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Sample records for al content increased

  1. Photoluminescence enhancement in quaternary III-nitrides alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy with increasing Al content

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.

    2008-02-15

    Room temperature photoluminescence and optical absorption spectra have been measured in wurtzite In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-x-y}N (x{approx}0.06, 0.02increasing Stokes shift with the Al content. Both effects arise from an Al-enhanced exciton localization revealed by the S- and W-shaped temperature dependences of the photoluminescence emission energy and bandwidth, respectively. Present results point to these materials as a promising choice for the active region in efficient light emitters. An In-related bowing parameter of 1.6 eV was derived from optical absorption data.

  2. Effect of Al content on impact resistance behavior of Al-Ti-B4C composite fabricated under air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-12-01

    Reaction behavior, mechanical property and impact resistance of TiC-TiB2/Al composite reacted from Al-Ti-B4C system with various Al content via combination method of combustion synthesis and hot pressed sintering under air was investigated. Al content was the key point to the variation of mechanical property and impact resistance. Increasing Al content could increase the density, strength and toughness of the composite. Due to exorbitant ceramic content, 10wt.% and 20wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composites exhibited poor molding ability and machinability. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness of 30-50wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composite were higher than those of Al matrix. The intergranular fracture dispersed and defused impact load and restricted crack extension, enhancing the impact resistance of the composite. The composite with 50wt.% Al content owned highest mechanical properties and impact resistance. The results were useful for the application of TiC-TiB2/Al composite in impact resistance field of ceramic reinforced Al matrix composite.

  3. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y; He, Y H; Xu, N P; Zou, J; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  4. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  5. Increasing the protein content of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, M R; Baer, R J; Acharya, M R

    2006-05-01

    Vanilla ice cream was made with a mix composition of 10.5% milk fat, 10.5% milk SNF, 12% beet sugar, and 4% corn syrup solids. None of the batches made contained stabilizer or emulsifier. The control (treatment 1) contained 3.78% protein. Treatments 2 and 5 contained 30% more protein, treatments 3 and 6 contained 60% more protein, and treatments 4 and 7 contained 90% more protein compared with treatment 1 by addition of whey protein concentrate or milk protein concentrate powders, respectively. In all treatments, levels of milk fat, milk SNF, beet sugar, and corn syrup solids were kept constant at 37% total solids. Mix protein content for treatment 1 was 3.78%, treatment 2 was 4.90%, treatment 5 was 4.91%, treatments 3 and 6 were 6.05%, and treatments 4 and 7 were 7.18%. This represented a 29.89, 60.05, 89.95, 29.63, 60.05, and 89.95% increase in protein for treatment 2 through treatment 7 compared with treatment 1, respectively. Milk protein level influenced ice crystal size; with increased protein, the ice crystal size was favorably reduced in treatments 2, 4, and 5 and was similar in treatments 3, 6, and 7 compared with treatment 1. At 1 wk postmanufacture, overall texture acceptance for all treatments was more desirable compared with treatment 1. When evaluating all parameters, treatment 2 with added whey protein concentrate and treatments 5 and 6 with added milk protein concentrate were similar or improved compared with treatment 1. It is possible to produce acceptable ice cream with higher levels of protein.

  6. Increasing the Content of High-Content Screening

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shantanu; Genovesio, Auguste

    2014-01-01

    Target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) has recently been critiqued for its relatively poor yield compared to phenotypic screening approaches. One type of phenotypic screening, image-based high-content screening (HCS), has been seen as particularly promising. In this article, we assess whether HCS is as high content as it can be. We analyze HCS publications and find that although the number of HCS experiments published each year continues to grow steadily, the information content lags behind. We find that a majority of high-content screens published so far (60−80%) made use of only one or two image-based features measured from each sample and disregarded the distribution of those features among each cell population. We discuss several potential explanations, focusing on the hypothesis that data analysis traditions are to blame. This includes practical problems related to managing large and multidimensional HCS data sets as well as the adoption of assay quality statistics from HTS to HCS. Both may have led to the simplification or systematic rejection of assays carrying complex and valuable phenotypic information. We predict that advanced data analysis methods that enable full multiparametric data to be harvested for entire cell populations will enable HCS to finally reach its potential. PMID:24710339

  7. Increasing Your Mathematics and Science Content Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal is intended for classroom teachers and provides a collection of essays and instructional materials organized around the theme of mathematics and science content knowledge. Articles include: (1) "Watching Ourselves Learn" (Annette Thorson); (2) "Search Smarter!" (Kimberly S. Roempler); (3) "Teacher Education Materials Project" (Joan…

  8. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / ... of Contents For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and ...

  9. Influence of Al content on non-equilibrium solidification behavior of Ni-Al-Ta model single crystal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Cheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Heng; Zhao, Xinbao; Pei, Yanling; Li, Shusuo; Gong, Shengkai

    2016-01-01

    The non-equilibrium solidification behaviors of five Ni-Al-Ta ternary model single crystal alloys with different Al contents were investigated by experimental analysis and theoretical calculation (by JMatPro) in this study. These model alloys respectively represented the γ' phase with various volume fractions (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%) at 900 °C. It was found that with decreasing Al content, liquidus temperature of experimental alloys first decreased and then increased. Meanwhile, the solidification range showed a continued downward trend. In addition, with decreasing Al content, the primary phases of non-equilibrium solidified model alloys gradually transformed from γ' phase to γ phase, and the area fraction of which first decreased and then increased. Moreover, the interdendritic/intercellular precipitation of model alloys changed from β phase (for 100% γ') to (γ+γ')Eutectic (for 75% γ'), (γ+γ')Eutectic+γ' (for 50% γ' and 25% γ') and none interdendritic precipitation (for 0% γ'), and the last stage non-equilibrium solidification sequence of model alloys was determined by the nominal Al content and different microsegregation behaviors of Al element.

  10. The relationship between water content and Al-content in the MTZ and the lower mantle minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yabuki, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water is an important volatile component in the Earth mantle, and many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the stability region of both dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) and nominally anhydrous minerals with some water. Al3+ is supposed to be coupled with H+ by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were determined in the systems pyrope - enstatite with H2O of 11.3 wt% and 18.7 wt% at pressures of 20-26 GPa and temperatures of 1473-1873 K, corresponding to the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and the lower mantle. High pressure experiments were conducted by Kawai-type high pressure apparatuses at Ehime University. Starting materials were the mixtures of MgO and SiO2 oxides, and Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 hydroxides with appropriate proportions. We selected the molar ratios of Mg:Si:Al:H = 3:3:1:9 and 3:3:1:5, which H2O contents were 18.7 and 11.3 wt%, respectively, as the starting compositions. The sample was sealed by an AuPd capsule. The recovered charges were polished, and identified by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy, and the chemical compositions for Mg, Si and Al were measured by SEM-EDS at Ehime University. The water contents were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Hokkaido University. In all experimental conditions, hydrous liquid was observed. At 20 GPa, garnet and stishovite was observed, but above 22.5 GPa, phase D was observed instead of garnet in the wide range of the present experimental conditions. At 26 GPa and 1873 K, perovskite was observed. The present phase D included a large amount of Al2O3 (~12-21 wt%), and the Mg/Si molar ratios were ~0.7-0.8. The Al content increased and the Mg/Si ratio decreased, with increasing temperature. Frost and Fei (1998) first reported phase D in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system. Our Mg/Si ratio is ~0.1 larger than

  11. Temperature Estimation and Al Content Prediction Focusing on Microstructural Change in a Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Mitsutoshi; Hisamatsu, Tohru; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2009-03-01

    A superalloy with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) simulating a gas turbine blade is exposed to a high-temperature environment to develop a method for predicting the local temperature and Al content in a bond coat (BC). The Al content decreases with an increase in the test time due to the Al transport induced by the oxidation of the BC and the interdiffusion between the BC and the substrate. This brings about Al-decreased layer (ADL) at the boundary between the BC and the top coat. The thickness of the ADL increases in proportion to the square root of the test time, and the temperature dependence of the growth rate shows an Arrhenius-type behavior. Based on this relation, the local temperature of an in-service blade can be estimated by measuring the ADL thickness when the operation time is known. The Al content decreases in proportion to the ADL thickness. The prediction method of the Al content based on the relation is also presented.

  12. Oxidation and microstructure evolution of Al-Si coated Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Xiaolu; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Qi, Wenyan; He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Gong, Shengkai

    2015-01-01

    A Si modified aluminide (Al-Si) coating was prepared on a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content by high-activity pack cementation. Cyclic oxidation test at 1150 °C was carried out and the microstructure evolution of the coating was investigated. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the substrate was greatly increased by applying an Al-Si coating. During oxidation, outward diffusion of Mo was effectively blocked due to its high affinity with Si. Besides, a layered structure was formed as a result of the elements inter-diffusion. An obvious degradation of the Al-Si coating was observed after 100 h oxidation. Possible mechanisms related to the oxidation and elements inter-diffusion behaviours were also discussed.

  13. Effects of increasing the fibre content of a layer diet.

    PubMed

    Longe, O G

    1984-04-01

    The fibre content of a basal diet fed to laying hens was increased from 149.2 g to between 218.6 and 292.3 g/kg by the inclusion of various fibrous farm wastes and by-products at 200 g/kg diet. The fibrous ingredients lowered the metabolisable energy (ME) of the basal diet from 11.82 to between 9.31 and 11.21 MJ/kg. Utilisation (g food/kg egg) of the basal diet was not significantly different from values for diets containing maize cob, cassava or maize starch residues. The diet containing maize cob supported a performance similar to that of the basal diet, despite a lower energy content (10.08 MJ/kg). Diets containing cowpea shell, cassava peel or sawdust, with lower energy contents, and those containing maize starch residue, palm kernel meal or dried brewers grains, with higher energy contents, were not as good. The diet containing cassava starch residue supported similar egg production to the basal but egg size was less. Inclusion of some of the fibre sources caused slight decreases in yolk cholesterol, although this could not be correlated with dietary fibre content. Additional dietary fibre caused slight increases in gizzard weight but this was also not simply related to dietary fibre content.

  14. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  15. Solidification Sequence and Evolution of Microstructure During Rheocasting of Four Al-Si-Mg-Fe Alloys with Low Si Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payandeh, Mostafa; Jarfors, Anders E. W.; Wessén, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Four Al-Si-Mg-Fe alloys with Si contents varying from 1.6 to 4.5 wt pct were rheocast, using the RheoMetal™ process to prepare slurry and cast in a vertical high-pressure die casting machine. Particle size and Si concentration in the α-Al particles in the slurry and in the as-rheocast component were investigated. A uniform distribution of Si in the globular α 1-Al particles was achieved in the slurry. In the rheocast samples, measurement of the α 1-Al particles showed that these particles did not increase significantly in size during pouring and secondary solidification. The two additional α-Al particles types, α 2-Al particles and α 3-Al particles, were identified as being a result of two discrete nucleation events taking place after slurry production. The Si concentration in the α 2-Al and α 3-Al particles indicated that the larger α 2-Al particles precipitated before the α 3-Al particles. In addition, in the as-rheocast condition, the Si distribution inside the α 1-Al particles showed three distinct zones; an unaffected zone, a transition zone, and in some cases the start of a dendritic/cellular zone. The phenomenon of dendritic growth of globular α 1-Al particles during secondary solidification occurred concomitantly with the final eutectic reaction and increased with increasing amount of the Al-Si eutectic phase.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  17. Effects of Al content on water partitioning between orthopyroxene and olivine: Implications for lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Moe; Tsujino, Noriyoshi; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the partitioning coefficient of water between orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine (Ol) (D(Opx/Ol)) under low-water concentrations (3˜387 wt. ppm) similar to the Earth's mantle conditions, high-pressure experiments have been conducted at pressures of 1.5-6 GPa and a temperature of 1573 K. The experiments were performed with Kawai-type multi-anvil and piston-cylinder apparatus by using starting materials of natural Ol and synthetic Opx with various Al contents. The water contents were obtained with a vacuum type Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR6100, IRT5000). IR-spectra of Ol and Al-bearing Opx in this study are similar to those obtained by high-pressure experiments (Bai and Kohlstedt, 1993) and natural rocks (Grant et al., 2007), respectively. It is believed that broad bands in IR spectra of natural Opx are due to effect of crystal distortion by large Al substitution. On the contrary, IR-spectra of Al-free Opx are not consistent with those reported by Rauch and Keppler (2002) likely because of the large difference of water fugacity. D(Al-free Opx/Ol) is ˜1 at all pressure conditions or decreases with increasing pressure. However, the water contents of Al-bearing Opx are significantly larger than those of Ol at the same conditions. In addition, the effect of Al concentration in Opx on D(Opx/Ol) becomes larger with increasing pressure. The high Al content in Opx significantly increases D(Opx/Ol) and the trend increases with increasing pressure. D(Opx/Ol) drops sharply at the pressure at which the Al concentration of Opx becomes nearly 0 in the Earth's mantle conditions. This conclusion indicates that viscosity of the upper mantle decreases sharply at depths larger than those in which orthopyroxene contains no Al. The dramatic change of D(Opx/Ol) may explain the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath oceans and continents.

  18. Erythropoietin administration increases splenic erythroferrone protein content and liver TMPRSS6 protein content in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurieva, Iuliia; Frýdlová, Jana; Rychtarčíková, Zuzana; Vokurka, Martin; Truksa, Jaroslav; Krijt, Jan

    2017-02-28

    Erythroferrone (ERFE) and TMPRSS6 are important proteins in the regulation of iron metabolism. The objective of the study was to examine splenic ERFE and liver TMPRSS6 synthesis in rats treated with a combination of iron and erythropoietin (EPO). EPO was administered to female Wistar rats at 600U/day for four days, iron-pretreated rats received 150mg of iron before EPO treatment. Content of ERFE and TMPRSS6 proteins was determined by commercial antibodies. Iron pretreatment prevented the EPO-induced decrease in hepcidin expression. Content of phosphorylated SMAD 1,5,8 proteins was decreased in the liver by both EPO and iron plus EPO treatment. Fam132b expression in the spleen was increased both by EPO and iron plus EPO treatments; these treatments also significantly induced splenic Fam132a expression. ERFE protein content in the spleen was increased both by EPO and iron plus EPO to a similar extent. EPO administration increased TMPRSS6 content in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction of liver homogenate; in iron-pretreated rats, this increase was abolished. The results confirm that iron pretreatment prevents the EPO-induced decrease in liver Hamp expression. This effect probably occurs despite high circulating ERFE levels, since EPO-induced ERFE protein synthesis is not influenced by iron pretreatment.

  19. Polyaluminum chloride with high Al30 content as removal agent for arsenic-contaminated well water.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Jasmin; Casentini, Barbara; Masion, Armand; Pöthig, Rosemarie; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride (PACl) is a well-established coagulant in water treatment with high removal efficiency for arsenic. A high content of Al(30) nanoclusters in PACl improves the removal efficiency over broader dosage and pH range. In this study we tested PACl with 75% Al(30) nanoclusters (PACl(Al30)) for the treatment of arsenic-contaminated well water by laboratory batch experiments and field application in the geothermal area of Chalkidiki, Greece, and in the Pannonian Basin, Romania. The treatment efficiency was studied as a function of dosage and the nanoclusters' protonation degree. Acid-base titration revealed increasing deprotonation of PACl(Al30) from pH 4.7 to the point of zero charge at pH 6.7. The most efficient removal of As(III) and As(V) coincided with optimal aggregation of the Al nanoclusters at pH 7-8, a common pH range for groundwater. The application of PACl(Al30) with an Al(tot) concentration of 1-5mM in laboratory batch experiments successfully lowered dissolved As(V) concentrations from 20 to 230 μg/L to less than 5 μg/L. Field tests confirmed laboratory results, and showed that the WHO threshold value of 10 μg/L was only slightly exceeded (10.8 μg/L) at initial concentrations as high as 2300 μg/L As(V). However, As(III) removal was less efficient (<40%), therefore oxidation will be crucial before coagulation with PACl(Al30). The presence of silica in the well water improved As(III) removal by typically 10%. This study revealed that the Al(30) nanoclusters are most efficient for the removal of As(V) from water resources at near-neutral pH.

  20. Rapid development of a castor cultivar with increased oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor seed oil contains 90% ricinoleic acid which has a wide range of industrial applications. Improvement in oil content would be of great benefit to castor growers and oil processers. Two cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection were conducted through screening for high oil content castor seeds u...

  1. Influence of B content substituting for Al on the magnetic properties of Nd 60Fe 30Al 10- xB x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Nguyen; Luong, Nguyen Hoang; Huu, Cao Xuan; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan; Dan, Nguyen Huy

    2002-04-01

    The Nd 60Fe 30Al 10- xB x ( x=0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) alloys were prepared by copper mold casting using arc-melting. Investigation shows that with increasing B content magnetization and remanence decrease while coercivity and Curie temperature increase. The hard magnetic properties are achieved not only in the amorphous state but also in partly crystallizing state.

  2. Theoretics-directed effect of copper or aluminum content on the ductility characteristics of Al-based (Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, AlTiCu2) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Qi-Jun; Kong, Ge-Xing; Ma, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wen-Peng; Wang, Yi-Gao; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2016-11-01

    First-principle simulations have been applied to investigate the effect of copper (Cu) or aluminum (Al) content on the ductility of Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 alloys. The mechanical stable and elastic properties of Al-based intermetallic compounds are researched by density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). The calculated lattice constants are in conformity with the previous experimental and theoretical data. The deduced elastic constants show that the investigated Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 structures are mechanically stable. Shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the ratio B/G have also been figured out by using reckoned elastic constants. A further analysis of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio reveals that the third added element copper content has significant effects on the Al-Ti-based ICs ductile character. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41674088, 11574254, 11272296, and 11547311), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808201), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014ZT30 and 2682014ZT31), and the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in Northwestern Polytechnical University, China (Grant No. SKLSP201511).

  3. Tensile Properties of Al-Cu 206 Cast Alloys with Various Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The Al-Cu 206 cast alloys with varying alloy compositions ( i.e., different levels of Fe, Mn, and Si) were investigated to evaluate the effect of the iron-rich intermetallics on the tensile properties. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with increasing iron content, but its overall loss is less than 10 pct over the range of 0.15 to 0.5 pct Fe at 0.3 pct Mn and 0.3 pct Si. At similar iron contents, the tensile properties of the alloys with dominant Chinese script iron-rich intermetallics are generally higher than those with the dominant platelet phase. In the solution and artificial overaging condition (T7), the tensile strength of the 206 cast alloys with more than 0.15 pct Fe is satisfactory, but the elongation does not sufficiently meet the minimum requirement of ductility (>7 pct) for critical automotive applications. However, it was found that both the required ductility and tensile strength can be reached at high Fe levels of 0.3 to 0.5 pct for the alloys with well-controlled alloy chemistry and microstructure in the solution and natural aging condition (T4), reinforcing the motivation for developing recyclable high-iron Al-Cu 206 cast alloys.

  4. Increasing Secondary Reading Comprehension and Reading Proficiency across Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marty

    2011-01-01

    This action research developed as a response to the researcher's experience with struggling and alliterate readers across all content areas in secondary schools. The researcher witnessed the negative impact of a depressed economy and depressed reading proficiency pervasive among students based on classroom experience and standardized testing. The…

  5. The effect of Mn content on magnetism and half-metallicity of off-stoichiometric Co2MnAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Xiaorui; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Using the first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the influence of Mn content on magnetism and half-metallicity of off-stoichiometric Co2MnAl. From our calculation, the Mn-poor structure most likely results from antisite disorders where Mn atoms are partially substituted by Co (CoMn antisite) or Al (AlMn antisite) due to their lower formation energy than the structure missing Mn atom. Besides, the half-metallicity is immune to AlMn antisite, while the impurity Co atom in CoMn antisite is responsible for the dramatic decrease in spin polarization. Besides, in the Mn-rich structure where excess impurity Mn occupy the Co sites, impurity Mn atom exhibits antiparallel coupling with other magnetic atoms, resulting in ferrimagnetism. With increasing of Mn content, the spin polarization of Mn-rich structure increases from 75% to 100%. When Mn content rises up to α = 1.875, the corresponding compound Co1.125 Mn1.875 Al owns the perfect spin polarization and stable half-metallicity due to the reason that its Fermi level is situated nearly in the middle of the spin down gap. Hence, a large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) could be obtained by using Mn-rich Co2MnAl electrode. Furthermore, when Mn content reaches up to α = 2, the compound converts to inverse Heusler compound Mn2CoAl with an unique band structure that the conduction and valence band edges of the spin up electrons touch at the Fermi level, it is therefore classified to be spin gapless semiconductors.

  6. Dynamics of Wet Oxidation of High-AL-Content III-V Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.

    1999-01-27

    Oxidation of layers of high-Al-content III-V materials by water vapor has become the enabling process for high-efficiency vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) and has potential applications for reducing substrate current leakage in GaAs-on-insulator (GOI) MESFETS. Because of the established importance of wet oxidation in optoelectronic devices and its potential applications in electronic devices, it has become increasingly important to understand the mechanism of wet oxidation and how it might be expected to affect both the fabrication and subsequent operation of devices that have been made using this technique. The mechanism of wet oxidation and the consequence of this mechanism for heterostructure design and ultimate device operation are discussed here.

  7. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  8. The effect of Pt content on NiPtAl coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, James A; Pint, Bruce A; Zhang, Ying; Wright, Ian G

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Pt content on the coating composition and subsequent oxidation behavior of gamma/gamma-prime NiPtAl coatings. Gamma/gamma-prime diffusion coatings were fabricated by vacuum annealing electroplated Pt on single-crystal and directionally-solidified superalloy substrates. Specimens with 7 and 12 m thickness Pt were annealed at 1100 or 1175oC. Coating compositions were characterized to evaluate distribution of Pt and Al as a function of annealing temperature and Pt thickness. Selected coatings fabricated from 7 and 12 m Pt were evaluated in cyclic oxidation at 1100 and 1150oC. Coatings with higher Pt contents showed improvements in spallation resistance at both 1100 and 1150oC, particularly on superalloys with higher Hf and S contents.

  9. Effects of Sm2O3 Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Post-Sintered Reaction-Bonded β-SiAlON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanjun; Liu, Donghua; Zeng, Cunfeng; Shi, Zhongqi; Jin, Zhihao

    2016-03-01

    β-SiAlON materials were fabricated by a reaction bonding combining post-sintering route using raw materials of Si, Al2O3, AlN, etc. Sm2O3 was used as sintering additive with the content of 0, 2, 4, and 6 wt.%, respectively. The reaction-bonded β-SiAlON (RB-β-SiAlON) were post sintered at 1750 °C for 6 h. XRD results showed that the phase composition of both RB-β-SiAlON and post-sintered RB-β-SiAlON (PSRB-β-SiAlON) was β-SiAlON. For RB-β-SiAlON, the apparent porosity was decreased with the increase of Sm2O3 content, while the bending strength (σf) and Vicker's hardness (HV10) was increased accordingly. After the post-sintering procedure, nearly full densified PSRB-β-SiAlON was obtained and the mechanical properties were significantly improved with the addition of Sm2O3 additive. The σf and HV10 of the PSRB-β-SiAlON (4 wt.% Sm2O3) achieved 520 MPa and 16.4 GPa, respectively, which were as 3.5 and 6.3 times high as those of the corresponding RB-β-SiAlON. The Young's modulus (E) and the fracture toughness (K IC) of the dense PSRB-β-SiAlON were increased with the increase of the Sm2O3 content.

  10. Effect of AlN content on the lattice site location of terbium ions in Al x Ga1-x N compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialho, M.; Rodrigues, J.; Magalhães, S.; Correia, M. R.; Monteiro, T.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2016-03-01

    Terbium lattice site location and optical emission in Tb implanted Al x Ga1-x N (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) samples grown by halide vapour phase epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates are investigated as a function of AlN content. The samples were implanted with a fluence of 5 × 1014 cm-2 of terbium ions and an energy of 150 keV. Lattice implantation damage is reduced using channelled ion implantation performed along the <0001> axis, normal to the sample surface. Afterwards, thermal annealing treatments at 1400 °C for GaN and 1200 °C for samples with x > 0 were performed to reduce the damage and to activate the optical emission of Tb3+ ions. The study of lattice site location is achieved measuring detailed angular ion channelling scans across the <0001>, < 10\\bar{1}1> and < \\bar{2}113> axial directions. The precise location of the implanted Tb ions is obtained by combining the information of these angular scans with simulations using the Monte Carlo code FLUX. In addition to a Ga/Al substitutional fraction and a random fraction, a fraction of Tb ions occupying a site displaced by 0.2 Å along c-axis from the Ga/Al substitutional site was considered, giving a good agreement between the experimental results and the simulation. Photoluminescence studies proved the optical activation of Tb3+ after thermal annealing and the enhancement of the 5D4 to 7F6 transition intensity with increasing AlN content.

  11. Effect of Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-zhong; Lin, Pei-hao; Huang, Wei-chao; Pan, Shun-kang; Liu, Ye; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    MnAlNi powder was prepared by the process of vacuum levitation melting and high-energy ball milling, The morphology and phase structure of the powder were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and the effect of the Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder was investigated by an vector network analyzer. The addition of Ni, which improved the microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder but not changed the composition of Al8Mn5 alloy. The minimum reflectivity of (Al8Mn5)0.95Ni0.05 powder with a coating thickness (d) of 1.8 mm was about -40.8 dB and has better bandwidth effect, the absorbing mechanism of AlMnNi powders on the electromagnetic was related to the electromagnetic loss within the absorbing coatings and the effect of coating thickness on the interference loss of electromagnetic wave.

  12. Polytetrafluoroethylene Ingestion as a Way to Increase Food Volume and Hence Satiety Without Increasing Calorie Content

    PubMed Central

    Naftalovich, Rotem; Naftalovich, Daniel; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Since satiety is largely due to stretch of the stomach and people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, increasing food volume and mass increases satiety. This can be achieved without increasing the calories of food by mixing food with a material that cannot be metabolized. Such a material should be inert, safe, resistant to stomach acid, lack taste, available in powder form, smooth, resistant to heat, and cost effective. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is an ideal substance for this purpose. It is a soft plastic that is widely considered to be the most inert material known and is extremely stable. Animal feeding trials showed that rats fed a diet of 25% PTFE for 90 days had no signs of toxicity and that the rats lost weight. This article publishes the data from these subchronic animal feeding trials, reviews the relevant available literature, and hypothesizes that increasing the volume of food by mixing the food with PTFE powder at a ratio of 3 parts food to 1 part PTFE by volume will substantially improve satiety and reduce caloric consumption in people. PMID:26810925

  13. Hot Tear Susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe Alloys with Varying Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Lisa; Easton, Mark A.; Taylor, John A.; Grandfield, John F.; Davidson, Cameron J.; Lu, Liming; Couper, Malcolm J.; StJohn, David H.

    2013-12-01

    Hot tear susceptibility in cast Al-0.52Si-0.34Mg- xFe 6060 aluminum alloys was investigated using a hot tearing test apparatus to simulate hot tearing in DC casting. The test apparatus has two cast bars, one that is used to measure the load response and one which is fixed at both ends to restrain thermal contraction so that hot tearing can be observed and rated where it occurred. The iron (Fe) content, ranging from 0.02 to 0.5 wt pct, was seen to have a major influence on the load response during solidification and the tear rating of these alloys. The findings are discussed in terms of Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model sensitivity analysis and related to the effect of Fe content on the morphology and prevalence of the β-Al5FeSi and α-AlFeSi intermetallic phases and their influence on the coherency and coalescence of the microstructure.

  14. Non-linear increase of vitamin D content in eggs from chicks treated with increasing exposure times of ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Baur, Anja C; Mielenz, Norbert; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D fortified food can help to reduce the prevalence for vitamin D deficiency. Previous data provided evidence that eggs from hens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large quantities of vitamin D. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of vitamin D enrichment in eggs upon increasing daily UVB exposure times. We further addressed the question whether extended UVB irradiation affects the skin content of 7-dehydrocholesterol. To this end, 35 hens were assigned to 7 groups of 5 animals each and were exposed to UVB light (76μW/cm(2)) for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300min per day, respectively. Eggs from the treatment groups were collected at baseline and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. Skin samples were gained at the end of 4 weeks. Vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contents of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in egg yolk raised non-linear in response to increasing daily UVB exposure times. The vitamin D3 content did not reach a clear-cut plateau within the chosen UVB treatment times. A daily UVB exposure time of 300min resulted in vitamin D3 contents of 28.6μg/100g egg yolk dry matter. In contrast to vitamin D3, the 25(OH)D3 content in the egg yolk achieved a maximum upon an UVB irradiation time of 60min/d. The cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol contents were not altered in response to the chosen UVB irradiation times. In conclusion, the data show a distinct non-linear dose-response relationship of UVB exposure times on the total vitamin D content in eggs. This article is part of a special issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  15. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  16. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  17. Germination dramatically increases isoflavonoid content and diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Feng, Shengbao; Liu, Yuancai; He, Guangyuan; Yioe, Yoecelyn; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2012-09-05

    The effect of germination on bioactive components in legume seeds was investigated in terms of the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents. Germination increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of most seeds. Particularly in chickpea seeds, the isoflavone contents increased by over 100 fold, mainly due to the increase of formononetin and biochanin A level. As a result, these two compounds were conveniently isolated from the germinated seeds in preparative scale and structurally confirmed by UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Isoflavonoid fingerprints analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS demonstrated that germination could significantly increase isoflavonoids diversity. Twenty-five isoflavonoids were detected and identified tentatively. These include 20 isoflavones, 2 isoflavanones, and 3 pterocarpan phytoalexins. Total isoflavonoid content of germinated chickpea was approximately 5-fold of that of germinated soybean. Our findings suggest that the germinated chickpea seeds could serve as a promising functional food rich in isoflavonoids.

  18. Increased metallothionein content in rat liver induced by x irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, N.; Aono, K.; Utsumi, K.

    1983-08-01

    X irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension are known to induce lipid peroxidation. The effects of these stresses on hepatic content of metallothionein, which may be involved in the regulation of zinc and copper metabolism, have been studied. The amount of metallothionein in rat liver was increased 11-fold by a high dose of X irradiation (1000 R). Increased metallothionein content (about 15 times) was also observed in liver of rats exposed to high oxygen tension for 3 days.

  19. Al-26 from red giants. [connections with anomalous Mg-26 content in meteorites and solar system formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgaard, H.

    1980-01-01

    Simplified models of thermally pulsing red giants are investigated, with particular emphasis on predicting the extent to which nuclear processing at the base of the convective envelope in conjunction with processing in the thermally unstable He shell can synthesize Al-26 (tau/1/2/ = 7.2 x 10 to the 5th yr). Values of Al-26/Al-27 of about 0.5-1, with Al-27/Al-27(solar) of about 1-2, are predicted in some cases. It is pointed out that such results can lead to isotope shifts in the absorption lines of AlH and AlO, which should be observationally identifiable in some late-type supergiants. The possible connection with the anomalous Mg-26 content (assigned to the decay of Al-26) detected in some meteorites and the connection with formation of the solar system are also touched on.

  20. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin.

  1. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-14

    CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.

  2. Study on nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films with various Si contents deposited by cathodic vacuum arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Muders, C. M.; Kumar, A.; Jiang, X.; Pei, Z. L.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films were deposited on high speed steel substrates by the vacuum cathode arc ion plating (AIP) technique. By virtue of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the influence of silicon content on the film microstructure and characteristics was investigated systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure as well as cross-section morphologies. With increasing the silicon content, a deterioration of the preferred orientation and a dense globular structure were detected. In the meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation, Rockwell indenter and reciprocating test were also utilized to analyze the hardness, elastic modulus, H3/E2, friction coefficient, adhesive strength and wear rate of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films. The results showed that an optimal silicon content correlated with the best mechanical and tribological properties of the presented Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films existed. With increasing the silicon content, the hardness, elastic modulus and the ratio H3/E2 first were improved gradually, and then were impaired sharply again. When the silicon content reached to 6 at.%, the film possessed the highest hardness, elastic modulus and ratio H3/E2 of approximately 24 GPa, 218 GPa and 0.31, respectively. Besides, films containing both 6 at.% and 10 at.% Si contents obtained a relatively low friction coefficient and a good adhesive strength. The wear rate decreased with an increase in hardness, with the highest hardness corresponding to a wear rate around 1.3 × 10-5 mm3/(N m) of the film with 6 at.% Si content. The correlations between hardness and tribological properties for the films were also examined. The essence of above phenomena was attributed to the variations of microstructure and morphologies in the films induced by the increasing silicon content.

  3. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-14

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  4. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  5. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN. PMID:28290480

  6. Reduction of dietary lysine increases free glutamate content in chicken meat and improves its taste.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Genya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2017-02-01

    Taste is a crucial factor of meat quality, and amino acids are important taste-active components in meat. Here, the effects of dietary lysine (Lys) content on taste-active components in meat, especially free glutamate (Glu), were investigated. Twenty-eight-day-old broilers (Gallus gallus) were fed diets with graded Lys content of 90% or 100% of the recommended Lys requirement, (according to the National Research Council, ) for 10 days. Free amino acid content in meat and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by a reduction of dietary Lys. Compared with the Lys 100% group (control), free Glu concentrations of meat were increased by 35.7% in the Lys 90% group (P < 0.05). In addition, free glycine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine and threonine concentrations of meat were significantly increased in the Lys 90% group (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation of meat soup made from the Lys 100% and 90% groups indicated different meat tastes. Sensory scores of taste intensity, umami and kokumi tastes were significantly higher in the Lys 90% group. These results suggest that a reduction of dietary lysine increased free glutamate content in meat and improved its taste.

  7. High indium content homogenous InAlN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Erin C. H.; Kaun, Stephen W.; Wu, Feng; Bonef, Bastien; Speck, James S.

    2016-11-01

    InAlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy often contains a honeycomb microstructure. The honeycomb microstructure consists of 5-10 nm diameter aluminum-rich regions which are surrounded by indium-rich regions. Layers without this microstructure were previously developed for nominally lattice-matched InAlN and have been developed here for higher indium content InAlN. In this study, InAlN was grown in a nitrogen-rich environment with high indium to aluminum flux ratios at low growth temperatures. Samples were characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Atomic force microscopy showed InAlN layers grown at temperatures below 450 °C under nitrogen-rich conditions were free of droplets. InAlN films with indium contents up to 81% were grown at temperatures between 410 and 440 °C. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography showed no evidence of honeycomb microstructure for samples with indium contents of 34% and 62%. These layers are homogeneous and follow a random alloy distribution. A growth diagram for InAlN of all indium contents is reported.

  8. Increasing the glutathione content in a chilling-sensitive maize genotype using safeners increased protection against chilling-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Kocsy, G; von Ballmoos, P; Rüegsegger, A; Szalai, G; Galiba, G; Brunold, C

    2001-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing their protective function against chilling-induced injury, the pools of glutathione and its precursors, cysteine (Cys) and gamma-glutamyl-Cys, were increased in the chilling-sensitive maize (Zea mays) inbred line Penjalinan using a combination of two herbicide safeners. Compared with the controls, the greatest increase in the pool size of the three thiols was detected in the shoots and roots when both safeners were applied at a concentration of 5 microM. This combination increased the relative protection from chilling from 50% to 75%. It is interesting that this increase in the total glutathione (TG) level was accompanied by a rise in glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) activity. When the most effective safener combination was applied simultaneously with increasing concentrations of buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, the total gamma-glutamyl-Cys and TG contents and GR activity were decreased to very low levels and relative protection was lowered from 75% to 44%. During chilling, the ratio of reduced to oxidized thiols first decreased independently of the treatments, but increased again to the initial value in safener-treated seedlings after 7 d at 5 degrees C. Taking all results together resulted in a linear relationship between TG and GR and a biphasic relationship between relative protection and GR or TG, thus demonstrating the relevance of the glutathione levels in protecting maize against chilling-induced injury.

  9. Neonatal exposure to estradiol valerate increases dopamine content in nigrostriatal pathway during adulthood in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cruz, G; Riquelme, R; Espinosa, P; Jara, P; Dagnino-Subiabre, A; Renard, G M; Sotomayor-Zárate, R

    2014-05-01

    Research in programming has focused in the study of stimuli that affect sensitive periods of development such as prenatal and neonatal stage. We previously showed that exposure to estradiol valerate to female rats during the first 12 h of life increased catecholamine content in ventromedial-arcuatus hypothalamus of the adult rat. However, changes in others dopaminergic circuits have not been studied. The purpose of this work was to determine the neurotransmitters changes induced by neonatal estradiol valerate (0.1 mg/50 μl s. c. per rat) administration on nigrostriatal pathway of adult female rats. Sesame oil (50 μl s. c. per rat) was administered in a control parallel group. EV-1 adult rats presented effective markers of long-term estrogenization as decreased serum levels of progesterone and a reduction in the size of estrogen-sensitive organs. In the brain, neonatal estradiol valerate administration led to a significant increase in dopamine content in striatum, substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. With respect to the contents of dopamine metabolites, only 3-methoxytyramine content increased in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. In addition, the content of noradrenaline increased only in striatum. Interestingly, estrogenized rats lacked locomotor activity induced by acute dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg i. p.). Altogether, these results show that neonatal exposure to estradiol valerate permanently modified the content of monoamine neurotransmitters in nigrostriatal pathway and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity of adult female rats. This might imply that estrogenized rats could have changes in the expression of key proteins in dopaminergic regulation, as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter.

  10. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elisa; Castro, Juan; Pinochet, María-José; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Matías, Nuria; José Sáez, Pablo; Martínez, Alexis; Álvarez, Alejandra R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, José C; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2017-03-02

    MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  11. Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

  12. Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing…

  13. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  14. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  15. Connecting and Collaborating: How Content-Related Instruction Increases Students' Speaking Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Sherri

    2010-01-01

    Young students come to world language classrooms with genuine excitement about the possibility of being able to speak a language other than their own. When world language teachers connect second language instruction to students' general education curriculum content, the opportunity presents itself to potentially increase students' ability to speak…

  16. Dynamic powder compaction of rapidly solidified Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content

    SciTech Connect

    Megusar, J.; Imeson, D.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Grant, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the potential of the dynamic powder compaction technique to consolidate rapidly solidified Path A alloys and to develop microstructures with improved irradiation performance in the fusion environment. Samples of rapidly solidified and dynamically compacted Path A alloy with increased carbon and titanium content have been included in alloy development irradiation experiments.

  17. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10-37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24-43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content.

  18. Seed-Specific Overexpression of the Pyruvate Transporter BASS2 Increases Oil Content in Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Minwoo; Hwang, Jae-Ung; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nishida, Ikuo; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is important not only for human and animal nutrition, but also for various industrial applications. Numerous genetic engineering strategies have been attempted to increase the oil content per seed, but few of these strategies have involved manipulating the transporters. Pyruvate is a major source of carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, and the embryo's demand for pyruvate is reported to increase during active oil accumulation. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that oil biosynthesis could be boosted by increasing pyruvate flux into plastids. We expressed the known plastid-localized pyruvate transporter BILE ACID:SODIUM SYMPORTER FAMILY PROTEIN 2 (BASS2) under the control of a seed-specific soybean (Glycine max) glycinin-1 promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The resultant transgenic Arabidopsis plants (OEs), which expressed high levels of BASS2, produced seeds that were larger and heavier and contained 10–37% more oil than those of the wild type (WT), but were comparable to the WT seeds in terms of protein and carbohydrate contents. The total seed number did not differ significantly between the WT and OEs. Therefore, oil yield per plant was increased by 24–43% in the OE lines compared to WT. Taken together, our results demonstrate that seed-specific overexpression of the pyruvate transporter BASS2 promotes oil production in Arabidopsis seeds. Thus, manipulating the level of specific transporters is a feasible approach for increasing the seed oil content. PMID:28265278

  19. Characterization and coagulation of a polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulant with high Al13 content.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-Yu; Chu, Yong-Bao; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Bing-Jian; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2005-07-01

    A polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulant was prepared from AlCl3 x 6H2O and Na2CO3. The Al13 species in PAC was separated and purified by the SO4(2-)/Ba2+ deposition-replacement method, and characterized by 27Al-NMR and XRD. From 27Al-NMR spectroscopy, it was found that PAC obtained after separation and purification contained more Al13 (PAC-Al13, for short) than original PAC before separation and purification. In XRD spectra, a strong Al13 signal appeared in the range of 2theta from 5 to 25 degrees. Jar tests were performed to test the coagulation efficiency of AlCl3, PAC and PAC-Al13 in treating synthetic or actual water samples. Compared with PAC and AlCl3, PAC-Al13 gives the best results for turbidity, humic acid and color removal, and achieves the highest charge-neutralizing ability. Under the study conditions, PAC-Al13 gave about 90% humic acid removal and almost 100% reactive blue dye removal when its dosages were 4.0 and 15 mg/L as Al, respectively. The Al13 species has a higher positive charge and is the most effective polymeric Al species in water and wastewater treatment.

  20. Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.

    PubMed

    Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice.

  1. High phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased potato minituber formation and starch content during extended clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.; Leach, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    The major purpose of these experiments were to investigate growth of potato storage organs and starch synthesis in minitubers at slow horizontal clinorotation (2 rpm), which partly mimics microgravity, and a secondary goal was to study the activity and localization of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) in storage parenchyma under these conditions. Miniplants of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) were grown in culture for 30 days for both the vertical control and the horizontal clinorotation. During long-term clinorotation, an acceleration of minituber formation, and an increase of amyloplast number and size in storage parenchyma cells, as well as increased starch content, was observed in the minitubers. The differences among cytochemical reaction intensity, activity of phosphorylase, and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in a horizontal clinostat were established by electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods. It is shown that high phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased starch content during extended clinorotation. The results demonstrate the increase in carbohydrate metabolism and possible accelerated growth of storage organs under the influence of microgravity, as mimicked by clinorotation; therefore, clinorotation can be used as a basis for future studies on mechanisms of starch synthesis under microgravity.

  2. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M

    2013-01-21

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  3. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance.

    PubMed

    del Favero, Serena; Roschel, Hamilton; Artioli, Guilherme; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Costa, André; Barroso, Renato; Negrelli, Ana Lua; Otaduy, Maria Concepción; da Costa Leite, Cláudia; Lancha-Junior, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of betaine supplementation on muscle phosphorylcreatine (PCr) content and strength performance in untrained subjects. Additionally, we compared the ergogenic and physiological responses to betaine versus creatine supplementation. Finally, we also tested the possible additive effects of creatine and betaine supplementation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were assigned to receive betaine (BET; 2 g/day), creatine (CR; 20 g/day), betaine plus creatine (BET+CR; 2+20 g/day, respectively) or placebo (PL). At baseline and after 10 days of supplementation, we assessed muscle strength and power, muscle PCr content, and body composition. The CR and BET+CR groups presented greater increase in muscle PCr content than PL (p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). PCr content was comparable between BET versus PL (p=0.78) and CR versus BET+CR (p=0.99). CR and BET+CR presented greater muscle power output than PL in the squat exercise following supplementation (p=0.003 and p=0.041, respectively). Similarly, bench press average power was significantly greater for the CR-supplemented groups. CR and BET+CR groups also showed significant pre- to post-test increase in 1-RM squat and bench press (CR: p=0.027 and p<0.0001; BET+CR: p=0.03 and p<0.0001 for upper- and lower-body assessments, respectively) No significant differences for 1-RM strength and power were observed between BET versus PL and CR versus BET+CR. Body composition did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, we reported that betaine supplementation does not augment muscle PCr content. Furthermore, we showed that betaine supplementation combined or not with creatine supplementation does not affect strength and power performance in untrained subjects.

