W.; Oscarson, D. W.

    1996-04-01

    The effect of exchangeable cation — Na + and Ca 2+ — on the diffusive transport of I -, Sr 2+ and 3H (as HTO) in compacted bentonite was examined using a through-diffusion method. Total intrinsic diffusion coefficients, Di, were determined from the steady-state flux of the diffusants through the clays, and apparent diffusion coefficients, Da, were obtained from the time lag technique. The clays were compacted to a dry bulk density of 1.3 Mg/m 3, and Na-bentonite was saturated with a solution of 100 mol NaCl/m3 and Ca-bentonite with one of 50 mol CaCl 2/m 3. The Di values for all diffusants are 2 to 6 times higher in the Ca- than Na-clay. We attribute this to the larger quasicrystal, or particle, size of Ca- compared to Na-bentonite. Hence, Ca-bentonite has a greater proportion of relatively large pores; this was confirmed by Hg intrusion porosimetry. This means the diffusion pathways in Ca-bentonite are less tortuous than those in Na-bentonite. Moreover, in some cases the effective porosity, or the porosity available for diffusive transport, may be greater in Ca-bentonite. The D a values are inversely proportional to the distribution coefficients of the diffusants with the clays.

  10. Esperanzaite, NaCa(2)Al(2)(As(5+)O(4))[As(5+)O(3)(OH)](OH)(2)F(4)(H(2)O), A New Mineral From Mina La Esperanza, Mexico: Descriptive Mineralogy and Atomic Arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cureton, F.; Falster, A.U.; Foord, E.E.; Hlava, P.F.; Hughes, J.M.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1998-11-09

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCazA12(As5+0.i)[As5+03 (OH)] (OH)2FJH20), Z =2, is a new mineral from the Mina h Esperarq Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm Y Deceased in diameter. Mobs hardness is 4.5, specific gravity 3.240h, and 3.36( 3)C.IC. Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), .Y= Y = Z= colorless, a 1.580(1), ~ 1.588( 1), and y 1.593(1 ); 2V0hs is 74(1 ~ and 2 }'CUIC is 76.3". Dispersion is medium, r < v, and optic axes are oriented as a A Z = +50.5o, b = Y, c P. X = +35". The five strongest X-ray diffraction maxima in the powder pattern are (~ /, hk~: 2.966,100, 13 i, 31 i, 031 ; 3.527,90, 220; 2.700,90,221,002, 040; 5.364>80, 001, 020; 4.796,80,011. Esperanzaite is monoclinic, u 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7)& ~ 105.32( 1 )", space group P21/nz. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by Direct Methods and Fourier analysis (R= 0.03 1). The Fundamental Building Block is formed of stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedral and two Al octahedra, comer-linked in 4-member rings. The Fundamental Building Blocks are linked by irregular lda~j and Ca@ polyhedra.

  11. Cytoplasmic Na+-dependent modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ via electrogenic mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchange

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the role of mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchange (NCXmito) in regulating mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+mito) concentration at intact and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨmito), we measured Ca2+mito and ΔΨmito using fluorescence probes Rhod-2 and TMRE, respectively, in the permeabilized rat ventricular cells. Applying 300 nm cytoplasmic Ca2+ (Ca2+c) increased Ca2+mito and this increase was attenuated by cytoplasmic Na+ (Na+c) with an IC50 of 2.4 mm. To the contrary, when ΔΨmito was depolarized by FCCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler, Na+c enhanced the Ca2+c-induced increase in Ca2+mito with an EC50 of about 4 mm. This increase was not significantly affected by ruthenium red or cyclosporin A. The inhibition of NCXmito by CGP-37157 further increased Ca2+mito when ΔΨmito was intact, while it suppressed the Ca2+mito increase when ΔΨmito was depolarized, suggesting that ΔΨmito depolarization changed the exchange mode from forward to reverse. Furthermore, ΔΨmito depolarization significantly reduced the Ca2+mito decrease via forward mode, and augmented the Ca2+mito increase via reverse mode. When the respiratory chain was attenuated, the induction of the reverse mode of NCXmito hyperpolarized ΔΨmito, while ΔΨmito depolarized upon inducing the forward mode of NCXmito. Both changes in ΔΨmito were remarkably inhibited by CGP-37157. The above experimental data indicated that NCXmito is voltage dependent and electrogenic. This notion was supported theoretically by computer simulation studies with an NCXmito model constructed based on present and previous studies, presuming a consecutive and electrogenic Na+–Ca2+ exchange and a depolarization-induced increase in Na+ flux. It is concluded that Ca2+mito concentration is dynamically modulated by Na+c and ΔΨmito via electrogenic NCXmito. PMID:18218682

  12. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  13. Understanding Structural Properties of Carbonate-Silicate Melts: An EXAFS Study on Y and Sr in the System Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlenz, J.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Belin, S.; Shiryaev, A.; Safonov, O.; Murzin, V.; Shablinskaya, K.; Irifune, T.; Wilke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonatite volcanism generally occurs in intra-plate settings associated with continental rifting. The only active carbonatitic volcano is the Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which generates sodium-rich carbonatites in close association with phonolites and nephelinites1. The processes of carbonatite genesis are still unresolved, however carbonate-bearing melts evidently play a crucial role during mantle melting, in diamond formation and as metasomatic agents. Carbonate melts show extraordinary properties, especially in regard to their low melt viscosities and densities, high surface tensions and electrical conductivities as well as distinct geochemical affinities to a wide range of trace elements2. Understanding the structural properties of carbonate-bearing melts is fundamental to explaining their chemical and physical behaviour as well as modeling processes operating in the deep Earth. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is a versatile tool for element specific investigation of the short to medium range structure of melts and glasses. This study focuses on unraveling the influence of carbonate concentration on the structural incorporation of the geochemically important trace elements Y and Sr in silicate and carbonate melts in the system Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2. First, we present structural data of silicate glasses with up to 10 wt% CO2, quenched from melts under high temperature and pressure, which indicate that the local structure of Y and Sr is not or only slightly affected by CO2. Melts with higher CO2 contents could not be quenched to glass, so far. Second, we show results of high pressure, high temperature experiments conducted in the Paris Edinburgh-Press, which provides in-situ insight into carbonate-silicate melts. All EXAFS measurements were performed at the synchrotron facility beamlines SAMBA (SOLEIL) and BM23 (ESRF). Information derived from the trace elements' local structure is used to develop a structural model for carbonate

  14. NaAlF{sub 4}: Preparation, crystal structure and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kirik, Sergei D.; Zaitseva, Julia N.

    2010-02-15

    The compound NaAlF{sub 4} has been obtained in the form of thin fibrous crystals or fine colorless powder by condensation at 18 deg. C of vapors arising over chiolite Na{sub 5}Al{sub 3}F{sub 14} or NaCaAlF{sub 6}, heated up to 800 deg. C. Thermal stability has been investigated by the methods of thermal analysis and high temperature X-ray diffraction. When heated in air, NaAlF{sub 4} is stable up to 390-400 deg. C, then there is an exothermal solid state decay into Na{sub 5}Al{sub 3}F{sub 14}(s) and AlF{sub 3}(s). At higher temperature Na{sub 5}Al{sub 3}F{sub 14}(s) decays into Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}(s) and NaAlF{sub 4}(g). The crystal structure (space group Cmcm, a=3.6124(1) A, b=14.9469(7) A, c=5.2617(3) A, V=284.10 A{sup 3}) has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction method. In the crystal structure of NaAlF{sub 4} the octahedrons [AlF{sub 6}] are joined through vertices and form corrugated layers, sodium ion layers being located between them. The distances between the atoms of Al-F are in the range 1.791-1.814 A, and those for Na...F are in the range 2.297-2.439 A. In spite of limited thermal stability of the crystal form, the compound NaAlF{sub 4} is the main component of the gas mixture over solid and molten salts in the ternary system NaF-AlF{sub 3}-CaF{sub 2} and participates in chemical transformations between the phases at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The compound NaAlF{sub 4} was for the first time described 55 years ago, but until now it was not properly studied. Meantime the phase is responsible for the most low-melting part of the NaF-AlF{sub 3} system, which is the great importance for the aluminum production. The lack of information about NaAlF{sub 4} is due to narrow interval of stability which is close to liquid part of the system.

  15. Inhibition of Na(+)-independent H+ pump by Na(+)-induced changes in cell Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Apical membrane H+ extrusion in the renal outer medullary collecting duct, inner stripe, is mediated by a Na(+)-independent H+ pump. To examine the regulation of this transporter, cell pH and cell Ca2+ were measured microfluorometrically in in vitro perfused tubules using 2',7'- bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and fura-2, respectively. Apical membrane H+ pump activity, assayed as cell pH recovery from a series of acid loads (NH3/NH+4 prepulse) in the total absence of ambient Na+, initially occurred at a slow rate (0.06 +/- 0.02 pH units/min), which was not sufficient to account for physiologic rates of H+ extrusion. Over 15-20 min after the initial acid load, the rate of Na(+)-independent cell pH recovery increased to 0.63 +/- 0.09 pH units/min, associated with a steady-state cell pH greater than the initial pre-acid load cell pH. This pattern suggested an initial suppression followed by a delayed activation of the apical membrane H+ pump. Replacement of peritubular Na+ with choline or N-methyl-D- glucosamine resulted in an initial spike increase in cell Ca2+ followed by a sustained increase in cell Ca2+. The initial rate of Na(+)- independent cell pH recovery could be increased by elimination of the Na+ removal-induced sustained cell Ca2+ elevation by: (a) performing studies in the presence of 135 mM peritubular Na+ (1 mM peritubular amiloride used to inhibit basolateral membrane Na+/H+ antiport); (b) clamping cell Ca2+ low with dimethyl-BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelating agent; or (c) removal of extracellular Ca2+. Cell acidification induced a spike increase in cell Ca2+. The late acceleration of Na(+)-independent cell pH recovery was independent of Na+ removal and of the method used to acidify the cell, but was eliminated by prevention of the cell Ca2+ spike and markedly delayed by the microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B. This study demonstrates that peritubular Na+ removal results in a sustained elevation in cell Ca2+, which inhibits

  16. Redetermination of durangite, NaAl(AsO4)F

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Gordon W.; Yang, Betty N.; Thompson, Richard M.; Wenz, Michelle D.; Andrade, Marcelo B.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of durangite, ideally NaAl(AsO4)F (chemical name sodium aluminium arsenate fluoride), has been determined previously [Kokkoros (1938). Z. Kristallogr. 99, 38–49] using Weissenberg film data without reporting displacement parameters of atoms or a reliability factor. This study reports the redetermination of the structure of durangite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a natural sample with composition (Na0.95Li0.05)(Al0.91Fe3+ 0.07Mn3+ 0.02)(AsO4)(F0.73(OH)0.27) from the type locality, the Barranca mine, Coneto de Comonfort, Durango, Mexico. Durangite is isostructural with minerals of the titanite group in the space group C2/c. Its structure is characterized by kinked chains of corner-sharing AlO4F2 octa­hedra parallel to the c axis. These chains are cross-linked by isolated AsO4 tetra­hedra, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Na+ cation (site symmetry 2) occupies the inter­stitial sites and is coordinated by one F− and six O2− anions. The AlO4F2 octa­hedron has symmetry -1; it is flattened, with the Al—F bond length [1.8457 (4) Å] shorter than the Al—O bond lengths [1.8913 (8) and 1.9002 (9) Å]. Examination of the Raman spectra for arsenate minerals in the titanite group reveals that the position of the band originating from the As—O symmetric stretching vibrations shifts to lower wavenumbers from durangite, maxwellite [ideally NaFe(AsO4)F], to tilasite [CaMg(AsO4)F]. PMID:23284315

  17. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  18. Pancreatic β-cell Na+ channels control global Ca2+ signaling and oxidative metabolism by inducing Na+ and Ca2+ responses that are propagated into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nita, Iulia I; Hershfinkel, Michal; Kantor, Chase; Rutter, Guy A; Lewis, Eli C; Sekler, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Communication between the plasma membrane and mitochondria is essential for initiating the Ca(2+) and metabolic signals required for secretion in β cells. Although voltage-dependent Na(+) channels are abundantly expressed in β cells and activated by glucose, their role in communicating with mitochondria is unresolved. Here, we combined fluorescent Na(+), Ca(2+), and ATP imaging, electrophysiological analysis with tetrodotoxin (TTX)-dependent block of the Na(+) channel, and molecular manipulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters to study the communication between Na(+) channels and mitochondria. We show that TTX inhibits glucose-dependent depolarization and blocks cytosolic Na(+) and Ca(2+) responses and their propagation into mitochondria. TTX-sensitive mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx was largely blocked by knockdown of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) expression. Knockdown of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX) and Na(+) dose response analysis demonstrated that NCLX mediates the mitochondrial Na(+) influx and is tuned to sense the TTX-sensitive cytosolic Na(+) responses. Finally, TTX blocked glucose-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) rise, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and ATP production. Our results show that communication of the Na(+) channels with mitochondria shape both global Ca(2+) and metabolism signals linked to insulin secretion in β cells.- Nita, I. I., Hershfinkel, M., Kantor, C., Rutter, G. A., Lewis, E. C., Sekler, I. Pancreatic β-cell Na(+) channels control global Ca(2+) signaling and oxidative metabolism by inducing Na(+) and Ca(2+) responses that are propagated into mitochondria.

  19. Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia.

    PubMed

    Parpura, Vladimir; Sekler, Israel; Fern, Robert

    2016-10-01

    In the absence of the electrical signaling for which neurons are so highly specialized, GLIA rely on the slow propagation of ionic signals to mediate network events such as Ca(2+) and Na(+) waves. Glia differ from neurons in another important way, they are replete with a high density of ionic-transport proteins that are essential for them to fulfil their basic functions as guardians of the intra and extra-cellular milieux. Both the signaling and the homeostatic properties of glial cells are therefore particularly dependent upon the regulation of the two principle physiological metal cations, Ca(2+) and Na(+) . For both ions, glia express high-affinity/low capacity ATP-fuelled pumps that can rapidly move small numbers of ions against an electro-chemical gradient. For both Ca(2+) and Na(+) regulation, a single transporter family, the Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), is used to maintain cellular ion homeostasis over the longer term and under conditions of prolonged or acute ionic dysregulation in astrocytes, oligodendroglia and microglia. Our understanding of glial NCX, both plasmalemmal and mitochondrial, is undergoing the kind of transformation that our understanding of glial cells, in general, has undergone in recent decades. These exchange proteins are becoming increasingly recognized for their essential roles in intracellular homeostasis while their signaling functions are starting to come to light. This review summarizes these key aspects and highlights the many areas where work has yet to begin in this rapidly evolving field. GLIA 2016;64:1646-1654. PMID:27143128

  20. Plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange in neuroglia.

    PubMed

    Parpura, Vladimir; Sekler, Israel; Fern, Robert

    2016-10-01

    In the absence of the electrical signaling for which neurons are so highly specialized, GLIA rely on the slow propagation of ionic signals to mediate network events such as Ca(2+) and Na(+) waves. Glia differ from neurons in another important way, they are replete with a high density of ionic-transport proteins that are essential for them to fulfil their basic functions as guardians of the intra and extra-cellular milieux. Both the signaling and the homeostatic properties of glial cells are therefore particularly dependent upon the regulation of the two principle physiological metal cations, Ca(2+) and Na(+) . For both ions, glia express high-affinity/low capacity ATP-fuelled pumps that can rapidly move small numbers of ions against an electro-chemical gradient. For both Ca(2+) and Na(+) regulation, a single transporter family, the Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), is used to maintain cellular ion homeostasis over the longer term and under conditions of prolonged or acute ionic dysregulation in astrocytes, oligodendroglia and microglia. Our understanding of glial NCX, both plasmalemmal and mitochondrial, is undergoing the kind of transformation that our understanding of glial cells, in general, has undergone in recent decades. These exchange proteins are becoming increasingly recognized for their essential roles in intracellular homeostasis while their signaling functions are starting to come to light. This review summarizes these key aspects and highlights the many areas where work has yet to begin in this rapidly evolving field. GLIA 2016;64:1646-1654.

  1. Lanthanum and neodymium solubility in simplified SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO high level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kidari, Abdessamad; Bardez-Giboire, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    Lanthanum and neodymium incorporation in simplified high level waste glasses has been investigated for SiO{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}Na{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}CaO compositions quenched from 1200 degrees C, for varying La /(La + Nd) (atomic) and increasing rare-earth oxides contents. In this system and beyond the solubility limit, rare-earths (RE) elements are reported to form apatite phases with the general formula Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}. In the current study, speciation of these trivalent RE{sup 3+} cations in both amorphous network and crystal phases was determined from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption at 10 K, Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. It appeared that RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility was higher for La -rich formulations than for Nd -rich ones and that an increase in the RE oxide content reduces the connectivity of the network building units through formation of non-bridging oxygens at the expense of the oxygen bridges. This depolymerization of the glass network did not affect neodymium environment which consisted in silicate tetrahedra. The composition of the apatite crystals was found to be affected by the La /(La + Nd) of the parent glass and deviation from the ideal composition (Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}) occurred in the neodymium end of the system. It thus appears that both RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility and crystal composition are strongly dependent on the type and crystal chemistry of the RE elements. (authors)

  2. Lyotropic anions. Na channel gating and Ca electrode response

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The effects of external anions on gating of Na channels of frog skeletal muscle were studied under voltage clamp. Anions reversibly shift the voltage dependence of peak sodium permeability and of steady state sodium inactivation towards more negative potentials in the sequence: methanesulfonate less than or equal to Cl- less than or equal to acetate less than Br- less than or equal to NO-3 less than or equal to SO2-4 less than benzenesulfonate less than SCN- less than ClO-4; approximately the lyotropic sequence. Voltage shifts are graded with mole fraction in mixtures and are roughly additive to calcium shifts. The peak PNa is not greatly affected. Except for SO2-4, these anions did not change the Ca++ activity of the solutions as measured with the dye murexide. Shifts of gating can be explained as the electrostatic effect of anion adsorption to the Na channel or to nearby lipid. Such adsorption is expected to follow the lyotropic series. Anions also interfere significantly with the response of a Ca-sensitive membrane electrode following the same sequence of effectiveness as the shifts of gating. The lyotropic anions decrease the Ca++ sensitivity and cause anomalously negative responses of the Ca electrode because these anions are somewhat permeant in the hydrophobic detector membrane. PMID:6302198

  3. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  4. Effect of cation substitution on structural transition: synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Su, Xin; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-10-21

    Single crystals of NaCa4B3O9, NaCaBO3, NaSrBO3 and Li4CaB2O6 have been successfully synthesized through conventional high-temperature solid-state reactions. They are structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional crystal structures consisting of isolated planar BO3 as fundamental building blocks. Interestingly, for the centrosymmetric crystal structure of NaCaBO3 (Na3Ca3B3O9), as 2/3 of the Na(+) ions are substituted by Ca(2+) ions, NaCa4B3O9 is obtained and crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Ama2 (crystal class mm2). A second harmonic generation (SHG) test of the title compound by the Kurtz-Perry method shows that NaCa4B3O9 can be phase matchable with an effective SHG coefficient approximately one-half that of KH2PO4 (KDP). Studies of their optical properties as well as band structure calculations based on density functional theory methods have been also performed. NaCa4B3O9 possesses a moderate birefringence of about 0.05 at 1064 nm. To explain the difference in optical nonlinearity we compared the electronic structures of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals, in particular at the bottom of the conduction band (CB) and the top of the valence band (VB), since they are known to play a primary role in SHG. These electronic structures are responsible for the optical-nonlinearity of NaCa4B3O9, KCa4B3O9 and KSr4B3O9 crystals. PMID:26387438

  5. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  6. Na3Al(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title compound tris­odium aluminium bis­(arsenate), Na3Al(AsO4)2, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetra­hedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100). The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetra­hedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the inter­layer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO4)2, NaAlCo(PO4)2 and Al5Co3(PO4)8 are discussed. PMID:23424394

  7. Plasmalemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger modulates Ca2+-dependent exocytotic release of glutamate from rat cortical astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Reno C; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Astroglial excitability operates through increases in Ca2+cyt (cytosolic Ca2+), which can lead to glutamatergic gliotransmission. In parallel fluctuations in astrocytic Na+cyt (cytosolic Na+) control metabolic neuronal-glial signalling, most notably through stimulation of lactate production, which on release from astrocytes can be taken up and utilized by nearby neurons, a process referred to as lactate shuttle. Both gliotransmission and lactate shuttle play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Consequently, we studied the role of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase), NCX (plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) and NKA (Na+/K+-ATPase) in complex and coordinated regulation of Ca2+cyt and Na+cyt in astrocytes at rest and upon mechanical stimulation. Our data support the notion that NKA and PMCA are the major Na+ and Ca2+ extruders in resting astrocytes. Surprisingly, the blockade of NKA or PMCA appeared less important during times of Ca2+ and Na+ cytosolic loads caused by mechanical stimulation. Unexpectedly, NCX in reverse mode appeared as a major contributor to overall Ca2+ and Na+ homoeostasis in astrocytes both at rest and when these glial cells were mechanically stimulated. In addition, NCX facilitated mechanically induced Ca2+-dependent exocytotic release of glutamate from astrocytes. These findings help better understanding of astrocyte-neuron bidirectional signalling at the tripartite synapse and/or microvasculature. We propose that NCX operating in reverse mode could be involved in fast and spatially localized Ca2+-dependent gliotransmission, that would operate in parallel to a slower and more widely distributed gliotransmission pathway that requires metabotropically controlled Ca2+ release from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). PMID:22268447

  8. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  9. (Na) sub i modulates isoproterenol's effect on Ca permeability in cultured heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Smith, T.W. )

    1987-08-01

    Isoproterenol (ISO) augments the slow inward Ca current in cardiac muscle cells. The authors examined the role of intracellular Na (Na{sub i}) on ISO-mediated alterations in Ca uptake in cultured chick heart cells. In 140 mM Na medium, 1 {mu}M ISO did not measurably alter {sup 45}Ca uptake. When cells were first preincubated in Na-free medium for 5 min and then incubated in control medium with {sup 45}Ca, ISO increased {sup 45}Ca uptake by 30%. Nifedipine, verapamil, or dl-propranolol abolished the effect of ISO on {sup 45}Ca uptake. CGP 28392, a Ca channel agonist, increased Ca influx in a manner that was augmented by decreased Na{sub i}, similar to the ISO response. Neither ISO nor CGP 28392 altered {sup 45}Ca uptake when cells preincubated in Na-free medium were further incubated in Na-free medium containing {sup 45}Ca. Exposure of cells to Na-free medium or 25 mM K{sup +} medium caused depolarization of the resting membrane potential to approximately {minus}40 mV. In the absence of ISO, the {sup 45}Ca uptake in cells preincubated in Na-free or 25 mM extracellular K (K{sub o}) medium was significantly greater than in cells preincubated in control medium. This appeared to be due partly to increased {sup 45}Ca uptake via nifedipine-sensitive pathways. These findings support the hypothesis that reduction in Na{sub i} concentration ((Na){sub i}) enhances the ISO-induced augmentation of Ca uptake via nifedipine-sensitive pathways (presumably via slow Ca channels), probably by a direct effect on the channels.

  10. Na(+)-Ca sup 2+ exchange in cultured rat hepatocytes: Evidence against a role in cytosolic Ca sup 2+ regulation or signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lidofsky, S.D.; Xie, M.H.; Scharschmidt, B.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Plasma membrane Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange contributes importantly to the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ((Ca2+)i) in excitable cells. Despite extensive study in excitable tissues, the role of this transporter in the regulation of (Ca2+)i in hepatocytes is unknown, and conflicting information has been reported regarding the presence of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in hepatocyte plasma membrane vesicles. We have therefore assessed the role of Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ transport in the regulation of (Ca2+)i in rat hepatocytes in primary culture under basal conditions and after exposure to vasopressin, a hormone that elevates (Ca2+)i. Ca2+ efflux, measured using 45Ca, did not differ in the presence or absence of extracellular Na+, either under basal conditions or in response to vasopressin. (Ca2+)i, measured using the Ca2(+)-sensitive dye fura-2, was not altered by transient or prolonged exposure to Na(+)-free media or by exposure to ouabain in concentrations sufficient to produce a five-fold elevation in intracellular Na+ concentration. The (Ca2+)i response to vasopressin was also unaffected by Na+ removal or ouabain. By contrast, in cultured rat cardiac myocytes, cells that possess Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange, transient or prolonged Na+ removal as well as ouabain exposure produced greater than fivefold increases in (Ca2+)i compared with controls. We conclude that Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange does not contribute to the regulation of (Ca2+)i in hepatocytes.

  11. Evidence for electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchange in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The Ca2+ indicator photoprotein, aequorin, was used to estimate and monitor intracellular Ca2+ levels in Limulus ventral photoreceptors during procedures designed to affect Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Dark levels of [Ca2+]i were estimated at 0.66 +/- 0.09 microM. Removal of extracellular Na+ caused [Ca2+]i to rise transiently from an estimated 0.5-0.6 microM in a typical cell to approximately 21 microM; [Ca2+]i approached a plateau level in 0-Na+ saline of approximately 5.5 microM; restoration of normal [Na+]o lowered [Ca2+]i to baseline with a time course of 1 log10 unit per 9 s. The apparent rate of Nao+-dependent [Ca2+]i decline decreased with decreasing [Ca2+]i. Reintroduction of Ca2+ to 0-Na+, 0-Ca2+ saline in a typical cell caused a transient rise in [Ca2+]i from an estimated 0.36 microM (or lower) to approximately 16.5 microM. This was followed by a decline in [Ca2+]i approaching a plateau of approximately 5 microM; subsequent removal of Cao2+ caused [Ca2+]i to decline slowly (1 log unit in approximately 110 s). Intracellular injection of Na+ in the absence of extracellular Na+ caused a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in the presence of normal [Ca2+]o; in 0-Ca2+ saline, however, no such rise in [Ca2+]i was detected. Under constant voltage clamp (-80 mV) inward currents were measured after the addition of Nao+ to 0-Na+ 0-Ca2+ saline and outward currents were measured after the addition of Cao2+ to 0-Na+ 0-Ca2+ saline. The results suggest the presence of an electrogenic Na+/Ca2+ exchange process in the plasma membrane of Limulus ventral photoreceptors that can operate in forward (Nao+-dependent Ca2+ extrusion) or reverse (Nai+- dependent Ca2+ influx) directions. PMID:2703822

  12. Effect of reaction time and (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios on crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al layered double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Sanjaya, F. B.; Darojat, A. A.; Handayani, D. S.; Hidayat, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) compounds were successfully synthesized from brine water and AlCl3.6H2O as the starting materials by coprecipitation method. The product result was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effects of the reaction time and the molar ratios of the raw material on the crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al-LDH were examining. Results show that increasing reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min.) could improve the crystallinity and monodispersity of layered double hydroxide compounds particles. The well-defined Ca-Mg- Al-LDH could be prepared with (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios 0.5.

  13. An insulin-sensitive cation channel controls [Na+]i via [Ca2+]o-regulated Na+ and Ca2+ entry.

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, J E; Morielli, A D

    1994-01-01

    The insulin-stimulated cation channel previously identified in patch-clamped muscle preparations is here shown to be responsible for bulk Na+ entry into the cell. The mainly Na+ current of the channel was shown to be accompanied by an inhibitory Ca2+ component responsible for oscillations. Here, using quantitative fluorescence imaging of Fura-2- and SBFI-loaded soleus muscle, we measure changes in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i related to channel function. Insulin increased [Na+]i and [Ca+]i in a transient spike of < 1-min duration. There was a momentary dip in [Na+]i related to inhibition of the channel by the Ca2+ spike, and changes in external Ca2+ were shown to alter [Na+]i via the cation channel, all effects being blocked by the specific channel inhibitor mu-conotoxin, but not by tetrodotoxin. The [Ca2+]i spike could also be induced by 8-bromo cyclic-guanosine 5'-monophosphate, an analogue of the channel-activator cyclic-guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP). In addition it was noted that insulin reduced the [Ca2+]i rise upon subsequent muscle depolarization by a factor of 3.5. Insulin could be substituted with phorbol ester for the same effect and HA1004, a protein kinase inhibitor, blocked the reduction. PMID:8054688

  14. Influx of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ into Roots of Salt-Stressed Cotton Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Grant R.; Lynch, Jonathan; Läuchli, André; Epstein, Emanuel

    1987-01-01

    High Na+ concentrations may disrupt K+ and Ca2+ transport and interfere with growth of many plant species, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) included. Elevated Ca2+ levels often counteract these consequences of salinity. The effect of supplemental Ca2+ on influx of Ca2+, K+, and Na+ in roots of intact, salt-stressed cotton seedlings was therefore investigated. Eight-day-old seedlings were exposed to treatments ranging from 0 to 250 millimolar NaCl in the presence of nutrient solutions containing 0.4 or 10 millimolar Ca2+. Sodium influx increased proportionally to increasing salinity. At high external Ca2+, Na+ influx was less than at low Ca2+. Calcium influx was complex and exhibited two different responses to salinity. At low salt concentrations, influx decreased curvilinearly with increasing salt concentration. At 150 to 250 millimolar NaCl, 45Ca2+ influx increased in proportion to salt concentrations, especially with high Ca2+. Potassium influx declined significantly with increasing salinity, but was unaffected by external Ca2+. The rate of K+ uptake was dependent upon root weight, although influx was normalized for root weight. We conclude that the protection of root growth from salt stress by supplemental Ca2+ is related to improved Ca-status and maintenance of K+/Na+ selectivity. PMID:16665280

  15. Thermoelectric Powers of Cells With NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flem, Belinda E.; Xu, Qian; Kjelstrup, Signe; Sterten, Åsmund

    2001-07-01

    A thermodynamic description of the Peltier heat at the aluminum and the oxygen electrode in the system NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 is given. The thermoelectric power in melts with molar ratios n NaF/n AlF3 from 3.0 to 1.0, saturated with alumina are measured. Seebeck coefficients for molten fluoride electrolytes saturated with alumina, electrolytes that are relevant for aluminum electrowinning electrolysis cells, are reported. The results allow determinations of Peltier heats of aluminum, oxygen and carbon electrodes in NaF-AlF3 electrolytes saturated with alumina. For molar ratios of n NaF/n AlF3 between 2.6 and 1.2, there is a Peltier heating of the aluminum cathode. This heating is in the same order of magnitude as the electrolyte Joule heat, when the current density is 0.7 A cm-2. For molar ratio n NaF/n AlF3 equal to 1.0 the Peltier effect at the aluminum electrode approaches zero. From theoretical considerations we expect a drop also for molar ratio 3.0. For the anode we report a Peltier cooling that is larger than the heat produced by the anodic overvoltage, in melts with NaF/AlF3 molar ratio between 2.6 and 1.2 saturated with alumina.

  16. The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger upregulates glucose dependent Ca2+ signalling linked to insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Nita, Iulia I; Hershfinkel, Michal; Fishman, Daniel; Ozeri, Eyal; Rutter, Guy A; Sensi, Stefano L; Khananshvili, Daniel; Lewis, Eli C; Sekler, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria mediate dual metabolic and Ca(2+) shuttling activities. While the former is required for Ca(2+) signalling linked to insulin secretion, the role of the latter in β cell function has not been well understood, primarily because the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters were elusive and the selectivity of their inhibitors was questionable. This study focuses on NCLX, the recently discovered mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger that is linked to Ca(2+) signalling in MIN6 and primary β cells. Suppression either of NCLX expression, using a siRNA construct (siNCLX) or of its activity, by a dominant negative construct (dnNCLX), enhanced mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx and blocked efflux induced by glucose or by cell depolarization. In addition, NCLX regulated basal, but not glucose-dependent changes, in metabolic rate, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial resting Ca(2+). Importantly, NCLX controlled the rate and amplitude of cytosolic Ca(2+) changes induced by depolarization or high glucose, indicating that NCLX is a critical and rate limiting component in the cross talk between mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca(2+) signalling. Finally, knockdown of NCLX expression was followed by a delay in glucose-dependent insulin secretion. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, NCLX, shapes glucose-dependent mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca(2+) signals thereby regulating the temporal pattern of insulin secretion in β cells.

  17. Effect of exchangeable cations on apparent diffusion of Ca 2+ ions in Na- and Ca-montmorillonite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaki, T.; Sawaguchi, T.; Fujishima, A.; Sato, S.

    Compacted Na-bentonite, of which the major mineral is montmorillonite, is a candidate buffer material for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A potential alteration of the bentonite in a repository is the partial replacement of the exchangeable cations of Na + with Ca 2+. The Ca 2+ cations could be released from cementitious materials and diffuse into the buffer material in the repository. In this study, to evaluate the alteration that could reduce the performance of the bentonite buffer, the apparent diffusion coefficients of HTO and Ca 2+ ions were determined from non-steady, one-dimensional diffusion experiments using Na- and Ca-montmorillonite mixtures with different ionic equivalent fractions of Ca 2+ ions. The apparent diffusion coefficient of HTO at a dry density of 1.0 Mg m -3 slightly increased with an increase in the ionic equivalent fraction of Ca 2+ ions. However, the apparent diffusion coefficient of Ca 2+ and the activation energy for diffusion at the same dry density were independent of the ionic equivalent fraction of Ca 2+ ions. These findings suggest that unlike HTO, which can be postulated to diffuse mainly in pore water, Ca 2+ ion diffusion could occur predominantly in interlayer spaces, of which the basal spacing was determined to be constant by the XRD technique.

  18. Estimation Model for Electrical Conductivity of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guan-yong; Zhang, Ting-an; Dou, Zhi-he; Niu, Li-ping

    2016-09-01

    Electrical conductivity is one of the most important properties of molten slags. It has an important influence on process parameter selection of the electroslag remelting process. In the present work, a new model for estimating electrical conductivity of high-temperature slags has been proposed via calculating the conductivity by electrical conductivity of pure substances and interaction parameters between the different components in the slag has been proposed. In this model, the Arrhenius law is used to describe the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature of slags. This model has been successfully applied to the CaF2-Al2O3, CaF2-CaO, and CaO-Al2O3, as well as CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 systems, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured values.

  19. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  20. Possible regulation of caffeine-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by intracellular free Na+.

    PubMed

    Sorimachi, M; Yamagami, K; Nishimura, S; Kuramoto, K

    1992-12-01

    To gain some understanding of the regulatory mechanism involved in caffeine-induced Ca2+ release in adrenal chromaffin cells, we took advantage of the paradoxical observation that removal of divalent cations potentiated the secretory response to caffeine. We measured the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca]in) in isolated cat chromaffin cells, by fura-2 microfluorometry, to see whether there was any correlation between the secretory response and the rise in [Ca]in. The caffeine-induced [Ca]in rise and catecholamine secretion were increased by treatment of cells with a divalent cation-deficient solution. These potentiated responses were strongly inhibited either by pretreatment with ryanodine, by the reduction of the external Na+ concentration, or by the addition of Ca2+ channel blockers. Removal of divalent cations caused a large rise in the cytosolic free Na+ concentration ([Na]in), which was measured using SBFI microfluorometry. This rise in [Na]in was reduced either by adding Ca2+ channel blockers or by reducing the external Na+ concentration. These results show a good correlation between caffeine-induced Ca2+ release and [Na]in at the time of stimulation, suggesting that caffeine-induced Ca2+ release is regulated by [Na]in. PMID:1431907

  1. A magnesium correction for the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Graphs and equations have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca geothermometer. Either the graphs or equations can be used to determine temperature corrections when given waters have Na-K-Ca calculated temperatures above 70? C and values of R less than 50, where R = {Mg/(Mg + Ca + K)} x 100 in equivalents. Waters with values of R greater than 50 probably come from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures about equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures.

  2. Ca2+ influx via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is enhanced in malignant hyperthermia skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Eltit, José M; Robin, Gaëlle; Linares, Nancy; Ding, Xudong; Pessah, Isaac N; Allen, Paul D; López, José R

    2014-07-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is potentially fatal pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle caused by intracellular Ca(2+) dysregulation. NCX is a bidirectional transporter that effluxes (forward mode) or influxes (reverse mode) Ca(2+) depending on cellular activity. Resting intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]r) and sodium ([Na(+)]r) concentrations are elevated in MH susceptible (MHS) swine and murine muscles compared with their normal (MHN) counterparts, although the contribution of NCX is unclear. Lowering [Na(+)]e elevates [Ca(2+)]r in both MHN and MHS swine muscle fibers and it is prevented by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or reduced by t-tubule disruption, in both genotypes. KB-R7943, a nonselective NCX3 blocker, reduced [Ca(2+)]r in both swine and murine MHN and MHS muscle fibers at rest and decreased the magnitude of the elevation of [Ca(2+)]r observed in MHS fibers after exposure to halothane. YM-244769, a high affinity reverse mode NCX3 blocker, reduces [Ca(2+)]r in MHS muscle fibers and decreases the amplitude of [Ca(2+)]r rise triggered by halothane, but had no effect on [Ca(2+)]r in MHN muscle. In addition, YM-244769 reduced the peak and area under the curve of the Ca(2+) transient elicited by high [K(+)]e and increased its rate of decay in MHS muscle fibers. siRNA knockdown of NCX3 in MHS myotubes reduced [Ca(2+)]r and the Ca(2+) transient area induced by high [K(+)]e. These results demonstrate a functional NCX3 in skeletal muscle whose activity is enhanced in MHS. Moreover reverse mode NCX3 contributes to the Ca(2+) transients associated with K(+)-induced depolarization and the halothane-triggered MH episode in MHS muscle fibers. PMID:24847052

  3. Ca2+ Influx via the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Is Enhanced in Malignant Hyperthermia Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Altamirano, Francisco; Eltit, José M.; Robin, Gaëlle; Linares, Nancy; Ding, Xudong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Allen, Paul D.; López, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is potentially fatal pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle caused by intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation. NCX is a bidirectional transporter that effluxes (forward mode) or influxes (reverse mode) Ca2+ depending on cellular activity. Resting intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]r) and sodium ([Na+]r) concentrations are elevated in MH susceptible (MHS) swine and murine muscles compared with their normal (MHN) counterparts, although the contribution of NCX is unclear. Lowering [Na+]e elevates [Ca2+]r in both MHN and MHS swine muscle fibers and it is prevented by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or reduced by t-tubule disruption, in both genotypes. KB-R7943, a nonselective NCX3 blocker, reduced [Ca2+]r in both swine and murine MHN and MHS muscle fibers at rest and decreased the magnitude of the elevation of [Ca2+]r observed in MHS fibers after exposure to halothane. YM-244769, a high affinity reverse mode NCX3 blocker, reduces [Ca2+]r in MHS muscle fibers and decreases the amplitude of [Ca2+]r rise triggered by halothane, but had no effect on [Ca2+]r in MHN muscle. In addition, YM-244769 reduced the peak and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by high [K+]e and increased its rate of decay in MHS muscle fibers. siRNA knockdown of NCX3 in MHS myotubes reduced [Ca2+]r and the Ca2+ transient area induced by high [K+]e. These results demonstrate a functional NCX3 in skeletal muscle whose activity is enhanced in MHS. Moreover reverse mode NCX3 contributes to the Ca2+ transients associated with K+-induced depolarization and the halothane-triggered MH episode in MHS muscle fibers. PMID:24847052

  4. Interaction of the Na+-K+ pump and Na+-Ca2+ exchange via [Na+]i in a restricted space of guinea-pig ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Y; Matsuoka, S; Ban, T; Noma, A

    1998-06-01

    1. The whole-cell Na+-K+ pump current (INa-K) and Na+-Ca2+ exchange current (INa-Ca) were recorded in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes to study the interaction between the two Na+ transport mechanisms. 2. INa-K was isolated as an external K+-induced current, and INa-Ca as an external Ca2+- induced or Ni2+-sensitive current. The experimental protocol used for one ion carrier did not affect the other. 3. The amplitude of INa-K decreased to 54 +/- 17 % of the initial peak during continuous application of K+ with 20 mM Na+ in the pipette. The outward INa-Ca, which was intermittently activated by brief applications of Ca2+, decreased during activation of INa-K, and recovered after cessation of INa-K activation. These findings revealed a dynamic interaction between INa-K and INa-Ca via a depletion of Na+ under the sarcolemma. 4. To estimate changes in Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) under the sarcolemma, the reversal potential (Vrev) of INa-Ca was measured. Unexpectedly, Vrev hardly changed during activation of INa-K. However, when INa-Ca was blocked by Ni2+ at the same time that INa-K was activated, Vrev changed markedly, maximally by +100 mV, immediately after the removal of Ni2+ and K+. 5. Subsarcolemmal [Na+]i was calculated from the Vrev of INa-Ca on the assumption that the subsarcolemmal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was fixed with EGTA, and mean [Na+]i was calculated from both the time integral of INa-K and the cell volume. The subsarcolemmal [Na+]i was about seven times greater than the mean [Na+]i. 6. The interaction between the Na+-K+ pump and Na+-Ca2+ exchange was well simulated by a diffusion model, in which Na+ diffusion was restricted to one-seventh (14 %) of the total cell volume.

  5. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  6. Cross sections for He and Ne isotopes in natural Mg, Al, and Si, He isotopes in CaF2, Ar isotopes in natural Ca, and radionuclides in natural Al, Si, Ti, Cr, and stainless steel induced by 12- to 45-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Heymann, D.; Yaniv, A.; Edgerley, D.; Rowe, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    Stacks of thin Mg, Al, Si, Ca, CaF2, Ti, and stainless steel foils were bombarded in twelve irradiations by a variable energy cyclotron. Cross sections are reported for He and Ne in natural Mg, Al, and Si, and for He in CaF2, and for Ar in natural Ca, as determined from mass spectrometer analysis of the inert gases. In addition, cross sections of Na-22 in natural Al and Si, of V-48 in natural Ti, and of Cr-51, Mn-52, and Co-57 in stainless steel are reported. From these were deduced Cr-51 and Mn-52 cross sections in natural Cr.

  7. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-sensitive Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Almilaji, Ahmad; Schmid, Evi; Elvira, Bernat; Shimshek, Derya R; van der Putten, Herman; Wagner, Carsten A; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Gene variants of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD). Besides brain and periphery, LRRK2 is expressed in various immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of LRRK2 in the immune system is still incompletely understood. Here, Ca(2+)-signaling was analyzed in DCs isolated from gene-targeted mice lacking lrrk2 (Lrrk2(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (Lrrk2(+/+)). According to Western blotting, Lrrk2 was expressed in Lrrk2(+/+) DCs but not in Lrrk2(-/-)DCs. Cytosolic Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) were determined utilizing Fura-2 fluorescence and whole cell currents to decipher electrogenic transport. The increase of [Ca(2+)]i following inhibition of sarcoendoplasmatic Ca(2+)-ATPase with thapsigargin (1 µM) in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)-release) and the increase of [Ca(2+)]i following subsequent readdition of extracellular Ca(2+) (SOCE) were both significantly larger in Lrrk2(-/-) than in Lrrk2(+/+) DCs. The augmented increase of [Ca(2+)]i could have been due to impaired Ca(2+) extrusion by K(+)-independent (NCX) and/or K(+)-dependent (NCKX) Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity, which was thus determined from the increase of [Ca(2+)]i, (Δ[Ca(2+)]i), and current following abrupt replacement of Na(+) containing (130 mM) and Ca(2+) free (0 mM) extracellular perfusate by Na(+) free (0 mM) and Ca(2+) containing (2 mM) extracellular perfusate. As a result, both slope and peak of Δ[Ca(2+)]i as well as Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-induced current were significantly lower in Lrrk2(-/-) than in Lrrk2(+/+) DCs. A 6 or 24 hour treatment with the LRRK2 inhibitor GSK2578215A (1 µM) significantly decreased NCX1 and NCKX1 transcript levels, significantly blunted Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity, and significantly augmented the increase of [Ca(2+)]i following Ca(2+)-release and SOCE. In conclusion, the present observations

  8. Crystal structure of the NaCa(Fe{sup 2+}, Al, Mn){sub 5}[Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}(OH)](OH){sub 7} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O mineral: A new representative of the palygorskite group

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2012-01-15

    A specimen of a new representative of the palygorskite-sepiolite family from Aris phonolite (Namibia) is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The parameters of the triclinic (pseudomonoclinic) unit cell are as follows: a = 5.2527(2) Angstrom-Sign , b = 17.901(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.727(1) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.018(3) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 97.278(4) Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 89.952(3) Degree-Sign . The structure is solved by the direct methods in space group P1-bar and refined to R = 5.5% for 4168 |F| > 7{sigma}(F) with consideration for twinning by the plane perpendicular to y (the ratio of the twin components is 0.52: 0.48). The crystal chemical formula (Z = 1) is (Na{sub 1.6}K{sub 0.2}Ca{sub 0.2})[Ca{sub 2}(Fe{sub 3.6}{sup 2+}Al{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.8})(OH){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(Fe{sub 3.9}{sup 2+}Ti{sub 0.1})(OH){sub 5} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Si{sub 16}O{sub 38}(OH){sub 2}] {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, where the compositions of two ribbons of octahedra and a layer of Si tetrahedra are enclosed in brackets. A number of specific chemical, symmetrical, and structural features distinguish this mineral from other minerals of this family, in particular, from tuperssuatsiaite and kalifersite, which are iron-containing representatives with close unit cell parameters.

  9. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene family within the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics.

  10. Energetics of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange in resting cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Hornos, J E; Philipson, K D; Bonazzola, P; Langer, G A

    1999-01-01

    The energetic effect of extracellular Na(+) removal and readmission (in a nominally Ca(2+)-free perfusate) in Langendorff-perfused ventricles of transgenic mice (TM), which overexpress the sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger; normal mice (NM); young (7-12 days old) rats (YR); and older (13-20 days old) rats (OR) was studied. In all heart muscles, extracellular Na(+) removal induced an increase in heat production (H(1)). Na(+) readmission further increased heat production to a peak value (H(2)) followed by a decrease toward initial values. These effects were more marked in the YR and TM as compared with the OR and NM groups, respectively. Caffeine (1 mM), ryanodine (0.2 microM), and verapamil (1 microM) decreased H(1) and H(2) in both rat groups. EGTA (1 mM) decreased H(1) and H(2) in the YR but not in the OR group. Thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased H(1) and H(2) in all four hearts preparations. A possible interpretation is that Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange acts as an energy-saving mechanism to prevent Ca(2+) accumulation at the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum zone (JSR) and thus prevents further release of Ca(2+). Extracellular Na(+) removal lead to Ca(2+) accumulation in the JSR inducing further SR-Ca(2+) release and increased energy release. Na(+) readmission removes the accumulated Ca(2+) at the JSR (cleft) zone by exchanging Ca(2+) with Na(+) producing a transitory increase in energy release due to Na(+)-K pump activation. PMID:10585954

  11. Volatile anaesthetic effects on Na+-Ca2+ exchange in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seckin, Inanc; Sieck, Gary C; Prakash, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the influence of two clinically relevant concentrations (1 and 2 MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)) of halothane and sevoflurane on both efflux and reverse modes of Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX) in enzymatically dissociated adult rat cardiac myocytes. We hypothesised that a volatile anaesthetic-induced decrease in myocardial contractility is mediated by a reduction in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) via inhibition of NCX. Cells were exposed to cyclopiazonic acid and zero extracellular Na+ and Ca2+ to block sacroplasmic reticulum (SR) re-uptake and NCX efflux, respectively. As [Ca2+]i increased under these conditions, extracellular Na+ was rapidly (< 300 ms) reintroduced in the presence or absence of a volatile anaesthetic to selectively promote Ca2+ efflux via NCX. Other cells exposed to cyclopiazonic acid and ryanodine to inhibit SR Ca2+ re-uptake and release were Na+ loaded in zero extracellular Ca2+. The reintroduction of extracellular Ca2+ was used to selectively activate Ca2+ influx via NCX. Compared to controls, both 1 and 2 MAC halothane as well as sevoflurane reduced NCX-mediated efflux. The reduction in NCX-mediated influx was concentration dependent, but comparable between the two anaesthetics. Both anaesthetics at each concentration also shifted the relationship between extracellular Na+ (or extent of Na+ loading) and NCX-mediated efflux (or influx) to the right. These data indicate that despite inhibition of NCX-mediated Ca2+ efflux, volatile anaesthetics produce myocardial depression. However, the inhibition of NCX-mediated Ca2+ influx may contribute to decreased cardiac contractility. The overall effect of volatile anaesthetics on the [Ca2+]i profile is likely to be determined by the relative contributions of influx vs. efflux via NCX during each cardiac cycle. PMID:11283227

  12. Na/beta-alumina/NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherng, Jing-Yih; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of a high specific energy battery based on a sodium negative electrode and a chlorine positive electrode with molten AlCl3-NaCl electrolyte and a solid beta alumina separator. The basic performance of a Na beta-alumina NaAlCl4, Cl2/C circulating cell at 200 C was demonstrated. This cell can be started at 150 C. The use of melting sodium chloroaluminate electrolyte overcomes some of the material problems associated with the high working temperatures of present molten salt systems, such as Na/S and LiAl/FeS, and retains the advantages of high energy density and relatively efficient electrode processes. Preliminary investigations were conducted on a sodium-chlorine static cell, material compability, electrode design, wetting, and theoretical calculations to assure a better chance of success before assembling a Na/Cl2 circulating cell. Mathematical models provide a theoretical explanation for the performance of the NaCl2 battery. The results of mathematical models match the experimental results very well. According to the result of the mathematical modeling, an output at 180 mA/sq cm and 3.2 V can be obtained with optimized cell design.

  13. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  14. Alcohol stimulates Na sup + /Ca sup 2+ exchange in brain mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Rottenberg, H.; Marbach, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol, at low concentrations, specifically stimulates the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux in brain mitochondria. In addition, at higher concentrations, ethanol inhibits the Na{sup +}-independent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux. The electrogenic Ca{sup 2+}-uptake system is not affected by ethanol. The specific stimulation of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange reaches a maximum of 60% stimulation, with half-maximal stimulation at 130 mM ethanol. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is proportional to the ethanol concentration, becoming significant only above 200 mM, with 50% inhibition at 0.5 M. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is, in large part, due to an inhibition of the activation of the Cyclosporin-sensitive pore. Long-term ethanol-feeding had no effect on the Ca{sup 2+} transport systems and their sensitivity to acute ethanol treatment. It is suggested that the stimulation of the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux, which is the dominant Ca{sup 2+} efflux pathway in brain mitochondria, contributes to the intoxicating effects of ethanol.

  15. The mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, regulates automaticity of HL-1 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ is known to change dynamically, regulating mitochondrial as well as cellular functions such as energy metabolism and apoptosis. The NCLX gene encodes the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCXmit), a Ca2+ extrusion system in mitochondria. Here we report that the NCLX regulates automaticity of the HL-1 cardiomyocytes. NCLX knockdown using siRNA resulted in the marked prolongation of the cycle length of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillation and action potential generation. The upstrokes of action potential and Ca2+ transient were markedly slower, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ handling were compromised in the NCLX knockdown cells. Analyses using a mathematical model of HL-1 cardiomyocytes demonstrated that blocking NCXmit reduced the SR Ca2+ content to slow spontaneous SR Ca2+ leak, which is a trigger of automaticity. We propose that NCLX is a novel molecule to regulate automaticity of cardiomyocytes via modulating SR Ca2+ handling. PMID:24067497

  16. Displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ from the Plasmalemma of Root Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Grant R.; Läuchli, André; Polito, Vito S.

    1985-01-01

    A microfluorometric assay using chlorotetracycline (CTC) as a probe for membrane-associated Ca2+ in intact cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Acala SJ-2) root hairs indicated displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ from membrane sites with increasing levels of NaCl (0 to 250 millimolar). K+(86Rb) efflux increased dramatically at high salinity. An increase in external Ca2+ concentration (10 millimolar) mitigated both responses. Other cations and mannitol, which did not affect Ca2+-CTC chelation properties, were found to have no effect on Ca2+-CTC fluorescence, indicating a Na+-specific effect. Reduction of Ca2+-CTC fluorescence by ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether) N,N′-tetraacetic acid, which does not cross membranes, provided an indication that reduction by Na+ of Ca2+-CTC fluorescence may be occurring primarily at the plasmalemma. The findings support prior proposals that Ca2+ protects membranes from adverse effects of Na+ thereby maintaining membrane integrity and minimizing leakage of cytosolic K+. PMID:16664372

  17. The role of Ca(2+) and Na (+) membrane transport in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) spermatozoa motility.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olga; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2014-10-01

    The role of environmental ion composition and osmolality in Ca(2+) signaled activation was assessed in spermatozoa of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Milt from ten mature males was obtained by abdominal massage. Spermatozoa motility was evaluated in 0, 100, and 300 mOsm/kg NaCl or sucrose solutions, buffered by 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.5. For investigation of spermatozoa reaction to external Ca(2+) concentration, 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was added to the activation media as a calcium ions chelator. For investigation of the effect of external Na(+) concentration in conditions of low external Ca(2+), 100 µM amiloride was added to the EGTA-containing solutions as a Na(+) transport blocker. Low motility was observed in sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA but not in Na(+) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. Addition of amiloride led to significantly increased motility (P < 0.05) compared with sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. We conclude that Na(+) transport in Ca(2+)-free solutions plays a regulatory role in brook trout spermatozoa activation. The influence of competitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) transport on the control of spermatozoa activation requires further study with respect to its application for improvement of artificial activation and storage media. PMID:24718964

  18. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots. PMID:26318146

  19. Determination of Na(2)O from sodium aluminate NaAlO(2).

    PubMed

    Näykki, T; Raimo, A; Paavo, P; Antero, K; Päivi, N

    2000-07-31

    The aim of the work was to find a suitable method and conditions for determining Na(2)O wt.% from NaAlO(2). Problems were encountered while titrating NaAlO(2) with hydrochloric acid. The problematic area was the pH range 4-10 where aluminum precipitates as hydroxides. The different species of the aluminate solution were determined using potentiometric and complexometric titrations. The equivalent point of the potentiometric titration was detected using Gran's plotting method. Precipitation of aluminum hydroxides did not interfere with titrations, because in potentiometric titrations the pH value was over 10 and in complexometric titrations the pH was 4. The results were accurate and determinations were easy to carry out. Sodium was also determined by DCP-AES.

  20. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  1. Phase Compositions of Self Reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 Composite using X-ray Diffraction Data and Rietveld Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, D.; Low, I. M.; O'Connor, B.

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns by the Rietveld technique was tested to the quantitatively phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composite. Room-temperature XRD patterns revealed that α-Al2O3 was the only phase presence in the CA0 sample, whereas the α-Al2O3 and CaAl12O19 phases were found for CA5, CA15, CA30, and CA50 samples. The peak intensity of CA6 in the self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites increased in proportion with increase in CaAl12O19 content in contrast to α-Al2O3. The diffraction patterns for CA100 sample shows minor traces of α-Al2O3 even in relatively low peak intensity. It is suggesting that the in-situ reaction sintering of raw materials were not react completely to form 100 wt% CaAl12O19 at temperature 1650 °C. Quantitative phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites by Rietveld analysis with XRD data has been well demonstrated. The results showed that the GOF values are relatively low and the fluctuation in the difference plots shows a reasonable fit between the observed and the calculated plot.

  2. The molar volume of cubic garnets in the system SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MnO-MgO-CaO-Na2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Garnet is a critical phase that controls major and trace element partitioning at pressures above ~3 GPa during partial melting of the Earth's upper mantle. A molar volume model is calibrated for cubic garnets (space group Ia3d) in the oxide system listed in the title. This model and a recent calibration of spinel molar volume (Hamecher et al., in press, CMP) will be used in calibration of thermodynamic activity-composition models of garnet and pyroxene solid solutions. The activity and molar volume models will be incorporated into the next generation MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995, CMP) model, xMELTS. A new garnet volume model calibrated with recent in situ high-P, T diffraction data is crucial for accurately modeling key mineralogical transitions in the mantle, e.g., the spinel-garnet transition and the mantle transition zone. Above 5 GPa a majorite component is an essential part of any thermodynamic model of mantle garnets, which to be useful must accurately predict garnet stability with respect to spinel, pyroxene, perovskites, and melt. Our model system contains nine independent end members: Ca3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Al2Si3O12, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Cr2Si3O12, Mg3Fe3+2Si3O12, Mn3Al2Si3O12, Na2(MgSi2)Si3O12, Mg3(TiMg)Si3O12, and cubic majorite component Mg3(MgSi)Si3O12. An inclusive set of end-member components is formed by linear combinations of these explicit end members. Approximately 950 published X-ray diffraction experiments performed on garnets at ambient and in situ high-P, T conditions are used to calibrate end-member equations of state and an excess volume model for this system. Optimal values of the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained by analyzing published compression and/or ultrasonic data for the end members for which such studies exist; for other end members, density functional theory results are used. For any cubic garnet in this chemical system, the model molar volume is obtained by adding excess volume terms to a linear combination of the

  3. The sulfur partition ratio with Fe-CSAT melts and the sulfide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Na2O- (Ai2O3) slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. H.; Fruehan, R. J.

    1989-02-01

    The sulfur partition ratio between slag and carbon saturated iron and the sulfide capacity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2 slags and a 48 pet CaO-45 pet Al2O3-7 pet SiO2-(Na2O) slag have been mea-sured at 1400 °C. The addition of Na2O to a CaO-SiO2 slag increases the sulfur partition ratio and the sulfide capacity; however, Na2O at low concentrations has no measurable effect on the sulfide capacity of a CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag. To convert the sulfur partition ratio to the sulfide capacity, the oxygen potential was calculated assuming equilibrium between iron in the alloy and FeO in the slag with the activity of FeO calculated via a regular solution model. The optical basicity may be used to correlate the data, but at high Na2O contents the data do not adhere to the correlation previously developed for CaO-based slags.

  4. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis.

  5. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:25740001

  6. A semi-empirical thermodynamic formalism for high-pressure aqueous silicate solutions in the model system K2O-Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2, a first approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Burchard, M.; Hertwig, A.; Maresch, W. V.

    2012-12-01

    The results of experimental solubility determinations in aqueous solutions at high pressures up to 5 GPa are often difficult to gauge with respect to precision and accuracy, because of the potential uncertainties inherent in the available experimental approaches. Existing models of aqueous silicate solutions at low pressures are either unsuitable for extrapolation beyond 0.5 to 1.0 GPa or involve polynomial fits in which the fit parameters lack direct physical meaning. An approach described by Gerya et al. [1,2], based on statistical thermodynamics, allows aqueous silicate solutions to be described as mixtures of fictive oxide "components" together with water molecules in both clustered and "gas-like", i.e. unassociated, states. Burchard et al. [3] presented a first data set for fluids in the system CaO-SiO2-H2O, using the statistical thermodynamic formulation of Gerya et al [1,2] and extending it to include charged fluid species such as Ca2+, Ca(OH)+, Ca(OH)2, OH- and H+. We have now further developed the data set of Burchard et al. [3] by including carbonic fluid species and extending the model system to include MgO and Al2O3. In addition, initial progress has been made in including potassium and sodium model species. Solid phase data were obtained by mathematical conversion of existing thermodynamic mineral data into the semi-empirical form. With this semi-empirical data set calculations for simple, "wet" silicate rocks are now possible. We present applications to suites of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite-quartz rocks from the Rio San Juan serpentinite mélanges of the northern Dominican Republic. These rocks have crystallized from high-pressure aqueous fluids in a long-lived intra-oceanic subduction-zone environment at various times and at different P-T conditions (Schertl et al. [4]). The fluid-rock interactions leading to these spectacular rocks are still poorly understood. [1] Gerya et al. (2004) Phys. Chem. Minerals 31, 429-455; [2] Gerya et al. (2005) Eur

  7. Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence in the NaCaPO4:Dy3+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    Shinde, K N; Dhoble, S J

    2012-12-01

    Dy(3+)-doped NaCaPO(4) phosphor was synthesised at an initiating combustion temperature of 600°C, using urea as the fuel. The crystallinity of the phosphor was investigated by using X-ray diffraction. The photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) behaviours of NaCaPO(4):Dy(3+) phosphor was also studied. It has a simple TL glow curve structure, which does not change when exposed to gamma-rays. A TL glow peak is observed at 230°C and TL intensity is around 1.15 times more compared with commercial CaSO(4):Dy TLD phosphor. The TL characteristics of the phosphor prepared show that it has good sensitivity, linear response with gamma-rays exposure, emission in the blue-yellow regions of the spectrum, negligible fading and excellent reusability. These results make Dy(3+)-doped NaCaPO(4) phosphor attractive for TLD applications.

  8. Na+ Dysregulation Coupled with Ca2+ Entry through NCX1 Promotes Muscular Dystrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Adam R.; Millay, Douglas P.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A.; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Allen, Paul D.; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Unregulated Ca2+ entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd−/−), Dysf−/−, and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd−/− mice. Measured increases in baseline Na+ and Ca2+ in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca2+ influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca2+ levels. Indeed, Atp1a2+/− (encoding Na+-K+ ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na+ clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd−/− mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na+ channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

  9. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Burr, Adam R; Millay, Douglas P; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Park, Ki Ho; Sargent, Michelle A; Collins, James; Altamirano, Francisco; Philipson, Kenneth D; Allen, Paul D; Ma, Jianjie; López, José Rafael; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2014-06-01

    Unregulated Ca(2+) entry is thought to underlie muscular dystrophy. Here, we generated skeletal-muscle-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) to model its identified augmentation during muscular dystrophy. The NCX1 transgene induced dystrophy-like disease in all hind-limb musculature, as well as exacerbated the muscle disease phenotypes in δ-sarcoglycan (Sgcd(-/-)), Dysf(-/-), and mdx mouse models of muscular dystrophy. Antithetically, muscle-specific deletion of the Slc8a1 (NCX1) gene diminished hind-limb pathology in Sgcd(-/-) mice. Measured increases in baseline Na(+) and Ca(2+) in dystrophic muscle fibers of the hind-limb musculature predicts a net Ca(2+) influx state due to reverse-mode operation of NCX1, which mediates disease. However, the opposite effect is observed in the diaphragm, where NCX1 overexpression mildly protects from dystrophic disease through a predicted enhancement in forward-mode NCX1 operation that reduces Ca(2+) levels. Indeed, Atp1a2(+/-) (encoding Na(+)-K(+) ATPase α2) mice, which have reduced Na(+) clearance rates that would favor NCX1 reverse-mode operation, showed exacerbated disease in the hind limbs of NCX1 TG mice, similar to treatment with the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor digoxin. Treatment of Sgcd(-/-) mice with ranolazine, a broadly acting Na(+) channel inhibitor that should increase NCX1 forward-mode operation, reduced muscular pathology. PMID:24662047

  10. Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in Ca-Al metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lou, H. B.; Fang, Y. K.; Zeng, Q. S.; Lu, Y. H.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Yang, K.; Yu, X. H.; Zheng, L.; Zhao, Y. D.; Chu, W. S.; Hu, T. D.; Wu, Z. Y.; Ahuja, R.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration changes in Ca-Al metallic glasses (MGs) were studied by performing in-situ room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction up to about 40 GPa. Changes in compressibility at about 18 GPa, 15.5 GPa and 7.5 GPa during compression are detected in Ca80Al20, Ca72.7Al27.3, and Ca66.4Al33.6 MGs, respectively, whereas no clear change has been detected in the Ca50Al50 MG. The transfer of s electrons into d orbitals under pressure, reported for the pressure-induced phase transformations in pure polycrystalline Ca, is suggested to explain the observation of an amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in this Ca-Al MG system. Results presented here show that the pressure induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration is not limited to f electron-containing MGs. PMID:22530094

  11. "JCE" Classroom Activity Connections: NaCl or CaCl[subscript 2], Smart Polymer Gel Tells More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; Lin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yu-Chen; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2010-01-01

    This classroom activity connection demonstrates the differences between the effects of NaCl (a salt of monovalent metal ions) and CaCl[subscript 2] (a salt of polyvalent metal ions) on swollen superabsorbent polymer gels. Being ionic compounds, NaCl and CaCl[subscript 2] both collapse the swollen polymer gels. The gel contracted by NaCl reswells…

  12. Pharmacological evidence that the activation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger protects C6 glioma cells during chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Amoroso, Salvatore; De Maio, Matteo; Russo, Giovanni M; Catalano, Annalisa; Bassi, Antonella; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    1997-01-01

    In C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia a massive release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) occurred at 3 and 6 h, coupled with an increased number of propidium-iodide positive dead cells. Extracellular Na+ removal, which activates the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger as a Na+ efflux pathway and prevents Na+ entrance, significantly reduced LDH release and the number of propidium iodide positive C6 cells. During chemical hypoxia, in the presence of extracellular Na+ ions, a progressive increase of [Ca2+]i occurred; in the absence of extracellular Na+ ions [Ca2+]i was enhanced to a greater extent. The blockade of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger by the amiloride derivative 5-(N-4-chlorobenzyl)-2′,4′-dimethylbenzamil (CB-DMB), lanthanum (La3+) and the Ca2+ chelator EGTA, completely reverted the protective effect exerted by the removal of Na+ ions on C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia. The inhibition of the Na+-Ca2+ antiporter enhanced chemical hypoxia-induced LDH release when C6 glioma cells were incubated in the presence of physiological concentrations of extracellular Na+ ions (145 mM), suggesting that the blockade of the Na+-Ca2+ antiporter during chemical hypoxia can lead to increased cell damage. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger protects C6 glioma cells exposed to chemical hypoxia, whereas its pharmacological blockade can exacerbate cellular injury. PMID:9154341

  13. Transplacental differences in Ca, Na, K, and electropotential in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Twardock, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The fetal side of hemochorial placentas from guinea pigs between 58 and 62 days gestation were perfused in situ. Concurrent measurements were made of the clearances of radiocalcium and tritiated water from maternal to fetal circulation of the placenta, transplacental potential difference (TPD), maternal plasma and perfusate Ca, Na, and K concentrations, maternal blood pressure, gross permeability of albumin in the placenta, and net water movements. Movement of Ca from dam to fetus appeared to occur against an electrochemical gradient and was not associated with the movements of Na and K across the placenta. A negative correlation between perfusate Na and K concentrations, not dependent on maternal plasma Na and K concentrations and abolished by high concentrations of Ca in the fetal circulation of the placenta, strongly supports the concept of a Na-K exchange mechanism in the placenta directed so that K is moved against a concentration gradient towards the dam. There was no evidence that the TPD existed at the site of maternal-fetal exchange for Ca, Na, or K.

  14. The microstructure-strength relationship in a deformation processed Al-Ca composite

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Kim, Hyongjune; Anderson, Iver; Russell, Alan

    2013-02-07

    An Al-9 vol% Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and deformation processing. The Al–Ca composite was extruded, swaged and wire drawn to a deformation true strain of 13.8. Both Al and Ca are face-centered cubic, so the Ca second phase deformed into continuous, nearly cylindrical filaments in the Al matrix. The formation of intermetallic compounds, filament coarsening, and spheriodization at elevated temperature was observed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Both the thickness and spacing of the Ca filaments decreased exponentially with increasing deformation. The ultimate tensile strength of the composite increased rapidly with increased deformation, especially at high deformation processing strains. The relation between deformation true strain and ultimate tensile strength is underestimated by the rule of mixtures; a modified Hall–Petch barrier strengthening model was found to fit the data better.

  15. Expression of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger is upregulated during epithelial Ca2+ transport in hypodermal cells of the isopod Porcellio scaber.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A; Weihrauch, D; Towle, D W; Hagedorn, M

    2002-09-01

    It is thought that a plasma membrane Ca(2+)-transport ATPase (PMCA) and a Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange (NCE) mechanism are involved in epithelial Ca(2+) transport (ECT) in a variety of crustacean epithelia. The sternal epithelium of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was used as a model for the analysis of Ca(2+)-extrusion mechanisms in the hypodermal epithelium. Using RT-PCR, we amplified a cDNA fragment of 1173 bp that encodes a protein sequence possessing 72% identity to the PMCA from Drosophila melanogaster and a cDNA fragment of 791 bp encoding a protein sequence with 50% identity to the NCE from Loligo opalescens. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of both mRNAs increases from the non-Ca(2+)-transporting condition to the stages of CaCO(3) deposit formation and degradation. During Ca(2+)-transporting stages, the expression of PMCA and NCE was larger in the anterior sternal epithelium (ASE) than in the posterior sternal epithelium (PSE). The results demonstrate for the first time the expression of a PMCA and a NCE in the hypodermal epithelium of a crustacean and indicate a contribution of these transport mechanisms in ECT.

  16. Ca-rich Ca-Al-oxide, high-temperature-stable sorbents prepared from hydrotalcite precursors: synthesis, characterization, and CO2 capture capacity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan; Yu, Ching-Tsung; Chyou, Yau-Pin

    2011-12-16

    We present the design and synthesis of Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides, with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1, which were prepared by hydrothermal decomposition of coprecipitated hydrotalcite-like Ca-Al-CO(3) precursors, for high-temperature CO(2) adsorption at 500-700 °C. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the coprecipitated, Ca-rich, hydrotalcite-like powders with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 5:1 and 7:1 contained Ca(OH)(2) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases. Upon annealing, LDH was first destroyed at approximately 200 °C to form an amorphous matrix, and then at 450-550 °C, the Ca(OH)(2) phase was converted into a CaO matrix with incorporated Al(3+) to form a homogeneous solid solution without a disrupted lattice structure. CaO nanocrystals were grown by thermal treatment of the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a CO(2) adsorption capacity of approximately 51 wt. % can be obtained from Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides prepared by calcination of 7:1 Ca-Al-CO(3) LDH phases at 600-700 °C. Furthermore, a relatively high CO(2) capture capability can be achieved, even with gas flows containing very low CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)/N(2) = 10 %). Approximately 95.6 % of the initial CO(2) adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is retained after 30 cycles of carbonation-calcination. TEM analysis indicates that carbonation-promoted CaCO(3) formation in the Ca-Al-O oxide matrix at 600 °C, but a subsequent desorption in N(2) at 700 °C, caused the formation CaO nanocrystals of approximately 10 nm. The CaO nanocrystals are widely distributed in the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix and are present during the carbonation-calcination cycles. This demonstrates that Ca-Al-O sorbents that developed through the synthesis and calcination of Ca-rich Ca-Al LDH phases are suitable for long-term cyclic operation in severe temperature environments.

  17. Atomistic Conversion Reaction Mechanism of WO3 in Secondary Ion Batteries of Li, Na, and Ca.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Haiyan; Luo, Langli; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Fei; Du, Yingge; Mao, Scott X; Wang, Chongmin

    2016-05-17

    Intercalation and conversion are two fundamental chemical processes for battery materials in response to ion insertion. The interplay between these two chemical processes has never been directly seen and understood at atomic scale. Here, using in situ HRTEM, we captured the atomistic conversion reaction processes during Li, Na, Ca insertion into a WO3 single crystal model electrode. An intercalation step prior to conversion is explicitly revealed at atomic scale for the first time for Li, Na, Ca. Nanoscale diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations revealed that after intercalation, the inserted ion-oxygen bond formation destabilizes the transition-metal framework which gradually shrinks, distorts and finally collapses to an amorphous W and Mx O (M=Li, Na, Ca) composite structure. This study provides a full atomistic picture of the transition from intercalation to conversion, which is of essential importance for both secondary ion batteries and electrochromic devices.

  18. Yellow-emitting NaCaPO4:Mn2+ phosphor for field emission displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guogang; Xu, Xingong; Peng, Chong; Shang, Mengmeng; Geng, Dongling; Cheng, Ziyong; Chen, Jun; Lin, Jun

    2011-08-01

    Yellow-emitting NaCaPO4:Mn2+ phosphors were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel process. Under low voltage electron beam excitation, the NaCaPO4: Mn2+ phosphor screen shows bright yellow emission (centering at 560 nm due to the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn2+) with the CIE color coordinate (0.428, 0.552), which has a higher color purity than commercial yellow-emitting FED phosphor (Zn, CdS):Ag+. The color range and chromaticity saturation may be greatly enhanced when the yellow-emitting NaCaPO4: Mn2+ is added as an additional phosphor of the typical tricolor FEDs phosphors, which make them have potential to improve the display quality of full-color FEDs.

  19. Methylprednisolone inhibits uptake of Ca2+ and Na+ ions into concanavalin A-stimulated thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Buttgereit, F; Krauss, S; Brand, M D

    1997-01-01

    The glucocorticoid drug methylprednisolone inhibits respiration in concanavalin A-stimulated rat thymocytes at concentrations that are relevant to its acute clinical efficacy against autoimmune diseases and spinal cord injury. Methylprednisolone affects several processes, including ion cycling, substrate oxidation reactions and RNA/DNA synthesis. The inhibition of respiration used to drive ATP-consuming cycles of Ca2+ and Na+ ions across the plasma membrane has been proposed to be either primary or secondary to restriction of cellular ATP supply. By comparing the effects of methylprednisolone with those of myxothiazol, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we show that the effects of methylprednisolone on Ca2+ and Na+ cycling are primary. We propose that methylprednisolone acts by affecting membrane properties to inhibit Ca2+ and Na+ uptake across the plasma membrane and to increase H+ uptake across the mitochondrial membrane, and that other effects are secondary. PMID:9291100

  20. Towards producing ultracold CaNa+ molecular ions in the ground electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Montgomery, John A.; Michels, Harvey H.; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of optical pathways for the formation of cold Ca(1S)Na+(1S) molecular ions, based on accurate potential energy curves and transition dipole moments calculated using effective-core-potential methods of quantum chemistry. In the proposed approach, starting from a mixture of trapped laser-cooled Ca+ ions immersed into an ultracold gas of Na atoms, the (NaCa)+ are photoassociated in the excited E1Σ+ electronic state, followed by spontaneous radiative charge transfer and emission through an intermediate state. We find the optimal formation pathway and report radiative charge-exchange cross sections and vibrational distributions of participating electronic states. This work is partially supported by ARO.

  1. Atomistic Conversion Reaction Mechanism of WO3 in Secondary Ion Batteries of Li, Na, and Ca.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Haiyan; Luo, Langli; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Fei; Du, Yingge; Mao, Scott X; Wang, Chongmin

    2016-05-17

    Intercalation and conversion are two fundamental chemical processes for battery materials in response to ion insertion. The interplay between these two chemical processes has never been directly seen and understood at atomic scale. Here, using in situ HRTEM, we captured the atomistic conversion reaction processes during Li, Na, Ca insertion into a WO3 single crystal model electrode. An intercalation step prior to conversion is explicitly revealed at atomic scale for the first time for Li, Na, Ca. Nanoscale diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations revealed that after intercalation, the inserted ion-oxygen bond formation destabilizes the transition-metal framework which gradually shrinks, distorts and finally collapses to an amorphous W and Mx O (M=Li, Na, Ca) composite structure. This study provides a full atomistic picture of the transition from intercalation to conversion, which is of essential importance for both secondary ion batteries and electrochromic devices. PMID:27071488

  2. Characterization of the 70 kDa polypeptide of the Na/Ca exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Saba, R I; Bollen, A; Herchuelz, A

    1999-01-01

    The Na/Ca exchanger is associated with 160, 120 and 70 kDa polypeptides whose nature is poorly understood. We have purified and characterized the Na/Ca exchanger from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles (SLVs) by using ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The Na/Ca exchanger-enriched fraction was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes [lipid to protein ratio 10:1 (w/w)] that showed Na/Ca exchange activity. Under non-reducing conditions, SDS/PAGE showed a single 70 kDa polypeptide, which was further characterized by immunoblots with different antibodies: SWant, raised against the purified exchanger protein; NH2-terminus, residues 1-21; NCX1, residues 393-406; and Exon F, residues 622-644. Immunoblots under reducing conditions with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 showed three bands migrating at 160, 120 and 70 kDa for SLV preparations, whereas Exon F reacted only with the 160 and 120 kDa bands. Under non-reducing conditions, immunoblots with purified reconstituted Na/Ca exchanger showed a single band at 70 kDa reacting with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 but not with Exon F. We conclude that the 70 kDa protein is associated with Na/Ca exchange activity, has the same N-terminal sequence as the cloned bovine cardiac exchanger, and has its length decreased by at least 35% from its C-terminal portion as compared with that of the wild-type exchanger. PMID:9931309

  3. Close Association of Carbonic Anhydrase (CA2a and CA15a), Na+/H+ Exchanger (Nhe3b), and Ammonia Transporter Rhcg1 in Zebrafish Ionocytes Responsible for Na+ Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sayako; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Miyagi, Hisako; Esaki, Masahiro; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater (FW) fishes actively absorb salt from their environment to tolerate low salinities. We previously reported that vacuolar-type H+-ATPase/mitochondrion-rich cells (H-MRCs) on the skin epithelium of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) are primary sites for Na+ uptake. In this study, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism for the Na+ uptake, we performed a systematic analysis of gene expression patterns of zebrafish carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms and found that, of 12 CA isoforms, CA2a and CA15a are highly expressed in H-MRCs at larval stages. The ca2a and ca15a mRNA expression were salinity-dependent; they were upregulated in 0.03 mM Na+ water whereas ca15a but not ca2a was down-regulated in 70 mM Na+ water. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated cytoplasmic distribution of CA2a and apical membrane localization of CA15a. Furthermore, cell surface immunofluorescence staining revealed external surface localization of CA15a. Depletion of either CA2a or CA15a expression by Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a significant decrease in Na+ accumulation in H-MRCs. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated a very close association of CA2a, CA15a, Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (Nhe3b), and Rhcg1 ammonia transporter in H-MRC. Our findings suggest that CA2a, CA15a, and Rhcg1 play a key role in Na+uptake under FW conditions by forming a transport metabolon with Nhe3b. PMID:23565095

  4. Self-assembly of metal atoms (Na, K, Ca) on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2015-01-01

    A thorough search of the distribution pattern of Na, K, and Ca atoms on graphene surface, carried out using a synergistic combination of density functional theory and particle swarm optimization algorithm, yielded some unusual results. The equilibrium distribution is concentration and metal dependent; the metal atoms distribute uniformly when their coverage ratio M : C (M = Na, K, Ca) is 1 : 6, but Na and Ca atoms self-assemble to form parallel quasi-one-dimensional chains when their coverage is reduced to 1 : 8. At the higher concentration (M : C = 1 : 6), electron-phonon coupling calculations further show that the NaC6 is a superconductor with critical temperature of 5.8 K, which is the highest value among all the stable alkali or alkaline-earth metal decorated monolayer graphene systems studied to-date. At the lower concentration (M : C = 1 : 8) and depending on metal species, well-aligned atomic metal chains interact with graphene with varying intensity, making it possible to achieve either rigid or non-rigid band doping in graphene.A thorough search of the distribution pattern of Na, K, and Ca atoms on graphene surface, carried out using a synergistic combination of density functional theory and particle swarm optimization algorithm, yielded some unusual results. The equilibrium distribution is concentration and metal dependent; the metal atoms distribute uniformly when their coverage ratio M : C (M = Na, K, Ca) is 1 : 6, but Na and Ca atoms self-assemble to form parallel quasi-one-dimensional chains when their coverage is reduced to 1 : 8. At the higher concentration (M : C = 1 : 6), electron-phonon coupling calculations further show that the NaC6 is a superconductor with critical temperature of 5.8 K, which is the highest value among all the stable alkali or alkaline-earth metal decorated monolayer graphene systems studied to-date. At the lower concentration (M : C = 1 : 8) and depending on metal species, well-aligned atomic metal chains interact with

  5. Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AlN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uheda, K.; Hirosaki, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    2006-09-01

    New host lattice materials whose red phosphors for white LEDs have been investigated in the ternary system Ca3N2-AlN-Si3N4, just as Ca2Si5N8 and CaSiN2:Eu were found in the binary system Ca3N2-Si3N4. A new red phosphor of CaAlSiN3:Eu which is effectively excited by blue-GaN and near UV-GaInN LED chips has been synthesized at 1600 °C for 2 h and subsequently at 1800 °C for 2 h under nitrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The host-compound has an orthorhombic structure with the space group Cmc21 (No. 36), which is isotypic with LiSi2N3 and NaSi2N3. The red phosphor showed the emission peak around 650 nm which was assinged to 5d 4f of Eu2+ ion, and its color coordinates were estimated to be 0.667 and 0.327. The optimum concentration of Eu2+ ion was 1.6 mol%. The phosphor also had a high chemical stability, high quantum output, and especially a good thermal property compared to the other phosphors, Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+ and CaSiN2:Eu2+. CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ maintained 83% of the initial efficiency above 150 °C.

  6. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-09-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  7. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  8. Experimental and first-principles study of photoluminescent and optical properties of Na-doped CuAlO2: the role of the NaAl-2Na i complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruijian; Li, Yongfeng; Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhanhui; Deng, Rui; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Liu, Lei

    2015-08-01

    We report that a band-tail emission at 3.08 eV, lower than near-band-edge energy, is observed in photoluminescence measurements of bulk Na-doped CuAlO2. The band-tail emission is attributed to Na-related defects. Electronic structure calculations based on the first-principles method demonstrate that the donor-acceptor compensated complex of NaAl-2Na i in Na-doped CuAlO2 plays a key role in leading to the band-tail emission and bandgap narrowing. Furthermore, Hall effect measurements indicates that the hole concentration in CuAlO2 is independent on Na doping, which is well understood by the donor-acceptor compensation effect of NaAl-2Na i complex.

  9. The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase confer Ca2+/calmodulin sensitivity on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1995-01-01

    The C-terminal 165 amino acids of the rat brain plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+)-ATPase II containing the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain was connected to the C-terminus of the ouabain sensitive chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Expression of this chimeric molecule in ouabain resistant mouse L cells was assured by the high-affinity binding of [3H]ouabain. In the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, this chimeric molecule exhibited ouabain inhibitable Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity; the putative chimeric ATPase activity was absent in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and activated by Ca2+/calmodulin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this chimeric molecule could bind monoclonal IgG 5 specific to the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit only in the presence of Ca2+/calmodulin, suggesting that the epitope for IgG 5 in this chimera is masked in the absence of Ca2+/calmodulin and uncovered in their presence. These results propose a direct interaction between the calmodulin binding auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase and the specific regions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit that are structurally homologous to the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed several possible regions within the Na+,K(+)-ATPase that might interact with the auto-inhibitory domain of the PM Ca(2+)-ATPase. Images PMID:7828596

  10. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  11. Ultrafast bulk diffusion of AlHx in high-entropy dehydrogenation intermediates of NaAlH4 [Highly mobile AlHx species and the dehydogenation kinetics of NaAlH4

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Feng; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Yan; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming; Chou, Mei -Yin

    2014-07-21

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) and total-energy calculations, we demonstrate low-barrier bulk diffusion of Al-bearing species in γ-NaAlH4, a recently proposed high-entropy polymorph of NaAlH4. For charged AlH4– and neutral AlH3 vacancies, the computed barriers for diffusion are <0.1 eV, and we directly observe the predicted diffusive pathways in FPMD simulations at picosecond time scales. In contrast, such diffusion in the α phase is inaccessible to FPMD, consistent with much higher barriers. The transport behavior of γ-NaAlH4, in addition to key dynamical and structural signatures, is consistent with experimental observations of high-mobility species, strongly supporting the idea that an intermediatemore » transition from the α phase to a high-entropy polymorph facilitates the hydrogen-releasing decomposition of NaAlH4. Lastly, our results provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding the responsible agent for the experimentally observed efficient Al transport during dehydrogenation and suggest that mass transport and phase transformation kinetics are coupled. Implications for understanding the (de)hydrogenation of undoped and catalyzed NaAlH4 are discussed.« less

  12. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  13. Effect of zeolite NaY and Ca-montmorillonite on ethanol production using synthetic molasses.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ayşe; Ergun, Mübeccel

    2008-02-01

    The influence of Ca-Montmorillonite (Ca-MNT) and zeolite NaY addition on ethanol production from synthetic molasses by S. cerevisiae 251 TP(3-2) was studied by the measurement of biomass concentrations and metal ion concentration with respect to fermentation time. Addition of 5 g/L Ca-MNT and 10 g/L zeolite NaY resulted in an increase in both ethanol concentration and ethanol production rate. This increase was 24 and 40% for ethanol concentration and 65 and 87% for production rate, respectively. From the ion analyses, it was observed that the NaY added to the medium decreased the toxic concentration of zinc, manganese, and iron cations and acted also as a pH regulator. Ca-MNT added to the medium decreased the concentration of Na+ ions, which is known to have a toxic effect on glycolysis and cell concentration. These effects caused improvement in the ethanol production rate. PMID:18456947

  14. A Ca substitution study of NaV2O4: High-pressure synthesis of the Na1-xCaxV2O4 solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Tamas; Mitchell, John F.; Yamaura, Kazunari; Mandrus, David; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Ambient pressure CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} and high-pressure NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystallize in the CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure type containing double chains of edge-sharing VO{sub 6} octahedra. Recent measurements on NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal low-dimensional metallicity and evidence of half-metallic ferromagnetism. In contrast, CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is an antiferromagnetic insulator. To explore the evolution of these ground-state behaviors, we have prepared a series of Ca-doped NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} compounds with the formula Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0-1) using high-pressure synthesis. Samples at the Na end (x = 0-0.07) show a broad antiferromagnetic transition in the 120-160 K range in accordance with earlier reports. Transport measurements show an insulator-metal transition at x {approx} 0.2. Samples with higher Ca concentrations (x = 0.4-0.7) exhibit a metal-insulator transition around 150 K. The results for the Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solution is discussed in comparison to existing studies at the Ca- and Na-rich ends.

  15. Ultrafast Bulk Diffusion of AlHxin High-Entropy Dehydrogenation Intermediates of NaAlH4

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Wood, Brandon C; Wang, Yan; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-08-14

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) and total-energy calculations, we demonstrate low-barrier bulk diffusion of Al-bearing species in γ-NaAlH4, a recently proposed high-entropy polymorph of NaAlH4. For charged AlH4– and neutral AlH3 vacancies, the computed barriers for diffusion are <0.1 eV, and we directly observe the predicted diffusive pathways in FPMD simulations at picosecond time scales. In contrast, such diffusion in the α phase is inaccessible to FPMD, consistent with much higher barriers. The transport behavior of γ-NaAlH4, in addition to key dynamical and structural signatures, is consistent with experimental observations of high-mobility species, strongly supporting the idea that an intermediate transition from the α phase to a high-entropy polymorph facilitates the hydrogen-releasing decomposition of NaAlH4. Our results provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding the responsible agent for the experimentally observed efficient Al transport during dehydrogenation and suggest that mass transport and phase transformation kinetics are coupled. Implications for understanding the (de)hydrogenation of undoped and catalyzed NaAlH4 are discussed.

  16. Mechanosensitivity of an epithelial Na+ channel in planar lipid bilayers: release from Ca2+ block.

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, I I; Berdiev, B K; Shlyonsky, V G; Benos, D J

    1997-01-01

    A family of novel epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) have recently been cloned from several different tissues. Three homologous subunits (alpha, beta, gamma-ENaCs) from the core conductive unit of Na(+)-selective, amiloride-sensitive channels that are found in epithelia. We here report the results of a study assessing the regulation of alpha,beta,gamma-rENaC by Ca2+ in planar lipid bilayers. Buffering of the bilayer bathing solutions to [Ca2+] < 1 nM increased single-channel open probability by fivefold. Further investigation of this phenomenon revealed that Ca2+ ions produced a voltage-dependent block, affecting open probability but not the unitary conductance of ENaC. Imposing a hydrostatic pressure gradient across bilayers containing alpha,beta,gamma-rENaC markedly reduced the sensitivity of these channels to inhibition by [Ca2+]. Conversely, in the nominal absence of Ca2+, the channels lost their sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. These results suggest that the previously observed mechanical activation of ENaCs reflects a release of the channels from block by Ca2+. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:9138565

  17. The Na(+)/Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger 2 modulates mammalian cone phototransduction.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Keisuke; Vinberg, Frans; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) modulate the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate cone photoreceptors to tune gain, inactivation, and light adaptation. In darkness, the continuous current entering the cone outer segment through cGMP-gated (CNG) channels is carried in part by Ca(2+), which is then extruded back to the extracellular space. The mechanism of Ca(2+) extrusion from mammalian cones is not understood. The dominant view has been that the cone-specific isoform of the Na(+)/Ca(2+), K(+) exchanger, NCKX2, is responsible for removing Ca(2+) from their outer segments. However, indirect evaluation of cone function in NCKX2-deficient (Nckx2(-/-)) mice by electroretinogram recordings revealed normal photopic b-wave responses. This unexpected result suggested that NCKX2 may not be involved in the Ca(2+) homeostasis of mammalian cones. To address this controversy, we examined the expression of NCKX2 in mouse cones and performed transretinal recordings from Nckx2(-/-) mice to determine the effect of NCKX2 deletion on cone function directly. We found that Nckx2(-/-) cones exhibit compromised phototransduction inactivation, slower response recovery and delayed background adaptation. We conclude that NCKX2 is required for the maintenance of efficient Ca(2+) extrusion from mouse cones. However, surprisingly, Nckx2(-/-) cones adapted normally in steady background light, indicating the existence of additional Ca(2+)-extruding mechanisms in mammalian cones. PMID:27580676

  18. The Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger 2 modulates mammalian cone phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Keisuke; Vinberg, Frans; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ions (Ca2+) modulate the phototransduction cascade of vertebrate cone photoreceptors to tune gain, inactivation, and light adaptation. In darkness, the continuous current entering the cone outer segment through cGMP-gated (CNG) channels is carried in part by Ca2+, which is then extruded back to the extracellular space. The mechanism of Ca2+ extrusion from mammalian cones is not understood. The dominant view has been that the cone-specific isoform of the Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger, NCKX2, is responsible for removing Ca2+ from their outer segments. However, indirect evaluation of cone function in NCKX2-deficient (Nckx2−/−) mice by electroretinogram recordings revealed normal photopic b-wave responses. This unexpected result suggested that NCKX2 may not be involved in the Ca2+ homeostasis of mammalian cones. To address this controversy, we examined the expression of NCKX2 in mouse cones and performed transretinal recordings from Nckx2−/− mice to determine the effect of NCKX2 deletion on cone function directly. We found that Nckx2−/− cones exhibit compromised phototransduction inactivation, slower response recovery and delayed background adaptation. We conclude that NCKX2 is required for the maintenance of efficient Ca2+ extrusion from mouse cones. However, surprisingly, Nckx2−/− cones adapted normally in steady background light, indicating the existence of additional Ca2+-extruding mechanisms in mammalian cones. PMID:27580676

  19. Temperature variation of the size effect in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys: Measurement and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, H. M.; Asty, M.; Audit, Ph.

    1980-12-01

    Optical-interferometric-differential-length and x-ray lattice-parameter measurements performed at low temperatures in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys indicate that the temperature variation of the size effect corresponds to a relatively large difference between the intrinsic coefficient of thermal expansion βi of the solute atom structure and that, β, of the solvent. This result is another example of the surprising expansive properties of point defects previously described by Gilder and co-workers (high-temperature vacancy diffusion) and more recently by Ganne (low-temperature dilatometry on irradiated specimens). Specifically, in the temperature range 0.2Ca)β~-4. This, as well as the fact that the sign of the change in the coefficient of thermal expansion Δβ of the host metal caused by the introduction of the solute atom is positive for Mg and negative for Ca, indicates that solute-solvent valence effects play a minor role in determining the coefficient of thermal expansion of the dilute alloy. It is also found, to within the experimental precision, that Δβ(Mg) and Δβ(Ca) are temperature independent, suggesting a type of Matthiessen's rule for thermal expansion. A model calculation of the size effect and its temperature variation in the infinitely dilute alloy is presented. The volume-dependent forces are treated by means of a term describing the elastic energy associated with the solute-solvent volume misfit, whereas the temperature-dependent potential of Dagens et al. is used to calculate the pairwise interaction between the solvent ions and the solute ion. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the size effect in both AlMg and AlCa. The calculated values of Δβ(Mg)Ci, Ci being the solute concentration, and βi(Mg) fall between the measured values in the two AlMg alloys studied. The calculation of Δβ(Ca)Ci and βi(Ca) is not possible due to a lack of elastic-constants data for pure, metallic

  20. First-Principles Calculation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler LiCaC and NaCaC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umamaheswari, R.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Kalpana, G.

    2014-09-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of LiCaC and NaCaC compounds in half-Heusler structure have been studied using local density approximation (LDA) based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energy calculation, it is found that the compounds LiCaC and NaCaC are stable in ferromagnetic phase. The spin-polarized electronic band structure and density of states of these compounds show that the minority spin channel has metallic nature and the majority spin channel has a semiconducting gap of 2.27 and 2.0 eV for LiCaC and NaCaC respectively, resulting in a stable half-metallic ferromagnetic (HMF) behavior with magnetic moment of 1 μB per formula unit. Analysis of density of states of these compounds indicates that the magnetic moment mainly originates from the strong spin-polarization of 2p like states of C and the hybridization between the C-2p like states and the Ca-3d like states. The robustness of half-metallicity against the lattice constant is also calculated. Presence of HMF in LiCaC and NaCaC compounds without any transition metal makes these compounds promising materials for spintronic applications.

  1. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  2. Mercury'S Dark Plains West Of Caloris Basin--high Ca Clinopyroxene, Na-rich Plagioclase, Mg-rich Olivine, Tio2: Caloris Basin--k-spar, High Ca Clinopyroxene, Tio2, Na-rich Plagioclase, Hornblende And Mg- And Ca-rich Garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Ann L.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2008-09-01

    We identify mineral phases and approximate abundances on Mercury's surface for spectral measurements made over Caloris Basin and the dark plains to the west. Our results are obtained by fitting spectra obtained with the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) using an established spectral deconvolution algorithm (Ramsey 1996, Ph.D. Dissertation, ASU; Ramsey and Christiansen 1998, JGR). We have assembled several laboratory mineral spectral libraries (JHU, Salisbury et al. 1987, Open-File Report 87-263, USGS; JPL, http://speclib.jpl.nasa.gov; RELAB, http://www.planetary.brown.edu/relab; ASU, Christensen et al. 2000, JGR; BED, Helbert et al. 2007, Adv. Space Res.; USGS, Clark et al. 2007, USGS digital spectral library) with a wide range of known mineral compositions with grain sizes ranging from the finest separates, 0 - 45 µm, incrementally increasing to 250 - 400 µm. Head et al. and Murchie et al. (Science, 2008) show ample evidence for one or more episodes of extrusive volcanism in around Caloris Basin. Our spectral fitting suggests similarities and differences between Caloris infill and the dark plains to the west. Both contain high-Ca clinopyroxene, Mg-rich orthopyroxene (Sprague et al. 1998, Icarus), Na-rich to intermediate plagioclase (Sprague et al. 1994, Icarus), and TiO2 likely in the form of rutile. Sanidine appears to be the dominate K-spar in Caloris Basin, but not in the dark plains (Donaldson Hanna et al. 2008, EGU Abs). A slight improvement in spectral fitting was made to one spectrum from Caloris by including a Na- and K-rich hornblende. In addition small abundances of pyrope and grossular (Ca- and Mg-rich garnets) are apparently present in Caloris Basin infill. This indicates extrusive volcanic episodes moved lava to the surface quickly before entrained garnets from the upper mantle could dissolve and equilibrate with the source magma. This work was funded by NSF AST0406796.

  3. A Ca substitution study of NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} : high-pressure synthesis of the Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} slid solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, T.; Mitchell, J. F.; Yamaura, K.; Mandrus, D. G.; Wang, J.; ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Ambient pressure CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} and high-pressure NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystallize in the CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure type containing double chains of edge-sharing VO{sub 6} octahedra. Recent measurements on NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal low-dimensional metallicity and evidence of half-metallic ferromagnetism. In contrast, CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is an antiferromagnetic insulator. To explore the evolution of these ground-state behaviors, we have prepared a series of Ca-doped NaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} compounds with the formula Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0-1) using high-pressure synthesis. Samples at the Na end (x = 0-0.07) show a broad antiferromagnetic transition in the 120-160 K range in accordance with earlier reports. Transport measurements show an insulator-metal transition at x {approx} 0.2. Samples with higher Ca concentrations (x = 0.4-0.7) exhibit a metal-insulator transition around 150 K. The results for the Na{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}V{sub 2}O{sub 4} solid solution is discussed in comparison to existing studies at the Ca- and Na-rich ends.

  4. Endothelial Angiogenesis and Barrier Function in Response to Thrombin Require Ca2+ Influx through the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger*

    PubMed Central

    Andrikopoulos, Petros; Kieswich, Julius; Harwood, Steven M.; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio; Barbeau, Olivier; Jones, Keith; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Yaqoob, Muhammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin acts on the endothelium by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). The endothelial thrombin-PAR system becomes deregulated during pathological conditions resulting in loss of barrier function and a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic endothelial phenotype. We reported recently that the ion transporter Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the Ca2+-influx (reverse) mode promoted ERK1/2 activation and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated primary human vascular endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether Ca2+ influx through NCX was involved in ERK1/2 activation, angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to thrombin. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and RNAi-mediated NCX1 knockdown attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin or an agonist of PAR-1, the main endothelial thrombin receptor. Conversely, promoting reverse-mode NCX by suppressing Na+-K+-ATPase activity enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced primary human vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, quantified as proliferation and tubular differentiation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors or NCX1 knockdown preserved barrier integrity upon thrombin stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the reverse-mode NCX inhibitor SEA0400 suppressed Evans' blue albumin extravasation to the lung and kidneys and attenuated edema formation and ERK1/2 activation in the lungs of mice challenged with a peptide activator of PAR-1. Mechanistically, thrombin-induced ERK1/2 activation required NADPH oxidase 2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced ROS production. We propose that reverse-mode NCX is a novel mechanism contributing to thrombin-induced angiogenesis and hyperpermeability by mediating ERK1/2 activation in a ROS-dependent manner. Targeting reverse-mode NCX could be beneficial in pathological conditions involving

  5. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    PubMed Central

    Mijares, Alfredo; Altamirano, Francisco; Kolster, Juan; Adams, José A.; López, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]d) and diastolic Na+ concentration ([Na+]d) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd3+)-sensitive Ca2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP3-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd3+ normalized both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca2+ entry through Gd3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP3 receptors. PMID:25242522

  6. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca(2+) and Na(+) concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca(2+) entry and IP3.

    PubMed

    Mijares, Alfredo; Altamirano, Francisco; Kolster, Juan; Adams, José A; López, José R

    2014-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]d) and diastolic Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]d) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd(3+))-sensitive Ca(2+) entry and inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca(2+)]d and [Na(+)]d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca(2+)]d and [Na(+)]d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd(3+) treatment significantly reduced both [Ca(2+)]d and [Na(+)]d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP3-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd(3+) normalized both [Ca(2+)]d and [Na(+)]d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca(2+) entry through Gd(3+) sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP3 receptors. PMID:25242522

  7. Development and bioactivity evaluation of bioglasses with low Na2O content based on the system Na 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5-SiO 2.

    PubMed

    El-Meliegy, Emad; Hamzawy, Esmat M A; El-Kady, Abeer M; Salama, Aida; El-Rashedi, Ahalam

    2012-09-01

    Osteoconductive bioglasses, free of K(2)O and Al(2)O(3) and with content of Na(2)O lower than 10 mol%, were designed based on the ratio (SiO(2) + MgO)/(P(2)O(5) + CaO + Na(2)O) in the system Na(2)O-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2). The developed glasses have shown a strong potential for the formation of hydroxycarbonated apatite (HCA) in vitro. The particles of HCA aggregates tend to be of finer size with increasing the ratio of (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) in the glass chemical composition indicating significant bioactivity. Critical size bone defects created in the femurs of albino adult female rats, and grafted with the glass particles for 12 weeks post implantation, were completely healed by filling with mineralized bone matrix without infection showing a strong potential for new bone formation in vivo. Osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed close to the surface of the granular implants with active areas of bone deposition, resorption and remodelling. The bioglass with lowest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) ratio has shown the highest bioactivity while the bioglass with the highest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) has shown the lowest bioactivity. The newly formed bone in vivo has shown a similar structure to that of the original bone as indicated by the histology and microstructural results. In addition, Ca/P molar ratio of the newly formed bone was found to be (~1.67), which is similar to that of the original bone.

  8. Development and bioactivity evaluation of bioglasses with low Na2O content based on the system Na 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5-SiO 2.

    PubMed

    El-Meliegy, Emad; Hamzawy, Esmat M A; El-Kady, Abeer M; Salama, Aida; El-Rashedi, Ahalam

    2012-09-01

    Osteoconductive bioglasses, free of K(2)O and Al(2)O(3) and with content of Na(2)O lower than 10 mol%, were designed based on the ratio (SiO(2) + MgO)/(P(2)O(5) + CaO + Na(2)O) in the system Na(2)O-CaO-MgO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2). The developed glasses have shown a strong potential for the formation of hydroxycarbonated apatite (HCA) in vitro. The particles of HCA aggregates tend to be of finer size with increasing the ratio of (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) in the glass chemical composition indicating significant bioactivity. Critical size bone defects created in the femurs of albino adult female rats, and grafted with the glass particles for 12 weeks post implantation, were completely healed by filling with mineralized bone matrix without infection showing a strong potential for new bone formation in vivo. Osteoblasts and osteocytes were observed close to the surface of the granular implants with active areas of bone deposition, resorption and remodelling. The bioglass with lowest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) ratio has shown the highest bioactivity while the bioglass with the highest (SiO(2) + MgO)/(CaO + P(2)O(5) + Na(2)O) has shown the lowest bioactivity. The newly formed bone in vivo has shown a similar structure to that of the original bone as indicated by the histology and microstructural results. In addition, Ca/P molar ratio of the newly formed bone was found to be (~1.67), which is similar to that of the original bone. PMID:22648420

  9. Origin of Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs of Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.

    1985-02-01

    Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs in the Gulf Coast have been attributed to the diagenesis of concentrated Jurassic seawater related to Louann Salt deposition and alternatively to the diagenesis of brines produced by halie dissolution. These brines contain up to 35,000 mg/L Ca, up to 4000 mg/L, from 400 to 2400 mgL Br, and up to 13,000 mg/L K. Mutual relationships of Na, Cl, total divalent cations minus sulfate and bicarbonate, K, and Br are similar to those in seawater that has been evaporated past the initial stage of halite deposition, particularly when the K content of the brine exceeds 5000 mg/L. The concentrations of divalent cations and K increase, and the mutual relationships of all the dissolved salts become increasingly similar to those in seawater with increasing proximity to bedded salt. The abundance of authigenic K-feldspar in rocks above the salt beds explains the relatively rapid decrease in the K content of the brines upsection. The Ca and K contents of Jurassic Gulf Coast brines are similar to those in Na-Ca-Cl brines in feldspar-poor carbonate sequences in other basins.

  10. Density Measurements of Low Silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhmood, Luckman; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-08-01

    Density measurements of a low-silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were carried out using the Archimedes principle. A Pt 30 pct Rh bob and wire arrangement was used for this purpose. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained from the model developed in the current group as well as with other results reported earlier. The density for the CaO-SiO2 and the CaO-Al2O3 binary slag systems also was estimated from the ternary values. The extrapolation of density values for high-silica systems also showed good agreement with previous works. An estimation for the density value of CaO was made from the current experimental data. The density decrease at high temperatures was interpreted based on the silicate structure. As the mole percent of SiO2 was below the 33 pct required for the orthosilicate composition, discrete {text{SiO}}4^{4 - } tetrahedral units in the silicate melt would exist along with O2- ions. The change in melt expansivity may be attributed to the ionic expansions in the order of {text{Al}}^{ 3+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ - } Structural changes in the ternary slag also could be correlated to a drastic change in the value of enthalpy of mixing.

  11. Trafficking of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger to the site of persistent inflammation in nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Nicole N; Gold, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Persistent inflammation results in an increase in the amplitude and duration of depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) transients in putative nociceptive afferents. Previous data indicated that these changes were the result of neither increased neuronal excitability nor an increase in the amplitude of depolarization. Subsequent data also ruled out an increase in voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents and recruitment of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Parametric studies indicated that the inflammation-induced increase in the duration of the evoked Ca(2+) transient required a relatively large and long-lasting increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) implicating the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), a major Ca(2+) extrusion mechanism activated with high intracellular Ca(2+) loads. The contribution of NCX to the inflammation-induced increase in the evoked Ca(2+) transient in rat sensory neurons was tested using fura-2 AM imaging and electrophysiological recordings. Changes in NCX expression and protein were assessed with real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. An inflammation-induced decrease in NCX activity was observed in a subpopulation of putative nociceptive neurons innervating the site of inflammation. The time course of the decrease in NCX activity paralleled that of the inflammation-induced changes in nociceptive behavior. The change in NCX3 in the cell body was associated with a decrease in NCX3 protein in the ganglia, an increase in the peripheral nerve (sciatic) yet no change in the central root. This single response to inflammation is associated with changes in at least three different segments of the primary afferent, all of which are likely to contribute to the dynamic response to persistent inflammation. PMID:26041911

  12. Trafficking of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger to the site of persistent inflammation in nociceptive afferents.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Nicole N; Gold, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Persistent inflammation results in an increase in the amplitude and duration of depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) transients in putative nociceptive afferents. Previous data indicated that these changes were the result of neither increased neuronal excitability nor an increase in the amplitude of depolarization. Subsequent data also ruled out an increase in voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents and recruitment of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Parametric studies indicated that the inflammation-induced increase in the duration of the evoked Ca(2+) transient required a relatively large and long-lasting increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) implicating the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), a major Ca(2+) extrusion mechanism activated with high intracellular Ca(2+) loads. The contribution of NCX to the inflammation-induced increase in the evoked Ca(2+) transient in rat sensory neurons was tested using fura-2 AM imaging and electrophysiological recordings. Changes in NCX expression and protein were assessed with real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. An inflammation-induced decrease in NCX activity was observed in a subpopulation of putative nociceptive neurons innervating the site of inflammation. The time course of the decrease in NCX activity paralleled that of the inflammation-induced changes in nociceptive behavior. The change in NCX3 in the cell body was associated with a decrease in NCX3 protein in the ganglia, an increase in the peripheral nerve (sciatic) yet no change in the central root. This single response to inflammation is associated with changes in at least three different segments of the primary afferent, all of which are likely to contribute to the dynamic response to persistent inflammation.

  13. Transport of K+ by Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchanger in isolated rods of lizard retina.

    PubMed Central

    Rispoli, G; Navangione, A; Vellani, V

    1995-01-01

    Transport of K+ by the photoreceptor Na(+)-Ca2+, K+ exchanger was investigated in isolated rod outer segments (OS) by recording membrane current under whole-cell voltage-clamp conditions. Known amounts of K+ were imported in the OS through the Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels while perfusing with high extracellular concentration of K+, [K+]o. These channels were detected in the recordings from the OS, which probably retained a small portion of the rest of the cell. The activation of forward exchange (Na+ imported per Ca2+ and K+ extruded) by intracellular K+, Ki+, was described by first-order kinetics with a Michaelis constant, Kapp(Ki+), of about 2 mM and a maximal current, Imax, of about -60 pA. [Na+]i larger than 100 mM had little effect on Kapp(Ki+) and Imax, indicating that Nai+ did not compete with Ki+ for exchange sites under physiological conditions, and that Na+ release at the exchanger intracellular side was not a rate-limiting step for the exchange process. Exchanger stoichiometry resulted in one K+ ion extruded per one positive charge imported. Exchange current was detected only if Ca2+ and K+ were present on the same membrane side, and Na+ was simultaneously present on the opposite side. Nonelectrogenic modes of ion exchange were tested taking advantage of the hindered diffusion found for Cai2+ and Ki+. Experiments were carried out so that the occurrence of a putative nonelectrogenic ion exchange, supposedly induced by the preapplication of certain extracellular ion(s), would have resulted in the transient presence of both Cai2+ and Ki+. The lack of electrogenic forward exchange in a subsequent switch to high Nao+, excluded the presence of previous nonelectrogenic transport. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7669912

  14. Intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ Modulation Increases the Tensile Properties of Developing Engineered Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Natoli, Roman M.; Skaalure, Stacey; Bijlani, Shweta; Chen, Ke X.; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Significant collagen content and tensile properties are difficult to achieve in articular cartilage tissue engineering. This study investigated whether treating developing tissue engineered cartilage constructs with modulators of intracellular Na+ or Ca2+ could increase collagen concentration and tensile properties. Methods Inhibitors of Na+ ion transporters and increasers of intracellular Ca2+ were investigated for their ability to affect articular cartilage development in a scaffold-less, 3D chondrocyte culture. Using a systematic approach, ouabain (Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor), bumetanide (Na+/K+/2Cl− tritransporter inhibitor), histamine (cAMP activator), and ionomycin (a Ca2+ ionophore) were applied to tissue engineered constructs for 1 hr per day on days 10–14 of culture and examined at 2 or 4 wks. Gross morphology, biochemical content, and compressive and tensile mechanical properties of the constructs were assayed. Results Analysis showed that 20 µM ouabain, 0.3 µM ionomycin, or their combination increased the tensile modulus by 40–95% compared to untreated controls and resulted in increased collagen normalized to wet weight. In constructs exposed to ouabain, the increased collagen per wet weight was secondary to decreased GAG production on a per cell basis. Treatment with 20 µM ouabain also increased the neo-tissue’s ultimate tensile strength 56–86% at 4 wks. Other construct properties, such as construct growth and collagen type I production, were affected differently by Na+ modulation with ouabain versus Ca2+ modulation with ionomycin. Conclusions These data are the first to show that treatments known to alter intracellular ion concentrations are a viable method for increasing the mechanical properties of engineered articular cartilage and identify potentially important relationships to hydrostatic pressure mechanotransduction. Ouabain and ionomycin may be useful pharmacological agents for increasing tensile integrity and directing

  15. In dialyzed squid axons oxidative stress inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by impairing the Cai2+-regulatory site.

    PubMed

    DiPolo, Reinaldo; Beaugé, Luis

    2011-09-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, a major mechanism by which cells extrude calcium, is involved in several physiological and physiopathological interactions. In this work we have used the dialyzed squid giant axon to study the effects of two oxidants, SIN-1-buffered peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the absence and presence of MgATP upregulation. The results show that oxidative stress induced by peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide inhibits the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by impairing the intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(i)(2+))-regulatory sites, leaving unharmed the intracellular Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-transporting sites. This effect is efficiently counteracted by the presence of MgATP and by intracellular alkalinization, conditions that also protect H(i)(+) and (H(i)(+) + Na(i)(+)) inhibition of Ca(i)(2+)-regulatory sites. In addition, 1 mM intracellular EGTA reduces oxidant inhibition. However, once the effects of oxidants are installed they cannot be reversed by either MgATP or EGTA. These results have significant implications regarding the role of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in response to pathological conditions leading to tissue ischemia-reperfusion and anoxia/reoxygenation; they concur with a marked reduction in ATP concentration, an increase in oxidant production, and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that seems to be the main factor responsible for cell damage.

  16. CGP37157, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, protects neurons from excitotoxicity by blocking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, A; Alberdi, E; Matute, C

    2014-04-10

    Inhibition of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX) by CGP37157 is protective in models of neuronal injury that involve disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, the Ca(2+) signaling pathways and stores underlying neuroprotection by that inhibitor are not well defined. In the present study, we analyzed how intracellular Ca(2+) levels are modulated by CGP37157 (10 μM) during NMDA insults in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. We initially assessed the presence of NCLX in mitochondria of cultured neurons by immunolabeling, and subsequently, we analyzed the effects of CGP37157 on neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis using cameleon-based mitochondrial Ca(2+) and cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) live imaging. We observed that NCLX-driven mitochondrial Ca(2+) exchange occurs in cortical neurons under basal conditions as CGP37157 induced a decrease in [Ca(2)]i concomitant with a Ca(2+) accumulation inside the mitochondria. In turn, CGP37157 also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux after the stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. In contrast, CGP37157 strongly prevented depolarization-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), whereas it did not induce depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores. Moreover, mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload was reduced as a consequence of diminished Ca(2+) entry through VGCCs. The decrease in cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload by CGP37157 resulted in a reduction of excitotoxic mitochondrial damage, characterized here by a reduction in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, oxidative stress and calpain activation. In summary, our results provide evidence that during excitotoxicity CGP37157 modulates cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics that leads to attenuation of NMDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death by blocking VGCCs.

  17. Altered Na/Ca exchange distribution in ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gadeberg, Hanne C.; Bryant, Simon M.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca efflux via Na/Ca exchange (NCX) occurs predominantly at T tubules. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubular structure, but its effect on t-tubular function is less clear. We therefore investigated t-tubular NCX activity in ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ∼18 wk after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding sham operation (Sham). NCX current (INCX) and l-type Ca current (ICa) were recorded using the whole cell, voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated (DT) myocytes; intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i) was monitored simultaneously using fluo-4. INCX was activated and measured during application of caffeine to release Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Whole cell INCX was not significantly different in Sham and CAL myocytes and occurred predominantly in the T tubules in Sham myocytes. CAL was associated with redistribution of INCX and ICa away from the T tubules to the cell surface and an increase in t-tubular INCX/ICa density from 0.12 in Sham to 0.30 in CAL myocytes. The decrease in t-tubular INCX in CAL myocytes was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of Ca sequestered by SR. However, SR Ca content was not significantly different in Sham, Sham DT, and CAL myocytes but was significantly increased by DT of CAL myocytes. In Sham myocytes, there was hysteresis between INCX and [Ca]i, which was absent in DT Sham but present in CAL and DT CAL myocytes. These data suggest altered distribution of NCX in CAL myocytes. PMID:26566728

  18. Study of cesium sorption on Na and Ca-Mg bentonites using batch and diffusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejsada, J.; Vokál, A.; Vopálka, D.; Filipská, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the cesium sorption on two different bentonites (Ca-Mg bentonite Rokle and Na bentonite Volclay KWK 20 80) has been compared using two different experimental approaches — batch and diffusion methods. The distribution coefficients (Kds) calculated for variable liquid-to-solid ratio (batch) and dry density (diffusion) were evaluated with respect to the main uncertainties affecting both approaches. It has been concluded that there are significant differences between selected bentonites in mineral composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and sorption characteristics. The Kd values calculated from batch sorption and diffusion data were found comparable only for Na bentonite Volclay KWK 20 80. The considerably higher sorption of Cs on Ca-Mg bentonite Rokle was explained by its higher content of cesium-selective sorbents (illite, vermiculite).

  19. Chemical short-range order and the Meyer - Neldel rule for liquid alloys: AlCa and GaAlCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, D.; Schnyders, H. S.; Van Zytveld, J. B.

    1997-02-01

    We have measured the electrical resistivity, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img1, its specific temperature dependence, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img2, and the thermopower, S, of two series of ternary liquid alloys: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img3 and 0953-8984/9/7/006/img4. We also provide new analysis for the binary liquid alloy AlCa. We do not see the unusually large values for S that were found earlier for amorphous solid ternary alloys of the approximate composition 0953-8984/9/7/006/img5. We do find that, while chemical short-range order (CSRO) appears to occur in the liquid binary alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img6, CSRO is apparently destroyed by substitution of one Ga atom for one Al per complex: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img7. CSRO may exist in the liquid alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img8. And we find that the activated conductivities of these ternary liquid alloys (and also of liquid AlCa) are consistent with the Meyer - Neldel rule (MNR), extending the range of applicability of the MNR to systems with activation energies about an order of magnitude smaller than previously observed. These results appear to rule out two physical models as universal bases for the MNR, but are consistent with one based on a hopping conductivity whose characteristic energy is that of a polaron shift.

  20. Changes in 22Na influx and outflux in Daphnia magna (Straus) as a function of elevated Al concentrations in soft water at low pH

    PubMed Central

    Havas, Magda; Likens, Gene E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) on sodium (Na) regulation by the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna were determined. 22Na influx and outflux experiments were conducted in soft water adjusted to pH 4.5, 5.0, and 6.5 (reference pH) with either ambient (0.02 mg/liter) or high (1.02 mg/liter) concentrations of total Al. The results indicate that Al toxicity was pH dependent. Aluminum increased the rate of morbidity of D. magna at pH 6.5, had no additional effect to those of hydrogen ions (H+) at pH 5.0, and reduced the rate of morbidity at pH 4.5. Both H+ and total Al concentrations interfered with Na regulation, although it was possible to distinguish between their respective effects by using 22Na. At pH 6.5, Al decreased 22Na influx (by 46%) and increased 22Na outflux (by 25%), which led to a net loss of Na. At pH 5.0, Al reduced 22Na influx (by 58%) but had no additional effect to that of H+ on 22Na outflux. At pH 4.5, 22Na influx was significantly inhibited (by 73%) compared with the reference pH 6.5 treatment even in the absence of Al. Aluminum decreased 22Na outflux (by 31%) at pH 4.5, which reduced the net loss of Na and temporarily prolonged survival of the daphnids. These results indicate that Al affects both 22Na influx and outflux in D. magna. The lower rate of Na uptake may involve a denaturation of the enzyme responsible for the active uptake of Na. At pH 6.5, the increased outflux of 22Na may be due to either increased membrane permeability or increased renal losses (or both). At pH 4.5, the reduced outflux of 22Na resembles the amelioration that occurs in the presence of elevated Ca concentrations. PMID:16593623

  1. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen.