  4. Effect of Al content, substrate temperature and nitrogen flow on the reactive magnetron co-sputtered nanostructure in TiAlN thin films intended for use as barrier material in DRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Reza; Parhizkar, Mojtaba; Bidadi, Hasan; Naghshara, Hamid; Hosseini, Seyd Reza; Jafari, Majid

    2015-03-01

    TiAlN thin films were deposited by using the reactive magnetron co-sputtering method whit individual Ti and Al targets, where the Ti and the Al targets were simultaneously powered by using DC and RF sources, respectively. the electrical resistivity and the structural and microstructural properties of the deposited TiAlN thin films and the effects of Al content, substrate temperature and nitrogen gas flow rate on those properties were investigated. At a low flow rate of nitrogen gas (0.51 sccm), the electrical resistivity of the films was found to increase with increasing AC power, but at a high flow rate of nitrogen gas, it was found to decrease. The structural and microstructural analyses performed by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with increasing substrate temperature from room temperature to 400 ℃, the films prepared at 400 ℃ have a crystalline structure while those prepared at room temperature had an amorphous nature. Also, the SEM analysis revealed that with decreasing AC power and increasing nitrogen flow rate, the size of the grains in the prepared films become larger.

  5. Characterization and Electrical Properties of Al-Doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Semiconductors with Various Cu Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsefi, Mehrdad; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2014-04-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) semiconductor, which shows record photovoltaic conversion efficiencies near 20%, has become a leading material for thin-film solar cell applications. In this work, Al-doped CIGSe (Al-CIGSe) bulk material with different Cu contents has been prepared by a liquid-phase reactive sintering method at 650°C. Sintering of the Al-CIGSe bulk material has been carried out in the presence of Sb2S3 and Te. The bulk Cu x [(In0.6Al0.1)Ga0.3]Se2 semiconductor was n-type for x = 0.7 and p-type for higher Cu content. The defect chemistry of Al-CIGSe was studied by measuring the electrical properties as a function of copper content. The changes in the conductivity type and carrier concentration were related to defect states involving Cu vacancy and antisite defects of In Cu 2+ and Cu B 2 - in a Cu B IIISe2-type phase. The lattice parameters were in good agreement with other evidence for the existence of different defect states.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia increases coronary endothelial dysfunction, lipid content, and accelerated atherosclerosis after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perrault, L P; Mahlberg, F; Breugnot, C; Bidouard, J P; Villeneuve, N; Vilaine, J P; Vanhoutte, P M

    2000-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia may increase endothelial damage and promote accelerated atherogenesis in graft coronary vasculopathy. To study the effects of hypercholesterolemia on coronary endothelial dysfunction, intimal hyperplasia, and lipid content, a porcine model of heterotopic heart transplantation, allowing nonacute rejection without immunosuppressive drugs, was used. A high cholesterol diet was fed to donor and recipient swine 1 month before and after transplantation. The endothelial function of coronary arteries of native and transplanted hearts from cholesterol-fed animals was studied in organ chambers 30 days after implantation and compared with endothelial function in arteries from animals fed a normal diet. The total serum cholesterol increased 3-fold in donors and recipients. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to serotonin, to the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK14,304, and to the direct G-protein activator sodium fluoride were decreased significantly in allografted hearts compared with native hearts from both groups. Relaxations to the calcium ionophore A23187 and bradykinin were decreased significantly in allografts from animals fed the high cholesterol diet. The prevalence of intimal hyperplasia was significantly increased in coronary arteries from hypercholesterolemic swine. There was a significant increase in the lipid content of allograft arteries of hypercholesterolemic recipients. Hypercholesterolemia causes a general coronary endothelial dysfunction, increases the prevalence of intimal hyperplasia, and augments the incorporation of lipids in the vascular wall after heart transplantation. Hyperlipidemia accelerates graft coronary atherosclerosis through its effects on the endothelium.

  7. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome. PMID:23999762

  8. Increasing MuSK activity delays denervation and improves motor function in ALS mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, María J; Burden, Steven J

    2012-09-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease that progresses from detachment of motor nerve terminals to complete muscle paralysis and lethal respiratory failure within 5 years of diagnosis. Genetic studies have linked mutations in several genes to ALS, and mice bearing mutations in SOD1 recapitulate hallmark features of the disease. We investigated whether disease symptoms can be ameliorated by co-opting the retrograde signaling pathway that promotes attachment of nerve terminals to muscle. We crossed SOD1G93A mice with transgenic mice that express MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is required for retrograde signaling, and we used histological and behavioral assays to assess motor innervation and behavior. A 3-fold increase in MuSK expression delayed the onset and reduced the extent of muscle denervation, improving motor function for more than a month without altering survival. These findings suggest that increasing MuSK activity by pharmacological means has the potential to improve motor function in ALS.

  9. Topical tretinoin increases the tropoelastin and fibronectin content of photoaged hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, E; Kligman, L H

    1995-04-01

    Topical tretinoin treatment of photoaged hairless mice has been shown in previous studies to stimulate formation of a subepidermal zone of new connective tissue characterized by enhanced collagen synthesis. The aims of this study were to localize and/or quantify elastin, fibronectin, and glycosaminoglycans in the same model. Hairless mice (Skh-1) were irradiated thrice weekly for 10 weeks with gradually increasing doses of ultraviolet (up to 4.5 minimal erythema doses per exposure) from Westinghouse FS-40 bulbs. Mice were then treated five times a week with either 0.05% tretinoin, the ethanol:propylene glycol vehicle, or nothing for another 10 weeks. Controls included mice sacrificed after 10 weeks of ultraviolet treatment and age-matched untreated animals. The distribution of elastin and fibronectin was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, which revealed fine fibrils in the subepidermal zone in tretinoin-treated skin. A quantitative slot-blot immunobinding assay showed that tretinoin induced a threefold higher amount of tropoelastin compared with controls. Insoluble elastin content (desmosine levels) was similar in all groups. Although fibronectin content was increased by ultraviolet radiation, tretinoin treatment induced the largest increase. In contrast, the amount of glycosaminoglycans, although increased by UVB radiation, was reduced by tretinoin treatment.

  10. Exercise training-induced adaptations associated with increases in skeletal muscle glycogen content.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S C; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young-Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-02-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism leading to increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4 or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. As compared with sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3. Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of R(GL)(G(M)), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1 activity, GSK-3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~ 40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks, and may function as a negative feedback mechanism in response to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms, including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase, and PP1 activity.

  11. Peculiarities of milling porcelain bodies with an increased content of technological waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeevich, L.P.; Gulai, O.S.

    1986-07-01

    A study of the dependence of the duration of milling on the quantity and the type of the technological waste products introduced into the porcelain body was conducted. Tables show the dependence of the milling fineness of the stony materials on the duration of milling. With an increasing content of waste products of the first firing in the porcelain body compositions, the duration of milling decreases. When using increased amounts of the waste products of the second firing, it was shown that it is necessary to subject the scrap to prior milling in edge-roller mills. Using the milled product scrap of the second firing does not lead to an increase in the duration of milling.

  12. Increased α-tocotrienol content in seeds of transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis γ-tocopherol methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Yun; Liu, Ru-Ru; Xu, Geng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yin; Tang, Ke-Xuan; Liang, Guo-Hua; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin E comprises a group of eight lipid soluble antioxidant compounds that are an essential part of the human diet. The α-isomers of both tocopherol and tocotrienol are generally considered to have the highest antioxidant activities. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) catalyzes the final step in vitamin E biosynthesis, the methylation of γ- and δ-isomers to α- and β-isomers. In present study, the Arabidopsis γ-TMT (AtTMT) cDNA was overexpressed constitutively or in the endosperm of the elite japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 (WY3) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. HPLC analysis showed that, in brown rice of the wild type or transgenic controls with empty vector, the α-/γ-tocotrienol ratio was only 0.7, much lower than that for tocopherol (~19.0). In transgenic rice overexpressing AtTMT driven by the constitutive Ubi promoter, most of the γ-isomers were converted to α-isomers, especially the γ- and δ-tocotrienol levels were dramatically decreased. As a result, the α-tocotrienol content was greatly increased in the transgenic seeds. Similarly, over-expression of AtTMT in the endosperm also resulted in an increase in the α-tocotrienol content. The results showed that the α-/γ-tocopherol ratio also increased in the transgenic seeds, but there was no significant effect on α-tocopherol level, which may reflect the fact that γ-tocopherol is present in very small amounts in wild type rice seeds. AtTMT overexpression had no effect on the absolute total content of either tocopherols or tocotrienols. Taken together, these results are the first demonstration that the overexpression of a foreign γ-TMT significantly shift the tocotrienol synthesis in rice, which is one of the world's most important food crops.

  13. [Increasing reductant NADPH content via metabolic engineering of PHB synthesis pathway in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yin

    2011-07-01

    Cyanobacteria have become attractive hosts for renewable chemicals production. The low productivity, however, prevents it from industrial application. Reductant NAD(P)H availability is a chief hurdle for the production of reductive metabolites in microbes. To increase NADPH content in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, PHB synthase encoding gene phaC and phaE in Synechocystis was inactivated by replacing phaC&E genes with chloromycetin resistance cassette via homologous recombination. PCR analysis showed that mutant S.delta phaC&E with complete genome segregation was generated. The comparison between growth curves of S.wt and S.delta phaC&E indicated the knockout of phaC & phaE genes did not affect obviously the cell growth. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the accumulation of PHB in wild type was about 2.3% of the dry cell weight, whereas no PHB was detected in the mutant S.delta phaC&E. The data indicated that inactivation of PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE interrupted the synthesis of PHB. Further comparative study of wild type and mutant demonstrated that NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was obviously increased. On the third day, the NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was up to 1.85 fold higher than that in wild type. These results indicated that deleting PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE not only can block the synthesis of PHB, but also can save NADPH to contribute reductant sink in cyanobacteria. Hence, the engineered cyanobacterial strain S.delta phaC&E, in which carbon flux was redirected and NADPH was increased, will be a potential host strain for chemicals production in cyanobacteria.

  14. Acute isoproterenol induces anxiety-like behavior in rats and increases plasma content of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Leo, Giuseppina; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Carone, Chiara; Filaferro, Monica; Sisti, Davide; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Cortelli, Pietro; Guidolin, Diego; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical observations have demonstrated a link between heart rate and anxiety or panic disorders. In these patients, β-adrenergic receptor function was altered. This prompted us to investigate whether the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, at a dose that stimulates peripheral β-adrenergic system but has no effects at the central nervous system, can induce anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, some possible messengers involved in the peripheral to brain communication were investigated. Our results showed that isoproterenol (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) increased heart rate, evoked anxiety-like behavior, did not result in motor impairments and increased extracellular vesicle content in the blood. Plasma corticosterone level was unmodified as well as vesicular Hsp70 content. Vesicular miR-208 was also unmodified indicating a source of increased extracellular vesicles different from cardiomyocytes. We can hypothesize that peripheral extracellular vesicles might contribute to the β-adrenergic receptor-evoked anxiety-like behavior, acting as peripheral signals in modulating the mental state.

  15. Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-12-01

    Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants.

  16. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2011-07-27

    Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.

  17. Increased renal renin content in mice lacking the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE2.

    PubMed

    Hanner, Fiona; Chambrey, Régine; Bourgeois, Soline; Meer, Elliott; Mucsi, István; Rosivall, László; Shull, Gary E; Lorenz, John N; Eladari, Dominique; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-04-01

    Macula densa (MD) cells express the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) isoform NHE2 at the apical membrane, which may play an important role in tubular salt sensing through the regulation of cell volume and intracellular pH. These studies aimed to determine whether NHE2 participates in the MD control of renin synthesis. Renal renin content and activity and elements of the MD signaling pathway were analyzed using wild-type (NHE2(+/+)) and NHE2 knockout (NHE2(-/-)) mice. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that NHE2(-/-) mice lack NHE3 at the MD apical membrane, so the other apical NHE isoform has not compensated for the lack of NHE2. Importantly, the number of renin-expressing cells in the afferent arteriole in NHE2(-/-) mice was increased approximately 2.5-fold using renin immunohistochemistry. Western blotting confirmed approximately 20% higher renal cortical renin content in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. No-salt diet for 1 wk significantly increased renin content and activity in NHE2(+/+) mice, but the response was blunted in NHE2(-/-) mice. Renal tissue renin activity and plasma renin concentration were elevated three- and twofold, respectively, in NHE2(-/-) mice compared with wild type. NHE2(-/-) mice also exhibited a significantly increased renal cortical cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) expression, indicating MD-specific mechanisms responsible for the increased renin content. Significant and chronic activation of ERK1/2 was observed in MD cells of NHE2(-/-) kidneys. Removal of salt or addition of NHE inhibitors to cultured mouse MD-derived (MMDD1) cells caused a time-dependent activation of ERK1/2. In conclusion, the NHE2 isoform appears to be important in the MD feedback control of renin secretion, and the signaling pathway likely involves MD cell shrinkage and activation of ERK1/2, COX-2, and mPGES, all well-established elements of the MD-PGE(2)-renin release pathway.

  18. Radio-frequency ion source generating beams with an increased proton content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Podyminogin, A. A.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experiments with an rf ion source generating a beam with an improved mass composition are reported. The proton content in the beam is increased by raising the rf power density in the discharge under the antenna and installing a magnetic filter near the plasma grid. Additional steps are taken to prevent the earlier observed degradation of the beam composition because of aluminum reduction on the inner surface of the ceramic discharge chamber and water release. Specifically, the chamber is lined with pyrolytic boron nitride sheets.

  19. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-15

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms.

  20. The Influence of Al Content and Thickness on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties in High-Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deda, Erin; Berman, Tracy D.; Allison, John E.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of Al content and section thickness on the microstructural features and tensile properties of high-pressure die cast AM series magnesium alloys is quantified in order to better understand the relationship between microstructure and tensile properties. It is found that with increasing aluminum content, the yield strength increases and the ductility decreases. Increasing the plate thickness results in a decrease in both the yield strength and ductility. The grain size, β-Mg17Al12 phase volume fraction, and solute content are all quantified through the thickness of the plates. It is found that the plates have a skin with increased hardness, due to a fine grain structure. The primary factors affecting strengthening in these alloys, including microstructural variations through the thickness, are accounted for using a linear superposition model. We conclude that yield strength is dominated by grain boundary strengthening and solid solution strengthening effects. The through-thickness grain size and solute concentration were quantified and these variations were found to play an important role in controlling the yield strength of these alloys.

  1. The Influence of Al Content and Thickness on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties in High-Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deda, Erin; Berman, Tracy D.; Allison, John E.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Al content and section thickness on the microstructural features and tensile properties of high-pressure die cast AM series magnesium alloys is quantified in order to better understand the relationship between microstructure and tensile properties. It is found that with increasing aluminum content, the yield strength increases and the ductility decreases. Increasing the plate thickness results in a decrease in both the yield strength and ductility. The grain size, β-Mg17Al12 phase volume fraction, and solute content are all quantified through the thickness of the plates. It is found that the plates have a skin with increased hardness, due to a fine grain structure. The primary factors affecting strengthening in these alloys, including microstructural variations through the thickness, are accounted for using a linear superposition model. We conclude that yield strength is dominated by grain boundary strengthening and solid solution strengthening effects. The through-thickness grain size and solute concentration were quantified and these variations were found to play an important role in controlling the yield strength of these alloys.

  2. Strongly nonparabolic variation of the band gap in In x Al1-x N with low indium content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Dinh, Duc V.; Alam, Shahab N.; Schulz, Stefan; O'Reilly, Eoin P.; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    80-120 nm thick In x Al1-x N epitaxial layers with 0 < x < 0.224 were grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy on AlN/Al2O3-templates. The composition was varied through control of the growth temperature. The composition dependence of the band gap was estimated from the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge for 0 < x < 0.11 as the material with higher In content showed no luminescence under low excitation. A very rapid decrease in band gap was observed in this range, dropping down below 5.2 eV at x = 0.05, confirming previous theoretical work that used a band-anticrossing model to describe the strongly x-dependent bowing parameter, which in this case exceeds 25 eV in the x → 0 limit. A double absorption edge observed for InAlN with x < 0.01 was attributed to crystal-field splitting of the highest valence band states. Our results indicate also that the ordering of the valence bands is changed at much lower In contents than one would expect from linear interpolation of the valence band parameters. These findings on band gap bowing and valence band ordering are of direct relevance for the design of InAlN-containing optoelectronic devices.

  3. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  4. High aluminium content and high growth rates of AlGaN in a close-coupled showerhead MOVPE reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmach, J.; Pristovsek, M.; Savaş, Ö.; Schlegel, J.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Kneissl, M.

    2011-01-01

    The growth rates and aluminium contents of Al xGa 1- xN layers grown in a close-coupled showerhead reactor were investigated as a function of growth pressure and chamber height during metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The data show strong non-linear dependencies due to nanoparticle formation in the gas-phase. Good agreement between the experimental data and modeling results is obtained when the contribution of both Ga- and Al-containing species to the gas-phase particle formation is considered.

  5. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    PubMed

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production.

  6. Insoluble dietary fiber of wheat bran increased viscosity of pig whole cecal contents in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Takashi; Saito, Masaaki

    2007-08-01

    Viscosity of whole pig cecal contents with (2 g/200 mL) or without insoluble dietary fibers prepared from wheat bran of two particle sizes (WB fine 0.22+/-0.22 mm(2), n=1,723; WB coarse 0.51+/-1.12 mm(2), n=1,457, mean+/-SD) was measured using a rotary viscometer equipped with a vane spindle at the shear rates of 0.05, 0.16, 0.47, 0.78 and 1.56 (s(-1)) and at 0 and 2 h. Such measurements were repeated twice each for five different donor pig groups. We were able to measure the coefficient of viscosity of such samples over a wide range of shear rate. Coefficient of viscosity depended on shear rate. Addition of insoluble dietary fiber increased the coefficient of viscosity. Insoluble dietary fiber from WB coarse had a significantly stronger effect than that from WB fine. The above results demonstrated that insoluble dietary fibers of wheat bran increase the viscosity of gut contents, and thereby potentially retard digestion and absorption.

  7. Soybean GmDREBL Increases Lipid Content in Seeds of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Lu, Xiang; Zhao, Fei-Yi; Li, Qing-Tian; Niu, Su-Ling; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    A DREB-type transcription factor gene GmDREBL has been characterized for its functions in oil accumulation in seeds. The gene is specifically expressed in soybean seeds. The GmDREBL is localized in nucleus and has transcriptional activation ability. Overexpression of GmDREBL increased the fatty acid content in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. GmDREBL can bind to the promoter region of WRI1 to activate its expression. Several other genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were also enhanced in the GmDREBL-transgenic plants. The GmDREBL can be up-regulated by GmABI3 and GmABI5. Additionally, overexpression of GmDREBL significantly promoted seed size in transgenic plants compared to that of WT plants. Expression of the DREBL is at higher level on the average in cultivated soybeans than that in wild soybeans. The promoter of the DREBL may have been subjected to selection during soybean domestication. Our results demonstrate that GmDREBL participates in the regulation of fatty acid accumulation by controlling the expression of WRI1 and its downstream genes, and manipulation of the gene may increase the oil contents in soybean plants. Our study provides novel insights into the function of DREB-type transcription factors in oil accumulation in addition to their roles in stress response. PMID:27694917

  8. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.

    PubMed

    Paine, Jacqueline A; Shipton, Catherine A; Chaggar, Sunandha; Howells, Rhian M; Kennedy, Mike J; Vernon, Gareth; Wright, Susan Y; Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L; Silverstone, Aron L; Drake, Rachel

    2005-04-01

    "Golden Rice" is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene.

  9. Work function increase of Al-doped ZnO thin films by B+ ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang-Jin; Heo, Gi-Seok; Park, Jong-Woon; Lee, In-Hwan; Choi, Bum-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Se-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2007-11-01

    The work function of an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film can be increased via B+ ion implantation from 3.92 eV up to 4.22 eV. The ion implantation has been carried out with the ion dose of 1 x 10(16) cm(-2) and ion energy of 5 keV. The resistance of the B+ implanted AZO films has been a bit raised, while their transmittance is slightly lowered, compared to those of un-implanted AZO films. These behaviors can be explained by the doping profile and the resultant band diagram. It is concluded that the coupling between the B+ ions and oxygen vacancies would be the main reason for an increase in the work function and a change in the other properties. We also address that the work function is more effectively alterable if the defect density of the top transparent conducting oxide layer can be controlled.

  10. Effects of Al Content and Addition of Third Element on Fabrication of Ti-Al Intermetallic Coatings by Heat Treatment of Warm-Sprayed Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Kuroda, S.; Minagawa, K.; Murakami, H.; Araki, H.; Kurzydłowski, K. J.

    2015-06-01

    Four powder mixtures of titanium and aluminum with 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, and 20:80 atomic ratios were used as feedstock for Warm Spray process to produce composite coatings. A two-stage heat treatment at 600 and 1000 °C was applied to the deposits in order to obtain titanium aluminide intermetallic phases. The microstructure, chemical, and phase composition of the as-deposited and heat-treated coatings were investigated using SEM, EDS, and XRD. It was found that the Al content affects on the thickness expansion of the heat-treated Ti-Al coatings significantly and also has a major influence on the porosity development, which is caused by the Kirkendall effect. The effects of adding a third element Si and heat treatment with pressure to produce denser Ti-Al intermetallic coating were also examined. The investigated hot-pressed coatings with addition of Si exhibited much denser microstructure and contained Ti-Al intermetallic phases with titanium silicide precipitates.

  11. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breeding?

    PubMed

    Kasarda, Donald D

    2013-02-13

    In response to the suggestion that an increase in the incidence of celiac disease might be attributable to an increase in the gluten content of wheat resulting from wheat breeding, a survey of data from the 20th and 21st centuries for the United States was carried out. The results do not support the likelihood that wheat breeding has increased the protein content (proportional to gluten content) of wheat in the United States. Possible roles for changes in the per capita consumption of wheat flour and the use of vital gluten as a food additive are discussed.

  12. Fat content increases the lethality of ultra-high-pressure homogenization on Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    PubMed

    Roig-Sagués, A X; Velázquez, R M; Montealegre-Agramont, P; López-Pedemonte, T J; Briñez-Zambrano, W J; Guamis-López, B; Hernandez-Herrero, M M

    2009-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes CCUG 15526 was inoculated at a concentration of approximately 7.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3, 3.6, 10, and 15% fat contents. Milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat content were also inoculated with a lower load of approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL. Inoculated milk samples were subjected to a single cycle of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) treatment at 200, 300, and 400 MPa. Microbiological analyses were performed 2 h after the UHPH treatments and after 5, 8, and 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Maximum lethality values were observed in samples treated at 400 MPa with 15 and 10% fat (7.95 and 7.46 log(10) cfu/mL), respectively. However, in skimmed and 3.6% fat milk samples, complete inactivation was not achieved and, during the subsequent 15 d of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes was able to recover and replicate until achieving initial counts. In milk samples with 10 and 15% fat, L. monocytogenes recovered to the level of initial counts only in the milk samples treated at 200 MPa but not in the milk samples treated at 300 and 400 MPa. When the load of L. monocytogenes was approximately 3.0 log(10) cfu/mL in milk samples with 0.3 and 3.6% fat, complete inactivation was not achieved and L. monocytogenes was able to recover and grow during the subsequent cold storage. Fat content increased the maximum temperature reached during UHPH treatment; this could have contributed to the lethal effect achieved, but the amount of fat of the milk had a stronger effect than the temperature on obtaining a higher death rate of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Overexpression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene could increase cellulose content in Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaoyang; Qi, Jianmin; Xu, Jiantang; Niu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yujia; Tao, Aifen; Zhang, Liwu; Fang, Pingping; Lin, Lihui

    2013-12-13

    In this study, the full-length cDNA of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene was isolated from jute by homologous cloning (primers were designed according to the sequence of UGPase gene of other plants) and modified RACE techniques; the cloned gene was designated CcUGPase. Using bioinformatic analysis, the gene was identified as a member of the UGPase gene family. Real-time PCR analysis revealed differential spatial and temporal expression of the CcUGPase gene, with the highest expression levels at 40 and 120d. PCR and Southern hybridization results indicate that the gene was integrated into the jute genome. Overexpression of CcUGPase gene in jute revealed increased height and cellulose content compared with control lines, although the lignin content remained unchanged. The results indicate that the jute UGPase gene participates in cellulose biosynthesis. These data provide an important basis for the application of the CcUGPase gene in the improvement of jute fiber quality.

  14. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  15. Vitamin D2, Ergosterol, and Vitamin B2 Content in Commercially Dried Mushrooms Marketed in China and Increased Vitamin D2 Content Following UV-C Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocheng; Cai, Weixi; Xu, Baojun

    2016-11-21

    Mushrooms are a great source of vitamin D and vitamin B2; however, the content of these vitamins in dried mushrooms has not fully been investigated. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the contents of vitamin D2, ergosterol, and vitamin B2 in commercially dried edible mushrooms in China and to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on fresh mushrooms. Among the 35 species of dried mushrooms considered for this study, the average ergosterol content was 1.98 mg/g, while the average vitamin D2 content was 16.88 µg/g. The average vitamin B2 content in dried mushrooms was 12.68 µg/g. Fresh shaggy ink caps and oyster mushrooms, when exposed to UV-C at 254 nm at a dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) for 10, 30, and 60 min, showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased vitamin D2 content (229.7 and 67.0 µg/g, respectively) as compared to its fresh counterparts. The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 induced by UV-C irradiation at 0.25 J/cm(2) was significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dried commercial mushrooms have higher contents of ergosterol and vitamin D2 than fresh mushrooms. UV-C radiation can be used to increase vitamin D2 content in mushrooms.

  16. Influence of Ag contents on structure and tribological properties of TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chaoqun; Li, Jinlong; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yitao; Wang, Yongxin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-02-01

    TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings with different Ag contents were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V using reactive co-sputtering in multi-arc ion plating system. Influence of Ag contents on structure and tribological properties of TiSiN-Ag nanocomposite coatings was investigated. The TiSiN-Ag coatings were found to have unique nanocomposite structures composed of nanocrystallite and amorphous nc-TiN/nc-Ag/a-Si3N4. When the silver content was 1.4 at.%, the coating exhibited high hardness (36 GPa), but poor wear resistance. When the silver content was increased from 5.3 to 8.7 at.%, the coatings possessed homogeneous distribution and small variation in hardness. Although these coatings revealed obvious decrease in hardness, significantly reduced in the friction coefficient and possessed excellent tribological properties, besides, the coating with the Ag content of 5.3 at.% showed best wear resistance in artificial seawater and the coating (7.9 at.% Ag) revealed the best wear resistance in ambient air. However, with a further increased incorporation of Ag into the TiSiN-Ag coating (17.0 at.%) resulted in the formation of a large volume fraction of metallic silver, which caused a decrease both in hardness and wear resistance. The coating containing highest Ag concentration (21.0 at.%) exhibited low friction coefficient both in ambient air and artificial seawater, although possessing low hardness.

  17. Methylglyoxal alters glucose metabolism and increases AGEs content in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Fernanda; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Silveira, Simone da Luz; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Fontoura, Júlia Bijoldo; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Leite, Marina Concli; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Methylglyoxal is a dicarbonyl compound that is physiologically produced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. It can lead to cytotoxicity, which is mainly related to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) formation. Methylglyoxal and AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND) and, in these situations, can cause the impairment of energetic metabolism. Astroglial cells play critical roles in brain metabolism and the appropriate functioning of astrocytes is essential for the survival and function of neurons. However, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of methylglyoxal on astroglial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal exposure, over short (1 and 3 h) and long term (24 h) periods, on glucose, glycine and lactate metabolism in C6 glioma cells, as well as investigate the glyoxalase system and AGEs formation. Glucose uptake and glucose oxidation to CO(2) increased in 1 h and the conversion of glucose to lipids increased at 3 h. In addition, glycine oxidation to CO(2) and conversion of glycine to lipids increased at 1 h, whereas the incorporation of glycine in proteins decreased at 1 and 3 h. Methylglyoxal decreased glyoxalase I and II activities and increased AGEs content within 24 h. Lactate oxidation and lactate levels were not modified by methylglyoxal exposure. These data provide evidence that methylglyoxal may impair glucose metabolism and can affect glyoxalase activity. In periods of increased methylglyoxal exposure, such alterations could be exacerbated, leading to further increases in intracellular methylglyoxal and AGEs, and therefore triggering and/or worsening ND.

  18. Behcet brain tissue identified with increased levels of Si and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyosiova, Monika; Kopani, Martin; Rychly, Boris; Jakubovsky, Jan; Velic, Dusan

    2008-12-01

    Behcet disease is a multi-system disorder with still uncertain chemical causality. Chemical composition of molecules and elements in a human brain tissue of Behcet diseased patient is of interest. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is used to provide complex composition in Behcet disease and control tissues. Determined organic compounds are represented by fragments of carbohydrates, phospholipids, amino acids, and peptides in both samples without any qualitative differences. Trace heavy elements as Fe, Zn, and Cu are identified in Behcet disease tissue with increased intensities by only an averaged factor of 2.2 in comparison to the control. The significant differences between the control and Behcet disease tissues are in the presence of Si and Al. These two elements have significantly higher intensities by an averaged factor of 10.0 in Behcet disease tissue. The origin of Al and Si occurrence and the chronology of their accumulation are not clear, moreover this observation supports a significance of chemical characterization in an early stage of disease.

  19. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  20. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  1. Students using mobile phones in the classroom: Can the phones increase content learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, David Lee

    A study was conducted at a high-performing school in Southern California to explore the effects on learning content from students using their own smart phones in and out of the classroom. The study used a Switching Replications design format which allowed two independent analyses of posttest scores between a group using e-flash cards on smart phones and a group using paper flash cards. Quantitative data was collected via two tailed, t-tests and qualitative data was collected through observations and interviews. Results suggest that knowledge level learning may be increased with mobile phone use, but no effect on comprehension level learning was found. Students found the phones to be convenient in accessing flash cards anytime and anywhere. Enthusiasm for using the phones in class while initially high waned over the 1 month study duration. Students perceived the phones to not be a significant source of distraction outside of class.

  2. In vitro availability of zinc from infant foods with increasing phytic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Bosscher, D; Lu, Z; Janssens, G; Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Robberecht, H; De Rycke, H; De Wilde, R; Deelstra, H

    2001-08-01

    An in vitro method was used to determine the availability of Zn from infant foods containing increasing amounts of phytate, and to quantify the effect of the phytate:Zn molar ratio on the availability. During the in vitro assay, digestive conditions of infants, younger and older than 4 months of age, were carefully simulated since the solubility of phytate-Zn complexes during digestion is pH dependent. Availability was measured with a continuous flow dialysis in vitro procedure with previous intralumen digestive stage. Zn concentrations were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phytic acid content was measured with HPLC. Adding phytate to infant formula lowered Zn availability to 2.84 (sd 0.17) % when the phytate:Zn molar ratio increased to 2.2 as compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability from vegetables (23.83 (sd 2.17) %) significantly decreased at a ratio > 7.9 (15.12 (sd 1.63) %). Zn availability from soyabean-based formula (2.26 (sd 0.36) %) was lower compared with cows' milk-based formula (6.65 (sd 0.55) %). Availability between soyabean- and cows' milk-based formula was similar when a phytate:Zn ratio of 2.2 (2.84 (sd 0.17) %) was obtained in the cows' milk formula. The negative effect of phytic acid on Zn availability was dependent on the type of the food and the phytate content, and should be considered when using soyabean-based formulas during early infancy.

  3. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Brian; Dvora, Mia; Dums, Jacob; Backman, Patrick; Sederoff, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25°C to 35°C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0) into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:25992838

  4. Clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B. Univ. of Lund Univ. of Erlangen )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([sup 99m]Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Increase of ascorbic acid content and nutritional quality in spinach leaves during physiological acclimation to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Simona; Moscatello, Stefano; Famiani, Franco; Battistelli, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of acclimation to 10 degrees C on the leaf content of ascorbic and oxalic acids, was investigated in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). At 10 degrees C the content of ascorbic acid in leaves increased and after 7 days it was about 41% higher than in plants remaining under a 25 degrees C/20 degrees C day/night temperature regime. In contrast, the content of oxalate, remained unchanged. Transfer to 10 degrees C increased the ascorbic but not the oxalic acid content of the leaf intercellular washing fluid (IWF). Oxalate oxidase (OXO EC 1.2.3.4) activity was not detected in extracts of leaf blades. Therefore, oxalic acid degradation via OXO was not involved in the control of its content. Our results show that low temperature acclimation increases nutritional quality of spinach leaves via a physiological rise of ascorbic acid that does not feed-forward on the content of oxalic acid.

  6. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  7. Wet Oxidation of High-Al-Content III-V Semiconductors: Important Materials Considerations for Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, Carol I.H.

    1999-05-19

    Wet oxidation of high-Al-content AIGaAs semiconductor layers in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) has produced devices with record low threshold currents and voltages and with wall-plug efficiencies greater than 50%. Wet oxidation of buried AlGaAs layers has been employed to reduce the problems associated with substrate current leakage in GaAs-on- insulator (GOI) MESFETS. Wet oxidation of high-Al-content AlGaAs semiconductor layers in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) has produced devices with record low threshold currents and voltages and with wall-plug efficiencies greater than 50%. Wet oxidation of buried AlGaAs layers has been employed to reduce the problems associated with substrate current leakage in GaAs-on- insulator (GOI) MESFETS. Wet oxidation has also been considered as a route to the long-sought goal of a IH-V MIS technology. To continue improving device designs for even higher performance and to establish a truly manufacturable technology based on wet oxidation, the effect of oxidation of a given layer on the properties of the entire device structure must be understood. The oxidation of a given layer can strongly affect the electrical and chemical properties of adjacent layers. Many of these effects are derived from the production of large amounts of elemental As during the oxidation reaction, the resultant generation of point defects, and the diffusion of these defects into adjacent regions. This can modify the chemical and electrical properties of these regions in ways that can impact device design, fabrication, and performance. Current understanding of the problem is discussed here.

  8. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  9. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans.

  10. Increased methionine sulfoxide content of apoA-I in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Jenkins, Alicia J; Lyons, Timothy J; Klein, Richard L; Yim, Eunsil; Lopes-Virella, Maria; Carter, Rickey E; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2008-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in diabetes. HDL plays an important role in limiting vascular damage by removing cholesterol and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides from oxidized low density lipoprotein and foam cells. Methionine (Met) residues in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, reduce peroxides in HDL lipids, forming methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)]. We examined the extent and sites of Met(O) formation in apoA-I of HDL isolated from plasma of healthy control and type 1 diabetic subjects to assess apoA-I exposure to lipid peroxides and the status of oxidative stress in the vascular compartment in diabetes. Three tryptic peptides of apoA-I contain Met residues: Q(84)-M(86)-K(88), W(108)-M(112)-R(116), and L(144)-M(148)-R(149). These peptides and their Met(O) analogs were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Relative to controls, Met(O) formation was significantly increased at all three locations (Met(86), Met(112), and Met(148)) in diabetic patients. The increase in Met(O) in the diabetic group did not correlate with other biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as N(epsilon)-malondialdehyde-lysine or N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, in plasma or lipoproteins. The higher Met(O) content in apoA-I from diabetic patients is consistent with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma in diabetes. Using the methods developed here, future studies can address the relationship between Met(O) in apoA-I and the risk, development, or progression of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  11. Seladin-1/DHCR24 protects neuroblastoma cells against Aβ toxicity by increasing membrane cholesterol content

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, C; Rosati, F; Pensalfini, A; Formigli, L; Nosi, D; Liguri, G; Dichiara, F; Morello, M; Danza, G; Pieraccini, G; Peri, A; Serio, M; Stefani, M

    2008-01-01

    The role of brain cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently a matter of debate. Experimental evidence suggests that reducing circulating and brain cholesterol protects against AD, however recent data indicate that low membrane cholesterol results in neurode-generation and that the cholesterol synthesis catalyst seladin-1 is down-regulated in AD-affected brain regions. We previously reported a significant correlation between resistance to amyloid toxicity and content of membrane cholesterol in differing cultured cell types. Here we provide evidence that Aβ42 pre-fibrillar aggregates accumulate more slowly and in reduced amount at the plasma membrane of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing seladin-1 or treated with PEG-cholesterol than at the membrane of control cells. The accumulation was significantly increased in cholesterol-depleted cells following treatment with the specific seladin-1 inhibitor 5,22E-cholestadien-3-ol or with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The resistance to amyloid toxicity and the early cytosolic Ca2+ rise following exposure to Aβ42 aggregates were increased and prevented, respectively, by increasing membrane cholesterol whereas the opposite effects were found in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that seladin-1-dependent cholesterol synthesis reduces membrane-aggregate interaction and cell damage associated to amyloid-induced imbalance of cytosolic Ca2+. Our findings extend recently reported data indicating that seladin-1 overexpression directly enhances the resistance to Aβ toxicity featuring seladin-1/DHCR 24 as a possible new susceptibility gene for sporadic AD. PMID:18194465

  12. Evolution of Intermetallics, Dispersoids, and Elevated Temperature Properties at Various Fe Contents in Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chen, X.-G.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, great interests are rising on aluminum alloys for the applications at elevated temperature, driven by the automotive and aerospace industries requiring high strength, light weight, and low-cost engineering materials. As one of the most promising candidates, Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloys have been found to possess considerably high mechanical properties and creep resistance at elevated temperature resulted from the precipitation of a large number of thermally stable dispersoids during heat treatment. In present work, the effect of Fe contents on the evolution of microstructure as well as high-temperature properties of 3004 alloys has been investigated. Results show that the dominant intermetallic changes from α-Al(MnFe)Si at 0.1 wt pct Fe to Al6(MnFe) at both 0.3 and 0.6 wt pct Fe. In the Fe range of 0.1-0.6 wt pct studied, a significant improvement on mechanical properties at elevated temperature has been observed due to the precipitation of dispersoids, and the best combination of yield strength and creep resistance at 573 K (300 °C) is obtained in the 0.3 wt pct Fe alloy with the finest size and highest volume fraction of dispersoids. The superior properties obtained at 573 K (300 °C) make 3004 alloys more promising for high-temperature applications. The relationship between the Fe content and the dispersoid precipitation as well as the materials properties has been discussed.

  13. HCl content has ceased to increase in the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Poberovsky, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    According to the spectroscopy data on the HCl content analyzed in Peterhof in 2009-2016 and in a number of NDACC stations in the Northern Hemisphere, growth in the HCl content observed since 2007 and caused by changes in the stratospheric circulation stopped in 2010-2011. As follows from the experimental data, a decrease in the HCl content estimated in Peterhof at 4.4 × 1013 cm-2/year or 1.0%/year started again.

  14. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  15. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment.

  16. Increased 8-hydroxyguanine content of chloroplast DNA from ozone-treated plants

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, R.A.; West, M.S. ); Hogsett, W.E.; Tingey, D.T. )

    1989-10-01

    The mechanism of ozone-mediated plant injury is not known but has been postulated to involve oxygen free radicals. Hydroxyl free radicals react with DNA causing formation of many products, one of which is 8-hydroxyguanine. By using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, the 8-hydroxy-2-{prime}-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content of a DNA enzymatic digest can be sensitively quantitated. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and peas (Pisum sativum L.) were treated with an ozone regime that caused acute injury. Chloroplast DNA was obtained from plants harvested either immediately after ozone treatment or 24 hours later. Ozone-exposed plants in general had nearly two-fold higher levels of 8-OHdG as compared to control plants. In vitro treatment of DNA in buffer solution with ozone did not cause formation of 8-OHdG in DNA, even though ozone did react directly with the macromolecule per se. Exposure of isolated, illuminated chloroplasts to ozone caused nearly a seven-fold increase in the amount of 8-OHdG in the chloroplast DNA as compared to none-ozone-exposed chloroplasts. These results suggest that ozone exposure to plants causes formation of enhanced levels of oxygen free radicals, thus mediating formation of 8-OHdG in chloroplast DNA. The reaction of ozone with DNA per se did not cause formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, it is the interaction of ozone with plant cells and isolated chloroplasts which mediates oxygen free radical formation.

  17. Tooth hardness increases with zinc-content in mandibles of young adult leaf-cutter ants.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Nesson, Michael H; Richardson, Kathleen A

    2002-12-01

    A wide variety of arthropods and members of other phyla have elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn, other heavy metals and halogens in their jaws, leg claws, and other "tools" for interacting with the environment. While measured Zn concentrations reach 25% of dry mass in scorpion stings, concentrations are often lower than this and the enriched structures are not heavily biomineralized like vertebrate teeth and the radula of mollusks. For this reason, the degree to which the inorganic components of these structures modify their mechanical properties is in question. Here we address this problem by measuring hardness during the development of Zn accumulations in ant mandibles. We found that Zn is incorporated into the mandibular teeth of leaf-cutter ants during early adult life, reaching concentrations of about 16% of dry mass. We show that the hardness of the mandibular teeth increases nearly three-fold as the adults age and that hardness correlates with Zn content ( r=0.91). We suggest that young adults rarely cut leaves partly because their mandibles are not yet rich in Zn. Zinc enrichment (along with enrichment by other heavy metals and halogens) may play an unrecognized role in the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide variety of invertebrates.

  18. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  19. The Effects of Individual Metal Contents on Isochrones for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beom, Minje; Na, Chongsam; Ferguson, Jason W.; Kim, Y.-C.

    2016-08-01

    The individual characteristics of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and Fe on isochrones have been investigated in this study. Stellar models have been constructed for various mixtures in which the content of each element is changed up to the extreme value reported in recent studies, and the changes in isochrone shape have been analyzed for the various mixtures. To express the abundance variation of different elements with a single parameter, we have focused on the relative changes in the total number of metal ions. A review of the shape changes revealed that Na, Mg, and Al work the same way in stellar models, similar to the well-known fact that C, N, and O have the same reactions in the stellar interior. In addition, it was found that in high-metallicity conditions the influence of Si and Fe on the red giant branch becomes smaller than that of Na, Mg, and Al closer to the tip. Furthermore, the influence of Fe on the main sequence is larger than that of Na, Mg, Al, and even Si.

  20. Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…

  1. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and Revising Exemption Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the exemption provisions applicable to handler diversion activities prescribed under the...

  2. Forage breeding and management to increase the beneficial fatty acid content of ruminant products.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R J; Scollan, N D; Lee, M R F; Ougham, H J; Humphreys, M O

    2003-05-01

    The declining consumption of ruminant products has been partly associated with their high proportion (but not necessarily content) of saturated fatty acids. Recent studies have focused on the less prominent fact that they are also important sources of beneficial fatty acids, including n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. alpha-Linolenic acid (18 : 3n-3) is of particular interest because it also contributes to improved flavour of beef and lamb. Many recent studies showed large effects of special concentrates on levels of fatty acids in milk and meat. However, the 'rumen protection' treatments, needed to ensure a worthwhile level of fatty acid in products, are expensive. Herbage lipids are the cheapest and safest source of these fatty acids and so breeding to increase delivery of fatty acids from plants into ruminant products is an important long-term strategy. Plant lipids usually contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 which are the precursors of beneficial fatty acids. Whilst some plants are particularly rich in individual fatty acids (e.g. 18 : 3n-3 in linseed), there are also useful levels in grass and clover (Trifolium Spp.). Levels of fatty acids in forages in relation to species and varieties are considered, as well as management and conservation methods. Relationships between levels of fatty acids and existing traits and genetic markers are identified. The effects of forage treatments on the fatty acid content of ruminant products are reviewed. The higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk from cows fed clover silages show that the level of fatty acids in herbage is not the only factor affecting levels of fatty acids in ruminant products. Further effort is needed to characterise susceptibility of unsaturated fatty acids to oxidative loss during field wilting and biohydrogenation losses in the rumen, and the relative importance of plant and microbial processes in these losses. The pathways

  3. Electron Mobilities and Effective Masses in InGaAs/InAlAs HEMT Structures with High In Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzeeva, N. A.; Sorokoumova, A. V.; Lunin, R. A.; Oveshnikov, L. N.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Lavruchin, D. V.; Kulbachinskii, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    InxGa_{1-{x}}As/InyAl_{1-{y}}As HEMT structures {δ}-doped by Si were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrate. We investigated the influence of the In content on the electron mobilities and effective masses in dimensionally quantized subbands. The electron effective masses were determined by the temperature dependence of the amplitude of the Shubnikov-de Haas effect at 1.6 and 4.2 K. We found that the more the In content in quantum well (QW), the less the electron effective masses. The mobilities are higher in HEMT structures with wider and deeper QW. The energy band diagrams were calculated by using Vegard's law for basic parameters. The calculated band diagrams are in a good agreement with the experimental data of photoluminescence spectra.

  4. Overexpression of patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ altered plant growth and increased seed oil content in camelina.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoyin; Wei, Fang; Tawfall, Amanda; Tang, Michelle; Saettele, Allison; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-08-01

    Camelina sativa is a Brassicaceae oilseed species being explored as a biofuel and industrial oil crop. A growing number of studies have indicated that the turnover of phosphatidylcholine plays an important role in the synthesis and modification of triacylglycerols. This study manipulated the expression of a patatin-related phospholipase AIIIδ (pPLAIIIδ) in camelina to determine its effect on seed oil content and plant growth. Constitutive overexpression of pPLAIIIδ under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter resulted in a significant increase in seed oil content and a decrease in cellulose content. In addition, the content of major membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, in 35S::pPLAIIIδ plants was increased. However, these changes in 35S::pPLAIIIδ camelina were associated with shorter cell length, leaves, stems, and seed pods and a decrease in overall seed production. When pPLAIIIδ was expressed under the control of the seed specific, β-conglycinin promoter, the seed oil content was increased without compromising plant growth. The results suggest that pPLAIIIδ alters the carbon partitioning by decreasing cellulose content and increasing oil content in camelina.

  5. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p < 0.001) as compared to LND group. In SAT we found positive correlation between HOMA-IR and C16:0-Cer (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and between HOMA-IR and C16:0/18:2 DAG (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). In EAT we found a strong correlation between C16:0-CoA content and HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The study showed that in obese and obese diabetic patients, bioactive lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  6. O-GlcNAcylation Increases ChREBP Protein Content and Transcriptional Activity in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guinez, Céline; Filhoulaud, Gaëlle; Rayah-Benhamed, Fadila; Marmier, Solenne; Dubuquoy, Céline; Dentin, Renaud; Moldes, Marthe; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Yang, Xiaoyong; Lefebvre, Tony; Girard, Jean; Postic, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbohydrate-responsive element–binding protein (ChREBP) is a key transcription factor that mediates the effects of glucose on glycolytic and lipogenic genes in the liver. We have previously reported that liver-specific inhibition of ChREBP prevents hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by specifically decreasing lipogenic rates in vivo. To better understand the regulation of ChREBP activity in the liver, we investigated the implication of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc or O-GlcNAcylation), an important glucose-dependent posttranslational modification playing multiple roles in transcription, protein stabilization, nuclear localization, and signal transduction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS O-GlcNAcylation is highly dynamic through the action of two enzymes: the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which transfers the monosaccharide to serine/threonine residues on a target protein, and the O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which hydrolyses the sugar. To modulate ChREBPOG in vitro and in vivo, the OGT and OGA enzymes were overexpressed or inhibited via adenoviral approaches in mouse hepatocytes and in the liver of C57BL/6J or obese db/db mice. RESULTS Our study shows that ChREBP interacts with OGT and is subjected to O-GlcNAcylation in liver cells. O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes the ChREBP protein and increases its transcriptional activity toward its target glycolytic (L-PK) and lipogenic genes (ACC, FAS, and SCD1) when combined with an active glucose flux in vivo. Indeed, OGT overexpression significantly increased ChREBPOG in liver nuclear extracts from fed C57BL/6J mice, leading in turn to enhanced lipogenic gene expression and to excessive hepatic triglyceride deposition. In the livers of hyperglycemic obese db/db mice, ChREBPOG levels were elevated compared with controls. Interestingly, reducing ChREBPOG levels via OGA overexpression decreased lipogenic protein content (ACC, FAS), prevented hepatic steatosis, and improved the lipidic profile of OGA-treated db/db mice

  7. Metabolic control analysis is helpful for informed genetic manipulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to increase seed oil content.

    PubMed

    Weselake, Randall J; Shah, Saleh; Tang, Mingguo; Quant, Patti A; Snyder, Crystal L; Furukawa-Stoffer, Tara L; Zhu, Weiming; Taylor, David C; Zou, Jitao; Kumar, Arvind; Hall, Linda; Laroche, Andre; Rakow, Gerhard; Raney, Phillip; Moloney, Maurice M; Harwood, John L

    2008-01-01

    Top-down control analysis (TDCA) is a useful tool for quantifying constraints on metabolic pathways that might be overcome by biotechnological approaches. Previous studies on lipid accumulation in oilseed rape have suggested that diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which catalyses the final step in seed oil biosynthesis, might be an effective target for enhancing seed oil content. Here, increased seed oil content, increased DGAT activity, and reduced substrate:product ratio are demonstrated, as well as reduced flux control by complex lipid assembly, as determined by TDCA in Brassica napus (canola) lines which overexpress the gene encoding type-1 DGAT. Lines overexpressing DGAT1 also exhibited considerably enhanced seed oil content under drought conditions. These results support the use of TDCA in guiding the rational selection of molecular targets for oilseed modification. The most effective lines had a seed oil increase of 14%. Moreover, overexpression of DGAT1 under drought conditions reduced this environmental penalty on seed oil content.

  8. OPTN 691_692insAG is a founder mutation causing recessive ALS and increased risk in heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Nayshool, Omri; Nefussy, Beatrice; Traynor, Bryan J.; Renton, Alan E.; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Drory, Vivian E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect genetic variants underlying familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: We analyzed 2 founder Jewish populations of Moroccan and Ashkenazi origins and ethnic matched controls. Exome sequencing of 2 sisters with ALS from Morocco was followed by genotyping the identified causative null mutation in 379 unrelated patients with ALS and 1,000 controls. The shared risk haplotype was characterized using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array. Results: We identified 5 unrelated patients with ALS homozygous for the null 691_692insAG mutation in the optineurin gene (OPTN), accounting for 5.8% of ALS of Moroccan origin and 0.3% of Ashkenazi. We also identified a high frequency of heterozygous carriers among patients with ALS, 8.7% and 2.9%, respectively, compared to 0.75% and 1.0% in controls. The risk of carriers for ALS was significantly increased, with odds ratio of 13.46 and 2.97 in Moroccan and Ashkenazi Jews, respectively. We determined that 691_692insAG is a founder mutation in the tested populations with a minimal risk haplotype of 58.5 Kb, encompassing the entire OPTN gene. Conclusions: Our data show that OPTN 691_692insAG mutation is a founder mutation in Moroccan and Ashkenazi Jews. This mutation causes autosomal recessive ALS and significantly increases the risk to develop the disease in heterozygous carriers, suggesting both a recessive mode of inheritance and a dominant with incomplete penetrance. These data emphasize the important role of OPTN in ALS pathogenesis, and demonstrate the complex genetics of ALS, as the same mutation leads to different phenotypes and appears in 2 patterns of inheritance. PMID:26740678

  9. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  11. High ozone increases soil perchlorate but does not affect foliar perchlorate content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone (O3) is implicated in the natural source inventory of perchlorate (ClO4-), a hydrophilic salt that migrates to ground water and interferes with uptake of iodide in mammals, including humans. Tropospheric O3 is elevated in many areas. We previously showed (Grantz et al., 2013; Environmental Pol...

  12. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  13. The ectopic expression of the wheat Puroindoline genes increase germ size and seed oil content in transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M; Beecher, Brian; Lu, Chaofu; Hannah, L Curtis; Wall, Michael L; Altosaar, Illimar; Giroux, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Here we transformed corn (Zea mays L.) with the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) to assess their effects upon seed oil content and quality. Pina and Pinb coding sequences were introduced into corn under the control of a corn Ubiquitin promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic events were evaluated over two growing seasons. The results showed that Pin expression increased germ size significantly without negatively impacting seed size. Germ yield increased 33.8% while total seed oil content was increased by 25.23%. Seed oil content increases were primarily the result of increased germ size. This work indicates that higher oil content corn hybrids having increased food or feed value could be produced via puroindoline expression.

  14. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  15. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhangwei; Wu, Margaret; Cai, Zhonghou; ...

    2016-06-13

    The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%.more » Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.« less

  16. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  17. Quantitative solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric analyses of wood xylen: effect of increasing carbohydrate content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, A.L.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Isolated lignin with a low carbohydrate content was spiked with increasing amounts of alpha-cellulose, and then analysed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using cross-polarization with magic angle spinning (CPMAS) and dipolar dephasing methods in order to assess the quantitative reliability of CPMAS measurement of carbohydrate content and to determine how increasingly intense resonances for carbohydrate carbons affect calculations of the degree of lignin's aromatic ring substitution and methoxyl carbon content. Comparisons were made of the carbohydrate content calculated by NMR with carbohydrate concentrations obtained by phenol-sulfuric acid assay and by the calculation from the known amounts of cellulose added. The NMR methods used in this study yield overestimates for carbohydrate carbons due to resonance area overlap from the aliphatic side chain carbons of lignin. When corrections are made for these overlapping resonance areas, the NMR results agree very well with results obtained by other methods. Neither the calculated methoxyl carbon content nor the degree of aromatic ring substitution in lignin, both calculated from dipolar dephasing spectra, change with cellulose content. Likewise, lignin methoxyl content does not correlate with cellulose abundance when measured by integration of CPMAS spectra. ?? 1992.

  18. High-speed solar-blind UV photodetectors using high-Al content Al0.64Ga0.36N/Al0.34Ga0.66N multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhtadi, Sakib; Hwang, Seong Mo; Coleman, Antwon L.; Lunev, Alexander; Asif, Fatima; Chava, V. S. N.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Khan, Asif

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate high-external quantum efficiency (˜50%) solar-blind AlGaN p-n junction photodetectors with high-Al content multiple quantum wells (MQWs). A peak responsivity of 0.1 A/W at 250 nm, which falls >103 by 280 nm, indicates that the optical absorption is dominated by the MQW structures. At a reverse bias of 0.5 V, the dark current is <0.1 pA. The readout RC-limited time response is measured as 0.4 µs, and an achievable detector RC-limited time response of 2 ns is estimated. The devices do not show internal gain, which accounts for their high speed.

  19. Developmental increases in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y content with the embryonic age of meat- and layer-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Aoyama, Masato; Yoshizawa, Fumiaki; Sugahara, Kunio

    2006-02-09

    We determined central neuropeptide Y (NPY) content of meat- and layer-type chicks at embryonic days 7, 14, 20, and at post-hatching day 1. The central NPY was detectable at day 7; hypothalamic NPY content developmentally increased with a similar pattern but a different level between both types of chicks. These results were discussed with respect to feeding behavior early period after hatching.

  20. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  1. Control of grain protein contents through SEMIDWARF1 mutant alleles: sd1 increases the grain protein content in Dee-geo-woo-gen but not in Reimei.

    PubMed

    Terao, Tomio; Hirose, Tatsuro

    2015-06-01

    A new possibility for genetic control of the protein content of rice grains was suggested by the allele differences of the SEMIDWARF1 (SD1) mutation. Two quantitative trait loci-qPROT1 and qPROT12-were found on chromosomes 1 and 12, respectively, using backcrossed inbred lines of Sasanishiki/Habataki//Sasanishiki///Sasanishiki. One of them, qPROT1, increased almost all grain proteins instead of only certain proteins in the recessive Habataki allele. Fine mapping of qPROT1 revealed that two gene candidates-Os01g0883800 and Os01g0883900-were included in this region. Os01g0883800 encoded Gibberellin 20 oxidase 2 as well as SD1, the dwarf gene used in the so-called 'Green Revolution'. Mutant analyses as well as sequencing analysis using the semi-dwarf mutant cultivars Dee-geo-woo-gen and Calrose 76 revealed that the sd1 mutant showed significantly higher grain protein contents than their corresponding wild-type cultivars, strongly suggesting that the high protein contents were caused by sd1 mutation. However, the sd1 mutant Reimei did not have high grain protein contents. It is possible to control the grain protein content and column length separately by selecting for sd1 alleles. From this finding, the genetic control of grain protein content, as well as the column length of rice cultivars, might be possible. This ability might be useful to improve rice nutrition, particularly in areas where the introduction of semi-dwarf cultivars is not advanced.

  2. The effects of interstitial content and annealing on the flow and fracture behavior on polycrystalline beta-NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Levit, V.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    The strain behavior of three polycrystalline NiAl alloys has been investigated at temperatures between 300 and 1200 K. Yield stress plateaus, yield stress transients upon a ten-fold increase in strain rate, work hardening peaks, and dips in the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) have been observed between 700 and 800 K. These observations are indicative of dynamic strain aging (DSA) and are discussed in terms of conventional strain aging theories.

  3. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil.

  4. Increased vitamin E content in the lung after ozone exposure: A possible mobilization in response to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, N.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Mead, J.F. )

    1990-11-01

    Vitamin E (vE) is a biological free radical scavenger capable of providing antioxidant protection depending upon its tissue content. In previous studies, we observed that vE increased significantly in rat lungs after oxidant exposure, and we postulated that vE may be mobilized to the lung from other body sites under oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we fed Long-Evans rats either a vE-supplemented or a vE-deficient diet, injected them intraperitoneally with 14C-labeled vE, and then exposed half of each group to 0.5 ppm ozone (O3) for 5 days. After exposure, we determined vE content and label retention in lungs, liver, kidney, heart, brain, plasma, and white adipose tissue. Tissue vE content of all tissues generally reflected the dietary level, but labeled vE retention in all tissues was inversely related to tissue content, possibly reflecting a saturation of existing vE receptor sites in supplemented rats. Following O3 exposure, lung vE content increased significantly in supplemented rats and decreased in deficient rats, but the decrease was not statistically significant, and vE content remained unchanged in all other tissues of both dietary groups. Retention of 14C-labeled vE increased in all tissues of O3-exposed rats of both dietary groups, except in vE-deficient adipose tissue and vE-supplemented brain, where it decreased, and plasma, where it did not change. The marked increases in lung vE content and labeled vE retention of O3-exposed vE-supplemented rats support our hypothesis that vE may be mobilized to the lung in response to oxidative stress, providing that the vitamin is sufficiently available in other body sites.

  5. Resistance spot weldability of lightweight steel with a high Al content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Insung; Kim, Dongcheol; Kang, Munjin; Kwak, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Young-Min

    2017-03-01

    Using alternating current (AC)- and direct current (DC)-type welders, the resistance spot weldability of lightweight steel was evaluated under various electrode forces, welding currents, and times. The acceptable welding conditions were specified; however, these had very narrow ranges and there was little difference between the conditions determined for the AC- and DC-type welding. In both types of welding with electrode forces of of 300 kgf and 400 kgf, the acceptable weld currents were 5.0 kA and 5.5 kA, respectively. Also, the nugget size increased with the welding current. Under the acceptable welding conditions, there were no significant changes in the maximum tensile shear strength and nugget size, as 6.4-6.6 kN and 4.1-4.3 mm, respectively. The microstructure of weld metals was consisted of martensite, austenite and ferrite. And the small fraction of martensite was founded in the heat affected zone (HAZ), therefore the weld metal had the greatest hardness, and HAZ softening did not occur in this study. Considering the fracture surface, cleavage and ductile fracture were investigated because of the existence of martensite and ferrite in the welds.

  6. Influences of superalloy composition and Pt content on the oxidation behavior of gamma–gamma prime NiPtAl bond coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, James A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Lance, Michael J.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2016-09-13

    Here, the effects of superalloy composition and Pt content on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of γ–γ’ NiPtAl diffusion coatings were investigated over the temperature range of 1050–1150 °C. Simple NiPtAl diffusion coatings with 7 or 12 µm electroplated Pt thickness were evaluated in 1-h cycles in dry O2 for up to 2500 cycles on four superalloys: directionally solidified (DS) alloy 142, 1st generation single-crystal (SX) alloy 1483, and 2nd generation SX alloys X4 and N5. Coatings on high-Hf alloy 142 experienced severe internal oxidation of Hf at all temperatures. Coatings on ~5 at.% Ti alloy 1483 were protective at 1050 °C, but exhibited severe scale spallation at 1100 °C, with extensive formation of Ti- and Ni-rich oxides at the gas interface. Coatings with 7-µm Pt on X4 were extremely protective at 1100 °C, but failed rapidly at 1150 °C, which also was associated with the formation of Ti-rich oxides. Increasing the coating Pt content on X4 improved the 1150 °C oxidation behavior. Coatings on Ti-free N5 showed the best performance at 1150 °C, especially with 12-µm Pt. Although γ–γ’ coatings can exhibit outstanding cyclic oxidation resistance with minimal Al depletion, they appear to be sensitive to substrate composition, as well as eventual Pt depletion due to interdiffusion.

  7. Influences of superalloy composition and Pt content on the oxidation behavior of gamma–gamma prime NiPtAl bond coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Haynes, James A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Lance, Michael J.; ...

    2016-09-13

    Here, the effects of superalloy composition and Pt content on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of γ–γ’ NiPtAl diffusion coatings were investigated over the temperature range of 1050–1150 °C. Simple NiPtAl diffusion coatings with 7 or 12 µm electroplated Pt thickness were evaluated in 1-h cycles in dry O2 for up to 2500 cycles on four superalloys: directionally solidified (DS) alloy 142, 1st generation single-crystal (SX) alloy 1483, and 2nd generation SX alloys X4 and N5. Coatings on high-Hf alloy 142 experienced severe internal oxidation of Hf at all temperatures. Coatings on ~5 at.% Ti alloy 1483 were protective at 1050more » °C, but exhibited severe scale spallation at 1100 °C, with extensive formation of Ti- and Ni-rich oxides at the gas interface. Coatings with 7-µm Pt on X4 were extremely protective at 1100 °C, but failed rapidly at 1150 °C, which also was associated with the formation of Ti-rich oxides. Increasing the coating Pt content on X4 improved the 1150 °C oxidation behavior. Coatings on Ti-free N5 showed the best performance at 1150 °C, especially with 12-µm Pt. Although γ–γ’ coatings can exhibit outstanding cyclic oxidation resistance with minimal Al depletion, they appear to be sensitive to substrate composition, as well as eventual Pt depletion due to interdiffusion.« less

  8. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  9. Mild eccentric exercise increases Hsp72 content in skeletal muscles from adult and late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Ramsook, Andrew H; Locke, Marius; Amara, Catherine E

    2013-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age or sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing muscle loss with age is important for maintaining health. Hsp72, the inducible member of the Hsp70 family, is known to provide protection to skeletal muscle and can be increased by exercise. However, ability to increase Hsp72 by exercise is intensity-dependent and appears to diminish with advanced age. Thus, other exercise modalities capable of increasing HSP content and potentially preventing the age related loss of muscle need to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if the stress from one bout of mild eccentric exercise was sufficient to elicit an increase in Hsp72 content in the vastus intermedius (VI) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles, and if the Hsp72 response differed between adult and late middle-aged rats. To do this, 30 adult (6 months) and late middle-aged (24 months) F344BN rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control (C), level exercise (16 m x min(-1)) and eccentric exercise (16 m x min(-1), 16 degree decline). Exercised animals were sacrificed immediately post-exercise or after 48 hours. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to assess muscle damage, while Western Blotting was used to measure muscle Hsp72 content. A nested ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was performed to determine significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups. Hsp72 content was increased in the VI for both adult and late middle-aged rats 48 hours after eccentric exercise when compared to level and control groups but no differences between age groups was observed. Hsp72 was not detected in the WG following any type of exercise. In conclusion, mild eccentric exercise can increase Hsp72 content in the rat VI muscle and this response is maintained into late middle-age.

  10. Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

    2013-04-12

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava.

  11. Multiple Mechanisms Increase Levels of Resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Zahra M.; Gherekhloo, Javid; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Osuna, Maria D.; Alcántara, Ricardo; Fernández, Pablo; Sadeghipour, Hamid R.; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed) is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM), a sulfonylurea (SU) belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose-response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF) for resistant (R) populations was 2.5–6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S) plant. Neither foliar retention, nor 14C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1), in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (RFs were from 28 to 38) and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT), pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB) and triazolopyrimidine (TP), with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI). Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB, and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM. PMID:26941749

  12. 75 FR 57161 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... marketing order. In addition, the Board's meeting was widely publicized throughout the tart cherry industry... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  13. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  14. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Klotz, Elliott T; Stevens, Robyn L; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Nazarenus, Tara J; Pereira, Suzette L; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2013-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45-50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions.

  15. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  16. Effect of the content of B4C on microstructural evolution and wear behaviors of the laser-clad coatings fabricated on Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L. L.; Li, J.; Chen, J. L.; Song, R.; Shao, J. Z.; Qu, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    TiNi/Ti2Ni-based composite coatings reinforced by TiC and TiB2 were produced on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding the mixture of a Ni-based alloy and different contents of B4C (0 wt%, 5 wt%, 15 wt%, and 25 wt%). The macromorphologies and microstructures of the coatings were examined through optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The microhardness, fracture toughness, and wear behaviors of the coatings were also investigated by using a microhardness tester and an ultra-functional wear testing machine. Results showed that the coatings were mainly composed of TiNi/Ti2Ni and TiC/TiB2 as the matrix and reinforcement particles, respectively. The phase constituents of the coatings were not influenced by addition of different contents of B4C. The microstructure of the reinforcements in the coatings presented the following evolution: hypereutectic consisting of blocky (TiC+TiB2)e eutectic and primary TiCp cellular dendrites (0 wt% B4C), mixture of hypereutectic and willow-shaped (TiB2+TiC)p pseudoeutectic (5 wt% B4C), and pseudoeutectic (15 and 25 wt% B4C). With increasing B4C content, the volume fraction and size of the pseudoeutectic structures as well as the average microhardness of the coatings (850, 889, 969, and 1002 HV0.2) were increased. By contrast, the average fracture toughness of the coatings was gradually decreased (4.47, 4.21, 4.06, and 3.85 Mpa m1/2) along with their wear volumes (0 wt%, 5 wt%, and 15 wt% B4C). The increase in B4C content to 25 wt% did not further reduce wear loss. The wear mechanism transformed from micro-cutting (0 wt% B4C) into a combination of micro-cutting and brittle debonding (5 wt% B4C) and finally led to brittle debonding (15 wt% and 25 wt% B4C). Coatings with suitable contents of B4C (less than 15 wt%) showed excellent comprehensive mechanical properties.

  17. Increased calf and plantar muscle fibrotic contents in obese subjects may cause ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb, including ankle instability and resulting gait problems. In the present study, we aimed to examine, using paired comparisons of subjects, whether moderate duration of obesity in patients with mild to moderate elevations of body mass index (BMI), changes the fibrous contents of muscles that support the ankle mortices, namely calf and plantar muscles. We attempted to examine these parameters because this shall provide direct evidence of whether obesity directly impacts myoarchitecture and support of the adjoining joints. MRI image segmentation and pixel correlations by grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and entropy were used to analyse the changes. The differences in the means between groups (both GLCM and entropy) were significant from control lean populations (P<0.0001, ANOVA) for the parameters examined for both the calf and the plantar muscles. Reduction in weight should thus be a first-line approach in preventing these changes that may significantly affect quality of life due to gait disturbances. PMID:27380952

  18. Increased calf and plantar muscle fibrotic contents in obese subjects may cause ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jianning

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb, including ankle instability and resulting gait problems. In the present study, we aimed to examine, using paired comparisons of subjects, whether moderate duration of obesity in patients with mild to moderate elevations of body mass index (BMI), changes the fibrous contents of muscles that support the ankle mortices, namely calf and plantar muscles. We attempted to examine these parameters because this shall provide direct evidence of whether obesity directly impacts myoarchitecture and support of the adjoining joints. MRI image segmentation and pixel correlations by grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and entropy were used to analyse the changes. The differences in the means between groups (both GLCM and entropy) were significant from control lean populations (P<0.0001, ANOVA) for the parameters examined for both the calf and the plantar muscles. Reduction in weight should thus be a first-line approach in preventing these changes that may significantly affect quality of life due to gait disturbances.

  19. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  20. Two Studies on Twitter Networks and Tweet Content in Relation to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Conversation, Information, and 'Diary of a Daily Life'.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Bronwyn; Palmer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is no research examining how adults with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Motor Neurone Disease (MND) and severe communication disability use Twitter, nor the use of Twitter in relation to ALS/MND beyond its use for fundraising and raising awareness. In this paper we (a) outline a rationale for the use of Twitter as a method of communication and information exchange for adults with ALS/MND, (b) detail multiple qualitative and quantitative methods used to analyse Twitter networks and tweet content in the our studies, and (c) present the results of two studies designed to provide insights on the use of Twitter by an adult with ALS/MND and by #ALS and #MND hashtag communities in Twitter. We will also discuss findings across the studies, implications for health service providers in Twitter, and directions for future Twitter research in relation to ALS/MND.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  2. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  3. Increasing Student Engagement Using Effective and Metacognitive Writing Strategies in Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen S.; Rook, Johan Erik; Smith, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of school failure at the 9th grade level is of great concern to educators. In this study, the author examined the use of cognitive, affective, and metacognitive questioning strategies in a 9th grade world history class as a means to increase student engagement and academic success. Through the use of structured journal questions over a…

  4. A home-based method to reduce phytate content and increase zinc bioavailability in maize-based complementary diets.

    PubMed

    Hotz, C; Gibson, R S; Temple, L

    2001-03-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of a home-based method to reduce the phytate content of maize and improve zinc bioavailability from maize-based complementary diets in rural Malawi. A method of extracting phytate through the soaking of pounded maize was developed, and found to reduce phytate content to 49% of unrefined maize. An educational program was used to teach the processing method to mothers of children receiving complementary foods in rural Malawian communities. Samples of maize flour prepared by this process by participants were collected and analysed for phytate and zinc content. Of these, 70% of samples were found to be adequately prepared; mean phytate content of these samples was 48% of unprocessed, unrefined maize flour controls. Most participants found the cooked product to have an acceptable taste (99%) and texture (68%), and felt the processing method took little or no extra time (86%) and was culturally acceptable (96%). The phytate and zinc content of the processed maize flour samples analysed from community prepared samples was substituted into the dietary analysis of complementary foods for 9- to 11-month-old children (n = 31). The bioavailability of zinc from the complementary diet would predict an increase from low (24%) to moderate (33%) levels.

  5. Influence of the surface potential on electrical properties of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN heterostructures with different Al-content: Effect of growth method

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, K.; Mueller, S.; Aidam, R.; Waltereit, P.; Pletschen, W.; Kirste, L.; Menner, H. P.; Bronner, W.; Leuther, A.; Quay, R.; Mikulla, M.; Ambacher, O.; Granzner, R.; Schwierz, F.; Buchheim, C.; Goldhahn, R.

    2010-03-15

    The influence of the growth method on the surface potential and thus on the sheet carrier concentration of GaN capped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN heterostructures was evaluated. Nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase (MOVPE) and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial (PA-MBE) grown structures with an Al-content between 12% and 30% yield carrier concentrations from 3.6x10{sup 12} to 1.2x10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. A difference of the concentrations for a fixed Al-content was found between the different epitaxial techniques. This result indicates unambiguously different surface potentials determined quantitatively from the carrier concentration, and is verified in addition by the results of photoreflectance spectroscopy. The GaN surface potentials of MOVPE and PA-MBE grown samples amounts to (0.26{+-}0.04) and (0.61{+-}0.10) eV irrespective of the Al-content of the barrier layer. After device fabrication, we find that due to the identical surface potential defined by the Ni Schottky gate, the threshold voltage for a given Al-content is the same for samples grown with different techniques. Thus, the interplay between epitaxy and process technology defines the threshold voltage.

  6. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    PubMed

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds.

  7. Do the interfacial fluidities of cationic reverse micelles enhance with an increase in the water content?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, K. S.; Dutt, G. B.

    2009-11-01

    The role of cosurfactant and water on the interfacial fluidities of reverse micelles formed with the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been examined by measuring the fluorescence anisotropies of two structurally similar ionic solutes, rhodamine 110 and fluorescein. For this purpose, reverse micellar systems with (CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water) and without a cosurfactant (CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water) have been chosen. In this study, the mole ratio of water to surfactant W has been varied in the region of 4-25. Experimental results indicate that the average reorientation time of the probe, which is a measure of the fluidity near the interfacial region, decreases by a factor of 1.5 and 1.4 for rhodamine 110 and fluorescein, respectively, as W goes up from 5 to 25 in CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system. In contrast, the average reorientation time, remains invariant for both the probe molecules in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water reverse micellar system despite an increase in W from 4 to 24. In case of CTAB/1-pentanol/cyclohexane/water reverse micellar system, the added water binds to bromide counter ions and also the hydroxyl groups of the cosurfactant, 1-pentanol, which results in an increase in the effective head group area. Such an increase in the effective head group area leads to a decrease in the packing parameter, and hence an increase in the interfacial fluidity. On the other hand, in CTAB/chloroform-isooctane/water system, the added water merely hydrates the bromide ions, thereby leaving the effective head group area unchanged. Thus, the interfacial fluidities remain invariant upon the addition of water in the absence of a cosurfactant.

  8. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos; Cerpa, Waldo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2009-05-15

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu{sup 2+} binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu{sup 2+} reduction and {sup 64}Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu{sup 2+} reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to both Cu{sup 2+} ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu{sup 2+} reductase activity and increased {sup 64}Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu{sup 2+} reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.

  9. Influence of the fabrication process and fluoride content on the tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Licausi, M P; Igual Muñoz, A; Amigó Borrás, V

    2013-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as dental implants due to their low density, excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, during their lifetime Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys are subjected to different mechanical actions (i.e., sliding or fretting), thus resulting in a tribocorrosion system, which is an irreversible material degradation process due to the combined effect of corrosion and wear. In this study, the tribo-electrochemical behavior of cast and sintered (by powder metallurgy) Ti6Al4V alloy in artificial human saliva solution without and with fluoride additions of 100ppm and 1000ppm and in an average industrial mouth wash solution with a 112ppm fluoride content have been investigated by different electrochemical techniques. The same tribocorrosion mechanisms were found in the cast and sintered titanium alloys, although slightly different wear debris behavior was observed. At low applied passive potentials, wear rates are similar to those obtained under equilibrium conditions (Open Circuit Potential). There exists a critical fluoride concentration above which corrosion and tribocorrosion rates increase.

  10. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  11. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young’s modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet. PMID:26177083

  12. Application of ITO/Al reflectors for increasing the efficiency of single-crystal silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kopach, V. R.; Kirichenko, M. V. Khrypunov, G. S.; Zaitsev, R. V.

    2010-06-15

    It is shown that an increase in the efficiency and manufacturability of single-junction single-crystal silicon photoelectric converters of solar energy requires the use of a back-surface reflector based on conductive transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) 0.25-2 {mu}m thick. To increase the efficiency and reduce the sensitivity to the angle of light incidence on the photoreceiving surface of multijunction photoelectric converters with vertical diode cells based on single-crystal silicon, ITO/Al reflectors with an ITO layer >1 {mu}m thick along vertical boundaries of diode cells should be fabricated. The experimental study of multijunction photoelectric converters with ITO/Al reflectors at diode cell boundaries shows the necessity of modernizing the used technology of ITO layers to achieve their theoretically calculated thickness.

  13. Exposure to nicotine increases dopamine receptor content in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rat dams and offspring during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Lotufo, B M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine exposure causes the release of dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We have previously shown that maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes hyperleptinemia in dams and pups, and leptin is known to decrease dopamine release from the VTA. Here we evaluated whether maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation causes changes in dopamine and leptin signaling pathways at the end of exposure and after 5days of withdrawal in the: VTA, NAc, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal striatum (DS). On postnatal day (PN) 2, lactating Wistar rats were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC; 6mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14days. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field on PN14 or PN20, and euthanized on PN15 or PN21. Entries into the open arms and head dips in the EPM were reduced in NIC pups at P20. At weaning (PN21), NIC dams had: lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), higher OBRb and SOCS3 contents in VTA; lower TH, higher D1R, D2R and DAT contents in NAc; higher TH content in DS; and higher D2R and SOCS3 contents in ARC. On PN15, NIC offspring had higher D1R, D2R and lower DAT contents in NAc, while on PN21, they had lower DAT in DS, and lower pSTAT3 content in ARC. We evidenced that postnatal nicotine exposure induces relevant changes in the brain reward system of dams and pups, possibly associated with changes in leptinemia and increased offspring anxiety-like behavior.

  14. Increasing the Glutathione Content in a Chilling-Sensitive Maize Genotype Using Safeners Increased Protection against Chilling-Induced Injury1

    PubMed Central

    Kocsy, Gábor; von Ballmoos, Peter; Rüegsegger, Adrian; Szalai, Gabriella; Galiba, Gábor; Brunold, Christian

    2001-01-01

    With the aim of analyzing their protective function against chilling-induced injury, the pools of glutathione and its precursors, cysteine (Cys) and γ-glutamyl-Cys, were increased in the chilling-sensitive maize (Zea mays) inbred line Penjalinan using a combination of two herbicide safeners. Compared with the controls, the greatest increase in the pool size of the three thiols was detected in the shoots and roots when both safeners were applied at a concentration of 5 μm. This combination increased the relative protection from chilling from 50% to 75%. It is interesting that this increase in the total glutathione (TG) level was accompanied by a rise in glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) activity. When the most effective safener combination was applied simultaneously with increasing concentrations of buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, the total γ-glutamyl-Cys and TG contents and GR activity were decreased to very low levels and relative protection was lowered from 75% to 44%. During chilling, the ratio of reduced to oxidized thiols first decreased independently of the treatments, but increased again to the initial value in safener-treated seedlings after 7 d at 5°C. Taking all results together resulted in a linear relationship between TG and GR and a biphasic relationship between relative protection and GR or TG, thus demonstrating the relevance of the glutathione levels in protecting maize against chilling-induced injury. PMID:11706194

  15. Paraplegia increased cardiac NGF content, sympathetic tonus, and the susceptibility to ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Heidi L.; Chen, Ying; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Midthoracic spinal cord injury is associated with ventricular arrhythmias that are mediated, in part, by enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity. Furthermore, it is well known that sympathetic neurons have a lifelong requirement for nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is a neurotrophin that supports the survival and differentiation of sympathetic neurons and enhances target innervation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that paraplegia is associated with an increased cardiac NGF content, sympathetic tonus, and susceptibility to ischemia-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Intact and paraplegic (6–9 wk posttransection, T5 spinal cord transection) rats were instrumented with a radiotelemetry device for recording arterial pressure, temperature, and ECG, and a snare was placed around the left main coronary artery. Following recovery, the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias (coronary artery occlusion) was determined in intact and paraplegic rats. In additional groups of matched intact and paraplegic rats, cardiac nerve growth factor content (ELISA) and cardiac sympathetic tonus were determined. Paraplegia, compared with intact, increased cardiac nerve growth factor content (2,146 ± 286 vs. 180 ± 36 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and cardiac sympathetic tonus (154 ± 4 vs. 68 ± 4 beats/min, P < 0.05) and decreased the ventricular arrhythmia threshold (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 4.9 ± 0.2 min, P < 0.05). Thus altered autonomic behavior increases the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in paraplegic rats. PMID:19286942

  16. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-11-23

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity.

  17. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05) than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05) in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin). The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05) TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  18. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  19. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    PubMed Central

    Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Tenkanen, Maija; Makaravicius, Tomas; Bartkiene, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast- -fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages. PMID:27904391

  20. Preliminary Evidence of Increased Hippocampal Myelin Content in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Linda L.; Tosun, Duygu; Woodward, Steven H.; Kaufer, Daniela; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the formation of myelin in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes is a continuous process that can be modified with experience. For example, a recent study showed that immobilization stress increased oligodendrogensis in the dentate gyrus of adult rat hippocampus. Because changes in myelination represents an adaptive form of brain plasticity that has a greater reach in the adult brain than other forms of plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis), the objective of this “proof of concept” study was to examine whether there are differences in myelination in the hippocampi of humans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We used the ratio of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) intensity to estimate the degree of hippocampal myelination in 19 male veterans with PTSD and 19 matched trauma-exposed male veterans without PTSD (mean age: 43 ± 12 years). We found that veterans with PTSD had significantly more hippocampal myelin than trauma-exposed controls. There was also found a positive correlation between estimates of hippocampal myelination and PTSD and depressive symptom severity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine hippocampal myelination in humans with PTSD. These results provide preliminary evidence for stress-induced hippocampal myelin formation as a potential mechanism underlying the brain abnormalities associated with vulnerability to stress. PMID:26696852

  1. Metabolic and bioprocess engineering for production of selenized yeast with increased content of seleno-methylselenocysteine.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Valeria; Hillestrøm, Peter R; Kápolna, Emese; Larsen, Erik H; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2011-05-01

    Specific Se-metabolites have been recognized to be the main elements responsible for beneficial effects of Se-enriched diet, and Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMCys) is thought to be among the most effective ones. Here we show that an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, expressing a codon optimized heterologous selenocysteine methyltransferase and endowed with high intracellular levels of S-adenosyl-methionine, was able to accumulate SeMCys at levels higher than commercial selenized yeasts. A fine tuned carbon- and sulfate-limited fed-batch bioprocess was crucial to achieve good yields of biomass and SeMCys. Through the coupling of metabolic and bioprocess engineering we achieved a ∼24-fold increase in SeMCys, compared to certified reference material of selenized yeast. In addition, we investigated the interplay between sulfur and selenium metabolism and the possibility that redox imbalance occurred along with intracellular accumulation of Se. Collectively, our data show how the combination of metabolic and bioprocess engineering can be used for the production of selenized yeast enriched with beneficial Se-metabolites.

  2. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-13

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  3. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  4. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks. PMID:27733773

  5. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content.

    PubMed

    Basinskiene, Loreta; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Tenkanen, Maija; Makaravicius, Tomas; Bartkiene, Elena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast- -fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.

  6. Increased chromium and nickel content in lung tissue and bronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, H.; Seemann, J.W.; Mueller, K.M.R.; Rothe, G.; Wittig, P.; Schejbal, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    In 25 random autopsies, chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in lung tissue and regional lymph nodes were analysed by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The subjects originate from Bochum in the Ruhr District, which is defined as a particular pollution area with locally high Cr and Ni emissions. The subjects examined from Bochum (BO) and vicinity have Cr and Ni concentrations about 5 and 6 times higher than those in a previous series form Muenster (MS) and vicinity (outside the particular pollution area), which is used for comparison purposes. BO and MS data showed an age-dependent increase of chromium and nickel in the lung, and in both data sets as well as in the combined, the Cr and Ni values showed extremely high correlations. The Cr and Ni concentrations (BO) in lung (3.47 +/- 2.53 micrograms Cr/g, 1.09 +/- 1.43 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) and lymph node tissue (6.30 +/- 3.72 micrograms Cr/g, 1.00 +/- 0.58 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) do not show any correlation. The BO data contained four cases of bronchial carcinoma (all male), three of which showed pulmonary Cr and Ni concentrations that lie clearly above the predicted level. One case of bronchial carcinoma had extremely high Cr and Ni values; an occupational exposure as dental laboratory technician is taken into consideration.

  7. Nifedipine Increases Iron Content in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 Cells via Up-Regulating Iron Influx Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang-Shuang; Jiang, Li-Rong; Ling, Yan; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Li, Juan; Ke, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Nifedipine was reported to enhance urinary iron excretion in iron overloaded mice. However, it remains unknown how nifedipine stimulates urinary iron excretion in the kidney. We speculated that nifedipine might inhibit the TfR1/ DMT1 (transferrin receptor 1/divalent metal transporter1)-mediated iron uptake by proximal tubule cells in addition to blocking L-type Ca2+ channels, leading to an increase in iron in lumen-fluid and then urinary iron excretion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of nifedipine on iron content and expression of TfR1, DMT1 and ferroportin1 (Fpn1) in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells of the S1 segment of the proximal tubule in rats, using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis, respectively. We demonstrated for the first time that nifedipine significantly enhanced iron content as well as TfR1 and DMT1 expression and had no effect on Fpn1 levels in the cells. We also found that ferric ammonium citrate decreased TfR1 levels, increased Fpn1 expression and had no effect on DMT1 content, while co-treatment with nifedipine and FAC increase TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also had no effect on Fpn1 levels. These findings suggest that the nifedipine-induced increase in cell iron may mainly be due to the corresponding increase in TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also imply that the effects of nifedipine on iron transport in proximal tubule cells can not explain the increase in urinary iron excretion. PMID:28243203

  8. Flaw growth of 6Al-4V STA titanium in nitrogen tetroxide with low nitric oxide content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixler, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sustained load flow growth characteristics of surface flowed 6Al-4V STA titanium specimens were determined when exposed to nitrogen tetroxide N2O4 having nitric oxide (NO) concentrations of 0.06 to 0.30%. Test temperatures ranged from 70 to 150 F. It was observed that the threshold stress intensity for the titanium decreased abruptly below on NO concentration of 0.18% and also decreased as the temperature increased. The threshold stress intensity was determined to be greater than or equal to 60% of the critical stress intensity for NO concentrations of 0.18 to 0.30% and temperatures of 90 and 120 F. Sustained load tests conducted in N2O4 vapor with a 0.30% NO concentration at 120 F indicated the threshold to be also greater than or equal to 60% of critical.

  9. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  10. Effect of Mg Addition on the Refinement and Homogenized Distribution of Inclusions in Steel with Different Al Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Zhang, Shuo; Ju, Jiantao

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Mg addition on the refinement and homogenized distribution of inclusions, deoxidized experiments with different amounts of aluminum and magnesium addition were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) under the condition of no fluid flow. The size distribution of three-dimensional inclusions obtained by applying the modified Schwartz-Saltykov transformation from the observed planar size distribution, and degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion quantified by measuring the inter-surface distance of inclusions, were studied as a function of the amount of Mg addition and holding time. The nucleation and growth of inclusions based on homogeneous nucleation theory and Ostwald ripening were discussed with the consideration of supersaturation degree and interfacial energy between molten steel and inclusions. The average attractive force acted on inclusions in experimental steels was estimated according to Paunov's theory. The results showed that in addition to increasing the Mg addition, increasing the oxygen activity at an early stage of deoxidation and lowering the dissolved oxygen content are conductive to the increase of nucleation rate as well as to the refinement of inclusions Moreover, it was found that the degree of homogeneity in inclusion dispersion decreases with an increase of the attractive force acted on inclusions, which is largely dependent on the inclusion composition and volume fraction of inclusions.

  11. Properties of impurity-bearing ferrihydrite I. Effects of Al content and precipitation rate on the structure of 2-line ferrihydrite

    SciTech Connect

    Cismasu, A. Cristina; Michel, F. Marc; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Levard, Clément; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.

    2012-10-11

    The association of Al with ferrihydrite (Fh) may have a considerable effect on the composition, structure, and surface properties of Fh nanoparticles, and thus impact its reactivity and interaction with pollutant species. Aluminous Fh is abundant in natural environments, but the mode of association of Al with this nanomineral is not yet fully understood. Al{sup 3+} speciation may vary from true chemical substitution for Fe{sup 3+}, to adsorption or surface precipitation, and/or to formation of a mixture of two (or more) individual nanoscale phases. The conditions of formation (i.e. slow vs. rapid precipitation) may also affect the nature of Fh nanoparticles in terms of their crystallinity, phase purity, and Al speciation. In this study we used a variety of laboratory (TEM, NMR, ICP-AES) and synchrotron-based techniques (X-ray total scattering and PDF analysis, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Al K-edge XANES spectroscopy) to characterize two synthetic Al-bearing Fh series formed at different precipitation rates in the presence of 5-40 mol% Al. We find that Al is dominantly octahedrally coordinated in the synthetic Fh samples and that up to 20-30 mol% Al substitutes for Fe in the Fh structure, regardless of the synthesis method we used. Formation of separate aluminous phases (e.g., gibbsite) was most significant at Al concentrations above 30 mol% Al in slowly precipitated samples. However, small amounts (<6% of total Al) of Al-hydroxide phases were also detected by NMR spectroscopy in samples with lower Al content (as low as 15 mol% Al), particularly in the Fh series that was precipitated slowly. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of Al incorporated in Fh is not affected by the synthesis methods we used and is more likely controlled by the accumulated strain caused by Al substitution in the Fh lattice. Given the prevalence of naturally occurring aluminous ferrihydrite, assumptions about ferrihydrite reactivity in natural environments should consider the

  12. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  13. Sono-synthesis and characterization of bimetallic Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO nanocatalyst: Effects of metal content on catalytic properties and activity for hydrogen production via CO2 reforming of CH4.