  2. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen. PMID:20457449

  3. LiCaAlF6 scintillators in neutron and gamma radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Klupák, V.; Vinš, M.; Koleška, M.; Šoltés, J.; Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, M.

    2016-09-01

    Intentionally doped LiCaAlF6 (LiCAF) single crystals are prospective scintillators, especially for thermal neutron detection through the 6Li(n,t)4He nuclear reaction. Four different LiCAF scintillator samples were tested in various neutron and gamma fields. Two of the tested samples were LiCAF:Eu and LiCAF:Eu,Na single crystals, and another two samples were made of LiCAF:Eu micro crystals dispersed in transparent rubber, with different rubber dimensions. All LiCAF samples contain lithium enriched to6Li. A plutonium-beryllium source was used as a neutron source. The neutron spectrum was modified by moderator and filter to get different ratios between thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluence rates. The MCNP code was used for calculations of the fluence rates for different configurations. Radionuclides 137Cs and 60Co were applied as gamma radiation sources. The light signal from the scintillator was evaluated with a photomultiplier and a multichannel analyzer. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of LiCAF scintillators, especially the ability to discriminate signals from neutron and gamma radiation, which is the basic scintillator condition for neutron detection in mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields. Generally, the discrimination can be done by the pulse height and/or the pulse shape of the evaluated signals. Both methods can be used for a LiCAF scintillator. However, only the pulse height discrimination method is discussed in this paper. The possibility of fast neutron detection with LiCAF scintillators was also tested.

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence in LiCaAlF6:Eu2+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    More, Y K; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Kumar, Munish; Chougaonkar, M P

    2015-09-01

    Results on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) are reported. Continuous wave OSL signal as recorded using blue (470 nm) stimulation was found to be ~31% that of standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate. The rate of OSL depletion for standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate is only three times less as compared with that of LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+). Strong photoluminescence (PL) in the near ultraviolet region is observed for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) with the characteristic Eu(2+) emission at 369 nm for 254 nm excitation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) was observed at around 180°C. The glow peak was about six times more intense compared with the dosimetric peak of the well known thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) phosphor LiF-TLD 100. Thus this phosphor deserves much more attention than it has received until now and may be useful as a dosimetric material in radiation dosimetry. PMID:25620581

  5. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Al2O3 Inclusions in Low Sulfur Al-Killed Steel After Calcium Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfei; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiments of alumina inclusions modified by calcium treatment in Al-killed steel were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C), and the inclusions in steel samples were characterized at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after calcium addition. The results show that the type of inclusions after calcium treatment was determined by the sulfur and T.O contents of steel. CaS-Al2O3 inclusions were obtained in steels with high sulfur and low T.O contents. The mass ratio between CaS and Al2O3 was determined by T.Ca and T.O contents of steel. The influence of holding time after calcium addition on the composition of inclusions was negligible. The thermodynamics for the formation of CaS-Al2O3 inclusions after calcium treatment was discussed, and a simple formation mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the CaO, Al2O3, and CaS contents in the inclusions were predicted through the sulfur, total calcium (T.Ca), and T.O contents, and it was found that the CaO content decreases with increasing S/T.O, while (pctCaS)/(pctAl2O3)1/3 increases with increasing T.Ca/T.O.

  6. Spectroscopy and lasing of cryogenically cooled Yb, Na:CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugžlys, A.; Andriukaitis, G.; Sidorov, D.; Irshad, A.; Baltuška, A.; Lai, W. J.; Phua, P. B.; Su, L.; Xu, J.; Li, H.; Li, R.; Ališauskas, S.; Marcinkevičius, A.; Fermann, M. E.; Giniūnas, L.; Danielius, R.

    2009-10-01

    Absorption, photoluminescence and cw-lasing properties of a novel Na+-codoped Yb3+:CaF2 laser crystal are investigated in the temperature range from 10 K to 290 K. Cryogenic cooling leads to the disappearance of the ground-state absorption in the spectral region above 1000 nm and a substantial increase of emission and absorption cross-sections. A particular advantage of the Yb3+, Na+-codoped CaF2 crystal lies in the possibility of a direct pumping in the vicinity of the zero phonon line while nearly perfectly avoiding an overlap with the stimulated emission. Further advantages of the low-temperature operation are demonstrated by achieving a close to the theoretical limit slope efficiency of 92% in a cw-laser operation with an output coupler of 28%. By seeding stretched pulses from a femtosecond Yb fiber oscillator into a cryogenically cooled DPSS Yb3+, Na+:CaF2 regenerative amplifier, we obtain >3-mJ pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate with a spectral bandwidth exceeding 12 nm. The pulses are compressed with a single grating compressor to 173 fs as verified by SHG FROG. Shaping of the spectral amplitude of the seed and active control of the higher-order phase is shown to be crucial for obtaining sub-200-fs pulses at multi-mJ energies.

  7. Ca-,Al-rich inclusions in the unique chondrite ALH85085 - Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.; Palme, H.; Zinner, E.

    1993-05-01

    A comprehensive study is performed for the Ca-,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the unique chondrite ALH85085. The ALH85085 inclusions are smaller (5-80 microns) and more refractory than their counterparts in carbonaceous chondrites. The study includes 42 inclusions for petrography and mineralogy, 15 for bulk major and minor element chemical composition, six for Mg-Al isotopic systematics, 10 for Ca isotopes, nine for Ti isotopes, and six for trace element abundances. In addition, oxygen-isotopic compositions were determined in minerals from a single inclusion. No correlation is found between mineralogy, major element chemistry, and trace element abundances. It is further shown that the high-temperature geochemical behavior of ultrarefractory trace elements is decoupled from that of the major elements Ca and Ti (Ti is correlated with the relatively volatile elements Nb and Yb) implying that perovskite is of only minor importance as carrier of ultrarefractories.

  8. Complexation of pectin with macro- and microelements. Antianemic activity of Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe complexes.

    PubMed

    Minzanova, S T; Mironov, V F; Vyshtakalyuk, A B; Tsepaeva, O V; Mironova, L G; Mindubaev, A Z; Nizameev, I R; Kholin, K V; Milyukov, V A

    2015-12-10

    New water-soluble pectin complexes with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) on the basis of pectin biopolymer have been synthesized and successfully tested on white rats. For a starting, we have obtained a sodium pectate to enhance solubility of target complexes as a whole. Shortly afterwards, running the reaction of ligand exchange of Nа(+) ions with corresponding s-, d- metal cations we were able to synthesize new pectin complexes. The ranges of s-, d-metals salts concentrations were detected experimentally, in which the selective formation of water-soluble complexes occurred. Antianemic effect of new pectin complexes with Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe was investigated on white rats with posthemorrhagic anemia. Under the effect of complexes, the improvement of animals and prevention of erythropoiesis disorders were observed. Antianemic effect of the complexes manifested itself in the doses equivalent to 25% or 50% of the iron daily rate, recommended in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with the drugs based on iron sulphate. PMID:26428154

  9. Investigation of Ti-doped NaAlH4 by solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R; Majzoub, E; Herberg, J

    2003-11-24

    In recent years, the development of Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4} as a hydrogen storage material has gained attention because of its large weight percentage of hydrogen ({approx}5%) compared to traditional interstitial hydrides. The addition of transition-metal dopants, in the form of Ti-halides, such as TiCl{sub 3}, dramatically improves the kinetics of the absorption and desorption of hydrogen from NaAlH{sub 4}. However, the role that Ti plays in enhancing the absorption and desorption of H{sub 2} is still unknown. In the present study, {sup 27}Al, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 1}H MAS (Magic Angle Spinning) NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) has been performed to understand the titanium speciation in Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. All experiments were performed on a sample of crushed single crystals exposed to Ti during growth, a sample of solvent-mixed 4TiCl{sub 3} + 112NaAlH{sub 4}, a reacted sample of solvent-mixed TiCl{sub 3} + {sup 3}NaAlH{sub 4} with THF, and a reacted sample of ball-milled TiCl3 + 3NaAlH{sub 4}. The {sup 27}Al MAS NMR has shown differences in compound formation between solvent-mixed TiCl{sub 3} + 3NaAlH{sub 4} with THF and the mechanically ball-milled TiCl{sub 3} + 3NaAlH{sub 4}. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR of the mechanically ball-milled mixture of fully-reacted TiCl{sub 3} + 3NaAlH{sub 4} showed spectral signatures of TiAl{sub 3} while, the solvent-mixed 4TiCl{sub 3} + 112NaAlH{sub 4}, which is totally reacted, does not show the presences of TiAl{sub 3}, but shows the existence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. Identical unitary current amplitude and Ca(2+) block of cardiac Na channel before and during beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Y; Hiraoka, M

    2001-12-01

    We examined the possibility of Ca(2+) permeation through cardiac Na channels ("slip mode conductance") by an analysis of the voltage-dependent block of Na channels by Ca(2+). A Ca(2+) block of Na channels was evident in rat and guinea pig ventricular myocytes during cell-attached single channel recordings with a physiological ionic environment (140 mM Na(+) and 1 to 10 mM Ca(2+) in the pipette solution). Increasing external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) in the pipette solution reduced the unitary current amplitude predominantly at negative potentials. With [Ca(2+)](o) > 1 mM, unitary current amplitude did not increase at potentials negative to -40 mV in spite of augmented driving forces. The application of 5 microM isoproterenol potentiated the single channel activity elicited by depolarizing pulses from the holding potential of -120 mV, indicating that the channels in the patch under examination were modified by protein kinase A (PKA) stimulation. Increased activity was also confirmed with veratridine-modified Na channels, where channel openings were markedly prolonged. In either case, isoproterenol-induced potentiation neither reduced nor altered the properties of Ca(2+) block of cardiac Na channels, as evidenced by the stable unitary current amplitudes at potential levels from -60 to -20 mV. These results indicate that interactions among Na(+), Ca(2+), and the channel molecule were not modified with respect to permeation properties. They therefore argue against the "slip mode" concept of classical cardiac Na channel if a general concept of ion permeation through "multi-ion pores" is applicable to determine the ionic selectivity of Na channels.

  11. Estimation of the solubility product of hydrocalumite-hydroxide, a layered double hydroxide with the formula of [Ca2Al(OH)6]OH·nH2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-11-01

    From aqueous NaOH/Ca(OH)2/NaAl(OH)4 mixtures, after allowing short reaction times we observed the precipitation of Ca(OH)2(s) at lower, and a mixture of Ca(OH)2(s) and a layered double hydroxide, hydrocalumite (HC) at higher aluminate concentrations. From the maximum aluminate concentration, at which the equilibrium solid phase is still portlandite (i.e., further increase in the aluminate concentration results in HC appearing in the precipitate beside the portlandite), the concentration based solubility products of two polymorphs of HC with the formula of [Ca2Al(OH)6]OH·nH2O (differing in n) has been estimated and was found to be log LHC=-11.4 at 25 °C and -12.1 at 75 °C, respectively (where LHC=[Ca2+]2[Al(OH)4-][OH-]3) and at constant ionic strength (I=1 M NaCl). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published estimate for the solubility product of hydrocalumite. Additionally, from the composition obtained for NaOH/Ca(OH)2/NaAl(OH)4 mother liquors in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2(s), attempts were made to extract the formation constant of the ion pair CaAl(OH)4+. It was found, that the effects caused by the supposed formation of this solution species are too small to be reliably determined, which allowed an upper estimate for its formation constant, K, to be suggested in the temperature range of 25-75 °C (K<200 and 40 M-1 at 25 and 75 °C, respectively).

  12. Hypoxia Leads to Na,K-ATPase Downregulation via Ca2+ Release-Activated Ca2+ Channels and AMPK Activation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gusarova, Galina A.; Trejo, Humberto E.; Dada, Laura A.; Briva, Arturo; Welch, Lynn C.; Hamanaka, Robert B.; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Prakriya, Murali; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2011-01-01

    To maintain cellular ATP levels, hypoxia leads to Na,K-ATPase inhibition in a process dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of AMP-activated kinase α1 (AMPK-α1). We report here that during hypoxia AMPK activation does not require the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) but requires the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of STIM1 to ER-plasma membrane junctions, leading to calcium entry via Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. This increase in intracellular Ca2+ induces Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-mediated AMPK activation and Na,K-ATPase downregulation. Also, in cells unable to generate mitochondrial ROS, hypoxia failed to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration while a STIM1 mutant rescued the AMPK activation, suggesting that ROS act upstream of Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CRAC channel function in rat lungs prevented the impairment of alveolar fluid reabsorption caused by hypoxia. These data suggest that during hypoxia, calcium entry via CRAC channels leads to AMPK activation, Na,K-ATPase downregulation, and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. PMID:21730292

  13. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 and LiCaAlF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.

    1996-01-01

    Ce.sup.3+ -doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF.sub.6 type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF.sub.6 and LiSrGaF.sub.6, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator.

  14. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} and LiCaAlF{sub 6}

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-05-14

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF{sub 6} type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} and LiSrGaF{sub 6}, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator. 10 figs.

  15. [Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Effect on the State of Na+/Ca2+ Exchange in the Isolated Rat Heart].

    PubMed

    Alabovsky, V V; Kudryshov, Yu B; Vinokurov, A A; Bogacheva, E V; Maslov, O V; Perov, S Yu

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that a single exposure to 171 MHz electromagnetic field with 180 V/m electric field strength and 0.04 mW/kg specific absorption rate significantly alters the Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the isolated rat heart. It is assumed that enhancement of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange towards removing Ca2+ from the cardiomyocytes electromagnetic field exposure is a result of Ca2+ extraction from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the increase of its intracellular level. PMID:27534068

  16. Enhanced Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-leak and Increased Na+-Ca2+-Exchanger Function Underlie Delayed Afterdepolarizations in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Niels; Li, Na; Wang, Qiongling; Wang, Wei; Trafford, Andrew W.; Abu-Taha, Issam; Sun, Qiang; Wieland, Thomas; Ravens, Ursula; Nattel, Stanley; Wehrens, Xander HT.; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) carried by Na+-Ca2+-exchange current (INCX) in response to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-leak can promote atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms leading to DADs in AF-patients have not been defined. Methods and Results Protein levels (Western-blot), membrane-currents and action-potentials (patch-clamp), and [Ca2+]i (Fluo-3) were measured in right-atrial samples from 77 sinus-rhythm (Ctl) and 69 chronic-AF (cAF) patients. Diastolic [Ca2+]i and SR-Ca2+-content (integrated INCX during caffeine-induced-Ca2+-transient [cCaT]) were unchanged, whereas diastolic SR Ca2+-leak, estimated by blocking RyR2 with tetracaine, was ~50% higher in cAF vs. Ctl. Single-channel recordings from atrial RyR2 reconstituted into lipid-bilayers revealed enhanced open-probability in cAF-samples, providing a molecular basis for increased SR Ca2+-leak. Calmodulin-expression (+60%), CaMKII-autophosphorylation at Thr287 (+40%) and RyR2-phosphorylation at Ser2808 (PKA/CaMKII-site, +236%) and Ser2814 (CaMKII-site, +77%) were increased in cAF. The selective CaMKII-blocker KN-93 decreased SR Ca2+-leak, the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-release events and RyR2 open-probability in cAF, whereas PKA-inhibition with H-89 was ineffective. Knock-in mice with constitutively-phosphorylated RyR2 at Ser2814 showed a higher incidence of Ca2+-sparks and increased susceptibility to pacing-induced AF vs. controls. The relationship between [Ca2+]i and INCX-density revealed INCX-upregulation in cAF. Spontaneous Ca2+-release events accompanied by inward INCX-currents and DADs/triggered-activity occurred more often and the sensitivity of resting membrane voltage to elevated [Ca2+]i (diastolic [Ca2+]i–voltage coupling gain) was higher in cAF vs. Ctl. Conclusions Enhanced SR Ca2+-leak through CaMKII-hyperphosphorylated RyR2, in combination with larger INCX for a given SR Ca2+-release and increased diastolic [Ca2+]i–voltage coupling gain, cause AF-promoting atrial

  17. Combustion Synthesis of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ And CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ Long After Glow Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Gurjeet; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.; Kondawar, V. K.

    2011-10-01

    CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ and CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ are prepared through modified combustion technique. The photoluminescence and long after glow decay characteristics are studied. PL emission spectra of both the phosphors are obtained in blue region.

  18. Aluminum-Magnesium and Oxygen Isotope Study of Relict Ca-Al-rich Inclusions in Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Huss, Gary R.; Liffman, Kurt; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Bischoff, Adolph; Keil, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    Relict Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrules crystallized before their host chondrules and were subsequently partly melted together with chondrule precursors during chondrule formation. Like most CAIs, relict CAIs are 16O enriched (Δ17O<-20‰) compared to their host chondrules (Δ17O>-9‰). Hibonite in a relict CAI from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Adelaide has a large excess of radiogenic 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al, corresponding to an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)I] of (3.7+/-0.5)×10-5 in contrast, melilite in this CAI and plagioclase in the host chondrule show no evidence for 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I of <5×10-6]. Grossite in a relict CAI from the CH carbonaceous chondrite PAT 91546 has little 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)I of (1.7+/-1.3)×10-6. Three other relict CAIs and their host chondrules from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, CH chondrite Acfer 182, and H3.4 ordinary chondrite Sharps do not have detectable 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I<1×10-5, <(4-6)×10-6, and <1.3×10-5, respectively]. Isotopic data combined with mineralogical observations suggest that relict CAIs formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir before their host chondrules, which originated in an 16O-poor gas. The Adelaide CAI was incorporated into its host chondrule after 26Al had mostly decayed, at least 2 Myr after the CAI formed, and this event reset 26Al-26Mg systematics.

  19. Roles of the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, NCLX, in B lymphocyte chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongju; Takeuchi, Ayako; Hikida, Masaki; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte chemotaxis plays important roles in immunological reactions, although the mechanism of its regulation is still unclear. We found that the cytosolic Na+-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux transporter, NCLX, regulates B lymphocyte chemotaxis. Inhibiting or silencing NCLX in A20 and DT40 B lymphocytes markedly increased random migration and suppressed the chemotactic response to CXCL12. In contrast to control cells, cytosolic Ca2+ was higher and was not increased further by CXCL12 in NCLX-knockdown A20 B lymphocytes. Chelating intracellular Ca2+ with BAPTA-AM disturbed CXCL12-induced chemotaxis, suggesting that modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ via NCLX, and thereby Rac1 activation and F-actin polymerization, is essential for B lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. Mitochondrial polarization, which is necessary for directional movement, was unaltered in NCLX-knockdown cells, although CXCL12 application failed to induce enhancement of mitochondrial polarization, in contrast to control cells. Mouse spleen B lymphocytes were similar to the cell lines, in that pharmacological inhibition of NCLX by CGP-37157 diminished CXCL12-induced chemotaxis. Unexpectedly, spleen T lymphocyte chemotaxis was unaffected by CGP-37157 treatment, indicating that NCLX-mediated regulation of chemotaxis is B lymphocyte-specific, and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ dynamics are more important in B lymphocytes than in T lymphocytes. We conclude that NCLX is pivotal for B lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. PMID:27328625

  20. Removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by zeolites NaP and KP.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Alias Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Kamaruzaman, Nurul Asyikin; Adil, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites P in sodium (NaP) and potassium (KP) forms were used as adsorbents for the removal of calcium (Ca2+) and zinc (Zn2+) cations from aqueous solutions. Zeolite KP was prepared by ion exchange of K+ with Na+ which neutralizes the negative charge of the zeolite P framework structure. The ion exchange capacity of K+ on zeolite NaP was determined through the Freundlich isotherm equilibrium study. Characterization of zeolite KP was determined using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. From the characterization, the structure of zeolite KP was found to remain stable after the ion exchange process. Zeolites KP and NaP were used for the removal of Ca and Zn from solution. The amount of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in aqueous solution before and after the adsorption by zeolites was analysed using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ followed the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm model. This result also revealed that zeolite KP adsorbs Ca2+ and Zn2+ more than zeolite NaP and proved that modification of zeolite NaP with potassium leads to an increase in the adsorption efficiency of the zeolite. Therefore, the zeolites NaP and KP can be used for water softening (Ca removal) and reducing water pollution/toxicity (Zn removal). PMID:20232677

  1. Improvement of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ photocathode by doping with Na and Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Sato, E.

    1988-05-01

    The low conductivity of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and the nonohmic contact in the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//metal interface, which lead to only a small photocurrent, were improved by doping with Na and Mg. The oxides of the Ca/sub 1-x/Na/sub x/Fe/sub 2-y/Mg/sub y/O/sub 4/ system gave the high conductivity and the ohmic contact of the oxide/Pt-Pd interface, but very small photocurrent. It was judged from the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient that the hopping mechanism is dominant for the conduction of the oxides containing Na. The hopping level is presumed to bring about the ohmic contact and the very small photocurrent because of the small band bending. The CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode, where one side of the surfaces was doped with Na and Mg and the interface of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg/Pt-Pd was ohmic contact, gave a large photocurrent. Photoelectrochemical dissolution was observed for the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode in acidic solution but not in neutral solution. The mechanism of the dissolution is also discussed.

  2. Functional linkage of Na+-Ca2+-exchanger to sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in coronary artery: comparison of smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kim A; Samson, Sue E; Hammel, Kaitlin E; Kiss, Lorand; Fulop, Ferenc; Grover, Ashok K

    2009-08-01

    An increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in coronary artery smooth muscle causes a contraction but in endothelium it causes relaxation. Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX) may play a role in Ca(2+) dynamics in both the cell types. Here, the NCX-mediated (45)Ca(2+) uptake was compared in Na(+)-loaded pig coronary artery smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both the cell types, this uptake was inhibited by KB-R7943, SEA 0400 and by monensin, but not by cariporide. Prior loading of the cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA increased the NCX-mediated (45)Ca(2+) uptake in smooth muscle but not in endothelial cells. In the presence or absence of BAPTA loading, the Na(+)-mediated (45)Ca(2+) uptake was greater in endothelial than in smooth muscle cells. In smooth muscle cells without BAPTA loading, thapsigargin diminished the NCX-mediated (45)Ca(2+) entry. This effect was not observed in endothelial cells or in either cell type after BAPTA loading. The results in the smooth muscle cells are consistent with a limited diffusional space model in which the NCX-mediated (45)Ca(2+) uptake was enhanced by chelation of cytosolic Ca(2+) or by its sequestration by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump (SERCA). They suggest a functional linkage between NCX and SERCA in the smooth muscle but not in the endothelial cells. The concept of a linkage between NCX and SERCA in smooth muscle was also confirmed by similar distribution of NCX and SERCA2 proteins when detergent-treated microsomes were fractionated by flotation on sucrose density gradients. Thus, the coronary artery smooth muscle and endothelial cells differ not only in the relative activities of NCX but also in its functional linkage to SERCA.

  3. [Absorption and allocation characteristics of K+, Ca2+, Na+ and Cl- in different organs of Broussonetia papyrifera seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Ding, Fei; Du, Tian-Zhen

    2009-04-01

    One-year-old Broussonetia papyrifera seedlings were subjected to 0.4, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g x kg(-1) of soil NaCl stress, and their biomass accumulation, leaf plasma membrane permeability, and the absorption, allocation and translocation of K+, Ca2+, Na+, and Cl-, as well as the symptoms of salt injury, were studied and investigated. The leaf plasma membrane permeability increased with the increase of soil NaCl concentration and of the duration of soil NaCl stress, and the seedling's root/shoot ratio also increased with increasing soil NaCl concentration. When the soil NaCl concentration exceeded 3 g x kg(-1), leaf plasma membrane permeability and seedling' s biomass accumulation were affected significantly. The Na+ and Cl- concentrations in different organs of seedlings increased with increasing soil NaCl concentration while the K+ and Ca2+ concentrations were in adverse, and the ion contents in leaves were always much higher than those in other organs, illustrating that soil NaCl stress affected the K+ and Ca2+ absorbing capability of roots, and inhibited the selective translocation of K+ and Ca2+ to aboveground parts. As a result, the K+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaves and stems decreased. The study showed that B. papyrifera could effectively resist the injury of osmotic stress from soil salt via absorbing and accumulating Na+ and Cl-, but excessive accumulation of Na+ and Cl- could induce salt toxicity. As a non-halophyte species with relatively strong salt resistance, the aboveground parts of B. papyrifera did not have significant salt-exclusion effect.

  4. On the entropy of glaucophane Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Gillet, P.; Reynard, B.

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacity of glaucophane from the Sesia-Lanza region of Italy having the approximate composition (Na1.93Ca0.05Fe0.02) (Mg2.60Fe0.41) (Al1.83Fe0.15Cr0.01) (Si7.92Al0.08)O22(OH)2 was measured by adiabatic calorimetry between 4.6 and 359.4 K. After correcting the Cp0data to values for ideal glaucophane, Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2 the third-law entropy S2980-S00was calculated to be 541.2??3.0 J??mol-1??K-1. Our value for S2980-S00is 12.0 J??mol-1??K-1 (2.2%) smaller than the value of Likhoydov et al. (1982), 553.2??3.0, is within 6.2 J??mol-1??K-1 of the value estimated by Holland (1988), and agrees remarkably well with the value calculated by Gillet et al. (1989) from spectroscopic data, 539 J??mol-1??K-1. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Changes in /sup 22/Na influx and outflux in Daphnia magna (Straus) as a function of elevated Al concentrations in soft water at low pH

    SciTech Connect

    Havas, M.; Likens, G.E.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of aluminum on sodium regulation by the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna were determined. /sup 22/Na influx and outflux experiments were conducted in soft water adjusted to pH 4.5, 5.0, and 6.5 (reference pH) with either ambient (0.02 mg/liter) or high (1.02 mg/liter) concentrations of total Al. The results indicate that Al toxicity was pH dependent. Aluminum increased the rate of morbidity of D. magna at pH 6.5, had no additional effect to those of hydrogen ions (H/sup +/) at pH 5.0, and reduced the rate of morbidity at pH 4.5. Both H/sup +/ and total Al concentrations interfered with Na regulation, although it was possible to distinguish between their respective effects by using /sup 22/Na. At pH 6.5, Al decreased /sup 22/Na influx (by 46%) and increased /sup 22/Na outflux (by 25%), which led to a net loss of Na. At pH 5.0, Al reduced /sup 22/Na influx (by 58%) but had not additional effect to that of H/sup +/ on /sup 22/Na outflux. At pH 4.5, /sup 22/Na influx was significantly inhibited (by 73%) compared with the reference pH 6.5 treatment even in the absence of Al. Aluminum decreased /sup 22/Na outflux (by 31%) at pH 4.5, which reduced the net loss of Na and temporarily prolonged survival of the daphnids. These results indicate that Al affects both /sup 22/Na influx and outflux in D. magna. The lower rate of Na uptake may involve a denaturation of the enzyme responsible for the active uptake of Na. At pH 6.5, the increased outflux of /sup 22/Na may be due to either increased membrane permeability or increased renal losses (or both). At pH 4.5, the reduced outflux of /sup 22/Na resembles the amelioration that occurs in the presence of elevated Ca concentrations.

  6. Crystal structure study of (Ca, Gd){sub 2}(Al, Ti)O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Haruo; Marumo, Fumiyuki; Kodama, Nobuhiro

    1998-08-01

    The crystal structures of two crystals of (Ca, Gd){sub 2} (Al, Ti)O{sub 4} [tetragonal I4/mmm; Z = 4], one strongly fluorescent and the other weakly fluorescent, having minor differences in their precise compositions have been studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The unit cell is significantly smaller for the weakly fluorescent crystal, which also shows alteration of the coordination polyhedraon around the (Ca, Gd) site, suggesting the formation of vacancies at an oxygen site.

  7. Neuronal Na+ Channels Are Integral Components of Pro-arrhythmic Na+/Ca2+ Signaling Nanodomain That Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmias During β-adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Radwański, Przemysław B.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Brunello, Lucia; Liu, Bin; Belevych, Andriy E.; Unudurthi, Sathya D.; Makara, Michael A.; Priori, Silvia G.; Volpe, Pompeo; Armoundas, Antonis A.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Mohler, Peter J.; Hund, Thomas J.; Györke, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death in the US. Vast majority of these arrhythmias including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) are associated with increased levels of circulating catecholamines and involve abnormal impulse formation secondary to aberrant Ca2+ and Na+ handling. However, the mechanistic link between β-AR stimulation and the subcellular/molecular arrhythmogenic trigger(s) remains elusive. Methods and Results We performed functional and structural studies to assess Ca2+ and Na+ signaling in ventricular myocyte as well as surface electrocardiograms in mouse models of cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2)-associated CPVT. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of Na+ channels (neuronal Na+ channels; nNav) that colocalize with RyR2 and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are a part of the β-AR-mediated arrhythmogenic process. Specifically, augmented Na+ entry via nNav in the settings of genetic defects within the RyR2 complex and enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-mediated SR Ca2+ refill is both an essential and a necessary factor for the arrhythmogenesis. Furthermore, we show that augmentation of Na+ entry involves β-AR-mediated activation of CAMKII subsequently leading to nNav augmentation. Importantly, selective pharmacological inhibition as well as silencing of Nav1.6 inhibit myocyte arrhythmic potential and prevent arrhythmias in vivo. Conclusion These data suggest that the arrhythmogenic alteration in Na+/Ca2+ handling evidenced ruing β-AR stimulation results, at least in part, from enhanced Na+ influx through nNav. Therefore, selective inhibition of these channels and Nav1.6 in particular can serve as a potential antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:27747307

  8. Emission red shift and unusual band narrowing of Mn2+ in NaCaPO4 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Huang, Yanlin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2010-07-01

    Concentration dependence of Mn(2+) luminescence in NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+) is investigated by structural analyses and optical and laser excitation spectroscopies in the temperature range 19-300 K. NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+) forms solid solution over the Mn(2+) concentration range 1.0-22 mol %. We observe the red shift and unusual band narrowing of Mn(2+) emission by increasing Mn(2+) concentration in NaCaPO(4). The lifetime of Mn(2+) emission lengthens unexpectedly for higher Mn(2+) concentration. The results are discussed in relation with crystal structure, photon reabsorption, exchange interaction, and energy transfer and energy migration in NaCaPO(4)/Mn(2+).

  9. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  10. Defective fullerenes as catalyst for dehydrogenation from NaAlH4 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Meenakshi, Sharma, Hitesh

    2015-06-01

    In the present work we have shown that C60 with defect can act as an effective catalyst for dehydrogenation from NaAlH4 clusters. The investigations have been performed using density functional theory calculations. The NaAlH4 interact weakly with the C60 with vacancy defect with binding energy of 0.26eV. The hydrogen release energy shows sharp decrease in magnitude from 3.82eV in NaAlH4 to 1.97 eV in C59NaAlH4 and 1.63eV in C58BNaAlH4. The results may be explained on the basis of change in the net charge at Na and AlH4 resulting in weaker ionic interaction due to interaction between NaAlH4 cluster and C60 with defect. The present results may provide valued insights of experimental work for exploring the catalytic potential of C60 with various defects.

  11. mRNA-induced expression of the cardiac Na/sup +/-Ca/sup 2 +/ exchanger in Xenopus oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sigel, E.; Baur, R.; Porzig, H.; Reuter, H.

    1988-10-15

    Xenopus oocytes were injected with total mRNA isolated from hearts of 1-day-old chicks. After 5 days of incubation the follicular cell layers were removed and the oocytes were loaded with Na+ by incubation in hypertonic EGTA solution at 37/sup 0/C. The Na+-loaded oocytes accumulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from a Na+-free medium at a 3-18-fold higher rate than noninjected oocytes or oocytes injected with control solution containing no mRNA. Oocytes not subjected to the Na+-loading procedure showed no mRNA-dependent /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Size fractionation of the mRNA using sucrose density gradient centrifugation under denaturing conditions led to the identification of a 25 S fraction competent for induction of the Na/sup +/-Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange system.

  12. Influence of (calcium-)uranyl-carbonate complexation on U(VI) sorption on Ca- and Na-bentonites.

    PubMed

    Meleshyn, A; Azeroual, M; Reeck, T; Houben, G; Riebe, B; Bunnenberg, C

    2009-07-01

    The influence of uranyl-carbonate and calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexations on the kinetics of U(VI) (approximately 3.4 x 10(-3) mol L(-1)) sorption from NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 solutions on Na- and Ca-bentonites at circumneutral ambient conditions was investigated. Complexation of U(VI) in Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) aqueous species, dominating the U(VI) speciation in Ca(NO3)2 solution, reduces its adsorption on bentonite by a factor of 2-3 in comparison with that in (UO2)2CO3(OH)3- species, dominating in NaNO3 solution, within the studied period of time (21 days). As a result of the dissolution of accessory calcite, Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) can be formed in the initially Ca-free solution in contact with either Na- or Ca-bentonite. U(VI) adsorption on Na-bentonite is a factor of approximately 2 higher than that on Ca-bentonite for solutions with the Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) complex dominating aqueous U(VI) speciation. This favors use of Na-bentonite over that of Ca-bentonite in final disposal of radioactive waste. Furthermore, the observed strong correlation between U(VI) adsorption and Mg release as a result of montmorillonite dissolution indicates in agreement with previous findings that under the applied conditions U(VI) is adsorbed on the edge surface of montmorillonite, which is a major mineral phase of the studied clays. PMID:19673282

  13. Results from Boiling Temperature Measurements for Saturated Solutions in the Systems NaCl + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O, NaNO3 + KNO3 + H2O, and NaCl + KNO3 + H2O, and Dry Out Temperatures for NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A

    2005-11-29

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O at three selected salt ratios and for NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C, and the composition is estimated to occur at x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.25. Experiments were also performed for the five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures with the molar ratio of NaCl:NaNO{sub 3}:KNO{sub 3} held essentially constant at 1:0.9780:1.1468 as the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms low melting mixtures and thus boiling temperatures for saturated were not determined. Instead, the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (i.e., dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. The investigated mixture compositions correspond to some of the major mineral assemblages that are predicted to control the deliquescence relative humidity of salts formed by leaching dust samples from the proposed nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  14. Constitutive NO synthase regulates the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in human T cells: role of [Ca2+]i and tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Juliann G; McClain, David E; Warke, Vishal G; Krishnan, Sandeep; Tsokos, George C

    2003-08-01

    For many types of cells, heat stress leads to an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) that has been shown to trigger a wide variety of cellular responses. In T lymphocytes, for example, heat stress stimulates pathways that make them more susceptible to Fas/CD95-mediated apoptosis. Because of our interest in understanding more about the response of lymphocytes to various stressors, we used human peripheral and Jurkat T lymphocytes to investigate the effect of heat stress on calcium homeostasis. We found that peripheral and Jurkat T cells both exhibit cNOs activity but not iNOs activity. Heat stress increased NO production, which was inhibited by LNNA (a cNOs inhibitor) but not L-NIL (an iNOs inhibitor). Heat stress increased [Ca2+](i) in Jurkat T cells by decreasing the K(m) of the cell surface membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger for extracellular Ca2+. Heating also increased cNOs phosphorylation at tyrosine residues. In cells incubated with LNNA, heat stress promoted an increase in [Ca2+](i) and a decrease in [Na+](i) greater than in cells heated without LNNA, a larger decrease in K(m) of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger for extracellular Ca2+, and decreased phosphorylation of cNOs. Our results suggest that cNOs plays an important regulatory role after heat stress. Heating appears to increase the phosphorylation of cNOs that is complexed with the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger to decrease its activity. This process is related to increased expression of Fas/CD95 on the cell surface, which might explain the apoptotic diathesis of lymphocytes after heat stress.

  15. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  16. Partial oxidation and dry reforming of methane over Ca/Ni/K(Na) catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsi, Abolghasem

    2006-07-01

    Partial oxidation and dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas over Ca/Ni/K(Na) catalysts have been studied. Effects of temperature, pressure, and oxygen/methane ratios on catalytic activity, selectivity, and carbon formation have been determined. Also reforming of 13CH4 in the presence of CO2 and Temperature-Programmed Oxidation (TPO) of deposited carbon after the reaction indicated that both methane and CO2 contribute to carbon formation. The TPO of deposited carbon on Ca/Ni/K catalyst showed that the catalyst consumed a significant amount of oxygen, only a fraction of which was consumed by carbon species on the surface, indicating that the surface oxygen plays a significant role in oxidizing and removing carbon species from the catalyst surfaces.

  17. Interactions of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ with benzene self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Rimmen, M; Matthiesen, J; Bovet, N; Hassenkam, T; Pedersen, C S; Stipp, S L S

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between cations and organic molecules are found throughout nature, from the functionality and structure of proteins in humans and animals to the exchange of ions in minerals in soil and oil reservoirs with the fluid phases. We have explored the behavior of the s-block elements that are most common in the natural world, namely, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+). Specifically, we investigated how these ions affect the interactions between surfaces covered by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with benzene molecules. We used a flat oxidized silicon substrate and an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip that were both functionalized with 11-phenoxyundecane-1-thiol and measured the adhesion force between them in solutions of each of the four chloride salts. We observed that the adhesion increased in the order of the Hofmeister series: K(+) < Na(+) ≈ Mg(2+) < Ca(2+). Supplementary evidence from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) allowed us to conclude that K(+) binds in the benzene layers, creating a positive surface charge on the benzene-covered surfaces, thus leading to lower adhesion in KCl solutions than in pure water. Evidence suggested that Ca(2+) does not bind to the surfaces but forms bridges between the layers, leading to higher adhesion than in pure water. In Na(+) and Mg(2+) solutions, adhesion is quite similar to that in pure water, indicating a lack of interaction between these two ions and the surfaces, or at least that the interaction is too weak to be detected by our measurements. The results of our studies clearly show that even a nonpolar, hydrophobic molecule, such as benzene, has a role to play in the behavior of aqueous solutions and that it interacts differently depending on which ions are present. Even ions from the same column in the periodic table behave differently. PMID:25003588

  18. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane.

  19. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane. PMID:11317897

  20. The release of hydrogen reaction of graphene modified NaAlH4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengjun; Zhou, Zhili; Liu, Jiping; Kan, Meixiu

    2011-11-01

    In this experiment, we prepared a better performance graphene, by using butyrolactone and flavanone, promoting the graphite into high quality graphene strip. The obtained graphene were used to catalyze the hydrogen released by NaAlH4. The result proved that 5 wt% doped butyrolactone treated graphite and 2 wt% doped flavanone-treated graphite are good catalyst in NaAlH4's decomposition process. PMID:22413337

  1. Sr isotopic fractionation in Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    True relative Sr isotopic compositions, determined by double spiking on Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite show up to 1.5??? per mass unit mass fractionation relative to the Earth and bulk chondrites. All abnormal inclusions are light-isotope enriched. A lack of isotopically heavy Sr in inclusions would place constraints on the time, place and mechanism of origin of these objects. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Formation of infinite-layered (Ca(1-x)Sr(x)) CuO2 and NaCuO2-type (Ca(1-y)Na(y))(0.85)CuO2 in tartrate route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Shinichi; Kato, Namie; Taya, Noriko; Tada, Masakazu; Kanamaru, Fumikazu

    1995-05-01

    Both NaCuO2-type Ca(0.85)CuO2 and infinite-layered (Ca(1 - x)Sr(x))CuO2 could be prepared much more easily by firing the dried solids from mixed acetate aqueous solutions titrated with tartaric acid than by normal calcination. The presence of a narrow solid-solution composition range of 0.10 less than x less than 0.16 was confirmed in infinite-layered (Ca(1 - x)Sr(x))CuO2 in the preparation using the tartrate route. The calcium could also be substituted by sodium in a range of y less than 0.15 in NaCuO2-type (Ca(1 - y)Na(y))(0.85)CuO(2) using the same route. Further substitution of Ca(2+)/ with Y(3+)/ might also be possible in infinite-layered (Ca(1 - x)Sr(x))CuO2, but resulted in the NaCuO2-type compound in the substitution with Na(+).

  3. Phase composition and elemental partitioning in glass-ceramics containing high-Na/Al high level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Sorokaletova, A. N.; Nikonov, B. S.

    2012-05-01

    Mixtures of surrogates of high level waste with high sodium and aluminum contents and sodium-lithium borosilicate frit were melted in alumina crucibles in a resistive furnace followed by quenching of one portion of the melt and annealing of the residual material in a turned-off furnace. The annealed materials with waste loading of up to 45 wt.% contained minor spinel type phase and trace of nepheline (Na,K)AlSiO4. In the annealed materials contained waste oxides in amount of 50 wt.% and more nepheline and spinel were found to be major and minor phases, respectively. At high waste loadings two extra phases: Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO4) and mixed Na/Cs-aluminosilicate were found in amount of 3-5 vol.% each. The latter phase contains of up to ˜5.7 wt.% SO3 or 0.13 formula units S (Na0.75K0.05Cs0.29Ca0.02Sr0.02Al0.99Fe0.03Si0.76S0.13O4). Sulfur incorporation as S6+ or SO42- ions into crystal lattice may be facilitated in the presence of large-size Cs+ cations. Simplified suggested formula of this phase may be represented as Na0.8Cs0.3AlSi0.8S0.1O3.95. It was also synthesized by sintering of mixture of chemicals at 1300 °C and found to be instable at temperatures higher than 1300 °C.

  4. Analysis of cardiac mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchanger kinetics with a biophysical model of mitochondrial Ca2+ handing suggests a 3: 1 stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Ranjan K; Beard, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is a key ion and is known to mediate signalling pathways between cytosol and mitochondria and modulate mitochondrial energy metabolism. To gain a quantitative, biophysical understanding of mitochondrial Ca2+ regulation, we developed a thermodynamically balanced model of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and bioenergetics by integrating kinetic models of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (CU), Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCE), and Na+–H+ exchanger (NHE) into an existing computational model of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Kinetic flux expressions for the CU, NCE and NHE were developed and individually parameterized based on independent data sets on flux rates measured in purified mitochondria. While available data support a wide range of possible values for the overall activity of the CU in cardiac and liver mitochondria, even at the highest estimated values, the Ca2+ current through the CU does not have a significant effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. This integrated model was then used to analyse additional data on the dynamics and steady-states of mitochondrial Ca2+ governed by mitochondrial CU and NCE. Our analysis of the data on the time course of matrix free [Ca2+] in respiring mitochondria purified from rabbit heart with addition of different levels of Na+ to the external buffer medium (with the CU blocked) with two separate models – one with a 2: 1 stoichiometry and the other with a 3: 1 stoichiometry for the NCE – supports the hypothesis that the NCE is electrogenic with a stoichiometry of 3: 1. This hypothesis was further tested by simulating an additional independent data set on the steady-state variations of matrix free [Ca2+] with respect to the variations in external free [Ca2+] in purified respiring mitochondria from rat heart to show that only the 3: 1 stoichiometry model predictions are consistent with the data. Based on these analyses, it is concluded that the mitochondrial NCE is electrogenic with a stoichiometry of 3: 1. PMID

  5. Crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, C. T.; Zheng, L. H.; Aka, G.; Yu, H. H.; Sai, Q. L.; Guo, X. Y.; Zhu, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal were reported. The segregation coefficient of Yb3+ ions was calculated to be 0.47. The cell parameters were determined to be a  =  b  =  0.3658 nm, c  =  1.1985 nm. The peak absorption cross-section was calculated to be 2.65  ×  10-20 cm2 at 979 nm and the peak stimulated emission cross-section was 2.23  ×  10-20 cm2 at 980 nm for the π polarization. The continuous-wave (CW) laser operations of uncoated Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystals with 5  ×  5  ×  3 mm3 in size were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 1.6 W at 1048 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 28%. The results show that Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal is a promising laser medium.

  6. Hibonite, Ca2/Al, Ti/24O38, from the Leoville and Allende chondritic meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Hibonite was discovered in light-colored, Ca-Al-Ti-rich and Si-Fe-poor, achondritic inclusions of the Leoville and Allende HL-group chondrites. Two varieties of hibonite occur: one emits a bright red-orange luminescence under electron bombardment and has high amounts of Al2O3 (87.7; 87.9) and low amounts of MgO (0.65; 0.8) and TiO2 (0.68; 0.8). The other emits a bright blue luminescence and is low in Al2O3 (78.7; 79.2) and high in MgO (3.3; 3.7) and TiO2 (6.5; 7.9) (in wt. %). The oxide CaO is about the same in both varieties. It is suggested that the change in the color of the visible luminescence results from changes in composition. The origin of hibonite which occurs in complex mineral assemblages together with anorthite, gelhenite, wollastonite, aluminous diopside, andradite, Ca-pyroxene, perovskite, spinel, taenite, chromite, and pentlandite, and in close proximity to nodules containing calcite, whewellite, forsterite and many of the aforementioned phases, is discussed. The proposition that hibonite and associated phases originated by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of calcite-dolomite bearing assemblages cannot, at this time, be completely ruled out.

  7. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

  8. Crystal structure of new synthetic Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca{sub 2}Na(Na{sub x}Ca{sub 0.5-x})[B{sub 3}{sup t}B{sub 2}{sup {delta}}O{sub 8}(OH)(O{sub 1-x}OH{sub x})](CO{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Yamnova, N. A. Borovikova, E. Yu.; Gurbanova, O. A.; Dimitrova, O. V.; Zubkova, N. V.

    2012-05-15

    New Ca,Na carbonate-borate Ca{sub 2}Na(Na{sub x}Ca{sub 0.5-x}) [B{sub 3}{sup t}B{sub 2}{sup {Delta}}O{sub 8}(OH)(O{sub 1-x}OH{sub x})](CO{sub 3}) crystals (x {approx} 0.4) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the Ca(OH){sub 2}-H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaCl-system at t = 250 Degree-Sign C and P = 70-80 atm; the structure parameters are found to be a = 11.1848(3) Angstrom-Sign , b = 6.4727(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 25.8181(7) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 96.364(3) Degree-Sign , V = 1857.60(9) Angstrom-Sign {sup 3}, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 8, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 2.801 g/cm{sup 3} (Xcalibur S autodiffractometer (CCD), 2663 reflections with I > 2{sigma} (I), direct solution, refinement by the least-squares method in the anisotropic approximation of thermal atomic vibrations, hydrogen localization, R{sub 1} = 0.0387). The structure is based on boron-oxygen layers of pentaborate radicals 5(2{Delta} + 3T). Ca and Na polyhedra and CO{sub 3} triangles are located between the layers. A crystallochemical analysis of the new Ca,Na carbonate-borate has established its similarity to natural Na,Ca pentaborates (heidornite and tuzlaite) and synthetic Na,Ba-decaborate.

  9. THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR SODIUM (Na+) IN THE REGULATION OF CALCIUM (Ca2+)-MEDIATED SIGNALING AND TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Min; Groveman, Bradley R; Fang, Xiao-Qian; Lin, Shuang-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    It is known that activated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a major route of excessive calcium ion (Ca2+) entry in central neurons, which may activate degradative processes and thereby cause cell death. Therefore, NMDARs are now recognized to play a key role in the development of many diseases associated with injuries to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it remains a mystery how NMDAR activity is recruited in the cellular processes leading to excitotoxicity and how NMDAR activity can be controlled at a physiological level. The sodium ion (Na+) is the major cation in extracellular space. With its entry into the cell, Na+ can act as a critical intracellular second messenger that regulates many cellular functions. Recent data have shown that intracellular Na+ can be an important signaling factor underlying the up-regulation of NMDARs. While Ca2+ influx during the activation of NMDARs down-regulates NMDAR activity, Na+ influx provides an essential positive feedback mechanism to overcome Ca2+-induced inhibition and thereby potentiate both NMDAR activity and inward Ca2+ flow. Extensive investigations have been conducted to clarify mechanisms underlying Ca2+-mediated signaling. This review focuses on the roles of Na+ in the regulation of Ca2+-mediated NMDAR signaling and toxicity. PMID:21243124

  10. Interfacial phenomena in the reactions of Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B alloys with KF-AlF{sub 3} and NaF-AlF{sub 3} melts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.S.; Terry, B.S.; Grieveson, P.

    1993-12-01

    The interfacial phenomena occurring during the contacting of liquid Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B melts with KF-AlF{sub 3} liquid fluxes have been investigated by optical examination of quenched metal drops previously immersed in the liquid fluxes. Reactions in the Al-B/KF-AlF{sub 3} system involve the formation of metastable AlB{sub 12} at the metal/flux interface. At high KBF{sub 4} levels in the flux, the AlB{sub 12} is dispersed in the flux and also at low KBF{sub 4} levels in the metal. Reactions in the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF{sub 3} system involve the formation of TiB{sub 2}, which may be dispersed in either the metal or the flux depending upon the composition of the flux. The results obtained for the Al-Ti-B/NaF-AlF{sub 3} and Al-Zr-B/KF-AlF{sub 3} systems were similar to those observed for the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF{sub 3} system.

  11. New insights into transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation from precursor materials at various Na+/Ca2+ ratios

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shujuan; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are planktonic, organic microgels which play significant roles in cycling of carbon and trace elements, aggregation of particles, feeding and accommodating microbes as well as development of biofilms. However, few studies are available on the mechanism of TEP formation in various water environments. Here we investigate the formation of TEP with alginate blocks as precursors at various Na+/Ca2+ ratios to simulate the situations in different aquatic environments (e.g. freshwater and seawater). We found that the formation of TEP from precursor materials studied was essentially determined by the Ca2+ concentration at a fixed sodium concentration, while Na+ at high Na+/Ca2+ ratio out-competed Ca2+ for the binding sites on the precursor molecules, leading to a significantly decreased trend of TEP formation. Our results indicate that a more abundant TEP could be expected in freshwater than in seawater, and we also discuss the engineering implications of the findings. PMID:26790536

  12. Two-pore channels provide insight into the evolution of voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Taufiq; Cai, Xinjiang; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Abood, Mary E.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Patel, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Four-domain voltage-gated Ca2+ and Na+ channels (CaV, NaV) underpin nervous system function and likely emerged upon intragenic duplication of a primordial two-domain precursor. To investigate if two-pore channels (TPCs) may represent an intermediate in this evolutionary transition, we performed molecular docking simulations with a homology model of TPC1, which suggested that the pore region could bind antagonists of CaV or NaV. CaV or NaV antagonists blocked NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signals in sea urchin egg preparations and in intact cells that overexpressed TPC1. By sequence analysis and inspection of the model, we predicted a noncanonical selectivity filter in animal TPCs in which the carbonyl groups of conserved asparagine residues are positioned to coordinate cations. In contrast, a distinct clade of TPCs (TPCR) in several unicellular species had ion selectivity filters with acidic residues more akin to CaV. TPCRs were predicted to interact strongly with CaV antagonists. Our data suggest that acquisition of a “blueprint” pharmacological profile and changes in ion selectivity within four-domain voltage-gated ion channels may have predated intragenic duplication of an ancient two-domain ancestor. PMID:25406377

  13. A inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange blocks activation of insect olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bobkov, Y; Corey, E; Ache, B

    2014-01-01

    Earlier we showed that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor, KB-R7943, potently blocks the odor-evoked activity of lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Here we extend that finding to recombinant mosquito olfactory receptors stably expressed in HEK cells. Using whole-cell and outside-out patch clamping and calcium imaging, we demonstrate that KB-R7943 blocks both the odorantgated current and the odorant-evoked calcium signal from two different OR complexes from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, AgOr48 + AgOrco and AgOr65 + AgOrco. Both heteromeric and homomeric (Orco alone) OR complexes were susceptible to KB-R7943 blockade when activated by VUAA1, an agonist that targets the Orco channel subunit, suggesting the Orco subunit may be the target of the drug’s action. KB-R7943 represents a valuable tool to further investigate the functional properties of arthropod olfactory receptors and raises the interesting specter that activation of these ionotropic receptors is directly or indirectly linked to a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, thereby providing a template for drug design potentially allowing improved control of insect pests and disease vectors. PMID:24996179

  14. Ca/Na selectivity coefficients from the Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedström, Magnus; Karnland, Ola

    As a model for ion equilibrium in montmorillonite, the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation was solved for two parallel charged surfaces in contact with an external NaCl/CaCl 2 mixed solution. The ion concentration profiles in the montmorillonite interlayer were obtained from the PB equation and integration of those gave the occupancy of Na + and Ca 2+ in the clay. That information together with the composition of the external electrolyte were then used for the calculation of the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient K GT. The predictions from the model were compared to experimental data from batch as well as compacted conditions, and the agreement was generally good. With a surface layer-charge density of one unit charge per 145 Å 2, which is close to the value for Wyoming-type montmorillonite, the calculated selectivity coefficients were found to vary from about 4 in batch to 8 in compacted montmorillonite with dry density ∼1700 kg/m 3. From the point of view of assessing the evolution, with regard to sodium-calcium ion exchange, of the bentonite buffer in a repository for spent nuclear fuel, these results justify the use of data obtained in batch experiments.

  15. An inhibitor of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange blocks activation of insect olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Y; Corey, E; Ache, B

    2014-07-25

    Earlier we showed that the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibitor, KB-R7943, potently blocks the odor-evoked activity of lobster olfactory receptor neurons. Here we extend that finding to recombinant mosquito olfactory receptors stably expressed in HEK cells. Using whole-cell and outside-out patch clamping and calcium imaging, we demonstrate that KB-R7943 blocks both the odorant-gated current and the odorant-evoked calcium signal from two different OR complexes from the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, AgOr48+AgOrco and AgOr65+AgOrco. Both heteromeric and homomeric (Orco alone) OR complexes were susceptible to KB-R7943 blockade when activated by VUAA1, an agonist that targets the Orco channel subunit, suggesting the Orco subunit may be the target of the drug's action. KB-R7943 represents a valuable tool to further investigate the functional properties of arthropod olfactory receptors and raises the interesting specter that activation of these ionotropic receptors is directly or indirectly linked to a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, thereby providing a template for drug design potentially allowing improved control of insect pests and disease vectors. PMID:24996179

  16. On the trapping of SOx on CaO-Al2O3-based novel high capacity sorbents.

    PubMed

    Dathe, Hendrik; Jentys, Andreas; Haider, Peter; Schreier, Ellen; Fricke, Rolf; Lercher, Johannes A

    2006-04-01

    Calcium-aluminum mixed oxide based materials doped with Na and Mn were explored as sulfur trapping materials. The materials showed a three times higher total storage capacity and a higher time on stream with complete SO2 removal compared to a second generation SOx trapping material which was mesoporous with calcium mainly present in oxidic form. Combining in situ XANES at the S K-edge and IR spectroscopy the key properties of the storage materials and the affiliated storage processes were identified. CaO-Al2O3 acts as the primary support and storage component, while Na+ cations adjust the base strength and enhances the storage capacity. Manganese cations provide the appropriate oxidation capacity in absence and presence of up to 10% water. The transport into the bulk phase, which is markedly influenced by a layer of sorbed water, is the rate-limiting step in presence of Mn cations. In the absence of manganese cations the oxidation step appears controlling the rate. The overall reaction network, identified by in situ IR spectroscopy and the 2D Correlation Analysis, is similar on all materials.

  17. Complex Formation Between Ca(II), Mg(II), Al(III) Ions and Salicylglycine

    PubMed Central

    Kilyén, Melinda; Labádi, lmre; Tombácz, Etelka; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-01-01

    For modelling the interactions of proteins/peptides with hard metal ions the complex formation of salicylglycine (SalGly) with Ca(II), Mg(ll) and AI(III) ions was studied in aqueous solution using pHpotentiometric and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Al(lll) ion was found to form more stable complexes with SalGiy than Ca(ll) or Mg(ll) ions. While AI(III) ion forms various 1:1 complexes of different protonation states in the pH range 2-7, Ca(ll), Mg(ll) ions seem to interact with SalGly only in the basic pH range and form mixed hydroxo species MLH-1 at pH ~ 8. According to the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements in the species MLH-1 the carboxylate-O- atom and the phenolate-O- coordinate to the metal ions. SaIGiy is able to keep Al(lll) in solution through inner and outer sphere coordination to metastable amorphous AI(OH)3 particles. Deprotonation of the peptide amide Nil does not occur in these systems. PMID:18365063

  18. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  19. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Gehrig, Jeffrey C.; Züttel, Andreas

    2014-12-15

    The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH{sub 4} doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl{sub 3}-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH{sub 4} to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr…)

  20. Electronic structure and second hyperpolarizability of M(NA2)2 (M = Be, Mg, Ca; A = H, Li, Na) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Paramita; Nandi, Prasanta K.

    2015-09-01

    The ground state structure and NLO properties of hydrazine molecule, metal diamine complex M(NH2)2 and its derivatives M(NA2)2 (M = Be, Mg, Ca and A = Li, Na) are calculated by using different DFT functionals and basis sets. The chosen species are sufficiently stable. The M(NA2)2 complexes (A = Li, Na) have rather larger magnitude of third-order response property compared to the hydrazine molecule and M(NH2)2 complexes. The sum-over-state (SOS) calculated one-photon and two-photon part of second-hyperpolarizability showed almost identical pattern of variation as obtained in the DFT calculated results. The largest second-hyperpolarizability is predicted for the complex Ca(NNa2)2.

  1. NaCl-induced changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ in Arabidopsis thaliana are heterogeneous and modified by external ionic composition.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Frances E; Gilliham, Matthew; Dodd, Antony N; Webb, Alex A R; Tester, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) are common to many stress-activated signalling pathways, including the response to saline environments. We have investigated the nature of NaCl-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) signals in whole Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings using aequorin. We found that NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) are heterogeneous and mainly restricted to the root. Both the concentration of NaCl and the composition of the solution bathing the root have profound effects on the magnitude and dynamics of NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt). Alteration of external K(+) concentration caused changes in the temporal and spatial pattern of [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, providing evidence for Na(+)-induced Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. The effects of various pharmacological agents on NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) indicate that NaCl may induce influx of Ca(2+) through both plasma membrane and intracellular Ca(2+)-permeable channels. Analysis of spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)](cyt) dynamics using photon-counting imaging revealed additional levels of complexity in the [Ca(2+)](cyt) signal that may reflect the oscillatory nature of NaCl-induced changes in single cells. PMID:18419736

  2. Low-temperature heat capacities of CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene and thermal expansion of CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Low-T heat capacities (5-380 K) have been measured by adiabatic calorimetry for synthetic CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene. High-T unit cell parameters were measured for CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene by means of a Nonius Guinier-Lenne powder camera in order to determine the mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the T range 25-1200oC. -J.A.Z.

  3. Nqrs Data for AlCa2ClH10O8 [AlCa2ClO3·5(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0020)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for AlCa2ClH10O8 [AlCa2ClO3·5(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0020)

  4. Gram-negative endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces cardiac hypertrophy: detrimental role of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger.