    PubMed

    Abdollahifar, Mozaffar; Haghighi, Mohammad; Babaluo, Ali Akbar; Talkhoncheh, Saeed Khajeh

    2016-07-01

    Sono-dispersion of Ni, Co and Ni-Co over Al2O3-MgO with Al/Mg ratio of 1.5 was prepared and tested for dry reforming of methane. The samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, PSD, EDX, TEM, BET and FTIR analyses. In order to assess the effect of ultrasound irradiation, Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO with Co content of 8% prepared via sonochemistry and impregnation methods. The sono-synthesized sample showed better textural properties and higher activity than that of impregnated one. Comparison of XRD patterns indicated that the NiO peaks became broader by increasing Co content over the support. The FESEM images displayed the particles are small and well-dispersed as a result of sonochemistry method. Also, EDX analysis demonstrated better dispersion of Ni and Co as a result of sonochemistry method in confirmation of XRD analysis. The sono-synthesized Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO as a superior nanocatalyst with Co content of 3% illustrates much higher conversions (97.5% and 99% for CH4 and CO2 at 850 °C), yields (94% and 96% for H2 and CO at 850 °C) and 0.97 of H2/CO molar ratio in all samples using an equimolar feed ratio at 850 °C. During the 1200 min stability test, H2/CO molar ratio remained constant for the superior nanocatalyst.

  14. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    PubMed Central

    Schönhofen, André; Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaploid wheat cultivar Lassik. Four mutant combinations were generated: SBEIIa/b-AB (Reg. No. GP-997, PI 675644); SBEIIa/b-A, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-998, PI 675645); SBEIIa/b-B, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-999, PI 675646); and SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D (Reg. No. GP-1000, PI 675647). The SBEII mutant lines were compared with a wild-type control in a greenhouse and field experiment. The quintuple mutant line (SBEIIa/b-AB, SBEIIa-D) presented significant increases in both amylose (51% greenhouse; 63% field) and resistant starch (947% greenhouse; 1057% field) relative to the control. A decrease in total starch content (7.8%) was observed in the field experiment. The quintuple mutant also differed in starch viscosity parameters. Registration of the hexaploid wheat SBEII-mutant lines by University of California, Davis can help expedite the development of common wheat cultivars with increased amylose and resistant starch content. PMID:27818720

  15. Multigene engineering of starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm increases the total starch content and the proportion of amylose.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lili; Yu, Xiaoming; Qi, Xin; Yu, Qian; Deng, Sen; Bai, Bing; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ai; Zhu, Changfu; Liu, Bao; Pang, Jinsong

    2013-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays spp. mays) is a staple crop for more than 900 million people. The seeds or kernels provide a rich source of calories because ~70% of the weight is carbohydrate, mostly in the form of starch. The content and composition of starch are complex traits controlled by many genes, offering multiple potential targets for intervention. We used a multigene engineering approach combining the overexpression of Bt2, Sh2, Sh1 and GbssIIa (to enhance the activity of sucrose synthase, AGPase and granule-bound starch synthase) with the suppression of SbeI and SbeIIb by RNA interference (to reduce the activity of starch branching enzyme). Maize plants expressing all six genes plus the selectable marker showed a 2.8-7.7% increase in the endosperm starch content and a 37.8-43.7% increase in the proportion of amylose, which was significant compared to untransformed control plants. We also observed improvements in other agronomic traits, such as a 20.1-34.7% increase in 100-grain weight, a 13.9-19.0% increase in ear weight, and larger kernels with a better appearance, presumably reflecting the modified starch structure within the kernels. Our results confirm that multigene engineering applied to the starch biosynthesis pathway can not only modulate the quality and quantity of starch but can also improve starch-dependent agronomic traits.

  16. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  17. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  18. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  19. Exogenous 3,3'-diindolylmethane increases Brassica napus L. seedling shoot growth through modulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide content.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Arun; Roode, Enrico; Klein, Ashwil; Keyster, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Brassica napus L. (cv. AV Garnet) seeds were pre-treated with 15μM 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to investigate whether DIM could enhance seed germination. Further treatment of seedlings with 15μM DIM for 14days explored the effects on seedling shoot growth. Exogenous DIM led to improved germination percentage, increased seedling shoot lengths, and increased fresh and dry weights. Furthermore, DIM triggered induction of superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content however, no change in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and cell death (assessed with Evans Blue assay) was detected for both the control and DIM treated seedling shoots. We also observed increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in response to exogenous DIM, two fundamental enzymes in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. These results indicate that exogenous DIM treatment enhances seed germination and improves seedling shoot growth through possible activation of a reactive oxygen species signalling pathway involving O2(-) and H2O2 in B. napus.

  20. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products.

  1. High histologic grade and increased relative content of tryptophan in breast cancer using ratios from fingerprint fluorescence spectral peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Budansky, Yury; Pu, Yang; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Histologic grade is a very important, but underappreciated, parameter of breast cancer aggressiveness. Despite its importance, it has historically not been included as one of the criteria for staging of this cancer. In this study, spectral fluorescence profiles from patients with breast carcinoma were acquired. Ratios of emission peaks at 340 over 440,460 nm from biomolecules in malignant and normal samples were calculated. Cancerous over normal ratios (double ratio (DR) method) were evaluated with respect to tumor characteristics. Increased tryptophan content in breast cancer tissues correlates strongly with high grade, but not with lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or Her-2-Neu receptor status.

  2. An Analysis of the Contents and Pedagogy of Al-Kashi's 1427 "Key to Arithmetic" (Miftah Al-Hisab)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ta'ani, Osama Hekmat

    2011-01-01

    Al-Kashi's 1427 "Key to Arithmetic" had important use over several hundred years in mathematics teaching in Medieval Islam throughout the time of the Ottoman Empire. Its pedagogical features have never been studied before. In this dissertation I have made a close pedagogical analysis of these features and discovered several teaching…

  3. Increasing fat content from 20 to 45 wt% in a complex diet induces lower endotoxemia in parallel with an increased number of intestinal goblet cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bérengère; Laugerette, Fabienne; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Bodennec, Jacques; Estienne, Monique; Pineau, Gaëlle; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vidal, Hubert; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of high-fat diets (HFDs) on the onset of metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation are well established in rodent models. However, the dose-effect of dietary lipid intakes on these parameters is not known. We hypothesized that increasing dietary lipid amounts could be linked to parallel increases of endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, and metabolic and intestinal alterations. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 2.6 wt% of lipids), a moderate HFD (mHFD, 22 wt% of lipids), or a very HFD (vHFD, 45 wt% of lipids) formulated mainly using chow ingredients and milk fat. After 12 weeks, white adipose tissues, liver, intestine, distal colon contents, and plasma were collected. Only vHFD mice significantly increased body weight and fat mass vs LFD mice. This was associated with increases of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, leptin and adiponectin, and liver lipids. No such differences were observed between LFD and mHFD mice. However, mHFD developed metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, unlike vHFD mice. In turn, vHFD mice showed more goblet cells in all intestine segments vs both other groups and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella in their microbiota vs LFD mice. Finally, mHFD mice colon exhibited a decrease in lactobacilli and in the levels of occludin phosphorylation. Altogether, using complex HFD, no associations were observed between dietary lipid amounts and the magnitude of endotoxemia, inflammation, and physiological alterations developed. These results reveal the impact of the diet composition on intestinal goblet cells and mucus coat, bringing new insights about further consequences on HFD-induced metabolic disorders.

  4. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  5. Egg collagen content is increased by a diet supplemented with wood charcoal powder containing wood vinegar liquid.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, K; Matsumoto, Y; Yamauchi, K

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine whether collagen exists in egg, particularly in egg yolk; to establish a Fourier transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) measurement method for collagen in egg and to assess the possibility of increasing the collagen content by feeding hens a diet containing wood charcoal powder containing wood vinegar liquid (WCV). The collagen in eggs from 67-week-old hens fed on the dietary 0 and 9.9 g/kg WCV diets was investigated using a combination of histochemical, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-NIR approaches. All approaches used to identify collagen in egg yolk yielded positive results. The collagen in egg yolk measured using colorimetry, collagen in egg yolk, egg white and eggshell membrane using FT-NIR and collagen in egg yolk determined by treating the egg yolk with collagenase were abundant after feeding a dietary WCV (p<0.05). These results suggest that egg yolk contains collagen, that the collagen in egg can be measured using FT-NIR, and that the collagen content of egg yolk can be increased by feeding dietary WCV diets.

  6. Stress competition and vortex magnetic anisotropy in FeCoAlO high-frequency soft magnetic films with gradient Al-O contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shandong; Du, Honglei; Xue, Qian; Xie, Shiming; Liu, Ming; Shao, Weiquan; Xu, Jie; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2013-05-01

    A vortex magnetic anisotropy (VMA) was formed via the competition of residual stresses between radial and tangential directions in the FeCoAlO soft magnetic films (SMFs), prepared by a composition gradient sputtering (CGS) method. The VMA of the magnetic films gives rise to a rotating excitation direction of the ferromagnetic resonance. As a results, the as-deposited FeCoAlO films exhibit good high-frequency ferromagnetic properties with high permeability about 100, cut-off frequency over 2 GHz, and Qm factor over 50 along its individual excitation direction. These SMFs with the VMA are promising in the integration with the circular spiral inductors due to the geometrical match between the excitation direction of the SMFs and the circular inductor lines.

  7. Spectroscopic investigations of band offsets of MgO|Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epitaxial heterostructures with varying AlN content

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Brumbach, Michael; Allerman, Andrew A.; Atcitty, Stanley; Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial (111) MgO films were prepared on (0001) Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N via molecular-beam epitaxy for x = 0 to x = 0.67. Valence band offsets of MgO to Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as 1.65 ± 0.07 eV, 1.36 ± 0.05 eV, and 1.05 ± 0.09 eV for x = 0, 0.28, and 0.67, respectively. This yielded conduction band offsets of 2.75 eV, 2.39 eV, and 1.63 eV for x = 0, 0.28, and 0.67, respectively. All band offsets measured between MgO and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N provide a > 1 eV barrier height to the semiconductor.

  8. Effects of silicon content on the structure and mechanical properties of (AlCrTaTiZr)-Six-N coatings by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Keng-Hao; Tsai, Che-Wei; Lin, Su-Jien; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Multi-component (AlCrTaTiZr)-Six-N films were deposited on silicon wafers by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering. The effect of silicon content on the structure, morphology and mechanical properties of the nitride films was investigated. Nitride films with lower silicon content remained as a simple NaCl-type face-centred cubic (FCC) structure. As the silicon content reached 7.9 at%, thermodynamically driven phase separation occurred, leading to a nanocomposite structure consisting of an FCC solid-solution nitride and an amorphous SiNx phase. These nitride films exhibited a high hardness of 34 GPa and remained at a constant level up to 7.9 at% Si. The reduced hardness at a silicon content of 10.2 at% was attributed to the appreciable amounts of softer amorphous segregation. The silicon incorporation significantly improved the oxidation resistance of (AlCrTaTiZr)N films. The film containing 7.9 at% Si annealed at 1000 °C for 2 h in air only had a 330 nm-thick oxide layer. The optimum Si content is 7.9 at% since it gives the best combination of hardness and oxidation resistance.

  9. Choline intakes exceeding recommendations during human lactation improve breast milk choline content by increasing PEMT pathway metabolites.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Crystal; Yan, Jian; Taesuwan, Siraphat; Shields, Kelsey; West, Allyson A; Jiang, Xinyin; Perry, Cydne A; Malysheva, Olga V; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Caudill, Marie A

    2015-09-01

    Demand for the vital nutrient choline is high during lactation; however, few studies have examined choline metabolism and requirements in this reproductive state. The present study sought to discern the effects of lactation and varied choline intake on maternal biomarkers of choline metabolism and breast milk choline content. Lactating (n=28) and control (n=21) women were randomized to 480 or 930 mg choline/day for 10-12 weeks as part of a controlled feeding study. During the last 4-6 weeks, 20% of the total choline intake was provided as an isotopically labeled choline tracer (methyl-d9-choline). Blood, urine and breast milk samples were collected for choline metabolite quantification, enrichment measurements, and gene expression analysis of choline metabolic genes. Lactating (vs. control) women exhibited higher (P < .001) plasma choline concentrations but lower (P ≤ .002) urinary excretion of choline metabolites, decreased use of choline as a methyl donor (e.g., lower enrichment of d6-dimethylglycine, P ≤ .08) and lower (P ≤ .02) leukocyte expression of most choline-metabolizing genes. A higher choline intake during lactation differentially influenced breast milk d9- vs. d3-choline metabolite enrichment. Increases (P ≤ .03) were detected among the d3-metabolites, which are generated endogenously via the hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), but not among the d9-metabolites generated from intact exogenous choline. These data suggest that lactation induces metabolic adaptations that increase the supply of intact choline to the mammary epithelium, and that extra maternal choline enhances breast milk choline content by increasing supply of PEMT-derived choline metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022.

  10. Magnesium Sulfate Prevents Placental Ischemia-Induced Increases in Brain Water Content and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokines in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linda W.; Warrington, Junie P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the most widely used therapy in the clinic to prevent the progression of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, to eclampsia. Eclampsia, manifested as unexplained seizures and/or coma during pregnancy or postpartum, accounts for ~13% of maternal deaths worldwide. While MgSO4 continues to be used in the clinic, the mechanisms by which it exerts its protective actions are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MgSO4 protects against placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines. To test this hypothesis, MgSO4 was administered via mini-osmotic pump (60 mg/day, i.p.) to pregnant and placental ischemic rats, induced by mechanical reduction of uterine perfusion pressure, from gestational day 14–19. This treatment regimen of MgSO4 led to therapeutic level of 2.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L Mg in plasma. MgSO4 had no effect on improving placental ischemia-induced changes in mean arterial pressure, number of live fetuses, or fetal and placental weight. Placental ischemia increased, while MgSO4 prevented the increase in water content in the anterior cerebrum. Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid using a multi-plex assay. Results demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid, obtained via the cisterna magna, had reduced protein, albumin, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-18, IL-2, eotaxin, fractalkine, interferon gamma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 following MgSO4 treatment. These data support the hypothesis that MgSO4 offers neuroprotection by preventing placental ischemia-induced cerebral edema and reducing levels of cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:28008305

  11. Reduced Content of Homogalacturonan Does Not Alter the Ion-Mediated Increase in Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Cervone, Felice; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2007-01-01

    Xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in stems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) wild-type SR1 was compared to that of PG7 and PG16, two transgenic lines with increased levels of expression of the gene encoding the Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (AnPGII). Activity of AnPGII removes in planta blocks of homogalacturonan (HG) with deesterified carboxyls, thus increasing the degree of neutrality of pectins. The effect of K+ was tested in increasing stem Ks using model plants with more neutral polysaccharides in primary walls and, hence, in intervessel pit membranes. Ks measured with deionized water was compared to that with KCl solutions at increasing concentrations (ΔKs, %). Plants transformed for HG degree of neutrality showed a dwarfed phenotype, but ΔKs did not differ among the three experimental groups. The ion-mediated hydraulic effect saturated at a KCl concentration of 25 mm in SR1 plants. All the three tobacco lines showed ΔKs of around +12.5% and +17.0% when perfused with 10 and 25 mm KCl, respectively. Because modification of HG content did not influence ion-mediated hydraulic enhancement, we suggest that pectin components other than HG, like rhamnogalacturonan-I and/or rhamnogalacturonan-II, might play important roles in the hydrogel behavior of pit membranes. PMID:17307902

  12. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Possible Use of Bacteria which Split Organophosphates in Order to Increase the Yield of Nutrient Yeast and its Nitrogen and Phosphorous Content,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-28

    FOR THE POSSIBLE USE OF BACTERIA WHICH SPLIT ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE YIELD OF NUTRIENT YEAST AND ITS NITROGEN:AND PHOSPHOROUS CONTENT...ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN ORDER TO IN- -SI CfA &I CREASE THE YIELD OF NUTRIENT YEAST AND ITS NITROGEN DTCTAB AND PHOSPHOROUS CONTENT -F unec By: D.L. Shamis English...POSSIBLE USE OF BACTERIA WHICH SPLIT ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE YIELD OF NUTRIENT YEAST AND ITS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS CONTENT D. L. Shamis

  13. Structure and composition of higher-rhenium-content superalloy based on La-alloyed Ni-Al-Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Eduard V.; Koneva, Nina A.; Nikonenko, Elena L.; Popova, Natalya A.; Fedorischeva, Marina V.

    2015-10-27

    The paper presents the transmission and scanning electronic microscope investigations of Ni-Al-Cr superalloy alloyed with additional Re and La elements. This superalloy is obtained by a directional solidification method. It is shown that such additional elements as Re and La result in formation of new phases in Ni-Al-Cr accompanied by considerable modifications of quasi-cuboid structure in its γ’-phase.

  14. Experimental fertilization increases amino acid content in floral nectar, fruit set and degree of selfing in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, Pieter; Ceulemans, Tobias; Van den Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Floral traits have evolved to maximize reproductive success by attracting pollinators and facilitating pollination. Highly attractive floral traits may, however, also increase the degree of self-pollination, which could become detrimental for plant fitness through inbreeding depression. Floral nectar is a trait that is known to strongly mediate pollinator attraction and plant reproductive success, but the particular role of the nectar amino acid (AA) composition is poorly understood. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated the nectar AA composition and abundance of the Lepidoptera-pollinated orchid Gymnadenia conopsea through soil fertilization, and we quantified AA content and AA composition through high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Mixed models were then used to evaluate differences in pollinia removal, fruit set, seed set and degree of selfing between fertilized and control individuals. Selfing rates were estimated using microsatellite markers. We found that fertilized individuals had a significantly higher nectar AA content and an altered AA composition, whereas plant height, number of flowers, nectar volume and sugar concentration remained unchanged. Fertilized individuals also had significantly more pollinia removed and a higher fruit set, whereas control plants that did not receive the fertilization treatment had significantly fewer selfed seeds, and more viable seeds. Although we cannot exclude a role of changes in floral scent following the fertilization treatment, our results strongly suggest a relation among nectar AA composition, fruiting success and selfing rates. Our results also indicate potential consequences of nutrient pollution for plant reproductive success, through the induced changes in nectar AA composition.

  15. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions.

  16. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence.

  17. Increased rate of drying reduces metabolic inequity and critical water content in radicles of Cicer arietinum L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jipsi; Tandon, Mona; Keshavkant, S

    2015-04-01

    Orthodox seed serves as easily accessible model to study desiccation-sensitivity in plant tissues because once they undergo germination, they become sensitive to desiccation imposed injuries. In the proposed study, effects of rate of drying on the viability, electrolyte leakage, superoxide accumulation, lipid-protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were explored in excised radicles of Cicer arietinum L. under dehydration and wet storage. For both the drying conditions, desiccation could be explained by exponential and inverse functions. Under rapid drying tissue viability as scored by germination efficiency and tetrazolium staining remained 100 % all through the analysis (24 h) but declined remarkably after 0.30 g g(-1) fresh mass water content (4 days) under slow drying. Moreover, precipitous fall in tissue viability was observed after 2 weeks of wet storage. Rapid drying was also accompanied with limited amounts of electrolyte leakage, superoxide radical, malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide, together with enhanced level of protein. Additionally, activities of both superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased in rapidly dried radicles, but guaiacol peroxidase was declined. In contrary, above referred biomarkers were observed to perform either inversely or poorly during slow drying and wet storage suggesting that above documented alterations might be the resultant of ageing and not desiccation. Gathered data demonstrated that increased drying lowers the critical water content for tissue survival and also reduces the risk of damage resulting from aqueous-based deleterious reactions. Additionally, it also showed that growing radicles are a popular model to explore desiccation-sensitivity in plant tissues and/or seeds.

  18. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  19. Low-pH and aluminum resistance in arabidopsis correlates with high cytosolic magnesium content and increased magnesium uptake by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Rengel, Zed

    2013-07-01

    Low-pH stress and Al(3+) toxicity affect root growth in acid soils. It was hypothesized that the capacity of genotypes to maintain Mg(2+) uptake in acidic environments may contribute to low-pH and Al resistance, but explicit evidence is lacking. In this work, an Al-resistant alr104 mutant and two Al-sensitive mutants (als5 and als3) of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared with the wild type (Col-0) for Mg(2+) uptake and intracellular Mg(2+) concentration under low-pH and combined low-pH/Al stresses. Magnesium accumulation in roots was measured in long-term (7 d) experiments. The Mg(2+) fluxes were measured using ion-sensitive microelectrodes at the distal elongation and the mature root zones in short-term (0-60 min) experiments. Intracellular Mg(2+) concentrations were measured in intact root cells at the distal elongation zone using magnesium-specific fluorescent dye and fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM) analysis. Under low-pH stress, Arabidopsis mutants als5 and alr104 maintained a higher Mg concentration in roots, and had greater Mg(2+) influx than the wild type and the als3 mutant. Under combined low-pH/Al treatment, Al-resistant genotypes (wild type and alr104) maintained a higher Mg(2+) accumulation, and had a higher Mg(2+) influx and higher intracellular Mg(2+) concentration than Al-sensitive genotypes (als3 and als5). Overall, these results show that increased Mg(2+) uptake correlates with an enhanced capacity of Arabidopsis genotypes to cope with low-pH and combined low-pH/Al stresses.

  20. Increased calcium content and inhomogeneity of mineralization render bone toughness in osteoporosis: mineralization, morphology and biomechanics of human single trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Soltau, Markus; Zustin, Jozef; Püschel, Klaus; Duda, Georg N; Amling, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The differentiation and degree of the effects of mineral content and/or morphology on bone quality remain, to a large extent, unanswered due to several microarchitectural particularities in spatial measuring fields (e.g., force transfer, trajectories, microcalli). Therefore, as the smallest basic component of cancellous bone, we focused on single trabeculae to investigate the effects of mineralization and structure, both independently and in superposition. Transiliac Bordier bone cores and T12 vertebrae were obtained from 20 females at autopsy for specimen preparation, enabling radiographical analyses, histomorphometry, Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD) analyses, and trabecular singularization to be performed. Evaluated contact X-rays and histomorphometric limits from cases with osteoporotic vertebral fractures generated two subdivisions, osteoporotic (n=12, Ø 78 years) and non-osteoporotic (n=8, Ø 49 years) cases, based on fracture appearance and bone volume (BV/TV). Measurements of trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) and eroded surface (ES/BS) were carried out to provide detailed structural properties of the investigated groups. The mechanical properties of 400 rod-like single vertebral trabeculae, assessed by three-point bending, were matched with mineral properties as quantified by BMDD analyses of cross-sectioned rod-like and plate-like trabeculae, both in superposition and independently. Non-osteoporotic iliac crests and vertebrae displayed linear dependency on structure parameters, whereas osteoporotic compartments proved to be non-correlated with bone structure. Independent of trabecular thickness, osteoporotic rod-like trabeculae showed decreases in Young's modulus, fracture load, yield strength, ultimate stress, work to failure and bending stiffness, along with significantly increased mean calcium content and calcium width. Non-osteoporotic trabeculae

  1. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain.

  2. Increasing Ti-6Al-4V brazed joint strength equal to the base metal by Ti and Zr amorphous filler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjeh, E.; Sarkhosh, H.; Bajgholi, M.E.; Khorsand, H.; Ghaffari, M.

    2012-09-15

    Microstructural features developed along with mechanical properties in furnace brazing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using STEMET 1228 (Ti-26.8Zr-13Ni-13.9Cu, wt.%) and STEMET 1406 (Zr-9.7Ti-12.4Ni-11.2Cu, wt.%) amorphous filler alloys. Brazing temperatures employed were 900-950 Degree-Sign C for the titanium-based filler and 900-990 Degree-Sign C for the zirconium-based filler alloys, respectively. The brazing time durations were 600, 1200 and 1800 s. The brazed joints were evaluated by ultrasonic test, and their microstructures and phase constitutions analyzed by metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since microstructural evolution across the furnace brazed joints primarily depends on their alloying elements such as Cu, Ni and Zr along the joint. Accordingly, existence of Zr{sub 2}Cu, Ti{sub 2}Cu and (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni intermetallic compounds was identified in the brazed joints. The chemical composition of segregation region in the center of brazed joints was identical to virgin filler alloy content which greatly deteriorated the shear strength of the joints. Adequate brazing time (1800 s) and/or temperature (950 Degree-Sign C for Ti-based and 990 Degree-Sign C for Zr-based) resulted in an acicular Widmanstaetten microstructure throughout the entire joint section due to eutectoid reaction. This microstructure increased the shear strength of the brazed joints up to the Ti-6Al-4V tensile strength level. Consequently, Ti-6Al-4V can be furnace brazed by Ti and Zr base foils produced excellent joint strengths. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature or time was the main factors of controlling braze joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing a Widmanstaetten microstructure generates equal strength to base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brittle intermetallic compounds like (Ti,Zr){sub 2}Ni/Cu deteriorate shear strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti and Zr base filler alloys were the best choice for brazing Ti

  3. Capsaicin Reduces Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Levels and Glycogen Content Better than Capsiate in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ma, Xiaohan; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiong

    2017-03-22

    Chili peppers exhibit antiobesity, anticancer, antidiabetic, and pain- and itch-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue, is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups. The two treatment groups were treated orally with 6 mg/kg bw capsaicin and capsiate daily for 28 days. Treatment with capsaicin and capsiate increased body weight, increased glycogen content, and inhibited intestinal absorption of sugar in T1D rats. Particularly, insulin levels were increased from 14.9 ± 0.76 mIU/L (model group) to 22.4 ± 1.39 mIU/L (capsaicin group), but the capsiate group (16.7 ± 0.79 mIU/L) was increased by only 12.2%. Analysis of the related genes suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor was activated by capsaicin. Liver X receptor and pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1 controlled the glycometabolism balance by regulating the expression levels of glucose kinase, glucose transport protein 2 (GLUT2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, leading to reduced blood glucose levels in T1D rats. Meanwhile, the hypoglycemic effect was enhanced by the down-regulated expression of sodium glucose cotransporter 1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 in the intestine. The results showed that the spicy characteristics of capsaicin might be the root of its ability to decrease blood glucose.

  4. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  5. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  6. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  7. Increasing the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by optimizing the germination conditions of amaranth seeds.

    PubMed

    Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.

  8. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced phrenic long-term facilitation despite increased SOD1 expression in a rat model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Harrigan, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death. Since most ALS patients succumb to ventilatory failure from loss of respiratory motor neurons, any effective ALS treatment must preserve and/or restore breathing capacity. In rats over-expressing mutated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1G93A), the capacity to increase phrenic motor output is decreased at disease end-stage, suggesting imminent ventilatory failure. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity with potential to restore phrenic motor output in clinical disorders that compromise breathing. Since pLTF requires NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, it is blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibition and SOD mimetics in normal rats. Thus, we hypothesized that SOD1G93A (mutant; MT) rats do not express AIH-induced pLTF due to over-expression of active mutant superoxide dismutase-1. AIH-induced pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF were assessed in young, pre-symptomatic and end-stage anesthetized MT rats and age-matched wild-type littermates. Contrary to predictions, pLTF and XII LTF were observed in MT rats at all ages; at end-stage, pLTF was actually enhanced. SOD1 levels were elevated in young and pre-symptomatic MT rats, yet superoxide accumulation in putative phrenic motor neurons (assessed with dihydroethidium) was unchanged; however, superoxide accumulation significantly decreased at end-stage. Thus, compensatory mechanisms appear to maintain ROS homoeostasis until late in disease progression, preserving AIH-induced respiratory plasticity. Following intrathecal injections of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 600µM; 12µL), pLTF was abolished in pre-symptomatic, but not end-stage MT rats, demonstrating that pLTF is NADPH oxidase dependent in pre-symptomatic, but NADPH oxidase independent in end-stage MT rats. Mechanisms preserving

  9. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Loqué, Dominique; Lao, Jeemeng; Catena, Michela; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Herter, Thomas; Yang, Fan; Harholt, Jesper; Ebert, Berit; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Ronald, Pamela C

    2015-09-01

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  10. Effect of Y2O3 contents on oxidation resistance at 1150 °C and mechanical properties at room temperature of ODS Ni-20Cr-5Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duanjun; Liang, Chunyuan; Shang, Jinlong; Yin, Jihui; Song, Yaru; Li, Weizhou; Liang, Tianquan; Zhang, Xiuhai

    2016-11-01

    Ni-20Cr-5Al alloy with Y2O3 addition (i.e., 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt%) are used to prepare oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) Ni-based superalloy by powder metallurgy technology. The effect of Y2O3 particles on oxidation resistance at 1150 °C and mechanical properties at room temperature of Ni-20Cr-5Al alloy was investigated. The results show that the oxidation resistance of alloys is improved when the content of Y2O3 is under 0.6 wt%. The oxidation resistance of alloys decreased obviously when the content of Y2O3 is over 0.8 wt%. It is due to the small amount of Y2O3 is conducive to form stable oxide scale, and improves the adhesion of oxide scale and matrix. While Y2O3 content is too high, it is easier to result in segregation of Y2O3, which create defects in matrix and decrease exfoliation resistance of oxide scale. Continuous and compact Al2O3 oxide scale can effectively protect matrix. The relative density of alloys can be significantly increased with Y2O3 addition which is 0.2-0.6 wt%, it's speculated that distribution of Y2O3 in matrix is benefit to promote rearrangement and densification of grains during process of sintering. While Y2O3 content is more than 0.8 wt%, Y2O3 will hinder viscous flow and reduce relative density due to its strong thermal stability.

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein content in rat skeletal muscle is altered by increased physical activity in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Monica J.; Peplinski, Nathan G.; Kinnell, Kyle R.; Spitsbergen, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that exercise and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) independently cause significant morphological changes in the neuromuscular system. The aim of the current study was to determine if increased physical activity regulates GDNF protein content in rat skeletal muscle. Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) and Soleus (SOL) hindlimb skeletal muscles were analyzed following 2 weeks of involuntary exercise and 4 hours of field stimulation or stretch in muscle bath preparations. GDNF protein content was measured via ELISA. Two weeks of exercise increased GDNF protein content in SOL as compared to sedentary controls (4.4 ±0.3 pg GDNF/mg tissue and 3.1 ±0.6 pg GDNF/mg tissue, respectively) and decreased GDNF protein content in EDL as compared to controls (1.0 ±0.1 pg GDNF/mg tissue and 2.3 ±0.7 pg GDNF/mg tissue, respectively). GDNF protein content in the EDL decreased following both field stimulation (56% ±18% decrease from controls) and stretch (66% ±10% decrease from controls). SOL responded to field stimulation with a 38% ±7% increase from controls in GDNF protein content, but showed no change following stretch. Pre-treatment with α-bungarotoxin abolished the effects of field stimulation in both muscles and blocked the effect of stretch in EDL. α-bungarotoxin pre-treatment and stretch increased GDNF protein content to 240% ±10% of controls in the SOL. Exposure to carbamylcholine decreased GDNF protein content to 51% ±28% of controls in the EDL but not SOL. These results suggest that GDNF protein content in skeletal muscle may be controlled by stretch, where it may increase GDNF protein content, and membrane depolarization/ACh which acts to decrease GDNF protein content. PMID:21081155

  12. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Collagen-Fibrin Co-Gels Reflects Transition From Series to Parallel Interactions With Increasing Collagen Content

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Victor K.; Lake, Spencer P.; Frey, Christina R.; Tranquillo, Robert T.; Barocas, Victor H.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin and collagen, biopolymers occurring naturally in the body, are commonly-used biomaterials as scaffolds for tissue engineering. How collagen and fibrin interact to confer macroscopic mechanical properties in collagen-fibrin composite systems remains poorly understood. In this study, we formulated collagen-fibrin co-gels at different collagen-to-fibrin ratios to observe changes in overall mechanical behavior and microstructure. A modeling framework of a two-network system was developed by modifying our micro-scale model, considering two forms of interaction between the networks: (a) two interpenetrating but non-interacting networks (“parallel”), and (b) a single network consisting of randomly alternating collagen and fibrin fibrils (“series”). Mechanical testing of our gels show that collagen-fibrin co-gels exhibit intermediate properties (UTS, strain at failure, tangent modulus) compared to those of pure collagen and fibrin. Comparison with model predictions show that the parallel and series model cases provide upper and lower bounds respectively for the experimental data, suggesting that a combination of such interactions exist between collagen and fibrin in co-gels. A transition from the series model to the parallel model occurs with increasing collagen content, with the series model best describing predominantly fibrin co-gels, and the parallel model best describing predominantly collagen co-gels. PMID:22482659

  14. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 signaling enhances TRPM1 calcium channel function and increases melanin content in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sulochana; Markandeya, Yogananda; Maddodi, Nityanand; Dhingra, Anuradha; Vardi, Noga; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2013-05-01

    Mutations in TRPM1, a calcium channel expressed in retinal bipolar cells and epidermal melanocytes, cause complete congenital stationary night blindness with no discernible skin phenotype. In the retina, TRPM1 activity is negatively coupled to metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signaling through Gαo and TRPM1 mutations result in the loss of responsiveness of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling. Here, we show that human melanocytes express mGluR6, and treatment of melanocytes with L-AP4, a type III mGluR-selective agonist, enhances Ca(2+) uptake. Knockdown of TRPM1 or mGluR6 by shRNA abolished L-AP4-induced Ca(2+) influx and TRPM1 currents, showing that TRPM1 activity in melanocytes is positively coupled to mGluR6 signaling. Gαo protein is absent in melanocytes. However, forced expression of Gαo restored negative coupling of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling, but treatment with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi /Go proteins, did not affect basal or mGluR6-induced Ca(2+) uptake. Additionally, chronic stimulation of mGluR6 altered melanocyte morphology and increased melanin content. These data suggest differences in coupling of TRPM1 function to mGluR6 signaling explain different cellular responses to glutamate in the retina and the skin.

  15. Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) increases the antioxidant content and the inhibitory effect on human neutrophil burst.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Spallino, Alessandra; Braga, Pier Carlo

    2010-03-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount and activity of phytonutrients in raw, grilled, and boiled eggplant fruit using chemical measures and a biological assay of oxidative bursts in human neutrophils. The thermally treated samples showed various changes in their chemical composition (dry matter, soluble solids, acidity, and the amount of alcohol insoluble substances) due to the cooking processes and were much richer in the main phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, which are known to be antioxidants. Consequently, their free radical scavenging activity was significantly higher, especially that of superoxide anion. The biological assay of oxidative bursts from human neutrophils in the presence of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine confirmed the greater activity of extracts of the cooked eggplants with respect to raw eggplants. Successive extract dilutions showed a significant activity up to 1.25 microg/mL after cooking, while raw fruits resulted in an activity up to 10.00 microg/mL. These results showed that the thermal treatment commonly used before consumption can increase the content and biological activity of antioxidant compounds of eggplants.

  16. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 signaling enhances TRPM1 calcium channel function and increases melanin content in human melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Sulochana; Markandeya, Yogananda; Maddodi, Nityanand; Dhingra, Anuradha; Vardi, Noga; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in TRPM1, a calcium channel expressed in retinal bipolar cells and epidermal melanocytes, cause complete congenital stationary night blindness with no discernible skin phenotype. In the retina, TRPM1 activity is negatively coupled to metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) signaling through Gαo and TRPM1 mutations result in the loss of responsiveness of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling. Here, we show that human melanocytes express mGluR6 and treatment of melanocytes with L-AP4, a type III mGluR-selective agonist, enhances Ca2+ uptake. Knockdown of TRPM1 or mGluR6 by shRNA abolished L-AP4-induced Ca2+ influx and TRPM1 currents showing that TRPM1 activity in melanocytes is positively coupled to mGluR6 signaling. Gαo protein is absent in melanocytes. However, forced expression of Gαo restored negative coupling of TRPM1 to mGluR6 signaling, but treatment with and pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi/Go proteins, did not affect basal or mGluR6-induced Ca2+ uptake. Additionally, chronic stimulation of mGluR6 altered melanocyte morphology and increased melanin content. These data suggest differences in coupling of TRPM1 function to mGluR6 signaling explain different cellular responses to glutamate in the retina and the skin. PMID:23452348

  17. Effects of CaO/SiO2 Ratio and Na2O Content on Melting Properties and Viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigated the effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (0.8 to 1.5) and Na2O concentration (6 to 9 wt pct) on melting properties and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O mold fluxes with a fixed B2O3 content. Melting properties of fluxes (softening temperature T s, hemispherical temperature T h, and fluidity temperature T f) were determined by the hot-stage microscopy method. Viscosity was measured using rotating cylindrical viscometer, and structure of quenched fluxes was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Equilibrium phases in the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O system were calculated using FactSage. It was found that T h decreased with increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio from 0.8 to 1.0 and increased with a further increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio to 1.5. The effect of Na2O content in the range of 6 to 9 wt pct on T h of the flux with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio at 1.3 was marginal. Increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio and Na2O content increased the break temperature and reduced the value of viscosity at 1673 K (1400 °C). Viscosity of liquid fluxes was discussed in the relationship with the flux structure. Melting properties and viscosity of boracic fluxes were compared with those of industrial fluorine-containing mold fluxes.

  18. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  19. Sub-MICs of Azithromycin Decrease Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus suis and Increase Capsular Polysaccharide Content of S. suis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Chen, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Lin; Bai, Jing-Wen; Ding, Wen-Ya; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xue-Ying; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) caused serious disease symptoms in humans and pigs. S. suis is able to form thick biofilms and this increases the difficulty of treatment. After growth with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin, 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, or 1/8 MIC of azithromycin, biofilm formation of S. suis dose-dependently decreased in the present study. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the obvious effect of azithromycin against biofilm formation of S. suis. Especially, at two different conditions (1/2 MIC of azithromycin non-treated cells and treated cells), we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of cells by using iTRAQ technology. Finally, the results revealed the existence of 19 proteins of varying amounts. Interestingly, several cell surface proteins (such as ATP-binding cassette superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter (G7SD52), CpsR (K0FG35), Cps1/2H (G8DTL7), CPS16F (E9NQ13), putative uncharacterized protein (G7SER0), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G5L259), putative uncharacterized protein (G7S2D6), amino acid permease (B0M0G6), and NsuB (G5L351)) were found to be implicated in biofilm formation. More importantly, we also found that azithromycin affected expression of the genes cps1/2H, cpsR and cps16F. Especially, after growth with 1/2 MIC of azithromycin and 1/4 MIC of azithromycin, the capsular polysaccharide content of S. suis was significantly higher. PMID:27812354

  20. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  1. On the increased efficiency in InGaN-based multiple quantum wells emitting at 530-590 nm with AlGaN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Fischer, A. J.; Bryant, B. N.; Kotula, P. G.; Wierer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    InGaN/AlGaN/GaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with AlGaN interlayers (ILs) are investigated, specifically to examine the fundamental mechanisms behind their increased radiative efficiency at wavelengths of 530-590 nm. The AlzGa1-zN (z~0.38) IL is ~1-2 nm thick, and is grown after and at the same growth temperature as the ~3 nm thick InGaN quantum well (QW). This is followed by an increase in temperature for the growth of a ~10 nm thick GaN barrier layer. The insertion of the AlGaN IL within the MQW provides various benefits. First, the AlGaN IL allows for growth of the InxGa1-xN QW well below typical growth temperatures to achieve higher x (up to~0.25). Second, annealing the IL capped QW prior to the GaN barrier growth improves the AlGaN IL smoothness as determined by atomic force microscopy, improves the InGaN/AlGaN/GaN interface quality as determined from scanning transmission electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction, and increases the radiative efficiency by reducing non-radiative defects as determined by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Finally, the AlGaN IL increases the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization induced electric fields acting on the InGaN QW, providing an additional red-shift to the emission wavelength as determined by Schrodinger-Poisson modeling and fitting to the experimental data. The relative impact of increased indium concentration and polarization fields on the radiative efficiency of MQWs with AlGaN ILs is explored along with implications to conventional longer wavelength emitters.

  2. Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-03-27

    Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  3. Increased metal content in the TDP-43A315T transgenic mouse model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Theresa N. T.; Lim, Nastasia K. H.; Grubman, Alexandra; Li, Qiao-Xin; Volitakis, Irene; White, Anthony R.; Crouch, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted metal homeostasis is a consistent feature of neurodegenerative disease in humans and is recapitulated in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuronal ceriod lipofuscinosis. While the definitive pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease in humans remains to be fully elucidated, disease-like symptoms in the mouse models are all driven by the presence or over-expression of a putative pathogenic protein, indicating an in vivo relationship between expression of these proteins, disrupted metal homeostasis and the symptoms of neuronal failure. Recently it was established that mutant TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is associated with the development of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and ALS. Subsequent development of transgenic mice that express human TDP-43 carrying the disease-causing A315T mutation has provided new opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of TDP-43-related neurodegenerative disease. We assessed the cognitive and locomotive phenotype of TDP-43 A315T mice and their wild-type littermates and also assessed bulk metal content of brain and spinal cord tissues. Metal levels in the brain were not affected by the expression of mutant TDP-43, but zinc, copper, and manganese levels were all increased in the spinal cords of TDP-43 A315T mice when compared to wild-type littermates. Performance of the TDP-43 A315T mice in the Y-maze test for cognitive function was not significantly different to wild-type mice. By contrast, performance of the TDP-43 A315T in the rotarod test for locomotive function was consistently worse than wild-type mice. These preliminary in vivo data are the first to show that expression of a disease-causing form of TDP-43 is sufficient to disrupt metal ion homeostasis in the central nervous system. Disrupted metal ion homeostasis in the spinal cord but not the brain may explain why the TDP-43 A315T mice show symptoms of locomotive decline and not cognitive

  4. Dislocation Content Measured Via 3D HR-EBSD Near a Grain Boundary in an AlCu Oligocrystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, Timothy; Hochhalter, Jacob; Homer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between dislocations and grain boundaries are poorly understood and crucial to mesoscale plasticity modeling. Much of our understanding of dislocation-grain boundary interaction comes from atomistic simulations and TEM studies, both of which are extremely limited in scale. High angular resolution EBSD-based continuum dislocation microscopy provides a way of measuring dislocation activity at length scales and accuracies relevant to crystal plasticity, but it is limited as a two-dimensional technique, meaning the character of the grain boundary and the complete dislocation activity is difficult to recover. However, the commercialization of plasma FIB dual-beam microscopes have made 3D EBSD studies all the more feasible. The objective of this work is to apply high angular resolution cross correlation EBSD to a 3D EBSD data set collected by serial sectioning in a FIB to characterize dislocation interaction with a grain boundary. Three dimensional high angular resolution cross correlation EBSD analysis was applied to an AlCu oligocrystal to measure dislocation densities around a grain boundary. Distortion derivatives associated with the plasma FIB serial sectioning were higher than expected, possibly due to geometric uncertainty between layers. Future work will focus on mitigating the geometric uncertainty and examining more regions of interest along the grain boundary to glean information on dislocation-grain boundary interaction.