    PubMed

    Magi, Simona; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Gratteri, Santo; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Bompadre, Stefano; Amoroso, Salvatore; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Several molecular pathways involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy are triggered by perturbation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Within the heart, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is one of the main determinant in controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis. In cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure NCX1 expression and activity have been reported to be altered. It has been shown that chronic bacterial infections (sepsis, endocarditis, and myocarditis) can promote cardiac hypertrophy. Bacterial stressors, such as the Gram-negative endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can directly or indirectly affect intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in the heart and induce the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential link between the signal pathways activated in LPS-exposed myocytes and NCX1. In the whole rat heart, LPS perfusion induced an early hypertrophy response during which NCX1 expression significantly increased. Notably, all these changes were completely prevented by the NCX inhibitor SN-6. We further dissect the role of NCX1 in the LPS-induced hypertrophic response in an in vitro cardiac model based on two H9c2 cardiomyoblast clones, namely H9c2-WT (lacking endogenous NCX1 expression) and H9c2-NCX1 (stably transfected with a functional NCX1). H9c2-NCX1 were more susceptible than H9c2-WT to develop a hypertrophic phenotype, and they displayed a significant increase in NCX1 expression and function after LPS treatment. SN-6 completely counteracted both hypertrophic response and exchanger alterations induced by LPS in H9c2-NCX1 cells, but it had no effects on H9c2-WT. Collectively, our results suggest that NCX1 plays a critical role in promoting myocardial hypertrophy triggered by LPS. PMID:25445045

  5. Surface micromorphology of dental composites [CE-TZP]-[Al2O3] with Ca(+2) modifier.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Sofia; Il'icheva, Alla Alexandrovna; Podzorova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Ţălu, Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) surface micromorphology of the ceramics produced from nanoparticles of alumina and tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) with addition of Ca(+2) for sintering improvement. The 3D surface roughness of samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fractal analysis of the 3D AFM-images, and statistical analysis of surface roughness parameters. Cube counting method, based on the linear interpolation type, applied for AFM data was used for fractal analysis. The morphology of non-modified ceramic sample was characterized by the rather big (1-2 μm) grains of α-Al2O3 phase with a habit close to hexagonal drowned in solid solution of t-ZrO2 with smooth surface. The pattern surfaces of modified composite content a little amount of elongated prismatic grains with composition close to the phase of СаСеAl3О7 as well as hexahedral α-Al2O3-grains. Fractal dimension, D, as well as height values distribution have been determined for the surfaces of the samples with and without modifying. It can be concluded that the smoothest surface is of the modified samples with Ca(+2) modifier but the most regular one is of the non-modified samples. A connection was observed between the surface morphology and the physical properties as assessed in previous works. PMID:26190812

  6. CaMn2Al10: Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    DOE PAGES

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W. -G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-24

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10, a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83μB/Mn, significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈ 9% of Rln2. These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010]/χ[001] ≈ 3.5. A strong power-lawmore » divergence χ(T) ~ T–1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order, an Arrott plot analysis of the magnetization suggests a vanishing low Curie temperature TC ~ 0. Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.« less

  7. Electrochemical Na+ and Ca2+ gradients drive coupled-clock regulation of automaticity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Bychkov, Rostislav; Yaeger, Daniel; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Spurgeon, Harold A; Lakatta, Edward G

    2016-07-01

    Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l). Initial small but significant increases in [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i and reductions in ENa and ECa in response to DG led to a small reduction in maximum diastolic potential (MDP), significantly enhanced local diastolic Ca(2+) releases (LCRs), and reduced the average APCL. As [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i continued to increase at longer times following DG exposure, further significant reductions in MDP, ENa, and ECa occurred; LCRs became significantly reduced, and APCL became progressively and significantly prolonged. This was accompanied by increased APCL variability. We also employed a coupled-clock numerical model to simulate changes in ENa and ECa simultaneously with ion currents not measured experimentally. Numerical modeling predicted that, as the ENa and ECa monotonically reduced over time in response to DG, ion currents (ICaL, ICaT, If, IKr, and IbNa) monotonically decreased. In parallel with the biphasic APCL, diastolic INCX manifested biphasic changes; initial INCX increase attributable to enhanced LCR ensemble Ca(2+) signal was followed by INCX reduction as ENCX (ENCX = 3ENa - 2ECa) decreased. Thus SANC automaticity is tightly regulated by ENa, ECa, and ENCX via a complex interplay of numerous key clock components that regulate SANC clock coupling.

  8. Electrochemical Na+ and Ca2+ gradients drive coupled-clock regulation of automaticity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Bychkov, Rostislav; Yaeger, Daniel; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Spurgeon, Harold A; Lakatta, Edward G

    2016-07-01

    Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l). Initial small but significant increases in [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i and reductions in ENa and ECa in response to DG led to a small reduction in maximum diastolic potential (MDP), significantly enhanced local diastolic Ca(2+) releases (LCRs), and reduced the average APCL. As [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i continued to increase at longer times following DG exposure, further significant reductions in MDP, ENa, and ECa occurred; LCRs became significantly reduced, and APCL became progressively and significantly prolonged. This was accompanied by increased APCL variability. We also employed a coupled-clock numerical model to simulate changes in ENa and ECa simultaneously with ion currents not measured experimentally. Numerical modeling predicted that, as the ENa and ECa monotonically reduced over time in response to DG, ion currents (ICaL, ICaT, If, IKr, and IbNa) monotonically decreased. In parallel with the biphasic APCL, diastolic INCX manifested biphasic changes; initial INCX increase attributable to enhanced LCR ensemble Ca(2+) signal was followed by INCX reduction as ENCX (ENCX = 3ENa - 2ECa) decreased. Thus SANC automaticity is tightly regulated by ENa, ECa, and ENCX via a complex interplay of numerous key clock components that regulate SANC clock coupling. PMID:27208164

  9. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  10. Microstructural investigation of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite using basal spacing determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmboe, M.; Wold, S.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge about the microstructure of saturated compacted bentonite is of fundamental importance in order to describe and predict diffusive transport through the bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository. If the mineral composition is well characterized, microstructural models of compacted bentonite on the nanoscale can be based on accurate information of the basal spacings and corresponding interlayer distances within the montmorillonite particles. From the average basal spacing, the interlayer and the so-called interparticle or free porosity can be calculated [1]. The basal spacings of the montmorillonite particles can be measured by neutron and X-ray small-angle scattering or diffraction. However, due to microstructural heterogeneity and interstratification of different hydration states, profile fitting through mixed layered modeling is necessary although challenging [2,3]. In this study, we have used low-angle XRD in reflection mode together with one-dimensional analysis of mixed layered clays [2] in order to compare both the relative layer distribution and average basal spacing of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite samples. Two different methods for water saturation commonly used in the literature were compared, saturation by constant relative humidity (adsorption and desorption) and saturation under constant volume conditions, forming compacted clay with dry densities of 0.5-1.8 g/cm3. No significant difference in basal spacings was observed between highly compacted (< 4 H2O layers) homoionic montmorillonite and MX-80 bentonite samples saturated under volume constricted conditions, if the accessory minerals and lower smectite content was accounted for. This was however not the case for the samples saturated at constant RH%, which indicates mixing of the exchangeable cations in the interlayers. Interestingly, even if the total water content was the same water uptake restricted by water activity did not always result in the same magnitude of

  11. Cyanide inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in isolated cardiac pacemaker cells of the cane toad.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yue-kun; Allen, David G

    2005-02-01

    The effects of the metabolic inhibition on the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) were studied in single isolated pacemaker cells from the cane toad. Ca2+ influx on NCX (reverse mode) was estimated by measuring the increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to extracellular Na+-free solution. After application of 2 mM sodium cyanide for 3-5 min, the peak [Ca2+]i in Na+-free solution was significantly decreased from 377+/-42 nM to 260+/-46 nM, suggesting inhibition of NCX. To study Ca2+ efflux on NCX (forward mode), we recorded the tail currents on repolarization which were abolished by Ni2+ and by Na+-free solution. Cyanide decreased the amplitude of tail currents by 36+/-3%. To investigate the intrinsic properties of NCX during the metabolic inhibition, we used rapid application of caffeine to trigger sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, which then stimulates NCX current (I(NCX) ). Both the caffeine-induced peak [Ca2+]i and the peak I(NCX) were reduced by cyanide exposure. When I(NCX) was plotted against [Ca2+], the slope of the decay phase was decreased in the presence of CN- to 44+/-8% of control, indicating that for a given [Ca2+]i there was less I(NCX) produced. These results show that cyanide (CN-) inhibits NCX activity at least partly through changes in the intrinsic properties of NCX. The inhibition of NCX probably contributes to the slower firing rate of pacemaker cells in CN-. PMID:15688245

  12. Crystalline Al1 - x Ti x phases in the hydrogen cycled NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, M. P.; Vullum, P. E.; Sørby, M. H.; Emerich, H.; Paskevicius, M.; Buckley, C. E.; Gray, E. MacA.; Walmsley, J. C.; Holmestad, R.; Hauback, B. C.

    2013-03-01

    The hydrogen (H) cycled planetary milled (PM) NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system has been studied by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy during the first 10 H cycles. After the first H absorption, we observe the formation of four nanoscopic crystalline (c-) Ti-containing phases embedded on the NaAlH4 surface, i.e. Al2Ti, Al3Ti, Al82Ti18 and Al89Ti11, with 100% of the originally added Ti atoms accounted for. Al2Ti and Al3Ti are observed morphologically as a mechanical couple on the NaAlH4 surface, with a moderately strained interface. Electron diffraction shows that the Al82Ti18 phase retains some ordering from the L12 structure type, with the observation of forbidden (100) ordering reflections in the fcc Al82Ti18 lattice. After 2 H cycles the NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system displays only two crystalline Ti-containing phases, Al3Ti and Al89Ti11. After 10 H cycles, the Al89Ti11 is completely converted to Al85Ti15. Al89Ti11, Al85Ti15 and Al3Ti do not display any ordering reflections, and they are modeled in the A1 structure type. Quantitative phase analysis indicates that the Al3Ti proportion continues to increase with further H cycles. The formation of Ti-poor Al1 - x Ti x (x < 0.25) phases in later H cycles is detrimental to hydrogenation kinetics, compared to the starting Ti-richer near-surface Al2Ti/NaAlH4 interface present during the first absorption of hydrogen.

  13. Dielectric properties of CaNdAlO sub 4 at microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, J.; Wolff, I. ); Lewandowski, S.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Dielectric properties of CaNdAlO{sub 4} monocrystals, a prospective substrate material for the deposition of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, were measured with high accuracy at microwave frequencies from 8 to 40 GHz in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K by measuring the resonant frequencies of a completely filled resonant cavity. The material was found to be highly anisotropic. At 300 K it exhibits the dielectric constant along {ital c} axis {epsilon}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} = 17.68, while the dielectric constant in the {ital a}-{ital b} plane is {epsilon}{prime}=19.62, and loss tangent tan {delta}{sub {ital c}} {congruent} tan {delta} {congruent} 5.1{times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Both {epsilon}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} and {epsilon}{prime} depend strongly on temperature and their thermal coefficients have opposite signs, apparently a unique property of CaNdAlO{sub 4}. Below 160 K microwave losses caused by electric field perpendicular to the optical {ital c} axis increase with decreasing temperature, exhibiting a maximum near 65 K followed by a minimum at 30 K. It is suggested that neodymium ions in CaNdAlO{sub 4} at lower temperatures become magnetically ordered, causing an increase of magnetic permeability {mu}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} {gt} 1 and a significant increase of magnetic losses at microwave frequencies. A crystallographic phase transition below 60 K cannot also be excluded.

  14. Partition coefficients for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained by melting experiment on an LL6 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the partition coefficients for Ca, Al, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained through a series of melting experiments on an LL6 chondrite under varying conditions of temperature and oxygen fugacity. It is necessary to examine the variation of partition coefficients up to extremely reducing conditions in order to study meteoritic olivines. For Ca, Al, and Cr, the partition coefficients tend to decrease as temperature increases, but do not change even under extremely reducing conditions.

  15. A minimum mechanism for Na+-Ca++ exchange: net and unidirectional Ca++ fluxes as functions of ion composition and membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E A; Kootsey, J M

    1985-01-01

    Both simultaneous and consecutive mechanisms for Na+-Ca++ exchange are formulated and the associated systems of steady-state equations are solved numerically, and the net and unidirectional Ca++ fluxes computed for a variety of ionic and electrical boundary conditions. A simultaneous mechanism is shown to be consistent with a broad range of experimental data from the squid giant axon, cardiac muscle and isolated sarcolemmal vesicles. In this mechanism, random binding of three Na+ ions and one Ca++ on apposing sides of a membrane are required before a conformational change can occur, translocating the binding sites to the opposite sides of the membranes. A similar (return) translocation step is also permitted if all the sites are empty. None of the other states of binding can undergo such translocating conformational changes. The resulting reaction scheme has 22 reaction steps involving 16 ion-binding intermediates. The voltage dependence of the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction, required by the 3:1 Na+: Ca++ stoichiometry was obtained by multiplying and dividing, respectively, the forward and reverse rate constants of one of the translocational steps by exp(-FV/2RT). With reasonable values for the membrane density of the enzyme (approximately 120 sites micron 2) and an upper limit for the rate constants of both translocational steps of 10(5) . sec-1, satisfactory behavior was obtainable with identical binding constants for Ca++ on the two sides of the membrane (10(6) M-1), similar symmetry also being assumed for the Na+ binding constant (12 to 60 M-1). Introduction of order into the ion-binding process eliminates behavior that is consistent with experimental findings.

  16. A yellow-emitting phosphor of Mn2+-doped Na2CaP2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, F.; Song, E. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2014-03-01

    A yellow-emitting Na2CaP2O7:Mn2+ phosphors have been synthesized by solid state reaction. The crystal structure, photoluminescence properties as well as concentration quenching mechanism have been investigated. The 4T1-6A1 emission of Mn2+ in Na2CaP2O7 phosphor ranges from 500 to 650 nm and exhibits a red shift while increasing the Mn2+ concentration. The crystal field strength is calculated based on the combination of excitation spectrum and Tanabe-Sugano diagram. The chromaticity coordinates of Na2CaP2O7:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors were discussed in order to develop the potential application in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  17. In vitro Ca-45/++/ uptake and exchange by otoconial complexes in high and low K/+/Na/+/ fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Cloke, P. L.; Corson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, data have been accumulating to indicate that saccular and utricular otoconial complexes of the gravity receptor organs are dynamic and interact constantly with their environment. This study investigates the possibility that the ionic composition of the surrounding fluid influences calcium ion binding and release, and explores the importance of the K(+)/Na(+) ratio. Two in-vitro methods were developed, the first of which employed artificial endolymph and perilymph while ionically balanced fluids in which only the K(+)/Na(+) was altered were used in the second. The ability of rat complexes to take up Ca-45(++) during incubation with these fluids was assessed using liquid scintillation spectrometry. In vitro uptake of Ca-45(++) was greater in fluids with a high K(+)/Na(+) ratio than in fluids in which the ratio was low. The ability of the complexes to take up Ca-45(++) appeared to decline with age.

  18. A yellow-emitting phosphor of Mn(2+)-doped Na2CaP2O7.

    PubMed

    Xiao, F; Song, E H; Zhang, Q Y

    2014-03-25

    A yellow-emitting Na2CaP2O7:Mn(2+)phosphors have been synthesized by solid state reaction. The crystal structure, photoluminescence properties as well as concentration quenching mechanism have been investigated. The (4)T1-(6)A1 emission of Mn(2+)in Na2CaP2O7 phosphor ranges from 500 to 650 nm and exhibits a red shift while increasing the Mn(2+)concentration. The crystal field strength is calculated based on the combination of excitation spectrum and Tanabe-Sugano diagram. The chromaticity coordinates of Na2CaP2O7:Eu(2+), Mn(2+)phosphors were discussed in order to develop the potential application in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). PMID:24317261

  19. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  20. CIGS solar cell devices on steel substrates coated with Na containing AlPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moojin; Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Jeon, Chan-Wook; Lee, Dongyun; Lee, Sung-Nam; Lee, Ji-Myon; Lee, Hong-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Flexible copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)-based solar cells are developed on stainless steel (STS) substrates covered with an insulating layer. The Na containing AlPO4 ("Na-AlPO4") material is processed using the slot-die coating method. The coated film is analyzed using various spectroscopic methods including scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, secondary-ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and 3D profiler. The characteristics of the solar cells fabricated on these insulating films are also evaluated. The application of the Na-AlPO4 layer on the STS substrates is compared with the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells fabricated on metal foil. Although the insertion of the insulating layer does not influence the formation of the CIGS film and solar cell performance, a better uniformity in the current-voltage curve is obtained.

  1. Nitric oxide regulates cardiac intracellular Na+ and Ca2 + by modulating Na/K ATPase via PKCε and phospholemman-dependent mechanism☆

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Davor; Hall, Andrew R.; Kennington, Erika J.; Aughton, Karen; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Fuller, William; Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M.; Shattock, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In the heart, Na/K-ATPase regulates intracellular Na+ and Ca2 + (via NCX), thereby preventing Na+ and Ca2 + overload and arrhythmias. Here, we test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) regulates cardiac intracellular Na+ and Ca2 + and investigate mechanisms and physiological consequences involved. Effects of both exogenous NO (via NO-donors) and endogenously synthesized NO (via field-stimulation of ventricular myocytes) were assessed in this study. Field stimulation of rat ventricular myocytes significantly increased endogenous NO (18 ± 2 μM), PKCε activation (82 ± 12%), phospholemman phosphorylation (at Ser-63 and Ser-68) and Na/K-ATPase activity (measured by DAF-FM dye, western-blotting and biochemical assay, respectively; p < 0.05, n = 6) and all were abolished by Ca2 +-chelation (EGTA 10 mM) or NOS inhibition l-NAME (1 mM). Exogenously added NO (spermine-NONO-ate) stimulated Na/K-ATPase (EC50 = 3.8 μM; n = 6/grp), via decrease in Km, in PLMWT but not PLMKO or PLM3SA myocytes (where phospholemman cannot be phosphorylated) as measured by whole-cell perforated-patch clamp. Field-stimulation with l-NAME or PKC-inhibitor (2 μM Bis) resulted in elevated intracellular Na+ (22 ± 1.5 and 24 ± 2 respectively, vs. 14 ± 0.6 mM in controls) in SBFI-AM-loaded rat myocytes. Arrhythmia incidence was significantly increased in rat hearts paced in the presence of l-NAME (and this was reversed by l-arginine), as well as in PLM3SA mouse hearts but not PLMWT and PLMKO. We provide physiological and biochemical evidence for a novel regulatory pathway whereby NO activates Na/K-ATPase via phospholemman phosphorylation and thereby limits Na+ and Ca2 + overload and arrhythmias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Na+ Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes”. PMID:23612119

  2. The stability of sodalite in the system NaAlSiO sub 4 -NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Z.D. ); Helffrich, G.R. ); Bohlen, S.R. ); Essene, E.J. )

    1989-08-01

    The reaction sodalite = {beta}-nepheline + NaCl (s) was reversed in solid-medium apparatus and the reaction sodalite = carnegieite + NaCl (l) was reversed at 1 bar (1,649-1,652 K). The experimental reversals between 923 K and 973 K can be fit with a dP/dT of {minus}11 bar/K, suggesting that the excess entropy for sodalite is present only above 923 K. A phase diagram for the NaAlSiO{sub 4}-NaCl system that is consistent with the measured thermochemical data and the experiments between 973 and 1,650 K can be generated if the 61.7 J/mol{center dot}K entropy contribution is included in the S{sup 0}{sub 298} of sodalite. This entropy contribution must be removed below 973 K for the experiments to fit with calculations. Previously unreported thermodynamic data estimated in this study are {Delta}G{sup 0}{sub 298} for sodalite ({minus}12,697 kJ/mol) and carnegieite (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) ({minus}1,958 kJ/mol), S{sup 0}{sub 298} of carnegieite (129.6 J/mol{center dot}K) and compressibility of NaCl{sub liquid} (V{sup P}{sub 298} (cm{sup 3}) = 31.6{center dot}(1 - 24.7{center dot}10{sup {minus}3}{center dot}P + 800{center dot}10{sup {minus}6}{center dot}P{sup 2}))(T in K; P in kbar). Sodalite is a high-temperature, low-pressure phase, stable well above the solidus in sodic silica-undersaturated magmas enriched in NaCl, and its presence constrains NaCl activities in magmas. Estimates of minimum NaCl (l) activities in the Mont St-Hilaire sodalite syenites are 0.05 at 1,073 K and 0.13 at 1,273 K. Density calculations are consistent with the field observations that sodalite phenocrysts will float in a nepheline syenite liquid. This explains the enrichment of sodalite in the upper levels of the sodalite syenites at Mont St.Hilaire and elsewhere.

  3. Biochemical responses of the mycorrhizae in Pinus massoniana to combined effects of Al, Ca and low pH.

    PubMed

    Kong, F X; Liu, Y; Hu, W; Shen, P P; Zhou, C L; Wang, L S

    2000-02-01

    Biochemical responses of Pinus massoniana, with and without the inoculation mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius at the root, to artificial acid rain (pH 2.0) and various Ca/Al ratios were investigated. Some enzymes associated with the nutritive metabolism, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, mannitol dehydrogenase and trehalase, in the roots, stems and leaves of plant were obviously inhibited by the artificial acid rain and Al. After treatment with pH 2.0 + Ca/Al (0/1 or 1/10) artificial acid rain, the protein content in the organs was decreased. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were induced. It demonstrated that acid rain and Al could induce oxygen radicals in plant. Compared with the treatments with lower pH or Al, respectively, the combination of lower pH and Al concentration was more toxic to P. massoniana. Al toxicity could be ameliorated by the addition of Ca and the amelioration was the most when the ratio was 1/1 among the various Ca/Al ratio. Infection with mycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius at the root of P. massoniana increased the ability of the plant to resist the toxicity of artificial acid rain and Al stress.

  4. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  5. K+ and Ca2+ modified Na-X zeolites as possible bile acids sequestrant.

    PubMed

    Linares, Carlos F; Valenzuela, Elymar; Ocanto, Freddy; Pérez, Víctor; Valbuena, Oscar; Goldwasser, Mireya R

    2008-05-01

    Modified zeolite X, previously exchanged with K+ and Ca2+ cations were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, chemical analysis and BET techniques. Different masses of these solids were mixed with an ox bile solution at different reaction times. The supernatants obtained by centrifugations were submitted to bile acid and phospholipids quantitative determinations. The amount of bile acids adsorbed was 65, 28 and 77% and for phospholipids was 45, 67 and 98% for KX, NaX and CaX respectively. As expected, as the amount of mass used increases more bile acids and phospholipids are adsorbed due to a larger surface of the solid being available for adsorption. On the other hand, 120 min of reaction time were sufficient for the adsorption of both components. The solids, after incubations with bile solutions were treated with abundant distilled water and dried at room temperature. The FT-IR analysis of these solids did not detect any bile and on the zeolite surface with suggested that the bile acid adsorption on the exchanged zeolites is moderated by weak and non covalent interactions.

  6. Surface Behavior of Bioactive Glass of Si-Na-Ca-P System in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Dang, Xing; Bao, Ruiliang; Yao, Liang

    Glass of the Si-Na-Ca-P system has been synthesized by normal melting and annealing technique. The obtained glass powders and annealed blocks were showed to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it showed that the glass transformation temperature (Tg) was 556.3°C. The behavior of annealed glass discs in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) was studied in polyethylene containers at a constant temperature of 37°C for different time up to 14 days. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by electronic probe microanalyzer (EPMA) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Glass surface changed quickly as soon as immersion took place, and after longer soaking time, it showed different superimposed internal and external layers, which were identified as SiO2-rich and CaO-P2O5-rich layers, and on the external layer, spherical particles were also discovered.

  7. Dissolution Behavior of Indium in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kyu Yeol; Park, Joo Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The solubility of indium in a molten CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) to establish the dissolution mechanism of indium under a highly reducing atmosphere. The solubility of indium increases with increasing oxygen potential, whereas it decreases with increased activity of basic oxide. Therefore, a dissolution mechanism of indium can be constructed according to the following equation: {{In}}({{s}}) + 1/4{{O}}2 ({{g}}) = ({{In}}^{ + } ) + 1/2({{O}}^{2 - } ) The relationship between indium capacity and sulfide capacity shows a good correlation that is consistent with theoretical expectations. The enthalpy change of the indium dissolution reaction is negative, which indicates that the dissolution is an exothermic reaction. The heat of dissolution into high-silica melts is greater than that into low-silica melts. The solubility of indium is strongly dependent on the silica content. The activity coefficient, and thus the excess free energy of In2O, decreases linearly with increasing silica content, indicating that the In2O is believed to behave as a weak basic oxide in the current CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary system under reducing conditions.

  8. Magnesium doping on brownmillerite Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Malveiro, J.; Ramos, T.; Ferreira, L.P.; Waerenborgh, J.C.

    2007-06-15

    Ca{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-} {sub x} Mg {sub x} O{sub 5} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) compounds adopting the brownmillerite-type structure were prepared by a self-combustion route using two different fuels. Characterisation was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetisation measurements, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and 4-point dc conductivity measurements. Global results indicate that the solubility limit was reached for x=0.1. An antiferromagnetic behaviour was detected for all studied compositions, with magnetic ordering temperatures of 340 and 290 K for x=0 and 0.05, respectively. Mg doping increases the number of iron cations in tetrahedral sites, which induces magnetisation enhancement at low temperatures through the coupling between octahedral iron cations in different octahedral planes. The compounds exhibit semiconductor behaviour and Mg{sup 2+} doping yields a significant enhancement of the total conductivity, which can be essentially attributed to the presence of Fe{sup 4+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Ca{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-} {sub x} Mg {sub x} O{sub 5} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1) compounds with the brownmillerite structure were prepared and characterised. The paramagnetic Moessbauer spectra presented were obtained at T=363 K (x=0); T=297 K (x=0.05) and T=353 K (x=0.1)

  9. Control of spontaneous activation of rat oocytes by regulating plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activities.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chuan-Xin; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Tian-Yang; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-06-01

    Inhibiting oocyte spontaneous activation (SA) is essential for successful rat cloning by nuclear transfer (NT). This study tested the hypothesis that activities of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) would decrease with oocyte aging and that SA of rat oocytes could be inhibited if the intraoocyte Ca(2+) rises were prevented by activating the NCX through increasing Na(+) concentrations in the culture medium. Elevating Na(+) levels in culture medium by supplementing NaCl inhibited SA of rat oocytes, while maintaining a constant level of maturation-promoting factor and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities. Experiments using the NCX inhibitor bepridil, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, and an assay for intraoocyte Ca(2+) concentrations showed that extracellular Na(+) inhibited rat oocyte SA by enhancing NCX activity and preventing intracellular Ca(2+) rises. Immunohistochemical quantification indicated that the density of NCX1 decreased significantly in aged oocytes that were prone to SA compared with that in freshly ovulated oocytes whose SA rates were low during in vitro culture. Cumulus cell NT showed that sham enucleation caused marked SA in freshly ovulated rat oocytes and that Na(+) supplementation prevented the manipulation-induced SA and improved the in vitro and in vivo development of rat somatic cell NT embryos. Taken together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis that the NCX is active in rat oocytes and its activity decreases with oocyte aging and that activating the NCX by increasing extracellular Na(+) inhibits SA of rat oocytes and improves the development of rat somatic cell NT embryos. These data are also important for understanding the mechanisms of oocyte aging. PMID:23677981

  10. Self-reactivated mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite for enhanced high-temperature CO2 capture and carbonation/calcination cycles performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2015-03-25

    In this study, highly efficient high-temperature CO2 sorbents of calcium aluminate (Ca-Al-O) mesostructured composite were synthesized using presynthesized mesoporous alumina (MA) as a porous matrix to react with calcium nitrate through a microwave-assisted process. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable mesoporous structure composed of poorly crystalline Ca12Al14O33 phase and the CaO matrix was obtained. The Ca-Al-O mesostructured sorbents with a Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratio of 5:1 exhibit an enhanced increasing CO2 absorption kinetics in the CO2 capture capacity from 37.2 wt % to 48.3 wt % without apparent degradation with increasing carbonation/calcination cycling up to 50 at 700 °C due to the strong self-reactivation effect of the mesoporous Ca-Al-O microstructure. Remarkable improvements in the CaO-CaCO3 conversion attained from the mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite can be explained using the concept combined with available mesoporous structure and Ca12Al14O33 phase content. However, a high Ca(2+)/Al(3+) =8:1 Ca-Al-O composite causes degradation because the pores become blocked and partial sintering induces CaO agglomeration. PMID:25730384

  11. Atomistic and Ab initio modeling of CaAl2O4 high-pressure polymorphs under Earth's mantle conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, N. N.; Grechanovsky, A. E.; Marchenko, E. I.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-empirical and ab initio theoretical investigation of crystal structure geometry, interatomic distances, phase densities and elastic properties for some CaAl2O4 phases under pressures up to 200 GPa was performed. Two independent simulation methods predicted the appearance of a still unknown super-dense CaAl2O4 modification. In this structure, the Al coordination polyhedron might be described as distorted one with seven vertices. Ca atoms were situated inside polyhedra with ten vertices and Ca-O distances from 1.96 to 2.49 Å. It became the densest modification under pressures of 170 GPa (density functional theory prediction) or 150 GPa (semi-empirical prediction). Both approaches indicated that this super-dense CaAl2O4 modification with a "stuffed α-PbO2" type structure could be a probable candidate for mutual accumulation of Ca and Al in the lower mantle. The existence of this phase can be verified experimentally using high pressure techniques.

  12. Density-functional calculations of the surface tension of liquid Al and Na

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, D.; Grimson, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations of the surface tensions of liquid Al and Na are described using the full ionic density functional formalism of Wood and Stroud (1983). Surface tensions are in good agreement with experiment in both cases, with results substantially better for Al than those found previously in the gradient approximation. Preliminary minimization with respect to surface profile leads to an oscillatory profile superimposed on a nearly steplike ionic density disribution; the oscillations have a wavellength of about a hardsphere diameter.

  13. Proximity of Na+ -Ca2+ -exchanger and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in pig coronary artery smooth muscle: fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuszczak, Iwona; Kuner, Rajneet; Samson, Sue E; Grover, Ashok K

    2010-06-01

    Pig coronary artery smooth muscle expresses the Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger NCX1 and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Ca(2+) pump SERCA2. NCX has been proposed to play a role in refilling the SER Ca(2+) pool. Caveolae may also direct Ca(2+) traffic during cell signaling. Here, we use immunofluorescence microscopy to determine if there is proximity between NCX1, SERCA2, and the caveolar protein caveolin-1. Stacks of images of cell surface domains were analyzed. Image stacks for one protein were analyzed for overlap with another protein, with and without randomization or image shifting. Within the resolution of light microscopy, there is significant overlap in the distributions of NCX1, SERCA2, and caveolin-1 but the three proteins are not always co-localized. The proximity between NCX1, SERCA2 is consistent with the assertion that NCX may supply Ca(2+) for refilling the SER but this relationship is only partial. Similarly, caveolae may direct traffic in some Ca(2+) signaling pathways but not others.

  14. Involvement of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoform 1 (NCX1) in Neuronal Growth Factor (NGF)-induced Neuronal Differentiation through Ca2+-dependent Akt Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Secondo, Agnese; Esposito, Alba; Sirabella, Rossana; Boscia, Francesca; Pannaccione, Anna; Molinaro, Pasquale; Cantile, Maria; Ciccone, Roselia; Sisalli, Maria Josè; Scorziello, Antonella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    NGF induces neuronal differentiation by modulating [Ca2+]i. However, the role of the three isoforms of the main Ca2+-extruding system, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), in NGF-induced differentiation remains unexplored. We investigated whether NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 isoforms could play a relevant role in neuronal differentiation through the modulation of [Ca2+]i and the Akt pathway. NGF caused progressive neurite elongation; a significant increase of the well known marker of growth cones, GAP-43; and an enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ content and of Akt phosphorylation through an early activation of ERK1/2. Interestingly, during NGF-induced differentiation, the NCX1 protein level increased, NCX3 decreased, and NCX2 remained unaffected. At the same time, NCX total activity increased. Moreover, NCX1 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with GAP-43, and NCX1 silencing prevented NGF-induced effects on GAP-43 expression, Akt phosphorylation, and neurite outgrowth. On the other hand, the overexpression of its neuronal splicing isoform, NCX1.4, even in the absence of NGF, induced an increase in Akt phosphorylation and GAP-43 protein expression. Interestingly, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ currents and 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4′-[1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane-7,13-diylbis(5-methoxy-6,12-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetrakis[(acetyloxy)methyl] ester-detected [Na+]i significantly increased in cells overexpressing NCX1.4 as well as ER Ca2+ content. This latter effect was prevented by tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, either the [Ca2+]i chelator(1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid) (BAPTA-AM) or the PI3K inhibitor LY 294002 prevented Akt phosphorylation and GAP-43 protein expression rise in NCX1.4 overexpressing cells. Moreover, in primary cortical neurons, NCX1 silencing prevented Akt phosphorylation, GAP-43 and MAP2 overexpression, and neurite elongation. Collectively, these data show that NCX1 participates in neuronal differentiation

  15. The TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365 inhibits glioblastoma cell growth by enhancing reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and increasing intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Song, M; Chen, D; Yu, S P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE SKF 96365 is well known for its suppressing effect on human glioblastoma growth by inhibiting pre-activated transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels and Ca2+ influx. The effect of SKF 96363 on glioblastoma cells, however, may be multifaceted and this possibility has been largely ignored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of SKF 96365 on cell cycle and cell viability of cultured human glioblastoma cells were characterized. Western blot, Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp recordings were used to delineate cell death mechanisms. siRNA gene knockdown provided additional evidence. KEY RESULTS SKF 96365 repressed glioblastoma cell growth via increasing intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) irrespective of whether TRPC channels were blocked or not. The effect of SKF 96365 primarily resulted from enhanced reverse operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) with an EC50 of 9.79 μM. SKF 96365 arrested the glioblastoma cells in the S and G2 phases and activated p38-MAPK and JNK, which were all prevented by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM or EGTA. The expression of NCX in glioblastoma cells was significantly higher than in normal human astrocytes. Knockdown of the NCX1 isoforms diminished the effect of SKF 96365 on glioblastoma cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At the same concentration, SKF 96365 blocks TRPC channels and enhances the reverse mode of the NCX causing [Ca2+]i accumulation and cytotoxicity. This finding suggests an alternative pharmacological mechanism of SKF 96365. It also indicates that modulation of the NCX is an effective method to disrupt Ca2+ homeostasis and suppress human glioblastoma cells. PMID:24641279

  16. The reduction of chlorine on carbon in AlCl3-KCl-NaCl melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    Using a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters for chlorine reduction in an AlCl3-KCl-NaCl (57.5-12.5-30 mol percent) melt were determined. It was found that the reduction of chlorine occurs according to two paths, with the first step probably being rate-determining.

  17. Fluoride gastrointestinal absorption from Na2FPO3/CaCO3- and NaF/SiO2-based toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Falcão, A; Tenuta, L M A; Cury, J A

    2013-01-01

    Depending on toothpaste formulation, part of the fluoride is insoluble and would not be totally absorbable in the gastrointestinal tract, thus changing dental fluorosis risk estimation. This hypothesis was tested with formulations with either all fluoride in a soluble form (NaF/SiO2-based toothpaste, 1,100 µg F/g as labeled, 1,129.7 ± 49.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed) or with around 20% of insoluble fluoride (Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste, 1,450 µg F/g as labeled, 1,122.4 ± 76.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed). Toothpastes were evaluated either fresh or after accelerated aging, which increased insoluble fluoride to 40% in the Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste. In a blind, crossover clinical trial conducted in five legs, 20 adult volunteers ingested 49.5 µg of total fluoride/kg body weight from each formulation or purified water (control). Whole saliva and urine were collected as bioavailability indicators, and pharmacokinetics parameters calculated showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower fluoride bioavailability for Na2FPO3/CaCO3 toothpaste, which was reduced further after aging. A significant correlation between the amount of soluble fluoride ingested, but not total fluoride, and fluoride bioavailability was found (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). The findings suggest that the estimated fluorosis risk as a result of ingestion of Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpastes should be calculated based on the toothpaste's soluble rather than total fluoride concentration. PMID:23295625

  18. Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

  19. Interaction of an aluminum atom with an alkaline earth atom: Spectroscopic and ab initio investigations of AlCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Jane M.; Morse, Michael D.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Simons, Jack

    1994-10-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of diatomic AlCa generated by laser vaporization of a 2:1 Al:Ca metal alloy followed by supersonic expansion has been completed using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Four excited electronic states have been identified and investigated in the energy region from 13 500 to 17 900 cm-1. These are the [13.5] 2Πr, the [15.8] 2Σ, the [17.0] 2Δ3/2(?), and the [17.6] 2Δ3/2 states. From rotational analysis excited state bond lengths have been measured for three of the four excited states, and the ground state has been unambiguously determined as a 2Πr state with a weighted least squares value of the ground state bond length of r0` = 3.1479± 0.0010 Å. The ionization energy of the molecule has also been directly determined as 5.072±0.028 eV. Ab initio calculations for the potential energy curves of seven low-lying states of AlCa [X 2Πr, 2Σ+, 4Σ-, 4Πr, 2Πr(2), 2Δ, and 2Σ-] and for the X 1Σ+ ground electronic state of AlCa+ have been carried out. In agreement with experiment, 2Πr is calculated to be the ground electronic state of the neutral molecule. The dissociation energies of AlCa (X 2Πr) into Al(3s23p1,2P0)+Ca(4s2,1S) and for AlCa+ (X 1Σ+) into Al+(3s2,1S)+Ca(4s2,1S) are calculated to be 0.47 and 1.50 eV, respectively. The excited 2Σ+, 4Σ-, 4Πr, 2Πr(2), 2Δ, and 2Σ- states are calculated to lie 0.2, 0.7, 0.7, 1.1, 1.1, and 1.1 eV above X 2Πr, respectively, and the vertical and adiabatic ionization energies of AlCa have been calculated to be 5.03 and 4.97 eV, respectively.

  20. Dendritic Na(+) spikes enable cortical input to drive action potential output from hippocampal CA2 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Srinivas, Kalyan V; Sotayo, Alaba; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic inputs from different brain areas are often targeted to distinct regions of neuronal dendritic arbors. Inputs to proximal dendrites usually produce large somatic EPSPs that efficiently trigger action potential (AP) output, whereas inputs to distal dendrites are greatly attenuated and may largely modulate AP output. In contrast to most other cortical and hippocampal neurons, hippocampal CA2 pyramidal neurons show unusually strong excitation by their distal dendritic inputs from entorhinal cortex (EC). In this study, we demonstrate that the ability of these EC inputs to drive CA2 AP output requires the firing of local dendritic Na(+) spikes. Furthermore, we find that CA2 dendritic geometry contributes to the efficient coupling of dendritic Na(+) spikes to AP output. These results provide a striking example of how dendritic spikes enable direct cortical inputs to overcome unfavorable distal synaptic locale to trigger axonal AP output and thereby enable efficient cortico-hippocampal information flow.

  1. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl sub 4 O sub 7 and CaAl sub 12 O sub 19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, C.A.; Kleppa, O.J.; Mysen, B.O.; Lattimer, J.M.; Grossman, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The enthalpies of formation of CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} and CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (hibonite), by alkali borate solution calorimetry at 1063 K are discussed. Using these experimental enthalpy data for CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} and estimated values for CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}, the standard enthalpies of formation of these compounds from the elements at 298 K are derived. Comparison with high-temperature galvanic cell data for the Gibbs energy of formation of CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} allows a calculation of the standard entropy of hibonite. This value is only about 2% larger than the oxide sum. Hence it is inferred that the standard entropy of hibonite at 298 K is probably only slightly larger than oxide sum value of 343.7 J/K g.f.w. The present data were used to extrapolate Kumar and Kay's (1985) data for the Gibbs energies of formation of hibonite and CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} to the temperature range 1500-1700 K. These data were then used in equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of the condensation of a gas of solar composition. Contrary to calculations of Kornacki and Fegley (1984), who used thermodynamic data of Allibert et al. (1981) for calcium aluminates, the authors results show no stability field for CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} in a gas of solar composition at 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} atm total pressure. At 10{sup {minus}3} atm pressure, hibonite forms by reaction of corundum with the gas at 1725 K, begins to react with the gas to form gehlenite at 1607 K and disappears completely in a reaction to form spinel at 1494 K. The absence of CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7}, from hibonite-, spinel-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites cannot be used as an argument against a condensation origin for these objects.

  2. Metabolic regulation of the squid nerve Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, Luis; Dipolo, Reinaldo; Bollo, Mariana; Cousido, Alexandra; Berberián, Graciela; Podjarny, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In squid nerves, MgATP modulation of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger requires the presence of a cytosolic protein which becomes phosphorylated during the process. This factor has been recently identified. Mass spectroscopy and Western blot analysis established that it is a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipid-binding proteins (LBP or FABP) of 132 amino acids. We called it regulatory protein of squid nerve sodium/calcium exchanger (ReP1-NCXSQ, access to GenBank EU981897).ReP1-NCXSQ was cloned, expressed, and purified. Circular dichroism, far-UV, and infrared spectroscopy suggest a secondary structure, predominantly of beta-sheets. The tertiary structure prediction provides ten beta-sheets and two alpha-helices, characteristic of most of LPB. Functional experiments showed that, to be active, ReP1-NCXSQ must be phosphorylated by MgATP, through the action of a kinase present in the plasma membrane. Moreover, PO4-ReP1-NCXSQ can stimulate the exchanger in the absence of ATP. An additional crucial observation was that, in proteoliposomes containing only the purified Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, PO4-ReP1-NCXSQ promotes activation; therefore, this upregulation has no other requirement than a lipid membrane and the incorporated exchanger protein.Recently, we solved the crystal structure of ReP1-NCXSQ which was as predicted: a "barrel" consisting of ten beta-sheets and two alpha-helices. Inside the barrel is the fatty acid coordinated by hydrogen bonds with Arg126 and Tyr128. Point mutations showed that neither Tyr20Ala, Arg58Val, Ser99Ala, nor Arg126Val is necessary for protein phosphorylation or activity. On the other hand, Tyr128 is essential for activity but not for phosphorylation. We can conclude that (1) for the first time, a role of an LBP is demonstrated in the metabolic regulation of an ion exchanger; (2) phosphorylation of this LBP can be separated from the activation capacity; and (3) Tyr128, a candidate to coordinate lipid binding inside the barrel, is essential

  3. Synchrotron X-ray studies of Al(1-y)Ti(y) formation and re-hydriding inhibition in Ti-enhanced NaAlH4.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Hendrik W; Hauback, Bjørn C; Srinivasan, Sesha S; Jensen, Craig M

    2005-08-25

    NaAlH4 samples with Ti additives (TiCl3, TiF3, and Ti(OBu)4) have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to unveil the nature of Ti. No crystalline Ti-containing phases were observed after ball milling of NaAlH4 with the additives, neither as a solid solution in NaAlH4 nor as secondary phases. However, after cycling, a high-angle shoulder of Al is observed in the same position with 10% TiCl3 as that with 2% Ti(OBu)4, but with considerably higher intensity, indicating that the shoulder is caused by Ti. After prolonged reabsorption, there is only a small fraction of free Al phase left to react with Na3AlH6, whereas the shoulder caused by Al(1-y)Ti(y) is dominating. The Ti-containing phase causing the shoulder therefore contains less Ti than Al3Ti, and the aluminum in this phase is too strongly bound to react with Na3AlH6 to form NaAlH4. The composition of the Al(1-y)Ti(y) phase is estimated from quantitative phase analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data to be Al(0.85)Ti(0.15). Formation of this phase may explain the reduction of capacity beyond the theoretical reduction from the dead weight of the additive and the reaction between the additive and NaAlH4.

  4. Growth and spectral characters of Nd:CaGdAlO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Juqing; Sun, Xiaohui; Xu, Xiaodong; Xia, Changtai; Sai, Qinglin; Yu, Haohai; Wang, Yicheng; Zhu, Liu; Gao, Yuan; Guo, Xueyi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, crystal growth and polarized spectra of Nd:CaGdAlO4 (Nd:CALGO) crystal were reported. The maximal absorption cross-sections are 6.8 and 7.5 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization and σ-polarization, and the emission cross-sections are 12.5 × 10-20 cm2 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 18 and 11 nm, respectively. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory was used to calculate the spectral parameters and the effective intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 were 0.8 × 10-20 cm2, 7.5 × 10-20 cm2 and 5.8 × 10-20 cm2, respectively. The lifetime was 123 μs. The results show that Nd:CALGO crystal is a promising medium for laser output.

  5. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence studies of CaAl2O4:Dy(3+) phosphor.

    PubMed

    Ziyauddin, Mohammad; Tigga, Shalinta; Brahme, Nameeta; Bisen, D P

    2016-02-01

    Calcium aluminate phosphors activated by Dy(3+) have been prepared by a combustion method at a temperature of 600°C. Photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of gamma-irradiated Dy-doped calcium aluminate were investigated. The PL spectrum shows a broad peak around 488 nm and 573 nm, under 347 nm excitation. Thermoluminescence studies were performed for different concentrations of Dy. Optimum intensity of photoluminescence was found for 0.02 mol% concentration of Dy. It was found that initially the peak TL intensity increases with increasing concentration of Dy in the CaAl2O4 host, attains a maximum value for 0.05 mol% concentration and decreases with further increase in the doping concentration due to concentration quenching.

  6. Raman spectroscopic quantitative study of NaCl-CaCl2-H2O system at high temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Shi-De; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Raman spectra features of the ternary system NaCl-CaCl2-H2O under high temperatures and high pressures were systematically studied in the present work by using hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and Raman shifts of quartz to determine pressures, and it has been obtained for the quantitative relationship between Raman shifts of the O-H stretching band of water, mass fractions of solutes and pressures was obtained. The mass fractions of salts, where salinity of NaCl equal to that of CaCl2, are 4.0 mass %, 8.0 mass %, and 12.0 mass %, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the standardized Raman frequency shift differences of the O-H stretching vibration (deltav(O0H)) rise with the increasing temperatures when the mass fractions of salts and pressures of the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O system remain constant. deltav(O-H) increases with the increase in mass fractions of salts in the system when the temperatures and pressures are constant. Linear relationship between deltav(O-H) and pressure with similar slopes can be found for the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O system with different salinities. The quantitative relationship between deltav(O-H), temperature (T), pressure (P), and mass fraction of solute (M) is P = -31.892 deltav(O-H) + 10.131T + 222.816M - 3 183.567, where the valid PTM range of the equation is 200 MPa < or = P < or = 1 700 MPa, 273 K < or = T < or = 539 K and M < or = 12 mass %. The equation can be used as a geobarometer in the studies of fluid inclusions of NaCl-CaCl2-H2O system with equal salinities. The method, as a direct geological detecting technique, has a potential application value. PMID:25269273

  7. Fluorescence and laser photon counting: measurements of epithelial [Ca2+]i or [Na+]i with ciliary beat frequency.

    PubMed

    Mao, H; Wong, L B

    1998-01-01

    We describe a system we developed that enabled simultaneous measurements of either epithelial calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) or sodium ion concentration ([Na+]i) with the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in native ciliated epithelia using either Fura-2 (AM) or SBFI (AM) ratiometric fluorescence photon counting along with nonstationary laser light scattering. Studies were performed using native epithelial tissues obtained from ovine tracheae. The dynamic range of the laser light-scattering system was determined by a simulated light "beating" experiment. The nonstationary CBF was demonstrated by the time-frequency analysis of the raw photon count sequences of backscattered heterodyne photons from cultured and native epithelia. Calibrations of calcium and sodium ion concentrations were performed using the respective Fura-2 and SBFI impermanent salts as well as in native epithelia. The cumulative responses of 10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M nifedipine on [Ca2+]i together with the CBF as well as the cumulative responses of 10(-5), 10(-4), and 10(-3) M amiloride on [Na+]i together with the CBF were also determined. Nifedipine decreased [Ca2+]i but had no effect on CBF. Amiloride decreased [Na+]i and CBF. Stimulation of CBF corresponded with either an increase of [Na+]i or an increase of [Ca2+]i. Decreases of [Na+]i or substantial decreases of [Ca2+]i were associated with decreases in the CBF. These data demonstrate the utility of this system for investigating the regulatory mechanisms of intracellular ions dynamics and the CBF in native epithelia. PMID:9662158

  8. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  9. Phase equilibria in the P(2)O(5)-CaO-CaF(2)-NaF-H(2)O quinary system and the formation of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roger Isaac

    incongruently with respect to CaFsb2. Therefore, treatment of dentin and tooth enamel with fluoride leads to the formation of fluorosis because the solution first becomes supersaturated with CaFsb2. Based on thermodynamics, the conversion of hydroxyapatite to fluoroapatite cannot be a single exchange of fluoride for hydroxl. CaHPOsb4 hydrolysis and equilibrium in sodium fluoride solutions at 37.4sp°C reveal the added effect of sodium on the system. Sodium phosphate species form and overcome CaHPOsb4 incongruency. At initial NaF concentrations greater than 150 mM, NaF species rise and may overcome fluoroapatite incongruency.

  10. Redetermination of tamarugite, NaAl(SO4)2·6H2O.

    PubMed

    Mereiter, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of tamarugite [sodium aluminium bis-(sulfate) hexa-hydrate] was redetermined from a single crystal from Mina Alcaparossa, near Cerritos Bayos, southwest of Calama, Chile. In contrast to the previous work [Robinson & Fang (1969 ▶). Am. Mineral. 54, 19-30], all non-H atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and H-atoms were located by difference Fourier methods and refined from X-ray diffraction data. The structure is built up from nearly regular [Al(H2O)6](3+) octa-hedra and infinite double-stranded chains [Na(SO4)2](3-) that extend parallel to [001]. The Na(+) cation has a strongly distorted octa-hedral coordination by sulfate O atoms [Na-O = 2.2709 (11) - 2.5117 (12) Å], of which five are furnished by the chain-building sulfate group S2O4 and one by the non-bridging sulfate group S1O4. The [Na(SO4)2](3-) chain features an unusual centrosymmetric group formed by two NaO6 octa-hedra and two S2O4 tetra-hedra sharing five adjacent edges, one between two NaO6 octa-hedra and two each between the resulting double octa-hedron and two S2O4 tetra-hedra. These groups are then linked into a double-stranded chain via corner-sharing between NaO6 octa-hedra and S2O4 tetra-hedra. The S1O4 group, attached to Na in the terminal position, completes the chains. The [Al(H2O)6](3+) octa-hedron (〈Al-O〉 = 1.885 (11) Å) donates 12 comparatively strong hydrogen bonds (O⋯O = 2.6665 (14) - 2.7971 (15) Å) to the sulfate O atoms of three neighbouring [Na(SO4)2](3-) chains, helping to connect them in three dimensions, but with a prevalence parallel to (010), the cleavage plane of the mineral. Compared with the previous work on tamarugite, the bond precision of Al-O bond lengths as an example improved from 0.024 to 0.001 Å.

  11. Effects of copper on the preparation and characterization of Na-Ca-P borate glasses.

    PubMed

    Shailajha, S; Geetha, K; Vasantharani, P; Sheik Abdul Kadhar, S P

    2015-03-01

    Glasses in the system Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5: CuO have been prepared by melt quenching at 1200°C and rapidly cooling at room temperature. The structural, optical and thermal properties have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX). The amorphous and crystalline nature of these samples was verified by XRD. Glass transition, crystallization and thermal stability were determined by TG-DTA investigations. Direct optical energy band gaps before and after doping with different percents of copper oxide were evaluated from 4.81eV to 2.99eV indicated the role of copper in the glassy matrix by UV spectra. FTIR spectrum reveals characteristic absorption bands due to various groups of triangular and tetrahedral borate network. Due to the amorphous nature, the particles like agglomerates on the glass surface were investigated by the HRSEM analysis. The crystalline nature of the samples in XRD is confirmed by SAED pattern using HRTEM. PMID:25605593

  12. Selectivity coefficient for Ca/Na ion exchange in highly compacted bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin; Hedström, Magnus

    Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material around the waste canisters and as tunnel backfill material in several concepts for disposal of radioactive waste. The distribution of charge compensating cations in the bentonite is of interest for several reasons, one being possible release of colloid particles from the bentonite to groundwater with very low ionic strength. The cation distribution at equilibrium may be calculated for various relevant groundwater compositions by use of selectivity coefficients. However, present literature data generally concerns coefficients measured in batch experiments with high water-to-solid ratios. The basic aim with the present work was therefore to determine selectivity coefficients for sodium/calcium exchange in bentonite with low water-to-solid ratios, and thereby give a reliable base for calculating the cation distribution in a confined bentonite buffer with a relatively high density. In total, six tests with homo-ionic Na- and Ca-montmorillonite, prepared to three material densities, were equilibrated with test solutions of successively increasing concentration. The distribution of cations at equilibrium was measured by use of ion selective electrodes and ICP/AES, and selectivity coefficients were calculated according to the Gaines-Thomas convention. The obtained selectivity coefficient was found to be in the range of 3.8-7.8, which is similar to those previously reported for high water-to-solid ratios.

  13. Internal magnetic field in the zigzag-chain family (Na,Ca)Cr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, H.; Sakurai, H.; Harada, M.; Higuchi, Y.; Brewer, J. H.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Sugiyama, J.

    2014-12-01

    In order to elucidate the magnetic nature for a novel one-dimensional zigzag chain compound, NaCr2O4, we have measured μ+SR spectra using a powder sample in the temperature range between 2 and 200 K. Weak transverse field (wTF-) μ+SR measurements indicated that the whole volume of the sample enters into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase below TN = 125 K. The zero field (ZF-) μ+SR spectrum obtained below TN exhibits a clear oscillation with a single muon-spin precession frequency (fμ). This suggests that static AF order is formed below TN and that all the implanted muons sense the same internal magnetic field. The temperature dependence of fμ was found to be very similar to that for the intensity of the magnetic Bragg peak in neutron diffraction (ND) measurements. On the other hand, the ZF-μ+SR spectrum for the isostructural compound, β-CaCr2O4, showed a rapidly damped oscillation below TN = 21 K, supporting the formation of incommensurate AF order, as proposed by ND.

  14. Ultrasonically-enhanced mechanochemical synthesis of CaAl-layered double hydroxides intercalated by a variety of inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Szabados, Márton; Mészáros, Rebeka; Erdei, Szabolcs; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István

    2016-07-01

    CaAl-layered double hydroxides (CaAl-LDHs) were synthesised with various interlayer anions (CO3(2-), F(-), Cl(-), Br(-) and I(-)) by mechanochemical pre-treatment followed by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous media. The parameters of the syntheses (duration of pre-milling and sonication, quality of the aqueous media, temperature) were altered in order to optimise the procedure and to understand the formation of LDH and other secondary products. The products were characterised by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimisation resulted in close-to-phase-pure CaAl-LDHs, not only with carbonate and chloride interlayer anions, but the hard-to-intercalate bromide and iodide as well.

  15. 77 FR 51589 - ReconTrust Company, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION ReconTrust Company, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order August 20, 2012... Act, with respect to an injunction entered against ReconTrust Company, N.A. (``ReconTrust'') on August... certain circumstances.\\4\\ \\2\\ State of Washington v. ReconTrust Company, N.A. No. 2:11-cv- 1460 (W.D....

  16. 76 FR 78052 - Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... COMMISSION Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order December 9, 2011. AGENCY... respect to an injunction entered against Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (``Wells Fargo Bank'') on December 9, 2011... is a national banking association. On March 20, 2010, Wachovia Bank, N.A. (``Wachovia Bank'')...

  17. A method for Ca, Fe, Ga, Na, Si and Zn determination in alumina by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after aluminum precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Alexandre L.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2011-05-01

    In this present work a method for the determination of Ca, Fe, Ga, Na, Si and Zn in alumina (Al 2O 3) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with axial viewing is presented. Preliminary studies revealed intense aluminum spectral interference over the majority of elements and reaction between aluminum and quartz to form aluminosilicate, reducing drastically the lifetime of the torch. To overcome these problems alumina samples (250 mg) were dissolved with 5 mL HCl + 1.5 mL H 2SO 4 + 1.5 mL H 2O in a microwave oven. After complete dissolution the volume was completed to 20 mL and aluminum was precipitated as Al(OH) 3 with NH 3 (by bubbling NH 3 into the solution up to a pH ~ 8, for 10 min). The use of internal standards (Fe/Be, Ga/Dy, Zn/In and Na/Sc) was essential to obtain precise and accurate results. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by analysis of alumina certified reference material (Alumina Reduction Grade-699, NIST). The found concentrations (0.037% w w -1 CaO, 0.013% w w -1 Fe 2O 3, 0.012% w w -1 Ga 2O 3, 0.49% w w -1 Na 2O, 0.014% w w -1 SiO 2 and 0.013% w w -1 ZnO) presented no statistical differences compared to the certified values at a 95% confidence level.

  18. Na/Ca Intermixing around Silicate and Phosphate Groups in Bioactive Phosphosilicate Glasses Revealed by Heteronuclear Solid-State NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Renny; Stevensson, Baltzar; Edén, Mattias

    2015-04-30

    We characterize the intermixing of network-modifying Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions around the silicate (QSi(n)) and phosphate (QP(n)) tetrahedra in a series of 16 Na2O–CaO–SiO2–P2O5 glasses, whose P content and silicate network connectivity were varied independently. The set includes both bioactive and bioinactive compositions and also encompasses two soda-lime-silicate members devoid of P, as well as two CaO–SiO2 glasses and one Na2O–SiO2–P2O5 glass. The various Si/P↔Na/Ca contacts were probed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations together with heteronuclear magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimentation utilizing (23)Na{(31)P} and (23)Na{(29)Si} REDOR, as well as (31)P{ (23)Na} and (29)Si{(23)Na} REAPDOR. We introduce an approach for quantifying the extent of Na(+)/Ca(2+) ordering around a given QP(n) or QSi(n) group, encoded by the preference factor 0⩽ PM ⩽ 1 conveying the relative weights of a random cation intermixing (PM = 0) and complete preference/ordering (PM = 1) for one of the species M, which represents either Na(+) or Ca(2+). The MD-derived preference factors reveal phosphate and silicate species surrounded by Na(+)/Ca(2+) ions intermixed nearly randomly (PM ≲ 0.15), except for the QSi(4) and QSi(1) groups, which manifest more significant cation ordering with preference for Na+ and Ca2+, respectively. The overall weak preferences are essentially independent of the Si and P contents of the glass, whereas PM primarily correlates with the total amount of network modifiers: as the latter is increased, the Na/Ca distribution around the {QP(0), QSi(1), QSi(2)} groups with preference for Ca2(+ )tend to randomize (i.e., PCa decreases), while the PNa-values grow slightly for the {QP(1), QSi(3), QSi(4)} species already preferring coordination of Na. The set of experimental preference factors {PCa} for the orthophosphate (QP(0)) groups extracted from (31)P{(23)Na} REAPDOR NMR-derived M2(P–Na) dipolar second moments agrees

  19. Synthesis and characterization of NaAlSi2O6 jadeite under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang Biao; Li, Yong; Chen, Ning; Jia, Xiao Peng; Ma, Hong An

    2014-08-01

    With Al2(SiO3)3 and Na2SiO3 ṡ 9H2O as raw materials, the NaAlSi2O6 jadeite was synthesized in the temperature range of 1000-1600°C under 5.0 GPa conditions. Amorphous glass materials are entirely converted to crystalline NaAlSi2O6 jadeite at 5.0 GPa and 1450°C. All the experimental results reveal that the properties of synthetic NaAlSi2O6 resemble the natural jadeite very much. The research indicates that we provide a new approach to synthesize NaAlSi2O6 and offer an essential guideline for jewelry, which will be helpful for deep understanding on the origin of natural jadeite and the metamorphism of magma within the Earth.