  5. Anti-corrosion and wear properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating formed on high Si content Al alloy by sectionalized oxidation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Libin; Li, Wenfang; Zhang, Guoge; Fu, Nianqing; Duan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a uniform and less defective ceramic coating was prepared on high Si content aluminium alloys by a sectionalized plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) mode. The PEO process of Al-9 wt. % Si binary alloy was performed under constant current mode followed by constant voltage mode. The surface micrographs and chemical compositions of different samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Micro-hardness and reciprocal-sliding testers were used to measure the coatings hardness and tribological performance. It was found that the sectionalized PEO mode could produce hard and anti-friction passive oxide layers with smaller holes and fewer cracks on the Al-Si alloy, comparing with the single constant current mode. In addition, the results of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests conducted in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution revealed that the coatings obtained by sectionalized PEO mode had a higher corrosion resistance and provided better corrosion protection for Al-Si alloy.

  6. Effect of reducing Lu3+ content on the fabrication and scintillation properties of non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Mares, Jiri A.; Babin, Vladimir; Hu, Chen; Kou, Huamin; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Pan, Yubai; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce optical ceramics (Lu3-xAG:Ce, x = 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.%, respectively) with Lu3+ compositions ranging from 1 to 4 at.% below stoichiometry content were fabricated by solid state reaction method and further optimized by an air-annealing process. The effect of Lu3+ deficiency on the optical, luminescence and scintillation properties of such a non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics was investigated. Significant influence in the material densification was found leading to strong changes in the transparency, radioluminescence (RL) and scintillation response of these ceramics. Within the range of 1-4 at.% Lu3+ deficiency, LuAl antisite defects were suppressed effectively and the Lu3-xAG:Ce ceramics displayed an extremely high RL intensity which reaches ∼4 times higher than that of the latest commercial LuAG:Ce single crystals while its transparency deteriorated. The microstructure, presence of foreign phases and charge traps acting in scintillation mechanism were also characterized by means of SEM, back scattered electron imaging and thermoluminescence techniques, respectively.

  7. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods.

  8. Erbium-doped borosilicate glasses containing various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Influence of the silica content on the structure and thermal, physical, optical and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, Kevin; Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia; Koponen, Joona; Fargues, Alexandre; Cardinal, Thierry; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Dussauze, Marc; Rodriguez, Vincent; Ferraris, Monica

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped borosilicate glasses were processed with different compositions and characterizations. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site. • An increase in the SiO{sub 2} content decreases the Er{sup 3+} absorption cross-section at 980 nm. • Glasses with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2} exhibit a stronger emission intensity at 1530 nm than glasses with x = 50. • Highest 1.5 μm emission intensity was achieved for the Al and P containing glass with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: The influence of the silica content on several properties of Er-doped borosilicate glasses in the presence of various amounts of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated. The introduction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are responsible for structural modifications in the glass network through a charge-compensation mechanism related to the formation of negatively-charged PO{sub 4} and AlO{sub 4} groups or through the formation of AlPO{sub 4}-like structural units. In this paper, we show that an increase in the SiO{sub 2} content leads to a silicate-rich environment around the Er{sup 3+} site, resulting in an increased dependence of the Er{sup 3+} ions optical and luminescence properties on the P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The highest emission intensity at 1.5 μm was achieved for the glass with an equal proportion of P and Al in the glass system with 60 mol% of SiO{sub 2}.

  9. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P < 0.05). Water content in the lesional skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were recognized in water content between non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P < 0.05). Conversely, no significant differences were recognized in the relative amounts of cholesterols and free fatty acids (FFA) between dogs with AD and controls. Moreover, there are statistical correlations between TEWL and the relative amounts of ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  10. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Little, Jonathan P.; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Sprint interval training has been reported to induce similar or greater mitochondrial adaptations to continuous training. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of different exercise types on the early molecular events regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we compared the effects of continuous and sprint interval exercise on key regulatory proteins linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in subcellular fractions of human skeletal muscle. Nineteen men, performed either 24 min of moderate-intensity continuous cycling at 63% of WPeak (CE), or 4 × 30-s “all-out” cycling sprints (SIE). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were collected pre-, immediately (+0 h) and 3 (+3 h) hours post-exercise. Nuclear p53 and PHF20 protein content increased at +0 h, with no difference between groups. Nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content increased at +0 h after SIE, but not CE. We demonstrate an exercise-induced increase in nuclear p53 protein content, an event that may relate to greater p53 stability - as also suggested by increased PHF20 protein content. Increased nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content immediately following SIE but not CE suggests these may represent important early molecular events in the exercise-induced response to exercise, and that SIE is a time-efficient and possibly superior option than CE to promote these adaptations. PMID:28281651

  11. Sprint-interval but not continuous exercise increases PGC-1α protein content and p53 phosphorylation in nuclear fractions of human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Little, Jonathan P; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J

    2017-03-10

    Sprint interval training has been reported to induce similar or greater mitochondrial adaptations to continuous training. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of different exercise types on the early molecular events regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, we compared the effects of continuous and sprint interval exercise on key regulatory proteins linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in subcellular fractions of human skeletal muscle. Nineteen men, performed either 24 min of moderate-intensity continuous cycling at 63% of WPeak (CE), or 4 × 30-s "all-out" cycling sprints (SIE). Muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were collected pre-, immediately (+0 h) and 3 (+3 h) hours post-exercise. Nuclear p53 and PHF20 protein content increased at +0 h, with no difference between groups. Nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content increased at +0 h after SIE, but not CE. We demonstrate an exercise-induced increase in nuclear p53 protein content, an event that may relate to greater p53 stability - as also suggested by increased PHF20 protein content. Increased nuclear p53 phosphorylation and PGC-1α protein content immediately following SIE but not CE suggests these may represent important early molecular events in the exercise-induced response to exercise, and that SIE is a time-efficient and possibly superior option than CE to promote these adaptations.

  12. Flavonoid content, free radical scavenging and increase in xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in Galgeun-tang following fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Um, Young Ran; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-11-01

    Galgeun-tang (GT) prior to and following fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum was analyzed to determine the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity. GT, fermented GT (FGT) and their three solvent-partitioned fractions, which were prepared by successive partitioning with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH) and water, were evaluated for total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following fermentation, the total polyphenol content only increased slightly; however, the flavonoid content increased by 24.3%. The radical scavenging activity increased from 22.4 to 27.5% and the XO inhibitory activity increased from 20.2 to 62.4% at 500 µg/ml. The EtOAc fraction among the solvent‑partitioned fractions demonstrated the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, radical scavenging activities and XO inhibitory activity, and the quantity also markedly increased following fermentation.

  13. Capacity of microorganisms to decompose organic carbon affected by an increasing content of reactive mineral phases in a podzolic soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeire, Marie-Liesse; Doetterl, Sebastian; Bode, Samuel; Delmelle, Pierre; Van Oost, Kristof; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter stabilization has received considerable interest in the last decades due to the importance of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the global C budget. There is increasing evidence that the formation of organo-mineral associations play a major role in the mechanisms of organic carbon stabilization, indicating that the persistence of organic matter in soils relates primarily to soil physico-chemical and biological conditions than to intrinsic recalcitrance. Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and short-range ordered aluminosilicates are known for their high capacity to sorb organic carbon. However, the impact of the evolution of these reactive mineral phases over short time scale on the distribution of microorganisms and their ability to decompose SOC is still poorly understood. To further study the short-term evolution of organo-mineral associations, we investigated a 500-year podzolic soil chronosequence which is characterized by an increasing amount of secondary reactive mineral phases with pedogenesis and soil age, and thus by increased organo-mineral associations. In order to determine the impact of these secondary mineral phases on the degradation of SOC by microorganisms, an incubation experiment was carried out using soil horizons up to 1m deep from 6 profiles of different ages along the chronosequence. Furthermore, we used amino sugars and phospholipid fatty acids as tracers of dead and living microbial biomass, respectively, in the incubated samples. Our results show that SOC mineralization was significantly lower in the illuvial Bh/Bhs horizons (which contain more reactive mineral phases) compared to the surface E horizons (depleted in reactive mineral phases), although the content in amino sugars is similar in these horizons. In the deeper Bw and BC horizons, as well as in the young profiles (<300 yrs) that have not yet undergone podzolization and related formation of organo-mineral associations, SOC mineralization rates were the highest. These

  14. Effect of Al Content on Microstructure/Phase Distribution and Strength/Ductility in a PM Gamma Alloy (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    properties of binary gamma titanium - aluminide alloys. Over the course of the following two decades several studies ( this list is by no means all inclusive...the reduced physical size of the 3KA pancake. Tension tests were conducted at room temperature at a strain rate of 4x10-4/s. Due to uneven and...the stronger, less ductile, specimens exhibited a decreasing hardening rate with increasing strain until at least 0.5% strain had been achieved

  15. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.

    2017-04-01

    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {\\dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth ( V L) and cooling rates ( {\\dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  16. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.

    2017-02-01

    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth (V L) and cooling rates ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  17. An increase in the content of cell wall-bound phenolics correlates with the productivity of triticale under soil drought.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Hura, Katarzyna; Dziurka, Kinga; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Bączek-Kwinta, Renata; Grzesiak, Maciej

    2012-11-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the content of cell wall-bound phenolics can simultaneously influence both the productivity and the water status of triticale under soil drought conditions. Two parallel treatments were carried out. The T1 treatment involved plants being subjected to soil drought twice, during the tillering phase and then during the flowering phase. The T2 treatment included drought only during the flowering phase. After T1 treatment, the majority of cultivars exhibited better PSII functioning at the flowering phase in comparison to T2, which could be related to better adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to leaf dehydration. Simultaneously, the higher activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of flag leaves for T1 was significantly correlated with the higher content of cell wall-bound phenolics. The dry mass of plants was markedly lower in the T1 treatment and was correlated with a higher content of cell wall-bound phenolics. Moreover, cultivars subjected to the T1 treatment showed a significantly higher water content in comparison to the T2 treatment. The delay in the leaf rolling and the ageing of plants in the T1 treatment, which induced a higher level of cell wall-bound phenolics, was visual proof of the improvement in the water status of plants. Phenolic compounds that form cross-bridges with carbohydrates of the cell wall can be considered a more effective biochemical protective mechanism than free phenolics during the dehydration of leaves. This potentially higher level of effectiveness is likely the result of the double action of phenolic compounds, both as photoprotectors of the photosynthetic apparatus and hydrophobic stabilizers, preventing water loss from the apoplast.

  18. Lignosulfonic acid promotes hypertrophy in 3T3-L1 cells without increasing lipid content and increases their 2-deoxyglucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Erina; Kadota, Yukiya; Kawaminami, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of obesity and diabetes. We previously reported that lignosulfonic acid suppresses the rise in blood glucose levels through the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption. The purpose of this study is to examine further biological activities of lignosulfonic acid. Methods In this study, we examined the effect of lignosulfonic acid on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Results While lignosulfonic acid inhibited proliferation (mitotic clonal expansion) after induction of differentiation, lignosulfonic acid significantly increased the size of accumulated lipid droplets in the cells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that lignosulfonic acid increased the expression of the adipogenic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leading to increased glucose transporter 4 (Glut-4) expression and 2-deoxyglucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Additionally, feeding lignosulfonic acid to diabetic KK-Ay mice suppressed increase of blood glucose level. Conclusion Lignosulfonic acid may be useful as a functional anti-diabetic component of food. PMID:27383805

  19. Increased versican content is associated with tendinosis pathology in the patellar tendon of athletes with jumper's knee.

    PubMed

    Scott, A; Lian, Ø; Roberts, C R; Cook, J L; Handley, C J; Bahr, R; Samiric, T; Ilic, M Z; Parkinson, J; Hart, D A; Duronio, V; Khan, K M

    2008-08-01

    Expansion of the extracellular matrix is a prominent but poorly characterized feature of tendinosis. The present study aimed to characterize the extent and distribution of the large aggregating proteoglycan versican in patients with patellar tendinosis. We obtained tendon from tendinopathy patients undergoing debridement of the patellar tendon and from controls undergoing intramedullary tibial nailing. Versican content was investigated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Microvessel thickness and density were determined using computer-assisted image analysis. Markers for smooth muscle actin, endothelial cells (CD31) and proliferating cells (Ki67) were examined immunohistochemically. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining revealed elevated versican content in the proximal patellar tendon of tendinosis patients (P=0.042). Versican content was enriched in regions of fibrocartilage metaplasia and fibroblast proliferation, as well as in the perivascular matrix of proliferating microvessels and within the media and intima of arterioles. Microvessel density was higher in tendinosis tissue compared with control tissue. Versican deposition is a prominent feature of patellar tendinosis. Because this molecule is not only a component of normal fibrocartilagenous matrices but also implicated in a variety of soft tissue pathologies, future studies should further detail both pathological and adaptive roles of versican in tendons.

  20. Heat-moisture treatment of high-amylose corn starch increases dietary fiber content and lowers plasma cholesterol in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Ogawa, H; Ando, R; Nakakuki, T; Kishida, T; Ebihara, K

    2007-11-01

    The effect of dietary high-amylose corn starch (HACS) of varying dietary fiber (DF) content on plasma cholesterol was examined in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Gelatinized normal corn starch (G-CS) was used as a reference. OVX rats were fed a fiber-free purified diet containing G-CS, HACS, gelatinized high-amylose corn starch (G-HACS), or heat-moisture treated HACS (HM-HACS) at 400 g starch/kg diet for 21 d. The DF content of G-CS, HACS, G-HACS, and HM-HACS measured by the AOAC method was 0.1, 19.3, 2.4, and 64.5 g/100 g, respectively. The dry weight of cecal contents, cecal wall weight, the amount of short chain fatty acids in cecal contents, the amount of bile acids in small intestinal contents, and fecal excretion of neutral sterols increased logarithmically with increasing DF, while total plasma cholesterol concentration decreased. On the other hand, hepatic CYP7A1 activity, fecal dry weight, and fecal excretion of bile acids increased linearly with increasing DF, while body weight gain decreased. The hypocholesterolemic effect of HACS in OVX-rats appeared to be more effective by heat-moisture treatment.

  1. Increased photovoltaic performance by the optimized TiClI4 and AlCl3 surface treatment in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju Hee; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ju; Kwak, Giseop; Han, Yoon Soo

    2014-12-01

    The surface of TiO2 photoelectrodes coated on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) was modified by soaking it in a TiCl4:AlCl3 mixed aqueous solution with various molar ratios, and then calcining to produce the TiCl4:AlCl3-treated TiO2 photoelectrode (Ti:Al-TiO2/FTO). The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) was obtained from dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with Ti:Al(5:5)-TiO2/FTO, which was prepared from the mixed solution with the molar ratio of 5:5 (TiCi4:AlCl3). PCE of DSSC with Ti:Al (5:5)-TiO2/FTO was improved by ca. 19.6%, compared to that of the reference device with Ti:Al (10:0)-TiO2/FTO (i.e., TiO2-coated TiO2/FTO) due to an enhancement in both short-circuit photocurrent (J(sc)) and open-circuit voltage (V(oc)). A series of measurements such as UV-visible absorption, electrochemical impedance, open circuit voltage decay and dark current revealed that the increase in J(sc) was attributed to the improvement of electron collection efficiency by a prolonged electron lifetime, and the suppression of the charge recombination between injected electrons and I3(-) ions was found to increase the V(oc) value of the device with Ti:Al(5:5)-TiO2/FTO.

  2. Increased vitamin e content in the lung after ozone exposure: A possible mobilization in response to oxidative stress. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, N.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Mead, J.F.

    1990-11-01

    Vitamin E(vE) is a biological free radical scavenger capable of providing antioxidant protection depending upon its tissue content. In previous studies, we observed that vE increased significantly in rat lungs after oxidant exposure, and we postulated that vE may be mobilized to the lung from other body sites under oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we fed Long-Evans rats either a vE-supplemented or a vE-deficient diet, injected them intraperitoneally with carbon 14-labeled vE, and then exposed half of each group to 0.5 ppm ozone (O3) for 5 days. After exposure, we determined vE content and label retention in lungs, liver, kidney, heart, brain, plasma, and white adipose tissue. Tissue vE content of all tissues generally reflected the dietary level, but labeled vE retention in all tissues was inversely related to tissue content, possibly reflecting a saturation of existing vE receptor sites in supplemented rats. Following O3 exposure, lung vE content increased significantly in supplemented rats and decreased in deficient rats, but the decrease was not statistically significant, and vE content remained unchanged in all other tissues of both dietary groups. Retention of 14C-labeled vE increased in all tissues of O3-exposed rats of both dietary groups, except in vE-deficient adipose tissue and vE-supplemented brain, where it decreased, and plasma, where it did not change. The marked increases in lung vE content and labeled vE retention of O3-exposed vE-supplemented rats support our hypothesis that vE may be mobilized to the lung in response to oxidative stress, providing that the vitamin is sufficiently available in other body sites.

  3. Microtubule-Associated Protein SBgLR Facilitates Storage Protein Deposition and Its Expression Leads to Lysine Content Increase in Transgenic Maize Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Li, Shixue; Yue, Jing; Xiao, Wenhan; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) seed is deficient in protein and lysine content. Many studies have been made to improve the nutritional quality of maize seeds. Previously, we reported the role of a natural lysine-rich protein gene SBgLR in increasing protein and lysine content. However, how the SBgLR improves lysine and protein content remains unclear. Here, the reasons and possible mechanism for SBgLR in protein and lysine improvement have been analyzed and discussed. Through seed-specific expression of SBgLR, we obtained transgenic maize with the simultaneously increased lysine and protein contents. High-protein and high-lysine characters were stably inherited across generations. The expression of SBgLR in maize kernels increased the accumulation of both zeins and non-zein proteins. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number of protein bodies (PBs) was increased obviously in SBgLR transgenic immature endosperms with the morphology and structure of PBs unchanged. The proteinaceous matrix was more abundant in transgenic mature endosperms under scanning electron microscopy. The stabilities of zein and lysine-rich non-zein genes were also increased in transgenic endosperms. Finally, the potential application of SBgLR in maize nutrient improvement was evaluated. This study shows that a cytoskeleton-associated protein has potential applicable value in crop nutrient improving, and provided a feasible strategy for improvement of maize grain quality. PMID:26703573

  4. Integrating K-W-L Prompts into Science Journal Writing: Can Simple Question Scaffolding Increase Student Content Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Brandon Joel

    Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.

  5. Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of end-chill cast Zn-27Al alloys with different copper content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeshvaghani, R. Arabi; Ghahvechian, H.; Pirnajmeddin, H.; Shahverdi, H. R.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of Zn-27Al alloys with different copper content. In order to study the relationship between microstructure features and wear behavior, the alloys prepared by an end-chill cast apparatus and then heat treated. Heat treatment procedure involved solutionizing at temperature of 350 °C for 72 h followed by cooling within the furnace to room temperature. Microstructural characteristics of as-cast and heat-treated alloys at different distances from the chill were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disk test machine. To determine the wear mechanisms, the worn surfaces of the samples were also examined by SEM and EDS. Results showed that heat treatment led to the complete dissolution of as-cast dendritic microstructure and formation of a fine lamellar structure with well-distributed microconstituents. Moreover, addition of copper up to 1 wt% had no significant change in the microstructure, while addition of 2 and 4 wt% copper resulted in formation of ɛ (CuZn4) particle in the interdendritic regions. The influence of copper content on the wear behavior of the alloys was explained in terms of microstructural characteristics. Delamination was proposed as the dominant wear mechanism.

  6. Constitutive expression of the ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis alters metal homeostasis and increases Fe and Zn content.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhao, Yongfeng; Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yuanfeng; Zhu, Liying; Guo, Jinjie; Huang, Yaqun; Yang, Wenzhu; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2016-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients for plant growth and development. Zinc-regulated transporters and the iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) are necessary for the homeostatic regulation of these metal micronutrients. In this study, the physiological function of ZmZIP7 which encodes a ZIP family transporter was characterized. We detected the expression profiles of ZmZIP7 in maize, and found that the accumulation of ZmZIP7 in root, stem, leaf, and seed was relatively higher than tassel and young ear. ZmZIP7 overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated and the metal contents in transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants were examined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Zinpyr-1 staining. Fe and Zn concentrations were elevated in the roots and shoots of ZmZIP7-overexpressing plants, while only Fe content was elevated in the seeds. We also analyzed the expression profiles of endogenous genes associated with metal homeostasis. Both endogenic Fe-deficiency inducible genes and the genes responsible for Zn and Fe transport and storage were stimulated in ZmZIP7 transgenic plants. In conclusion, ZmZIP7 encodes a functional Zn and Fe transporter, and ectopic overexpression of ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis stimulate endogenous Fe and Zn uptake mechanisms, thereby facilitating both metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results contribute to improved understanding of ZIP family transporter functions and suggest that ZmZIP7 could be used to enhance Fe levels in grains.

  7. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  8. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potentially malignant disorders like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) often precede oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), and the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Even though many studies estimated and confirmed increased copper levels in areca nuts, studies tracing the source of the increased copper content are scarce. Interestingly, on review of agricultural literature, it was found that most of the areca nut plantations in South India commonly use a copper-based fungicide, bordeaux mixture (BM). Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content in areca nuts from plantations with and without copper-based fungicide usage. Materials and Methods: Four areca nut plantations from Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka (group A) and four plantations from Ernakulam district, Kerala (group B) were selected for the study. The plantations from Karnataka used copper-based fungicide regularly, whereas the latter were devoid of it. Areca nut samples of three different maturities (unripe, ripe, and exfoliated) obtained from all plantations were dehusked, ground, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the copper content of areca nuts from both groups. The areca nuts from plantations treated with copper-based fungicide showed significantly higher copper levels in all maturity levels compared to their counterparts in the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The high copper content in areca nut may be related to the copper-based fungicide treatment on the palms. These areca nuts with high copper content used in quid or commercial products may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of OSMF. PMID:26312227

  9. Increased myocardial short-range forces in a rodent model of diabetes reflect elevated content of β myosin heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Chung, Charles S; Mitov, Mihail I; Callahan, Leigh Ann; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2014-06-15

    Diastolic dysfunction is a clinically significant problem for patients with diabetes and often reflects increased ventricular stiffness. Attached cross-bridges contribute to myocardial stiffness and produce short-range forces, but it is not yet known whether these forces are altered in diabetes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cross-bridge-based short-range forces are increased in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced rat model of type 1 diabetes. Chemically permeabilized myocardial preparations were obtained from 12week old rats that had been injected with STZ or vehicle 4weeks earlier, and activated in solutions with pCa (=-log10[Ca(2+)]) values ranging from 9.0 to 4.5. The short-range forces elicited by controlled length changes were ∼67% greater in the samples from the diabetic rats than in the control preparations. This change was mostly due to an increased elastic limit (the length change at the peak short-range force) as opposed to increased passive muscle stiffness. The STZ-induced increase in short-ranges forces is thus unlikely to reflect changes to titin and/or collagen filaments. Gel electrophoresis showed that STZ increased the relative expression of β myosin heavy chain. This molecular mechanism can explain the increased short-ranges forces observed in the diabetic tissue if β myosin molecules remain bound between the filaments for longer durations than α molecules during imposed movements. These results suggest that interventions that decrease myosin attachment times may be useful treatments for diastolic dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  10. Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in Maize Impedes the Incorporation of Tricin into Lignin and Increases Lignin Content1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is a phenolic heteropolymer that is deposited in secondary-thickened cell walls, where it provides mechanical strength. A recent structural characterization of cell walls from monocot species showed that the flavone tricin is part of the native lignin polymer, where it is hypothesized to initiate lignin chains. In this study, we investigated the consequences of altered tricin levels on lignin structure and cell wall recalcitrance by phenolic profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance, and saccharification assays of the naturally silenced maize (Zea mays) C2-Idf (inhibitor diffuse) mutant, defective in the CHALCONE SYNTHASE Colorless2 (C2) gene. We show that the C2-Idf mutant produces highly reduced levels of apigenin- and tricin-related flavonoids, resulting in a strongly reduced incorporation of tricin into the lignin polymer. Moreover, the lignin was enriched in β-β and β-5 units, lending support to the contention that tricin acts to initiate lignin chains and that, in the absence of tricin, more monolignol dimerization reactions occur. In addition, the C2-Idf mutation resulted in strikingly higher Klason lignin levels in the leaves. As a consequence, the leaves of C2-Idf mutants had significantly reduced saccharification efficiencies compared with those of control plants. These findings are instructive for lignin engineering strategies to improve biomass processing and biochemical production. PMID:27940492

  11. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  12. Modulation of gut microbiota and increase in fecal water content in mice induced by administration of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DN1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-02-22

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10(8) cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed. The LKF_DN1 group exhibited higher total fecal weight and fecal weight per stool sample than the control group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the fecal water content was significantly higher in the fecal samples of the LKF_DN1 group than in those of the control group (p < 0.05). The numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella were significantly higher in the LKF_DN1 group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of opportunistic pathogens, including Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and the percentage of genus Clostridium among the total bacteria were significantly reduced in the LKF_DN1 group (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that regular L. kefiranofaciens DN1 administration could alleviate constipation and improve gut microbiota.

  13. Increasing the K-shell yield of line radiation in Z-pinch implosions using alloyed Al/Mg wire-arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Delong; Ding Ning; Xue Chuang; Huang Jun; Zhang Yang; Ning Cheng; Sun Shunkai

    2013-01-15

    The variation of the K-shell yield of pure aluminum wire-array Z-pinch implosions with load parameters is discussed. The mechanism and the efficiency of increasing the K-shell yield using alloyed Al/Mg wire-arrays are numerically investigated. It has been shown that the maximum K-shell yield from a pure aluminum wire-array Z-pinch implosion can be obtained at an optimal load mass for a given generator and at a fixed initial wire-array radius. This optimal load mass is determined by the load energy coupling with the generator, the capability of Z-pinch plasmas to emit the K-shell radiation, and the self absorption of K-shell lines. For different generators, the optimal load mass increases as the drive current increases, and the line absorption limits the further increase of K-shell radiation. The coupled energy per ion is likely decreasing with increased mass, so the plasma might not be able to ionize into the K-shell. Also, the ability of the plasma to radiatively cool can increase with mass, thus, making it difficult for the plasma to ionize into and remain in the K-shell during the stagnation phase of the implosion. Alloyed Al/Mg wire-arrays were thus suggested to be used to decrease the opacity of K-shell lines and to increase the overall K-shell yield. In this paper, we show that using alloyed Al/Mg wire-arrays will decrease the opacity and increase the K-shell yield remarkably if the plasma is optically thick. We will also show that the efficiency of increasing the K-shell yield with alloyed Al/Mg wire-arrays cannot increase indefinitely. The ratio of K-shell yield from an alloyed Al/Mg wire-array to that from a pure aluminum wire-array reaches a limit. For example, we show that when the mass share of magnesium is 10% then this limit is 1.2, and for a 50% mass share, the limit is 1.3.

  14. Enhancement of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes by using AlGaN increased composition-graded barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Zhiqiang, Liu; Miao, He; Xiaoyan, Yi; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li; Shuwen, Zheng; Shuti, Li

    2015-05-01

    The characteristics of nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN composition-graded barriers are analyzed numerically. The carrier concentrations in the quantum wells (QWs), the energy band diagrams, the electrostatic fields, and the light output power are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the LED with AlGaN composition-graded barriers has a better performance than its AlGaN/InGaN counterpart owing to the increase of hole injection and the enhancement of electron confinement. The simulation results also suggest that the output power is enhanced significantly and the efficiency droop is markedly improved when the AlGaN barriers are replaced by AlGaN composition-graded barriers. Project supported by the National High Technology Program of China (Nos. 2011AA03A105, 2013AA03A101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306051, 61306050, 11474105), the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Project (No. D12110300140000), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB301902), the Industry-Academia-Research Union Special Fund of Guangdong Province of China (No. 2012B091000169), the Science & Technology Innovation Platform of Industry-Academia-Research Union of Guangdong Province-Ministry Cooperation Special Fund of China (No. 2012B090600038), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20134407110008), and the Science research innovation foundation of South China Normal University of China (No. 2013kyjj041).

  15. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, M; Jessen, S; Onslev, J; Clausen, T; Porsbjerg, C

    2016-04-07

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K(+) . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 nM with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline. The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na(+) ,K(+) ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline.

  16. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  17. Mildronate, an inhibitor of carnitine biosynthesis, induces an increase in gamma-butyrobetaine contents and cardioprotection in isolated rat heart infarction.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Vilskersts, Reinis; Loca, Dagnija; Kirjanova, Olga; Pugovichs, Osvalds; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2006-12-01

    The inhibition of gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of carnitine, contributes to lay ground for the cardioprotective mechanism of action of mildronate. By inhibiting the biosynthesis of carnitine, mildronate is supposed to induce the accumulation of GBB, a substrate of GBB hydroxylase. This study describes the changes in content of carnitine and GBB in rat plasma and heart tissues during long-term (28 days) treatment of mildronate [i.p. (intraperitoneal) 100 mg/kg/daily]. Obtained data show that in concert with a decrease in carnitine concentration, the administration of mildronate caused a significant increase in GBB concentration. We detected about a 5-fold increase in GBB contents in the plasma and brain and a 7-fold increase in the heart. In addition, we tested the cardioprotective effect of mildronate in isolated rat heart infarction model after 3, 7, and 14 days of administration. We found a statistically significant decrease in necrotic area of infarcted rat hearts after 14 days of treatment with mildronate. The cardioprotective effect of mildronate correlated with an increase in GBB contents. In conclusion, our study, for the first time, provides experimental evidence that the long-term administration of mildronate not only decreases free carnitine concentration, but also causes a significant increase in GBB concentration, which correlates with the cardioprotection of mildronate.

  18. The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.

  19. Increased Lysine Content Is the Main Characteristic of the Soluble Form of the Polyamide Cyanophycin Synthesized by Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Frommeyer, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Cyanophycin, a polyamide of cyanobacterial or noncyanobacterial origin consisting of aspartate, arginine, and lysine, was synthesized in different recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing cphA from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 or PCC 6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, or Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. The molar aspartate/arginine/lysine ratio of the water-soluble form isolated from a recombinant strain expressing CphA6308 was 1:0.5:0.5, with a lysine content higher than any ever described before. The water-insoluble form consisted instead of mainly aspartate and arginine residues and had a lower proportion of lysine, amounting to a maximum of only 5 mol%. It could be confirmed that the synthesis of soluble cyanobacterial granule polypeptide (CGP) is independent of the origin of cphA. Soluble CGP isolated from all recombinant strains contained a least 17 mol% lysine. The total CGP portion of cell dry matter synthesized by CphA6308 from recombinant E. coli was about 30% (wt/wt), including 23% (wt/wt) soluble CGP, by using terrific broth complex medium for cultivation at 30°C for 72 h. Enhanced production of soluble CGP instead of its insoluble form is interesting for further application and makes recombinant E. coli more attractive as a suitable source for the production of polyaspartic acid or dipeptides. In addition, a new low-cost, time-saving, effective, and common isolation procedure for mainly soluble CGP, suitable for large-scale application, was established in this study. PMID:23686266

  20. LOXL as a target to increase the elastin content in adult skin: a dill extract induces the LOXL gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cenizo, Valérie; André, Valérie; Reymermier, Corinne; Sommer, Pascal; Damour, Odile; Perrier, Eric

    2006-08-01

    The lysyl oxidases lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) are responsible for elastin cross-linking. It was shown recently that LOXL is essential for the elastic fibres homeostasis and for their maintenance at adult age. We first determined whether or not elastin, LOX and LOXL are less expressed during adulthood. The LOX and LOXL mRNA level, quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction decreased in adult skin fibroblasts compared with fibroblasts from children. In contrast, the elastin mRNA level remains stable at all ages. The goal of this study was to induce elastogenesis at the adult age. Therefore, both enzymes, and in particular LOXL, of which expression is the most affected by age, could be targeted to induce elastogenesis in adult skin. We screened a library of about 1000 active ingredients to find activators capable to stimulate specifically the LOXL gene expression in adult dermal fibroblasts. The positive effect of selected active ingredients was confirmed on fibroblasts grown on monolayers and on dermal and skin equivalent cultures. One extract, obtained from dill (LYS'LASTINE V, Engelhard, Lyon, France), stimulates the LOXL gene expression in dermal equivalents (+64% increase in the LOXL mRNA level when compared with control). At the same time, the elastin detection is increased in dermal equivalents and under the dermal-epidermal junction of skin equivalents, without increase of the elastin mRNA. In conclusion, LOXL can be considered as a new target to reinduce elastogenesis. Its stimulation by a dill extract is correlated with increased elastin detection, suggesting an increase in elastogenesis efficiency.

  1. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  2. Biomass and content of ginsenosides and polyacetylenes in American ginseng roots can be increased without affecting the profile of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lars P; Jensen, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Fifty selected roots from a 7-year-old American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) plant population grown in Denmark, with root weights varying from 191 to 490 g fresh weight (FW), were investigated for bioactive ginsenosides and polyacetylenes (PAs) in order to determine the correlation between the content of ginsenosides and PAs and root FW. PAs (falcarinol, panaxydol) and ginsenosides (Rb(1), Rb(2), Rb(3), Rc, Rd, Re, Rg(1)) were extracted from roots by sequential extraction with ethyl acetate and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified in extracts by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using photodiode array detection. Total concentrations of PAs and ginsenosides varied between 150 and 780 mg/kg FW and 5,920 and 15,660 mg/kg FW, respectively. No correlation existed between the content of ginsenosides and PAs and root FW or between the total concentration of ginsenosides and PAs. Strong significant correlation was found between total content of ginsenosides and ginsenoside Rb(1) (r = 0.8190, P < 0.0001) and between total content of PAs and falcarinol (r = 0.9904, P < 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that it is possible to select large American ginseng roots for increased biomass production and concentration of bioactive ginsenosides and PAs without affecting the profile of bioactive compounds. Ginsenoside Rb(1) and falcarinol were found to be important selection parameters for identifying superior genotypes with the highest content of bioactive compounds.

  3. Prolonged exposure to insulin induces mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress through increasing mitochondrial cholesterol content in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Shuang; Gu, Haihua; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Huailan; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2012-05-01

    We addressed the link between excessive exposure to insulin and mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress in this study and found that prolonged exposure to insulin increased mitochondrial cholesterol in cultured hepatocytes and in mice and stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the reduced glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio in cultured hepatocytes. Exposure of isolated hepatic mitochondria to cholesterol alone promoted ROS emission. The oxidative stress induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin was prevented by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin. We further found that prolonged exposure to insulin decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the increased ROS production came from mitochondrial respiration complex I. Finally, we observed that prolonged exposure to insulin decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity in a cholesterol synthesis-dependent manner. Together our results demonstrate that excess exposure to insulin causes mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress through cholesterol synthesis in hepatocytes.

  4. Effects of increasing concentrations of sodium sulfite on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol sulfonate concentrations of maize kernels and maize meal preserved at various moisture content.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-03-09

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction.

  5. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  6. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    PubMed

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.

  7. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  8. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel.

  9. Increased levels of calprotectin in obesity are related to macrophage content: impact on inflammation and effect of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin has been recently described as a novel marker of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the circulating concentrations and expression levels of calprotectin subunits (S100A8 and S100A9) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), exploring its impact on insulin resistance and inflammation and the effect of weight loss. We included 53 subjects in the study. Gene expression levels of the S100A8/A9 complex were analyzed in VAT as well as in both adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFCs). In addition, circulating calprotectin and soluble receptor for the advanced glycation end product (sRAGE) concentrations were measured before and after weight loss achieved by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 26). Circulating concentrations and VAT expression of S100A8/A9 complex were increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (P < 0.01) and associated with markers of inflammation (P < 0.01). Oppositely, concentrations of sRAGE were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in both obese groups compared to lean volunteers. Elevated calprotectin levels in obese patients decreased (P < 0.00001) after RYGB, whereas sRAGE concentrations tended to increase. Calprotectin was mainly expressed by SVFCs, and its expression was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with mRNA levels of the monocyte-macrophage-related molecules macrophage-specific antigen CD68 (CD68), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), integrin α-M (CD11B), and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2). Tumor necrosis factor-α treatment significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) of human visceral adipocytes. The increased levels of calprotectin in obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes, its positive association with inflammation as well as the higher expression levels in the SVFCs in VAT suggests a potential role of this protein as a chemotactic factor in the recruitment of macrophages to VAT, increasing inflammation and the development of obesity

  10. N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate promotes oxidative stress prior to myelin structural changes and increases myelin copper content

    SciTech Connect

    Viquez, Olga M.; Lai, Barry; Ahn, Jae Hee; Does, Mark D.; Valentine, Holly L.; Valentine, William M.

    2009-08-15

    Dithiocarbamates are a commercially important class of compounds that can produce peripheral neuropathy in humans and experimental animals. Previous studies have supported a requirement for copper accumulation and enhanced lipid peroxidation in dithiocarbamate-mediated myelinopathy. The study presented here extends previous investigations in two areas. Firstly, although total copper levels have been shown to increase within the nerve it has not been determined whether copper is increased within the myelin compartment, the primary site of lesion development. Therefore, the distribution of copper in sciatic nerve was characterized using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine whether the neurotoxic dithiocarbamate, N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, increases copper levels in myelin. Secondly, because lipid peroxidation is an ongoing process in normal nerve and the levels of lipid peroxidation products produced by dithiocarbamate exposure demonstrated an unusual cumulative dose response in previous studies the biological impact of dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation was evaluated. Experiments were performed to determine whether dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation products elicit an antioxidant response through measuring the protein expression levels of three enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1, heme oxygenase 1, and glutathione transferase {alpha}, that are linked to the antioxidant response element promoter. To establish the potential of oxidative injury to contribute to myelin injury the temporal relationship of the antioxidant response to myelin injury was determined. Myelin structure in peripheral nerve was assessed using multi-exponential transverse relaxation measurements (MET{sub 2}) as a function of exposure duration, and the temporal relationship of protein expression changes relative to the onset of changes in myelin integrity were determined. Initial assessments were also performed to explore the potential contribution of

  11. N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate promotes oxidative stress prior to myelin structural changes and increases myelin copper content.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Olga M; Lai, Barry; Ahn, Jae Hee; Does, Mark D; Valentine, Holly L; Valentine, William M

    2009-08-15

    Dithiocarbamates are a commercially important class of compounds that can produce peripheral neuropathy in humans and experimental animals. Previous studies have supported a requirement for copper accumulation and enhanced lipid peroxidation in dithiocarbamate-mediated myelinopathy. The study presented here extends previous investigations in two areas. Firstly, although total copper levels have been shown to increase within the nerve it has not been determined whether copper is increased within the myelin compartment, the primary site of lesion development. Therefore, the distribution of copper in sciatic nerve was characterized using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy to determine whether the neurotoxic dithiocarbamate, N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, increases copper levels in myelin. Secondly, because lipid peroxidation is an ongoing process in normal nerve and the levels of lipid peroxidation products produced by dithiocarbamate exposure demonstrated an unusual cumulative dose response in previous studies the biological impact of dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation was evaluated. Experiments were performed to determine whether dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid peroxidation products elicit an antioxidant response through measuring the protein expression levels of three enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1, heme oxygenase 1, and glutathione transferase alpha, that are linked to the antioxidant response element promoter. To establish the potential of oxidative injury to contribute to myelin injury the temporal relationship of the antioxidant response to myelin injury was determined. Myelin structure in peripheral nerve was assessed using multi-exponential transverse relaxation measurements (MET(2)) as a function of exposure duration, and the temporal relationship of protein expression changes relative to the onset of changes in myelin integrity were determined. Initial assessments were also performed to explore the potential contribution of dithiocarbamate

  12. High folic acid increases cell turnover and lowers differentiation and iron content in human HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Linette; Dommels, Yvonne; Venema, Dini; Polanen, Ab van; Lips, Esther; Baykus, Hakan; Kok, Frans; Kampman, Ellen; Keijer, Jaap

    2008-04-01

    Folate, a water-soluble B vitamin, is a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism and is essential for DNA synthesis, amino acid interconversion, methylation and, consequently, normal cell growth. In animals with existing pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, folic acid supplementation increases the tumour burden. To identify processes that are affected by increased folic acid levels, we compared HT29 human colon cancer cells exposed to a chronic supplemental (100 ng/ml) level of folic acid to cells exposed to a normal (10 ng/ml) level of folic acid, in the presence of vitamin B12 and other micronutrients involved in the folate-methionine cycle. In addition to higher intracellular folate levels, HT29 cells at 100 ng folic acid/ml displayed faster growth and higher metabolic activity. cDNA microarray analysis indicated an effect on cell turnover and Fe metabolism. We fully confirmed these effects at the physiological level. At 100 ng/ml, cell assays showed higher proliferation and apoptosis, while gene expression analysis and a lower E-cadherin protein expression indicated decreased differentiation. These results are in agreement with the promoting effect of folic acid supplementation on established colorectal neoplasms. The lower expression of genes related to Fe metabolism at 100 ng folic acid/ml was confirmed by lower intracellular Fe levels in the cells exposed to folic acid at 100 ng/ml. This suggests an effect of folate on Fe metabolism.

  13. Why people continue to play online games: in search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongseong; Kim, Jinwoo

    2004-02-01

    As people increasingly play online games, numerous new features have been proposed to increase players' log-on time at online gaming sites. However, few studies have investigated why people continue to play certain online games or which design features are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. This study proposes a theoretical model using the concepts of customer loyalty, flow, personal interaction, and social interaction to explain why people continue to play online network games. The study then conducts a large-scale survey to validate the model. Finally, it analyzes current online games to identify design features that are closely related to the theoretical concepts. The results indicate that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. This optimal experience can be attained if the player has effective personal interaction with the system or pleasant social interactions with other people connected to the Internet. Personal interaction can be facilitated by providing appropriate goals, operators and feedback; social interaction can be facilitated through appropriate communication places and tools. This paper ends with the implications of applying the study results to other domains such as e-commerce and cyber communities.

  14. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis.

  15. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  16. Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al-Si-Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John; Lee, Peter D.

    2010-03-01

    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions.

  17. Effect of Some Substituents Increasing the Solubility of Zn(II) and Al(III) Phthalocyanines on Their Photophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chernonosov, A. A.; Ermilov, E. A.; Röder, B.; Solovyova, L. I.; Fedorova, O. S.

    2014-01-01

    Water solubility of phthalocyanines (Pcs) usually increases by the introduction of charged or carboxy substituents in the peripheral positions of the macrocycle. As a result, such structural changes influence their photophysical and photochemical properties as photosensitizers. Phthalocyanines substituted with four or eight terminal carboxyl groups and having in some cases additional eight positive charges (water soluble phthalocyanines) were studied in order to evaluate the spectroscopic and photophysical effects of these side residues on the chromophore properties. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen (1O2) generation, the triplet-triplet absorption, and the transient absorption spectra were measured and linked to the structure of the substituents. It was shown that charged substituents did not change the quantum yields of 1O2 generation but decrease its lifetimes. The introduction of the charged substituents not only increases the water solubility but also significantly changes absorption, fluorescence, and transient absorption spectra of water soluble Pcs. PMID:25302061

  18. Whole-plant growth and N utilization in transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content under different CO2 partial pressures.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Emi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2014-11-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) strongly limits photosynthesis at lower CO2 concentration [CO2] whereas [corrected] Rubisco limitation is cancelled by elevated [CO2]. Therefore, increase or reduction in Rubisco content by transformation with a sense or an antisense RBCS construct are expected to alter the biomass production under different CO2 levels. RBCS-sense (125% Rubisco of wild-type) and -antisense (35% Rubisco of wild-type) rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were grown for 63 days at three different CO2 levels: low [CO2] (28 Pa), normal [CO2] (40 Pa) and elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). The biomass of RBCS-sense plants was 32% and 15% greater at low [CO2] and normal [CO2] than that of the wild-type plants, respectively, but did not differ at elevated [CO2]. Conversely, the biomass of RBCS-antisense plants was the smallest at low [CO2]. Thus, overproduction of Rubisco was effective for biomass production at low [CO2]. Greater biomass production at low [CO2] in RBCS-sense plants was caused by an increase in the net assimilation rate, and associated with an increase in the amount of N uptake. Furthermore, Rubisco overproduction in RBCS-sense plants was also promoted at low [CO2]. Although it seems that low [CO2]-growth additionally stimulates the effect of RBCS overexpression, such a phenomenon observed at low [CO2] was mediated through an increase in total leaf N content. Thus, the dependence of the growth improvement in RBCS-sense rice on growth [CO2] was closely related to the degree of Rubisco overproduction which was accompanied not only by leaf N content but also by whole plant N content.