  20. Signaling Mechanisms that Link Salt Retention to Hypertension: Endogenous Ouabain, the Na+ Pump, the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and TRPC Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Blaustein, Mordecai P.; Hamlyn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Salt retention as a result of chronic, excessive dietary salt intake, is widely accepted as one of the most common causes of hypertension. In a small minority of cases, enhanced Na+ reabsorption by the kidney can be traced to specific genetic defects of salt transport, or pathological conditions of the kidney, adrenal cortex, or pituitary. Far more frequently, however, the salt retention may be the result of minor renal injury or small genetic variation in renal salt transport mechanisms. How the salt retention actually leads to the increase in peripheral vascular resistance (the hallmark of hypertension) and the elevation of blood pressure remain an enigma. Here we review the evidence that endogenous ouabain (an adrenocortical hormone), arterial smooth muscle α2 Na+ pumps, type-1 Na/Ca exchangers, and receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ channels play key roles in the pathway that links salt to hypertension. We discuss cardenolide structure-function relationships in an effort to understand why prolonged administration of ouabain, but not digoxin, induces hypertension, and why digoxin is actually anti-hypertensive. Finally, we summarize recent observations which indicate that ouabain upregulates arterial myocyte Ca2+ signaling mechanisms that promote vasoconstriction, while simultaneously downregulating endothelial vasodilator mechanisms. In sum, the reports reviewed here provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms by which salt retention leads to hypertension. PMID:20211726

  1. Distinct interactions of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions with the selectivity filter of the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Song; Zangerl, Eva-Maria; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Ca{sup 2+} translocates slowly in the filter, due to lack of “loose” knock-on mechanism. ► Identification of a high affinity binding site in Na{sub V}Ab selectivity filter. ► Changes of EEEE locus triggered by electrostatic interactions with Ca{sup 2+} ions. -- Abstract: Rapid and selective ion transport is essential for the generation and regulation of electrical signaling pathways in living organisms. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to investigate how the bacterial sodium channel Na{sub V}Ab (Arcobacter butzleri) differentiates between Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Multiple nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations revealed distinct binding patterns for these two cations in the selectivity filter and suggested a high affinity calcium binding site formed by backbone atoms of residues Leu-176 and Thr-175 (S{sub CEN}) in the sodium channel selectivity filter.

  2. Compositional dependence on the in vitro bioactivity of invert or conventional bioglasses in the Si-Ca-Na-P system.

    PubMed

    Lebecq, I; Désanglois, F; Leriche, A; Follet-Houttemane, C

    2007-10-01

    The bioactivity of 34 invert or conventional glasses in the P-free and P-containing Si-Ca-Na system was evaluated by examining the in vitro Hydroxy Carbonate Apatite (HCA) formation time. The silica content in the glasses varies between 39.48 and 55 mol %. The surfaces of glasses after soaking in simulated body fluid at 37 degrees C were analyzed by Fourier transform infraRed spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. To understand the HCA formation mechanism, the modification of the glass surface structure was studied. The aim was to understand, in the Si-Ca-Na-P system, the function of each constituent on glass reactivity. It was noted that the bioactivity of Si-Ca-Na-P glasses depends on the P ratio. One of the P-free glasses is as bioactive as the Hench's Bioglass noted 45S5, because it needs 12 h to develop HCA as for Hench's one. In the quaternary system, some of the P-rich and Na, Si-poor glasses are more bioactive than 45S5 (6-10 h to obtain HCA). Two phosphorus effects were observed: the repolymerization of the silicate network and the formation of phosphate-modifier cation complexes. PMID:17390369

  3. Microwave dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12-Al2O3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohd Fariz Ab; Abu, Mohamad Johari; Karim, Saniah Ab; Zaman, Rosyaini Afindi; Ain, Mohd Fadzil; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Mohamed, Julie Juliewatty

    2016-07-01

    (1-x)CaCu3Ti4O12 + (x)Al2O3 composite (0 ≤ x ≤0.25) was prepared via conventional solid-state reaction method. The fabrication of sample was started with synthesizing stoichiometric CCTO from CaCO3, CuO and TiO2 powders, then wet-mixed in deionized water for 24 h. The process was continued with calcined CCTO powder at 900 °C for 12 h before sintered at 1040 °C for 10 h. Next, the calcined CCTO powder with different amount of Al2O3 were mixed for 24 h, then palletized and sintered at 1040 °C for 10. X-ray diffraction analysis on the sintered samples showed that CCTO powder was in a single phase, meanwhile the trace of secondary peaks which belong to CaAl2O4 and Corundum (Al2O3) could be observed in the other samples Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the grain size of the sample is firstly increased with addition of Al2O3 (x = 0.01), then become smaller with the x > 0.01. Microwave dielectric properties showed that the addition of Al2O3 (x = 0.01) was remarkably reduced the dielectric loss while slightly increased the dielectric permittivity. However, further addition of Al2O3 was reduced both dielectric loss and permittivity at least for an order of magnitude.

  4. Free-electron-like Hall effect and deviations from free-electron behavior in Ca-Al amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeya, F. M.; Hickey, B. J.; Howson, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    The Hall coefficients of Ca-Al amorphous alloys have been measured at 4.2 K over a wide range of compositions. It is shown that the magnitude of the Hall coefficients are close to the nearly-free-electron (NFE) prediction for low Ca concentrations but deviate significantly from the NFE values for Ca concentration greater than 45 at. %. The deviations from the free-electron values have previously been attributed to the effects of s-d hybridization, while a reduction in magnitude by Au doping has been argued to result from the side-jump effect.

  5. Effect of Ca contamination on apatite formation in a Ti metal subjected to NaOH and heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Kizuki, Takashi; Takadama, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi

    2013-03-01

    It has long been known that titanium (Ti) metal bonds to living bone through an apatite layer formed on its surface in the living body after it had previously been subjected to NaOH and heat treatments and as a result had formed sodium titanate on its surface. These treatments were applied to a porous Ti metal layer on a total hip joint and the resultant joint has been in clinical use since 2007. It has been also demonstrated that the apatite formation on the treated Ti metal in the living body also occurred in an acelullar simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of the human blood plasma, and hence bone-bonding ability of the treated Ti metal can be evaluated using SBF in vitro. However, it was recently found that certain Ti metals subjected to the same NaOH and heat treatments display apatite formation in SBF which is decreased with the increasing volume of the NaOH solution used in some cases. This indicates that bone-bonding ability of the treated Ti metal varies with the volume of the NaOH solution used. In the present study, this phenomenon was systematically investigated using commercial NaOH reagents and is considered in terms of the structure and composition of the surface layers of the treated Ti metals. It was found that a larger amount of the calcium contamination in the NaOH reagent is concentrated on the surface of the Ti metal during the NaOH treatment with an increasing volume of the NaOH solution, and that this inhibited apatite formation on the Ti metal in SBF by suppressing Na ion release from the sodium titanate into the surrounding fluid. Even a Ca contamination level of 0.0005 % of the NaOH reagent was sufficient to inhibit apatite formation. On the other hand, another NaOH reagent with a nominal purity of just 97 % did not exhibit any such inhibition, since it contained almost no Ca contamination. This indicates that NaOH reagent must be carefully selected for obtaining reliable bone-bonding implants of Ti

  6. Effects of ABA and CaCl₂ on GABA accumulation in fava bean germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Hui, Qianru; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and CaCl2 on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated fava bean under hypoxia-NaCl stress were investigated. Exogenous ABA resulted in the enhancement of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. CaCl2 increased both enzyme activities in shoot and GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. ABA downregulated GAD expression in cotyledon and radicle, while upregulated that in shoot; it also upregulated DAO expression in each organ. CaCl2 upregulated GAD expression in cotyledon, while downregulated that in radicle. However, it upregulated DAO expression in shoot, downregulated that in radicle. ABA inhibitor fluridon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited GAD and DAO activities significantly so that inhibited GABA accumulation through reducing ABA biosynthesis and chelating Ca(2+), respectively. However, they upregulated GAD and DAO expression in varying degrees. These results indicate that ABA and Ca(2+) participate in GABA biosynthesis in fava bean during germination under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

  7. Effects of ABA and CaCl₂ on GABA accumulation in fava bean germinating under hypoxia-NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runqiang; Hui, Qianru; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and CaCl2 on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation of germinated fava bean under hypoxia-NaCl stress were investigated. Exogenous ABA resulted in the enhancement of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity as well as GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. CaCl2 increased both enzyme activities in shoot and GABA content in cotyledon and shoot. ABA downregulated GAD expression in cotyledon and radicle, while upregulated that in shoot; it also upregulated DAO expression in each organ. CaCl2 upregulated GAD expression in cotyledon, while downregulated that in radicle. However, it upregulated DAO expression in shoot, downregulated that in radicle. ABA inhibitor fluridon and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid inhibited GAD and DAO activities significantly so that inhibited GABA accumulation through reducing ABA biosynthesis and chelating Ca(2+), respectively. However, they upregulated GAD and DAO expression in varying degrees. These results indicate that ABA and Ca(2+) participate in GABA biosynthesis in fava bean during germination under hypoxia-NaCl stress. PMID:26644273

  8. On the existence of a high-temperature polymorph of Na2Ca6Si4O15—implications for the phase equilibria in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Maier, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Singe crystals of a new high-temperature polymorph of Na2Ca6Si4O15 have been obtained from solid state reactions performed at 1300 °C. The basic crystallographic data of this so-called β-phase at ambient conditions are as follows: space group P1c1, a = 9.0112(5) Å, b = 7.3171(5) Å, c = 10.9723(6) Å, β = 107.720(14)°, V = 689.14(7) Å3, Z = 2. The crystals showed twinning by reticular merohedry (mimicking an orthorhombic C-centred unit cell) which was accounted for during data processing and structure solution. Structure determination was accomplished by direct methods. Least-squares refinements resulted in a residual of R(|F|) = 0.043 for 5811 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). From a structural point of view β-Na2Ca6Si4O15 can be attributed to the group of mixed-anion silicates containing [Si2O7]-dimers as well as isolated [SiO4]-tetrahedra in the ratio 1:2, i.e. more precisely the formula can be written as Na2Ca6[SiO4]2[Si2O7]. The tetrahedral groups are arranged in layers parallel to (100). Sodium and calcium cations are located between the silicate anions for charge compensation and are coordinated by six to eight nearest oxygen ligands. Alternatively, the structure can be described as a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework based on kröhnkite-type [Ca(SiO4)2O2]-chains in which the CaO6-octahedra are corner-linked to bridging SiO4-tetrahedra. The infinite chains are running parallel to [001] and are concentrated in layers parallel to (010). Adjacent layers are shifted relative to each other by an amount of +δ or -δ along a*. Consequently, a …ABABAB… stacking sequence is created. A detailed comparison with related structures such as α-Na2Ca6Si4O15 and other A2B6Si4O15 representatives including topological as well as group theoretical aspects is presented. There are strong indications that monoclinic Na2Ca3Si2O8 mentioned in earlier studies is actually misinterpreted β-Na2Ca6Si4O15. In addition to the detailed crystallographic analysis of the

  9. Effect of Ca(OH)2, NaCl, and Na2SO4 on the corrosion and electrochemical behavior of rebar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zuquan; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Tiejun; Hou, Baorong; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion of rebar in reinforced concrete in marine environments causes significant damage to structures built in ocean environments. Studies on the process and mechanism of corrosion of rebar in the presence of multiple ions may help to control damage and predict the service life of reinforced concrete structures in such environments. The effect of interactions between sulfate and chloride ions and calcium hydroxide on the electrochemical behavior of rebar are also important for evaluation of structure durability. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots of rebar in Ca(OH)2 solution and cement grout, including NaCl and Na2SO4 as aggressive salts, were measured for diff erent immersion times. The results show that corrosion of rebar was controlled by the rate of charge transfer as the rebar was exposed to chloride solution. In the presence of high concentrations of sulfate ions in the electrolyte, generation and dissolution of the passive film proceeded simultaneously and corrosion was mainly controlled by the diff usion rate. When Na2SO4 and NaCl were added to Ca(OH)2 solution, the instantaneous corrosion rate decreased by a factor of 10 to 20 as a result of the higher pH of the corroding solution.

  10. Evaluating controlling factors to Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in acidic soil water, southern and southwestern China: multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Shan; Vogt, Rolf D; Xiao, Jin-Song; Zhao, Da-Wei; Xiang, Ren-Jun; Luo, Jia-Hai

    2007-06-01

    Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water has been used as an indicator to the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors controlling this ratio have not been well documented in southern and southwestern China. In this study, we presented the variation in inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) and Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in different sites and soil horizons based on two to three years monitoring data, and evaluated the main factors controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression. Monitoring data showed although Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratios in most soil water were lower than assumed critical 1.0, higher molar ratios were found in some soil water at TSP and LXH site. Besides acid loading, both soil properties and soil water chemistry affected the value of Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. Partial least square (PLS) indicated that they had different relative importance in different soil horizons. In A-horizon, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) had higher influence on Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio than soil water chemistry did; higher soil aluminum saturation (AlS) led to higher Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. In the deeper horizons (i.e., B(1)-, B(2)- and BC-horizon), inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) in soil water had more and more important role in regulating Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. On regional scale, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC) was the dominant factor controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. This should be paid enough attention on when making regional acid rain control policy in China.

  11. Evaluating controlling factors to Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in acidic soil water, southern and southwestern China: multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Shan; Vogt, Rolf D; Xiao, Jin-Song; Zhao, Da-Wei; Xiang, Ren-Jun; Luo, Jia-Hai

    2007-06-01

    Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water has been used as an indicator to the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors controlling this ratio have not been well documented in southern and southwestern China. In this study, we presented the variation in inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) and Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in different sites and soil horizons based on two to three years monitoring data, and evaluated the main factors controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression. Monitoring data showed although Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratios in most soil water were lower than assumed critical 1.0, higher molar ratios were found in some soil water at TSP and LXH site. Besides acid loading, both soil properties and soil water chemistry affected the value of Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. Partial least square (PLS) indicated that they had different relative importance in different soil horizons. In A-horizon, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) had higher influence on Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio than soil water chemistry did; higher soil aluminum saturation (AlS) led to higher Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. In the deeper horizons (i.e., B(1)-, B(2)- and BC-horizon), inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) in soil water had more and more important role in regulating Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. On regional scale, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC) was the dominant factor controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. This should be paid enough attention on when making regional acid rain control policy in China. PMID:17057971

  12. Crystal structure of Rb-elpasolite Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V. Kiryukhina, G. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2013-05-15

    Single crystals of Rb{sub 2}NaAlF{sub 6}, the Rb analogue of the mineral elpasolite, are obtained in the NaF-Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Rb{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system under hydrothermal conditions, and their structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.0188): a = 8.3087(1) A, space group Fm3bar m, Z = 4, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 3.88 g/cm{sup 3}. The hypothesis that Rb elpasolite exists in nature in late associations of pegmatites enriched in rubidium is proposed.

  13. A new role for follicle-stimulating hormone in the regulation of calcium flux in Sertoli cells: Inhibition of Na+/Ca++ exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Joseph, M.P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Elucidation of mechanisms regulating intracellular calcium levels in steroidogenic tissues is important for understanding control of cellular function. We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated flux of 45Ca++ into cultured rat Sertoli cells and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we report heretofore unrecognized inhibitory effects of FSH on Na+/Ca++ exchange in these two systems. An outwardly directed Na+ gradient, developed by preincubating Sertoli cell monolayers in buffer made hypertonic with NaCl, resulted in uptake of 45Ca++ that was unaffected by calcium channel blocking agents, ruthenium red or methoxyverapamil, but was enhanced by ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Sodium-dependent 45Ca++ flux into Sertoli cells was inhibited in a concentration-related manner by increased extracellular Na+ (up to 135 mM). FSH consistently and reproducibly (28.9 +/- 3.8%, 10 separate assays) reduced sodium-dependent 45Ca++ influx in the absence or presence of ouabain. A lesser effect on Na+/Ca++ exchange was seen when Li+ replaced Na+ in the preincubation buffer, and a marked reduction occurred when Sertoli cells were incubated in buffer containing KCl, presumably due to membrane depolarization. FSH-sensitive Na+/45Ca++ exchange was also observed when using FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. Our earlier calcium channel studies indicated that FSH affects Ca++ entry into Sertoli cells via a receptor-mediated process. The results reported here demonstrate that the interaction of FSH with its receptor is associated with changes in Na+/Ca++ exchange as well, and suggest that this activity may also be involved in regulating intracellular free Ca++ levels in the Sertoli cell.

  14. The system Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 at 6 GPa and 900-1250°C and its relation to the partial melting of carbonated mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Sharygin, Igor S.; Egonin, Ilya A.; Mironov, Aleksandr M.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In order to constrain the Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 T-X diagram at 6 GPa in addition to the binary and pseudo-binary systems we conducted experiments along the Na2CO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 join. At 900-1000°C, melting does not occur and isothermal sections are presented by one-, two- and three-phase regions containing Ca-bearing magnesite, aragonite, Na2CO3 (Na2) and Na2(Ca1-0.9Mg0-0.1)3-4(CO3)4-5 (Na2Ca3-4), Na4(Ca1-0.6Mg0-0.4)(CO3)3 (Na4Ca), Na2(Ca0-0.08Mg1-0.92)(CO3)2 (Na2Mg) phases with intermediate compositions. The minimum melting point locates between 1000°C and 1100°C. This point would resemble that of three eutectics: Mgs-Na2Ca3-Na2Mg, Na2Mg-Na2Ca3-Na4Ca or Na2Mg-Na4Ca-Na2, in the compositional interval of [45Na2CO3.55(Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3]-[60Na2CO3.40Ca0.6Mg0.4CO3]. The liquidus projection has seven primary solidification phase regions for Mgs, Dol, Arg, Na2Ca3, Na4Ca, Na2 and Na2Mg. The results suggest that extraction of Na and Ca from silicate to carbonate components has to decrease minimum melting temperature of carbonated mantle rocks to 1000-1100°C at 6 GPa and yields Na-rich dolomitic melt with a Na# (Na2O/(Na2O + CaO + MgO)) ≥ 28 mol%.

  15. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  16. Neuroprotective Effect of the Novel Compound ITH33/IQM9.21 Against Oxidative Stress and Na(+) and Ca(2+) Overload in Motor Neuron-like NSC-34 Cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Al-Achbili, Lamiaa Mouhid; Alonso, Elba; de Los Ríos, Cristóbal; García, Antonio G; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Cano-Abad, María F

    2016-10-01

    Alternatives for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are scarce and controversial. The etiology of neuronal vulnerability in ALS is being studied in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to selective loss of motor neurons. One such mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress, Ca(2+) overload, and low expression of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins. Therefore, in order to elicit neuronal death in ALS, NSC-34 cells were exposed to the following cytotoxic agents: (1) a mixture of oligomycin 10 µM and rotenone 30 µM (O/R), or (2) phenylarsine oxide 1 µM (PAO) (to mimic excess free radical production during mitochondrial dysfunction), and (3) veratridine 100 µM (VTD) (to induce overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and to alter distribution of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins [parvalbumin and calbindin-D28k]). Thus, the aim of the study was to test the novel neuroprotective compound ITH33/IQM9.21 (ITH33) and to compare it with riluzole on in vitro models of neurotoxicity. Cell viability measured with MTT showed that only ITH33 protected against O/R at 3 μM and PAO at 10 μM, but not riluzole. ITH33 and riluzole were neuroprotective against VTD, blocked the maximum peak and the number of [Ca(2+)]c oscillations per cell, and restored the effect on parvalbumin. However, only riluzole reversed the effect on calbindin-D28k levels. Therefore, ITH33 was neuroprotective against oxidative stress and Na(+)/Ca(2+) overload, both of which are involved in ALS.

  17. Endohedral metallofullerenes, M@C60 (M = Ca, Na, Sr): selective adsorption and sensing of open-shell NOx gases.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-08-21

    Based on density-functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations, we demonstrate that endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are reactive to open-shell gases, and therefore have the potential application as selective open-shell gas sensors. The adsorption of eight gas species (CO, H2O, H2S, NO2, NO, SO2, O2 and NH3) on three EMFs (M@C60, M = Ca, Na and Sr) shows that the adsorption energies of the EMFs towards NO2 and NO are significantly higher than the closed-shell species. Moreover, the high selectivity appears relatively insensitive to the inserted metal atoms. The calculated current-voltage characteristics of gold-M@C60-gold structures (M = Ca, Na) show that the adsorption of NO2 leads to significant change in conductivity, suggesting a potential application as an EMF gas resistive sensing device. PMID:27426253

  18. Endohedral metallofullerenes, M@C60 (M = Ca, Na, Sr): selective adsorption and sensing of open-shell NOx gases.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-08-21

    Based on density-functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function calculations, we demonstrate that endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are reactive to open-shell gases, and therefore have the potential application as selective open-shell gas sensors. The adsorption of eight gas species (CO, H2O, H2S, NO2, NO, SO2, O2 and NH3) on three EMFs (M@C60, M = Ca, Na and Sr) shows that the adsorption energies of the EMFs towards NO2 and NO are significantly higher than the closed-shell species. Moreover, the high selectivity appears relatively insensitive to the inserted metal atoms. The calculated current-voltage characteristics of gold-M@C60-gold structures (M = Ca, Na) show that the adsorption of NO2 leads to significant change in conductivity, suggesting a potential application as an EMF gas resistive sensing device.

  19. Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.; Sinha, Shyama P.; Kosynkin, Valery D.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral loparite (Ce, NA, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3 is the principal ore of the light-group rare-earth elements (LREE) in Russia. The complex oxide has a perovskite (ABO3) structure with coupled substitutions, polymorphism, defect chemistry and a tendency to become metamict. The A site generally contains weakly bonded, easily exchanged cations of the LREE, Na and Ca. The B site generally contains smaller, highly charged cations of Ti, Nb or Fe+3. Mine production is from Russia's Kola Peninsula. Ore is beneficiated to produce a 95% loparite concentrate containing 30% rare-earth oxides. Loparite concentrate is refined by either a chlorination process or acid decomposition process to recover rare-earths, titanium, niobium and tantalum. Rare-earths are separated by solvent extraction and selective precipitation/dissolution. The concentrate is processed at plants in Russia, Estonia and Kazakstan.

  20. Characterization of ti Catalyst in NaAlH4 Doped with TiF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijssenbeek, Job T.; Gao, Yan; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Jensen, Craig M.; Hanson, Jonathan; Wang, Xianqin

    2004-03-01

    The discovery that the dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation of NaAlH4 can be catalyzed by addition of titanium-based compounds has catapulted complex hydrides such as NaAlH4 to the forefront of hydride research. However, the nature of the titanium catalyst has remained controversial as only circumstantial evidence of its oxidation state, bonding environment and catalytic mechanism have been reported thus far. Results of detailed in-situ powder x-ray diffraction experiments on both the dehydrogenation and the rehydrogenation reactions of NaAlH4 will be presented. These novel data prove that both reactions occur in a stepwise fashion and agree well with pressure-composition isotherms of the same material. Furthermore, peak width analysis yields information about some surprising changes in the particle size of the constituent phases during the reaction and with cycling. X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (XANES/EXAFS) at the temperatures of interest reveals the oxidation state of the titanium species after synthesis and upon cycling. The local coordination environment of the titanium yields clues regarding possible catalytic mechanisms.

  1. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2014-02-01

    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants.

  2. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2014-02-01

    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants. PMID:24411365

  3. Ionic conductivity of single crystals of sodium aluminium germanate Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of single crystals of sodium aluminium germanate Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 (cubic system, sp. gr. ), which is a germanium analog of sodalite, has been studied in the temperature range of 468‒758 K. Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 crystals are obtained by hydrothermal synthesis (temperature in the dissolution zone 573‒673 K, temperature gradient ~1.5 K/cm). NaAlO2 and GeO2В oxides are used as starting reagents; NaOH hydroxide serves as a solvent. The ionic conductivity of Na8Al6Ge6O24(OH)2 crystals is 2 × 10-4 S/cm (at 758 K); the activation energy of ionic transfer is 0.46 ± 0.03 eV.

  4. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-01

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations.

  5. Progress in the material development of LiCaAlF sub 6 :Cr sup 3+ laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle D. Shinn.; Chase, L.L.; Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Atherton, L.J.; Kway, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    High Cr{sup 3+} doping levels, up to 8 mole percent, and low losses have been obtained with the tunable solid-state laser material LiCaAlF{sub 6}:Cr{sup 3+} (Cr:LiCAF). Measurements and calculations show that high pumping and extraction efficiencies are possible with the improved material. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Photoelectron velocity-map imaging and theoretical studies of heteronuclear metal carbonyls MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Zou, Jinghan; Yuan, Qinqin; Fan, Hongjun; Tang, Zichao; Jiang, Ling

    2016-03-01

    The heteronuclear metal carbonyl anions MNi(CO)3- (M = Mg, Ca, Al) have been investigated using photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. Electron affinities of neutral MNi(CO)3 (M = Mg, Ca, Al) are measured from the photoelectron spectra to be 1.064 ± 0.063, 1.050 ± 0.064, and 1.541 ± 0.040 eV, respectively. The C-O stretching mode in these three clusters is observed and the vibrational frequency is determined to be 2049, 2000, and 2041 cm-1 for MgNi(CO)3, CaNi(CO)3, and AlNi(CO)3, respectively. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures and to aid the experimental assignments. It has been found that three terminal carbonyls are preferentially bonded to the nickel atom in these heterobinuclear nickel carbonyls MNi(CO)3-1/0, resulting in the formation of the Ni(CO)3 motif. Ni remains the 18-electron configuration for MgNi(CO)3 and CaNi(CO)3 neutrals, but not for AlNi(CO)3. This is different from the homobinuclear nickel carbonyl Ni-Ni(CO)3 with the involvement of three bridging ligands. Present findings would be helpful for understanding CO adsorption on alloy surfaces.

  7. Mechanisms of a human skeletal myotonia produced by mutation in the C-terminus of NaV1.4: is Ca2+ regulation defective?

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subrata; DiSilvestre, Deborah A; Dong, Peihong; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of voltage gated sodium channels cause a spectrum of inherited diseases of cellular excitability, yet to date only one mutation in the CT of the human skeletal muscle voltage gated sodium channel (hNaV1.4F1705I) has been linked to cold aggravated myotonia. The functional effects of altered regulation of hNaV1.4F1705I are incompletely understood. The location of the hNaV1.4F1705I in the CT prompted us to examine the role of Ca(2+) and calmodulin (CaM) regulation in the manifestations of myotonia. To study Na channel related mechanisms of myotonia we exploited the differences in rat and human NaV1.4 channel regulation by Ca(2+) and CaM. hNaV1.4F1705I inactivation gating is Ca(2+)-sensitive compared to wild type hNaV1.4 which is Ca(2+) insensitive and the mutant channel exhibits a depolarizing shift of the V1/2 of inactivation with CaM over expression. In contrast the same mutation in the rNaV1.4 channel background (rNaV1.4F1698I) eliminates Ca(2+) sensitivity of gating without affecting the CaM over expression induced hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. The differences in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of gating between wild type and mutant human and rat NaV1.4 channels are in part mediated by a divergence in the amino acid sequence in the EF hand like (EFL) region of the CT. Thus the composition of the EFL region contributes to the species differences in Ca(2+)/CaM regulation of the mutant channels that produce myotonia. The myotonia mutation F1705I slows INa decay in a Ca(2+)-sensitive fashion. The combination of the altered voltage dependence and kinetics of INa decay contribute to the myotonic phenotype and may involve the Ca(2+)-sensing apparatus in the CT of NaV1.4. PMID:24324661

  8. Palmitoylation of the Na/Ca exchanger cytoplasmic loop controls its inactivation and internalization during stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Louise; Howie, Jacqueline; Wypijewski, Krzysztof; Ashford, Michael L. J.; Hilgemann, Donald W.; Fuller, William

    2015-01-01

    The electrogenic Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) mediates bidirectional Ca movements that are highly sensitive to changes of Na gradients in many cells. NCX1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure and a number of cardiac arrhythmias. We measured NCX1 palmitoylation using resin-assisted capture, the subcellular location of yellow fluorescent protein–NCX1 fusion proteins, and NCX1 currents using whole-cell voltage clamping. Rat NCX1 is substantially palmitoylated in all tissues examined. Cysteine 739 in the NCX1 large intracellular loop is necessary and sufficient for NCX1 palmitoylation. Palmitoylation of NCX1 occurs in the Golgi and anchors the NCX1 large regulatory intracellular loop to membranes. Surprisingly, palmitoylation does not influence trafficking or localization of NCX1 to surface membranes, nor does it strongly affect the normal forward or reverse transport modes of NCX1. However, exchangers that cannot be palmitoylated do not inactivate normally (leading to substantial activity in conditions when wild-type exchangers are inactive) and do not promote cargo-dependent endocytosis that internalizes 50% of the cell surface following strong G-protein activation or large Ca transients. The palmitoylated cysteine in NCX1 is found in all vertebrate and some invertebrate NCX homologs. Thus, NCX palmitoylation ubiquitously modulates Ca homeostasis and membrane domain function in cells that express NCX proteins.—Reilly, L., Howie, J., Wypijewski, K., Ashford, M. L. J., Hilgemann, D. W., Fuller, W. Palmitoylation of the Na/Ca exchanger cytoplasmic loop controls its inactivation and internalization during stress signaling. PMID:26174834

  9. Microstructural and strength improvements through the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in a cementless Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated Class F fly ash system

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Dongho; Jun, Yubin; Jeong, Yeonung; Oh, Jae Eun

    2015-01-15

    This study explores the beneficial effects of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an additive for microstructural and strength improvements in a Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated fly ash system. NaOH-activated fly ash samples were also tested to compare the effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Compressive strength testing, XRD, SEM/BSE/EDS, {sup 29}Si/{sup 27}Al MAS-NMR, MIP and TGA were performed. The testing results indicate that the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for Ca(OH){sub 2}-activation led to a noticeable improvement in strength and microstructure, primarily due to (1) more dissolution of raw fly ash at an early age, (2) more formation of C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)], (3) porosity reduction, and (4) pore-size refinement. We also found that (1) an early high alkalinity from the NaOH formation was not a major cause of strength, (2) geopolymer was not formed despite the early NaOH formation, and (3) no visible pore-filling action of CaCO{sub 3} was observed. However, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not produce any improvement in strength for NaOH-activated fly ash. -- Highlights: •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly improved strength and microstructure. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} induced more dissolution of raw fly ash at early ages. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted more C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)] formation. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reduced total porosity and refined pore-size distribution. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} produced neither geopolymer formations nor pore-filling actions from CaCO{sub 3}.

  10. Remarkably improved hydrogen storage properties of NaAlH4 doped with 2D titanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ruyan; Du, Hufei; Wang, Zeyi; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng

    2016-09-01

    A 2D Ti3C2 MXene is introduced into NaAlH4 to improve its hydrogen storage properties for the first time. In the presence of Ti3C2, the operating temperatures for hydrogen storage in NaAlH4 are remarkably reduced, and the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics are significantly enhanced. The onset dehydrogenation temperature of the 7 wt% Ti3C2-containing NaAlH4 sample is reduced to 100 °C, and hydrogen recharging starts at 50 °C. Approximately 4.7 wt% hydrogen is released from the NaAlH4-7 wt% Ti3C2 sample within 100 min at 140 °C, and the dehydrogenated sample absorbs 4.6 wt% hydrogen within 60 min at 120 °C. However, pristine NaAlH4 only absorbs 0.4 wt% hydrogen under identical conditions. Further cycling measurements show significantly improved cycling stability for the Ti3C2-containing NaAlH4; the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behaviour remains nearly constant after 10 cycles. XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the Ti3C2 reacts with NaAlH4 and is reduced to metallic Ti and Ti3+ species, which are responsible for the lowered operating temperatures and improved dehydrogenation/hydrogenation kinetics.

  11. Heat capacity measurements for cryolite (Na3AlF6) and reactions in the system NaFeAlSiOF

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Hemingway, B.S.; Westrum, E.F.; Metz, G.W.; Essene, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The heat capacity of cryolite (Na3AlF6) has been measured from 7 to 1000 K by low-temperature adiabatic and high-temperature differential scanning calorimetry. Low-temperature data were obtained on material from the same hand specimen in the calorimetric laboratories of the University of Michigan and U.S. Geological Survey. The results obtained are in good agreement, and yield average values for the entropy of cryolite of: S0298 = 238.5 J/mol KS0T-S0298 = 145.114 ln T+ 193.009*10-3T- 10.366* 105 T2- 872.89 J/mol K (273-836.5 K)??STrans = 9.9J/mol KS0T-S0298 =198.414 ln T+73.203* 10-3T-63.814* 105 T2-1113.11 J/mol K (836.5-1153 K) with the transition temperature between ??- and ??-cryolite taken at 836.5 K. These data have been combined with data in the literature to calculate phase equilibria for the system NaFeAlSiOF. The resultant phase diagrams allow constraints to be placed on the fO2, fF2, aSiO2 and T conditions of formation for assemblages in alkalic rocks. A sample application suggests that log fO2 is approximately -19.2, log fF2 is -31.9 to -33.2, and aSiO2 is -1.06 at assumed P T conditions of 1000 K, 1 bar for the villiaumite-bearing Ilimaussaq intrusion in southwestern Greenland. ?? 1987.

  12. Toward a cold hybrid-trap measurement of charge-exchange between Na and Ca+: Na excited state fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, James E.; Goodman, Douglas S.; Kwolek, Jonathan M.; Blumel, Reinhold; Narducci, Frank A.; Smith, Winthrop W.

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards the measurement of the charge-exchange collision rate coefficient between neutral sodium and ionic calcium. The rate constant for charge exchange between ground state sodium and calcium ion has been previously calculated and predicts a lifetime in our system of the order of days. Experiments by our group show a much larger charge exchange collision rate, probably from the excited 3P state of sodium. Therefore, an accurate measurement of the charge exchange collision rate constant will require an accurate value for the excited state fraction of the Na MOT. We have developed a technique for making a model-independent measurement of the excited state fraction of a MOT inside a hybrid trap. We compare the measured excited state fraction using this technique with measurements assuming a two-level model of the atom. In addition, we review our recent measurement of the total elastic and resonant charge exchange collision rate between Na and Na+.

  13. Putative resolution of the EEEE selectivity paradox in L-type Ca2+ and bacterial Na+ biological ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, I. Kh; Luchinsky, D. G.; Gibby, W. A. T.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    The highly selective permeation of ions through biological ion channels can be described and explained in terms of fluctuational dynamics under the influence of powerful electrostatic forces. Hence valence selectivity, e.g. between Ca2+ and Na+ in calcium and sodium channels, can be described in terms of ionic Coulomb blockade, which gives rise to distinct conduction bands and stop-bands as the fixed negative charge Q f at the selectivity filter of the channel is varied. This picture accounts successfully for a wide range of conduction phenomena in a diversity of ion channels. A disturbing anomaly, however, is that what appears to be the same electrostatic charge and structure (the so-called EEEE motif) seems to select Na+ conduction in bacterial channels but Ca2+ conduction in mammalian channels. As a possible resolution of this paradox it is hypothesised that an additional charged protein residue on the permeation path of the mammalian channel increases |{{Q}f}| by e, thereby altering the selectivity from Na+ to Ca2+. Experiments are proposed that will enable the hypothesis to be tested.

  14. Effect of Na+ and Ca2+ ions on a lipid Langmuir monolayer: an atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2008-12-01

    Studying the effect of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations on Langmuir monolayers is relevant from biophysical and nanotechnological points of view. In this work, the effect of Na(+) and Ca(2+) on a model of an anionic Langmuir lipid monolayer of dimyristoylphosphatidate (DMPA(-)) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of the type of cation on lipid structure, lipid-lipid interactions, and lipid ordering is analyzed in terms of electrostatic interactions. It is found that for a lipid monolayer in its solid phase, the effect of the cations on the properties of the lipid monolayer can be neglected. The influence of the cations is enhanced for the lipid monolayer in its gas phase, where sodium ions show a high degree of dehydration compared with calcium ions. This loss of hydration shell is partly compensated by the formation of lipid-ion-lipid bridges. This difference is ascribed to the higher charge-to-radius ratio q/r for Ca(2+), which makes ion dehydration less favorable compared to Na(+). Owing to the different dehydration behavior of sodium and calcium ions, diminished lipid-lipid coordination, lipid-ion coordination, and lipid ordering are observed for Ca(2+) compared to Na(+). Furthermore, for both gas and solid phases of the lipid Langmuir monolayers, lipid conformation and ion dehydration across the lipid/water interface are studied. PMID:19012310

  15. Effect of Na+ and Ca2+ ions on a lipid Langmuir monolayer: an atomistic description by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Giner Casares, Juan José; Camacho, Luis; Martín-Romero, Maria Teresa; López Cascales, José Javier

    2008-12-01

    Studying the effect of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations on Langmuir monolayers is relevant from biophysical and nanotechnological points of view. In this work, the effect of Na(+) and Ca(2+) on a model of an anionic Langmuir lipid monolayer of dimyristoylphosphatidate (DMPA(-)) is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of the type of cation on lipid structure, lipid-lipid interactions, and lipid ordering is analyzed in terms of electrostatic interactions. It is found that for a lipid monolayer in its solid phase, the effect of the cations on the properties of the lipid monolayer can be neglected. The influence of the cations is enhanced for the lipid monolayer in its gas phase, where sodium ions show a high degree of dehydration compared with calcium ions. This loss of hydration shell is partly compensated by the formation of lipid-ion-lipid bridges. This difference is ascribed to the higher charge-to-radius ratio q/r for Ca(2+), which makes ion dehydration less favorable compared to Na(+). Owing to the different dehydration behavior of sodium and calcium ions, diminished lipid-lipid coordination, lipid-ion coordination, and lipid ordering are observed for Ca(2+) compared to Na(+). Furthermore, for both gas and solid phases of the lipid Langmuir monolayers, lipid conformation and ion dehydration across the lipid/water interface are studied.

  16. Borophene as an anode material for Ca, Mg, Na or Li ion storage: A first-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Dianat, Arezoo; Rahaman, Obaidur; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-10-01

    Borophene, the boron atom analogue to graphene, being atomic thick have been just recently experimentally fabricated. In this work, we employ first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the interaction of Ca, Mg, Na or Li atoms with single-layer and free-standing borophene. We first identified the most stable binding sites and their corresponding binding energies as well and then we gradually increased the ions concentration. Our calculations predict strong binding energies of around 4.03 eV, 2.09 eV, 2.92 eV and 3.28 eV between the borophene substrate and Ca, Mg, Na or Li ions, respectively. We found that the binding energy generally decreases by increasing the ions content. Using the Bader charge analysis, we evaluate the charge transfer between the adatoms and the borophene sheet. Our investigation proposes the borophene as a 2D material with a remarkably high capacity of around 800 mA h/g, 1960 mA h/g, 1380 mA h/g and 1720 mA h/g for Ca, Mg, Na or Li ions storage, respectively. This study can be useful for the possible application of borophene for the rechargeable ion batteries.

  17. Positron annihilation studies of the Al-Ca-Zn superplastic alloy: thermal and thermomechanical contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ayciriex, M.D. ); Romero, R.; Somoza, A. ); Silvetti, S.P.; Villagra, O. )

    1993-06-15

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is an established method for the study of electronic structure and defect properties in metals and alloys. The application of this technique to the study of positron trapping in grain boundaries and related phenomena, however, is relatively scarce. The physical basis for the application of PAS to the study of grain boundaries is the fact that grain boundaries are regions of low atomic density which result in attractive sites to the trap positions. The superplastic alloys are particularly suitable materials to be studied with PAS; they have a fine-grained structure, and therefore a high density of grain boundaries. Moreover, in the annealed condition, they have a low density of other types of defects capable of trapping positrons, such as dislocations. This type of polycrystalline material can undergo extremely high deformations (up to hundreds and thousands percent) in a certain temperature-strain rate range without macroscopic failure. This paper is part of a whole study of the thermal and thermomechanical effects on the positron lifetime parameters and their relation with microstructural changes and the phenomenon of structural superplasticity in a Al-Ca-Zn alloy.

  18. Experimentally Produced Spinel Rims on Ca-Al-Rich Inclusion Bulk Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Le, L.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    Most Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAls) from Allende are surrounded by a series of mineralogically distinct rim layers. Proposed modes of formation for these layers include flash heating, evaporation, and condensation. The innermost of these rim layers is generally spinel (SP), in some cases intergrown with perovskite (PV), and commonly containing varying amounts of secondary iron increasing towards the edge of the CAI. The SP or SP+PV rim is not always contiguous with the other rim layers, indicating that it is probably the result of a separate event. We have produced continuous SP rims on synthetic analogs representing Type A/B1, average Type B, and Type B2 bulk compositions by reheating a solid glass experimental charge to subliquidus crystallization temperatures. This experimental result is consistent with the formation of chondrules; and CAIs by more than one sequence of heating and cooling. Previous work indicated that prior crystallization events produced observable effects in the texture and chemistry of the final run product. Information on the nature of the heating/cooling cycles experienced by CAls and chondrules is important in modeling the environment of their formation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Different modes of electrogenic Na+ absorption in the coprodeum of the chicken embryo: role of extracellular Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Heinz, M; Krattenmacher, R; Hoffmann, B; Clauss, W

    1991-01-01

    Transepithelial electrogenic Na+ transport (INa) was investigated in the coprodeum of 20-days-old chicken embryos in Ussing chambers. Short circuit current (Isc) and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were 14.7 +/- 4.8 microA.cm-2 (n = 12) and 0.53 +/- 0.09 k omega.cm-2 (n = 12), respectively. INa was calculated from changes in Isc by substitution of mucosal Na+ by (N-methyl-D-glucamine) (NMDG). Isc inversed during Na+ removal, and INa was found to be 27.8 +/- 4.7 microA.cm-2 (n = 12). Amiloride (100 mumol.l-1) inhibited only about 60% of INa. Analysis of Isc fluctuations revealed a Lorentzian component in the power density spectrum with a corner frequency of about 57 Hz. This component was not correlated to INa, and its origin is still unclear. Removal of mucosal Ca2+ increased INa about 2.5-fold due to an increase of the amiloride-insensitive component of INa in additionally investigated adult tissues. The results clearly show that this is due to a non-selective cation channel with an "apparent" order of selectivity Cs+ greater than Na+ = K+ greater than Rb+ greater than Li+. The Ca2+ concentration required to block 50% of the Isc was about 18 mumol.l-1. The IscCa could also be suppressed by other divalent cations such as Mg2+ and Ba2+. Additionally, an INa-linked Lorentzian component occurred which dominated the control spectrum with a significantly higher corner frequency (about 88 Hz). The results indicate that Na+ absorption in the coprodeum of the chicken embryo is more complex than in adult hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1658090

  20. Discharge properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca and Mg-Al-Mn alloys as anode materials for primary magnesium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Huang, Xinsheng; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    The discharge behaviors of rolled Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn-2 mass%Ca (AMX602) and Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn (AM60) alloys used as anodes for Magnesium-air batteries were investigated. The AMX602 alloy exhibited superior discharge properties compared to the AM60 alloy, especially at low current density. The discharge products of the AMX602 alloy were dense and thin, and many cracks were observed at all current densities. In addition, the discharge products were detached at some sites. These sites often corresponded to the positions of Al2Ca particles. The comparison of the discharge and corrosion tests indicated that the dense and thin discharge products of AMX602 were easily cracked by dissolution of the Mg matrix around Al2Ca particles, and the cracks promoted the penetration of the electrolyte into the discharge products, retaining the discharge activity. In contrast, concerning the AM60 alloy, thick discharge products were formed on the surface during discharge, and cracking of the discharge products hardly occurred, degrading the discharge properties. Localized and deeply corroded pits that could result from the detachment of metal pieces from the anode during discharge were partly observed in the AM60 alloy. It is suggested that these detached metal pieces are another reason for the low discharge properties of the AM60 alloy.

  1. Thermodynamics and kinetics of NaAlH4 nanocluster decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Raghunandan K; Maharrey, Sean; Stavila, Vitalie; Highley, Aaron; Alam, Todd; Majzoub, Eric; Allendorf, Mark

    2012-06-14

    Reactive nanoparticles are of great interest for applications ranging from catalysis to energy storage. However, efforts to relate cluster size to thermodynamic stability and chemical reactivity are hampered by broad pore size distributions and poorly characterized chemical environments in many microporous templates. Metal hydrides are an important example of this problem. Theoretical calculations suggest that reducing their critical dimension to the nanoscale can in some cases considerably destabilize these materials and there is clear experimental evidence for accelerated kinetics, making hydrogen storage applications more attractive in some cases. However, quantitative measurements establishing the influence of size on thermodynamics are lacking, primarily because carbon aerogels often used as supports provide inadequate control over size and pore chemistry. Here, we employ the nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) Cu-BTC (also known as HKUST-1) as a template to synthesize and confine the complex hydride NaAlH(4). The well-defined crystalline structure and monodisperse pore dimensions of this MOF allow detailed, quantitative probing of the thermodynamics and kinetics of H(2) desorption from 1-nm NaAlH(4) clusters (NaAlH(4)@Cu-BTC) without the ambiguity associated with amorphous templates. Hydrogen evolution rates were measured as a function of time and temperature using the Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry method, in which sample mass changes are correlated with a complete analysis of evolved gases. NaAlH(4)@Cu-BTC undergoes a single-step dehydrogenation reaction in which the Na(3)AlH(6) intermediate formed during decomposition of the bulk hydride is not observed. Comparison of the thermodynamically controlled quasi-equilibrium reaction pathways in the bulk and nanoscale materials shows that the nanoclusters are slightly stabilized by confinement, having an H(2) desorption enthalpy that is 7 kJ (mol H(2))(-1) higher than the

  2. Competitive inhibition and selectivity enhancement by Ca in the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, Hf) by carrot (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takuo; Ambe, Shizuko; Abe, Tomoko; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of inorganic elements (Be, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ce, Pm, Gd, and Hf) and the effect of Ca on their uptake in carrots (Daucus carota cv. U.S. harumakigosun) by the radioactive multitracer technique. The experimental results suggested that Na, Mg, K, and Rb competed for the functional groups outside the cells in roots with Ca but not for the transporter-binding sites on the plasma membrane of the root cortex cells. In contrast, Y, Ce, Pm, and Gd competed with Ca for the transporters on the plasma membrane. The selectivity, which was defined as the value obtained by dividing the concentration ratio of an elemental pair, K/Na, Rb/Na, Be/Sr, and Mg/Sr, in the presence of 0.2 and 2 ppm Ca by that of the corresponding elemental pair in the absence of Ca in the solution was estimated. The selectivity of K and Rb in roots was increased in the presence of Ca. The selectivity of Be in roots was not affected, whereas the selectivity of Mg was increased by Ca. These observations suggest that the presence of Ca in the uptake solution enhances the selectivity in the uptake of metabolically important elements against unwanted elements. PMID:15695849

  3. Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir-welded Noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Li, Z. Y.; Nakata, K.; Feng, J. C.; Huang, Y. X.; Liao, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    Microstructure and fatigue behavior of friction stir-welded noncombustive Mg-9Al-Zn-Ca magnesium alloy were investigated. The as-received hot-extruded material consisted of equiaxed α-Mg grains with β-Mg17Al12 and Al2Ca compounds distributed along the grain boundaries. Friction stir welding produced much refined α-Mg grains accompanied by the dissolution of the eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase, while Al2Ca phase was dispersed homogenously into the Mg matrix. Friction stir welding produced slightly increased hardness and tensile strength in the defect-free welds compared with the base material due to microstructural refinement and uniform distribution of intermetallic compounds. The load-controlled uniaxial tensile high-cycle fatigue tests indicated that fatigue strength of 90 MPa was obtained for the friction stir-welded joint with fatigue crack initiated basically near the specimen's surface and at the retreating side of the joint. Crack propagation was characterized by cleavage and fatigue striations.

  4. The amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the plasma membrane Na+,K+-ATPase alpha subunit confer ouabain sensitivity on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Takeyasu, K

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides such as G-strophanthin (ouabain) bind to and inhibit the plasma membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase but not the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase, whereas thapsigargin specifically blocks the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. The chimera [n/c]CC, in which the amino-terminal amino acids Met1 to Asp162 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Met1 to Asp200), retained thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity, although the activity was lower than that of the wild-type SR Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, this Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity was inhibited by ouabain. The chimera NCC, in which Met1-Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase, lost the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity seen in CCC and [n/c]CC. [3H]Ouabain binding to [n/c]CC and NCC demonstrated that the affinity for this inhibitor seen in the wild-type chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase was restored in these chimeric molecules. Thus, the ouabain-binding domains are distinct from the thapsigargin sites; ouabain binds to the amino-terminal portion (Met1 to Asp200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, whereas thapsigargin interacts with the regions after Asp162 of the Ca(2+)-ATPase. Moreover, the amino-terminal 200 amino acids of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit are sufficient to exert ouabain-dependent inhibition even after incorporation into the corresponding portion of the Ca(2+)-ATPase, and the segment Ile163 to Gly354 of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is critical for thapsigargin- and Ca(2+)-sensitive ATPase activity. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8415625

  5. Constraints on Titanite Acitvity in the System CaTiSiO4O-CaAlSiO4F: Implications for Thermobarometry in Metamorphic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, P.; Manning, C. E.; Essene, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    Titanite is a common accessory mineral that could be used reliably in phase equilibrium calculations, if activity-composition relations in Al-F titanites were known. Troitzsch and Ellis (2001, CMP, 142, 543) and Tropper et al. (2002, JPet., 43, 1787) gave non-ideal mixing models along the join CaTiSiO4O- CaAlSiO4F. Tropper et al. (2002) derived a negative interaction parameter W, whereas Troitzsch and Ellis (2001) derived a regular model with both positive and negative W, but favored positive values. These differences strongly influence calculated CaTiSiO4O activity (attn). Although more experiments are needed, our result that γttn<1 at high T indicates a large degree of non-ideal behavior, even at >900°C, which in turn will affect thermobarometry. Comparing available activity models shows that at these T, attn is substantially underestimated by the fully ionic model used by Manning and Bohlen (1991, CMP, 109, 1), in which attn = XCaXTiXSi(XO)5. This model assumes independent mixing of Al for Ti and random mixing of F and O on all O sites. However, F substitutes only in one O site (O1; Oberti et al., 1991, EJM, 3, 777). A fully ionic model should therefore be recast as attn = XCaXTiXSiXO, where XO indicates the mole fraction of O on the (O1) site. The substitution of F on the O1 site is coupled with Al, so it is called the ideal coupled model. Unlike the regular model, the prefered ionic model departs strongly from ideality at ≤600°C, consistent with independent constraints. However, experimentally determined attn is approximated by an ideal molecular model (XTi) at ≥900°C, so this model is recommended for thermobarometry in high- T metamorphic rocks until more data are available. Recalculation of the P recorded by the three eclogites from Manning and Bohlen (1991) using the different activity models discussed here yields differences that may be as high as 2.0 GPa.

  6. Redetermination of tamarugite, NaAl(SO4)2·6H2O

    PubMed Central

    Mereiter, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of tamarugite [sodium aluminium bis­(sulfate) hexa­hydrate] was redetermined from a single crystal from Mina Alcaparossa, near Cerritos Bayos, southwest of Calama, Chile. In contrast to the previous work [Robinson & Fang (1969 ▶). Am. Mineral. 54, 19–30], all non-H atoms were refined with anisotropic displacement parameters and H-atoms were located by difference Fourier methods and refined from X-ray diffraction data. The structure is built up from nearly regular [Al(H2O)6]3+ octa­hedra and infinite double-stranded chains [Na(SO4)2]3− that extend parallel to [001]. The Na+ cation has a strongly distorted octa­hedral coordination by sulfate O atoms [Na—O = 2.2709 (11) – 2.5117 (12) Å], of which five are furnished by the chain-building sulfate group S2O4 and one by the non-bridging sulfate group S1O4. The [Na(SO4)2]3− chain features an unusual centrosymmetric group formed by two NaO6 octa­hedra and two S2O4 tetra­hedra sharing five adjacent edges, one between two NaO6 octa­hedra and two each between the resulting double octa­hedron and two S2O4 tetra­hedra. These groups are then linked into a double-stranded chain via corner-sharing between NaO6 octa­hedra and S2O4 tetra­hedra. The S1O4 group, attached to Na in the terminal position, completes the chains. The [Al(H2O)6]3+ octa­hedron (〈Al—O〉 = 1.885 (11) Å) donates 12 comparatively strong hydrogen bonds (O⋯O = 2.6665 (14) – 2.7971 (15) Å) to the sulfate O atoms of three neighbouring [Na(SO4)2]3− chains, helping to connect them in three dimensions, but with a prevalence parallel to (010), the cleavage plane of the mineral. Compared with the previous work on tamarugite, the bond precision of Al—O bond lengths as an example improved from 0.024 to 0.001 Å. PMID:24098156

  7. H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ signals triggered by the PM H-coupled transport system mediate K+/Na+ homeostasis in NaCl-stressed Populus euphratica cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Mei-Juan; Ding, Ming-Quan; Deng, Shu-Rong; Liu, Mei-Qin; Lu, Cun-Fu; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shen, Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Zeng-Kai; Song, Jin; Hu, Zan-Min; Xu, Yue; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Using confocal microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, we investigated the signalling of H(2)O(2), cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) and the PM H(+)-coupled transport system in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis control in NaCl-stressed calluses of Populus euphratica. An obvious Na(+)/H(+) antiport was seen in salinized cells; however, NaCl stress caused a net K(+) efflux, because of the salt-induced membrane depolarization. H(2)O(2) levels, regulated upwards by salinity, contributed to ionic homeostasis, because H(2)O(2) restrictions by DPI or DMTU caused enhanced K(+) efflux and decreased Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity. NaCl induced a net Ca(2+) influx and a subsequent rise of [Ca(2+)](cyt), which is involved in H(2)O(2)-mediated K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in salinized P. euphratica cells. When callus cells were pretreated with inhibitors of the Na(+)/H(+) antiport system, the NaCl-induced elevation of H(2)O(2) and [Ca(2+)](cyt) was correspondingly restricted, leading to a greater K(+) efflux and a more pronounced reduction in Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity. Results suggest that the PM H(+)-coupled transport system mediates H(+) translocation and triggers the stress signalling of H(2)O(2) and Ca(2+), which results in a K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis via mediations of K(+) channels and the Na(+)/H(+) antiport system in the PM of NaCl-stressed cells. Accordingly, a salt stress signalling pathway of P. euphratica cells is proposed. PMID:20082667

  8. Ca II and Na I absorption signatures from extraplanar gas in the halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Bekhti, N.; Richter, P.; Westmeier, T.; Murphy, M. T.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We analyse absorption characteristics and physical conditions of extraplanar intermediate- and high-velocity gas to study the distribution of the neutral and weakly ionised Milky Way halo gas and its relevance for the evolution of the Milky Way and other spiral galaxies. Methods: We combine optical absorption line measurements of Ca II/Na I and 21 cm emission line observations of H I along 103 extragalactic lines of sight towards quasars (QSOs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN). The archival optical spectra were obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope, while the 21 cm H I observations were carried out using the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg. Results: The analysis of the UVES spectra shows that single and multi-component Ca II/Na I absorbers at intermediate and high velocities are present in about 35 percent of the sight lines, indicating the presence of neutral extraplanar gas structures. In some cases the Ca II/Na I absorption is connected with H I 21 cm intermediate- or high-velocity gas with H I column densities in the range of 1018 to 1020 cm-2 (i.e., the classical IVCs and HVCs), while other Ca II/Na I absorbers show no associated H I emission. The observed H I line widths vary from Δ vFWHM=3.2 km s-1 to 32.0 km s-1 indicating a range of upper gas temperature limits of 250 K up to about 22 500 K. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the Milky Way halo is filled with a large number of neutral gaseous structures whose high column density tail represents the population of common H I high-velocity clouds seen in 21 cm surveys. The Ca II column density distribution follows a power-law f(N)=CNβ with a slope of β ≈ -1.6, thus comparable to the distribution found for intervening metal-line systems toward QSOs. Many of the statistical and physical properties of the Ca II absorbers resemble those of strong (W_λ 2796>0.3 Å) Mg II absorbing systems observed in the circumgalactic environment of

  9. Macrophage alteration induced by inflammatory toxins isolated from Tityus discrepans scorpion venom. The role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bello, Vanesa; Sevcik, Carlos; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; D'Suze, Gina

    2014-05-01

    We study the effect of all Tityus discrepans venom components on macrophage alterations. Only seven toxins called "Inflammatory Toxin" (InfTx1-7) induced cell changes. Incubation with InfTx1 through InfTx5 rose macrophage NO level at 2 h toxin exposure. Cells rose NO release by 4 h exposure with InfTx2 and InfTx5, the NO levels reached concentrations similar or higher than the induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) incubation. InfTx2, -6 and -7 increased cell TNF-α release. InfTx2 as LPS roses cell TNF-α secretion gradually in time. Macrophages were loaded with fluorescent dyes, exposed to all toxins and observed with a 3D wide field deconvolution setup. Cells exposed to whole venom or InfTx4 through InfTx7 developed pseudopodia, cytoplasm prolongations, blebs, and loss their rounded form. The molecular masses and N-terminal sequences of InfTx4 through InfTx7 were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. InfTx4-7 induced a remarkable increase of intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i), measured as a rise of normalized cell green fluorescence intensity (FI) ×2.7, ×2.6, ×95 and ×2.9 the controls, respectively. InfTx6-7 action mechanisms were studied under different conditions. Results suggested that InfTx6 interact with a membrane sodium channel inducing cell depolarization with a consequent increase on intracellular [Na(+)], this would activate Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 3 (NCX) in the reverse mode and the phospholipase C inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-IP3) signaling pathway inducing [Ca(2+)]i overload. Inftx7 should activate the NCX in reverse mode and/or should activate the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, increasing intracellular [Na(+)] which indirectly induce the activation of NCX3rv and the PLC-IP3 signaling pathway. All these mechanisms would cooperate with the [Ca(2+)]i overload. A rise of [Ca(2+)]i activates the synthesis and secretion of inflammatory molecules like TNF-α, which in turn, increases the gene transcription for inducible nitric

  10. Antiferromagnetism in CaAl2Si2-type CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Pandey, Abhishek; Benson, Zackery A.; Johnston, D. C.