  19. Seed-Specific Expression of the Arabidopsis AtMAP18 Gene Increases both Lysine and Total Protein Content in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yujie; Shen, Erli; Wen, Liuying; Yu, Jingjuan; Zhu, Dengyun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid for animal nutrition in maize grains. Expression of naturally lysine-rich protein genes can increase the lysine and protein contents in maize seeds. AtMAP18 from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a microtubule-associated protein with high-lysine content was introduced into the maize genome with the seed-specific promoter F128. The protein and lysine contents of different transgenic offspring were increased prominently in the six continuous generations investigated. Expression of AtMAP18 increased both zein and non-zein protein in the transgenic endosperm. Compared with the wild type, more protein bodies were observed in the endosperm of transgenic maize. These results implied that, as a cytoskeleton binding protein, AtMAP18 facilitated the formation of protein bodies, which led to accumulation of both zein and non-zein proteins in the transgenic maize grains. Furthermore, F1 hybrid lines with high lysine, high protein and excellent agronomic traits were obtained by hybridizing T6 transgenic offspring with other wild type inbred lines. This article provides evidence supporting the use of cytoskeleton-associated proteins to improve the nutritional value of maize. PMID:26580206

  20. Removal of Chromophore-Proximal Polar Atoms Decreases Water Content and Increases Fluorescence in a Near Infrared Phytofluor.

    PubMed

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Bhattacharya, Shyamosree; Angenent-Mari, Nicolaas M; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Forest, Katrina T

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded fluorescent markers have revolutionized cell and molecular biology due to their biological compatibility, controllable spatiotemporal expression, and photostability. To achieve in vivo imaging in whole animals, longer excitation wavelength probes are needed due to the superior ability of near infrared light to penetrate tissues unimpeded by absorbance from biomolecules or autofluorescence of water. Derived from near infrared-absorbing bacteriophytochromes, phytofluors are engineered to fluoresce in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, although high quantum yield remains an elusive goal. An invariant aspartate residue is of utmost importance for photoconversion in native phytochromes, presumably due to the proximity of its backbone carbonyl to the pyrrole ring nitrogens of the biliverdin (BV) chromophore as well as the size and charge of the side chain. We hypothesized that the polar interaction network formed by the charged side chain may contribute to the decay of the excited state via proton transfer. Thus, we chose to further probe the role of this amino acid by removing all possibility for polar interactions with its carboxylate side chain by incorporating leucine instead. The resultant fluorescent protein, WiPhy2, maintains BV binding, monomeric status, and long maximum excitation wavelength while minimizing undesirable protoporphyrin IXα binding in cells. A crystal structure and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that water near the BV chromophore is excluded and thus validate our hypothesis that removal of polar interactions leads to enhanced fluorescence by increasing the lifetime of the excited state. This new phytofluor maintains its fluorescent properties over a broad pH range and does not suffer from photobleaching. WiPhy2 achieves the best compromise to date between high fluorescence quantum yield and long illumination wavelength in this class of fluorescent proteins.

  1. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  2. Application of glucosylceramide-based liposomes increased the ceramide content in a three-dimensional cultured skin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Y; Endo, M; Hashimoto, F

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum and is one of the most important components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a ceramide precursor, was applied to three-dimensional skin culture to regulate ceramide. GlcCer/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) = 4/4 (molar ratio and GlcCer/DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) = 4/4/1(molar ratio) liposomes were prepared by the thin-layer method. The particle diameters of GlcCer/DMPC and GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were 124.0 ± 0.6 and 119.3 ± 18.9 nm, and the zeta potentials were 1.3 ± 0.3 and -19.9 ± 0.3 mV, respectively. Stability of these GlcCer liposomes was measured by transmission light scattering. Transmission light scattering of neutrally charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC) liposomes increased in a time dependent manner. In contrast, negatively charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG) liposomes were not changed. β-Glucocerebrosidase activity was measured in a cultured human skin model. Results confirmed that the cultured human skin model has β-glucocerebrosidase activity. GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were applied to the three-dimensional cultured human skin model, and ceramide NS, NP, AS, and AP were extracted from it. The various extracted ceramides were separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and quantified by a densitometer. The amount of ceramide AS only in the cultured skin model was significantly higher with the application of GlcCer-based liposomes than that of the nonapplication group, and was also dose dependent. Thus, GlcCer-based liposomes are useful for enriching the ceramide AS levels in a three-dimensional cultured skin model.

  3. Is it possible to increase n-3 fatty acid content of meat without affecting its technological and/or sensory quality and the growing performance of chickens?

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the content of n-3 fatty acids (FA) of meat without affecting its sensory and/or technological properties or the growth performance of chickens reared under standard conditions. Male chickens, Ross 308, were distributed into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets for the growing and finishing periods: control (T), containing extruded linseeds exhibiting high concentration of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseeds exhibiting low concentration of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or an association of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). The diet containing microalgae induced a decrease in feed consumption without affecting growth rate. Chickens exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio than the other groups for the growing and finishing periods but also the whole rearing period. The use of linseeds in diets had no effect on the growth performance of chickens in comparison to the control group. The dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had few effects on carcass composition or the ultimate pH and colour of breast meat. The microalgae increased the meat susceptibility to oxidation. The lipid content of breast meat was not affected by the diets. The breast meat of chickens fed on diets containing linseeds and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (2.4 to 3.9 times higher than group T). The linseeds and microalgae mainly increased the contents in linolenic acid and long chain n-3 FA, respectively. Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensory quality of fillets whereas the thighs of the MA group exhibited the lowest score for the flavour "chicken" and the greatest score for the flavour "abnormal" corresponding to a fish flavour.

  4. Aluminium Uptake and Translocation in Al Hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius Is Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Content and Soil pH

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. Methods We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Results Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of “oxalate plants.” The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. Conclusions In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids. PMID:25880431

  5. Increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase index and triglyceride content in the liver of rats after a single bout of swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is closely related to improved insulin resistance. We investigated whether the SCD indices in tissues were influenced by a single-endurance exercise and low content of dietary medium-chain fatty acid (FA). Wistar rats were fed a long-chain (S) or medium- and long-chain FA (M) diet for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were further assigned to two sub-groups (sedentary, Sed; exercise, Ex). These groups were defined as S-Sed, S-Ex, M-Sed, and M-Ex. The rats in the exercise groups were subjected to swimming exercise for 4 h, and tissue samples were obtained. The exercise significantly increased the triglyceride (TG) content and SCD index only in the liver. In contrast, no such changes were apparent by intake of the M diet. A single bout of endurance exercise increased the hepatic TG content and SCD index which might be effective in protecting against insulin resistance.

  6. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  7. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activator tirasemtiv increases muscle function and performance in the B6SJL-SOD1G93A ALS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hwee, Darren T; Kennedy, Adam; Ryans, Julie; Russell, Alan J; Jia, Zhiheng; Hinken, Aaron C; Morgans, David J; Malik, Fady I; Jasper, Jeffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss resulting in muscle atrophy, declining muscle function, and eventual paralysis. Patients typically die from respiratory failure 3 to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. Tirasemtiv is a fast skeletal troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium; this mechanism of action amplifies the response of muscle to neuromuscular input producing greater force when nerve input is reduced. Here, we demonstrate that a single dose of tirasemtiv significantly increases submaximal isometric force, forelimb grip strength, grid hang time, and rotarod performance in a female transgenic mouse model (B6SJL-SOD1 G93A) of ALS with functional deficits. Additionally, diaphragm force and tidal volume are significantly higher in tirasemtiv-treated female B6SJL-SOD1 G93A mice. These results support the potential of fast skeletal troponin activators to improve muscle function in neuromuscular diseases.

  8. Fast Skeletal Muscle Troponin Activator tirasemtiv Increases Muscle Function and Performance in the B6SJL-SOD1G93A ALS Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ryans, Julie; Russell, Alan J.; Jia, Zhiheng; Hinken, Aaron C.; Morgans, David J.; Malik, Fady I.; Jasper, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss resulting in muscle atrophy, declining muscle function, and eventual paralysis. Patients typically die from respiratory failure 3 to 5 years from the onset of symptoms. Tirasemtiv is a fast skeletal troponin activator that sensitizes the sarcomere to calcium; this mechanism of action amplifies the response of muscle to neuromuscular input producing greater force when nerve input is reduced. Here, we demonstrate that a single dose of tirasemtiv significantly increases submaximal isometric force, forelimb grip strength, grid hang time, and rotarod performance in a female transgenic mouse model (B6SJL-SOD1G93A) of ALS with functional deficits. Additionally, diaphragm force and tidal volume are significantly higher in tirasemtiv-treated female B6SJL-SOD1G93A mice. These results support the potential of fast skeletal troponin activators to improve muscle function in neuromuscular diseases. PMID:24805850

  9. Increased anxiety-like behavior and selective learning impairments are concomitant to loss of hippocampal interneurons in the presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Eros; Bravi, Riccardo; Scambi, Ilaria; Mariotti, Raffaella; Minciacchi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by motor neuron death, causes damages beyond motor-related areas. In particular, cognitive impairments and hippocampal damage have been reported in ALS patients. We investigated spatial navigation learning and hippocampal interneurons in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse (mSOD1) model of ALS. Behavioral tests were performed by using presymptomatic mSOD1 mice. General motor activity was comparable to that of wild-type mice in the open-field test, in which, however mSOD1 exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. In the Barnes maze test, mSOD1 mice displayed a delay in learning, outperformed wild-type mice during the first probe trial, and exhibited impaired long-term memory. Stereological counts of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which are crucial for hippocampal physiology and known to be altered in other central nervous system regions of mSOD1 mice, were also performed. At postnatal day (P) 56, the population of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in mSOD1 mice was already reduced in CA1 and in CA3, and at P90 the reduction extended to the dentate gyrus. Loss of parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons occurred mostly during the presymptomatic stage. Western blot analysis showed that hippocampal parvalbumin expression levels were already reduced in mSOD1 mice at P56. The hippocampal alterations in mSOD1 mice could at least partly account for the increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in spatial navigation learning. Our study provides evidence for cognitive alterations and damage to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the hippocampus of murine ALS, thereby revealing selective deficits antecedent to the onset of motor symptoms.

  10. Increasing Lysine Content of Waxy Maize through Introgression of Opaque-2 and Opaque-16 Genes Using Molecular Assisted and Biochemical Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenlong; Yang, Wenpeng; Wang, Mingchun; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Guiping; Chen, Zhiwei; Cai, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    The low lysine content of waxy maize cannot meet the nutritional requirements of humans, livestock, or poultry. In the present study, the high-lysine genes o2 and o16 were backcrossed into wx lines using the maize high-lysine inbreds TAIXI19 (o2o2) and QCL3021 (o16o16) as donors and the waxy maize inbred line QCL5019 (wxwx) as a receptor. In the triple-cross F1, backcross, and inbred generations, the SSR markers phi027 and phi112 within the wx and o2 genes and the SSR marker umc1121 linked to the o16 gene were used for foreground selection. Background selection of the whole-genome SSR markers was performed for the selected individuals. The grain lysine content was determined using the dye-binding lysine method. The waxiness of the grain was determined with the I2-KI staining and dual-wavelength spectrophotometric analysis. The BC2F2 generation included 7 plants of genotype wxwxo2o2O16_, 19 plants of genotype wxwxo16o16O2_, and 3 plants of genotype wxwxo2o2o16o16. In these seeds, the average amylopectin content was 96.67%, 96.87%, and 96.62%, respectively, which is similar to that of QCL5019. The average lysine content was 0.555%, 0.380%, and 0.616%, respectively, representing increases of 75.1%, 19.9%, 94.3%, respectively, over QCL5019. The average genetic background recovery rate of the BC2F3 families was 95.3%, 94.3%, 94.2%, respectively. Among these 3 wxwxo2o2O16O16 families, 4 wxwxo2o2O16o16 families, and 3 wxwxo2o2o16o16 families, the longest imported parent donor fragment was 113.35 cM and the shortest fragment was 11.75 cM. No significant differences in lysine content were found between the BC2F4 seeds and the BC2F3 seeds in these 10 families. This allowed us to increase the lysine content of waxy corn and produce seeds with excellent nutritional characteristics suitable for human consumption, animal feed, and food processing. This may be of significance in the breeding of high-quality corn and in improvement of the nutrition of humans, livestock, and

  11. Antioxidant supplementation enhances the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA content in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens J; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bruhn, Maria; Silveira, Leonardo; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2007-08-01

    The effects of acute exercise on the mRNA content of selected genes were examined during control conditions and after oral intake of antioxidants. In addition, to provide evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human skeletal muscle during exercise, cytochrome c reduction was measured in microdialysate from the muscle. For the study on the effects of antioxidants on mRNA content, seven healthy, habitually active, male subjects participated in a double-blinded experimental design in which they, on one occasion, received a placebo and, on another, a mixture of antioxidants containing 1500 mg vitamin C, 120 mg coenzyme Q, and 345 mg alpha-tocopherol every day for 7 days before the experiment. On the experimental day the subjects cycled for 90 min and muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and at 1, 3, and 5 h after exercise. Exercise induced an increase in the eNOS, UCP3, PGC-1alpha, VEGF, Hsp72, and HO-1 mRNA content (p < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the Hsc70 mRNA level. Prior antioxidant treatment further enhanced (p < 0.05) the eNOS and UCP3 mRNA content after exercise. Moreover, the overall level of Hsc70 mRNA tended (p = 0.07) to be higher after antioxidant treatment. In another group of healthy male subjects, cytochrome c reduction was determined in microdialysate from the thigh muscle at rest and during knee extensor exercise to determine ROS formation. There was a significant increase in cytochrome c reduction with exercise both at 14 ( approximately 25%) and at 30 W ( approximately 50%). The data show that ROS are formed within skeletal muscle during exercise and that oral intake of antioxidants can enhance the exercise-induced adaptive mRNA responses of eNOS and UCP3.

  12. Early subclinical increase in pulmonary water content in athletes performing sustained heavy exercise at sea level: ultrasound lung comet-tail evidence.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Garbella, Erika; Piaggi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Frassi, Francesca; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Piarulli, Andrea; Catapano, Giosuè; Lubrano, Valter; Passera, Mirko; Di Bella, Gianluca; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Metelli, Maria Rosa; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Whether prolonged strenuous exercise performed by athletes at sea level can produce interstitial pulmonary edema is under debate. Chest sonography allows to estimate extravascular lung water, creating ultrasound lung comet-tail (ULC) artifacts. The aim of the study was to determine whether pulmonary water content increases in Ironmen (n = 31) during race at sea level and its correlation with cardiopulmonary function and systemic proinflammatory and cardiac biohumoral markers. A multiple factor analysis approach was used to determine the relations between systemic modifications and ULCs by assessing correlations among variables and groups of variables showing significant pre-post changes. All athletes were asymptomatic for cough and dyspnea at rest and after the race. Immediately after the race, a score of more than five comet tail artifacts, the threshold for a significant detection, was present in 23 athletes (74%; 16.3 ± 11.2; P < 0.01 ULC after the race vs. rest) but decreased 12 h after the end of the race (13 athletes; 42%; 6.3 ± 8.0; P < 0.01 vs. soon after the race). Multiple factor analysis showed significant correlations between ULCs and cardiac-related variables and NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Healthy athletes developed subclinical increase in pulmonary water content immediately after an Ironman race at sea level, as shown by the increased number of ULCs related to cardiac changes occurring during exercise. Hemodynamic changes are one of several potential factors contributing to the mechanisms of ULCs.

  13. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Giera, Martin; Bouazzaoui, Fatiha El; Lips, Mirjam A; Pijl, Hanno; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-09-11

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  14. An Alteration in the Cecal Microbiota Composition by Feeding of 1-Kestose Results in a Marked Increase in the Cecal Butyrate Content in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Saki; Sugawa, Chie; Takahashi, Motoki; Endo, Akihito; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, including prebiotics, have been ardently developed for improving the intestinal environment. Fructooligosaccarides (FOS), including fructans, are the well researched and commercialized prebiotics. However, to our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of each component of FOS as prebiotics. 1-Kestose, a component of FOS, is composed of one glucose and two fructose molecules, and is considered as a key prebiotic component in short-chain FOS. In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary 1-kestose using 0.5–5% 1-kestose diets on cecal microbiota composition and cecal contents of short-chain fatty acids and lactate in rats. The findings indicate that dietary 1-kestose induced cecal hypertrophy and alterations in the cecal microbiota composition, including a marked increase in the cell number of Bifidobacterium spp. These alterations were associated with significant increases in acetate and lactate, and a marked increase in butyrate in cecal contents. Furthermore, dietary 1-kestose induced a significant decrease in serum insulin concentration in rats fed 2.5–5% 1-kestose diet. These findings suggest a potential of 1-kestose to be a prebiotic for improving the metabolism of the host. PMID:27861621

  15. An Alteration in the Cecal Microbiota Composition by Feeding of 1-Kestose Results in a Marked Increase in the Cecal Butyrate Content in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tochio, Takumi; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Saki; Sugawa, Chie; Takahashi, Motoki; Endo, Akihito; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, including prebiotics, have been ardently developed for improving the intestinal environment. Fructooligosaccarides (FOS), including fructans, are the well researched and commercialized prebiotics. However, to our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of each component of FOS as prebiotics. 1-Kestose, a component of FOS, is composed of one glucose and two fructose molecules, and is considered as a key prebiotic component in short-chain FOS. In the present study, we examined the effects of dietary 1-kestose using 0.5-5% 1-kestose diets on cecal microbiota composition and cecal contents of short-chain fatty acids and lactate in rats. The findings indicate that dietary 1-kestose induced cecal hypertrophy and alterations in the cecal microbiota composition, including a marked increase in the cell number of Bifidobacterium spp. These alterations were associated with significant increases in acetate and lactate, and a marked increase in butyrate in cecal contents. Furthermore, dietary 1-kestose induced a significant decrease in serum insulin concentration in rats fed 2.5-5% 1-kestose diet. These findings suggest a potential of 1-kestose to be a prebiotic for improving the metabolism of the host.

  16. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice.

  17. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  18. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    PubMed

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  19. Resuscitation with Pooled and Pathogen-Reduced Plasma Attenuates the Increase in Brain Water Content following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.

    PubMed

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Pär Ingemar

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema formation. Recent animal studies have shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces brain swelling and improves endothelial function compared to isotonic NaCl (NS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage. After fluid percussion brain injury, hemorrhage (20 mL/kg), and 90-min shock, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to resuscitation with OCTA, FFP, or NS (n = 16/group). Brain water content (wet/dry weight) and BBB permeability (transfer constant for (51)Cr-EDTA) were measured at 24 h. Plasma osmolality, oncotic pressure, and biomarkers of systemic glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) and cell damage (histone-complexed DNA) were measured at 0 and 23 h. At 24 h, brain water content was 80.44 ± 0.39%, 80.82 ± 0.82%, and 81.15 ± 0.86% in the OCTA, FFP, and NS groups (lower in OCTA vs. NS; p = 0.026), with no difference in BBB permeability. Plasma osmolality and oncotic pressures were highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated, and osmolality was further highest in OCTA versus FFP (p = 0.027). In addition, syndecan-1 was highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated (p = 0.010). These results suggest that pooled solvent-detergent (SD)-treated plasma attenuates the post-traumatic increase in brain water content, and that this effect may, in part, be explained by a high crystalloid and colloid osmotic pressure in SD-treated plasma.

  20. Testosterone-mediated increase in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content, nuclear androgen receptor levels, and cell division in an androgen-independent prostate carcinoma of Noble rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Leav, I; Damassa, D; Kwan, P W; Merk, F B; Seto, H S

    1988-02-01

    An androgen-independent, transplantable prostate carcinoma line (AIT), originally derived from the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) of Noble rat, was implanted into orchiectomized Noble rats and its response to androgen stimulation was studied and compared to that of the regenerating DLP tissue in sexually ablated rats. AIT tumors carried in castrated hosts displayed a high basal level of proliferative activity (mitotic index (MI), 15.0 +/- 0.5) while DLP tissue in untreated castrates exhibited no proliferative activity. Following androgen stimulation by testosterone capsule implantation into host rats, the AIT responded with a marked increase in cell proliferation; MI values doubled to 30.0 +/- 2.9 on Day 5 following androgen stimulation. This androgen-induced increase in MI values was coincident with elevations in nuclear androgen receptor (20-fold increase) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content (3-fold increase) in the tumor. However, by Day 10 following androgen treatment, indices of cell proliferation in the AIT declined to pre-androgen-stimulated levels (MI, 14.8 +/- 1.9) despite the continued elevations in nuclear androgen receptor and tissue 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone contents. Parallel changes in MI were also observed in the normal regenerating DLP following androgen stimulation. MI values in this tissue increased from nondetectable levels to 38.1 +/- 4.7 on Day 5 but declined to relatively low levels (4.5 +/- 0.9) by Day 10 following androgen replacement. Taken together these findings led us to conclude that the AIT carried in castrates is capable of responding to testosterone in a manner similar to that observed for androgen-stimulated DLP of sexually ablated rats. Thus, in both the neoplastic and regenerating tissues, the initial response to androgen is characterized by a marked enhancement of cell proliferation which was correlated with an increase in androgen receptor and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content. However, like its tissue of origin, the AIT

  1. Salicylic acid increases the contents of glutathione and ascorbate and temporally regulates the related gene expression in salt-stressed wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Gezi; Peng, Xiaoqi; Wei, Liting; Kang, Guozhang

    2013-10-25

    Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) significantly improved abiotic tolerance in higher plants, and ascorbate (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) play important roles in abiotic tolerance. In this study, SA (0.5mM) markedly increased the contents of ASA and GSH in SA-treated plants during salt stress (250mM NaCl). The transcript levels of the genes encoding ASA and GSH cycle enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The results indicated that, during salt stress, exogenous SA significantly enhanced the transcripts of glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX2) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) genes at 12h, glutathione reductase (GR) at 24h, 48h and 72h, glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), 2 (GST2), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione synthetase (GS) at the 48h and 72h after salt stress, respectively. The results implied that SA temporally regulated the transcript levels of the genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes, resulting in the increased contents of GSH and ASA and enhanced salt tolerance.

  2. The overexpression of the pine transcription factor PpDof5 in Arabidopsis leads to increased lignin content and affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rueda-López, Marina; Cañas, Rafael A; Canales, Javier; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ávila, Concepción

    2015-12-01

    PpDof 5 is a regulator of the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) genes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of maritime pine. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system to study PpDof 5 function in planta, generating transgenic lines overexpressing the pine transcription factor. The overexpression of PpDof 5 resulted in a substantial increase of lignin content with a simultaneous regulation of carbon and nitrogen key genes. In addition, partitioning in carbon and nitrogen compounds was spread via various secondary metabolic pathways. These results suggest pleiotropic effects of PpDof 5 expression on various metabolic pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Plants overexpressing PpDof 5 exhibited upregulation of genes encoding enzymes for sucrose and starch biosynthesis, with a parallel increase in the content of soluble sugars. When the plants were grown under nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, they exhibited a significant regulation of the expression of genes involved mainly in signaling, but similar growth rates to wild-type plants. However, plants grown under ammonium exhibited major induction of the expression of photosynthetic genes and differential expression of ammonium and nitrate transporters. All these data suggest that in addition to controlling ammonium assimilation, PpDof 5 could be also involved in the regulation of other pathways in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in pine trees.

  3. Low seminal zinc bound to high molecular weight proteins in asthenozoospermic patients: evidence of increased sperm zinc content in oligoasthenozoospermic patients.

    PubMed

    Carpino, A; Siciliano, L; Petroni, M F; De Stefano, C; Aquila, S; Andó, S; Petrone, M F

    1998-01-01

    Total seminal zinc concentration, seminal zinc fraction bound to high molecular weight proteins (HMW-Zn%) and zinc content in spermatozoa were assayed in the ejaculates of 90 asthenozoospermic patients subdivided into two study groups: normoasthenozoospermics (group I: n = 50) and oligoasthenozoospermics (group II: n = 40). The zinc concentrations of patients were compared with those of a control group of donors showing normal semen parameters. All samples were also investigated for their sperm membrane functional integrity by the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS). The results showed normal total zinc concentrations but very low HMW-Zn% values (P < 0.001) in seminal plasma of the two groups of asthenozoospermic patients compared to the controls. Furthermore higher zinc amounts (P < 0.001) were measured in spermatozoa of oligoasthenozoospermic patients compared to group I and to the control group. Oligoasthenozoospermics also displayed a lower HOS score (P < 0.001) compared to the other two groups. These data suggest that the increased unbound seminal zinc could contribute to the decrease of sperm motility in normoasthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic patients. A further impairment in sperm motility could occur in the oligoasthenozoospermic patients where the increase of seminal free zinc was followed by a major zinc uptake by spermatozoa. The higher intrasperm zinc content in these patients could be a reflection of their low sperm membrane functionality.

  4. Long-term ingestion of insoluble dietary fiber increases luminal mucin content, but has no effect on nutrient absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Kimio; Kiriyama, Shuhachi

    2008-03-01

    We reexamined the hypothesis that increased mucin secretion by the ingestion of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) could affect small intestinal nutrient absorption. Polystyrene foam (PSF) was used as IDF. Rats were fed a diet with or without 90 g of PSF/kg for 1, 2 and 4 wk. At the end of each period, a glucose and ovalbumin (OVA) solution was intubated after 12 h of food depletion, and the changes in serum concentrations of these components were monitored. Luminal mucin was measured as O-linked oligosaccharide chains and also determined by ELISA. In all periods, the luminal mucin content was greater in the PSF-fed group than in the fiber-free control. However, the changes in serum glucose and OVA concentrations were comparable between the groups at any time during any period. These results show that the enhancement of luminal mucin secretion lasted even after chronic ingestion of IDF, but that the increased luminal mucin content had no effect on the rate of luminal nutrient absorption.

  5. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol.

  6. Both immanently high active iron contents and increased root ferrous uptake in response to low iron stress contribute to the iron deficiency tolerance in Malus xiaojinensis.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qian; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Han, Zhen-Hai

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of low-iron stress tolerance in Malus xiaojinensis, the differences in physiological parameters and gene expression between an iron deficiency-sensitive species, Malus baccata, and an iron deficiency-tolerant species, M. xiaojinensis were investigated under low-iron (4 μM Fe) conditions. Under iron sufficient conditions, the expressions of iron uptake- and transport-related genes, i.e. FIT1, IRT1, CS1, FRD3 and NRMAP1, and the immanent leaf and root active iron contents were higher in M. xiaojinensis than those in M. baccata. However, on the first three days of low iron stress, the rhizospheric pH decreased and the root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and the expression of ferrous uptake- and iron transport-related genes in the roots increased significantly only in M. xiaojinensis. Leaf chlorosis occurred on the 3rd and the 9th day after low-iron treatment in M. baccata and M. xiaojinensis, respectively. The expression of iron relocalization-related genes, such as NAS1, FRD3 and NRMAP3, increased after the 5th or 6th day of low iron stress in leaves of M. xiaojinensis, whereas the expression of NAS1, FRD3 and NRMAP3 in the leaves of M. baccata increased immediately after the onset of low iron treatment. Conclusively, the relative high active iron contents caused by the immanently active root ferrous uptake and the increased root ferrous uptake in response to low iron stress were the dominant mechanisms for the tolerance to iron deficiency in M. xiaojinensis.

  7. Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin Increases the Cholesterol Content of Goat Sperm to Improve Cold and Osmotic Resistance and Maintain Sperm Function after Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2016-04-01

    The success of semen cryopreservation depends on sperm membrane integrity and function after thawing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is used for in vitro incorporation of cholesterol to protect cells against cold temperatures. We hypothesized that CLC treatment also enhances sperm cholesterol content to increase tolerance to osmotic shock and cryoresistance, thereby improving fertility. We confirmed the fact that treatment of goat semen with 3 mg/ml CLC increases sperm cholesterol content using both the Liebermann-Burchard approach and filipin III labeling of membrane cholesterol. Sperm were then treated with or without CLC and cryopreserved. After thawing, sperm cholesterol dramatically fell, even in the presence of CLC, which explains the mechanism of cryocapacitation. CLC treatment, however, maintained a normal prefreeze cholesterol level in sperm after cryopreservation. Furthermore, fresh sperm treated with CLC and subjected to either cold shock or incubated in hypo-, iso-, and hyperosmotic media, designed to mimic stresses associated with freezing/thawing, displayed increased temperature and osmotic tolerance. CLC treatment also improved sperm viability, motility, and acrosome integrity after thawing. Furthermore, CLC treatment did not affect the sperm's ability to undergo in vitro capacitation according to chlortetracycline fluorescence and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A pilot field trial demonstrated that artificial insemination with sperm that underwent increased cholesterol levels following CLC treatment yielded higher fertility ( ITALIC! P< 0.1) and proliferation ( ITALIC! P< 0.05) rates in vivo than untreated semen from the same ejaculate samples. These observations suggest that CLC treatment could be used to improve cryoprotection during the freezing and thawing of goat sperm.

  8. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    PubMed

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  9. Effect on digestion and performance of dietary protein content and of increased substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean protein concentrate in starter diets for young rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P < 0.05), both in animals treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless

  10. The indium content in metamorphic InxAl1-xAs/ InxGa1-xAs HEMTs on GaAs substrate: a new structure parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollaert, S.; Cordier, Y.; Zaknoune, M.; Happy, H.; Hoel, V.; Lepilliet, S.; Théron, D.; Cappy, A.

    2000-06-01

    State-of-the art metamorphic InxAl1-xAs/ InxGa1-xAs HEMTs (MM-HEMTs) on a GaAs substrate with different indium compositions x=0.33, 0.4 and 0.5 have been realized and characterized. The gate lengths Lg are 0.1 and 0.25 μm. These devices have been compared with lattice matched HEMTs on an InP substrate. DC-characteristics of 0.1 μm gate length MM-HEMTs show drain-to-source current Ids of the order of 550-650 mA/mm, and extrinsic transconductance of about 800 mS/mm. Schottky characteristics exhibit a gate reverse breakdown voltage varying from -14 to -7 V for x=0.33-0.5, with an intermediate value of -10.5 V for x=0.4. A small signal equivalent circuit of our 0.1 μm MM-HEMTs give intrinsic transconductance higher than 1100 mS/mm, with similar values of 1350 and 1450 mS/mm for x=0.5 and the lattice matched HEMT, respectively. The MM-HEMTs with a gate length of 0.25 μm present a cutoff frequency fT close to 100 GHz. To achieve the same result with pseudomorphic HEMTs on GaAs, a smaller gate length has to be realized, which requires the use of an electron beam lithography and therefore increases the device costs. For L g=0.1 μm, fT reaches 160, 195 and 180 GHz for x=0.33, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. These values are close to f T=210 GHz obtained for a lattice matched HEMTs on InP realized with the same technological process. The MM-HEMTs are therefore good alternatives to PM-HEMTs on GaAs and LM-HEMTs on InP in the V bands and W bands while maintaining a GaAs substrate. Moreover, metamorphic In 0.4Al 0.6As/In 0.4Ga 0.6As HEMTs exhibit a comparable microwave performance with large voltage operation than the MM-HEMT with a 0.5 indium content and the lattice matched HEMTs. These results indicate that a device with indium content x=0.4 is particularly attractive for the realization of low-noise and power circuits on the same wafer.

  11. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flück, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian; Bürgi, Simon; Christensen, Peter Møller; Toigo, Marco; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-09-01

    Six sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIT) are sufficient to improve exercise capacity. The mechanisms explaining such improvements are unclear. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of physiologically relevant adaptations occurring after six sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 ± 6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test) intermixed with 75 s of recovery cycling at a low intensity (30 W) over a 2-wk period. Potential training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle respiratory capacity, mitochondrial content, skeletal muscle oxygenation, cardiac capacity, blood volumes, and peripheral fatigue resistance were all assessed prior to and again following training. Maximal measures of oxygen uptake (Vo2peak; ∼8%; P = 0.026) and cycling time to complete a set amount of work (∼5%; P = 0.008) improved. Skeletal muscle respiratory capacities increased, most likely as a result of an expansion of skeletal muscle mitochondria (∼20%, P = 0.026), as assessed by cytochrome c oxidase activity. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation also increased while maximal cardiac output, total hemoglobin, plasma volume, total blood volume, and relative measures of peripheral fatigue resistance were all unaltered with training. These results suggest that increases in mitochondrial content following six HIT sessions may facilitate improvements in respiratory capacity and oxygen extraction, and ultimately are responsible for the improvements in maximal whole body exercise capacity and endurance performance in previously untrained individuals.

  12. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan. W.; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED. PMID:26491965

  13. The increase in fat content in the warm-acclimated striped hamsters is associated with the down-regulated metabolic thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Song; Wen, Jing; Shi, Lu-Lu; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-11-01

    It has been well known that metabolic thermogenesis plays an important role in the thermoregulation of small mammals under different temperatures, while its role in fat accumulation is far from clear. In the present study, several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical measures indicative of metabolic thermogenesis were measured in the weaning striped hamsters after acclimated to a warm condition (30°C) for 1, 3 and 4months. The warm-acclimated groups significantly decreased energy intake, and simultaneously decreased nonshivering thermogenesis compared to those housed at 21°C. Body fat content increased by 29.9%, 22.1% and 19.6% in the hamsters acclimated to 1, 3 or 4months, respectively relative to their counterparts maintain at 21°C (P<0.05). The cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle, and the ratio of serum tri-iodothyronine to thyroxine significantly decreased in warm-acclimated groups compared with 21°C group. COX activity and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) were significantly down-regulated under the warm conditions. COX activity of BAT, liver, heart and muscle were significantly negatively correlated with body fat content, and the correlation between UCP1 expression and body fat content tended to be negative. These findings suggest that the decrease in the energy spent on metabolic thermogenesis plays an important role in the fat accumulation. The attenuation of COX and UCP1-based BAT activity may be involved in body fat accumulation in animals under warm conditions.

  14. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Chin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan W; Ho, Dong-Ru; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s) of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks (n = 10), 12 weeks (n = 10), and 24 weeks (n = 10). At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP) during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED.

  15. Chronic exposure to free fatty acid reduces pancreatic beta cell insulin content by increasing basal insulin secretion that is not compensated for by a corresponding increase in proinsulin biosynthesis translation.

    PubMed Central

    Bollheimer, L C; Skelly, R H; Chester, M W; McGarry, J D; Rhodes, C J

    1998-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell normally maintains a stable balance among insulin secretion, insulin production, and insulin degradation to keep optimal intracellular stores of the hormone. Elevated levels of FFA markedly enhance insulin secretion; however, the effects of FFA on insulin production and intracellular stores remain unclear. In this study, twofold elevation in total circulating FFA effected by infusion of lard oil and heparin into rats for 6 h under normoglycemic conditions resulted in a marked elevation of circulating insulin levels evident after 4 h, and a 30% decrease in pancreatic insulin content after a 6-h infusion in vivo. Adding 125 muM oleate to isolated rat pancreatic islets cultured with 5.6 mM glucose caused a 50% fall in their insulin content over 24 h, coupled with a marked enhancement of basal insulin secretion. Both effects of fatty acid were blocked by somatostatin. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of oleate on insulin secretion, glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis was inhibited by oleate up to 24 h, but was unaffected thereafter. This result was in spite of a two- to threefold oleate-induced increase in preproinsulin mRNA levels, underscoring the importance of translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis in maintaining beta cell insulin stores. Collectively, these results suggest that chronically elevated FFA contribute to beta cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NIDDM by significantly increasing the basal rate of insulin secretion. This increase in turn results in a decrease in the beta cell's intracellular stores that cannot be offset by commensurate FFA induction of proinsulin biosynthesis. PMID:9486980

  16. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holten, Mads K; Zacho, Morten; Gaster, Michael; Juel, Carsten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Dela, Flemming

    2004-02-01

    Strength training represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect on insulin action and key proteins in skeletal muscle, and the necessary volume of strength training is unknown. A total of 10 type 2 diabetic subjects and 7 healthy men (control subjects) strength-trained one leg three times per week for 6 weeks while the other leg remained untrained. Each session lasted no more than 30 min. After strength training, muscle biopsies were obtained, and an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterio-femoral venous catheterization of both legs was carried out. In general, qualitatively similar responses were obtained in both groups. During the clamp, leg blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in trained versus untrained legs, but despite this, arterio-venous extraction glucose did not decrease in trained legs. Thus, leg glucose clearance was increased in trained legs (P < 0.05) and more than explained by increases in muscle mass. Strength training increased protein content of GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alpha/beta, glycogen synthase (GS), and GS total activity. In conclusion, we found that strength training for 30 min three times per week increases insulin action in skeletal muscle in both groups. The adaptation is attributable to local contraction-mediated mechanisms involving key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade.

  17. Does elevating silver content in zinc-based glass polyalkenoate cements increase their antibacterial efficacy against two common bacteria using the agar gel diffusion method?

    PubMed

    Coughlan, A; Breed, S M; Ashraf, C; Cardinale, J A; Hall, M M; Towler, M R

    2013-03-01

    The authors have previously shown that it is possible to incorporate silver into a soda-zinc-silicate glass and subsequently form a glass polyalkenoate cement from it. The objective of the research described herein is to determine if incremental increases in the silver content of these glass polyalkenoate cements will increase their antibacterial efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using the accepted spread plate method. Four glass polyalkenoate cements were formulated; three contained increasing amounts of silver incorporated into them (cements A, B, and C, containing 0.33 mol%, 0.66 mol%, and 0.99 mol% silver, respectively) and a fourth contained no silver, which acted as a control (control cement). The handling properties of the glass polyalkenoate cements were evaluated, where working times were around 2 min and setting times ranged from 1 h 17 min to 2 h 41 min. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine silver ion release with cement maturation for up to 14 days. The majority of silver ions were released within the first 24 h, with up to 2 mg/L cumulative ion release recorded up to 14 days. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The silver-glass polyalkenoate cements exhibited antibacterial effect against both bacterial strains. The maximum inhibition zones recorded against S. aureus was 14.8 mm (SD ± 1.11) and against P. aeruginosa was 20.6 mm (SD ± 0.81). Cement B had a greater antibacterial effect compared to cement A, however, cements B and C had comparable antibacterial effects after 14 days even though cement C contained 0.33 mol% more silver than B. This indicates that by increasing the silver content in these cements, the antibacterial efficacy increases to a point, but there is a threshold where further silver ion release does not increase the antibacterial effect.

  18. Seven days of oral taurine supplementation does not increase muscle taurine content or alter substrate metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.

  19. Modified ‘one amino acid-one codon’ engineering of high GC content TaqII-coding gene from thermophilic Thermus aquaticus results in radical expression increase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    one amino acid–one codon’ method tuned for thermophile-coded genes was applied to obtain overexpression of the ‘toxic’ taqIIRM gene. The method appears suited for industrial production of thermostable ‘toxic’ enzymes in E. coli. This novel variant of the method biased toward increasing a gene’s AT content may provide economic benefits for industrial applications. PMID:24410856

  20. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies.

  1. Development of reproducible and increased strength properties in thick extrusions of low-alloy Al-Zn-Mg-Cu based AA 7075

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.

    1997-11-01

    The present article deals with the studies undertaken to resolve an industrial problem, where the desired minimum tensile properties in the T651 temper, i.e., 0.2 pct PS = 530 MPa, UTS = 580 MPa, and elongation (in 50-mm gage length) = 7 pct, were difficult to obtain in a reproducible manner in low-alloy (i.e., alloy containing major alloying elements in amounts not greater than those specified by the nominal compositions in the specification) AA 7075 round bar extrusions having 80-mm diameter. The present results that the use of the two-step artificial aging treatment enables higher strength properties to be achieved in the alloy with reduced Zn and Mg contents has an additional advantage in that the susceptibility to SCC is known to reduce with decreasing Zn + Mg contents in this alloy series. This, together with the previously documented results that the strength properties of these materials subjected to the two-step artificial aging treatments (employed for increasing the SCC resistance) are not affected by the time delay between quenching and aging, should make the use of the two-step artificial aging treatment commercially more attractive compared to the single-step artificial aging treatment used for the T6/T651 temper.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of natural algae over Mg-Al layered double oxides/ZSM-5 (MgAl-LDO/ZSM-5) for producing bio-oil with low nitrogen content.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lijing; Sun, Jiahui; Xu, Wei; Xiao, Guomin

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria were catalytically pyrolyzed over Mg-Al layered double oxide/ZSM-5 composites (MgAl-LDO/ZSM-5) to produce bio-oil. MgAl-LDO/ZSM-5 with a Mg/Al molar ratio of four was proved to be the best catalyst. Under the optima condition that the final temperature was 823K, heating rate was 10K/min and catalyst/algae mass ratio was 0.75, a maximum yield of liquid (41.1%) was achieved at 823K with a heating rate of 10K/min and a catalyst/algae mass ratio of 0.75, which was much higher than the one obtained without catalyst. The element analysis results proved that this bio-oil had much lower O/C molar ratio and higher HHV. The GC-MS results showed that the bio-oil had less nitrogenous compounds. MgAl4-LDO/ZSM-5 was proved to be an applicable and effective catalyst to obtain bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of water-blooming algae.

  3. Effect of Al on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-Al alloys with different Al contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on Al content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-Al alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when Al content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-Al alloys with increasing Al contents. The segregation of Al atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-Al alloys. Al with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-Al alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-Al/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-Al melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.

  4. Influence of Al substitution on magnetism and adsorption properties of hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Shanshan; Kang, Feifei; Yang, Xin; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Hui; Chen, Rufen; Wei, Yu

    2015-08-15

    A series of Al-substituted hematite was prepared. The structures and properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by various techniques. The magnetic property of the samples was determined and the adsorption of three dyes Acid Blue 74, Methylene Blue and Phenol Red onto the samples was investigated. The results showed that Al incorporation into the crystal structure of hematite occurs via isomorphous ionic substitution of Al for Fe. With increasing Al content, the particle size of samples decreases, the magnetization increases and the remanent magnetization remains unchanged. The coercivity of the samples increases with Al substitution up to n{sub Al}/n{sub Fe} 0.03, and then decreases as Al content further increases. Compared with Al-free hematite, Al-substituted samples exhibit better adsorption ability to all of the three dyes. The adsorption rates of the three dyes on the surface of Al substituted samples depend on the structure of dye, pH and Al content in hematite. - Graphical abstract: Effect of Al on the structure, magnetic properties and adsorption performance of hematite was investigated. - Highlights: • A series of Al-substituted α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared. • Effect of Al content on the crystal structure and magnetic property of hematite was investigated. • Al-substituted hematite exhibits better adsorption ability than hematite.

  5. High fat-induced obesity associated with insulin-resistance increases FGF-2 content and causes stromal hyperplasia in rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Maeda, Samantha Yuri; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-08-01

    Obesity affects sex hormone secretion, which can negatively influence prostatic structure, homeostasis, and disease. This investigation aimed to evaluate the repercussions of obesity induced by a high-fat diet on the rat prostate, with or without treatment with the aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole. Adult Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat, O) for 15 weeks to induce obesity or received a balanced diet (4% fat, C). Then, a group of C and O rats were daily treated with Letrozole (1 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 2 weeks (CL and OL, respectively). Subsequently, ventral prostate was processed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Obesity decreased 70% of the testosterone plasma level. The prostate showed epithelial atrophy and dilated acini in the intermediate portion and epithelial wrinkling in the distal tips. The relative frequency of smooth muscle α-actin in the O group increased by 67%. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in obese animals presented altered secretory organelles, lipid droplets, and thicker subjacent fibromuscular layer. Letrozole treatment caused a partial restoration of the prostatic changes caused by obesity. Obesity increased the prostatic content of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) by 150%, and Letrozole treatment increased this protein even more in the control and obese groups. This investigation shows that obesity provokes structural and ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of rat prostate; these changes might affect gland homeostasis and physiology. The epithelial and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and increased FGF-2 expression observed in this experimental model of obesity/insulin-resistance might explain the high frequency of benign prostatic hyperplasia in insulin-resistant men.