    Magnetic susceptibility versus temperature χ (T) measurements of CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 crystals show clear antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at TN ~ 65 K and 120 K,1 respectively. The anisotropic behaviors in χ (T <=TN) suggest that both compounds are noncollinear antiferromagnets which may result either from an intrinsic noncollinear structure or from multiple collinear AFM domains that are not aligned collinearly.2 The χ (T) data at T >TN reveal that both compounds exhibit strong short-range AFM ordering, evidently associated with quasi-two-dimensional spin lattices. The electrical resistivities show insulating ground states with activation energies of ~ 63 meV in CaMn2As2 and 44 meV in SrMn2As2 . The experimental results thus reveal that both (Ca , Sr) Mn2As2 materials are AFM insulators at low temperatures and in analogy with the high Tc cuprates, may be potential parent compounds for CaAl2Si2-type superconductors. Work was supported by the USDOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  11. Electrogenic Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, the link between intra- and extracellular calcium in the Limulus ventral photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, A; Stieve, H

    1991-01-01

    1. Limulus ventral photoreceptors were injected with Arsenazo III and the internal change in the calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, was measured under voltage clamp conditions. It is shown that in response to a light flash the rising phase of the [Ca2+]i is independent of the clamp voltage, Vm. This observation is contrary to other results reported in the literature. Experiments are reported that resolve this contradiction (see paragraph 4). 2. The relaxation of the [Ca2+]i after a bright light flash was observed to have a fast and slow phase. A function consisting of the sum of an exponential and a ramp was fitted to the relaxation. The fast phase, characterized by the time constant of the exponential, was observed not to depend on Vm, while the slow phase, characterized by the slope of the ramp, was strongly dependent on Vm. Furthermore the slope of the slow phase is shown to depend on the external Na+ concentration, but not the time constant of the fast phase. 3. In the dark the [Ca2+]i was observed to increase when the cell was depolarized and to decrease when the cell was hyperpolarized. This observation was more pronounced when the cell was continuously illuminated. 4. When the cell was clamped to a depolarizing voltage before illumination of the cell, the maximum of the calcium indicator signal was observed to depend on how long the cell had been clamped before applying the light stimulus. This experiment resolves the contradiction mentioned in paragraph 1. 5. The results presented here are consistent with the interpretation that a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger with a stoichiometry greater than 2:1 is the predominant link between intra- and extracellular calcium. Secondly that the light-induced intracellular calcium increase comes from a release by intracellular stores. Finally a measurable uptake of calcium occurs after a light-induced release, possibly by the internal calcium stores. The two-phase recovery of [Ca2+]i after a light flash is interpreted as being a

  12. The novel Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor KB-R7943 also blocks native and expressed neuronal nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, Antonio J; Herrero, Carlos J; García, Antonio G; Montiel, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor KB-R7943, 2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea methanesulphonate, on the native nicotinic receptors present at the bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, as well as on rat brain α3β4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.As expected, KB-R7943 blocked the Na+-gradient dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into chromaffin cells (IC50 of 5.5 μM); but in addition, the compound also inhibited the 45Ca2+ entry and the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]c, stimulated by 5 s pulses of ACh (IC50 of 6.5 and 1.7 μM, respectively).In oocytes expressing α3β4 and α7 nicotinic AChRs, voltage-clamped at −60 mV, inward currents elicited by 1 s pulses of 100 μM ACh (IACh) were blocked by KB-R7943 with an IC50 of 0.4 μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.9.Blockade of α3β4 currents by KB-R7943 was noncompetitive; moreover, the blocker (0.3 μM) became more active as the ACh concentration increased (34 versus 66% blockade at 30 μM and 1 mM ACh, respectively).Inhibition of α3β4 currents by 0.3 μM KB-R7943 was more pronounced at hyperpolarized potentials. If given within the ACh pulse (10 μM), the inhibition amounted to 33, 64 and 80% in oocytes voltage-clamped at −40, −60 and −100 mV, respectively. The onset of blockade was faster and the recovery slower at −100 mV; the reverse was true at −40 mV.In conclusion, KB-R7943 is a potent blocker of nicotinic AChRs; moreover, it displays many features of an open-channel blocker at the rat brain α3β4 AChR. These results should be considered when KB-R7943 is to be used to study Ca2+ homeostasis in cells expressing nicotinic AChRs and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. PMID:10952680

  13. Phase equilibria and elements partitioning in zirconolite-rich region of Ca-Zr-Ti-Al-Gd-Si-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, O.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ioudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.; Omelianenko, B.I.; Mokhov, A.V.; Yakushev, A.I.

    1997-12-31

    Zirconolite-rich ceramics were produced by the cold crucible melting technique in an air atmosphere, at 1550 {+-} 50 C and 1 atm. Four samples with overall composition (in wt.%): 4.9-14.3 CaO; 19.0-41.3 ZrO{sub 2}; 24.1-42.6 TiO{sub 2}; 1.3-11.3 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 6.8-30.0 Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}; and 1.1-8.5 SiO{sub 2} have been studied. Total phases in the ceramics consist of major zirconolite and minor rutile, perovskite, zirconia, aluminium titanate, and glass. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in zirconolite reaches up to 31.4 wt.% corresponding to the formula: (Ca{sub 0.4},Gd{sub 0.7})Zr{sub 1.0}(Ti{sub 1.4},Al{sub 0.5})O{sub 7.0}. The data on the phase composition agree well with coupled Gd incorporation into the mineral structure: Ca(II) + Ti(IV) = Gd(III) + Al(III), and 2Gd(III) = Ca(II) + Zr(IV). The highest Gd contents observed in the other phases are 25.4% for zirconia, 12.6% in glass, 8.8% in perovskite, and 1.4% for rutile. The rest of the elements` distribution in the samples are analyzed.

  14. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells. PMID:14741598

  15. CaMKII Phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5: Novel in Vitro Sites Identified by Mass Spectrometry and Reduced S516 Phosphorylation in Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Herren, Anthony W; Weber, Darren M; Rigor, Robert R; Margulies, Kenneth B; Phinney, Brett S; Bers, Donald M

    2015-05-01

    The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(V)1.5, drives the upstroke of the cardiac action potential and is a critical determinant of myocyte excitability. Recently, calcium (Ca(2+))/calmodulin(CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of Na(V)1.5 function through phosphorylation of multiple residues including S516, T594, and S571, and these phosphorylation events may be important for the genesis of acquired arrhythmias, which occur in heart failure. However, phosphorylation of full-length human Na(V)1.5 has not been systematically analyzed and Na(V)1.5 phosphorylation in human heart failure is incompletely understood. In the present study, we used label-free mass spectrometry to assess phosphorylation of human Na(V)1.5 purified from HEK293 cells with full coverage of phosphorylatable sites and identified 23 sites that were phosphorylated by CaMKII in vitro. We confirmed phosphorylation of S516 and S571 by LC-MS/MS and found a decrease in S516 phosphorylation in human heart failure, using a novel phospho-specific antibody. This work furthers our understanding of the phosphorylation of Na(V)1.5 by CaMKII under normal and disease conditions, provides novel CaMKII target sites for functional validation, and provides the first phospho-proteomic map of full-length human Na(V)1.5.

  16. Charge-compensation effect of Al on luminescence properties of M2(Si, Al)5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Daiki; Horikawa, Takashi; Hanzawa, Hiromasa; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The charge-compensated materials, M2AlxSi5-xN8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized from appropriate mixtures of MSi, MAlSi, (MSiHy, MAlSiHy), Si3N4 and CeF3 by a direct nitriding process in a N2 gas and the luminescence properties were characterized. The resultant phosphors showed green emission suitable for LED illumination by optimizing the mixing ratio of metal elements. These phosphors were effectively excited by violet or blue light (400-430 nm) and the emission bands were observed at various wavelength regions for Ca: 489-528 nm, Sr: 511-520 nm, and Ba: 508-514 nm. Although the emission intensity of Ca2(Si, Al)5N8:Ce3+ was decreased with increasing amount of Al, those of Sr- and Ba-analogues were maximized at x = 0.5 of Al content in M2Si5-xAlxN8:Ce3+.

  17. The effect of NaOH concentration on the steam-hydrothermally treated bioactive microarc oxidation coatings containing Ca, P, Si and Na on pure Ti surface.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cao, Jianyun; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The microarc oxidation (MAO) coating covered pure Ti plates are steam-hydrothermally treated in autoclaves containing NaOH solutions with different concentrations of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1mol·L(-1). Due to the composition of Ti, O, Ca, P, Si and Na elements in the MAO coating, anatase and hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are generated from the previously amorphous MAO coating after the steam-hydrothermal treatment. Meanwhile, it is noticed that the amount of HA crystals increases but showing a decline trend in aspect ratio in morphologies with the increasing of NaOH concentration. Interestingly, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit better bonding strength with Ti substrate (up to 43.8±1.1MPa) than that of the untreated one (20.1±3.1MPa). In addition, benefiting from the corrosive attack of the dissolved NaOH in water vapor on the MAO coating, Ti-OH is also formed on the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coating surface, which can trigger apatite nucleation. Thus, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit good apatite-inducing ability.

  18. The effect of NaOH concentration on the steam-hydrothermally treated bioactive microarc oxidation coatings containing Ca, P, Si and Na on pure Ti surface.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cao, Jianyun; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The microarc oxidation (MAO) coating covered pure Ti plates are steam-hydrothermally treated in autoclaves containing NaOH solutions with different concentrations of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1mol·L(-1). Due to the composition of Ti, O, Ca, P, Si and Na elements in the MAO coating, anatase and hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are generated from the previously amorphous MAO coating after the steam-hydrothermal treatment. Meanwhile, it is noticed that the amount of HA crystals increases but showing a decline trend in aspect ratio in morphologies with the increasing of NaOH concentration. Interestingly, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit better bonding strength with Ti substrate (up to 43.8±1.1MPa) than that of the untreated one (20.1±3.1MPa). In addition, benefiting from the corrosive attack of the dissolved NaOH in water vapor on the MAO coating, Ti-OH is also formed on the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coating surface, which can trigger apatite nucleation. Thus, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit good apatite-inducing ability. PMID:25686996

  19. Crustal structure of and boundary between the AlCaPa and Tisza terrains in the Pannonian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Ren, Yong; Dando, Ben; Stuart, Graham W.; Houseman, Gregory A.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the Pannonian Basin is strongly linked to that of the surrounding Alpine, Carpathian and Dinaric orogens. The eastward extrusion of Alpine-type basement that accompanied lithospheric thinning must have been accompanied by mantle downwelling and/or subduction along the Carpathians but the motive forces for these movements are debated. The internal structure of the crust within the basin is mostly covered by relatively recent sedimentary infill whose variable thickness further complicates seismic imaging. Palaeomagnetic and geological data have, however, shown that two tectonic terrains of distinct origin: AlCaPa and Tisza, occupy the basin's NW and SE part respectively. The two units have undergone different amounts of extension during opposite orientation rotations (counter-clockwise and clockwise, respectively). The boundary between these two units, known as the Mid-Hungarian Zone, is recognized as a major sinistral shear zone, geophysically clearly marked across the basin by a trough in Bouguer gravity. The Carpathian Basins Project deployed 49 broadband seismological stations perpendicular to the boundary between the AlCaPa and Tisza units. A NW-SE oriented swath of three lines covers a 450 km long and 75 km wide area. We use these and 4 permanent stations to image the crustal structure of and the boundary between AlCaPa and Tisza using the receiver function technique. The measured Moho depths show no significant change in crustal thickness between the two terrains, but the Moho is not or very weakly imaged along a ca. 40 km wide strip centred on the MHZ. Our Moho depths elsewhere in the basin agree with earlier controlled-source seismic results and recent shear-wave velocity models deduced from ambient noise analysis. The lack of a sharp Moho image beneath the MHZ implies that the crust-mantle boundary between AlCaPa and Tisza is not a sharp transition but rather a gradual increase in velocity with depth. The distinct low in gravity anomalies

  20. Voronkovite, Na15(Na,Ca,Ce)3(Mn,Ca)3Fe3Zr3Si26O72(OH,O)4Cl · H2O, a new mineral species of the eudialyte group from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a new member of the eudialyte group named in honor of Alexander Alexandrovich Voronkov (1928-1982), the prominent Russian crystallographer. The new mineral has been found in the Shkatulka hyperalkaline pegmatite body at Mt. Alluaiv, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is associated with microcline, sodalite, nepheline, aegirine, terskite, lomonosovite, vuonnemite, shkatulkalite, manganoneptunite, and sphalerite. Voronkovite occurs as rounded, poorly faced crystals up to 2-5 mm across. The new mineral is light brown, with vitreous luster and conchoidal fracture. The streak is white. Voronkovite is transparent and brittle; the Mohs hardness is 5; cleavage or parting is not observed. D(meas) = 2.97(2) g/cm3 (volumetric method); D(calc) = 2.95 g/cm3. The new mineral is uniaxial, positive, pleochroic from lemon yellow along X to brownish pink along Y, and is not luminescent in UV light. Voronkovite easily dissolves and gelates in acid at room temperature. The new mineral is trigonal, space group R3, a = 14.205(7), c = 30.265(15) Å, V = 5289(8) Å3, Z = 3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I)( hkl)] are 2.970(100)(315), 4.316(85)(205), 2.848(84)(404), 3.221(43)(208), 3.536(41)(027), 3.039(41)(119). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, H2O determined with chemical analysis) is as follows, wt %: 15.84 Na2O, 0.28 K2O, 3.08 CaO, 1.76 SrO, 4.65 MnO, 3.53 FeO, 0.93 La2O3, 1.36 Ce2O3, 0.68 Nd2O3, 0.15 Al2O3, 49.48 SiO2, 0.33 TiO2, 14.11 ZrO2, 0.23 HfO2, 0.91 Nb2O5, 0.44 Cl, 0.21 F, 1.56 H2O, 0.19 -O = (Cl,F)2; total is 99.34. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al = 26 ( Z = 3) is as follows: (Na13.96Sr0.54K0.19)Σ14.69(Na1.64Ca0.92Ce0.26 La0.18)Σ3.00(Mn2.06Ca0.81Nd0.13)Σ3.00(F1.54Zr0.60Na0.48Nb0.21Ti0.13Hf0.04)Σ3.00Zr3.00(Si1.91Al0.09)Σ2.00(Si24O72)[(OH)2.98 O1.02]Σ4(Cl0.39F0.35)Σ0.74 · 1.23H2O. The simplified formula is Na15(Na,Ca,Ce)3(Mn,Ca)3Fe3Zr3Si26O72(OH

  1. Teaching the Modes of Ca[superscript 2+] Transport between the Plasma Membrane and Endoplasmic Reticulum Using a Classic Paper by Kwan et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Willmann

    2009-01-01

    This teaching article uses the report by Kwan et al., "Effects of methacholine, thapsigargin, and La[superscript 3+] on plasmalemmal and intracellular Ca[superscript 2+] transport in lacrimal acinar cells," where the effects of Ca[superscript 2+]-mobilizing agents in regulating Ca[superscript 2+] fluxes were examined under various conditions.…

  2. A potentially new type of nonchondritic interplanetary dust particle with hematite, organic carbon, amorphous Na,Ca-aluminosilicate, and FeO-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Valles-González, Maria Pilar

    2012-02-01

    We used a combination of different analytical techniques to study particle W7190-D12 using microinfrared spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The particle consists mainly of hematite (α-Fe2O3) with considerable variations in structural disorder. It further contains amorphous (Na,K)-bearing Ca,Al-silicate and organic carbon. Iron-bearing spherules (<150 nm in diameter) cover the surface of this particle. At local sites of structural disorder at the hematite surface, the hematite spheres were reduced to FeO in the presence of organic carbons forming FeO-spheres. However, metallic Fe spheres cannot be excluded based on the available data. To the best of our knowledge, this particle is the first detection of such spherules at the surface of a stratospheric dust particle. Although there is no definitive evidence for an extraterrestrial origin of particle W7190-D12, we suggest that it could be an IDP that had moved away from the asteroid-forming region of the early solar system into the outer solar system of the accreting Kuiper Belt objects. After it was released from a Jupiter family comet, this particle became part of the zodiacal cloud. Atmospheric entry flash-heating caused (1) the formation of microenvironments of reduced iron oxide when indigenous carbon materials reacted with hematite covering its surface resulting in the formation of FeO-spheres and (2) Na-loss from Na,Al-plagioclase. The particle of this study, and other similar particles on this collector, may represent a potentially new type of nonchondritic IDPs associated with Jupiter family comets, although an origin in the asteroid belt cannot be ignored.

  3. Electrochemistry of selenium in a basic AlCl{sub 3}-NaCl melt

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, M.; Morimitsu, M.; Hosokawa, K.

    1995-09-01

    Sodium/molten-salt secondary batteries composed of a liquid sodium and chloroaluminate melt have been widely studied for electric vehicle and load-leveling applications. The authors have been interested in developing new cathode materials to be used in this type of battery. The electrochemical reactions of selenium species in a basic AlCl{sub 3}-NaCl melt has been studied by measuring EMF of an Na/SeCl{sub 4} cell. The reaction mechanism between elemental and tetravalent selenium consists of at least four electrochemical steps, including intermediates such as Se{sup 2+}, Se{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and Se{sub 8}{sup 2+}. The reaction sequence from Se{sup 4+} to Se{sub 8}{sup 2+} is discussed. The formal potential for each reaction is also determined.

  4. Solubility of Anhydrite (CaSO4) in NaCl-H2O Fluids at High T and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Weight losses of single crystals of a very pure natural anhydrite exposed to NaCl solutions of 0-0.3 mol fraction were measured at 600-800 \\deg C and 6-14 kbar. Experimental charges were contained in welded Pt capsules in 1.91 cm-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium for 5-72 hr. Measurements in initially pure H2O were made with HM, NNO, and MnO2 buffers, as well as without buffering. At 800 \\deg C and 10 kbar, CaSO4 molalities are: MnO2, 0.014 mol/kg H2O; HM, 0.017; NNO, 0.148; and unbuffered, 0.026. Variation in oxygen fugacity thus has a large effect on CaSO4 solubility, increasing with H2S/SO2 in the fluid. Unbuffered (self-buffered) charges gave solubilities much closer to HM than NNO. Melting occurred in the NNO experiment at this P and T. NaCl increases CaSO4 solubility enormously, with m(CaSO4) reaching 5.4, or 23.5 wt. %, at 800 \\deg C, 10 kbar and X(NaCl)=0.3. There is also a very large increase with temperature. Regression of all the data give: log(m-mo) = -1.533 + 0.00291T + (1.441 + 0.00016T)logX(NaCl) + 0.0413(P-10) where mo is molality in pure H2O, P is in kbar, and T is in Kelvins. The very large carrying capacity for sulfate in even mildly saline fluids at high P and T, together with the high oxygen potential generated when these solutions react with FeO in rocks to yield pyrrhotite, indicates that such fluids should be considered as principal agents in S-rich, highly oxidizing processes such as Pinatubo-type volcanic eruptions, certain deep-crustal granulite facies metamorphism, as in Bamble, Norway and Shevaroy Hills, S. India, and the anhydrite-related, oxidized Au ore deposits like Abitibi, Ontario, and Kalgoorlie, Australia.

  5. A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} for near UV white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhigang; Zhao, Zhengyan; Shi, Yurong; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Excitation spectra suggested an obvious absorption in near-ultraviolet region. • Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited a red emission at 614 nm. • Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel red phosphor Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} was synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, and its luminescence characteristics and charge compensators effect (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) were investigated. The excitation spectra showed a obvious absorption in near-ultraviolet region. Under 392 nm excitation, the phosphors exhibited an intense red emission at 614 nm. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and quantum efficiency (QE) were (0.65, 0.35) and 62.3%, respectively. The good color saturation, high quantum efficiency and small thermal-quenching properties indicate that Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 32}Cl{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} could be potentially applied in near UV white light-emitting diodes.

  6. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca{sup 2+} entry and IP{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Mijares, Alfredo; Altamirano, Francisco; Kolster, Juan; Adams, José A.; López, José R.

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. • IP{sub 3}-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d}) and diastolic Na{sup +} concentration ([Na{sup +}]{sub d}) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+})-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} entry and inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd{sup 3+} treatment significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP{sub 3}-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd{sup 3+} normalized both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca{sup 2+} entry through Gd{sup 3+} sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP{sub 3} receptors.

  7. First-principles investigations of aluminum hydrides: M{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} (M=Na,K)

    SciTech Connect

    Vajeeston, P.; Ravindran, P.; Kjekshus, A.; Fjellvaag, H.

    2005-03-01

    The structural stability of Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} and K{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} has been systematically investigated using accurate density-functional total-energy calculations. The experimentally known crystal structure of {alpha}-Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} is reproduced and {alpha}-K{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} is predicted to be isostructural ({alpha}-Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} type; space group P2{sub 1}/n). This structure contains a pseudo-face-centered-cubic Al sublattice and each Al atom is surrounded by distorted octahedra of hydrogen atoms with the long octahedral axis tilted from the [001] direction toward <111>. We predict that the {alpha} modifications will not be stable at higher pressures. On application of pressure to Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, the {alpha} phase transforms into a Cs{sub 3}NdCl{sub 6}-type structure at 19.8 GPa. Similarly {alpha}-K{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} transforms into two high-pressure forms: (1) {alpha} transforms to {beta} with Rb{sub 3}TlF{sub 6}-type structure at 53.4 GPa and (2) {beta} transforms to {gamma} with U{sub 3}ScS{sub 6}-type structure at 60.2 GPa.

  8. Induction of a Putative Ca2+-ATPase mRNA in NaCl-Adapted Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Prat, Eva; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Binzel, Marla L.; Botella, Miguel A.; Chen, Zutang; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone was isolated that encodes the partial sequence of a putative endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase of tobacco. The 1.497-kb insert had an open reading frame of 1.149 kb. The deduced peptide had the greatest homology to the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases of Drosophila and Artemia, followed by the mammalian and avian enzymes (SERCA2 and 3). The cDNA insert hybridized to a single mRNA of 4.4 kb from tobacco cultured cells or plant tissues. The level of this transcript was induced about 2-fold by NaCl shock in 428 mm NaCl-deadapted tobacco cells that were maintained in medium without salt, but not in unadapted cells. The level of this transcript was 3- to 4-fold higher in 428 mm NaCl-adapted cells growing in salt than in unadapted cells growing without salt. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16653146

  9. Na(+) and Ca(2+) pumps in the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites of the european lobster Homarus gammarus: effects of dilute sea water.

    PubMed

    Flik, G; Haond, C

    2000-01-01

    Crude homogenates and plasma-membrane-enriched fractions were prepared from the epithelium of the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites of intermoult European lobsters Homarus gammarus, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange activities were quantified in these tissues. Lobsters were kept in sea water (salinity 35 ) or were adapted to dilute sea water (22.1 ). The lobster hyperregulates haemolymph osmolarity and Ca(2+) levels in both media. Homogenates of the podobranchs, arthrobranchs and pleurobranchs had comparable Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase specific activities, and mean activities increased significantly for all three types of gills when the animals were kept in dilute sea water. In the epipodites and branchiostegites, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase specific activities exceeded those in the gills, and exposure to dilute sea water greatly enhanced these activities. In sea water, 80 % of the total Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity is associated with the gills and epipodites (each tissue containing 40 %) and 20 % with the branchiostegites; in dilute sea water, the gills contained approximately 25 %, the epipodites 40 % and the branchiostegites approximately 35 % of the total activity, indicating the relative importance of the epipodites and branchiostegites for ionic hyperregulation in dilute media. In plasma membrane vesicles isolated from the gills, epipodites and branchiostegites, Ca(2+) transport driven by ATP and by a Na(+ )gradient was demonstrated. Exposure to dilute sea water enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+ )exchange and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the epipodites and branchiostegites; in the gills, however, Ca(2+) transport activities decreased. The role of these tissues and enzymes in Na(+) and Ca(2+) handling by the lobster is discussed. PMID:10607531

  10. Experimental constraints on the monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote phase relations as a function of pressure, temperature, and Ca vs. Na activity in the fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Harlov, Daniel E.; Majka, Jarosław; Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    Stability relations of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote are strongly dependent on pressure, temperature and fluid composition. The increased Ca bulk content expands stability field of allanite relative to monazite towards higher temperatures (Spear, 2010, Chem Geol 279, 55-62). It was also reported from amphibolite facies Alpine metapelites, that both temperature and bulk CaO/Na2O ratio control relative stabilities of allanite, monazite and xenotime (Janots et al., 2008, J Metam Geol 26, 5, 509-526). This study experimentally defines influence of pressure, temperature, high activity of Ca vs. Na in the fluid, and high vs. moderate bulk CaO/Na2O ratio on the relative stabilities of monazite-fluorapatite-allanite/REE-rich epidote and xenotime-(Y,HREE)-rich fluorapatite-(Y,HREE)-rich epidote. This work expands previous experimental study on monazite (Budzyń et al., 2011, Am Min 96, 1547-1567) to wide pressure-temperature range of 2-10 kbar and 450-750°C, utilizing most reactive fluids used in previous experiments. Experiments were performed using cold-seal autoclaves on a hydrothermal line (2-4 kbar runs) and piston-cylinder apparatus (6-10 kbar runs) over 4-16 days. Four sets of experiments, two for monazite and two for xenotime, were performed with 2M Ca(OH)2 and Na2Si2O5 + H2O fluids. The starting materials included inclusion-free crystals of monazite (pegmatite, Burnet County, TX, USA) or xenotime (pegmatite, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan) mixed with (1) labradorite (Ab37An60Kfs3) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + 2M Ca(OH)2 or (2) albite (Ab100) + K-feldspar + biotite + muscovite ± garnet + SiO2 + CaF2 + Na2Si2O5 + H2O. 20-35 mg of solids and 5 mg of fluid were loaded into 3x15 mm Au capsules and arc welded shut. The monazite alteration is observed in all runs. Newly formed REE-rich fluorapatite and/or britholite are stable in all experimental P-T range in the

  11. The Electrochemical Co-reduction of Mg-Al-Y Alloys in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2-AlF3-YCl3 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Yaochen; Han, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Milin; Yan, Yongde; Shi, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical formation of Mg-Al-Y alloys was studied in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2 melts by the addition of AlF3 and YCl3 on a molybdenum electrode at 973 K (700 °C). In order to reduce the volatilization of salt solvent in the electrolysis process, the volatile loss of LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2 and LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 melts was first measured in the temperature range from 873 K to 1023 K (600 °C to 750 °C). Then, the electrochemical behaviors of Mg(II), Al(III), Y(III) ions and alloy formation processes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and open circuit chronopotentiometry. The cyclic voltammograms indicate that the under-potential deposition of magnesium and yttrium on pre-deposited Al leads to formation of Mg-Al and Al-Y intermetallic compounds. The Mg-Al-Y alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis in the LiCl-NaCl-MgCl2-AlF3-YCl3 melts and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Composition of the alloys was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, and current efficiency was also determined by the alloy composition.

  12. A facile and environmentally friendly NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid route to prepare crystalline β-CaSiO3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Suyun; Wang, Lijuan; Shi, Honglong

    2013-05-01

    We described an environmentally friendly and facile NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid route for the first time to synthesize β-CaSiO3 nanowires. β-CaSiO3 nanowires were prepared by annealing precursor calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanostructures in NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid, in which the precursor CSH nanostructures were first prepared by a facile one-step, solid state reaction, ground with both NaCl and surfactant nonyl phenyl ether (9) (NP-9), and heated at 850 °C for 2 h. β-CaSiO3 nanowires were characterized by XRD, TEM and HRTEM. The comparative experiments have been conducted systemically to investigate the growth mechanism of β-CaSiO3 nanowires, and the roles of salt NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid and NP-9 on the formation of β-CaSiO3 nanowires. The results demonstrated that both salt NaCl nonaqueous ionic liquid and surfactant NP-9 played key roles on the formation of β-CaSiO3 nanowires. A rational growth mechanism of β-CaSiO3 nanowires has been proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  13. Luminescence and energy transfer in Eu2+, Mn2+ co-doped Ca2SrNaLa(PO4)3F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanshan, Hu; Wanjun, Tang

    2013-12-01

    A new compound Ca2SrNaLa(PO4)3F, isotypic with hexagonal Ca(Sr,Na,Ca)(Ca,Sr,Ce)3(PO4)3F, is reported. Its cell parameters have been determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. Crystallization occurs in the hexagonal space group P63 (No. 173) with a = 9.515(1) Å, c = 7.028(1) Å, and Z = 2. Eu2+ and Mn2+ activated Ca2SrNaLa(PO4)3F phosphors have been prepared. The energy transfer of Eu2+ → Mn2+ has been investigated. The resonant type energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ has been demonstrated, and the energy transfer efficiency has also been calculated according to their PL decay curves. A color-tunable emission in Ca2SrNaLa(PO4)3F phosphors can be realized by Eu2+ → Mn2+ energy transfer. White light can be achieved in a single-phased Ca2SrNaLa(PO4)3F host by co-doping Eu2+ and Mn2+ with CIE (0.32, 0.31). Our results demonstrate that the potential application of these phosphors in solid-state lighting and (or) other areas.

  14. Materials Data on NaCaAlSi2O7 (SG:19) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Study of new sheep bone and Zn/Ca ratio around TiAlV screw: PIXE RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Munnik, F.; Langhoff, J. D.; Von Rechenberg, B.; Buffat, Ph. A.; Laub, D.; Faber, L.; Ducret, F.; Gerber, I.; Mikhailov, S.

    2008-03-01

    This study reports on in vivo particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements combined with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses of new remodeled sheep bone formed around TiAlV screws. The implants (screws) were anodized by a modified TiMax™ process. The interface between the implant and the bone was carefully investigated. [Zn]/[Ca] in-depth composition profiles as well as Ca, Fe elemental maps were recorded. The thickness of new bone formed around the screw reached 300-400 μm. Osteon and Osteoid phases were identified in the new bone. A higher [Zn]/[Ca] ratio was observed in the new bone as compared to the mature bone. Blood vessels were observed in the bone in close contact with the screw. This study shows the potential of ion beam analysis for biological and biomedical characterization.

  16. Structural investigations of {beta}-CaAlF{sub 5} by coupling powder XRD, NMR, EPR and spectroscopic parameter calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Body, M. . E-mail: monique.body@univ-lemans.fr; Silly, G.; Legein, C.; Buzare, J.-Y.; Calvayrac, F.; Blaha, P.

    2005-12-15

    {beta}-CaAlF{sub 5} was synthesized by solid-state reaction. The precise structure was refined from X-ray powder diffraction data in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with lattice constants a=5.3361A, b=9.8298A, c=7.3271A, and {beta}=109.91{sup o} (Z=4). The structure exhibits isolated chains of AlF{sub 6}{sup 3-} octahedra sharing opposite corners.{sup 19}F and {sup 27}Al solid state NMR spectra were recorded using MAS and SATRAS techniques. An EPR spectrum was recorded for {beta}-CaAlF{sub 5}:Cr{sup 3+}. The experimental spectra were simulated in order to extract the NMR and EPR parameter values. Five fluorine sites and one low symmetry aluminium site were found in agreement with the refined structure. These parameters were calculated using empirical and ab-initio methods. The agreement obtained between the calculated {sup 19}F chemical shift values, {sup 27}Al quadrupolar parameters, Cr{sup 3+} EPR fine structure parameters and the experimental results demonstrates the complementarity of XRD, magnetic resonance experiments and theoretical methodologies.

  17. Synthesis and hydration behavior of calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eun-Hee; Yoo, Jun-Sang; Kim, Bo-Hye; Choi, Sung-Woo; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-02-15

    Calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cements were prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor methods, and their phase evolution, morphology, and hydration behavior were investigated. In polymeric precursor method, a nearly single phase Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was obtained at relatively lower temperature (1200 °C) whereas in solid state reaction, a small amount of CaZrO{sub 3} coexisted with Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} even at higher temperature (1400 °C). Unexpectedly, Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} synthesized by polymeric precursor process was the large-sized and rough-shaped powder. The planetary ball milling was employed to control the particle size and shape. The hydration behavior of Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was similar to that of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C3A), but the hydration products were Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O (C3AH6) and several intermediate products. Thus, Zr (or ZrO{sub 2}) stabilized the intermediate hydration products of C3A.

  18. Ultrafast bulk diffusion of AlHx in high-entropy dehydrogenation intermediates of NaAlH4 [Highly mobile AlHx species and the dehydogenation kinetics of NaAlH4

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Wood, Brandon C.; Wang, Yan; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming; Chou, Mei -Yin

    2014-07-21

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) and total-energy calculations, we demonstrate low-barrier bulk diffusion of Al-bearing species in γ-NaAlH4, a recently proposed high-entropy polymorph of NaAlH4. For charged AlH4– and neutral AlH3 vacancies, the computed barriers for diffusion are <0.1 eV, and we directly observe the predicted diffusive pathways in FPMD simulations at picosecond time scales. In contrast, such diffusion in the α phase is inaccessible to FPMD, consistent with much higher barriers. The transport behavior of γ-NaAlH4, in addition to key dynamical and structural signatures, is consistent with experimental observations of high-mobility species, strongly supporting the idea that an intermediate transition from the α phase to a high-entropy polymorph facilitates the hydrogen-releasing decomposition of NaAlH4. Lastly, our results provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding the responsible agent for the experimentally observed efficient Al transport during dehydrogenation and suggest that mass transport and phase transformation kinetics are coupled. Implications for understanding the (de)hydrogenation of undoped and catalyzed NaAlH4 are discussed.

  19. Hydrophobic bile acids relax rat detrusor contraction via inhibiting the opening of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingzhen; Dong, Xingyou; Liu, Qian; Wu, Chao; Wang, Qingqing; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic bile acids (BAs) are thought to inhibit smooth muscle contractility in several organs. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of hydrophobic BAs on the detrusor contractility of rat bladder and to explore the possible mechanism. Lithocholic acid (LCA) treatment increased the micturition interval and induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of bladder detrusor strips. In addition, LCA reduced the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+([Ca2+]i) and inhibited both the outward and inward Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) current (INCX) in primary isolated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To further investigate the mechanism of action of LCA, several pharmacologic agents were used. We found that the NCX inhibitor 3′,4′-Dichlorobenzamil (DCB) can significantly inhibit the relaxation of detrusor strips and a reduction of the [Ca2+]i induced by LCA, while the antagonist of muscarinic receptor and the agonist of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) had no effect. In conclusion, these data suggest that the relaxation of rat detrusor induced by hydrophobic BAs is mediated by NCX. Further research is needed to carry out to demonstrate the possible pathway and provide a potential new strategy to investigation for the treatment of the low urinary tract syndromes. PMID:26892434

  20. Structural mechanism of the formation of mineral Na-tveitite-a new type of phase with a fluorite-derivative structure-in the NaF-CaF{sub 2}-(Y,Ln)F{sub 3} natural system

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A. M. Otroshchenko, L. P.; Sobolev, B. P.

    2012-03-15

    Relationships between the chemical compositions and structures of the mineral tveitite from the southern Norway pegmatites (with the idealized formula Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43}) and Na-tveitite from the Rov mountain (Keivy, Kola Peninsula) Na{sub 2.5}Ca{sub 10}Ln{sub 1.5}Y{sub 5}F{sub 42} are considered. According to the structural mechanism of its formation, Na-tveitite is a nanocomposite crystal based on the crystalline matrix Ca{sub 14}Y{sub 5}F{sub 43} with the ordered arrangement of {l_brace}Ca{sub 8}[CaY{sub 5}]F{sub 69}{r_brace} clusters which contain anionic {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra with F{sup 1-} at the center. When Na-tveitite is formed, 29% of these clusters are statistically replaced by Na-'Y' clusters {l_brace}[Na{sub 0.5}(Y,Ln){sub 0.5}]{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace} with {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes at the center (analogs of matrix fluorite groups {l_brace}Ca{sub 14}F{sub 64}{r_brace}). This replacement gives rise to composition-imperfect (Na, Ca, 'Y') cationic positions and occupancy-deficient F positions, which correspond to {l_brace}F{sub 13}{r_brace} cuboctahedra and the {l_brace}F{sub 8}{r_brace} cubes that replace them. The difference between Na-tveitite and fluorite phases M{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} is as follows: its matrix is the structure of the ordered phase (tveitite) into which Na-containing rare earth fragments of fluorite-type structure are incorporated instead of ordered-phase structural blocks (clusters).

  1. The Relative Nature of Perception: A Response to Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp (2015)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp present an argument about the incommensurate relationship between affordance perception and spatial perception in a criticism of Proffitt and Linkenauger’s phenotypic approach to perception. Many of their criticisms are based on a difference in the interpretation of the core ideas underlying the phenotypic approach. The most important of these differences in interpretations concern fundamental assumptions about the nature of the perceptions of size and distance themselves. Extent perception must be relative to the organism; therefore, there can be no veridical perception of space. Also, we argue in the phenotypic approach that space perception is an emergent property of affordance perception; they are not different types of perceptions as Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp presume. Third, affordance perception need not be perfectly accurate, just good enough. Additionally, affordance perception need not be dichotomous; this presumption likely originates in the methodology typically employed to study affordance perception. Finally, I agree with Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp that joint research efforts will clarify and improve our understanding of these issues. PMID:27648215

  2. The Relative Nature of Perception: A Response to Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp (2015)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp present an argument about the incommensurate relationship between affordance perception and spatial perception in a criticism of Proffitt and Linkenauger’s phenotypic approach to perception. Many of their criticisms are based on a difference in the interpretation of the core ideas underlying the phenotypic approach. The most important of these differences in interpretations concern fundamental assumptions about the nature of the perceptions of size and distance themselves. Extent perception must be relative to the organism; therefore, there can be no veridical perception of space. Also, we argue in the phenotypic approach that space perception is an emergent property of affordance perception; they are not different types of perceptions as Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp presume. Third, affordance perception need not be perfectly accurate, just good enough. Additionally, affordance perception need not be dichotomous; this presumption likely originates in the methodology typically employed to study affordance perception. Finally, I agree with Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp that joint research efforts will clarify and improve our understanding of these issues.

  3. The Relative Nature of Perception: A Response to Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp (2015).

    PubMed

    Linkenauger, Sally A

    2015-10-01

    Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp present an argument about the incommensurate relationship between affordance perception and spatial perception in a criticism of Proffitt and Linkenauger's phenotypic approach to perception. Many of their criticisms are based on a difference in the interpretation of the core ideas underlying the phenotypic approach. The most important of these differences in interpretations concern fundamental assumptions about the nature of the perceptions of size and distance themselves. Extent perception must be relative to the organism; therefore, there can be no veridical perception of space. Also, we argue in the phenotypic approach that space perception is an emergent property of affordance perception; they are not different types of perceptions as Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp presume. Third, affordance perception need not be perfectly accurate, just good enough. Additionally, affordance perception need not be dichotomous; this presumption likely originates in the methodology typically employed to study affordance perception. Finally, I agree with Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp that joint research efforts will clarify and improve our understanding of these issues. PMID:27648215

  4. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of CaAl 2Si 2O 8 liquid. Part I: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Nevins, Dean; Ghiorso, Mark; Cutler, Ian

    2009-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations for liquid CaAl 2Si 2O 8 have been carried out at 72 state points spanning ranges in density ( ρ: 2398-4327 kg/m 3), temperature ( T: 3490-6100 K) and pressure ( P: 0.84-120 GPa) relevant to geosystems. The atomic scale structure of the melt is determined by analysis of nearest neighbor coordination statistics as a function of T and P. Dramatic structural change occurs as pressure increases especially for 0 < P <20 GPa at all temperatures. Changes in structure are encapsulated by examining the coordination of Si, Al, Ca and O around oxygen and vice versa. Si and Al change from predominantly fourfold at low- P to dominantly sixfold for P >˜ 20 GPa. Pentahedrally coordinated Si and Al in distorted trigonal bipyramids attain abundance maxima corresponding to ˜60% of total (Si, Al)O n at 3-5 GPa and weakly depend on T. The coordination of Ca by oxygen increases from 7 to 10 for 0 < P < 20 GPa and changes slowly for P > 20 GPa at 3500 K. Similar behavior is seen at 6000 K except that the interval of rapid changes occurs at higher pressure. Oxygen with only one nearest Si or Al neighbor (i.e., non-bridging oxygen, NBO) decreases whereas oxygen with two or three nearest neighbors of Si, Al or Ca increases as pressure increases. Changes in melt structure are reflected in the variation of thermodynamic and transport properties of the liquid. Values of the self-diffusivities of Ca, Al, Si and O are fit to a modified Arrhenian expression and compare well to limited laboratory data. Self-diffusivities are best fit using 'low P' and 'high- P' expressions, identical in form but with different parameters, with activation energies and activation volumes in the range 150-200 kJ/mol and +5 to -1 cm 3/mol, respectively. Green-Kubo calculations for liquid shear viscosity are presented and compare well with limited laboratory results. Application of the Eyring model to determine the characteristic size and number of atoms in the activated cluster based

  5. The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Tuscany, Italy): an example of Ca-SO 4 waters with high Na/Cl and low Ca/SO 4 ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Venturelli, Giampiero; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio

    2005-06-01

    The Bagni di Lucca thermal waters (Lucca province, Tuscany, Italy) have been well known since the Middle Age for their alleged curative properties. In the present work, the waters have been analysed for major and trace components and for O, H, S and Sr isotopes. The δ 2H and δ 18O values indicate a meteoric origin of the waters and the tritium content suggests long-term (more than 40 years) circulation at depth. The δ 34S values in dissolved sulphate of the warmest waters (Doccione, Paolina, Bernabò, Demidoff, Cova) indicate interaction with Triassic evaporites; however, the δ 34S values as well as the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in the waters appear to be a little higher (on average 17.6±0.4‰ and 0.70834±0.00006, respectively) than in Triassic sulphate minerals from the Northern Apennines (16.0±0.5‰ and 0.70778±0.00011). The waters are Ca-sulphate and characterised by high Na/Cl (≌2) and low Ca/SO 4 (≌0.7) mole ratios, high Sr (≤12 mg/L), F (≤4.2 mg/L), As (≤80 μg/L), Cs (≤70 μg/L), Rb (≤107 μg/L) and salinity (up to 3087 mg/L of total dissolved solids), low alkalinity, and pH in the range 6.3-7.5. Assuming equilibrium of the waters with anhydrite and chalcedony, the evaluated temperature and pressure are about 70-75 °C and 200-300 bar; considering the pressure as hydrostatic, the evaluated depth of equilibration approaches that of the metamorphic basement (about 3.0-3.8 km) underlying the carbonate-evaporite formations occurring in the area. Thermodynamic computations indicate that the high Na/Cl ratio and the low Ca/SO 4 ratio in the waters may be due to progressive dissolution of albite, anhydrite, dolomite and carbon dioxide accompanied by calcite precipitation. The linear correlations between the major and trace components, including 2H and 18O, demonstrate that thermal springs undergo dilution by low-salinity shallow waters which are recharged at low elevation.

  6. Characterization of the macrocyclic carbon suboxide factors as potent Na,K-ATPase and SR Ca-ATPase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kerek, Franz; Stimac, Robert; Apell, Hans-Jürgen; Freudenmann, Frank; Moroder, Luis

    2002-12-23

    Recently discovered macrocyclic carbon suboxide (MCS) factors with the general formula (C(3)O(2))(n) were found to strongly inhibit rabbit and rat Na,K-ATPase as well as SR Ca-ATPase. Highly active MCS factors were obtained by a base/acid treatment of their lipophilic precursor isolated from plants. In the ESI-MS spectra, the dominant molar mass ion of 431 Da corresponds to a 1:1 complex of the carbon suboxide hexamer (n=6; M(r)=408 Da) with a Na(+) ion. Additional mass ions identified in positive and negative ion mode were assigned as complexes of the MCS hexamer (n=6) and octamer (n=8) with Na(+) or with TFA(-) in various ratios. The dominant mass ion values of these active MCS factors from plants are also found in mass spectra of previously described endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF) from animals. This would suggest that ubiquitously distributed MCS factors may function as putative endogenous regulatory substances of Na,K-ATPase and possibly of other ATPases. With the symmetric display of several equivalent carbonyl or hydroxy groups, the structure of MCS factors is particularly suited for interactions with proteins and other bio-molecules. This could explain the high biological activity and the unusual properties of the MCS factors. PMID:12488055

  7. [Cryogenic Raman spectroscopic characteristics of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O: application to analysis of fluid inclusions].

    PubMed

    Mao, Cui; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yao-Qi; Ge, Yun-Jin; Zhou, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, You-Zhi

    2010-12-01

    Accurately diagnosing the types of the salt and calculating the salinity quantitatively are the significant content of fluid inclusions. The traditional method of testing fluid inclusions salinity is cooling. To overcome the difficulty for observing freezing phase transition, the authors tested the spectrum of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O and NaCl-CaCl2-H2O systems at -180 degrees C by laser Raman spectroscopy. The result demonstrates that the ratio of peak values has linear relationship with salinity. Calibration curves were established by typical ratio of hydro-halite at 3 420 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1), and the ratio of antarcticite at 3 432 cm(-1) to the ice at 3 092 cm(-1). The calibration curves have very high correlation coefficient. This method is verified by synthetic hydrocarbon-bearing aqueous fluid inclusions and quartz aqueous fluid inclusions of well Fengshen 6 in Dongying sag. The results of the authors' experiments show that cryogenic Raman spectroscopy can not only identify the types of the salts but also determine the salinity effectively in fluid inclusions.

  8. High-pressure phase relations and thermodynamic properties of CaAl 4Si 2O 11 CAS phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaogi, M.; Haraguchi, M.; Yaguchi, M.; Kojitani, H.

    2009-03-01

    Phase relations in CaAl4Si2O11 were examined at 12-23 GPa and 1000-1800 °C by multianvil experiments. A three-phase mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum is stable below about 13 GPa at 1000-1800 °C. At higher pressure and at temperature below about 1200 °C, a mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum is stable, indicating the decomposition of kyanite. Above about 1200 °C, CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase is stable at pressure higher than about 13 GPa. The triple point is placed at 14.7 GPa and 1280 °C. The equilibrium boundary of formation of CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum has a small negative slope, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum has a strongly negative slope, while the decomposition boundary of kyanite has a small positive slope. Enthalpies of the transitions were measured by high-temperature drop-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum was 139.5 ± 15.6 kJ/mol, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum was 94.2 ± 15.4 kJ/mol. The transition boundaries calculated using the measured enthalpy data were consistent with those determined by the high-pressure experiments. The boundaries in this study are placed about 3 GPa higher in pressure and about 200 °C lower in temperature than those by Zhai and Ito [Zhai, S., Ito, E., 2008. Phase relations of CaAl4Si2O11 at high-pressure and high-temperature with implications for subducted continental crust into the deep mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 167, 161-167]. Combining the thermodynamic data measured in this study with those in the literature, dissociation boundary of CAS phase into a mixture of Ca-perovskite, corundum and stishovite and that of grossular into Ca-perovskite plus corundum were calculated to further constrain the stability field of CAS phase. The result suggests that the stability of CAS phase would be limited at the bottom of

  9. The influence of Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite synthesized from brine water on thermal and mechanical properties of HTlc-EVA composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karina, Wiwiek; Heraldy, Eddy; Pramono, Edi; Heriyanto, Astuti, Shanti

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compound (Ca-Mg-Al HTlc) was prepared by co-precipitation method using brine water that is well known as the desalination process waste water. The structure of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Ca-Mg-Al HTlc was studied as a non-halogenated filler in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix. Composites with different filler concentrations were prepared to evaluate the influence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc on thermal and mechanical properties of EVA.The presence of Ca-Mg-Al HTlc in the composite has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. Thermal properties of composites show significant reduction of degradation temperature as well as the loading of HTlc in EVA. However, the total enthalpies combustion of composites with 1% and 5% HTlc loadings higher compared to neat EVA. Further, mechanical properties were determined by tensile test. The result shows that tensile strength and elongation at break of composites decrease relatively by Ca-Mg-Al HTlc addition.

  10. Dependence of acoustic property on Al substitution for Ca3Ta(Ga1‑ x Al x )3Si2O14 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kudo, Tetsuo; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The acoustic properties of Ca3Ta(Ga1‑ x Al x )3Si2O14 (CTGASx) were experimentally studied as a function of the Al substitution content x in the ranges from x = 0 to 0.50. Five specimens, X-, Y-, Z-, 35°Y-, and 140°Y-cut, were prepared from each crystal of CTGASx (x = 0, 0.25, and 0.50) grown by the Czochralski technique. Longitudinal wave and shear wave velocities for CTGASx linearly increase with Al content for all propagation directions. Dielectric constants and density were measured and then elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined from the measured velocities for each crystal. The results revealed that all of the constants change linearly with Al content. From the relationship, the constants for CTAS (x = 1) were estimated. Calculations of the velocities using the determined constants also suggested that the maximum electromechanical coupling factor k 2 for the slow shear wave mode propagating along the rotated Y-axis direction of CTAS was improved to 4.42% compared with 3.83% for CTGS, owing to the Al substitution effect.

  11. Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine aggregates, and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: I. mineralogy and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Fagan, Timothy J.; Keil, Klaus; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Petaev, Mikhail I.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-05-01

    Based on their mineralogy and petrography, ˜200 refractory inclusions studied in the unique carbonaceous chondrite, Acfer 094, can be divided into corundum-rich (0.5%), hibonite-rich (1.1%), grossite-rich (8.5%), compact and fluffy Type A (spinel-melilite-rich, 50.3%), pyroxene-anorthite-rich (7.4%), and Type C (pyroxene-anorthite-rich with igneous textures, 1.6%) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), pyroxene-hibonite spherules (0.5%), and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs, 30.2%). Melilite in some CAIs is replaced by spinel and Al-diopside and/or by anorthite, whereas spinel-pyroxene assemblages in CAIs and AOAs appear to be replaced by anorthite. Forsterite grains in several AOAs are replaced by low-Ca pyroxene. None of the CAIs or AOAs show evidence for Fe-alkali metasomatic or aqueous alteration. The mineralogy, textures, and bulk chemistry of most Acfer 094 refractory inclusions are consistent with their origin by gas-solid condensation and may reflect continuous interaction with SiO and Mg of the cooling nebula gas. It appears that only a few CAIs experienced subsequent melting. The Al-rich chondrules (ARCs; >10 wt% bulk Al 2O 3) consist of forsteritic olivine and low-Ca pyroxene phenocrysts, pigeonite, augite, anorthitic plagioclase, ± spinel, FeNi-metal, and crystalline mesostasis composed of plagioclase, augite and a silica phase. Most ARCs are spherical and mineralogically uniform, but some are irregular in shape and heterogeneous in mineralogy, with distinct ferromagnesian and aluminous domains. The ferromagnesian domains tend to form chondrule mantles, and are dominated by low-Ca pyroxene and forsteritic olivine, anorthitic mesostasis, and Fe,Ni-metal nodules. The aluminous domains are dominated by anorthite, high-Ca pyroxene and spinel, occasionally with inclusions of perovskite; have no or little FeNi-metal; and tend to form cores of the heterogeneous chondrules. The cores are enriched in bulk Ca and Al, and apparently formed from melting of CAI

  12. Boiling Temperature and Reversed Deliquescence Relative Humidity Measurements for Mineral Assemblages in the NaCl + NaNO3 + KNO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O System

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A; Staggs, K J; Day, S D; Carroll, S A

    2005-12-01

    Boiling temperature measurements have been made at ambient pressure for saturated ternary solutions of NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O, and NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O over the full composition range, along with those of the single salt systems. Boiling temperatures were also measured for the four component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O and five component NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O mixtures, where the solute mole fraction of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}), was varied between 0 and 0.25. The maximum boiling temperature found for the NaCl + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 134.9 C; for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O system is {approx} 165.1 C at x(NaNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.46 and x(KNO{sub 3}) {approx} 0.54; and for the NaCl + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system is 164.7 {+-} 0.6 C at x(NaCl) {approx} 0.25 and x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) {approx} 0.75. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O system forms molten salts below their maximum boiling temperatures, and the temperatures corresponding to the cessation of boiling (dry out temperatures) of these liquid mixtures were determined. These dry out temperatures range from {approx} 300 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0 to {ge} 400 C when x(Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) = 0.20 and 0.25. Mutual deliquescence/efflorescence relative humidity (MDRH/MERH) measurements were also made for the NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture from 120 to 180 C at ambient pressure. The NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. This salt mixture also absorbs water at 180 C, which is higher than expected from the boiling temperature experiments. The NaCl + NaNO{sub 3} + KNO{sub 3} salt mixture was found to have a MDRH of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.5% at 180 C. The investigated mixture

  13. Davinciite, Na12K3Ca6Fe{3/2+}Zr3(Si26O73OH)Cl2, a New K,Na-Ordered mineral of the eudialyte group from the Khibiny Alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Rozenberg, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a description of a new zirconosilicate of the eudialyte group, which was named davinciite in honor of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), a famous Italian scientist, painter, sculptor and architect. The new mineral has been found in hyperagpaitic pegmatite at the Rasvumchorr Mountain, Khibiny Pluton, Kola Peninsula, as relict inclusions, up to 1-2 mm in size in a rastsvetaevite matrix. It is associated with nepheline, sodalite, potassium feldspar, delhayelite, aegirine, shcherbakovite, villiaumite, nitrite, nacaphite, rasvumite, and djerfisherite. Davinciite is dark lavender and transparent, with a vitreous luster and white streak. The new mineral is brittle, with conchoidal fracture; the Mohs' hardness is 5. No indications of cleavage or parting were observed. The measured density is 2.82(2) g/cm3 (volumetric method); the calculated density is 2.848 g/cm3. Davinciite is optically uniaxial, positive; ω = 1.603(2), ɛ = 1.605(2). It is nonpleochroic and nonfluorescent in UV light. The new mineral slowly breaks down and gelates in 50% HCl and HNO3. It is trigonal, space group R3m. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 14.2956(2), c = 30.0228(5) Å, V=5313.6(2) Å3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are as follows: 2.981(100)(315), 2.860(96)(404), 4.309(66)(205), 3.207(63)(208), 6.415(54)(104), 3.162(43)(217). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, H2O calculated from X-ray diffraction data) is as follows, wt %: 12.69 Na2O, 3.53 K2O, 11.02 CaO, 0.98 SrO, 0.15 BaO, 5.33 FeO, 0.37 MnO, 0.07 Al2O3, 51.20 SiO2, 0.39 TiO2, 11.33 ZrO2, 0.21HfO2, 0.09 Nb2O5, 1.89 Cl, 0.93H2O, -O = Cl2 0.43; total is 99.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al + Zr + Hf + Ti + Nb = 29 ( Z = 3) is (Na1l.75Sr0.29Ba0.03)Σ12.07(K2.28Na0.72)Σ3Ca5.99(Fe2.26Mn0.16)Σ2.42(Zr2.80Ti0.15Hf0.03Nb0.02) Σ3(Si1.96Al0.04)Σ2[Si3O9]2 [Si9O27]2[(OH)1.42O0.58]Σ2[Cl1.62(H2O)0.38]Σ2 · 0.48H2O. The simplified

  14. Internally consistent thermodynamic data for aqueous species in the system Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-08-01

    their experimental uncertainties. The new dataset resolves the long-standing discrepancies between thermodynamic data of minerals and those of aqueous ions and complexes, by achieving an astonishing degree of consistency between a large number of fluid-mineral equilibrium data. All of this at the expense of changing the standard state properties of aqueous species, mainly the Gibbs energy of formation. Using the same strategy, the core dataset for the system Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-Cl can be extended with additional rock-forming elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ti, S, C, B. In future, the standard-state properties of minerals and aqueous species should be simultaneously optimized, to create the next-generation of fully internally consistent data for fluid-mineral equilibria. Although we employ the widely used HKF equations for this study, the same computational approach can be readily applied to any other speciation-based equation of state for multicomponent aqueous solutions.

  15. Corrosion Performance Based on the Microstructural Array of Al-Based Monotectic Alloys in a NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Wislei R.; Freitas, Emmanuelle S.; Garcia, Amauri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the electrochemical behavior of three monotectic Al-based alloys (Al-Pb, Al-Bi, and Al-In) in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Two distinct microstructure arrays were experimentally obtained for each Al monotectic alloy by using a water-cooled unidirectional solidification system. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) plots, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and impedance parameters obtained by an equivalent circuit analysis are discussed. It was found that the Al-Pb alloy has lower corrosion current density, higher polarization resistance, lower relative weight, and cost than the corresponding values of Al-Bi and Al-In alloys. It is also shown that the electrochemical behavior of the three alloys examined are intimately correlated with the scale of the corresponding microstructure, with smaller droplets and spacings (i.e., cell and interphase spacings) being associated with a decrease in the corrosion resistance.

  16. Study of Np(V) Sorption by Ionic Exchange on Na, K, Ca and Mg-Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedicto, A.; Begg, J.; Zhao, P.; Kersting, A. B.; Zavarin, M.

    2012-12-01

    The transport behavior of actinides in soil and ground water are highly influenced by clay minerals due to their ubiquity in the environment, reactivity and colloidal properties. Neptunium(V) has been introduced in the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing [e.g. 1, 2] and is a radionuclide of potential interest for safety assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal because its long half-life and high toxicity [3]. Surface complexation and ionic exchange have been identified as Np(V) sorption mechanisms onto montmorillonite. At pH below 5, Np(V) sorption is mainly attributed to ionic exchange. This study examines Np(V) ion exchange on Na, K, Ca and Mg forms of montmorillonite. Experiments were carried out using 237Np concentrations between 2 x 10-8 M and 5 x 10-6 M at three different ionic strengths 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001M. The pH was maintained at 4.5. Np(V) sorption to montmorillonite homoionized with monovalent cations (Na and K) demonstrated a markedly different behavior to that observed for montmorillonite homoionized with divalent cations (Ca and Mg). Np sorption to Na and K-montmorillonite was greater than Np sorption to Ca and Mg-montmorillonite. Isotherms with Na and K-montmorillonite showed a strong dependence on ionic strength: the percentage of Np adsorbed was near zero at 0.1M ionic strength, but increased to 30% at 0.001 M ionic strength. This suggests ionic exchange is the main Np adsorption mechanism under the experimental conditions investigated. Dependence on ionic strength was not observed in the Np sorption isotherms for Ca and Mg-montmorillonite indicating a low exchange capacity between Np and divalent cations. Modeling of the sorption experimental data will allow determination of the Na+↔NpO2+ and K+↔NpO2+ ionic exchange constants on montmorillonite. References: [1] A. R. Felmy; K. J. Cantrell; S. D. Conradson, Phys. Chem. Earth 2010, 35, 292-297 [2] D. K. Smith; D. L. Finnegan; S. M. Bowen, J. Environ. Radioact. 2003, 67

  17. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  18. Effect of trace amounts of NaCl vapor on high-temperature oxidation of TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, M.; Kitagawa, Y.

    1999-08-01

    The effect of trace amounts of NaCl vapor on the high-temperature oxidation of TiAl was examined by thermogravimetry and analysis of the scale formed on TiAl. The mass gain due to oxidation at 1273 K in O{sub 2} with trace amounts of NaCl vapor was far lower than that in pure O{sub 2} without NaCl vapor. This low mass gain in the atmosphere with trace amounts of NaCl vapor resulted from the saturation behavior of mass gain during the initial period of oxidation. It was found from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of the specimen surface that the oxide film formed during the initial period in the atmosphere with trace amounts of NaCl vapor consisted of dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thus, the low oxidation rate of TiAl was attributed to a protective oxide film of dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Crystal characterization and optical spectroscopy of Ti{sup 3+}-doped CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, N.; Yamaga, M.

    1998-01-01

    CaGdAlO{sub 4} crystals doped with Ti ions were grown using the Czochralski technique in a reducing atmosphere in order to convert the valence of Ti to trivalence. The fluorescence of the {sup 2}E{r_arrow}{sup 2}T{sub 2} transition of Ti{sup 3+} in the crystals shows a broad band with a peak at 535 nm excited with the light of 410 nm in the optical absorption band at room temperature because of a strong electron-phonon coupling of the {sup 2}E excited state. The Ti{sup 3+} fluorescence is influenced in intensity by O{sup 2{minus}} vacancies at the ligands of the Ti{sup 3+} octahedra along the c axis, which are easily produced in a reducing atmosphere. The x-ray crystal analyses and the polarization of the optical absorption and fluorescence spectra deduce the energy levels and wave functions of the ground and excited states of Ti{sup 3+} in CaGdAlO{sub 4}. The peak energy of the fluorescence band shifts to higher energy as increasing excitation energy in the absorption band. The linear dependence of the fluorescence-peak energy on the excitation energy shows that the fluorescence is inhomogeneously broadened by a random distribution of Ca{sup 2+} and Gd{sup 3+} ions in the disordered lattice.

  20. Inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase can impair mitochondrial energetics and induce abnormal Ca2+ cycling and automaticity in guinea pig cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qince; Pogwizd, Steven M; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Zhou, Lufang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides have been used for the treatment of heart failure because of their capabilities of inhibiting Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA), which raises [Na+]i and attenuates Ca2+ extrusion via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), causing [Ca2+]i elevation. The resulting [Ca2+]i accumulation further enhances Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, generating the positive inotropic effect. However, cardiac glycosides have some toxic and side effects such as arrhythmogenesis, confining their extensive clinical applications. The mechanisms underlying the proarrhythmic effect of glycosides are not fully understood. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which glycosides could cause cardiac arrhythmias via impairing mitochondrial energetics using an integrative computational cardiomyocyte model. In the simulations, the effect of glycosides was mimicked by blocking NKA activity. Results showed that inhibiting NKA not only impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ retention (thus suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging) but also enhanced oxidative phosphorylation (thus increased ROS production) during the transition of increasing workload, causing oxidative stress. Moreover, concurrent blocking of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, but not enhancing of Ca2+ uniporter, alleviated the adverse effects of NKA inhibition. Intriguingly, NKA inhibition elicited Ca2+ transient and action potential alternans under more stressed conditions such as severe ATP depletion, augmenting its proarrhythmic effect. This computational study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying cardiac glycoside-induced arrhythmogenesis. The findings suggest that targeting both ion handling and mitochondria could be a very promising strategy to develop new glycoside-based therapies in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24722410

  1. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from Trypanosoma brucei acidocalcisomes by 3,5-dibutyl-4-hydroxytoluene: role of the Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Vercesi, A E; Grijalba, M T; Docampo, R

    1997-01-01

    Acidocalcisomes are acidic vacuoles present in trypanosomatids that contain a considerable fraction of intracellular Ca2+. They possess a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase for H+ uptake, a Ca2+/H+ countertransporting ATPase for Ca2+ uptake and a Ca2+/nH+ antiporter for Ca2+ release. Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes acidocalcisomes possess, in addition, an Na+/H+ antiporter that may participate in Ca2+ release from these organelles. In this work we show that the hydrophobic antioxidant 3,5-dibutyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT), at concentrations in the range 1-20 microM, inhibits Na+-induced Ca2+ release from the acidocalcisomes of digitonin-permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect supports the notion that Ca2+ release from this compartment is regulated by the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the presence of BHT, Ca2+ release could still be obtained by nigericin-mediated alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes, clearly demonstrating that the action of BHT is not at the level of the Ca2+/nH+ antiporter but on that of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the same range of concentrations and depending on the preincubation time, BHT had an stimulatory or an inhibitory effect on the vacuolar H+-ATPase present in T. brucei acidocalcisomes. Since these effects of BHT were obtained at concentrations which are commonly used for its antioxidant properties, these results indicate that care should be exercised when attributing effects of BHT to only these properties. PMID:9371704

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of melts in the system Na 2O-NaAlO 2-SiO 2-F 2O -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Baker, Don R.

    2005-12-01

    Fluorine is a common volatile element in magmatic-hydrothermal systems, but its solution mechanisms and thermodynamic description in highly polymerized silicate melts are poorly known. We have developed a thermodynamic model for fluorosilicate liquids that links experimentally determined phase equilibria and spectroscopic information on melt structure. The model is applicable to crystallization of fluoride minerals, fluoride-silicate immiscibility in natural felsic melts, and metallurgical processes. Configurational properties of fluorosilicate melts are described by mixing on three site levels (sublattices): (1) alkali fluoride, polyhedral aluminofluoride and silicofluoride species and nonbridging terminations of the aluminosilicate network, (2) alkali-aluminate and silicate tetrahedra within the network and (3) bridging oxygen, nonbridging oxygen and terminal fluorine atoms on tetrahedral apices of the network. Abundances of individual chemical species are described by a homogeneous equilibrium representing melt depolymerization: F - (free) + O 0 (bridging) = F 0 (terminal) + O - (nonbridging) which corresponds to a replacement of an oxygen bridging two tetrahedra by a pair of terminations, one with F and the other with an O and a charge-balancing Na. In cryolite-bearing systems two additional interaction mechanisms occur: (1) the self-dissociation of octahedral aluminofluoride complexes: [AlF 6] = [AlF 4] + 2 [F], and (2) the short-range order between (O,F)-corners and (Si,NaAl)-centers of tetrahedra: Si-O-Si + 2 [NaAl]-F = [NaAl]-O-[NaAl] + 2 Si-F. Portrayal of these equilibria in ternary Thompson reaction space allows for the decrease in the number of interaction mechanisms by linearly combining melt depolymerization with tetrahedral short-range order. In this formulation, the nonideal thermodynamic properties are represented by reaction energies of homogeneous equilibria, thus defining directly individual chemical species concentrations and configurational

  3. Thermodynamics and Structure of CaO-Al2O3-3 Mass Pct B2O3 Slag at 1773 K (1500 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qifeng; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiang; Chou, Kuochih

    2016-08-01

    Activity values of Al2O3 in CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 systems at 1773 K (1500 °C) were determined experimentally using a gas-copper-slag equilibrium technique. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled by C/CO equilibrium. A negative deviation from ideality was found in measured activity of Al2O3. The activity coefficient of Al2O3 decreases with the increase of CaO/Al2O3 ratio. To interpret the variation of Al2O3 activity with composition, structures of CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 glassy slag were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the number of bridging oxygen decreases with increasing CaO/Al2O3 ratio. With increase of CaO content, the aluminate network was gradually depolymerized, which corresponds to the decrease of the activity coefficient of Al2O3.

  4. Extremely NA and CL Rich Chondrule AL3509 from the Allende Meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserburg, G J; Hutcheon, I D; Aleon, J; Ramon, E C; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Brearley, A J

    2011-04-07

    We report on the mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, oxygen isotopes, {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg and {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S isotope systematics of the Allende chondrule Al3509 discovered and described by [1] and [2]. This spherical object ({approx}1cm {phi}) contains {approx}10% Na and 1% Cl, and nearly pure {sup 129}Xe [({sup 129}Xe/{sup 127}I) = 1.1 x 10{sup -4} (3)]. This high enrichment in halogens makes it of interest in searching for radiogenic {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) decay. While there is strong evidence for the presence of {sup 36}Cl in sodalite and wadalite in CV CAIs [4,5], some sodalites show no evidence for excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*). In contrast, high inferred initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl = 2 x 10{sup -5} has been found in wadalite from the Allende CAI AJEF [5]. The observed {sup 36}S excesses in sodalite are not correlated with radiogenic {sup 26}Mg, decay product of {sup 26}Al (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.72 Ma) [4]. From the inferred initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratios and consideration of both AGB and SNe stellar sources, {sup 36}Cl must be the product of charged particle irradiation within the early solar system. However, neither the specific nuclear production mechanism nor the irradiation site have been identified. Both sodalite and wadalite are found as late stage alteration products of CAIs together with grossular, monticellite, Al-rich pyroxene, wollastonite, nepheline, ferroan olivine, and ferroan pyroxenes. This late-stage alteration has been found to extensively change some CAIs in Allende, but clear residues of spinel, hibonite and Wark-Lovering rims are recognizable remnants of the original CAIs. The nature of the widespread volatile alteration process as well as that of the fluid phase remain controversial.

  5. Fuel mixture approach for solution combustion synthesis of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} powders

    SciTech Connect

    Ianos, Robert Lazau, Ioan; Pacurariu, Cornelia; Barvinschi, Paul

    2009-07-15

    Single-phase 3CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were prepared via solution combustion synthesis using a fuel mixture of urea and {beta}-alanine. The concept of using this fuel mixture comes from the individual reactivity of calcium nitrate and aluminum nitrate with respect to urea and {beta}-alanine. It was proved that urea is the optimum fuel for Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} whereas {beta}-alanine is the most suitable fuel for Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis investigations revealed that heating at 300 deg. C the precursor mixture containing the desired metal nitrates, urea and {beta}-alanine triggers a vigorous combustion reaction, which yields single-phase nanocrystalline 3CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder (33.3 nm). In this case additional annealing was no longer required. The use of a single fuel failed to ensure the formation of 3CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} directly from the combustion reaction. After annealing at 900 deg. C for 1 h, the powders obtained by using a single fuel (urea or {beta}-alanine) developed a phase composition comprising of 3CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 12CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO.

  6. The Abundances of Na, Mg, & Al in the Hyades: Giants, Dwarfs, and Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; King, J. R.; The, L.

    2006-12-01

    The abundances of Na, Mg, and Al in three giants and four dwarfs in the Hyades open cluster have been derived from high-resolution, McDonald 2.7-m echelle spectra. These data are compared to the expected changes in surface composition of the giants as predicted by a stellar model generated with the Clemson-American University of Beirut stellar evolution code in order to investigate if the Hyades giants have undergone non-standard mixing. The preliminary results of our analysis are presented. This work is supported by the NOAO Leo Goldberg Fellowship to S.C.S.; NOAO is operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the NSF. Additional support was provided by the NSF through grants AST 00-86576 and AST 02-39518 to J.R.K. and by the Charles Curry Foundation through a generous grant to Clemson University.

  7. Competitive binding of mg(2+), ca(2+), na(+), and K(+) ions to DNA in oriented DNA fibers: experimental and monte carlo simulation results

    PubMed Central

    Korolev, N; Lyubartsev, AP; Rupprecht, A; Nordenskiold, L

    1999-01-01

    Competitive binding of the most common cations of the cytoplasm (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) with DNA was studied by equilibrating oriented DNA fibers with ethanol/water solutions (65 and 52% v/v EtOH) containing different combinations and concentrations of the counterions. The affinity of DNA for the cations decreases in the order Ca > Mg >> Na approximately K. The degree of Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) binding to DNA displays maximum changes just at physiological concentrations of salts (60-200 mM) and does not depend significantly on the ethanol concentration or on the kind of univalent cation (Na(+) or K(+)). Ca(2+) is more tightly bound to DNA and is replaced by the monovalent cations to a lesser extent than is Mg(2+). Similarly, Ca(2+) is a better competitor for binding to DNA than Mg(2+): the ion exchange equilibrium constant for a 1:1 mixture of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, K(c)(Ca)(Mg), changes from K(c)(Ca)(Mg) approximately 2 in 65% EtOH (in 3-30 mM NaCl and/or KCl) to K(c)(Ca)(Mg) approximately 1.2-1.4 in 52% EtOH (in 300 mM NaCl and/or KCl). DNA does not exhibit selectivity for Na(+) or K(+) in ethanol/water solutions either in the absence or in the presence of Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+). The ion exchange experimental data are compared with results of grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of systems of parallel and hexagonally ordered, uniformly and discretely charged polyions with the density and spatial distribution of the charged groups modeling B DNA. A quantitative agreement with experimental data on divalent-monovalent competition has been obtained for discretely charged models of the DNA polyion (for the uniformly charged cylinder model, coincidence with experiment is qualitative). The GCMC method gives also a qualitative description of experimental results for DNA binding competitions of counterions of the same charge (Ca(2+) with Mg(2+) or K(+) with Na(+)). PMID:10545373

  8. CaMn2Al10: Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W. -G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-24

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10, a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83μB/Mn, significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈ 9% of Rln2. These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010][001] ≈ 3.5. A strong power-law divergence χ(T) ~ T–1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order, an Arrott plot analysis of the magnetization suggests a vanishing low Curie temperature TC ~ 0. Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.

  9. Photoluminescence of Vanadate Garnet Ca2NaMg(2-x)V3O12:xEu3+ Phosphors Synthesized by Solution Combustion Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kim, J; Lim, S; Park, K

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a series of nano-sized Ca2NaMg(2-x)V3O12:xEu3+ (0.06 < or = x < or = 0.18) red phosphors is synthesized by solution combustion method. The microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the Ca2NaMg(2-x)V3O12:xEu3+ phosphors are studied in accordance with the Eu3+ content. Annealed Ca2NaMg(2-x)V3O12:xEu3+ phosphors form a single phase with the cubic garnet structure and Ia3d space group. The emission from (VO4)3- in the Ca2NaMg(2-x)V3O12:xEu3+ phosphors is almost completely quenched due to the efficient energy transfer from the (VO4)3- to the Eu3+ ions. The emission intensity increases sharply with the increased Eu3+ content, reaching a maximum value at x = 0.15, and then decreases with further Eu3+ content. Ca2NaMg1.85V3O12:0.15Eu3+ shows great potential as a red phosphor for white light-emitting diodes. PMID:27433680

  10. Sequential measurements of bone lead content by L X-ray fluorescence in CaNa sub 2 EDTA-treated lead-toxic children

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T. ); Wielopolski, L. ); Kalef-Ezra, J.A. ); Slatkin, D.N. )

    1991-06-01

    With the development of L X-ray fluorescence (LXRF) to measure cortical bone lead directly, safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, the present study was undertaken to (a) evaluate LXRF as a possible replacement for the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA test; (b) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of mildly to moderately lead-toxic children before treatment; and (c) quantify lead in tibial cortical bones of lead-toxic children sequentially following one to two courses of chelation therapy. The clinical research design was based upon a longitudinal assessment of 59 untreated lead-toxic children. Based upon a discriminant analysis, 90% of lead-toxic children were predicted correctly as being CaNa{sub 2}EDTA-positive or CaNa{sub 2}EDTA-negative. Using LXRF and PbB values to predict CaNa{sub 2}EDTA outcomes, the specificity and sensitivity of these two predictors were 86 and 93%, respectively. The data suggest that LXRF measurements of lead in tibial cortical bone have considerable promise to replace the CaNa{sub 2}EDTA test and to provide a more appropriate end point of chelation therapy than the conventional indices of PbB and EP. Moreover, markedly elevated bone lead values accumulated during early childhood may have an intergenerational impact, as maternal lead stores amassed during childhood cross the placenta and directly affect the developing fetus.

  11. The properties, distribution and function of Na+–Ca2+ exchanger isoforms in rat cutaneous sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scheff, N N; Yilmaz, E; Gold, M S

    2014-01-01

    The Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) appears to play an important role in the regulation of the high K+-evoked Ca2+ transient in putative nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The purpose of the present study was to (1) characterize the properties of NCX activity in subpopulations of DRG neurons, (2) identify the isoform(s) underlying NCX activity, and (3) begin to assess the function of the isoform(s) in vivo. In retrogradely labelled neurons from the glabrous skin of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats, NCX activity, as assessed with fura-2-based microfluorimetry, was only detected in putative nociceptive IB4+ neurons. There were two modes of NCX activity: one was evoked in response to relatively large and long lasting (∼325 nm for >12 s) increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and a second was active at resting [Ca2+]i > ∼150 nm. There also were two modes of evoked activity: one that decayed relatively rapidly (<5 min) and a second that persisted (>10 min). Whereas mRNA encoding all three NCX isoforms (NCX1–3) was detected in putative nociceptive cutaneous neurons with single cell PCR, pharmacological analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of each isoform in vivo suggested that NCX2 and 3 were responsible for NCX activity. Western blot analyses suggested that NCX isoforms were differentially distributed within sensory neurons. Functional assays of excitability, action potential propagation, and nociceptive behaviour suggest NCX activity has little influence on excitability per se, but instead influences axonal conduction velocity, resting membrane potential, and nociceptive threshold. Together these results indicate that the function of NCX in the regulation of [Ca2+]i in putative nociceptive neurons may be unique relative to other cells in which these exchanger isoforms have been characterized and it has the potential to influence sensory neuron properties at multiple levels. PMID:25239455

  12. Na(+)-, ouabain-, Ca(2+)-, and thapsigargin-sensitive ATPase activity expressed in chimeras between the calcium and the sodium pump alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, T; Lemas, M V; Takeyasu, K

    1994-01-01

    Using the chicken sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ (SERCA)-ATPase as a parental molecule and replacing various portions with the corresponding portions of the chicken Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, Ca2+/thapsigargin- and Na+/ouabain-sensitive domains critical for these P-type ATPase activities were identified. In the chimera, [n/c]CC, the amino-terminal amino acids Met-1 to Asp-162 of the SERCA (isoform 1) (SERCA1) ATPase were replaced with the corresponding portion (Met-1-Asp-200) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. In the chimera CC[c/n], the carboxyl-terminal amino acids (Ser-830 to COOH) of the SERCA1 ATPase were replaced with the corresponding segment (Leu-861 to COOH) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit, and in the chimera CNC, the middle part (Gly-354-Lys-712) of the SERCA1 ATPase was exchanged with the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (Gly-378-Lys-724). None of the chimeric molecules exhibited any detectable ouabain-sensitive Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity, but they did exhibit thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Therefore, the segments Ile-163-Gly-354 and Lys-712-Ser-830 of the SERCA1 ATPase are sufficient for Ca2+ and thapsigargin sensitivity. The SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC, but not of CCC, CNC, or CC[c/n], was further stimulated by addition of Na+ in the assay medium containing Ca2+. This additional stimulation of SERCA1-ATPase activity by Na+ was abolished when the amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of [n/c]CC was deleted ([delta n/c]CC). In the absence of Na+, the SERCA1-ATPase activity of [n/c]CC was inhibited by ouabain, and, in the presence of Na+, its activity was stimulated by this drug. On the other hand, the ATPase activity of [delta n/c]CC was not affected by ouabain, although [delta n/c]CC can still bind [3H]ouabain. These results suggest that a distinct Na(+)-sensitive domain (Na+ sensor) located within the restricted amino-terminal region (Met-1-Leu-69) of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit regulates ATPase

  13. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  14. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  15. Elasticity and structure of the compounds in the wollastonite (CaSiO3)-Na 2SiO 3 system: from amorphous to crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shih-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties and structure of four potential bioactive compounds in the CaSiO3-Na2SiO3 system were characterized by Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The increase of Na2O content in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass with the same silica content and hence polymerization was found to lower the elastic moduli with accompanied decrease of Q(0) and Q(2) species, increase of Q(1) species and negligible change of Q(3) species, corresponding to a lower and higher equilibrium constant for the disproportional reactions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (without balance), respectively. The composition-dependent variation in the shear modulus (G) of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass can be attributed to the concentration change of Q(2) and probably Q(4) species; while bulk modulus (K) ascribed to the cohesion factor. The elastic moduli of the corresponding crystalline phases in this system also lower with the increase of Na2O content following two general criteria as a function of Na2O/CaO molar ratio: (1) K decreases faster than G for both the amorphous and crystalline phases and (2) both K and G decreases faster for the crystals than the glasses.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of UV active medium Ce3+:LiSr0.8Ca0.2AlF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizamutdinov, A. S.; Shavelev, A. A.; Marisov, M. A.; Semashko, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work is phase composition and near UV spectroscopic studies of UV active media in fluoride crystals with colquiriite structure, such as Ce3+:LiSr0.8Ca0.2AlF6. Colquiriite structure mixed crystals show higher segregation coefficient of Ce3+ activator ions than common LiCaAlF6 hosts. An important result is based on the fact that this enhancement was achieved for two types of Ce3+ centers in a multisite Ce:LiSr0.8Ca0.2AlF6 system. Thus, it provides a higher gain coefficient for the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions and it spans a wider continuous wavelength tuning range between 280 and 320 nm for tunable Ce:LiSr0.8Ca0.2AlF6 laser systems.

  17. Heat conductivity of LiF-NaF-Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} mixed-alkali glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Il`in, A.A.; Pronkin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    Described is the heat conductivity of LiF-NaF-Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} mixed-alkali phosphate glasses. The percentage of NaF was varied to measure the density, mean sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal oscillation frequency, and heat conductivity coefficient at different molar fractions. Correlation between the heat conductivity and the Debye temperature show the same regularity of variation in these parameters as for most crystalline substances.

  18. New acoustic velocity measurements on CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 liquids: Reevaluation of the volume and compressibility of CaMgSi2O6-CaAl2Si2O8 liquids to 25 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yuhui; Lange, Rebecca A.

    2008-04-01

    Relaxed sound speed measurements on 12 liquids in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system have been performed from 1410 to 1620°C at 1 bar with a frequency sweep acoustic interferometer. In all liquids, the sound speeds either decrease or remain constant with increasing temperature. These data are combined with those in the literature to calibrate models for βT and (∂V/∂P)T as a function of composition and temperature for CMAS liquids. CaO is the only oxide component that contributes to the temperature dependence of compressibility. The new compressibility models permit the bulk modulus (KT,0) of CaMgSi2O6 (Di), CaAl2Si2O8 (An), and the Di64-An36 eutectic liquid to be directly obtained. These results are used to uniquely constrain values for the pressure dependence of the bulk modulus (K0' = dK0/dP) in a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) for these three liquids from shock wave data in the literature. The revised K0' value is 6.8 (versus 6.9) for CaMgSi2O6 liquid, 4.7 (versus 5.3) for CaAl2Si2O8 liquid, and 5.6 (versus 4.85) for Di64-An36 liquid. Information on both KT,0 and K0' allows the density and compressibility for each of these three liquids to be calculated as a function of pressure to 25 GPa. Both the molar volume and isothermal compressibility of CaMgSi2O6-CaAl2Si2O8 liquids mix ideally between 0 and 25 GPa. The dominant mechanism of compression at low pressure (0-5 GPa) for all three liquids (CaMgSi2O6, CaAl2Si2O8, and the Di64-An36 eutectic) is topological, whereas gradual Al/Si coordination change plays an increasingly important role at higher pressure as topological mechanisms of compression are diminished.

  19. Experimental determination of the effect of the ratio of B/Al on glass dissolution along the nepheline (NaAlSiO 4)-malinkoite (NaBSiO 4) join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, E. M.; Reed, L. R.; Shaw, W. J.; McGrail, B. P.; Icenhower, J. P.; Windisch, C. F.; Cordova, E. A.; Broady, J.

    2010-05-01

    The dissolution kinetics of five glasses along the NaAlSiO 4-NaBSiO 4 join were used to evaluate how the structural variations associated with boron-aluminum substitution affect the rate of dissolution. The composition of each glass varied inversely in mol% of Al 2O 3 (5-25 mol%) and B 2O 3 (20-0 mol%) with Na 2O (25 mol%) and SiO 2 (50 mol%) making up the remaining amount, in every case Na/(Al + B) = 1.0. Single-pass flow-through experiments (SPFT) were conducted under dilute conditions as a function of solution pH (from 7.0 to 12.0) and temperature (from 23 to 90 °C). Analysis of unreacted glass samples by 27Al and 29Si MAS-NMR suggests Al (˜98% [4]Al) and Si-atoms (˜100% [4]Si) occupy a tetrahedral coordination whereas, B-atoms occupy both tetrahedral ( [4]B) and trigonal ( [3]B) coordination. The distribution of [3]B fractionated between [3]B(ring) and [3]B(non-ring) moieties, with the [3]B(ring)/ [3]B(non-ring) ratio increases with an increase in the B/Al ratio. The MAS-NMR results also indicated an increase in the fraction of [4]B with an increase in the B/Al ratio. The 27Al peak maxima shift to lesser values with an increase in the B/Al ratio which suggests mixing between the [4]Al and [3]B sites, assuming avoidance between tetrahedral trivalent cations ( [4]Al-O- [4]B avoidance). Unlike the 27Al and 11B spectra, the 29Si spectra illustrate a subtle shift to more negative chemical shift (chemical shift range between -88 and -84 ppm) and increases in the spectral widths as the B/Al ratio increases. Raman spectroscopy of unreacted glass samples was also used to cross-check the results collected from MAS-NMR and suggested that NeB4 (the glass sample with the highest B content) may consist of B-Na enriched and Al-Si enriched micro-domains, which affected the measured dissolution rates. Results from SPFT experiments suggest a forward rate of reaction and pH power-law coefficients, η, that are independent of B/Al under these neutral to alkaline test conditions

  20. Pressure induced elastic softening in framework aluminosilicate- albite (NaAlSi3O8)

    PubMed Central

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Mainprice, David; Maheshwari, Ketan; Heinonen, Olle; Patel, Dhenu; Hariharan, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Albite (NaAlSi3O8) is an aluminosilicate mineral. Its crystal structure consists of 3-D framework of Al and Si tetrahedral units. We have used Density Functional Theory to investigate the high-pressure behavior of the crystal structure and how it affects the elasticity of albite. Our results indicate elastic softening between 6–8 GPa. This is observed in all the individual elastic stiffness components. Our analysis indicates that the softening is due to the response of the three-dimensional tetrahedral framework, in particular by the pressure dependent changes in the tetrahedral tilts. At pressure <6 GPa, the PAW-GGA can be described by a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with  = 687.4 Å3,  = 51.7 GPa, and  = 4.7. The shear modulus and its pressure derivative are  = 33.7 GPa, and  = 2.9. At 1 bar, the azimuthal compressional and shear wave anisotropy  = 42.8%, and  = 50.1%. We also investigate the densification of albite to a mixture of jadeite and quartz. The transformation is likely to cause a discontinuity in density, compressional, and shear wave velocity across the crust and mantle. This could partially account for the Mohorovicic discontinuity in thickened continental crustal regions. PMID:27734903

  1. Efficient Yb³⁺:CaGdAlO₄ bulk and femtosecond-laser-written waveguide lasers.

    PubMed

    Hasse, Kore; Calmano, Thomas; Deppe, Bastian; Liebald, Christoph; Kränkel, Christian

    2015-08-01

    We report on, to the best of our knowledge, the first fs-laser-written waveguide laser in Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 (Yb:CALGO). With Yb:CALGO crystals grown in our labs, we obtained a slope efficiency of 69% and up to 2.4 W of continuous wave (cw) output power in a waveguide-laser configuration. Moreover, bulk laser experiments with Yb:CALGO were performed, and slope efficiencies up to 73%, optical-to-optical efficiencies of 65%, and maximum cw output powers of 3.3 W were reached. These are the highest efficiencies in the laser configuration with Yb:CALGO.

  2. Temporal and spatial variations of airborne Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in rural areas of Norway

    PubMed

    Torseth; Hanssen; Semb

    1999-08-30

    The Norwegian air chemistry monitoring network includes measurements of gaseous and particulate compounds in air at 12 rural sites. The sampling method is designed to determine concentration levels of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and uses a three-stage filter pack sampler. Concentration levels of base-cations and sea salts may also be determined from the chemical analysis of the filter extracts. In this study, concentration levels of water soluble Mg, Cl, Na, Ca and K in air have been investigated in terms of temporal, seasonal and spatial trends during the period 1986-1996. The results have been combined with precipitation chemistry data to estimate total deposition, and to evaluate the relative importance of dry deposition. While Na, Cl and Mg are of marine origin, which is clearly reflected in concentration ratios and spatial gradients, Ca and K are of a mixed origin. Air trajectory analyses indicate that air masses originating in Eastern Europe result in significantly higher airborne concentrations of non-sea salt Ca and K, than air from other sectors. Major sources of airborne Ca and K in Norway are expected to be of anthropogenic origin from combustion plants and industrial processes in Eastern Europe, while aeolian dust from agricultural areas within Europe or from Sahara is of limited importance. Concentration levels of non-sea salt base-cations in air were 20-30% lower during the 1990s, compared to 1986-1989. Precipitation chemistry data available since the early 1980s indicate even larger reductions, and in the order of 50%. Total deposition of non-sea salt base-cations during 1993-1996 was generally below 10 mmol(c) m-2 year-1, whereas in coastal areas with large precipitation amounts, inputs exceeding 15 mmol(c) m-2 year-1 occurred. Deposition of base-cations may thus counteract up to 25% of the strong acid anion input, but more typically in the order of 5-10%. Dry deposition of non-sea salt base-cations of southern Norway is comparatively small

  3. Synthesis of a novel green fluorescent material Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ based on a layered double hydroxide precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Jiang, Kangle; Hao, Yongjing; Chang, Tao; Yin, Yaobing

    2015-08-01

    A novel green light emitting material, Ca3Al2O6:Tb3+ was synthesized by calcination of a terbium doped Ca/Al layered double hydroxide precursor at 1350°C. The precursor was prepared by coprecipitation from metal nitrates with sodium hydroxide. The material shows characteristic green emission at 543 nm when excited with 266 nm UV source. The photoluminescence intensity reaches its maximum at Tb3+ concentration of 0.5 mol %.

  4. Syntheses and luminescent properties of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors for white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sook Hyun; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminosilicate-based luminescent materials, a series of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ samples were prepared by using a solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed their triclinic structure after annealing at 1100 °C. The excitation spectra of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ exhibited a broad band ranging between 220 to 420 nm with a point peak at a longer wavelength. Moreover, a shift in the broad band was also recorded with increasing Eu2+ concentration. The emission spectrum of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ consists of a broad band from 390 to 550 nm with a maximum intensity at about 438 nm, which can be ascribed to the electric-dipole-allowed 4f65d1-8S7/2(4f7) transition of the Eu2+ ions. A series of Eu2+ and Mn2+ co-activated CaAl2Si2O8 samples were synthesized at 1400 °C. The CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ samples had a wide emission band ranging from blue to yellow and peaking at 438 and 550 nm under an excitation wavelength of 352 nm. The PL spectrum of the CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ samples reveal an effective energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ in CaAl2Si2O8. By utilizing the principle of energy transfer, we also demonstrated that with appropriate tuning of the activator content, CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors exhibit great potential as a phosphor for white-light-emitting diodes.

  5. Ubiquitous [Na+]i/[K+]i-sensitive transcriptome in mammalian cells: evidence for Ca(2+)i-independent excitation-transcription coupling.

    PubMed

    Koltsova, Svetlana V; Trushina, Yulia; Haloui, Mounsif; Akimova, Olga A; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Orlov, Sergei N

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus-dependent elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) affects the expression of numerous genes--a phenomenon known as excitation-transcription coupling. Recently, we found that increases in [Na(+)](i) trigger c-Fos expression via a novel Ca(2+) (i)-independent pathway. In the present study, we identified ubiquitous and tissue-specific [Na(+)](i)/[K(+)](i)-sensitive transcriptomes by comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta (RVSMC), the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To augment [Na(+)](i) and reduce [K(+)](i), cells were treated for 3 hrs with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain or placed for the same time in the K(+)-free medium. Employing Affymetrix-based technology, we detected changes in expression levels of 684, 737 and 1839 transcripts in HeLa, HUVEC and RVSMC, respectively, that were highly correlated between two treatments (p<0.0001; R(2)>0.62). Among these Na(+) (i)/K(+) (i)-sensitive genes, 80 transcripts were common for all three types of cells. To establish if changes in gene expression are dependent on increases in [Ca(2+)](i), we performed identical experiments in Ca(2+)-free media supplemented with extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators. Surprisingly, this procedure elevated rather than decreased the number of ubiquitous and cell-type specific Na(+) (i)/K(+) (i)-sensitive genes. Among the ubiquitous Na(+) (i)/K(+) (i)-sensitive genes whose expression was regulated independently of the presence of Ca(2+) chelators by more than 3-fold, we discovered several transcription factors (Fos, Jun, Hes1, Nfkbia), interleukin-6, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit, dual specificity phosphatase (Dusp8), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, cyclin L1, whereas expression of metallopeptidase Adamts1, adrenomedulin, Dups1, Dusp10 and Dusp16 was detected exclusively in Ca(2+)-depleted cells. Overall, our findings

  6. Theoretical investigation on local structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts under electric field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhenming; Li, Jie; Chen, Jiangan; Liu, Qingsheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of electric field and molecular ratio CR (NaF/AlF3) on basic structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with the Buckingham potential model. The [AlF6]3- groups are the dominant specie in NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts at CR ≥ 2.6, and followed by the [AlF5]2- groups, while CR ≤ 2.4, [AlF5]2- groups are the protagonists up to 40%. In NaFsbnd AlF3 system, with the increase of CR, the proportion of Fb decreases slightly and the percentage of Ff increases dramatically. The Alsbnd F bonds have ionic characters as well as partial covalently characters due to the hybridization of F-2p and Al-3s, 3p orbitals. The order of ion diffusion ability follows as Na+ > F- > Al3+. Adding more NaF can break some F bridges of structure networks and decrease the polymerization degree of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts, the viscosity reduces and ionic conductivity increases as a consequence. The calculated results of ionic conductivity are in agreement with the experimental results. Electric field has no significant impact on the local structure characters, while transport properties are not. The change of CR (NaF/AlF3) can significantly affect these characters of both the structure and transport.

  7. Corrosion and wear properties of PEO coatings formed on AM60B alloy in NaAlO 2 electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xijin; Liu, XingYang; Luan, Ben Li

    2011-08-01

    Coatings with a thickness of 22-32 μm were formed on an AM60B magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in electrolytes containing 12.0-24.0 g/l NaAlO 2 and other additives. SEM analyses of the coated samples showed that the coatings were compact with relatively low porosity. X-ray diffraction revealed that the coatings consisted of mainly MgAl 2O 4 and MgO phases. The relative amount of MgAl 2O 4 in the coating increased with increasing NaAlO 2 concentration. The relatively compact and thick coatings provide good corrosion protection for magnesium, as indicated by the results of potentiodynamic polarization tests. In addition, the PEO treatment also significantly improved the wear resistance of the alloy. Pin-on-disk wear tests showed that the PEO treatment reduced the wear volume loss by a factor of 10.

  8. Ionic surfactant aggregates in saline solutions: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of excess sodium chloride (NaCl) or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)).

    PubMed

    Sammalkorpi, Maria; Karttunen, Mikko; Haataja, Mikko

    2009-04-30

    The properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aggregates in saline solutions of excess sodium chloride (NaCl) or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) ions were studied through extensive molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. We find that the ionic strength of the solution affects not only the aggregate size of the resulting anionic micelles but also their structure. Specifically, the presence of CaCl(2) induces more compact and densely packed micelles with a significant reduction in gauche defects in the SDS hydrocarbon chains in comparison with NaCl. Furthermore, we observe significantly more stable salt bridges between the charged SDS head groups mediated by Ca(2+) than Na(+). The presence of these salt bridges helps stabilize the more densely packed micelles.

  9. Ultraviolet to near-infrared downconversion in Yb3+-Na+ codoped Sr2CaWO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Li, XuZhi; Wei, XianTao; Li, ZhongYuan; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, WenMing; Zhao, Wei; Ji, Yuexia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated photoluminescent properties of Sr2CaWO6:Yb3+, Na+ phosphor. The samples were successfully synthesized via a solid-state reaction method with various doping concentrations. The phosphor can efficiently absorb ultraviolet photons of 250-350 nm and transfer its absorbed photon energy to Yb3+ ions. Then subsequent quantum cutting between WO6 groups and Yb3+ ions takes place, down-converting an absorbed ultraviolet photon into two photons of 1007 nm radiations. Analyses of decay curves of different samples reveal an efficient energy transfer from WO6 groups to Yb3+ ions. Cooperative energy transfer from host to Yb3+ ions is responsible for downconversion via lifetime analysis. Quantum efficiencies were calculated, and estimated maximum efficiency reached 190%. These phosphors combine wide wavelength absorption in the ultraviolet range with high quantum efficiency, enabling potential application of efficiency enhancement of Si solar cell.

  10. Follow-up of patients affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism after treatment with CaNa2EDTA.

    PubMed

    Herrero Hernandez, Elena; Discalzi, Gianluigi; Valentini, Consuelo; Venturi, Fabrizio; Chiò, Adriano; Carmellino, Caterina; Rossi, Luigi; Sacchetti, Anna; Pira, Enrico

    2006-05-01

    In the period of 1998-2004, seven workers affected by manganese-induced Parkinsonism were diagnosed, studied and treated with CaNa2EDTA at our Occupational Health Ward. Biological markers, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations, were used to assess the disease trend. Those workers still employed were immediately removed from exposure. Our results seem to confirm that very good clinical, biological and neuroradiological results can be obtained by timely removal from exposure and chelating treatment, and that amelioration can persist in time. Manganism is, however, a severe condition that can also progress independent of further exposure. Therefore, chelating treatment can be a great aid in overt manganism, but particular attention must be paid to primary prevention, as this disease should now be totally preventable and definitely merits eradication. PMID:16271769

  11. Computer analysis of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of cryolite based systems: 1. The AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, M.L.; Lin, P.I.; Cerisier, P.; Pelton, A.D.

    1980-09-01

    Calculations of the phase diagram of the AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system up to 35 mol pct AlF/sub 3/ and of the binary subsystems are presented. For the binary LiF-NaF, AlF/sub 3/-NaF, AlF/sub 3/-LiF, and the quasibinary Li/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/-Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/ systems, thermodynamic properties of the unary and binary phases are used to numerically generate the corresponding phase diagram. The calculated and measured values are in good agreement. The broad data base thus constructed is used with equations from the conformal ionic solution theory to derive a priori phase equilibria of the AlF/sub 3/-LiF-NaF system. Ternary liquidus temperatures are calculated covering compositions outside the range of measurements. 47 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  12. The giant cardiac membrane patch method: stimulation of outward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current by MgATP.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Somlyo, A V; Hilgemann, D W

    1992-01-01

    1. A giant patch method was used to study the stimulatory effect of cytoplasmic MgATP on outward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current in inside-out cardiac membrane patches (1-10 G omega seals with 14-24 microns pipette tip diameters) excised from guinea-pig, rabbit and mouse myocytes. 2. To establish the validity of the method with respect to structure, bleb formation was examined with electron microscopy and with confocal fluorescence light microscopy. The blebs, which form as the sarcolemma detaches, excluded intracellular organelles and transverse tubules. The blebbed cells contained normal sarcomeres, sarcoplasmic reticulum, triads and diads. 3. To further establish the validity of the method for ion transport studies, measurements of Na(+)-K+ pump currents and charge movements are described briefly which demonstrate (i) free access to the cytoplasmic membrane side, (ii) MgATP dependence comparable to reconstituted pump (Kd, 94 microns), (iii) fast, rigorous concentration control and (iv) Na(+)-K+ pump densities in the range of whole-cell densities. 4. Stimulation of outward Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current by MgATP attenuated exchange current decay during step increments of cytoplasmic sodium, shifted the secondary activation of outward exchange current by cytoplasmic calcium to lower free calcium concentrations and, particularly in mouse cardiac sarcolemma, induced cytoplasmic calcium-independent current. 5. Upon removal of MgATP the stimulatory effect usually decayed with a t50 (half-time) of about 3 min. However, the reversal took place much more rapidly (t50, 5-20 s) in patches from individual guinea-pig and rabbit myocyte batches. When decay was rapid, secondary activation by cytoplasmic calcium was shifted to higher free cytoplasmic calcium concentrations (Kd, 10-65 microns-free calcium). 6. With repeated applications of MgATP the rate and magnitude of the stimulatory effect progressively decreased. 7. The Kd for MgATP of the initial rate of stimulation of outward

  13. Zn, Ca and Na levels in the prostatic secretion of patients with prostatic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D

    1991-01-01

    Zinc, calcium and sodium levels of the prostatic secretions in patients with prostatic adenoma were studied. In a control group of 20 patients, two samples of the secretion, taken on the first and the seventh day, were compared and found to show no difference. In the treated group of 20 patients, where a 7-day therapy of ERU (extractum radix urticae) followed upon the first sampling, the 7th-day specimen presented a significant drop in the Zn level. Correlation was found to exist between the Zn and Ca levels. From literary data the inference was drawn that ERU is producing a derangement in the zinc-testosterone metabolism and diminishes the zinc secretion in adenomatous tissue.

  14. Characterisation of neurotransmitter-induced electrolyte transport in cockroach salivary glands by intracellular Ca2+, Na+ and pH measurements in duct cells.

    PubMed

    Hille, Carsten; Walz, Bernd

    2008-02-01

    Ion-transporting acinar peripheral cells in cockroach salivary glands are innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic fibres, but saliva-modifying duct cells are innervated only by dopaminergic fibres. We used microfluorometry to record intracellular Na+, Ca2+ and H+ concentrations ([Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and pHi) in duct cells of two types of preparation, viz ;lobes' consisting of acini with their duct system and ;isolated ducts' without acini, in order to obtain information about the transporters involved in saliva secretion and/or modification. Our results indicate that (1) stimulation of lobes by dopamine (DA) causes a strong drop of pHi and increases in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i in duct cells; (2) in contrast, DA stimulation of isolated ducts produces only a small pHi drop and no changes in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i; (3) pHi and [Ca2+]i changes are also induced in duct cells by serotonin (5-HT) stimulation of lobes, but not isolated ducts; (4) in the absence of CO2/HCO3(-), the DA-induced pH(i) drop is strongly reduced by removal of extracellular Cl(-) or inhibition of the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC); (5) in the presence of CO2/HCO3(-), the DA-induced pHi drop is not reduced by NKCC inhibition, but rather by inhibition of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger (AE), Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) or carbonic anhydrase. We suggest that DA and 5-HT act predominantly on acinar peripheral cells. Their activity (secretion of primary saliva) seems to cause changes in ion concentrations in duct cells. NKCC and/or AE/NHE activities are necessary for pHi changes in duct cells; we consider that these transporters are involved in the secretion of the NaCl-rich primary saliva.

  15. Bioactive Glass Shell Growth of a Si-Na-Ca-P Layer on Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Mercaptopropyltrimethyloxysilane-Silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Szu-Hsien; Li, Wan-Yun; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    Calcium phosphate and silicate-modified gold surfaces have potential applications in orthopedic and dental reconstruction, especially when combined with bone cement or dental resins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the formation of a Si-Na-Ca-P glass system nanoshell on functionalized gold nanoparticles. Stable gold nanoparticle suspensions were prepared by controlled reduction of HAuCl4 using the sodium citrate method to obtain a nanogold-mercaptopropyltrimethyloxysilane (MPTS)-silicate-tetraethylothosilicate (TEOS)-capped particle solution. The nanoshells were formed when directly reacted with a 10-4 M calcium phosphate ion solution. The median nanoparticle diameter was observed to be 15 nm. The MPTS-silicate-TEOS-functionalized nanoshell more effectively formed a glass shell as compared with a nonsilicate nanoshell. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by a scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As seen using EDS, the nanoshell was in a glass phase with CaO-poor layers.

  16. Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on physicochemical properties of pregelatinized and granular cold-water swelling corn starches.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Sara; Majzoobi, Mahsa; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-12-15

    The physicochemical properties of drum dried pregelatinized (PG) and granular cold-water-swelling (GCWS) corn starch pastes were determined in the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200mM). Light micrographs revealed that NaCl roughened the surface of PG starch particles while CaCl2 did not bring about obvious changes on their morphology. In the case of GCWS starch, there were some wrinkles on the surface of starch granules. NaCl increased the wrinkles but CaCl2 softened the surface of granules. GCWS starch had higher water absorption, cold paste viscosity and textural parameters than PG starch and these parameters were enhanced with addition of CaCl2 while NaCl exhibited an opposite trend for all of these factors. The Freeze-thaw (F-T) stability and turbidity of GCWS were also higher than PG starch. In presence of salts F-T stability and turbidity of both modified starches improved and CaCl2 caused more evident changes. PMID:27451224

  17. Ca II AND Na I QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SYSTEMS IN AN EMISSION-SELECTED SAMPLE OF SDSS DR7 GALAXY/QUASAR PROJECTIONS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cherinka, B.; Schulte-Ladbeck, R. E.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this project is to identify low-redshift host galaxies of quasar absorption-line systems by selecting galaxies that are seen in projection onto quasar sightlines. To this end, we use the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to construct a parent sample of 97,489 galaxy/quasar projections at impact parameters of up to 100 kpc to the foreground galaxy. We then search the quasar spectra for absorption-line systems of Ca II and Na I within {+-}500 km s{sup -1} of the galaxy's velocity. This yields 92 Ca II and 16 Na I absorption systems. We find that most of the Ca II and Na I systems are sightlines through the Galactic disk, through high-velocity cloud complexes in our halo, or Virgo Cluster sightlines. Placing constraints on the absorption line rest equivalent width significance ({>=}3.0{sigma}), the local standard of rest velocity along the sightline ({>=}345 km s{sup -1}), and the ratio of the impact parameter to the galaxy optical radius ({<=}5.0), we identify four absorption-line systems that are associated with low-redshift galaxies at high confidence, consisting of two Ca II systems (one of which also shows Na I) and two Na I systems. These four systems arise in blue, {approx}L*{sub r} galaxies. Tables of the 108 absorption systems are provided to facilitate future follow-up.

  18. Propagation Properties of the Precipitation Band in an AlCl₃/NaOH System.

    PubMed

    Ban, Takahiko; Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Tokuyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-19

    When inherently immobile solid particles collectively form precipitates in a reaction-diffusion system involving a redissolution reaction, a propagation phenomenon may occur in which a dynamic pattern of precipitation bands forms. This propagating precipitation phenomenon has been studied by many researchers. However, two completely different processes-i.e., the reaction-diffusion of reactants and the crystal growth of products-progress simultaneously in the system, thereby rendering the phenomenon complex. There are no well-established experimental laws for this propagating precipitation phenomenon, such as the spacing, time, and width laws associated with the well-known Liesegang phenomenon, which is static in the sense that precipitation bands form and remain at the same position. In fact, it has not been clarified which of the processes controls the propagation phenomenon. Accordingly, we have investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient associated with the dynamics of propagating precipitation band in an AlCl3/NaOH system for the case in which a large excess of outer electrolytes (i.e., OH(-)) diffuses into gel in which inner electrolytes (i.e.,Al(3+)) are homogeneously distributed. An isolated precipitation band of Al(OH)3 was formed horizontally in a test tube and propagated vertically in proportion to the square root of time. In our experimental results, we found that the apparent diffusion coefficient, D(p), possesses an exponential dependence on the initial concentrations of the outer electrolyte, and the inner electrolyte; the measured relation was D(p) = D[Al(3+)](-0.6)[OH(-)](0.6), where D = (0.63 ± 0.04) × 10(5) cm(2)/s. From our model equations based on the prenucleation theory, which take into account a redissolution reaction, we found that the dynamics of the reaction front of the outer and the inner electrolytes was an important factor in controlling the propagation of the precipitation band. In our simulation results, we obtained a similar

  19. Crustal structure of the Pannonian Basin: The AlCaPa and Tisza Terrains and the Mid-Hungarian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Ren, Yong; Dando, Ben; Stuart, Graham W.; Hegedűs, Endre; Kovács, Attila Csaba; Houseman, Gregory A.

    2015-04-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is one of the key examples of Miocene continental extension that is easily accessible to surface seismological investigation. It comprises two major crustal blocks: AlCaPa and Tisza which abut along a poorly understood structure referred to as the Mid-Hungarian Zone (MHZ), the whole being surrounded by the arc of the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Dinarides. Using data from the CBP (Carpathian Basins Project) temporary broadband seismic array of 46 stations deployed across the western Pannonian Basin in 2006-2007, we calculated receiver functions that constrain the variation of crustal thickness across the basin and derive a map of Moho depth across a NW-SE oriented swath about 450 km long and 75 km wide. The measured Moho depths show no significant change in crustal thickness between AlCaPa and Tisza terrains, but the Moho is not or very weakly imaged along a ca. 40 km wide strip centred on the MHZ. Moho depths within the Pannonian Basin are typically in the range 25-30 km, and increase toward the periphery of the basin. Our measurements are generally consistent with earlier VP models from controlled-source seismic surveys and recent VS models determined by tomographic analysis of ambient noise signals. The lack of a sharp Moho image beneath the MHZ suggests that the crust-mantle boundary in that zone may consist of a gradual increase in velocity with depth. The relatively constant crustal thickness across the two domains of the Pannonian Basin suggests that thinning to the same final state is controlled thermally. This structural characteristic seems to be governed by a large-scale balance of gravitational potential energy that is insensitive to the separate prior histories of the two regions.

  20. The Effects of Individual Metal Contents on Isochrones for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beom, Minje; Na, Chongsam; Ferguson, Jason W.; Kim, Y.-C.

    2016-08-01

    The individual characteristics of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and Fe on isochrones have been investigated in this study. Stellar models have been constructed for various mixtures in which the content of each element is changed up to the extreme value reported in recent studies, and the changes in isochrone shape have been analyzed for the various mixtures. To express the abundance variation of different elements with a single parameter, we have focused on the relative changes in the total number of metal ions. A review of the shape changes revealed that Na, Mg, and Al work the same way in stellar models, similar to the well-known fact that C, N, and O have the same reactions in the stellar interior. In addition, it was found that in high-metallicity conditions the influence of Si and Fe on the red giant branch becomes smaller than that of Na, Mg, and Al closer to the tip. Furthermore, the influence of Fe on the main sequence is larger than that of Na, Mg, Al, and even Si.

  1. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations of molten salt vapor complexes using Gaussian-2 theory: LiAlF{sub 4} and NaAlF{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    The structures and energies of the molten salt vapor complexes LiAlF{sub 4} and NaAlF{sub 4} are studied using new high level ab initio molecular orbital methods. The structures are determined using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to second-order and the total energies are determined using a recently introduced modification of Gaussian-2 (G2) theory. The total energies are used to determine relative energies of the corner-, edge-, and face-bridged structures and accurate reaction energies. The results are compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies.

  2. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations of molten salt vapor complexes using Gaussian-2 theory: LiAlF[sub 4] and NaAlF[sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structures and energies of the molten salt vapor complexes LiAlF[sub 4] and NaAlF[sub 4] are studied using new high level ab initio molecular orbital methods. The structures are determined using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory to second-order and the total energies are determined using a recently introduced modification of Gaussian-2 (G2) theory. The total energies are used to determine relative energies of the corner-, edge-, and face-bridged structures and accurate reaction energies. The results are compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies.

  3. Luminescent properties of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and its potential application in white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingxuan; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor can be effectively excited by an ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light, and produce a bright blue emission centered at 436 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinations (x, y) of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(NSCE)/Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(LSSE) vary with the molar ratio of the two constituents. When NSCE/LSSE is 1:3, the CIE chromaticity coordination is (0.332, 0.346), which is close to that of the natural sunlight (0.33, 0.33). The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a promising blue phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes. Highlights: ► Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} shows the blue emission with a peak at 436 nm and broad excitation band in the UV/n-UV range. ► White light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor with the Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} yellow phosphor. ► Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} would be a promising blue phosphor candidate for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction, and its luminescent properties are systematically studied. Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} can be effectively excited by the 354 nm radiation, and create blue emission (436 nm). The emission intensity of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is influenced by the Eu{sup 2+} doping content, and the optimal doping content is 1.5%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} in Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4} can be attributed to the multipolar interaction. The white light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} with the yellow phosphor Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a potential blue emitting phosphor for UV chip-based multi

  4. Hydrothermal transformation of magadiite into ferrierite in Al 2O 3-Na 2O-ethylenediamine-H 2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Yang; Cui, Miao; Sun, Jiangbo; Qi, Lin; Ji, Shouhua; Meng, Changgong

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the transformation of magadiite into ferrierite in Al 2O 3-Na 2O-ethylenediamine (EDA)-H 2O system. The influence of various parameters such as reaction temperature, time, alkalinity, the reactant Na 2O/SiO 2 ratio and EDA/SiO 2 ratio were examined. Thermal and acid stability of the synthetic ferrierite are presented. Highly crystallized and pure ferrierite could be obtained from dispersion with the molar composition: 0.01 Na 2O: 0.005 Al 2O 3: SiO 2: 30 H 2O: 20 EDA by heating at 433 K for 48 h. The structure of ferrierite was destroyed when the temperature rose above 873 K and the framework of the sample, stirred in 5 mol/L HCl for 3 h, is consistent with the untreated ferrierite.

  5. Dual effect of digitalis glycosides on norepinephrine release from human atrial tissue and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: differential dependence on [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i.

    PubMed

    Haass, M; Serf, C; Gerber, S H; Krüger, C; Haunstetter, A; Vahl, C F; Nobiling, R; Kübler, W

    1997-06-01

    It was the aim of the present study (1) to characterize the influence of Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition by the digitalis glycoside ouabain on both spontaneous and nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release from the human heart; and (2) to further investigate the role of glycoside-induced changes in [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i (determined by microfluorimetry) for catecholamine release. The latter experiments were performed in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (BCC), an established cell culture model for sympathetic nerves. Ouabain (1-1000 mumol/l) exerted a dual effect on norepinephrine release (determined by HPLC) from incubated human atrial tissue: (I) Ouabain induced a concentration-dependent increase in norepinephrine release, that was calcium-independent and almost completely prevented by blockade of the uptake1-carrier by desipramine (1 mumol/l). The characteristics of this release process are consistent with a non-exocytotic mechanism. (II) In addition, ouabain augmented the nicotine-evoked (1-100 mumol/l) calcium-dependent norepinephrine release, which can be considered to be exocytotic. Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibition also reduced the threshold concentration of nicotine from 10 to 1 mumol/l and it delayed the rapid tachyphylaxis of its norepinephrine releasing effect in human atrial tissue. In BCC, ouabain increased [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release in parallel. Under calcium-free conditions, not only the ouabain-induced increase in [Na+]i, but also [3H]-norepinephrine release were enhanced. The ouabain-induced [3H]-norepinephrine release was always closely related to changes in [Na+]i, indicating a key role of [Na+]i for this calcium-independent non-exocytotic norepinephrine release. In addition, pretreatment with ouabain (1 mmol/l) augmented the nicotine-evoked (0.1-10 mumol/l) increments in [Na+]i, [Ca2+]i and [3H]-norepinephrine release. As nicotine-induced norepinephrine release depends on an increase in both [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i, these findings are

  6. Vitality and chemistry of roots of red spruce in forest floors of stands with a gradient of soil Al/Ca ratios in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, P.M.; Vogt, K.; Vogt, D.; Holifield, Q.; Tilley, J.; Lawrence, G.; David, M.

    2003-01-01

    Number of living root tips per branch, percent dead roots, percent mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal morphotype, response of woody roots to wounding and colonization by fungi, and concentrations of starch, soluble sugars, phenols, percent C and N and C/N ratio, and Al Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and P were measured for 2 consecutive years in roots of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in stands in the northeastern United States (nine in 1993 and two additional in 1994) dominated by red spruce and with a gradient of forest floor exchangeable Al/Ca ratios. Root vitality was measured for nonwoody and coarse woody roots; chemical variables were measured for nonwoody (<1 mm), fine woody (1 to <2 mm), and coarse woody (2 to <5 mm) roots. There were significant differences among sites for all variables, particularly in 1993, although few were related to the Al/Ca ratio gradient. Percent mycorrhizae decreased, while some morphotypes increased or decreased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. In nonwoody roots, N increased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. Most sampled trees appeared to be in good or fair health, suggesting that an adverse response of these root variables to high Al concentrations may be apparent only after a significant change in crown health.

  7. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behaviors of the As-Extruded Mg-5Al-3Ca Alloys Containing Yttrium at Elevated Temperature.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeon-Taek; Kim, Yong-Ho; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Seong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Effects of yttrium (Y) addition on mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of the as-extruded Mg-Al-Ca based alloys at elevated temperature were investigated by a tensile test. After hot extrusion, the average grain size was refined by Y addition and eutectic phases were broken down into fine particles. Y addition to Mg-5Al-3Ca based alloy resulted in the improvement of strength and ductility at elevated temperature due to fine grain and suppression of grain growth by formation of thermally stable Al2Y intermetallic compound.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behaviors of the As-Extruded Mg-5Al-3Ca Alloys Containing Yttrium at Elevated Temperature.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeon-Taek; Kim, Yong-Ho; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Seong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Effects of yttrium (Y) addition on mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of the as-extruded Mg-Al-Ca based alloys at elevated temperature were investigated by a tensile test. After hot extrusion, the average grain size was refined by Y addition and eutectic phases were broken down into fine particles. Y addition to Mg-5Al-3Ca based alloy resulted in the improvement of strength and ductility at elevated temperature due to fine grain and suppression of grain growth by formation of thermally stable Al2Y intermetallic compound. PMID:27433675

  9. Residues 248-252 and 300-304 of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in its regulation by phospholemman.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Song, Jianliang; Ji, Angi M; Chan, Tung O; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2011-10-01

    Using split cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1), we previously demonstrated that phospholemman (PLM) regulates NCX1 by interacting with the proximal linker domain (residues 218-358) of the intracellular loop of NCX1. With the use of overlapping loop deletion mutants, interaction sites are localized to two regions spanning residues 238-270 and residues 300-328 of NCX1. In this study, we used alanine (Ala) linker scanning to pinpoint the residues in the proximal linker domain involved in regulation of NCX1 by PLM. Transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells with wild-type (WT) NCX1 or its Ala mutants but not empty vector resulted in NCX1 current (I(NaCa)). Coexpression of PLM with WT NCX1 inhibited I(NaCa). Mutating residues 248-252 (PASKT) or 300-304 (QKHPD) in WT NCX1 to Ala resulted in loss of inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM. By contrast, inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM was preserved when residues 238-242, 243-247, 253-257, 258-262, 263-267, 305-309, 310-314, 315-319, 320-324, or 325-329 were mutated to Ala. While mutating residue 301 to alanine completely abolished PLM inhibition, mutation of any single residue 250-252, 300, or 302-304 resulted in partial reduction in inhibition. Mutating residues 248-252 to Ala resulted in significantly weaker association with PLM. The NCX1-G503P mutant that lacks Ca(2+)-dependent activation retained its sensitivity to PLM. We conclude that residues 248-252 and 300-304 in the proximal linker domain of NCX1 were involved in its inhibition by PLM.