  6. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation.

  7. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  8. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (< 24 h) desiccation. However, it declined sharply at c. 0.26 g g¹ dm following slow (c. 5 days) drying. Increasing the rate of dehydration thus lowered the critical water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  9. Effect of Al deoxidation on the formation behavior of inclusions in Ce-added stainless steel melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk; Kong, Young-Min; Park, Joo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Al deoxidation on the oxygen content and the inclusion properties (composition, size and morphology) of Ce-added stainless steel melts at 1873 K was investigated. The total oxygen content was about 310(±40) ppm before Al addition and slightly decreases with holding time when Al content was lower than 0.01%, whereas the oxygen content drastically decreased when Al content was greater than about 0.05%. Al content initially decreased, followed by an increase by addition of Ce, which originates from the reduction of Al2O3 in the refractory and/or inclusions by added Ce. The initial inclusions before Al addition were mainly Mn(Cr)-silicates. When Ce was added without Al deoxidation, small amounts of Ce oxide were detected after Ce addition. However, the content of Ce oxide decreased with holding time, and the inclusion composition reverted to the MnO-SiO2-Cr2O3 system. The initial Mn(Cr)-silicate inclusions transformed to Al2O3-rich inclusions by Al addition, and then Ce2O3 was enriched by Ce addition due to local enrichment of Ce around Al2O3 particles, resulting in the formation of AlCeO3-type inclusions. However, the Ce2O3 in the inclusions was continuously reduced by Al due to higher chemical potential of Al than Ce, finally forming the Al2O3-CeAl11O18 complex inclusions.

  10. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomila L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(−)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011–2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L−1), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(−)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(−)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L−1 SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  11. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Babaeian Jelodar, Nadali; Modarresi, Mohammad; Bagheri, Nadali; Jamali, Abbas

    2016-08-27

    The chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabolol contents and quality of the chamomile oil are affected by genetic background and environmental conditions. Salicylic acid (SA), as a signaling molecule, plays a significant role in the plant physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile, quantity, and improve the essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and α-(-)-bisabol using salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The factorial experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 hot season using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The factors include four salicylic acid concentrations (0 (control), 10, 25 and 100 mg·L(-1)), and three chamomile cultivars (Bushehr, Bona, Bodegold) were sown on two different planting dates under field conditions. Fourteen compounds were identified from the extracted oil of the samples treated with salicylic acid under normal and heat stress conditions. The major identified oil compositions from chamomile cultivars treated with salicylic acid were chamazulene, α-(-)-bisabolol, bisabolone oxide, β-farnesene, en-yn-dicycloether, and bisabolol oxide A and B. Analysis of variance showed that the simple effects (environmental conditions, cultivar and salicylic acid) and their interaction were significant on all identified compounds, but the environmental conditions had no significant effect on bisabolol oxide A. The greatest amount of chamazulene obtained was 6.66% at the concentration of 10 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under heat stress conditions, whereas the highest α-(-)-bisabolol amount attained was 3.41% at the concentration of 100 mg·L(-1) SA for the Bona cultivar under normal conditions. The results demonstrated that the application of exogenous salicylic acid increases the quantity and essential oil quality as a consequence of the increase of chamazulene and

  12. New oxyfluoride glass with high fluorine content and laser patterning of nonlinear optical BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} single crystal line

    SciTech Connect

    Shionozaki, K.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-11-01

    A new oxyfluoride glass of 50BaF{sub 2}-25Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-25B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol. %) with a large fraction of fluorine, i.e., F/(F + O) = 0.4, was prepared using a conventional melt-quenching method in order to synthesize new glass-ceramics containing nonlinear optical oxyfluoride crystals. The refractive index at 632.8 nm and ultra-violet cutoff wavelength of the glass were 1.564 and {approx}200 nm, respectively. Eu{sup 3+} ions in the glass showed a high quantum yield of 88% in the photoluminescence spectrum in the visible region. BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals (size: 50-100 nm) showing second harmonic generations were formed through the crystallization of the glass. Lines consisting of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals were patterned successfully on the glass surface by laser irradiations (Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm, laser power of 1.1 W, scanning speed of 8 {mu}m/s). High resolution transmission electron microscope observations combined with a focused ion beam technique indicate that BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} crystals are highly oriented just like a single crystal. The present study proposes that the new oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics prepared have a high potential for optical device applications.

  13. Intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lu, Lan; Jesberger, John A; Barkoukis, Hope; Flask, Chris A; Kirwan, John P

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is complex and dynamic. We examined the effect of a short-term (7-day) low-glycemic index (LGI) diet and aerobic exercise training intervention (EX) on IMCL and insulin sensitivity in older, insulin-resistant humans. Participants (66 ± 1 yr, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a parallel, controlled feeding trial [either an LGI (LGI/EX, n = 7) or high GI (HGI/EX, n = 8) eucaloric diet] combined with supervised exercise (60 min/day, 85% HR(max)). Insulin sensitivity was determined via 40 mU·m(-2)·min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and soleus IMCL and EMCL content was assessed by (1)H-MR spectroscopy with correction for fiber orientation. BMI decreased (kg/m(2) -0.6 ± 0.2, LGI/EX; -0.7 ± 0.2, HGI/EX P < 0.0004) after both interventions with no interaction effect of diet composition. Clamp-derived insulin sensitivity increased by 0.91 ± 0.21 (LGI/EX) and 0.17 ± 0.55 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) (HGI/EX), P = 0.04 (effect of time). HOMA-IR was reduced by -1.1 ± 0.4 (LGI/EX) and -0.1 ± 0.2 (HGI/EX), P = 0.007 (effect of time), P = 0.02 (time × trial). Although both interventions increased IMCL content, (Δ: 2.3 ± 1.3, LGI/EX; 1.4 ± 0.9, HGI/EX, P = 0.03), diet composition did not significantly effect the increase. However, the LGI/EX group showed a robust increase in the [IMCL]/[EMCL] ratio compared with the HGI/EX group (Δ: 0.5 ± 0.2 LGI/EX vs. 0.07 ± 0.1, P = 0.03). The LGI/EX group also demonstrated greater reductions in [EMCL] than the HGI/EX group (Δ: -5.8 ± 3.4, LGI/EX; 2.3 ± 1.1, HGI/EX, P = 0.03). Changes in muscle lipids and insulin sensitivity were not correlated; however, the change in [IMCL]/[EMCL] was negatively associated with the change in FPI (r = -0.78, P = 0.002) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.61, P = 0.03). These data suggest that increases in the IMCL pool following a low glycemic diet and exercise

  14. Short-term data collection projects: A means to increase teacher content knowledge and bring authentic research experiences into the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.

    2010-12-01

    Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial

  15. Overexpression of Thiamin Biosynthesis Genes in Rice Increases Leaf and Unpolished Grain Thiamin Content But Not Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wei; Thomas, Nicholas; Ronald, Pamela C.; Goyer, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), also known as vitamin B1, serves as an enzymatic cofactor in glucose metabolism, the Krebs cycle, and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in all living organisms. Unlike plants and microorganisms, humans are not able to synthesize ThDP de novo and must obtain it from their diet. Staple crops such as rice are poor sources of thiamin. Hence, populations that mainly consume rice commonly suffer thiamin deficiency. In addition to thiamin’s nutritional function, studies in rice have shown that some thiamin biosynthesis genes are involved in resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes a serious disease in rice fields. This study shows that overexpression of two thiamin biosynthesis genes, 4-methyl-5-β-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate synthase and 4-amino-2-methyl-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate synthase, involved in the first steps of the thiazole and pyrimidine synthesis branches, respectively, increased thiamin content up to fivefold in unpolished seeds that retain the bran. However, thiamin levels in polished seeds with removed bran were similar to those found in polished control seeds. Plants with higher accumulation of thiamin did not show enhanced resistance to X. oryzae. These results indicate that stacking of two traits can enhance thiamin accumulation in rice unpolished grain. We discuss potential roadblocks that prevent thiamin accumulation in the endosperm. PMID:27242822

  16. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Swenson, E Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D; Rodeheffer, Matthew S; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-11-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteoblast precursors, and human MSCs. Blockade of adipogenesis by PEDF suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, and other adipocyte markers by nearly 90% compared with control-treated cells (P<0.001). Differentiation to osteoblasts by PEDF resulted in a common pathway that involved PPARγ suppression (P<0.01). Canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling results in a MSC differentiation pattern analogous to that seen with PEDF. Thus, adding PEDF enhanced Wnt-β-catenin signal transduction in human MSCs, demonstrating a novel Wnt agonist function. In PEDF knockout (KO) mice, total body adiposity was increased by >50% compared with controls, illustrating its systemic role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Bones from KO mice demonstrated a reduction in mineral content recapitulating the OI type VI phenotype. These results demonstrate that the human diseases associated with PEDF reflect its ability to modulate MSC differentiation.

  17. Pork meat increases iron absorption from a 5-day fully controlled diet when compared to a vegetarian diet with similar vitamin C and phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Bach Kristensen, Mette; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2005-07-01

    Meat increases absorption of non-haem iron in single-meal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, over a 5 d period, the potential increasing effect of consumption of pork meat in a whole diet on the fractional absorption of non-haem iron and the total absorption of iron, when compared to a vegetarian diet. A randomised cross-over design with 3 x 5 d whole-diet periods with diets containing Danish-produced meat, Polish-produced meat or a vegetarian diet was conducted. Nineteen healthy female subjects completed the study. All main meals in the meat diets contained 60 g of pork meat and all diets had high phytic acid content (1250 mumol/d). All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope (59)Fe and absorption of iron was measured in a whole body counter. The non-haem iron absorption from the Danish meat diet was significantly higher compared to the vegetarian diet (P=0.031). The mean fractional absorption of non-haem iron was 7.9 (se1.1), 6.8 (se 1.0) and 5.3 (se 0.6) % for the Danish and Polish meat diets and vegetarian diet, respectively. Total absorption of iron was higher for both meat diets compared to the vegetarian diet (Danish meat diet: P=0.006, Polish meat diet: P=0.003). The absorption ratios of the present study were well in accordance with absorption ratios estimated using algorithms on iron bioavailability. Neither the meat diets nor the vegetarian diets fulfilled the estimated daily requirements of absorbed iron in spite of a meat intake of 180 g/d in the meat diets.

  18. Effect of Nb Content on Mechanical Behavior and Structural Properties of W/(Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)100-x Nb x Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodan, Morteza; Gholamipour, Reza; Mirdamadi, Shamseddin; Nategh, Said

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)100-x Nb(x=0,1,2,3) bulk metallic glass matrix/tungsten wire composites were fabricated by infiltration process. Structural studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method. Also, mechanical behaviors of the materials were analyzed using quasi-static compressive tests. Results indicated that the best mechanical properties i.e., 2105 MPa compressive ultimate strength and 28 pct plastic strain before failure, were achieved in the composite sample with X = 2. It was also found that adding Nb to the matrix modified interface structure in W fiber/(Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Nb2 since the stable diffusion band formation acts as a functionally graded layer. Finally, the observation of multiple shear bands formation in the matrix could confirm the excellent plastic deformation behavior of the composite.

  19. Expression of Camelina WRINKLED1 Isoforms Rescue the Seed Phenotype of the Arabidopsis wri1 Mutant and Increase the Triacylglycerol Content in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    An, Dahee; Kim, Hyojin; Ju, Seulgi; Go, Young Sam; Kim, Hyun Uk; Suh, Mi Chung

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is an energy-rich reserve in plant seeds that is composed of glycerol esters with three fatty acids. Since TAG can be used as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and bio-chemicals, producing TAGs in vegetative tissue is an alternative way of meeting the increasing demand for its usage. The WRINKLED1 (WRI1) gene is a well-established key transcriptional regulator involved in the upregulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in developing seeds. WRI1s from Arabidopsis and several other crops have been previously employed for increasing TAGs in seed and vegetative tissues. In the present study, we first identified three functional CsWRI1 genes (CsWRI1A. B, and C) from the Camelina oil crop and tested their ability to induce TAG synthesis in leaves. The amino acid sequences of CsWRI1s exhibited more than 90% identity with those of Arabidopsis WRI1. The transcript levels of the three CsWRI1 genes showed higher expression levels in developing seeds than in vegetative and floral tissues. When the CsWRI1A. B, or C was introduced into Arabidopsis wri1-3 loss-of-function mutant, the fatty acid content was restored to near wild-type levels and percentages of the wrinkled seeds were remarkably reduced in the transgenic lines relative to wri1-3 mutant line. In addition, the fluorescent signals of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) fused to the CsWRI1 genes were observed in the nuclei of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells. Nile red staining indicated that the transient expression of CsWRI1A. B, or C caused an enhanced accumulation of oil bodies in N. benthamiana leaves. The levels of TAGs was higher by approximately 2.5- to 4.0-fold in N. benthamiana fresh leaves expressing CsWRI1 genes than in the control leaves. These results suggest that the three Camelina WRI1s can be used as key transcriptional regulators to increase fatty acids in biomass. PMID:28174580

  20. Significance of Elevated Contents of Si4O8 and AlAl3SiO8 End Members in Black Clouded Plagioclase From Anorthosite: Evidence for Oxidation-Induced Postmagmatic Exsolution of Fe-Ti Oxide Inclusions From Plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.; Lalonde, A. E.

    2004-12-01

    Plagioclase phenocrysts from large Proterozoic massif anorthosites that have escaped metamorphic recrystallization commonly have a distinctive black color that is attributed to myriads of minute Fe-Ti oxide inclusions. These inclusions are responsible for the black color of the feldspar. The orientation of these inclusions along specific crystallographic directions in the plagioclase is strong evidence that these formed by exsolution from the plagioclase. Plagioclase from the Proterozoic Lac Saint-Jean anorthosite in Québec is a good example of such clouded feldspar. In this plagioclase we recognize four types of Fe-Ti oxide inclusions: 1) Myriads of fine, submicroscopic and unidentifiable dust-like inclusions, presumably Fe-Ti oxides, and responsible in great part for the black color. 2) Small ˜1 μ m sized crystals of hemo-ilmenite that occur in regions of the plagioclase that are free of type 1 dust, suggesting that these originated by Ostwald ripening from the dusty material. 3) Larger aligned and acicular crystals of hematite, ˜10 μ m in diameter and with good rhombohedral sections. These occur, like type 2 inclusions, in zones free of type 1 dust suggesting again that they result from Ostwald ripening. 4) Millimetric inclusions of ilmenite or magnetite of magmatic origin, often rimmed by amphibole or biotite, signs of late hydration. As part of our study, EPMA analyses of plagioclase from Lac Saint-Jean were done. In addition, a large single crystal, ˜30 cm in diameter was analyzed by bulk XRF. Our results show that plagioclase contains significant amounts of the Si4O8 (up to 6.6 mole %) and AlAl3SiO8 (up to 2.2 mole %) endmembers. A positive relationship is observed between the content of these two endmembers. Furthermore, the ratio of Si4O8 to AlAl3SiO8 is approximately 3:4. We believe that the high content of Si4O8 and AlAl3SiO8 in plagioclase, and the presence of minute Fe-Ti oxide inclusions are both products of a late postmagmatic oxidation via the

  1. Investigating the paradox of hypothyroidism and increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in Sheehan's syndrome: characterization of TSH carbohydrate content and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J H; Persani, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Abucham, J

    2001-04-01

    Serum TSH levels are often paradoxically elevated in patients with hypothyroidism due to Sheehan's syndrome. To investigate this apparent discrepancy, the biological activity and glycosylation of serum TSH were studied in 9 untreated patients with Sheehan's syndrome and 11 normal controls. TSH bioassay was based on cAMP generation, measured by RIA, in a culture system of CHO cells transfected with recombinant human TSH receptor. The oligosaccharide branching of TSH was studied by Con A lectin affinity chromatography, which discriminates TSH isoforms according to their mannose content, and the sialic acid content of TSH was studied by Ricinus communis affinity chromatography in combination with enzymatic removal of sialic acid with neuraminidase treatment. TSH bioactivity was expressed as the ratio between biological and immunofluorometric assays (B/I). Bioactive TSH concentrations were calculated by multiplying serum TSH intrinsic bioactivity by serum immunoreactive TSH concentration (B/I x I). Serum free T(4) (FT(4)) levels were lower in patients than in controls (3.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 14.0 +/- 0.9 pmol/L, respectively; P < 0.0001). Circulating immunoreactive TSH was higher in patients with Sheehan's syndrome than in controls (3.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2 mU/L, respectively; P = 0.01). In contrast, TSH B/I was significantly decreased in Sheehan's patients compared with controls (0.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.8, respectively; P = 0.003). However, the resultant bioactive TSH concentrations in serum of Sheehan's patients were not significantly different from control values (2.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.4; P = 0.25). A significant correlation was found between the bioactive TSH concentrations and serum FT(4) levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome (r = 0.66; P = 0.05), but not between serum immunoreactive TSH and FT(4) levels (r = 0.21; P = 0.59) or between intrinsic TSH bioactivity and FT(4) levels (r = 0.56; P = 0.12). The Con A chromatography of serum TSH showed a similar

  2. The effect of Al content, substrate temperature and nitrogen flow rate on optical band gap and optical features of nanostructured TiAlN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Reza; Parhizkar, Mojtaba; Bidadi, Hassan; Naghshara, Hamid; Hosseini, Seyd Reza; Jafari, Majid

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, TiAlN thin films were prepared by using a dual reactive magnetron sputtering system on fused quartz substrates kept at room temperature and 400 °C; keeping nitrogen flow at 0.51 and 2.78 sccm, various DC and RF powers and the effect of these factors have been studied on the optical properties of the layers. The optical properties including absorption and transmission were studied by a UV-Visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength region (200-1100) nm. By plotting ( αhν)2 and ( αhν)1/2 versus the photon energy hυ, the optical band gap was evaluated. Experimental results show that layers with high percentage of aluminum and nitrogen have higher gap with respect to layers having high titanium percentage. TiAlN thin films deposited with 2.78 sccm nitrogen flow rate possess optical direct band gap in the range of 3.8-5.1 eV and optical indirect band gap in the range of 1.1-3.4 eV. The variation of optical band gap of the films that deposited on the substrate with 400 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 2.78 sccm was different from other layers.

  3. Interrelation of the construction of the metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs nanoheterostructures with the InAs content in the active layer of 76-100% with their surface morphology and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'evskii, I. S.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Kvanin, A. L.; Pushkarev, S. S. Pushkin, M. A.

    2011-09-15

    The influence of the construction of a metamorphic buffer on the surface morphology and electrical properties of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs nanoheterostructures with InAs content in the active layer from 76 to 100% with the use of the GaAs and InP substrates is studied. It is shown that such parameters as the electron mobility and the concentration, as well as the root-mean-square surface roughness, substantially depend on the construction of the metamorphic buffer. It is established experimentally that these parameters largely depend on the maximal local gradient of the lattice constant of the metamorphic buffer in the growth direction of the layers rather than on its average value. It is shown that, with selection of the construction of the metamorphic buffer, it is possible to form nanostructured surfaces with a large-periodic profile.

  4. Reply to comment by Paul H. Glaser et al. on "Donders, T.H. 2014. Middle Holocene humidity increase in Florida: Climate or sea-level. Quaternary Science Reviews 103: 170-174"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donders, Timme H.

    2015-11-01

    Glaser et al. have commented on my recent publication which is a reinterpretation of existing pollen data from the Florida peninsula using a transfer function, testing a hypothesis based on earlier results from a ∼5000 year long peat-based pollen record (Donders et al., 2005a). That record, from Fakahatchee Strand in southwestern Florida (Fig. 1), noted a stepwise transition to longer hydroperiods in the Middle and Late Holocene (Donders et al., 2005a). We hypothesized that the changes resulted from increases in El Niño-driven dry season (winter) precipitation, effectively lengthening the hydroperiod and changed wetland conditions in South Florida.

  5. Special Education Teacher Knowledge of Literacy: An Analysis of Two Preparation Programs' Effectiveness in Increasing Subject-Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Special educators' knowledge of reading concepts are not only influenced by their understanding of the subject matter, but also by an amalgam of content and pedagogy that enables teachers to integrate this information to meet the diverse needs of students with disabilities. This study documented the conceptual knowledge that special education…

  6. Germination and extrusion as combined processes for reducing phytates and increasing phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of Oryza sativa L. whole grain flours.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, M; De Greef, D M; González, R J; Drago, S R

    2015-01-01

    Whole rice (WR) products with low phytic acid (PA) content and enhanced bio-functional components were obtained by the combination of germination and extrusion processes. Germination conditions (24 h - 35 °C), with a previous soaking process (24 h - 20 °C), were chosen according to the remnant PA content and germination rate. Specific mechanical energy consumption, expansion, sensorial and mechanical hardness, specific volume, solubility, water absorption, free phenolic content (FPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Results indicated that 175 °C and 14 g 100 g(-1) of moisture were the most appropriate conditions to obtain expanded products and precooked flours based on germinated WR. Selected extruded product presented less PA content (821.6 9 ± 10.3 versus 695.2 0 ± 1.6 mg 100 g(-1)) and higher Fe bio-accessibility, FPC (45.2 9 ± 1.61 versus 66.3 5 ± 3.35 mg GAE g(-1)) and antioxidant capacity compared with WR (34.9 5 ± 0.8 versus 54.6 3 ± 1.6 µmol trolox g(-1)). Combining germination-extrusion processes could be a strategy to obtain expanded products or precooked flours based on WR with enhanced health benefits.

  7. The SCRI Acrylamide Project: Improved breeding and variety evaluation methods to reduce acrylamide content and increase quality in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highest priority of the US potato industry is the need to introduce new varieties that reduce the acrylamide content of processed products and minimize health concerns related to acrylamide consumption. The SCRI acrylamide project is a national, coordinated effort that addresses this need. Thi...

  8. Community-Based Inquiry in Allied Health Biochemistry Promotes Equity by Improving Critical Thinking for Women and Showing Promise for Increasing Content Gains for Ethnic Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeden, Terrah J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Quitadamo, Ian J.; Thomas, Carin

    2015-01-01

    In the Community-Based Inquiry (CBI) instructional method, cooperative student groups complete case study activities based on scientific literature and conduct their own laboratory investigations that address authentic community needs. This study compared critical thinking and content knowledge outcomes between traditional Introduction to…

  9. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  10. Electron transport in Al-doped ZnO nanolayers obtained by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, B. S.; Dimitrov, D. Z.; Mehandzhiev, V. B.; Kovacheva, D.; Terziyska, P.; Pavlic, J.; Lovchinov, K.; Mateev, E.; Leclercq, J.; Sveshtarov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Al-doped ZnO thin films with different Al content were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). To carry out thermal ALD, diethyl zinc (DEZ) and tri-methyl aluminium (TMA) were used as Zn and Al precursors, respectively, and water vapor as oxidant. Various numbers n of DEZ and m TMA cycles was used to obtain different [ZnO] n [Al2O3] m films, where n = 100 - 95, m = 1 - 5. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a predominantly (100) oriented polycrystalline phase for the ZnO:Al films with a low Al content (m = 1 - 3) and an amorphous structure for pure Al2O3. In ZnO:Al with a higher Al content (m = 4 - 6) the (100) reflection disappeared and the (002) peak increased. The resistivity of the films decreased with the increase in the Al content, reaching a minimum of 3.3×10-3 Ω cm at about 1.1 % Al2O3 for the [ZnO]99[Al2O3]2 sample; for higher dopant concentrations, the resistivity increased because of the increased crystal inhomogeneity due to axis reorientation.

  11. Towards the development of new phosphors with reduced content of rare earth elements: Structural and optical characterization of Ce:Tb: Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriu, D.; Stagi, L.; Carbonaro, C.M.; Corpino, R.; Casula, M.F.; Ricci, P.C.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. • Al2SiO5 matrix is free from Rare earths (critical raw materials). • Doping the matrix with Ce and Tb we obtain an efficient green emitter. • Cerium acts as sensitizer for Terbium emission. - Abstract: A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. Al2SiO5 samples, doped with rare earths (Ce, Tb single doped and co-doped) are proposed as good prospect for the development of new UV–vis converter with reduced content of rare earths elements. Structural characterization by Raman, XRD spectroscopy and TEM imaging reveals the sillimanite phase and nano sized dimension of the investigated powders. Optical characterization by steady time and time resolved emission spectroscopy for the single doped and co-doped samples allows to identify an efficient energy transfer from Ce to Tb ions under near UV excitation wavelength. The intense green emission observed in the Ce:Tb co-doped Al2SiO5 system suggests its potential application as efficient blue pumped green emitter phosphor to be exploited for white LED: to this purpose we tested the compound in combination with a red emitting doping ion recording for Ce:Tb:Cr:ASO system a correlated color temperature of 6720 K.

  12. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:26870060

  13. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum).

  14. An increase in the electron mobility in the two-barrier AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure as a result of introduction of thin InAs barriers for polar optical phonons into the GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Pozela, Yu. Pozela, K.; Juciene, V.; Balakauskas, S.; Evtikhiev, V. P.; Schkolnik, A. S.; Storasta, Yu.; Mekys, A.

    2007-12-15

    Confinement and localization of optical phonons in narrow phonon wells with thin phonon barriers decreases the rate of electron-phonon scattering by polar optical phonons by a factor of many times. An increase in mobility and drift velocity of electrons is experimentally observed in strong electric fields upon introduction of thin phonon barriers into the AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well.

  15. Optical properties of Al-CdO nano-clusters thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, I. S.; Salem, G. F.; Abd El-sadek, M. S.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-12-01

    The aluminum doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Al) thin films were grown onto glass substrates by sol-gel spin-coating method. The structural properties of undoped and Al-doped CdO thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy. AFM results reveal that the studied CdO films were formed from the nano-clusters. The optical transmittance of undoped and Al-doped CdO is decreased with increasing Al contents. The optical band gaps of the CdO films were varied from 2.54 eV to 2.32 eV with increasing Al dopants. The width of localized states in the optical band gap of the films is increased with increasing Al content. The improvement of the optical constant of Al-doped CdO has potential applications as transparent conducting oxide for different optoelectronic device applications.

  16. Influence of growth conditions on Al incorporation to Al xGa 1-xN ( x>0.4) grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Bing; Aoki, Masakazu; Katsuno, Takuya; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Shibata, Tomohiko

    2007-01-01

    MOVPE growth conditions (e.g. growth temperature, growth rates, V/III ratio, and TMA/(TMA+TMG) ratio) effect on the Al incorporation into AlGaN were systemically investigated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the structural, compositional and optical properties of AlGaN. The results showed that at the same growth temperature, Al incorporation efficiency is very high even if the ratio of TMA/(TMA+TMG) is relatively small. Moreover, the Al concentration in solid AlGaN increased with a increase of growth temperature. The NH 3 flow rate has little effect on the Al content in AlGaN and the Al incorporation efficiency was reduced with an increase in growth rate.

  17. Increasing the sensitivity of the spectrophotometric determinations of the oxygen content in YBCO superconducting samples using the I(3-)-starch compound.

    PubMed

    Nedeltcheva, Tsvetanka K; Georgieva, Stela Iv; Vladimirova, Latinka K; Stoyanova-Ivanova, Angelina K

    2009-03-15

    The conditions for formation of the I(3)(-)-starch compound and measuring its absorbance have been found, and a spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of the oxygen content in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(y) superconducting bulk samples. The method involves the following stages: a decomposition of the sample in an acid medium in the presence of iodide ions under inert atmosphere; formation of a complex between Cu(II) and glycine; binding the I(3)(-)-complex with a starch and the absorbance measurement of the colored I(3)(-)-starch compound. The coefficient of the active oxygen is calculated by the ratio of the absorbances of two solutions and the method does not require both calibration and precise measuring sample mass. The accuracy of the results is confirmed applying the comparative spectrophotometric method that uses the yellow I(3)(-)-complex. The precision of the results evaluated by the relative standard deviation is 2%. The developed method is sensitive and allows a sample mass about 2mg to be used. The analysis is rapid and requires a simple and inexpensive apparatus. Thus the new method would be useful for an express analytical control of the oxygen content of YBCO-superconducting materials produced for the electronics.

  18. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  19. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  20. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  1. Establishing a physiological environment for visualized in vitro brain slice recordings by increasing oxygen supply and modifying aCSF content

    PubMed Central

    Hájos, Norbert; Mody, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    Our insights into the basic characteristics of neuronal function were significantly advanced by combining the in vitro slice technique with the visualization of neurons and their processes. The visualization through water immersion objectives requires keeping slices submerged in recording chambers where delivering artificial cerebro-spinal fluid (aCSF) at flow rates of 2–3 ml/min results in a limited oxygen supply [Hájos N, Ellender TJ, Zemankovics R, Mann EO, Exley R, Cragg SJ, et al. Maintaining network activity in submerged hippocampal slices: importance of oxygen supply. Eur J Neurosci 2009;29:319–27]. Here we review two methods aimed at providing sufficient oxygen levels to neurons in submerged slices to enable high energy consuming processes such as elevated firing rates or network oscillations. The use of these methods may also influence the outcome of other electrophysiological experiments in submerged slices including the study of intercellular signaling pathways. In addition, we also emphasize the importance of various aCSF constituents used in in vitro experiments. PMID:19524611

  2. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  3. Increase in the diffusion length of minority carriers in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N alloys ({sub x} = 0–0.1) fabricated by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, T. V. Gilinsky, A. M.; Mansurov, V. G.; Protasov, D. Yu.; Kozhuhov, A. S.; Yakimov, E. B.; Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2015-10-15

    The room-temperature diffusion length of minority carriers in n-Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0001) substrates used in structures for ultraviolet photodetectors is studied. Measurements were performed using the spectral dependence of the photocurrent recorded in a built-in p–n junction for thin samples and using the induced electron-current procedure for films up to 2 µm thick. The results show that the hole diffusion length in n-AlGaN films is 120–150 nm, which is larger than in GaN films grown under similar growth conditions by a factor of 3–4. This result can be associated with the larger lateral sizes characteristic of hexagonal columns in AlGaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. No increase in the hole diffusion length is observed for thicker films.

  4. The atrzf1 mutation of the novel RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase increases proline contents and enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun-Woo; Min, Ji-Hee; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2013-04-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to proteins plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular function through biological events involving abiotic or biotic stress responses, immune responses, and apoptosis. Here, we characterize the biological function of the Arabidopsis thaliana RING Zinc Finger 1 (AtRZF1) in dehydration response. AtRZF1 was significantly reduced by drought stress. The atrzf1 mutant was less sensitive to osmotic stress than the wild-type during early seedling development, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing AtRZF1 were hypersensitive, indicating that AtRZF1 negatively regulates drought-mediated control of early seedling development. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AtRZF1 gene was very significantly influential in drought sensitive parameters including proline content, water loss, membrane ion leakage and the expression of dehydration stress-related genes. AtRZF1 is a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase, and its conserved C3H2C3-type RING domain is likely important for the biological function of AtRZF1 in drought response. Together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase AtRZF1 is an important regulator of water deficit stress during early seedling development.

  5. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    PubMed

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions.

  6. Variation and optimization of acid-dissolved aluminum content in stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le-chen; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min; Zhang, Chao-jie

    2016-04-01

    As a key step in secondary refining, the deoxidation process in clean stainless steel production is widely researched by many scholars. In this study, vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD) deoxidation refining in a 40-t electric arc furnace + VOD + ingot casting process was analyzed and optimized on the basis of Al deoxidation of stainless steel and thermodynamic equilibrium reactions between the slag and steel. Under good stirring conditions in VOD, the deoxidation reaction reaches equilibrium rapidly, and the oxygen activity in the bulk steel is controlled by the slag composition and Al content. A basicity of 3-5 and an Al content greater than 0.015wt% in the melt resulted in an oxygen content less than 0.0006wt%. In addition, the dissolved oxygen content decreased slightly when the Al content in the steel was greater than 0.02wt%. Because of the equilibrium of the Si-O reaction between the slag and steel, the activity of SiO2 will increase while the Si content increases; thus, the Si content should be lowered to enable the formation of a high-basicity slag. A high-basicity, low-Al2O3 slag and an increased Si content will reduce the Al consumption caused by SiO2 reduction.

  7. Increased ceramide content and NFkB signaling may contribute to the attenuation of anabolic signaling after resistance exercise in aged males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most fundamental adaptive physiological events is the response of skeletal muscle to high-intensity resistance exercise, resulting in increased protein synthesis and ultimately larger muscle mass. However, muscle growth in response to contraction is attenuated in older humans. Impaired co...

  8. Bragg Reflector-Induced Increased Nonradiative Lifetime in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)/Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) Double Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the substrate and the DHs increases the GaAs nonradiative lifetime. The fractional increase in the nonradiative lifetime varies with the MBE growth ...photon recycling effects. However, the effect of the growth of the BR on the deep level trap density of the GaAs active layer that determines the...immediately after excitation at a low intensity, low-injection regime conditions 4 exist and a single exponential decay is observed. The

  9. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied.

  10. Microstructure and Properties of FeAlCrNiMo x High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. C.; Dou, D.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Li, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    FeAlCrNiMo x high-entropy alloys were prepared. The effect of Mo content on the microstructure and the properties of the alloys were investigated. When the Mo content was 0.1, the alloys were composed of single BCC solid solution; when Mo content reaches 0.25, the alloys were composed of BCC solid solution and ordered B2 solid solution. When Mo content is more than 0.75, some σ phases emerged. The volume fraction of the second phase increases with the increasing Mo content, and the crystal grains became coarsening. The yield strength, fracture strength, and hardness increase with the increasing Mo content and reach 2252, 2612 MPa, and 1006 Hv, respectively. The magnetic transformation undergoes from the ferromagnetism to paramagnetism with the increasing Mo content. The saturation intensity and remnant magnetism are decreased with the increasing Mo content.

  11. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  12. Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Yuan, Bing; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Qi; Leng, Ping

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during tomato fruit ripening. To study the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by ABA, the SlNCED1 gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis, was suppressed in tomato plants by transformation with an RNA interference (RNAi) construct driven by a fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20-50% of that in control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to the carbon that normally channels to free ABA as well as the ABA metabolite accumulation during ripening to be partially blocked. Therefore, this 'backlogged' carbon transformed into the carotenoid pathway in the RNAi lines resulted in increased assimilation and accumulation of upstream compounds in the pathway, chiefly lycopene and β-carotene. Fruit of all RNAi lines displayed deep red coloration compared with the pink colour of control fruit. The decrease in endogenous ABA in these transgenics resulted in an increase in ethylene, by increasing the transcription of genes related to the synthesis of ethylene during ripening. In conclusion, ABA potentially regulated the degree of pigmentation and carotenoid composition during ripening and could control, at least in part, ethylene production and action in climacteric tomato fruit.

  13. Muscle Glycogen Depletion Following 75-km of Cycling Is Not Linked to Increased Muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA Expression and Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, David C.; Zwetsloot, Kevin A.; Lomiwes, Dominic D.; Meaney, Mary P.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine response to heavy exertion varies widely for unknown reasons, and this study evaluated the relative importance of glycogen depletion, muscle damage, and stress hormone changes on blood and muscle cytokine measures. Cyclists (N = 20) participated in a 75-km cycling time trial (168 ± 26.0 min), with blood and vastus lateralis muscle samples collected before and after. Muscle glycogen decreased 77.2 ± 17.4%, muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA increased 18.5 ± 2.8−, 45.3 ± 7.8−, and 8.25 ± 1.75-fold, and muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein increased 70.5 ± 14.1%, 347 ± 68.1%, and 148 ± 21.3%, respectively (all, P < 0.001). Serum myoglobin and cortisol increased 32.1 ± 3.3 to 242 ± 48.3 mg/mL, and 295 ± 27.6 to 784 ± 63.5 nmol/L, respectively (both P < 0.001). Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 0.42 ± 0.07 to 18.5 ± 3.8, 4.07 ± 0.37 to 17.0 ± 1.8, and 96.5 ± 3.7 to 240 ± 21.6 pg/mL, respectively (all P < 0.001). Increases in muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA were unrelated to any of the outcome measures. Muscle glycogen depletion was related to change in plasma IL-6 (r = 0.462, P = 0.040), with change in myoglobin related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.582, P = 0.007) and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.457, P = 0.043), and muscle MCP-1 protein (r = 0.588, P = 0.017); cortisol was related to plasma IL-8 (r = 0.613, P = 0.004), muscle IL-8 protein (r = 0.681, P = 0.004), and plasma MCP-1 (r = 0.442, P = 0.050). In summary, this study showed that muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA expression after 75-km cycling was unrelated to glycogen depletion and muscle damage, with change in muscle glycogen related to plasma IL-6, and changes in serum myoglobin and cortisol related to the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1. PMID:27729872

  14. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  15. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kanegae, Minoru; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-09-28

    It is well known that ingestion of a protein source is effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis after exercise. In addition, there are numerous reports on the impact of leucine and leucine-rich whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. However, there is only limited information on the effects of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of WPH and amino acids on muscle protein synthesis and the initiation of translation in skeletal muscle during the post-exercise phase. Male Sprague–Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO. WPH also caused a significant increase in FSR compared with AA. Post-exercise ingestion of WPH caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of mTOR levels compared with AA or CHO. In addition, WPH caused greater phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 than AA and CHO. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma amino acid levels following supplementation with either AA or WPH. These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation.

  16. Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Li; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Lian, Guo-Qi; Blachier, Francois; Geng, Mei-Mei; Yin, Yu-Long

    2014-09-01

    The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia). Soybean oligosaccharide supplementation also increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acid in the intestinal lumen, and it reduced (P < .05) the numbers of bacteria with pathogenic potential (e.g., Escherichia coli, Clostridium, and Streptococcus) and the concentration of several protein-derived catabolites (e.g., isobutyrate, isovalerate, and ammonia). In addition, SBOS supplementation increased (P < .05) expression of zonula occludens 1 messenger RNA, and it decreased (P < .05) expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 8 messenger RNA in the ileum and colon. These findings suggest that SBOS supplementation modifies the intestinal ecosystem in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets and has potentially beneficial effects on the gut.

  17. Colonic insult impairs lymph flow, increases cellular content of the lymph, alters local lymphatic micro-environment and leads to sustained inflammation in the rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Walter; Wang, Wei; Zawieja, Scott D.; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves; Newell Rogers, M. Karen; Zawieja, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic dysfunction has been linked to inflammation since the 1930’s. Lymphatic function in the gut and mesentery is grossly underexplored in models of IBD despite the use of lymphatic occlusion in early models of IBD. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune system is a hallmark of TNBS-induced inflammation and is linked to disruption of the intrinsic lymph pump. Recent identification of crosstalk between lymphatic vessel resident immune cells and regulation of lymphatic vessel contractility underscore the importance of the timing of lymphatic dysfunction during tissue inflammation in response to TNBS. Methods To evaluate lymphatic function in TNBS induced inflammation, lymph was collected and flow measured from mesenteric lymphatics. Cellularity and cytokine profile of the lymph was also measured. Histopathology was performed to determine severity of injury and immunofluorescent staining of the mesentery was done to evaluate changes in the population of immune cells that reside near and on gastro-intestinal collecting lymphatics. Results Lymph transport fell 24hrs after TNBS administration and began recovering at 72hrs. Significant reduction of lymph flow preceded significant increase in histopathological score and occurred simultaneously with increased MPO activity. These changes were preceded by increased MHCII+ cells surrounding mesenteric lymphatics leading to an altered lymphatic environment that would favor dysfunction. Conclusions Alterations in environmental factors that effect lymphatic function occur before the development of gross GI inflammation. Reduced lymphatic function in TNBS-mediated inflammation is likely an early factor in the development of injury and that recovery of function is associated with resolution of inflammation. PMID:25939039

  18. Use of laboratory anaerobic digesters to simulate the increase of treatment rate in full-scale high nitrogen content sewage sludge and co-digestion biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing feedstock treatment rate on the performance of full-scale anaerobic digestion using laboratory-scale reactors with digestate and feedstock from full-scale digesters. The studied nitrogen-containing feedstocks were i) a mixture of industrial by-products and pig slurry, and ii) municipal sewage sludge, which digestion was studied at 41 and 52°C, respectively. This study showed the successful reduction of hydraulic retention times from 25 and 20days to around 15days, which increased organic loading rates from 2 to 3.5kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)d and 4 to 6kgVS/m(3)d. As a result, the optimum retention time in terms of methane production and VS removal was 10-15% lower than the initial in the full-scale digesters. Accumulation of acids during start-up of the co-digestion reactor was suggested to be connected to the high ammonium nitrogen concentration and intermediate temperature of 41°C.

  19. Early Induction of Apple Fruitlet Abscission Is Characterized by an Increase of Both Isoprene Emission and Abscisic Acid Content12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giulia, Eccher; Alessandro, Botton; Mariano, Dimauro; Andrea, Boschetti; Benedetto, Ruperti; Angelo, Ramina

    2013-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) fruitlet abscission represents an interesting model system to study the early phases of the shedding process, during which major transcriptomic changes and metabolic rearrangements occur within the fruit. In apple, the drop of fruits at different positions within the cluster can be selectively magnified through chemical thinners, such as benzyladenine and metamitron, acting as abscission enhancers. In this study, different abscission potentials were obtained within the apple fruitlet population by means of the above-cited thinners. A metabolomic study was conducted on the volatile organic compounds emitted by abscising fruitlets, allowing for identification of isoprene as an early marker of abscission induction. A strong correlation was also observed between isoprene production and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in the fruit cortex, which were shown to increase in abscising fruitlets with respect to nonabscising ones. Transcriptomic evidence indicated that abscission-related ABA is biologically active, and its increased biosynthesis is associated with the induction of a specific ABA-responsive 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene. According to a hypothetical model, ABA may transiently cooperate with other hormones and secondary messengers in the generation of an intrafruit signal leading to the downstream activation of the abscission zone. The shedding process therefore appears to be triggered by multiple interdependent pathways, whose fine regulation, exerted within a very short temporal window by both endogenous and exogenous factors, determines the final destiny of the fruitlets. PMID:23444344

  20. Influence of Ti and V substitution for Al on the properties of Nd 60Fe 30Al 10 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, N.; Luong, N. H.; Huu, C. X.; Thep, N. T.; Anh, H. D.

    2003-06-01

    Systems with compositions Nd 60Fe 30Al 10- xTi x and Nd 60Fe 30Al 10- xV x ( x=2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) have been prepared by arc melting and copper mold suction-casting. The cast surface of the samples is partially crystalline. At increasing the Ti or V content, the crystalline fraction in the samples increases and for x=10, the alloys are fully crystalline. Melting temperatures also increase with increasing Ti or V content in the samples. All samples, some of them in a partly crystalline state, exhibit good hard magnetic properties at room temperature. With increasing Ti or V content, the magnetization continuously decreases, whereas both the coercivity and the Curie temperature increase. Thermomagnetic curves measured for all samples at low field exhibit an interesting shape. The temperature dependence of the coercivity of the samples has been determined.