  10. Thermodynamics of Complex Sulfide Inclusion Formation in Ca-Treated Al-Killed Structural Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yin-tao; He, Sheng-ping; Chen, Gu-jun; Wang, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Controlling the morphology of the sulfide inclusion is of vital importance in enhancing the properties of structural steel. Long strip-shaped sulfides in hot-rolled steel can spherize when, instead of the inclusion of pure single-phase MnS, the guest is a complex sulfide, such as an oxide-sulfide duplex and a solid-solution sulfide particle. In this study, the inclusions in a commercial rolled structural steel were investigated. Spherical and elongated oxide-sulfide duplex as well as single-phase (Mn,Ca)S solid solution inclusions were observed in the steel. A thermodynamic equilibrium between the oxide and sulfide inclusions was proposed to understand the oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion formation. Based on the equilibrium solidification principle, thermodynamic discussions on inclusion precipitation during the solidification process were performed for both general and resulfurized structural steel. The predicted results of the present study agreed well with the experimental ones.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  12. Thermodynamics of open networks: Ordering and entropy in NaAlSiO4 glass, liquid, and polymorphs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richet, P.; Robie, R.A.; Rogez, J.; Hemingway, B.S.; Courtial, P.; Tequi, C.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of carnegieite and NaAlSiO4 glass and liquid have been investigated through Cp determinations from 10 to 1800 K and solution-calorimetry measurements. The relative entropies S298-S0 of carnegieite and NaAlSiO4 glass are 118.7 and 124.8 J/mol K, respectively. The low-high carnegieite transition has been observed at 966 K with an enthalpy of transition of 8.1??0.3 kJ/mol, and the enthalpy of fusion of carnegieite at the congruent melting point of 1799 K is 21.7??3 kJ/mol. These results are consistent with the reported temperature of the nepheline-carnegieite transition and available thermodynamic data for nepheline. The entropy of quenched NaAlSiO4 glass at 0 K is 9.7??2 J/mol K and indicates considerable ordering among AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra. In the liquid state, progressive, temperature-induced Si, Al disordering could account for the high configurational heat capacity. Finally, the differences between the entropies and heat capacities of nepheline and carnegieite do not seem to conform to current polyhedral modeling of these properties ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  13. A study of the effect of Al2O3 reflector on response function of NaI(Tl) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Hoang Duc; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Thanh, Tran Thien; Van Tao, Chau

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of Al2O3 reflector surrounding the NaI(Tl) crystal on the detector response function, based on Monte Carlo simulation, which can verify the precise model of the NaI(Tl) detector. The method used in determining the suitable thickness of Al2O3 reflector is to compare the calculated and experimental values of full-energy peak efficiency. The results show that the Al2O3 reflector should have a thickness of 0.8-1.2 mm for the maximum deviation between the experimental and simulated efficiency of 3.2% at all concerning energies. In addition, the obtained results are in good agreement with the response function of simulation and experimental spectra.

  14. SEM, EDS and vibrational spectroscopic study of dawsonite NaAl(CO3)(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Sampaio, Ney Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Fernando A. N.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we have studied the mineral dawsonite by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with EDS and vibrational spectroscopy. Single crystals show an acicular habitus forming aggregates with a rosette shape. The chemical analysis shows a phase composed of C, Al, and Na. Two distinct Raman bands at 1091 and 1068 cm-1 are assigned to the CO32- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Multiple bands are observed in both the Raman and infrared spectra in the antisymmetric stretching and bending regions showing that the symmetry of the carbonate anion is reduced and in all probability the carbonate anions are not equivalent in the dawsonite structure. Multiple OH deformation vibrations centred upon 950 cm-1 in both the Raman and infrared spectra show that the OH units in the dawsonite structure are non-equivalent. Raman bands observed at 3250, 3283 and 3295 cm-1 are assigned to OH stretching vibrations. The position of these bands indicates strong hydrogen bonding of the OH units in the dawsonite structure. The formation of the mineral dawsonite has the potential to offer a mechanism for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

  15. A comparative study of K-rich and Na/Ca-rich feldspar ice-nucleating particles in a nanoliter droplet freezing assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peckhaus, Andreas; Kiselev, Alexei; Hiron, Thibault; Ebert, Martin; Leisner, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A recently designed droplet freezing assay was used to study the freezing of up to 1500 identical 0.2 nL water droplets containing suspensions of one Na/Ca-rich feldspar and three K-rich and one Na/Ca-rich feldspar particles. Three types of experiments have been conducted: cooling ramp, isothermal freezing at a constant temperature, and freeze-thaw cycles. The observed freezing behavior has been interpreted with the help of a model based on the classical nucleation theory (soccer ball model (SBM); Niedermeier et al., 2015). By applying the model to the different freezing experiments conducted with the same ice-nucleating material, the unique sets of model parameters for specific feldspar suspensions could be derived. The SBM was shown to adequately describe the observed cooling rate dependence, the ice-nucleating active sites (INAS) surface density ns(T) in a wide temperature range, and the shift of the freezing curves towards lower temperature with dilution. Moreover, the SBM was capable of reproducing the variation of INAS surface density ns(T) with concentration of ice-nucleating particles in the suspension droplets and correctly predicting the leveling-off of ns(T) at low temperature. The freeze-thaw experiments have clearly shown that the heterogeneous freezing induced even by very active ice-nucleating species still possesses a stochastic nature, with the degree of randomness increasing towards homogeneous nucleation. A population of the high-temperature INAS has been identified in one of the K-rich feldspar samples. The freezing of 0.8 wt % suspension droplets of this particular feldspar was observed already at -5 °C. These high-temperature active sites could be deactivated by treating the sample with hydrogen peroxide but survived heating up to 90 °C. Given a high mass concentration of these high-temperature active sites (2.9 × 108 g-1) and a very low value of contact angle (0.56 rad) the possibility of biological contamination of the sample was

  16. (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2: A new charge and spin doping decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductors with CaAl2Si2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new bulk diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor via Na and Mn co-doping in SrCd2As2 with a hexagonal CaAl2Si2-type structure. Together with carrier doping via (Sr,Na) substitution, spin doping via (Cd,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature of TC up to 13 K. Negative magnetoresistance is assigned to weak localization at low temperatures, where the magnetization of samples becomes saturated. The hexagonal structure of (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2 can be acted as a promising candidate for spin manipulations owing to its relatively small coercive field of less than 24 Oe.

  17. Aluminum resistance in wheat involves maintenance of leaf Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content, decreased lipid peroxidation and Al accumulation, and low photosystem II excitation pressure.

    PubMed

    Moustaka, Julietta; Ouzounidou, Georgia; Bayçu, Gülriz; Moustakas, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The phytotoxic aluminum species (Al(3+)) is considered as the primary factor limiting crop productivity in over 40 % of world's arable land that is acidic. We evaluated the responses of two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) with differential Al resistance, cv. Yecora E (Al-resistant) and cv. Dio (Al-sensitive), exposed to 0, 37, 74 and 148 μM Al for 14 days in hydroponic culture at pH 4.5. With increasing Al concentration, leaf Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content decreased, as well as the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Φ PSII ), while a gradual increase in leaf membrane lipid peroxidation, Al accumulation, photoinhibition (estimated as F v /F m ), and PSII excitation pressure (1 - q p ) occurred. However, the Al-resistant cultivar with lower Al accumulation, retained larger concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the leaves and kept a larger fraction of the PSII reaction centres (RCs) in an open configuration, i.e. a higher ratio of oxidized to reduced quinone A (QA), than plants of the Al-sensitive cultivar. Four times higher Al concentration in the nutrient solution was required for Al-resistant plants (148 μM Al) than for Al-sensitive (37 μM Al), in order to establish the same closed RCs. Yet, the decline in photosynthetic efficiency in the cultivar Dio was not only due to closure of PSII RCs but also to a decrease in the quantum yield of the open RCs. We suggest that Al(3+) toxicity may be mediated by nutrient deficiency and oxidative stress, and that Al-resistance of the wheat cultivar Yecora E, may be due at least partially, from the decreased Al accumulation that resulted to decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. However, under equal internal Al accumulation (exposure Al concentration: Dio 74 μM, Yecora E 148 μM) that resulted to the same oxidative stress, the reduced PSII excitation pressure and the better PSII functioning of the Al-resistant cultivar was probably due to the larger concentrations of Ca

  18. Hillesheimite, (K,Ca,□)2(Mg,Fe,Ca,□)2[(Si,Al)13O23(OH)6](OH) · 8H2O, a new phyllosilicate mineral of the Günterblassite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.; Blass, G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, hillesheimite, has been found in the Graulai basaltic quarry, near the town of Hillesheim, the Eifel Mountains, Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Germany. It occurs in the late assemblage comprising nepheline, augite, fluorapatite, magnetite, perovskite, priderite, götzenite, lamprophyllite-group minerals, and åkermanite. Colorless flattened crystals of hillesheimite reaching 0.2 × 1 × 1.5 mm in size and aggregates of the crystals occur in miarolitic cavities in alkali basalt. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hard-ness 4. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and distinct on (100) and (001). D calc = 2.174 g/cm3, D meas = 2.16(1) g/cm3. IR spectrum is given. Hillesheimite is biaxial (-), α = 1.496(2), β = 1.498(2), γ = 1.499(2), 2 V meas = 80°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of 4 point analyses, H2O determined from structural data, wt %) is as follows: 0.24 Na2O, 4.15 K2O, 2.14 MgO, 2.90 CaO, 2.20 BaO, 2.41 FeO, 15.54 Al2O3, 52.94 SiO2, 19.14 H2O, total is 101.65. The empirical formula is: K0.96Na0.08Ba0.16Ca0.56Mg0.58Fe{0.37/2+}[Si9.62Al3.32O23(OH)6][(OH)0.82(H2O)0.18] · 8H2O. The crystal structure has been determined from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, R = 0.1735. Hillesheimite is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 6.979(11), b = 37.1815(18), c = 6.5296(15) Å; V=1694(3) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure is based on the block [(Si,Al)13O25(OH)4] consisting of three single tetrahedral layers linked via common vertices and is topologically identical to the triple layers in günterblassite and umbrianite. The strong reflections [ d Å ( I %)] in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are: 6.857(58), 6.545(100), 6.284(53), 4.787(96), 4.499(59), 3.065(86), 2.958(62), 2.767(62). The mineral was named after its type locality. Type specimens are deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4174/1.

  19. Nitric oxide regulates cardiac intracellular Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ by modulating Na/K ATPase via PKCε and phospholemman-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Davor; Hall, Andrew R; Kennington, Erika J; Aughton, Karen; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Fuller, William; Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M; Shattock, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    In the heart, Na/K-ATPase regulates intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) (via NCX), thereby preventing Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload and arrhythmias. Here, we test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) regulates cardiac intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) and investigate mechanisms and physiological consequences involved. Effects of both exogenous NO (via NO-donors) and endogenously synthesized NO (via field-stimulation of ventricular myocytes) were assessed in this study. Field stimulation of rat ventricular myocytes significantly increased endogenous NO (18 ± 2 μM), PKCε activation (82 ± 12%), phospholemman phosphorylation (at Ser-63 and Ser-68) and Na/K-ATPase activity (measured by DAF-FM dye, western-blotting and biochemical assay, respectively; p<0.05, n=6) and all were abolished by Ca(2+)-chelation (EGTA 10mM) or NOS inhibition l-NAME (1mM). Exogenously added NO (spermine-NONO-ate) stimulated Na/K-ATPase (EC50=3.8 μM; n=6/grp), via decrease in Km, in PLM(WT) but not PLM(KO) or PLM(3SA) myocytes (where phospholemman cannot be phosphorylated) as measured by whole-cell perforated-patch clamp. Field-stimulation with l-NAME or PKC-inhibitor (2 μM Bis) resulted in elevated intracellular Na(+) (22 ± 1.5 and 24 ± 2 respectively, vs. 14 ± 0.6mM in controls) in SBFI-AM-loaded rat myocytes. Arrhythmia incidence was significantly increased in rat hearts paced in the presence of l-NAME (and this was reversed by l-arginine), as well as in PLM(3SA) mouse hearts but not PLM(WT) and PLM(KO). We provide physiological and biochemical evidence for a novel regulatory pathway whereby NO activates Na/K-ATPase via phospholemman phosphorylation and thereby limits Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload and arrhythmias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes".

  20. An x-ray photoemission electron microscopy study of the formation of Ti-Al phases in 4 mol% TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 during high energy ball milling.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Tabbetha; Abrecht, Mike; Uprety, Youaraj; Moore, Kristan

    2009-05-20

    This study reports reaction pathways to form TiAlx metallic complexes during the high energy ball milling of 4 mol% TiCl3 with NaAlH4 powders determined using local structure analysis of Tix+ and Alx+ species. Using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), the oxidation state of Alx+ and Tix+ and the crystalline compounds existing in equilibrium with NaAlH4 were tracked for samples milled for times of 0 (i.e. mixing), 5, and 25 min. XPEEM analysis of the Al K edge after 5 min of milling reveals that Al remains in the 3+ oxidation state (i.e. in NaAlH4) around Ti0-rich regions of the sample. After 25 min of high energy milling, Ti0 has reacted with Al3+ (in nearby NaAlH4) to form TiAlx complexes. This study reports the pathway for TiAlx complex formation during milling of 4 mol% TiCl3catalyzed NaAlH4 to be as follows: (1) Ti3+ reduces to Ti0 (with Al3+ near Ti0 regions) and (2) Ti0 reacts with Al3+ in NaAlH4 to form TiAlx complexes.

  1. An x-ray photoemission electron microscopy study of the formation of Ti-Al phases in 4 mol% TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 during high energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, Tabbetha; Abrecht, Mike; Uprety, Youaraj; Moore, Kristan

    2009-05-01

    This study reports reaction pathways to form TiAlx metallic complexes during the high energy ball milling of 4 mol% TiCl3 with NaAlH4 powders determined using local structure analysis of Tix+ and Alx+ species. Using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), the oxidation state of Alx+ and Tix+ and the crystalline compounds existing in equilibrium with NaAlH4 were tracked for samples milled for times of 0 (i.e. mixing), 5, and 25 min. XPEEM analysis of the Al K edge after 5 min of milling reveals that Al remains in the 3+ oxidation state (i.e. in NaAlH4) around Ti0-rich regions of the sample. After 25 min of high energy milling, Ti0 has reacted with Al3+ (in nearby NaAlH4) to form TiAlx complexes. This study reports the pathway for TiAlx complex formation during milling of 4 mol% TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 to be as follows: (1) Ti3+ reduces to Ti0 (with Al3+ near Ti0 regions) and (2) Ti0 reacts with Al3+ in NaAlH4 to form TiAlx complexes.

  2. Analysis of SO2 sorption capacity of rice husk ash (RHA)/CaO/NaOH sorbents using response surface methodology (RSM): untreated and pretreated RHA.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Irvan; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-03-01

    The SO2 sorption capacity (SSC) of sorbents prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) with NaOH as additive was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The sorbents were prepared using a water hydration method by slurrying RHA, CaO, and NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite face centered design (CCFCD) was employed in the synthesis of the sorbents. The correlation between the sorbent SSC (as response) with four independent sorbent preparation variables, i.e. hydration period, RHA/CaO ratio, NaOH amount, and drying temperature, were presented as empirical mathematical models. Among all the variables studied, the amount of NaOH used was found to be the most significant variable affecting the SSC of the sorbents prepared. The SSC for sorbent prepared with the addition of NaOH was found to be significantly higher than sorbents prepared without NaOH. This is probably because NaOH is a deliquescent material, and its existence increases the amount of water collected on the surface of the sorbent, a condition required for sorbent-SO2 reaction to occur at low temperature. The effect of further treatment of RHA at 600 degrees C was also investigated. Although pretreated RHA sorbents demonstrated higher SSC as compared to untreated RHA sorbents, nevertheless, at optimum conditions, sorbents prepared from untreated RHA was found to be more favorable due to practical and economic concerns.

  3. Analysis of SO2 sorption capacity of rice husk ash (RHA)/CaO/NaOH sorbents using response surface methodology (RSM): untreated and pretreated RHA.

    PubMed

    Dahlan, Irvan; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-03-01

    The SO2 sorption capacity (SSC) of sorbents prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) with NaOH as additive was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The sorbents were prepared using a water hydration method by slurrying RHA, CaO, and NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite face centered design (CCFCD) was employed in the synthesis of the sorbents. The correlation between the sorbent SSC (as response) with four independent sorbent preparation variables, i.e. hydration period, RHA/CaO ratio, NaOH amount, and drying temperature, were presented as empirical mathematical models. Among all the variables studied, the amount of NaOH used was found to be the most significant variable affecting the SSC of the sorbents prepared. The SSC for sorbent prepared with the addition of NaOH was found to be significantly higher than sorbents prepared without NaOH. This is probably because NaOH is a deliquescent material, and its existence increases the amount of water collected on the surface of the sorbent, a condition required for sorbent-SO2 reaction to occur at low temperature. The effect of further treatment of RHA at 600 degrees C was also investigated. Although pretreated RHA sorbents demonstrated higher SSC as compared to untreated RHA sorbents, nevertheless, at optimum conditions, sorbents prepared from untreated RHA was found to be more favorable due to practical and economic concerns. PMID:18441794

  4. Production of NaCa+ molecular ions in the ground state from cold atom-ion mixtures by photoassociation via an intermediate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Montgomery, John A.; Michels, H. Harvey; Côté, Robin

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of optical pathways for formation of cold ground-state (NaCa) + molecular ions via an intermediate state. The formation schemes are based on ab initio potential energy curves and transition dipole moments calculated using effective-core-potential methods of quantum chemistry. In the proposed approach, starting from a mixture of cold trapped Ca+ ions immersed into an ultracold gas of Na atoms, (NaCa) + molecular ions are photoassociated in the excited E +1Σ electronic state and allowed to spontaneously decay either to the ground electronic state or an intermediate state from which the population is transferred to the ground state via an additional optical excitation. By analyzing all possible pathways, we find that the efficiency of a two-photon scheme, via either the B +1Σ or C +1Σ potential, is sufficient to produce significant quantities of ground-state (NaCa) + molecular ions. A single-step process results in lower formation rates that would require either a high-density sample or a very intense photoassociation laser to be viable.

  5. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  6. In vitro growth and organogenesis of Prosopis farcta plantlets (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in culture medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca++ and Na+.

    PubMed

    Stambouli, S; Bouzid, S; Dutuit, P; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to vary the mineral composition of the culture medium of Prosopis farcta seedlings per addition of Na+ and Ca++ ions with the aim to identify the culture media which support the growth and/or the expression of the in vitro plant organogenesis. The Na+ and Ca++ ions were added in the culture medium in various concentrations by taking the Gamborg medium, in which macroelements were diluted 10 times, as the basic one. After two months of culture, parameters relating to the vegetative development of plant seedlings and to the various expressions of organogenesis were measured. Weak concentrations in sodium and calcium ions as well as a weak concentration in Ca++ (0.1 mM) with 50 mM in Na+ support the best vegetative development of the plantlets. The most important percentage of plant seedlings presenting a bud initiation was obtained on a medium containing 0.1 mM of Na+ and 50 mM of Ca++. Our study defined several media likely to support in vitro development of Prosopis farcta plantlets allowing the selection of salt tolerant plants or cellular lines. Some other media were chosen for improving micropropagation of the species without adding growth substances.

  7. Role of Na(+)-H(+) exchange in the modulation of L-type Ca(2+) current during fluid pressure in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Chul; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    Application of fluid pressure (FP) using pressurized fluid flow suppresses the L-type Ca(2+) current through both enhancement of Ca(2+) release and intracellular acidosis in ventricular myocytes. As FP-induced intracellular acidosis is more severe during the inhibition of Na(+)-H(+) exchange (NHE), we examined the possible role of NHE in the regulation of I(Ca) during FP exposure using HOE642 (cariporide), a specific NHE inhibitor. A flow of pressurized (~16 dyn/cm(2)) fluid was applied onto single rat ventricular myocytes, and the I(Ca) was monitored using a whole-cell patch-clamp under HEPES-buffered conditions. In cells pre-exposed to FP, additional treatment with HOE642 dose-dependently suppressed the I(Ca) (IC(50) = 0.97 ± 0.12 μM) without altering current-voltage relationships and inactivation time constants. In contrast, the I(Ca) in control cells was not altered by HOE642. The HOE642 induced a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve. The suppressive effect of HOE642 on the I(Ca) under FP was not altered by intracellular high Ca(2+) buffering. Replacement of external Cl(-) with aspartate to inhibit the Cl(-)-dependent acid loader eliminated the inhibitory effect of HOE642 on I(Ca). These results suggest that NHE may attenuate FP-induced I(Ca) suppression by preventing intracellular H(+) accumulation in rat ventricular myocytes and that NHE activity may not be involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of the I(Ca) during FP exposure. PMID:23313474

  8. Dechlorination of hazardous wastes Ca/NH{sub 3}, Na/NH{sub 3} and borohydride reductions and by thermolysis over solid bases

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, C.U. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The dechlorination of PCBs, pentachlorophenol, CAHs, and pesticides has been carried out at 35{degrees}C by Ca/NH{sub 3} or Na/NH{sub 3} and at 68{degrees}C by NaBH{sub 2}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}/NiX{sub 2} salts in THF. Remarkably, PCB-contaminated soils (clay, sandy loam) are remediated within one min at 35{degrees}C (99.9+% PCB destruction) by solvated electrons present in soil/Ca/NH{sub 3} slurries. Wet soils (>25% H{sub 2}O) are decontaminated using Ca stoichiometries far lower than the H{sub 2}O present. Alternatively, PCBs, for example, can be dechlorinated to polyhydroxylatedbiphenols by heating at 250-400{degrees}C over solid CaO/Ca(OH){sub 2}, MgO/Mg(OH){sub 2}, BaO/Ba(OH){sub 2}, KOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The benzyne mechanism was implicated at 375{degrees}C. More highly chlorinated congeners are destroyed more rapidly while the 2,2{prime}-dichloro- and 2-chloro-congeners are most resistant.

  9. Photocatalytic characteristics for the nanocrystalline TiO2 on the Ag-doped CaAl2O4:(Eu,Nd) phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Sung, Hyun-Je; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of nanocrystalline TiO2 deposited on Ag-doped long-lasting phosphor (CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+). The CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor powders were prepared via conventional sintering using CaCO3, Al2O3, Eu2O3, and Nd2O3 as raw materials according to the appropriate molar ratios. Silver nanoparticles were loaded on the phosphor by mixing with an aqueous Ag-dispersion solution. Nanocrystalline TiO2 was deposited on Ag-doped CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powders via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The TiO2 coated on the phosphor was actively photo-reactive under irradiation with visible light and showed much faster benzene degradation than pure TiO2, which is almost non-reactive. The coupling of TiO2 with phosphor may result in an energy band bending in the junction region, which then induces the TiO2 crystal at the interface to be photo-reactive under irradiation with visible light. In addition, the intermetallic compound of CaTiO3 that formed at the interface between TiO2 and the CaAl2O4:(Eu2+,Nd3+) phosphor results in the formation of oxygen vacancies and additional electrons that promote the photodecomposition of benzene gas. The addition of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic reactivity of the TiO2/CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor. TiO2 on the Ag-doped phosphor presented a higher benzene gas decomposition rate than the TiO2 did on the phosphor without Ag-doping under both irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light.

  10. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na+ and Ca2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, D.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Ravestyn, L.

    2016-02-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca2 + promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC.

  11. Roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms NCX1 and NCX2 in motility in mouse ileum.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Morioka, Ai; Yoshida, Natsuho; Teramoto, Midori; Tanioka, Kohta; Kita, Satomi; Hayashi, Satomi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a plasma membrane transporter that is involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in various tissues. The physiological roles by which NCX influences gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood, although its role in the heart, brain, and kidney has been widely investigated. In this study, we focused on the functions of the NCX isoforms, NCX1 and NCX2, in the motility of the ileum in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the response to electric field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum obtained from wild-type mice (WT), NCX1-heterozygote knockout mice (NCX1 HET), NCX2 HET and smooth muscle-specific NCX1.3 transgenic mice (NCX1.3 Tg). EFS induced a phasic contraction that persisted during EFS and a tonic contraction that occurred after the end of EFS. We found that the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were significantly smaller in NCX2 HET, but not in NCX1 HET, compared to WT. Moreover, the magnitudes of acetylcholine (ACh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contractions of NCX2 HET, but not of NCX1 HET, were smaller compared to WT. In contrast, the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were greater in NCX1.3 Tg compared to WT. Similar to EFS, the magnitude of ACh-induced contraction was greater in NCX1.3 Tg than in WT. Taken together, our findings indicated that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in ileal motility and suggest that NCX1 and NCX2 regulate the motility in the ileum by controlling the sensitivity of smooth muscles to ACh and SP.

  12. The participation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in primary cardiac myofibroblast migration, contraction, and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Joshua E; Komljenovic, Jelena; Chang, Rose; Deng, Cicie; Bedosky, Kristen M; Rattan, Sunil G; Cunnington, Ryan H; Freed, Darren H; Dixon, Ian M C

    2007-11-01

    Cardiac ventricular myofibroblast motility, proliferation, and contraction contribute to post-myocardial infarct wound healing, infarct scar formation, and remodeling of the ventricle remote to the site of infarction. The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) is involved in altered calcium handling in cardiac myocytes during cardiac remodeling associated with heart failure, however, its role in cardiac myofibroblast cell function is unexplored. In this study we investigated the involvement of NCX1 as well as the role of non-selective-cation channels (NSCC) in cardiac myofibroblast cell function in vitro. Immunofluorescence and Western blots revealed that P1 cells upregulate alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA) and embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMemb) expression. NCX1 mRNA and proteins as well as Ca(v)1.2a protein are also expressed in P1 myofibroblasts. Myofibroblast motility in the presence of 50 ng/ml PDGF-BB was blocked with AG1296. Myofibroblast motility, contraction, and proliferation were sensitive to KB-R7943, a specific NCX1 reverse-mode inhibitor. In contrast, only proliferation and contraction, but not motility were sensitive to nifedipine, while gadolinium (NSCC blocker) was only associated with decreased motility. ML-7 treatment was associated with inhibition of the chemotactic response and contraction. Thus cardiac myofibroblast chemotaxis, contraction, and proliferation were sensitive to different pharmacologic treatments suggesting that regulation of transplasmalemmal calcium movements may be important in growth factor receptor-mediated processes. NCX1 may represent an important moiety in suppression of myofibroblast functions. PMID:17541957

  13. Increased Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity promotes resistance to excitotoxicity in cortical neurons of the ground squirrel (a Hibernator).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Shan; Jing, Jun-Zhan; Zhu, Ming-Yue; Zhou, Chen; Chai, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Ground squirrel, a hibernating mammalian species, is more resistant to ischemic brain stress than rat. Gaining insight into the adaptive mechanisms of ground squirrels may help us design treatment strategies to reduce brain damage in patients suffering ischemic stroke. To understand the anti-stress mechanisms in ground squirrel neurons, we studied glutamate toxicity in primary cultured neurons of the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus). At the neuronal level, for the first time, we found that ground squirrel was more resistant to glutamate excitotoxicity than rat. Mechanistically, ground squirrel neurons displayed a similar calcium influx to the rat neurons in response to glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) perfusion. However, the rate of calcium removal in ground squirrel neurons was markedly faster than in rat neurons. This allows ground squirrel neurons to maintain lower level of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) upon glutamate insult. Moreover, we found that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity was higher in ground squirrel neurons than in rat neurons. We also proved that overexpression of ground squirrel NCX2, rather than NCX1 or NCX3, in rat neurons promoted neuron survival against glutamate toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that ground squirrel neurons are better at maintaining calcium homeostasis than rat neurons and this is likely achieved through the activity of ground squirrel NCX2. Our findings not only reveal an adaptive mechanism of mammalian hibernators at the cellular level, but also suggest that NCX2 of ground squirrel may have therapeutic value for suppressing brain ischemic damage.

  14. Roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms NCX1 and NCX2 in motility in mouse ileum.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Morioka, Ai; Yoshida, Natsuho; Teramoto, Midori; Tanioka, Kohta; Kita, Satomi; Hayashi, Satomi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a plasma membrane transporter that is involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in various tissues. The physiological roles by which NCX influences gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood, although its role in the heart, brain, and kidney has been widely investigated. In this study, we focused on the functions of the NCX isoforms, NCX1 and NCX2, in the motility of the ileum in the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the response to electric field stimulation (EFS) in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the ileum obtained from wild-type mice (WT), NCX1-heterozygote knockout mice (NCX1 HET), NCX2 HET and smooth muscle-specific NCX1.3 transgenic mice (NCX1.3 Tg). EFS induced a phasic contraction that persisted during EFS and a tonic contraction that occurred after the end of EFS. We found that the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were significantly smaller in NCX2 HET, but not in NCX1 HET, compared to WT. Moreover, the magnitudes of acetylcholine (ACh)- and substance P (SP)-induced contractions of NCX2 HET, but not of NCX1 HET, were smaller compared to WT. In contrast, the amplitudes of the phasic and tonic contractions were greater in NCX1.3 Tg compared to WT. Similar to EFS, the magnitude of ACh-induced contraction was greater in NCX1.3 Tg than in WT. Taken together, our findings indicated that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in ileal motility and suggest that NCX1 and NCX2 regulate the motility in the ileum by controlling the sensitivity of smooth muscles to ACh and SP. PMID:27411318

  15. Laser deposited biocompatible Ca-P coatings on Ti-6Al-4V: microstructural evolution and thermal modeling.

    PubMed

    Nag, Soumya; Paital, Sameer R; Nandawana, Peeyush; Mahdak, Kristopher; Ho, Yee Hsien; Vora, Hitesh D; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2013-01-01

    A high intensity continuous wave diode pumped ytterbium laser source was used to deposit Ca-P coatings on a Ti-6Al-4V biocompatible alloy in order to generate a physically textured surface, enhancing osseointegration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) studies were coupled with X-ray and micro diffraction work to determine the structure, composition, and phases present in various zones of a sample prepared across the coating/substrate interaction zone. Three-dimensional thermal modeling was also carried out to determine the cooling rate and maximum temperature experienced by different regions of the substrate. Combining these results provide us with valuable insights regarding the thermo-physical as well as chemical interactions that take place across the coating-substrate interface.

  16. Study of photoluminescence properties of CaAl2O4: Eu2+ prepared by combustion synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingwe, V. S.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Eu2+ doped alkaline earth metals such as strontium aluminate, calcium aluminate and barium aluminate prepared by using modified combustion synthesis method at 600°c with Urea as fuel. Crystal structure is determined by using XRD and the sample confirmation by using the FTIR. The effect of the host material on the photoluminescence (PL) and phosphorescence properties were studied by using the Hitachi F-7000 spectrofluorimeter equipped with a 450W Xenon lamp, in the range 200-650 nm. The emission spectra of Eu2+ range from 450 to 500nm in the Blue to aqua region and the transition 4f7-4f6 5d1. The observed emission in CaAl2O4 is 440nm.

  17. Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser with tunable wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ziye; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Wei, Zhiyi; Xu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a wavelength tunable Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Yb:CaGdAlO4 (Yb:CGA) crystal. The Kerr-lens mode-locked wavelength tuning range was from 1043.5 to 1076 nm, as broad as 32.5 nm, by slightly tilting the end mirror. Pulses as short as 60 fs were generated at the central wavelength of 1043.8 nm with an average output power of 66 mW. By using an output coupler with 1.5% transmittance, the Kerr-lens mode-locked average output power reached 127 mW with a pulse duration of 81 fs at a central wavelength of 1049.5 nm.

  18. Freshwater transport forms of Na, Mg, and Ca in streams of adjacent headwater catchments composed of differing vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terajima, T.; Moriizumi, M.

    2012-04-01

    To understand the freshwater transport forms of major metals, concentrations of Na, Mg, Ca, Si, and fulvic acid-like materials (FAM) were measured in streams of headwater catchments with differing vegetation (coniferous and deciduous forests). The proportion of non-ionic forms (NIF) relative to total elements in the coniferous and deciduous catchments ranged from 0% to 40% and from 0% to 70%, respectively, in baseflows, and from 5% to 60% and from 20% to 60%, respectively, in stormflows. In the baseflows, NIF and total Si (T-Si) were highly correlated (r > 0.9) in both catchments. In contrast, in the stormflows, T-Si and FAM showed a good correlation (r > 0.8) in both catchments, implying that stormflow may have enhanced organic-inorganic binding. However, in the coniferous catchment, good correlations (r > 0.8) between NIF and T-Si or FAM were associated with only the rising limb of the hydrograph, whereas in the deciduous catchment, good correlations (r > 0.8) were associated with both the rising and falling limbs. These results indicate that: (1) under low-flow conditions, major metals may form binding with clay minerals and thus be transported as NIF, (2) storm events may enhance the binding of clay minerals with humic substances, (3) in the coniferous catchment, the complexation of NIF with the organic-inorganic binding and their transport in stormflows are associated with the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas NIF transport during the falling limb may reflect the effect of other materials, and (4) in the deciduous catchment, NIF transport may occur mainly in association with organic-inorganic binding throughout a storm event. These findings show that active binding of Na, Mg, and Ca in freshwater environments with organic and inorganic substances, under the effect of differing vegetation on that binding, should be carefully examined in studies of chemical hydrology in headwater catchments. Key words: fulvic acid, major metal, complexation, humic

  19. Composition and mineralogy of refractory-metal-rich assemblages from a Ca,Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, A. Institut fuer Mineralogie, Muenster ); Palme, H. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors have separated four refractory metal-rich samples (10 {mu}g to 190 {mu}g) from a single Ca,Al-inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Chemical analyses were performed by INAA. From the analyzed samples polished sections were prepared. Mineral phases from six large Fremdlinge and the surrounding inclusion were analyzed by EDS. Three of the four separated samples have variable absolute but similar relative abundances of refractory metals. The pattern is controlled by volatility. The most refractory metals W, Os, and Re are enriched relative to the less refractory metals Ir, Mo, Ru, and Pt. This pattern can be reproduced by condensation calculations. A metal alloy in equilibrium with a gas of solar composition at a temperature of 1672 K, a pressure of 10{sup {minus}3} atm, and an H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}-ratio of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} would have the same abundance pattern. All six Fremdlinge have similar texture and mineralogy. They are composed of Ni-rich metal containing 2-9% Ir, surrounded by a fine-grained intergrowth of V-magnetite and FeS. The Ni-Fe metal poikilitically encloses tiny Os-particles, domains of a W- and Mo-rich solid solution (Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}) and V-magnetite. Based on chemical and textural information obtained in this study the formation of these aggregates in four steps is suggested: (1) condensation of a refractory metal alloys (W, Os, Re, Ir, Mo, Ru); (2) oxidation of the refractory metal alloy, allowing formation of Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}; (3) condensation of Ni-rich metal and V-magnetite at high oxygen fugacity (relative to the f{sub O{sub 2}} in a solar gas); (4) reaction of the existing assemblage with S to form FeS at lower temperatures.

  20. Thermal equation of state of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueda, Yuichiro; Irifune, Tetsuo; Sanehira, Takeshi; Yagi, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Kikegawa, Takumi; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-05-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4 have been conducted at pressures up to 42 GPa and temperatures to 2400 K using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus with sintered diamond anvils. Additional measurements have also been conducted at pressures to 12 GPa using diamond anvil cell with helium as a pressure medium at room temperature, and at temperatures to 836 K at the ambient pressure using a high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. The analysis of room-temperature data yielded V0 = 240.1(2) Å 3, K0 = 205(6) GPa, and K0=4.1(3). A fit of the present data to high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) yielded (∂ K0/∂ T) P = -0.030(2) GPa/K and α0 = a0 + b0T with values of a0 = 1.96(13) × 10 -5 K -1 and b0 = 1.64(24) × 10 -8 K -2. The present data set was also fitted to Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) EOS and we obtained γ0 = 1.73(7), q = 2.03(37), and θ0 = 1546(104) K. Density changes of MORB have been estimated using the newly obtained thermoelastic parameters, assuming that the Al-rich phase in this composition possesses the CaFe 2O 4-type structure under the lower mantle P, T conditions. The calculated densities along geotherms for the normal mantle and subducting cold slabs are both significantly higher than those of typical seismological models, confirming the conclusion of some recent results on MORB by laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

  1. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm‑2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM.

  2. A Study of Electrochemical Machining of Ti-6Al-4V in NaNO3 solution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hansong; Gao, Chuanping; Wang, Guoqian; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2016-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is used in many industries including aviation, automobile manufacturing, and medical equipment, because of its low density, extraordinary corrosion resistance and high specific strength. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining method that allows applications to all kinds of metallic materials in regardless of their mechanical properties. It is widely applied to the machining of Ti-6Al-4V components, which usually takes place in a multicomponent electrolyte solution. In this study, a 10% NaNO3 solution was used to make multiple holes in Ti-6Al-4V sheets by through-mask electrochemical machining (TMECM). The polarization curve and current efficiency curve of this alloy were measured to understand the electrical properties of Ti-6Al-4V in a 10% NaNO3 solution. The measurements show that in a 10% NaNO3 solution, when the current density was above 6.56 A·cm−2, the current efficiency exceeded 100%. According to polarization curve and current efficiency curve, an orthogonal TMECM experiment was conducted on Ti-6Al-4V. The experimental results suggest that with appropriate process parameters, high-quality holes can be obtained in a 10% NaNO3 solution. Using the optimized process parameters, an array of micro-holes with an aperture of 2.52 mm to 2.57 mm and maximum roundness of 9 μm were produced using TMECM. PMID:27734951

  3. Formation condition of monohydrocalcite from CaCl2-MgCl2-Na2CO3 solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Risa; Munemoto, Takashi; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    Monohydrocalcite (MHC: CaCO3·H2O) is a rare mineral in geological settings. Its rare occurrence indicates that MHC forms in unique environmental conditions in nature. Both laboratory studies and natural observations have indicated that the formation of MHC requires magnesium in the solution in spite of the incompatibility of magnesium into the MHC structure. In this study, systematic syntheses from CaCl2-MgCl2-Na2CO3 solutions were conducted to elucidate MHC formation conditions and to clarify the role of magnesium in MHC formation. For this study, MHC was formed from mixing solutions of which the ratio of the total carbonate to calcium was higher than 1 in the presence of a certain amount of magnesium. The pH of the reacted solutions after the MHC formation was 9.8-11.0. The solid-phase magnesium contents in the formed precipitates were widely varied. MHC exhibits low crystallinity and small particle size when the ratio of magnesium to calcium in the solid was higher than 0.4. After MHC formation, ion activity products of the reacted solutions with respect to MgCO3·xH2O stoichiometry took almost constant values. The ion activity products were significantly higher than the solubility product of anhydrous MgCO3, but they were close to the solubility of nesquehonite, which indicates that MHC formation of requires paragenesis of the hydrous magnesium carbonate. To produce the hydrous magnesium carbonate simultaneously with MHC, the initial solution must contain magnesium and more CO32- than Ca2+, which is consistent with the formation conditions of MHC from the initial solution compositions. Magnesium ion possesses a high hydration energy. The hydrous magnesium carbonates surrounding MHC probably play a protective role for MHC in preventing its dehydration to anhydrous calcium carbonate. The solution chemistries of saline lakes of which the MHC formation was observed in nature are also at equilibrium or are oversaturated with respect to hydrous magnesium carbonates

  4. Aluminum fluxing salts: a critical review of the chemistry and structures of alkali aluminum halides. Information circular/1986. [System NaCl-KCl-AlCl/sub 3/-NaF-KF-AlF/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.; Groetsch, J.G.; Soboroff, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The publication reviews the structural characteristics of crystalline phases and phase equilibria data for the system NaCl-KCl-AlCl/sub 3/-NaF-KF-AlF/sub 3/, which encompasses a large number of molten salt fluxes currently used in aluminum recycling. Its purpose is to provide guidelines for research into the relationships between molten salt compositions and their physical properties, notably vapor pressures, densities, surface tensions, and viscosities, knowledge of which is essential to minimizing fluxing efficiencies and metal recovery and minimizing hazardous emissions and disposal problems. In addition, the report describes experimental determinations of sub-solidus compatibility relationships in the system, which is of the quaternary reciprocal type, containing 12 different stable 4-phase assemblages in the solid state. The compatibility diagram serves to define the important compositional planes across which important changes in properties are likely to occur.

  5. Core-shell-shell heterostructures of α-NaLuF4:Yb/Er@NaLuF4:Yb@MF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) with remarkably enhanced upconversion luminescence.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Liu, Xiuling; Lei, Pengpeng; Xu, Xia; Dong, Lile; Guo, Xianmin; Yan, Xingxu; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuyan; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Hongjie

    2016-07-01

    Core-shell-shell heterostructures of α-NaLuF4:Yb/Er@NaLuF4:Yb@MF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) have been successfully fabricated via the thermal decomposition method. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectroscopy, etc. Under 980 nm excitation, the emission intensities of the UCNPs are remarkably enhanced after coating the MF2 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba) shell. Among these samples, CaF2 coated UCNPs show the strongest overall emission, while BaF2 coated UCNPs exhibit the longest lifetime. These results demonstrate that alkaline earth metal fluorides are ideal materials to improve the UCL properties. Meanwhile, although the lattice mismatch between the ternary NaREF4 core and the binary MF2 (M = Sr and Ba) shell is relatively large, the successfully synthesized NaLuF4:Yb/Er@NaLuF4:Yb@MF2 indicates a new outlook on the fabrication of heterostructural core-shell UCNPs. PMID:27327414

  6. Fluoride evaporation and crystallization behavior of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-(TiO2) slag for electroslag remelting of Ti-containing steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cheng-bin; Cho, Jung-wook; Zheng, Ding-li; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the behavior of slag films in an electroslag remelting process, the fluoride evaporation and crystallization of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-(TiO2) slags were studied using the single hot thermocouple technique. The crystallization mechanism of TiO2-bearing slag was identified based on kinetic analysis. The fluoride evaporation and incubation time of crystallization in TiO2-free slag are found to considerably decrease with decreasing isothermal temperature down to 1503 K. Fish-bone and flower-like CaO crystals precipitate in TiO2-free slag melt, which is accompanied by CaF2 evaporation from slag melt above 1503 K. Below 1503 K, only near-spherical CaF2 crystals form with an incubation time of less than 1 s, and the crystallization is completed within 1 s. The addition of 8.1wt% TiO2 largely prevents the fluoride evaporation from slag melt and promotes the slag crystallization. TiO2 addition leads to the precipitation of needle-like perovskite (CaTiO3) crystals instead of CaO crystals in the slag. The crystallization of perovskite (CaTiO3) occurs by bulk nucleation and diffusion-controlled one-dimensional growth.

  7. Parameterization of the DFTB3 method for Br, Ca, Cl, F, I, K, and Na in organic and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kubillus, Maximilian; Kubař, Tomáš; Gaus, Michael; Řezáč, Jan; Elstner, Marcus

    2015-01-13

    We present an extension to the recent 3OB parametrization of the Density Functional Tight Binding Model DFTB31,2 for biological and organic systems. Parameters for the halogens F, Cl, Br, and I have been developed for use in covalently bound systems and benchmarked on a test set of 106 molecules (the ‘OrgX’ set), using bonding distances, bonding angles, atomization energies, and vibrational frequencies to assess the performance of the parameters. Additional testing has been done with the X40 set of 40 supramolecular systems containing halogens,3 adding a simple correction for the halogen bonds that are strongly overbound in DFTB3. Furthermore, parameters for Ca, K, and Na as counterions in biological systems have been created. To benchmark geometries as well as ligand binding energies a test set ‘BioMe’ of 210 molecules has been created that cover coordination to various functional groups frequently occurring in biological systems. The new DFTB3/3OB parameter set outperforms DFT calculations with a double-ζ basis set in terms of energies and can reproduce DFT geometries, with some minor deviations in bond distances and angles due to the use of a minimal basis set. PMID:26889515

  8. Na/Ca catalyzation of Illinois coals for gasification. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Gasification for power generation via IGCC processes is expected to become an important market for high sulfur Illinois Basin coals. Fluid-bed gasifiers have significant advantages over entrained flow processes. These advantages include ease of control, large turndown capacity, high thermal efficiency, and moderate oxygen and steam requirements. Three of the most pressing technical problems in fluid-bed gasification of Illinois coals are the caking tendency, high sulfur content, and low carbon conversion and consequent large char recycle required in most systems. This program explores the use of gasification catalysts to attack these three problems. The catalysts are sodium/calcium mixtures. Another advantage of using catalysts is that gasification temperature might be lowered, leading to less expensive materials of construction and a reduction in alkali vaporization. The results of this study indicate that these catalysts can reduce or eliminate the caking of Illinois coals. Loadings below 1 weight % were effective if the catalyst was added by impregnation at low pH (below about 5). An Na/Ca molar ratio of greater than 1 also leads to lower catalyst requirement.

  9. Enhancing σ/π-type copper(i)thiophene interactions by metal doping (metal = Li, Na, K, Ca, Sc).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiayan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Yanli; Zheng, Shijun; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-01-21

    The influence of metal doping on σ/π-type copper(i)thiophene interactions and the nature of Cuπ/S bonding have been investigated. Our calculated results show that Li, Na, K, Ca and Sc atom doping on thiophene enhances the copper(i)thiophene interactions. Enhancement factors are determined by the electrostatic potential of the thiophene molecular surface and the electronic configuration of the doping metal. The more negative the electrostatic potential, the stronger is the interaction. The influence of the d-block transition metal element (Sc) is larger than that of s-block main group metal elements. Both the σ and π type Cuthiophene interactions are of moderate strengths and display partial covalent characters. Linear relationships exist between the topological properties (ρ(rc), ∇(2)ρ(rc), δ(A, B) and Hc) at the BCP and the bond lengths d(Cuπ/S). When the Cuπ/S bond length became shorter, larger ∇(2)ρ(rc), δ(A, B) and smaller Hc values can be predicted, resulting in greater covalent character of Cuπ/S bonding. PMID:25418914

  10. Phase Behavior of Aqueous NA-K-MG-CA-CI-NO3 Mixtures: Isopiestic Measurements and Thermodynamic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    M.S. Gruszkiewiez; D.A. Palmer; R.D. Springer; P. Wang; A. Anderko

    2006-09-14

    A comprehensive model has been established for calculating thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aqueous systems containing the Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. The thermodynamic framework is based on a previously developed model for mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. The framework has been designed to reproduce the properties of salt solutions at temperatures ranging from the freezing point to 300 C and concentrations ranging from infinite dilution to the fused salt limit. The model has been parameterized using a combination of an extensive literature database and new isopiestic measurements for thirteen salt mixtures at 140 C. The measurements have been performed using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) previously designed gravimetric isopiestic apparatus, which makes it possible to detect solid phase precipitation. Water activities are reported for mixtures with a fixed ratio of salts as a function of the total apparent salt mole fraction. The isopiestic measurements reported here simultaneously reflect two fundamental properties of the system, i.e., the activity of water as a function of solution concentration and the occurrence of solid-liquid transitions. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the new isopiestic data as well as literature data for binary, ternary and higher-order subsystems. Because of its high accuracy in calculating vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria, the model is suitable for studying deliquescence behavior of multicomponent salt systems.

  11. Parameterization of the DFTB3 method for Br, Ca, Cl, F, I, K, and Na in organic and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kubillus, Maximilian; Kubař, Tomáš; Gaus, Michael; Řezáč, Jan; Elstner, Marcus

    2015-01-13

    We present an extension to the recent 3OB parametrization of the Density Functional Tight Binding Model DFTB31,2 for biological and organic systems. Parameters for the halogens F, Cl, Br, and I have been developed for use in covalently bound systems and benchmarked on a test set of 106 molecules (the ‘OrgX’ set), using bonding distances, bonding angles, atomization energies, and vibrational frequencies to assess the performance of the parameters. Additional testing has been done with the X40 set of 40 supramolecular systems containing halogens,3 adding a simple correction for the halogen bonds that are strongly overbound in DFTB3. Furthermore, parameters for Ca, K, and Na as counterions in biological systems have been created. To benchmark geometries as well as ligand binding energies a test set ‘BioMe’ of 210 molecules has been created that cover coordination to various functional groups frequently occurring in biological systems. The new DFTB3/3OB parameter set outperforms DFT calculations with a double-ζ basis set in terms of energies and can reproduce DFT geometries, with some minor deviations in bond distances and angles due to the use of a minimal basis set.

  12. Sensing of biologically important cations such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) using magnetic nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, V; Philip, John

    2013-04-01

    We report a simple approach to the ultrasensitive detection of biologically important metal ions using a magnetic nanoemulsion. The nanoemulsion used in our study was an oil-in-water emulsion droplet of average size ∼190 nm containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of average size ∼10 nm. In a static magnetic field, the emulsion droplets self-assemble into a nanoarray with distinct interdroplet spacing. In the presence of cations in the solution, the nanofluid array shows a large blue shift in the diffracted Bragg peak and a visually perceivable color change due to changes in the electrical double layer upon the diffusion of cations. The colloidal force-distance measurements in the presence of cations show large variations at the onset of repulsion in the presence of cations. The sensor shows good selectivity to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) ions and offers a rapid response compared to conventional techniques. This approach can be useful for the recognition of biologically important cations. PMID:23477486

  13. Synthesis of MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocomposite powder by polymeric complex method as a novel sintering additive of AlN ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa-Jun; Cho, Woo-Seok; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Pan, Wei; Shahid, Mohammad; Ryu, Sung-Soo

    2016-09-01

    A MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MCAS) nanocomposite powder with a particle size of 50 nm and a specific surface area of 40.6 m2/g was successfully synthesized via heat-treatment of polymeric precursors containing Mg, Ca, Al and Si in air at 700 °C for 5 h. It was characterized as a novel sintering additive for the densification AlN ceramics at a low temperature below 1600 °C. It was found that the nanosized MCAS powder was suitable for the densification of AlN ceramics. In particular, full densification could be achieved when only 1.0 wt% MCAS additive-doped AlN powder compact was sintered for 1 h at 1600 °C, and a thermal conductivity of 84 W/m·K was attained.

  14. The pressure-volume equation of state of a synthetic grossular Ca3Al2Si3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Sula; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of a wide research project focused on mineral inclusions in diamonds we have investigated the compressibility of a synthetic grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) with the purpose of providing new constraints on the diamond geobarometry. In fact, not only garnets are among the important phases of the Earth upper mantle but at the same time are one of the main phases found as inclusion in diamonds. Garnets are a crucial marker in determining the origin source of diamonds, which can be eclogitic and/or peridotitic. In particular, peridotitic diamonds include garnets characterized by about 90-92% of pyrope-almandine with the grossular component reaching about 6-8%, whereas eclogitic diamonds have garnets with the grossular component increased up to about 20-22%. In order to obtain information about the depth of formation of the diamond-garnet pair, beyond the classical chemical method, we propose the so called "elastic method", which is based on the knowledge of precise and accurate thermoelastic parameters for both diamond and inclusion (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein). We have determined the pressure - volume equation of state of a pure synthetic grossular garnet by single-crystal X-ray diffraction up to about 8 GPa. The resulting equation of state coefficients, together with those previously determined for pyrope and almandine end-members and their intermediate compositions (see Milani et al. 2013) will cover the compositional range of garnets found as inclusions in diamonds, allowing to construct a robust model to predict the elastic parameters for any garnet composition typical of eclogitic and/or peridotitic diamond. The research was funded by the ERC Starting Grant to FN (grant agreement n° 307322). References Milani S., Mazzucchelli M., Nestola F., Alvaro M., Angel R.J., Geiger C.A., Domeneghetti M.C. (2013) The P-T conditions of garnet inclusion formation in diamond: thermal expansion of synthetic end-member pyrope. EGU General

  15. Micelle-Assisted Synthesis of Al2O3·CaO Nanocatalyst: Optical Properties and Their Applications in Photodegradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Ayesha; Khaleeq-ur-rahman, Muhammad; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles are known to exhibit unique property due to their high adsorption capacity and good catalytic activity. In this work the CaO nanocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as a templating agent. The as-synthesized nanocatalysts were further used as substrate for the synthesis of alumina doped calcium oxide (Al2O3·CaO) nanocatalysts via deposition-precipitation method at the isoelectric point of CaO. The Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and FESEM techniques. The catalytic efficiencies of these nanocatalysts were studied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP), which is an industrial pollutant, spectrophotometrically. The effect of surfactant and temperature on size of nanocatalysts was also studied. The smallest particle size and highest percentage of degradation were observed at critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The direct optical band gap of the Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst was found as 3.3 eV. PMID:24311980

  16. Teaching the modes of Ca2+ transport between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum using a classic paper by Kwan et al.

    PubMed

    Liang, Willmann

    2009-09-01

    This teaching article uses the report by Kwan et al., "Effects of methacholine, thapsigargin, and La(3+) on plasmalemmal and intracellular Ca(2+) transport in lacrimal acinar cells," where the effects of Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents in regulating Ca(2+) fluxes were examined under various conditions. Upper-level undergraduate and new graduate students in physiology are the targe audience. Teaching and learning points are put forth in this article to illustrate 1) the characteristics of methacholine- and thapsigargin-induced Ca(2+) responses, 2) the different endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores accessible to methacholine and thapsigargin, 3) the inhibitory effects of La(3+) on Ca(2+) extrusion and Ca(2+) influx, and 4) the facilitatory role of La(3+) on endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) recycling. Each of the above concepts is first explained with references to the figures adapted from the original article. A list of student learning questions then follows, where the answers are found in the teaching notes for the instructors. It is the objective of this article to make both teaching and learning Ca(2+) regulation a rewarding experience for all. PMID:19745042

  17. Improved optical storage properties of NaAlSiO4: Tb3+ induced by Bi3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junhe; Yu, Xue; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2016-07-01

    NaAlSiO4: Tb3+, Bi3+ phosphor was synthesized with green long persistent luminescence (LPL) and photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) observed. The influence of metal ion Bi3+ on the optical storage properties of NaAlSiO4: Tb3+ was investigated in detail. The emitter Tb3+ introduced two kinds of traps located at 350 K (TA) and 440 K (TB) in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve. Bi3+ as a codopant ion introduced a new trap peaking at 390 K (TC), which contributed to the improved LPL properties. Besides, owing to the existence of deep and stable trap TB, green PSL can still be observed after 72 h since the excitation was stopped. Accordingly, the mechanism of LPL and PSL process was discussed briefly.

  18. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  19. Optical studies of interstellar material in low density regions of the Galaxy. I - A survey of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption toward 57 distant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, K. R.; Danks, A. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1993-01-01

    We present high-resolution spectra of the Na I D and Ca II K lines toward 57 late-O and early-B stars along extended (d greater than 1 kpc) low-density paths through the Milky Way disk and halo. The sight lines preferentially sample diffuse gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) along interarm, Galactic center, and high latitude directions. We measure equivalent widths, apparent column densities, and absorption component structure. The Ca II to Na I ratios presented as a function of velocity for each sight line exhibit variations due to elemental depletion, ionization, and density enhancements. Absorption along high latitude sight lines is kinematically simpler than it is along interarm and Galactic center sight lines. Galactic rotation noticeably broadens the absorption profiles of distant stars located in these latter directions. Along several sight lines, we see Ca II absorption at velocities corresponding to large distances (/z/ about 1 kpc) from the Galactic plane. The effects of differences in the Ca II and Na I scale heights and nonzero velocity dispersions are readily apparent in the data. Brief notes are given for several sight lines with interesting absorption properties.

  20. Phase, Microstructure, and Microwave Dielectric Properties of NaCa4- x Sr x Nb5O17 ( x = 0 to 4) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Y.; Muhammad, R.

    2013-03-01

    A series of A5B5O17-type NaCa4- x Sr x Nb5O17 ( x = 0 to 4) compounds were processed through a solid-state mixed-oxide route. All the compositions formed dense single-phase ceramics within the detection limit of an in-house x-ray diffraction facility when sintered at 1300°C. The substitution of Sr for Ca changed the crystal symmetry from monoclinic ( x = 0) to orthorhombic ( x = 1 to 4) along with a slight increase in molar cell volume due to the relatively larger ionic radius of Sr. The relative permittivity ( ɛ r) and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (TCF) increased from 46 to 84 and from -117 ppm/°C to +377 ppm/°C, respectively, while the quality factor ( Q × f) decreased from 11,063 GHz to 559 GHz with an increase in x from 0 to 4. Optimum properties were achieved for NaCa3SrNb5O17, which exhibited ɛ r = 57, Q × f = 4628 GHz, and TCF = -41 ppm/°C. Compounds in the NaCa4- x Sr x Nb5O17 series exhibited high ɛ r and Q × f with adjustable TCF; however, further work is required for simultaneous optimization of all three properties.

  1. Ultrafine Nanocrystalline CeO2@C-Containing NaAlH4 with Fast Kinetics and Good Reversibility for Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Ke; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2015-12-21

    A nanocrystalline CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite is successfully synthesized in situ by hydrogenating a NaH-Al mixture doped with CeO2@C. Compared with NaAlH4 , the as-prepared CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite, with a minor amount of excess Al, exhibits significantly improved hydrogen storage properties. The dehydrogenation onset temperature of the hydrogenated [NaH-Al-7 wt % CeO2@C]-0.04Al sample is 77 °C lower than that of the pristine sample because of a reduced kinetic barrier. More importantly, the dehydrogenated sample absorbs ∼4.7 wt % hydrogen within 35 min at 100°C and 10 MPa of hydrogen. Compositional and structural analyses reveal that CeO2 is converted to CeH2 during ball milling and that the newly formed CeH2 works with the excess of Al to synergistically improve the hydrogen storage properties of NaAlH4. Our findings will aid in the rational design of novel catalyst-doped complex hydride systems with low operating temperatures, fast kinetics, and long-term cyclability. PMID:26632764

  2. Ultrafine Nanocrystalline CeO2@C-Containing NaAlH4 with Fast Kinetics and Good Reversibility for Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Ke; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2015-12-21

    A nanocrystalline CeO2@C-containing NaAlH4 composite is successfully synthesized in situ by hydrogenating a NaH-Al mixture doped with CeO2@C. Compared with NaA