  1. Prevalence of marijuana use does not differentially increase among youth after states pass medical marijuana laws: Commentary on Stolzenberg et al. (2015) and reanalysis of US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Mauro, Christine; Hasin, Deborah S.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerda, Magdalena; Martins, Silvia S.; Feng, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on marijuana use in the USA, particularly among youth. The article by Stolzenberg et al. (2015) “The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use” concludes that “implementation of medical cannabis laws increase juvenile cannabis use”. This result is opposite to the findings of other studies that analysed the same US National Survey on Drug Use in Households data as well as opposite to studies analysing other national data which show no increase or even a decrease in youth marijuana use after the passage of MML. We provide a replication of the Stolzenberg et al. results and demonstrate how the comparison they are making is actually driven by differences between states with and without MML rather than being driven by pre and post-MML changes within states. We show that Stolzenberg et al. do not properly control for the fact that states that pass MML during 2002–2011 tend to already have higher past-month marijuana use before passing the MML in the first place. We further show that when within-state changes are properly considered and pre-MML prevalence is properly controlled, there is no evidence of a differential increase in past-month marijuana use in youth that can be attributed to state MML. PMID:26895950

  2. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  3. Effect of Al2O3 on the Crystallization of Mold Flux for Casting High Al Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-06-01

    In order to lower the weight of automotive bodies for better fuel-efficiency and occupant safety, the demand for high Al-containing advanced high strength steel, such as transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity steel, is increasing. However, high aluminum content in steels would tend to significantly affect the properties of mold flux during the continuous casting process. In this paper, a kinetic study of the effect of Al2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of mold flux was conducted by using the single hot thermocouple technique and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model combined with the Arrhenius Equation. The results suggested that Al2O3 behaves as an amphoteric oxide in the crystallization process of mold flux. The precipitated phases of mold flux change from cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2) into nepheline (NaAlSiO4) and CaF2, and then into gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) with the increase of Al2O3 content. The kinetics study of the isothermal crystallization process indicated that the effective crystallization rate ( k) and Avrami exponent ( n) also first increased and then decreased with the increase of Al2O3 content. The values for the crystallization activation energy of mold flux with different Al2O3 contents were E R0.8A7 = 150.76 ± 17.89 kJ/mol, E R0.8A20 = 136.43 ± 6.48 kJ/mol, E R0.8A30 = 108.63 ± 12.25 kJ/mol and E R0.8A40 = 116.15 ± 8.17 kJ/mol.

  4. Analysis on Thermal Conductivity of Graphite/Al Composite by Experimental and Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, C.; Bai, H.; Tao, P. F.; Jiang, N.; Wang, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphite/Al composites were fabricated by vacuum hot pressing technology in this study. The main factors affecting the thermal conductivity (TC) of graphite/Al composites were deeply investigated by experimental and modeling study. The results showed that the TC of graphite/Al composite can be improved via designing the preferred orientation of graphite flakes, selecting graphite flakes with large diameter, increasing the content of graphite flakes in graphite/Al composite and solving the poor wettability between Al and graphite. The modified model can well predict the heat transfer behavior of graphite/Al composite.

  5. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhangwei; Wu, Margaret; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Baker, Ian

    2016-06-13

    The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.

  6. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production.

  7. Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks in nanowires with 240–350 nm emission

    SciTech Connect

    Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R.; Monroy, E.

    2014-12-15

    We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.

  8. Intense interval training in healthy older adults increases skeletal muscle [(3)H]ouabain-binding site content and elevates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform abundance in Type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; Murphy, Robyn M; Petersen, Aaron C; Perry, Ben D; Hedges, Christopher P; Anderson, Mitchell J; McKenna, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Young adults typically adapt to intense exercise training with an increased skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) content, concomitant with reduced extracellular potassium concentration [K(+)] during exercise and enhanced exercise performance. Whether these changes with longitudinal training occur in older adults is unknown and was investigated here. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD) were randomized to either 12 weeks of intense interval training (4 × 4 min at 90-95% peak heart rate), 3 days/week (IIT, n = 8); or no exercise controls (n = 7). Before and after training, participants completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until a rating of perceived exertion of 17 (very hard) on a 20-point scale was attained, with measures of antecubital venous [K(+)]v Participants underwent a resting muscle biopsy prior to and at 48-72 h following the final training session. After IIT, the peak exercise work rate (25%), oxygen uptake (16%) and heart rate (6%) were increased (P < 0.05). After IIT, the peak exercise plasma [K(+)]v tended to rise (P = 0.07), while the rise in plasma [K(+)]v relative to work performed (nmol.L(-1)J(-1)) was unchanged. Muscle NKA content increased by 11% after IIT (P < 0.05). Single fiber measurements, increased in NKA α2 isoform in Type II fibers after IIT (30%, P < 0.05), with no changes to the other isoforms in single fibers or homogenate. Thus, intense exercise training in older adults induced an upregulation of muscle NKA, with a fiber-specific increase in NKA α2 abundance in Type II fibers, coincident with increased muscle NKA content and enhanced exercise performance.

  9. The aurora, Mars, and more! Increasing science content in elementary grades through art and literacy programs in earth and space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. One unintended result is that teachers in grades where science is tested must play catch-up with students for them to be successful on the assessment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy, social studies, and math into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Dancing Lights program, developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, is a science, art, and literacy program about the aurora designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. It mirrors other successful literacy programs and will provide a basis for the literacy program being developed for the upcoming MAVEN mission to Mars. We will present early findings, as well as "lessons learned" during our development and implementation of the Dancing Lights program and will highlight our goals for the MAVEN mission literacy program.

  10. Increasing throughput and information content for in vitro drug metabolism experiments using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Castro-Perez, Jose; Plumb, Robert; Granger, Jennifer H; Beattie, Iain; Joncour, Karine; Wright, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The field of drug metabolism has been revolutionized by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) applications with new technologies such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight (ToF) instrumentation. Over the years, these developments have often relied on the improvements to the mass spectrometer hardware and software, which has allowed users to benefit from lower levels of detection and ease-of-use. One area in which the development pace has been slower is in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the case of metabolite identification, where there are many challenges due to the complex nature of the biological matrices and the diversity of the metabolites produced, there is a need to obtain the most accurate data possible. Reactive or toxic metabolites need to be detected and identified as early as possible in the drug discovery process, in order to reduce the very costly attrition of compounds in late-phase development. High-resolution, exact mass measurement plays a very important role in metabolite identification because it allows the elimination of false positives and the determination of non-trivial metabolites in a much faster throughput environment than any other standard current methodology available to this field. By improving the chromatographic resolution, increased peak capacity can be achieved with a reduction in the number of co-eluting species leading to superior separations. The overall enhancement in the chromatographic resolution and peak capacity is transferred into a net reduction in ion suppression leading to an improvement in the MS sensitivity. To investigate this, a number of in vitro samples were analyzed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system, with columns packed with porous 1.7 mum particles, coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. This technique showed very clear examples for fundamental gains in sensitivity, chromatographic resolution and speed of

  11. First-principles study of Ni-Al intermetallic compounds under various temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhiqin; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Tian, Jinzhong; Han, Peide

    2017-03-01

    The pressure dependence behaviors of structural and mechanical properties as well as the effect of temperature on thermodynamic properties of Ni-Al ordered intermetallic compounds (i. e. Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, NiAl, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3) are investigated in details by implementing first-principles calculations. The calculated lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are well in agreement with available experimental and theoretical values at zero pressure. All the compounds are mechanically stable with pressure going up to 50 GPa, and the volume change resistance of nickel aluminum alloys can be improved by increasing pressure and Ni concentration. The shear deformation resistance, elastic stiffness and microhardness of nickel aluminum alloys can be strengthened by increasing the content of Ni5Al3 and Ni2Al3, and pressure can also enhance these properties of Ni5Al3, NiAl and Ni2Al3. The ductility of Ni3Al, Ni5Al3 and NiAl can be improved by increasing pressure, while brittle nature turns into ductile nature in 20-30 GPa and 10-20 GPa for Ni2Al3 and NiAl3, respectively. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy of Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3 enhances with pressure, while NiAl shows few change with pressure increasing. In addition, Ni3Al is the most sensitive to pressure change among considered compounds. Finally, the Debye temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity of these compounds are calculated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model in pressure ranging from 0 to 50 GPa and temperature ranging from 0 to 1200 K to elucidate the relationships between thermodynamic parameters and temperature under various pressure. The results are helpful insights into the study of nickel aluminum alloys.

  12. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  13. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications. Differential diagnosis Systemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis. Management Treatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, β-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival. Prognosis Survival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor), the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment. PMID:22909024

  14. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  15. Poly(GR) in C9ORF72-Related ALS/FTD Compromises Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Lu, Yubing; Gendron, Tania F; Karydas, Anna; Tran, Helene; Yang, Dejun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Miller, Bruce L; Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-10-19

    GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common genetic cause of both ALS and FTD. To uncover underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we found that DNA damage was greater, in an age-dependent manner, in motor neurons differentiated from iPSCs of multiple C9ORF72 patients than control neurons. Ectopic expression of the dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein (GR)80 in iPSC-derived control neurons increased DNA damage, suggesting poly(GR) contributes to DNA damage in aged C9ORF72 neurons. Oxidative stress was also increased in C9ORF72 neurons in an age-dependent manner. Pharmacological or genetic reduction of oxidative stress partially rescued DNA damage in C9ORF72 neurons and control neurons expressing (GR)80 or (GR)80-induced cellular toxicity in flies. Moreover, interactome analysis revealed that (GR)80 preferentially bound to mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, poly(GR) in C9ORF72 neurons compromises mitochondrial function and causes DNA damage in part by increasing oxidative stress, revealing another pathogenic mechanism in C9ORF72-related ALS and FTD.

  16. The influence of the iron content on the reductive decomposition of A3-xFexAl2Si3O12 garnets (A = Mg, Mn; 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 2.85)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Claudia; Filip, Jan; Mashlan, Miroslav; Zboril, Radek

    2014-10-01

    Thermally-induced reductive decomposition of natural iron-bearing garnets of the almandine-pyrope and almandine-spessartine series were studied at temperatures up to 1200 °C (heating rate of 10 °C/min) under atmosphere of forming gas (10% of H2 in N2). Crystallochemical formula of the studied garnet was calculated as VIII( A3-xFex2+)VI( Al , Fe3+)2Si3O12, where the amount of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites is negligible with the exception of pyrope, A = Mg, Mn, and 0.47 ≤ x ≤ 2.85. The observed decomposition temperature, determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, is greater than 1000 °C in all cases and showed almost linear dependence on the iron content in the dodecahedral sites of the studied garnets, with the exception of garnet with a near-pyrope composition (Prp80Alm20). The initial garnet samples and decomposition products were characterized in details by means of X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We found that all studied garnets have common decomposition products such as metallic iron (in general, rounded particles below 4 μm) and Fe-spinel; the other identified decomposition products depend on starting chemical composition of the garnet: Fe-cordierite, olivine (fayalite or tephroite), cristobalite, pyroxene (enstatite or pigeonite), and anorthite. Anorthite and pigeonite were only present in garnets with Ca in the dodecahedral site. All the identified phases were usually well crystallized.

  17. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  18. The Strategic Association between Enterprise Content Management and Decision Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alalwan, Jaffar Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the increasing information overload and with the structured and unstructured data complexity, many organizations have implemented enterprise content management (ECM) systems. Published research on ECM so far is very limited and reports on ECM implementations have been scarce until recently (Tyrvainen et al. 2006). However, the little…

  19. U-Mo/Al-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M. C.; Lemoine, P.

    2010-04-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/Al interfaces between U-Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/Al-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the Al matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/Al-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 °C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the Al-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/Al-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the Al-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the Al alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20, when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6Mo 4Al 43. For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3(Si, Al) 5 + U(Al, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20. On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and Al-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).

  20. Characteristic coordination structure around Nd Ions in sol-gel-derived Nd-Al-codoped silica glasses.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Fuji; Kajihara, Koichi; Kaneko, Ken; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-07-24

    Al codoping can improve the poor solubility of rare-earth ions in silica glasses. However, the mechanism is not well understood. The coordination structure around Nd ions in sol-gel-derived Nd-Al-codoped silica glasses with different Al content was investigated by optical and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. Both tetrahedral AlO4 and octahedral AlO6 units were observed around Nd ions as ligands. The average total number of these two types of ligands for each Nd(3+) ion was ∼ 2 irrespective of Al content and was larger by 1-2 orders of magnitude than that calculated for a uniform distribution of codopant ions (∼ 0.08-0.25). With increasing Al content, AlO4 units disappeared and AlO6 units became dominant. The preferential coordination of AlOx (x = 4, 6) units to Nd ions enabled the amount of Al necessary to dissolve Nd ions uniformly in silica glass at a relatively low temperature of 1150-1200 °C to be minimized, and the conversion of AlO4 units to AlO6 units around Nd ions caused the asymmetry of the crystal field at the Nd sites to increase and the site-to-site distribution to decrease.

  1. Combined Administration of Levetiracetam and Valproic Acid Attenuates Age Related Hyperactivity of CA3 Place Cells, Reduces Place Field Area, and Increases Spatial Information Content in Aged Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Robitsek, RJ; Ratner, MH; Stewart, TM; Eichenbaum, H; Farb, DH

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  2. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.

  3. Soybean resistance to stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) increases with exposure to solar UV-B radiation and correlates with isoflavonoid content in pods under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Jorge A; Mazza, Carlos A; Dillon, Francisco M; Chludil, Hugo D; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2015-05-01

    Solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a significant influence on trophic relationships in natural and managed ecosystems, affecting plant-insect interactions. We explored the effects of ambient UV-B radiation on the levels of herbivory by stink bugs (Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii) in field-grown soybean crops. The experiments included two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient and attenuated UV-B) and four soybean cultivars known to differ in their content of soluble leaf phenolics. Ambient UV-B radiation increased the accumulation of the isoflavonoids daidzin and genistin in the pods of all cultivars. Soybean crops grown under attenuated UV-B had higher numbers of unfilled pods and damaged seeds than crops grown under ambient UV-B radiation. Binary choice experiments with soybean branches demonstrated that stink bugs preferred branches of the attenuated UV-B treatment. We found a positive correlation between percentage of undamaged seeds and the contents of daidzin and genistin in pods. Our results suggest that constitutive and UV-B-induced isoflavonoids increase plant resistance to stink bugs under field conditions.

  4. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary Al–Si alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the Al–Si alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.4–0.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  5. Characterization of Al-As codoped p-type ZnO films by magnetron cosputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Park, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Kyu H.; Nam, Hyoung G.; Jung, Myunghee

    2008-04-01

    We report the preparation of Al-As codoped p-type ZnO films by rf magnetron cosputtering deposition. The p-type conductivity of the films was revealed by Hall measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence measurements after being annealed in O{sub 2}. It was observed by XPS that Al content increased with increasing AlAs target power from 80 to 160 W and reached a maximum value at an AlAs target power of 160 W. Hole concentration decreased with increasing Al content. With increasing AlAs target power greater than 160 W, the samples exhibit increases in As and O contents and decreases in Al and Zn contents, which contribute to the increase in hole concentration. A high hole concentration of 2.354x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, a low resistivity of 2.122x10{sup -2} {omega} cm, and a Hall mobility of 0.13 cm{sup 2}/V s for the films with high As content of 16.59% were obtained. XPS has also been used to address the unresolved issues related to the p-type formation mechanism of As-doped ZnO, supporting that the acceptor is As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn}.

  6. Significant elastic anisotropy in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi, Ferenc; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Rogstroem, Lina; Johansson, Mats P.; Oden, Magnus; Almer, Jonathan

    2010-12-06

    Strong compositional-dependent elastic properties have been observed theoretically and experimentally in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys. The elastic constant, C{sub 11}, changes by more than 50% depending on the Al-content. Increasing the Al-content weakens the average bond strength in the local octahedral arrangements resulting in a more compliant material. On the other hand, it enhances the directional (covalent) nature of the nearest neighbor bonds that results in greater elastic anisotropy and higher sound velocities. The strong dependence of the elastic properties on the Al-content offers new insight into the detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N alloys.

  7. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative.

  8. Kinetics and Properties of Micro Arc Oxidation Coatings Deposited on Commercial Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, L. Rama; Purnima, A. Sudha; Wasekar, Nitin P.; Sundararajan, G.

    2007-02-01

    The micro arc oxidation (MAO) technique is being increasingly recognized as a novel and ecofriendly means of depositing dense ceramic oxide coatings on Al and its alloys. In the present study, the deposition kinetics, surface roughness, morphology, phase distribution and the microhardness of the MAO coatings deposited on ten different commercially available Al substrates having widely differing chemical composition has been investigated. Further, the tribological properties of the coatings obtained on different Al alloys in comparison with the bare substrates have also been evaluated using dry sand abrasion, solid-particle erosion and pin-on-disc dry sliding wear tests. The results clearly demonstrate that the alloying elements added to the Al substrate substantially influence the MAO coating deposition kinetics and coating properties. In the case of Al-Si alloys, the coating deposition kinetics is non-linear and the Al6Si2O13 (mullite) is observed to form. With increasing Si content, the corresponding mullite phase also increases. Increasing mullite content in the coating adversely affects the tribological performance. Excepting Al-Si alloys, all other alloys investigated including commercial purity Al exhibit linear coating deposition kinetics. Of all the alloys investigated, Al-Li alloy exhibits the highest coating deposition rate and the 6061 T6 Al alloy exhibits the best coating properties.

  9. Content Wizard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola P.

    2001-01-01

    This classroom tip focuses on sustained-content language teaching. The game described--content wizard-- illustrates a practical technique for incorporating a range of language and academic skills into subject matter lessons for English-as-a-Second-Language learners. (Author/VWL)

  10. Combined Isothermal Titration and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Define Three-State Thermodynamics of fALS-Associated Mutant Apo SOD1 Dimers and an Increased Population of Folded Monomer.

    PubMed

    Broom, Helen R; Vassall, Kenrick A; Rumfeldt, Jessica A O; Doyle, Colleen M; Tong, Ming Sze; Bonner, Julia M; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-26

    Many proteins are naturally homooligomers, homodimers most frequently. The overall stability of oligomeric proteins may be described in terms of the stability of the constituent monomers and the stability of their association; together, these stabilities determine the populations of different monomer and associated species, which generally have different roles in the function or dysfunction of the protein. Here we show how a new combined calorimetry approach, using isothermal titration calorimetry to define monomer association energetics together with differential scanning calorimetry to measure total energetics of oligomer unfolding, can be used to analyze homodimeric unmetalated (apo) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and determine the effects on the stability of structurally diverse mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite being located throughout the protein, all mutations studied weaken the dimer interface, while concomitantly either decreasing or increasing the marginal stability of the monomer. Analysis of the populations of dimer, monomer, and unfolded monomer under physiological conditions of temperature, pH, and protein concentration shows that all mutations promote the formation of folded monomers. These findings may help rationalize the key roles proposed for monomer forms of SOD1 in neurotoxic aggregation in ALS, as well as roles for other forms of SOD1. Thus, the results obtained here provide a valuable approach for the quantitative analysis of homooligomeric protein stabilities, which can be used to elucidate the natural and aberrant roles of different forms of these proteins and to improve methods for predicting protein stabilities.

  11. Electrochemical properties and microstructure of Al/Pb-Sn anodes during copper electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Qin, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    Al/Pb-Sn composite anodes used in copper electrowinning are prepared by electro-deposition onto the aluminum Substrates in lead methanesulfonate electrolyte. Using potentiodynamic investigations, the information about corrosion resistance and oxygen reaction (OER) potential of these anodes in the lead dioxide region have been measured. The results show that with an increase of Sn content the OER potential and corrosion rate decrease. The SEM observations show that with an increase of Sn content the lead grain size increases. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that with an increase of Sn content the phase of β-PbO2 with lower corrosion rate and OER potential increases.

  12. Fabrication of biodegradable Zn-Al-Mg alloy: Mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H R; Hamzah, E; Low, H T; Kasiri-Asgarani, M; Farahany, S; Akbari, E; Cho, M H

    2017-04-01

    In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg2(Zn, Al)11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5MgAl-0.3MgAl-0.1MgAl. The cytotoxicity tests exhibited that the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy presents higher viability of MC3T3-E1 cell compared to the Zn-0.5Al alloy, which suggested good biocompatibility. The antibacterial activity result of both Zn-0.5Al and Zn-0.5Al-Mg alloys against Escherichia coli presented some antibacterial activity, while the Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg significantly prohibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Thus, Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg alloy with appropriate mechanical properties, low corrosion rate, good biocompatibility and antibacterial activities was believed to be a good candidate as a biodegradable implant material.

  13. The Effect of Iron Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçay, Tansel; Bayoğlu, Samet

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 alloy including various amounts (0.2 to 1.2 wt pct) of iron were investigated. The alloys were produced by conventional gravity sand casting method. In order to determine the effect of iron addition to A356, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM/EDS) were used for microstructural examinations, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out for phase characterization. Tensile tests were also conducted in order to determine effect of the Fe content on mechanical properties. It was found that as the Fe content of A356 was increased, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) was decreased and the morphology of Al-Si eutectic became finer. From XRD examinations, different iron-based intermetallic compounds (β-Al5FeSi and α-Al8Fe2Si) formations were observed. It was also observed that as iron content increased, α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallic was transformed into β-Al5FeSi intermetallic. The tensile test results revealed that tensile strength and elongation values were reduced by increasing Fe content. It was also determined that β-Al5FeSi intermetallics were more negatively effective on tensile strength than α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallics.

  14. The Effect of Iron Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçay, Tansel; Bayoğlu, Samet

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 alloy including various amounts (0.2 to 1.2 wt pct) of iron were investigated. The alloys were produced by conventional gravity sand casting method. In order to determine the effect of iron addition to A356, optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM/EDS) were used for microstructural examinations, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out for phase characterization. Tensile tests were also conducted in order to determine effect of the Fe content on mechanical properties. It was found that as the Fe content of A356 was increased, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) was decreased and the morphology of Al-Si eutectic became finer. From XRD examinations, different iron-based intermetallic compounds ( β-Al5FeSi and α-Al8Fe2Si) formations were observed. It was also observed that as iron content increased, α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallic was transformed into β-Al5FeSi intermetallic. The tensile test results revealed that tensile strength and elongation values were reduced by increasing Fe content. It was also determined that β-Al5FeSi intermetallics were more negatively effective on tensile strength than α-Al8Fe2Si intermetallics.

  15. Influence of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on the structure of erbium-doped borosilicate glasses and on their physical, thermal, optical and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bourhis, Kevin; Massera, Jonathan; Petit, Laeticia; Ihalainen, Heikki; Fargues, Alexandre; Cardinal, Thierry; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Dussauze, Marc; Rodriguez, Vincent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Roiland, Claire; Ferraris, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Reorganization of the glass structure induced by the addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Emission properties related to the presence of P or Al in the Er{sup 3+} coordination shell. • Declustering observed upon addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • No declustering upon addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The effect of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition in Er-doped borosilicate glasses on the physical, thermal, optical, and luminescence properties is investigated. The changes in these glass properties are related to the glass structure modifications induced by the addition of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and/or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which were probed by FTIR, {sup 11}B MAS NMR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Variations of the polymerization degree of the silicate tetrahedra and modifications in the {sup [3]}B/{sup [4]}B ratio are explained by a charge compensation mechanism due to the formation of AlO{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} groups and the formation of Al-O-P linkages in the glass network. From the absorption and luminescence properties of the Er{sup 3+} ions at 980 nm and 1530 nm, declustering is suspected for the highest P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations while for the highest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations no declustering is observed.

  16. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive.

  17. TRPV1 agonist monoacylglycerol increases UCP1 content in brown adipose tissue and suppresses accumulation of visceral fat in mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusaku; Tamura, Yasuko; Inayoshi, Kimiko; Narukawa, Masataka; Kobata, Kenji; Chiba, Hiroshige; Muraki, Etsuko; Tsunoda, Nobuyo; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The administration of such a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist as capsaicin, which is a pungent ingredient of red pepper, promotes energy metabolism and suppresses visceral fat accumulation. We have recently identified monoacylglycerols (MGs) having an unsaturated long-chain fatty acid as the novel TRPV1 agonist in foods. We investigated in this present study the effects of dietary MGs on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and on fat accumulation in mice fed with a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. The MG30 diet that substituted 30% of all lipids for MGs (a mixture of 1-oleoylglycerol, 1-linoleoylglycerol and 1-linolenoylglycerol) significantly increased the UCP1 content of IBAT and decreased the weight of epididymal white adipose tissue, and the serum glucose, total cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. The diet containing only 1-oleoylglycerol as MG also increased UCP1 expression in IBAT. MGs that activated TRPV1 also therefore induced the expression of UCP 1 and prevented visceral fat accumulation as well as capsaicin.

  18. Composition and solidification microstructure selection in the interdendritic matrix between primary Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, D.; Korgul, P.; Jones, H.

    1996-07-01

    The composition and constitution of matrix microstructure between plate-like Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in Bridgman-grown hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys has been determined as a function of alloy concentration C{sub 0} and growth velocity V in the ranges 2.5 < C{sub 0} < 28.1 wt%Fe and 0.01 < V < 5.0 mm/s. The transition at V = 0.1 mm/s from a fully eutectic matrix at C{sub 0} = 3.5 wt%Fe to one containing {alpha}Al dendrites at C{sub 0} {ge} 4.7 wt%Fe is attributed to growth temperatures of {alpha}Al dendrites that are higher than those of eutectic in a matrix of lower iron-content, which results from these conditions. The matrix eutectic changes from irregular {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to regular {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe with increasing V, the transition velocity increasing from 0.1 to 0.2 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 9.5 and 14 wt%Fe up to 0.35--1.0 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 18.7--28.1 wt%Fe. This increased transition velocity, compared with that for {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe at lower concentration, is indicative of a lower formation temperature for the {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe than the {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe eutectic.

  19. Effect of Al2O3 on the Viscosity and Structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-04-01

    The present paper provided a fundamental investigation on the effect of Al2O3 on the viscosity and structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO slags for the purpose of efficiently recycling the valuable elements from the steelmaking slags. The results show that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags slightly increases with increasing Al2O3 content. The degree of the polymerization (DOP) of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, is also found to increase with increasing Al2O3 content. It can be deduced that the increasing DOP can promote the formation of gehlenite phase (Ca2Al2SiO7), thus facilitating the formation of higher phosphorous (or vanadium) contained solid solution ( n'Ca2SiO4·Ca3((P or V)O4)2). As Al2O3 content increases up to a specific value, the charge compensating ions which present near [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra are not fully supplied due to the scarcity of Ca2+. In this case, the existing Fe3+ in the melt cannot completely form [FeO4]-tetrahedra and part of Fe3+ would form [FeO6]-octahedra to substitute Ca2+ to modify the slags.

  20. Magnetic and microstructural properties of Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites, with composition Ca0.6Sr0.1La0.3Fe12-xAlxO19 (0≤x≤1.4), have been prepared using the conventional ceramic techniques. The phase composition of the magnetic powders was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data show that the magnetic powders with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.8 show α-Fe2O3 as a second phase, while the magnetic powders with x from 1.0 to 1.4 consist of pure magnetoplumbite without any other impurity phases. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe the morphologies of the magnetic powders. FE-SEM images of the magnetic powders show the hexagonal platelet-like shape. The magnetic properties of the magnetic powders were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The saturation magnetization (Ms) linearly decreases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4. While the remanent magnetization (Mr) first increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.2 and then decreases when Al content (x)≥0.2. However, the coercivity (Hc) increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4.

  1. Optimization of Al2O3 and Li3BO3 Content as Sintering Additives of Li7- x La2.95Ca0.05ZrTaO12 at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero-Navarro, Nataly Carolina; Miura, Akira; Higuchi, Mikio; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous effect of Al2O3 and Li3BO3 additions on sintering behavior and Li-ion conductivity of Li7- x La2.95Ca0.05ZrTaO12 (LLCZT) garnet electrolyte sintered at 900°C (10 h) is evaluated. The crystal phase and microstructure of the different composites were evaluated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Electrical properties of the composites with high relative densities (95%) were examined by impedance spectroscopy. The cubic phase was formed for LLCZT sintered with 0-0.21 mol of Al2O3 and 0.70 mol-0.80 mol of Li3BO3. The excess of Al2O3 (0.22 mol) led to the formation of secondary phases. SEM observation revealed the good interconnection between LLCZT grains and the distribution of the glassy phase formed by Li3BO3 and Al2O3. Effective combination of 0.21 mol of Al2O3 and 0.80 mol of Li3BO3 produced denser material with high relative density of 95% and high Li-ion conduction of 1 × 10-4 S/cm at 32°C.

  2. A Study of Pack Aluminizing Process for NiCrAlY Coatings Using Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Rong; Yang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Aluminizing process is widely used to provide additional Al deposition onto superalloy surface for enhanced oxidation and corrosion resistance. In this research, an aluminizing process—pack cementation process, is used to deposit Al onto the surface of NiCrAlY coatings for increasing environmental protection. The experiment is designed using Box-Behnken approach, in which three parameters, the Al content, Ni content of the pack powder, and the temperature of the process, are selected as factors; and the thickness and Al/Ni ratio of the coatings are selected as responses. The effects of the factors on the responses are analyzed and modeled empirically. It is found that these empirical models correlate well with the results from additional sets of experiment. These models can be used to produce aluminized NiCrAlY coatings with specific thicknesses and Al/Ni ratios.

  3. Evolution of Inclusions in Fe-13Cr Treated by CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Top Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Jun; Li, Jianmin; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of Al2O3 in the slag of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaF2 system on the cleanness of Fe-13Cr stainless steel deoxidized by ferrosilicon. Increasing the Al2O3 content in basicity = 2.28 slag can reduce the usage of CaF2 and benefit the obtainment of a good kinetic condition for inclusion removal, but over 21 pct would lead to a higher total oxygen content in the melt and make the inclusion composition more complex. It is found that increasing basicity in 16 pct Al2O3 slag would have a good deoxidation ability and accelerate the transformation from high Al2O3 inclusions to low melting point CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system inclusions, but basicity over 2.58 would lead to high content of [Al] in liquid steel, which would promote the formation of MgO-Al2O3 inclusions. Therefore, it is not suitable to add a high content of Al2O3 into high-basicity slag. Adding Al2O3 into slag of 2.28 in basicity until a content of 16 pct could achieve inclusion plastication within 45 minutes without Ca treatment, which has potential application in industrial production.

  4. Oxygen content tailored magnetic and electronic properties in cobaltite double perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Zach; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Aiping; Dowden, Paul; Mace, Brennan; Lü, Xujie; Jia, Quanxi; Chen, Chonglin

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen content in transition metal oxides is one of the most important parameters to control for the desired physical properties. Recently, we have systematically studied the oxygen content and property relationship of the double perovskite PrBaCo2O5.5+δ (PBCO) thin films deposited on the LaAlO3 substrates. The oxygen content in the films was varied by in-situ annealing in a nitrogen, oxygen, or ozone environment. Associated with the oxygen content, the out-of-plane lattice parameter progressively decreases with increasing oxygen content in the films. The saturated magnetization shows a drastic increase and resistivity is significantly reduced in the ozone annealed samples, indicating the strong coupling between physical properties and oxygen content. These results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of PBCO films are highly dependent on the oxygen contents, or the film with higher oxygen uptake has the largest magnetization.

  5. Characteristics of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition for silicon nanowire photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Han, Jin-Woo; Seo, Dae-Shik; Kim, Kwang-Young; Baek, Seong-Ho; Jang, Hwan Soo; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2012-07-01

    We report the structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films deposited on glass by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with various Al2O3 film contents for use as transparent electrodes. Unlike films fabricated by a sputtering method, the diffraction peak position of the films deposited by ALD progressively moved to a higher angle with increasing Al2O3 film content. This indicates that Zn sites were effectively replaced by Al, due to layer-by-layer growth mechanism of ALD process which is based on alternate self-limiting surface chemical reactions. By adjusting the Al2O3 film content, a ZnO:Al film with low electrical resistivity (9.84 x 10(-4) Omega cm) was obtained at an Al2O3 film content of 3.17%, where the Al concentration, carrier mobility, optical transmittance, and bandgap energy were 2.8 wt%, 11.20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 94.23%, and 3.6 eV, respectively. Moreover, the estimated figure of merit value of our best sample was 8.2 m7Omega(-1). These results suggest that ZnO:Al films deposited by ALD could be useful for electronic devices in which especially require 3-dimensional conformal deposition of the transparent electrode and surface passivation.

  6. Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Macrocomposites for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ceramics (high hardness, high stiffness, low thermal expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were...expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were fabricated by different processing approaches...the different MMCs. The matrix alloy, alumina volume fraction, densities, mechanical properties , and thermal properties are summarized in Table 2

  7. Development and High Temperature Property Evaluation of Ni-Co-Cr-Al Composite Electroforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Meenu; Siju; Balaraju, J. N.; Ravisankar, B.

    2015-05-01

    Ni-Co-Cr-Al composite electroforms were developed with cobalt content of 10 and 40 wt.%. Cr and Al nano-particles were suspended in sulphamate electrolyte and co-deposited in the Ni-Co matrices. The surface morphology was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope and the composition analyzed by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The oxidation resistance of the electroforms was studied from 600 to 1000 °C. The weight gain of Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al was less (better oxidation resistance) compared to Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al. The x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the oxidation product formed on the surface of Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al consisted of NiO and Al2O3, while Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al comprised oxides such as NiCo2O4, CrO3, CoO, NiO, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion behavior was investigated in 75%Na2SO4 + 25%NaCl environment at 800 °C. It was found that the hot corrosion resistance of the composite coating improved with increase in cobalt content. The probable composition suitable for high-temperature applications was found to be Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al.

  8. Reasons for reduced activities of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase in spite of increased contents of cytochrome P-450 in mature rat testis fetally irradiated with 60Co.

    PubMed

    Inano, H; Ishii-Ohba, H; Suzuki, K; Ikeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Pregnant rats received whole body irradiation with 2.6 Gy gamma-ray from a 60Co source at Day 20 of gestation. When pups were 4 months old, activities of electron transport system and steroid monooxygenase in tests were assayed. The content of total cytochrome P-450 in the irradiated testes had increased to 170% of that in non-irradiated rats, but NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity had reduced to 36% of the control. Also, amounts of cytochrome b5 in testicular microsomal fraction were decreased markedly after irradiation, but no significant change of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity was observed in the treated pups. Because both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase activities tended to be decreased by fetal irradiation, testosterone production from progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was reduced to about 30% of the control. From these results, it has been suggested that the testicular cytochrome P-450 is radioresistant but steroid monooxygenase activities are reduced after the fetal irradiation. We propose that the discrepancy arises from the marked decrement of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity.

  9. Interferon-resistant Daudi cells are deficient in interferon-alpha-induced ISGF3 alpha activation, but remain sensitive to the interferon-alpha-induced increase in ISGF3 gamma content.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Tovey, M G

    1993-10-01

    Low levels of the transcription factor ISGF3 alpha were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of untreated Daudi cells, which increased markedly following interferon (IFN) treatment. In contrast no ISGF3 alpha was detected in an IFN-resistant clone of Daudi cells, DIF8, and only low levels were detected in these cells after IFN-alpha treatment. High levels of ISGF3 were produced in vitro, however, by the addition of ISGF3 alpha to extracts of IFN-treated DIF8 cells, indicating that IFN is unable to produce substantial amounts of functional ISGF3 alpha in DIF8 cells. A second clone of IFN-resistant Daudi cells, DIF3, also exhibited defective ISGF3 alpha production, which was restored to normal in the subclone DIF3REV5 that had reverted to high IFN sensitivity. Thus, the antiproliferative effect of IFN on Daudi cells and derived clones is closely related to the level of ISGF3 present in the nucleus of these cells. IFN-alpha, however, also enhances the content of ISGF3 gamma in IFN-resistant cells as well as certain proteins of unknown function, raising the possibility that a second pathway of IFN-alpha signal transduction, distinct from the ISGF3 pathway, remains functional in both DIF8 and DIF3 cells.

  10. Formation Mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel with Limited Aluminum Content During the Low Basicity Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2016-02-01

    Pilot trails were carried out to study the formation mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions in tire cord steel. 48 samples were taken from 8 heats of liquid steel during secondary refining, which were subsequently examined by an automatic scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Characteristics of thousands of oxide inclusions at different refining stages were obtained, including their compositions, sizes, morphologies, etc. Based on the obtained information of inclusions, details during formation of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were revealed and a new mechanism was proposed, including their origin, formation, and evolution during the refining process. It was found that CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were initially originated from the CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which were formed during BOF tapping by the coalescence between MnO-SiO2 deoxidation products and the emulsified slag particles because of violent flow of steel. This can be well confirmed by the evaluation of the formation thermodynamics of CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which was proved very difficult to be produced by intrinsic reactions inside liquid steel. Because of chemical reactions between CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions and molten steel, they were mainly changed into CaO-SiO2-MnO-Al2O3-(MgO) and partially into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO), which may be detrimental to the cold drawing ability of coils. Based on this finding, improvements were made in industrial production during BOF tapping and secondary refining. The results indicated that such (CaO-SiO2)-based inclusions existed in conventional process were effectively decreased after the improvements.

  11. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  12. Conduction electron spin resonance in Mg 1 - x Al x B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likodimos, V.; Koutandos, S.; Pissas, M.; Papavassiliou, G.; Prassides, K.

    2003-01-01

    Conduction electron spin resonance is employed to study the interplay of the electronic and structural properties in the normal state of Mg 1 - x Al x B2 alloys as a function of Al-doping for 0 <= x <= 1. The x-dependence of the spin susceptibility reveals considerable reduction of the total density of states N(EF) with increasing Al concentration, complying with theoretical predictions for a predominant filling effect of the hole σ bands by electron doping. The CESR linewidth exhibits significant broadening, especially prominent in the high-Al-content region, indicative of the presence of enhanced structural disorder, consistent with the presence of compositional fluctuations.

  13. Constitution of pseudobinary hypoeutectic beta-NiAl + alpha-V alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, J. D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of pseudobinary eutectics between NiAl (beta) and V (alpha) at high temperatures was investigated as a possible way of improving the ductility and toughness of the alloy. It is found that a pseudobinary eutectic, characterized by a large beta+alpha field, is formed in the Ni-Al-V ternary system below about 1370 C. The high-temperature solubility of V in beta is about 14 percent, decreasing markedly with decreasing temperature and increasing Al content above 50 at. pct Al. The pseudobinary hypoeutectic exibits crack resistance under indentation loading.

  14. Effects of Al additives on growth of GaN polycrystals by the Na flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabayashi, Hiroki; Murakami, Kosuke; Matsuo, Daisuke; Honjo, Masatomo; Imanishi, Masayuki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the growth of GaN polycrystals using the Al-added Na flux method. We studied the effects of Al on accelerating the nucleation and purity of GaN polycrystals. The yields of GaN crystals grown in Al-added Na flux were dramatically increased from those in Al-free Na flux, and the polycrystals grown by the Al-added Na flux method were highly transparent. As observed in secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the Al content of the polycrystals was below the detection limit of 3 × 1016 atoms/cm3. From these results, the Al-added Na flux method is found to be appropriate for fabricating a large amount of GaN polycrystals without deteriorating the crystal quality.

  15. The Cultural Content in EFL Textbooks and What Teachers Need to Do about It (El contenido cultural en los textos de inglés y qué necesitan hacer los profesores al respecto)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the cultural content in three communicative English as a foreign language textbooks that are used as main instructional resources in the English classroom. The study examined whether the textbooks include elements of surface or deep culture, and the findings indicate that the textbooks contain only static and congratulatory…

  16. Al-26 and Be-10 production in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aylmer, D.; Bonanno, V.; Herzog, G. F.; Weber, H.; Klein, J.

    1988-01-01

    To compare the Al-26/Ne-21 ages with K-40/K-41 ages, the contents of Al-26 were determined in seven iron meteorites using accelerator mass spectrometry and the light noble gas contents were determined using conventional mass spectrometry, for samples for which these values were not available. In addition, contents of Be-10 were measured. Due to the presence of boron in the samples, the values of Al-26 were found to be at least 30 percent lower than the literature values obtained by low-level counting techniques, while the Be-10 values were 10-15 percent lower. The production rates of these nuclides at different He-4/Ne-21 ratios were estimated, showing that the increase in He-4/Ne-21 ratios corresponded with decreases in Al-26 and Be-10. It was shown that the exposure ages calculated from the Ne-21/Al-26 ratio cannot be calibrated so as to agree with both the K-40/K-41 ages and ages based on the shorter-lived nuclides Ar-39 and Cl-36.

  17. Tailoring structure and magnetic characteristics of strontium hexaferrite via Al doping engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Z.; Hai, Y. N.; Yao, B.; Xu, Y.; Shan, L.; Xu, L.; Tang, J. L.; Wang, Q. H.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging structure and magnetic properties of Al3+-modified SrFe12O19 M-type hexaferrite system (SrAlxFe12-xO19) had been studied in detail via doping engineering. With Al3+ ion nominal content ranging from 0 to 4 (0≤x≤4), the lattice parameters decrease due to the substitution of Fe3+ ions by smaller Al3+ ions, and the magnetization shows a continuous reduction with the increasing of Al content. For the coercivity, its value initially increases, reaching a maximum value of 16,876.9 Oe at x=3, and then reduces with the Al content further increase. When all the Fe3+ ions (x=4) are replaced by Al3+ ions, the net magnetic moment will be closed to zero, that will weaken the exchange interaction between Fe3+ ions, resulting in decrease of coercivity sharply and transformation ferrimagnetism into antiferromagnetism. The mechanism of the improvement of the magnetic properties induced by Al doping is discussed in the present work.

  18. Effect of tin addition on the distribution of phosphorus and metallic impurities in Si-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tianyu; Lai, Huixian; Sheng, Zhilin; Gan, Chuanhai; Xing, Pengfei; Luo, Xuetao

    2016-11-01

    Metallurgical grade silicon was purified through solvent refining method by adding tin to the Si-Al alloy. The distribution of phosphorus and metallic impurities in the resulting Si-Al-Sn melts was investigated. Compared with the primary Si and the eutectic αAl+Si, the phosphorus and metallic impurities were more distinctly distributed in the βSn phase, which was always accompanied by needle-like intermetallic β-Al5SiFe compounds. To improve the phosphorus and metallic impurity removal ratios, Si-Al-Sn ternary alloys with different composition were investigated. The phosphorus removal ratio increased with the aluminum and tin content in the Si-Al-Sn ternary alloy. Compared to increasing the Al content and keeping the Si/Sn ratio fixed, the impurity removal ratios were higher when the Sn content was increased to the same mass percentage and the Si/Al ratio was kept fixed in the Si-Al-Sn melt.

  19. Effect of magnesium on the aging behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu/Al2O3 metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ming-Chun; Chao, Chuen-Guang

    1996-07-01

    The effect of magnesium content on the aging behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy reinforced with alumina (A12O3) was studied by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and hardness measurement. The magnesium contents were studied in the range from 1.23 to 2.97 wt pct. The addition of magnesium was found to increase the coherent Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in com-posites. The apparent formation enthalpy of GP zones of composites (0.1 V f) was 0.932 cal/g for 1.23 wt pct magnesium content and 1.375 cal/g for 2.97 wt pct magnesium content. The precipitation time to achieve the maximum hardness in the composites depends on the magnesium content. The time changed from 12 to 48 hours as the magnesium content increased from 1.23 to 2.97 wt pct. Both Vickers microhardness and Rockwell hardness increased with increasing magnesium content. The maximum hardness occurred in the composites that contained maximum amounts of GP zones and η' precipitates. However, the microhardness of the composites was always lower than that of monolithic alloys due to the alumina fibers which caused the suppression of GP zones and η' for-mation in the composites.

  20. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating of synthetic Al-Mg binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tarakci, Mehmet

    2011-12-15

    The binary Al-Mg synthetic alloys were prepared in a vacuum/atmosphere controlled furnace with the addition of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 15 wt.% pure Mg into pure aluminum as substrate material. The surfaces of the Al-Mg alloys and pure aluminum were coated for 120 min by plasma electrolytic oxidation in the same electrolyte of 12 g/L sodium silicate and 2 g/L KOH in distilled water. The coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scan